WorldWideScience

Sample records for municipality level description

  1. Inventory of greenhouse gases at the municipality level. Description of calculation methods; Denmark; Drivhusgasopgoerelse paa kommuneniveau. Beskrivelse af beregningsmetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Lyck, E.; Thomsen, Marianne; Hoffmann, L.; Fauser, P.

    2009-02-15

    This report includes a description of methodologies, data and algorithms behind the inventories of greenhouse gases at the municipality level divided into sectors. The starting point for the sectors in this report is the sectors used for the official Danish emission inventories. A simplified generalization of the equations used in emission calculations is based on the assumption that emissions of a given activity is estimated using data descriptive for the size of the activity multiplied by an emission factor pr unit of activity. Emissions of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are converted to CO{sub 2} equivalents. In this project this generalization and these conversions are also the basis for all methodologies. The sectors included in this report are: the collective power and heating, individual heating, mobile sources, transportation and machinery, industrial processes, solvents, agriculture, land use and waste depositing and wastewater. The methods include calculations of the greenhouse gases that are most important for the sectors. The importance is estimated from the national emission inventory. This report covers methodologies for the greenhouse gases CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. Due to the mentioned importance criteria for some sectors not all greenhouse gases are included. As for the national inventories the calculation is built into several levels (Tiers) with increased requirements for municipalities regarding data. Tier 1 is mainly based on the Danish national greenhouse gas inventory data using appropriate distribution keys for a given activity into municipality level. Tier 2 is more detailed and includes emission factors used in the Danish national greenhouse gas inventories, for some sectors the emission factors are aggregated, while municipalities can enter their own activity data. At Tier 3, which is the most detailed level, there is - for some sectors - the opportunity to enter municipality specific emission factors and activity data. For other

  2. Implementation of Malaria Dynamic Models in Municipality Level Early Warning Systems in Colombia. Part I: Description of Study Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Daniel; Cerón, Viviana; Molina, Adriana M.; Quiñónes, Martha L.; Jiménez, Mónica M.; Ahumada, Martha; Gutiérrez, Patricia; Osorio, Salua; Mantilla, Gilma; Connor, Stephen J.; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Integrated National Adaptation Pilot project and the Integrated Surveillance and Control System, the Colombian National Institute of Health is working on the design and implementation of a Malaria Early Warning System framework, supported by seasonal climate forecasting capabilities, weather and environmental monitoring, and malaria statistical and dynamic models. In this report, we provide an overview of the local ecoepidemiologic settings where four malaria process-based mathematical models are currently being implemented at a municipal level. The description includes general characteristics, malaria situation (predominant type of infection, malaria-positive cases data, malaria incidence, and seasonality), entomologic conditions (primary and secondary vectors, mosquito densities, and feeding frequencies), climatic conditions (climatology and long-term trends), key drivers of epidemic outbreaks, and non-climatic factors (populations at risk, control campaigns, and socioeconomic conditions). Selected pilot sites exhibit different ecoepidemiologic settings that must be taken into account in the development of the integrated surveillance and control system. PMID:24891460

  3. Evaluation of the environmental noise levels in Abuja Municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the equivalent noise level (Leq) in Abuja municipality and promote a simple method for regular assessment of Leq within our environment. Methods: This is a cross-sectional community based study of the environmental Leq of Abuja municipality conducted between January 2014 and January 2016.

  4. AWARENESS LEVEL STUDY FOR IMPLEMENTING SEPARATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE PROGRAM IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ARANDAS, JALISCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Santiago-Olivares

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arandas municipality government in Jalisco, has been looking for solutions to the problem of its municipal solid waste (MSW disposal for some years. Nowadays there is a “dumping site" where these residues are deposited without any established control, promoting the generation of vermin and rodents such as: flies, cockroaches, rats, mouses, etc.; adding up to the air, soil and water pollution. The solution starts with the separation of municipal solid waste from the generation sites, but it does not make any sense to separate the waste if there is not a subsequent treatment system established. The population awareness for garbage separation at home is quite necessary, because if it is not carried out correctly, it won’t be able to give an effective further treatment to the municipal solid waste MSW generated. In countries and municipalities where garbage separation is already practiced, it was because the community is forced to do so, whether their garbage is not collected if it is not properly separated, or by the implementation of economic fines. With the support of the H. Ayuntamiento de Arandas and José Mario Molina Pasquel and Henríquez Technological Institute Campus Arandas, was carried out a study to determine the level of awareness that the population of Arandas has about the necessity to separate garbage at home. For this purpose, a survey was designed and applied to parents or guardians of students from educational institutions: CONALEP Arandas, UDG Regional High School, CBTIS and José Mario Molina Pasquel and Henríquez Technological Institute Campus Arandas. The research carried out was quantitative and descriptive type, where the selection of the sample was “for convenience” (to optimize time and costs in the application of the survey. According to the results obtained in the survey analysis, it was observed that Arandas population was concerned about the preservation of environment and they are willing to do garbage

  5. Municipal Level of Strategic Planning: Economic and Legal Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Moiseevich Bukhvald

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the need of integration of municipal government into a unified hierarchy of strategic planning in the country. The basic positions of the acting version of the Federal law no.131 “On general principles of organization of local self-government” and the Federal law no. 172 “On strategic planning” don’t provide clear legal framework for the solution of this problem. Besides, the practical integration of municipal management into a unified hierarchy of strategic planning meets serious economic obstacles, the main of which consist in the negative situation within the system of local finance, characterized by trends of deficiency, high dependence on subsidies and, as a consequence, volatility and lack of predictability in relation to any plans and programs of long-term nature. The main idea of the article is to prove the need for a systemic approach to solving tasks, related to the integration of municipal management in a unified vertical of strategic planning in the country. The essence of this approach is the combination of a number of legal innovations in the legislation on strategic planning and local government with a set of measures, aimed to strengthen the fiscal basis of Russian local self-government together with institutional ensuring of municipal planning and its interaction with the practice of strategic planning at the level of subjects of the Russian Federation.

  6. Organisational and information requirements at the municipal level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandos, J.L.M.

    1993-01-01

    There are three types of government in The Netherlands: Kingdom, province and municipality. The nuclear power station in Borsele (Pressurised Water Reactor) has a capacity of 488 MW. The basis of disaster relief in The Netherlands is in the hands of the municipality. In 1991 a new disaster relief plan for the nuclear power station in Borsele was prepared. A large scale national exercise took place in November of that year. This disaster relief plan has three levels: local, regional, national. At the regional level seven mayors co-operate in a management team. At the national level there is a management team of ministers. At the regional level the co-ordination of the advice and operational services is executed under the direction of an operational leader (leader of the regional fire-brigade). The advice to the management team of mayors is in the hands of the operational leader. The public generally has a distorted idea about nuclear power and the effects of any possible disaster. This can be a great problem when giving information to the public during a disaster. Reliable information, given in time, is indispensable. Sufficient statistical information must be available. Models, advance calculations and forecasts can be of great help in decision making from the beginning of a serious event. (author)

  7. Typhoon and elevated radon level in a municipal water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Cheng-Hsin; Weng, Pao-Shan

    2000-01-01

    The Municipal Water Supply at Hsinchu City is a water treatment plant using poly- aluminum chloride (PAC) for coagulation and then followed by precipitation and filtration. Its capacity is 70,000 m 3 /day. The raw water is drawn from the nearby river. Since the subject of interest is the radon level during typhoon season, the sampling period was from March to December 1999. Commercially available electret was used for water samples taken from the five ponds in the plant. This technique relies on the measurement of radon in air above a water sample enclosed in a sealed vessel. The concentration of airbone radon released from water was determined by means of the electret ion chamber. During the first sampling period there came two typhoons. One is called Magie during June 10-17, and the other called Sam during August 20-26. The first typhoon led to the radon level measured from the water samples as high as 705 Bq/m 3 , while the second caused even higher radon level as high as 772 Bq/m 3 . Similar results were obtained for the second sampling period after August till December 1999. For those measured without typhoon influence, the average radon was lower from the coagulation pond yet without coagulation process during March through August 1999. However, water samples taken from the pond after precipitation did not show similar results in radon level. (author)

  8. [Incidence of tuberculosis at the local level: Marianao Municipality, Havana City, Cuba (1990-2000)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'fana Valdés, Jorgelina; Cambell, Shirley; Armas Pérez, Luisa; Fraginal, Bárbaro; González Ochoa, Edilberto

    2003-01-01

    For the elimination of tuberculosis (TB) is necessary the surveillance of the incidence rate at the local level, as this is the first level of access to the health service. This study is aimed at providing a description of the spread and trend of the tuberculosis incidence rates in Marianao Municipality, Habana City by healthcare areas and age groups throughout the 1990-2000 period. The time series for the 1990-1994 and 1995-2000 incidence rates were analyzed employing a two parameter exponential smoothing method. The total percentage and annual average of variation was estimated. The healthcare areas were stratified. In 1990-1994, the rate rose from 11.1 to 25.8 per 105 inhabitants (33% of increase by year), having been most noticeable in Carlos J. Finlay and Portuondo health areas (respectively annual average 112.7% y 36.2% increases). Taking into account that the control program was strengthened in 1995, the rates dropped by 47.6% in this municipality during the 1995-2000 period. The Finlay and Portuondo areas respectively lowered their rates by 79.9% y 39.7% while the Gonzalez Coro area showed a 58.3% rise and 27 de Noviembre area had no major change. The age and above 60 group had the higher percentage of cases, recording 49.8% of the total and only one case among children under age 15 for the period. During this same period, only six cases of tuberculosis/human inmunodeficiency virus were diagnosed. The 27 de Noviembre area was the only one found to be at the unsatisfactory level according to the stratification. An initially upward trend, followed by a downward trend in tuberculosis was found to exist in the Marianao Municipality throughout the period studied. This disease was predominant among older adults.

  9. Methodology for Assessing the Work of Small Business at the Municipal Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Evgen’evich Kremin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote sustainable socio-economic development in a municipality, its local authorities face the task of establishing an industrial and financial base on their territory, it will help increase its level of economic independence. On the basis of foreign experience and domestic research on territorial development it can be concluded that one of the most effective ways to enhance the level of socio-economic development of the municipality is to boost its small business. Effective management of this economic sector requires adequate assessment of its functioning at the municipal level. The analysis of existing methodologies for assessing the functioning of small business at the municipal level shows that none of them meets the criteria that the author of the present paper has selected and that are necessary for efficient research into the small business sector. In this regard, a methodology for estimating the work of small business at the municipal level was elaborated, and tested on the statistic data of municipal formations of the Vologda Oblast. The study reveals municipalities with the highest and lowest levels of small business development. In addition, municipalities were grouped in three blocks that represent different characteristics of their functioning. Taking into account the problems of business subjects, the study has developed measures to increase the level of development for each group of municipalities. Implementing these activities will help intensify the work of the sector of the economy under consideration, and increase the economic independence of territorial formations in the region. The paper can be used to assess the effectiveness of activities aimed to support small business in the region and to help regional and municipal authorities to work out a strategy for further development of this economic sector

  10. Classification of Region’s Municipalities by Structure and Level of Incomes and Consumer Spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Yakovlevich Fokin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a classification of region’s municipalities that differ according to two criteria – the structure and level of incomes, and the level of consumer spending. The author investigated the combination of income sources (wages, pensions and unemployment benefits that form in the aggregate the amount of disposable money income of the people who live in the administrative-territorial units of Perm Krai. The author also analyzed the influence of people’s incomes on retail trade turnover in the region’s municipalities. The data were collected, grouped and analyzed; they show that the level of people’s income in large and medium cities, which are industrial centers, exceeds considerably the values of these indicators registered in rural municipalities, single-industry settlements and depressed areas. The reason for this lies in low wages of working population, a large proportion of retirees and the unemployed in the rural areas, single-industry settlements and depressed areas. The article defines nine types of territorial entities in the region that differ in level and structure of income and consumer spending in the municipalities. The author concludes that the territorial differentiation of municipal formations influences the formation of stratified population groups distinguished by the level of income and consumption. The solution to this problem requires joint efforts by the regional administration and municipal authorities to develop management actions with regard to specific features of each municipality

  11. External evaluation in municipal level: The impacts of an experience

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    Luana Ferrarotto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The external evaluation is a consolidated reality in our country. Besides the state and federal ones, there are some municipalities that develop their own evaluation programs. To contribute with the debate about the external evaluations, this article presents data from a research which aim was to identify the actions from the Educational Secretariat from a city in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, opposite to the results of PROMASE (Municipal Assessment of the Educational System and its impact in school’s units. It is still being analyzed the path taken by the program with the aim of explaining its conception of the teaching quality. This way, the qualitative research was chosen based on the interviews with the Educational Secretary, teachers and school’s managers. Accordingly with the Secretary, after PROMASE, actions since improvements in the buildings to curricular restructuring and continuing educational were made. Even without the rankings and performance payments, it is noticeable in schools the built of what is called “hidden” and “adjustment” rankings of the pedagogical and evaluative practices to the matrix and to the evaluative instrument of the program to improve the teaching quality and improve the index. For an evaluative system to bring contributions to the network, it is noticeable that the quality must be anchored to the social quality, which more than the index, establishes its own scale as a protagonist in the process of looking to itself, adverse to the blaming of the teachers for the standards tests results and that, consequently, favors the social, political, cultural and human formation of the students.

  12. Self consitent description of nuclear level densitities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, M.; Treiner, J.

    1980-03-01

    We present a self consistent calculation of the nuclear level density based on a generalization to finite temperature of a modified Thomas-Fermi method. A simple expression is derived for the so-called level density parameter a entering the expression of the density of states Xi(E)=Esup(-5/4)e 2 √aE and relating the excitation energy to the temperature E=a T 2 , in terms of nucleons equilibrium densities at T=0 only. One thus avoids the difficulty of adding external constraints to calculate isolated nuclei at finite temperature which are shown to be unstable against particle emission. The role of the nuclear surface is discussed. It is shown that the effective mass of the interaction plays a crucial role in determining the value of a and comparison with experiment confirms the value m*/m > = 1 near the Fermi level obtained through more microscopic analysis

  13. An exploration into municipal waste charges for environmental management at local level: The case of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi; Sastre Sanz, Sergio

    2017-11-01

    Municipal waste charges have been widely acknowledged as a crucial tool for waste management at the local level. This is because they contribute to financing the costly provision of waste collection and treatment services and they can be designed to provide an economic stimulus to encourage citizens and local businesses to improve separate collection and recycling. This work presents a methodology to evaluate a sample of 125 municipal waste charges in Spain for the year 2015, covering 33.91% of the Spanish population. The qualitative benchmarking of municipal waste charges shows that flat fees are frequent, whereas variable fees are set according to criteria that are weakly related to waste generation. The average fee per household is €82.2 per year, which does not provide full cost recovery. The current configuration of municipal waste charges penalises taxpayers contributing to source separation of waste, while subsidising less environmentally friendly behaviours. In this sense, municipal waste charges in Spain are far from applying the polluter pays principle. Furthermore, it is argued that municipal waste charges are ineffective for promoting the proper application of the so-called 'waste hierarchy'.

  14. Multi-level Governance as an Alternative: The Municipality of Barcelona and the Ciutat Refugi Plan

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    Ezgi Irgil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the response of the Municipality of Barcelona to the Syrian refugee crisis in Europe as an alternative solution that challenges the national government’s restrictive approach. This response introduces the Ciutat Refugi Plan with a city-to-city network at the municipal level that involves other European cities in creating safe routes for refugees at the local government level. In line with multi-level governance theory, I argue that central governments’ inaction has pressured local governments to take action during the Syrian refugee influx. Relying on the influence of local government networks, the Municipality of Barcelona uses discourse as a tool of action in opening discursive spaces for humanitarian political responses to the refugee crisis. Using critical discourse analysis, I test this argument by examining in-depth interviews, speeches of people in power that have appeared in news articles, and statements on official websites.

  15. Economies of Scale on the Municipal Level: Fact or Fiction in the Czech Republic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matějová Lenka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many countries have carried out extensive amalgamation-related territorial reforms at the level of local self-government and created relatively large municipalities. The Czech Republic is one of the few remaining European countries with a fragmented territorial structure. There is a lot of discussion in the country about the need for amalgamation, but this discussion is mainly based on political arguments rather than on empirical evidence about the feasibility of amalgamation and its potential to improve local government performance. This paper analyses economies of scale on the local level as a factor that should be reflected in debates about the pros and cons of amalgamation in the Czech Republic. To add to the existing knowledge about the reality of economies of scale on the municipal level in the Czech Republic, we processed the municipal costs of three selected areas on a representative sample of municipalities in the South Moravian Region. The analysis showed that economies of scale can be identified for collecting local fees and for pre-school and elementary education, but not for local administration. Our results suggest that the existence of too small municipalities in the Czech Republic results in inefficiencies and should be addressed.

  16. Cities, Europeanization and Multi-level Governance: Governing Climate Change through Transnational Municipal Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, K.; Bulkeley, H.

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on a variant of multi-level governance and Europeanization, i.e. the transnational networking of local authorities. Focusing on local climate change policy, the article examines how transnational municipal networks (TMNs) govern in the context of multi-level European governance.

  17. ICT and Intellectual Disability: A Survey of Organizational Support at the Municipal Level in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsten, Camilla; Marmstål Hammar, Lena; Martin, Lene; Göransson, Kerstin

    2017-07-01

    Young adults today have grown up in a society where information and communication technology (ICT) support empowerment and social participation. Young adults with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability are at risk for marginalization by the digital divide. The aim was to map and describe how municipal organizations in Sweden organize support in terms of policy and strategies to enable the use of ICT in social care for adults with a mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey including all municipalities in Sweden (n = 290) was conducted (response rate: 51%, n = 147). Descriptive statistics were used. Findings indicate a lack of organizational support for staff as well as for young adults with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Municipalities request more knowledge about strategies for making ICT available. Despite the lack of comprehensive strategies for ICT, some Swedish municipalities have taken the initiative in this area. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. evaluation of the environmental noise levels in abuja municipality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Background: Noise remains a nuisance which impacts negatively on the ..... Furthermore, Erikson et al postulated that a persistent noise level .... Hessel PA, Sluis-Cremer G K. Hearing loss in ... Ear & Hearing 2006; 27(1): 1-19. 13.

  19. Determination of the Burnout Levels of Workers and Factors Affecting It in a District Municipality, in Central Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Kucuk Bicer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to assess the burnout levels of municipality workers and the factors affecting it. Method: The descriptive study was carried out in a municipality in Ankara. The data was collected under observation. A standart questionnaire composed of some descriptive features, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and General Health Survey-12 (GSA-12 questions was used. SPSS 15.0 statistical programme was used for analysis (alpha value was taken as 0.05. Also logistic regression was used in advanced analysis in order to determine the factors effecting burnout. Results: In the study, 48.0% of the workers were female and their age was between the ages of 20 to 61 years. Women, workers between 30-39 years old, who are in risk according to GHQ-12 and with chronical diseases got scores over median value from all three dimensions: emotional exhaustion (EE, depersonalization (D and personal accomplishment (PA. According to logistic regression results, gender, graduation from college, chronical disease and GHQ-12 was related with EE, whereas marital status, number of children, GHQ-12 scores, EE and PA was related with D. PA was found related with GHQ-12 scores, number of children and D scores. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that burnout was found to be related with gender, chronical disease and mental health symptoms. Because this is a descriptive study precautionary approach to the results is needed. Determination of confounding factors by using similar models will be helpful to show the major effecting factors of burnout. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 673-680

  20. Visual space perception at different levels of depth description

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šikl, Radovan; Šimeček, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 6 (2015), 2098–2107 ISSN 1943-3921 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28709S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : visual space perception * Depth scales * Level of description Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.782, year: 2015

  1. Level of quality management in the Municipal Sports Services, contrast trough EFQM Excellence Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, Alfonso; Díaz Suárez, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The quality management in the Municipal Sports Services is embedded in the servuction provided to the citizens, which are their internal customers who determine the quality improvement ensuring competitiveness with excellence criteria. The Model of the European Foundation for Quality Management enables the evaluation of organization progress towards achieving quality goals, from a structured, measurable and comparable methodology. The aim is to carry out a diagnosis of the level of implementation of quality in the Municipal Sports Services of the Region of Murcia, Spain. The sample of 287 workers of 30 sports services gets a high level of reliability at all scales, with a coefficient of variation of .985 (range .810-.943). The score in the criteria of Policy and Strategy, People Management, Alliances and Resources, Processes and People Results were significantly higher (p < .05) in the Municipalities with more than 25,000 inhabitants when compared with those less than 10,000 and with those from 10,000 to 25,000 inhabitants obtaining global ratings of 571 points, those less than 10,000, 590 points those from 10,000 to 25,000 and those higher than 25,000 reach 636, having a good level of quality in relation to the scale that determines the model.

  2. An inexact two-stage stochastic energy systems planning model for managing greenhouse gas emission at a municipal level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Q.G.; Huang, G.H.

    2010-01-01

    Energy management systems are highly complicated with greenhouse-gas emission reduction issues and a variety of social, economic, political, environmental and technical factors. To address such complexities, municipal energy systems planning models are desired as they can take account of these factors and their interactions within municipal energy management systems. This research is to develop an interval-parameter two-stage stochastic municipal energy systems planning model (ITS-MEM) for supporting decisions of energy systems planning and GHG (greenhouse gases) emission management at a municipal level. ITS-MEM is then applied to a case study. The results indicated that the developed model was capable of supporting municipal energy systems planning and environmental management under uncertainty. Solutions of ITS-MEM would provide an effective linkage between the pre-regulated environmental policies (GHG-emission reduction targets) and the associated economic implications (GHG-emission credit trading).

  3. Municipal Management, Infrastructure And Perception Of Users: A Description Of National Program For Improving Access And Quality Of Primary Care In The Brazilian Semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gomes de Sousa Bezerra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Ministry of Health with the aim of improving the service provided by the Unified Health System has been creating work tools to identify which points need to receive more attention to be optimized. Objective: Description of the role of municipal management, infrastructure assessment and perception of users of primary care. Method: Cross-sectional and descriptive study, conducted with Basic Units of Piauí municipality in 2015. The data were represented by tables. Results: 90% of the units reported receiving support for the planning and organization of the work process. Only 14, 81% of the units have equipment and supplies for proper operation. Users recommend the service in 92,62% of the cases. Conclusion: despite the precarious structure of the basic units of the county, the population still recognizes them as the best care.

  4. The Size of Local Government Administration at a Municipal Level as a Determinant of Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusłan Harasym

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This artcle’s aim is to examine a dependency between local government administraton at a municipal level and the level of local entrepreneurship. This paper atempts to answer the queston of whether the size of the local government administraton has features of stmulant or de-stmulant in the process of setng up a business. In other words, does the size of public administraton at a local level (municipal level have a positve or negatve impact on creatng new business enttes? This is important due to at least a couple of reasons. First of all, the current research achievements are not extensive, when it comes to the publicatons that link entrepreneurship and the size of local government administraton. Secondly, the problem of entrepreneurship determinants consttutes stll topical and not fully investgated (or explained aspects of local economy development. Thirdly and fnally, the authors of this artcle have proposed and copyrighted an approach to the quantfcaton of the size of local government administraton, modifying commonly used measures of local public administraton. Thus, this artcle fts not only into the explanaton of the entrepreneurship phenomenon and its determinants, but also contributes to the development of knowledge about dependencies between the size of local selfgovernment and the entrepreneurship level. It expands the knowledge resource on analyzed dependencies and re-orients current approaches to similar research.

  5. Municipal Solid Waste Characterization according to Different Income Levels: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Kurtulus Ozcan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste generation and characterization are some of the most important parameters which affect environmental sustainability. Municipal solid waste (MSW characterization depends on social structure and income levels. This study aims to determine the variations in waste components within MSW mass by income levels and seasonal conditions following the analysis conducted on the characterization of solid wastes produced in the Kartal district of the province of Istanbul, which is the research area of this study. To this end, 1.9 tons of solid waste samples were collected to represent four different lifestyles (high, medium, and low income levels, and downtown in the winter and summer periods, and characterization was made on these samples. In order to support waste characterization, humidity content and calorific value analyses were also conducted and various suggestions were brought towards waste management in line with the obtained findings. According to the results obtained in the study, organic waste had the highest rate of waste mass by 57.69%. Additionally, significant differences were found in municipal solid waste components (MSWC based on income level. Average moisture content (MC of solid waste samples was 71.1% in moisture analyses. The average of calorific (heating value (HHV was calculated as 2518.5 kcal·kg−1.

  6. Translation of a High-Level Temporal Model into Lower Level Models: Impact of Modelling at Different Description Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    2001-01-01

    The paper attempts theoretically to clarify the interrelation between various levels of descriptions used in the modelling and the programming of information systems. We suggest an analysis where we characterise the description levels with respect to how precisely they may handle information abou...... and other textual models. We also consider the aptness of models that include procedural mechanisms such as active and object databases...

  7. A thermodynamic description of quarks at the subquark level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    A thermodynamic basis for the description of quarks at the subquark level is proposed. It is suggested that subquarks are ultrarelativistic objects confined to the quark radius R. Thus they experience accelerations of the order a≅c/sup 2//R. But this means that information excluding horizons (iota) comparable to quark radii R, namely iota≅c/sup 2//a≅R, are present. Such horizons force us to describe quarks, at the subquark level, via thermodynamics. This thermodynamic description must involve unconventional negative energy Rindler vacua, rather than the conventional zero energy Minkowski vacuum. In an average thermodynamic sense, these Rindler vacua cancel excess kinetic energy of the subquarks, thereby removing an objection to theories involving subquarks. In any such theory it is necessary to assign an Unruh temperature T, where kT≅(h/2πc)a≅(hc/2πR), to the subquark matter. The author argues that T must be the temperature of the early universe phase transition (probably first order) at which quarks condensed into hadrons. Thus quarks have a temperature T independent of hadron mass. He shows how quark properties may be derived in the foregoing thermodynamic context

  8. EVALUATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE LEVELS IN ABUJA MUNICIPALITY USING MOBILE PHONES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, T; Folorunso, D; Ebuta, A; Amodu, J; Nwegbu, M; Mairami, Z; Liman, I; Okebaram, C; Chimdi, C; Durogbola, B; Suleiman, H; Mamven, H; Baamlong, N; Dahilo, E; Gbujie, I; Ibekwe, P; Nwaorgu, O

    2016-12-01

    Noise remains a nuisance which impacts negatively on the physical, social and psychological wellbeing of man. It aggravates chronic illnesses like hypertension and other cardiopulmonary diseases. Unfortunately, increased activities from industrialization and technological transfers/drifts have tumultuously led to increased noise pollution in most of our fast growing cities today and hence the need for concerted efforts in monitoring and regulating our environmental noise. To assess the equivalent noise level (Leq) in Abuja municipality and promote a simple method for regular assessment of Leq within our environment. This is a cross-sectional community based study of the environmental Leq of Abuja municipality conducted between January 2014 and January 2016. The city was divided into 12 segments including residential, business and market areas via the Abuja Geographic Information System. The major markets were captured separately on a different scale. Measurements were taken with the mobile phone softwares having validated this with Extech 407730 digital sound level meter, serial no Z310135 . Leq(A) were measured at different points and hours of the day and night. The average Leq(A) were classified according to localities and compared with WHO standard safety levels. LeqD ranged 71-92dB(A); 42-79dB(A) and 69-90dB(A) in business/ parks, residential and market places respectively. The Night measurements were similar 18dB(A)-56dB(A) and the day-night Leq(A)=77.2dB(A) and 90.4dB(A) for residential and business zones. The night noise levels are satisfactory but the day and day-night levels are above the recommended tolerable values by WHO and therefore urgently call for awareness and legislative regulations.

  9. Complete decay of radionuclides: Implications for low-level waste disposal in municipal landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meck, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The time required for the complete decay of a radioactive source can be quantified by specifying an acceptable probability and using an original derivation. The physical phenomenon of complete decay may be used as the technical basis to change regulations and permit, with public acceptance, the inexpensive disposal of short half-lived radioactive waste into municipal landfills. Current regulations require isolation of trash form the biosphere for 30 years during the post-closure control period for municipal landfills. Thirty years is sufficient time for complete decay of significant quantities of short-lived radionuclides, and there is a large decay capacity in the nation's landfills. As the major generators of low-level radioactive waste with relatively short half-lives, the academic, medical, and research communities likely would benefit most from such regulatory relief. Disposal of such waste is prohibited or costly. The waste must be specially packaged, stored, transported, and disposed in designated repositories. Regulatory relief can be initiated by citizens since the Administrative Procedures Act gives citizens the right to petition for regulatory change. 10 refs., 2 tabs

  10. The role of social participation in municipal-level health systems: the case of Palencia, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Ana Lorena

    2013-09-10

    Social participation has been recognized as an important public health policy since the declaration of Alma-Ata presented it as one of the pillars of primary health care in 1978. Since then, there have been many adaptations to the original policy but participation in health is still seen as a means to make the health system more responsive to local health needs and as a way to bring the health sector and the community closer together. To explore the role that social participation has in a municipal-level health system in Guatemala in order to inform future policies and programs. Documentary analysis was used to study the context of participation in Guatemala. To do this, written records and accounts of Guatemalan history during the 20th century were reviewed. The fieldwork was carried out over 8 months and three field visits were conducted between early January of 2009 and late March of 2010. A total of 38 in-depth interviews with regional health authorities, district health authorities, community representatives, and community health workers (CHWs) were conducted. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Guatemala's armed civil struggle was framed in the cold war and the fight against communism. Locally, the war was fed by the growing social, political, and ethnic inequalities that existed in the country. The process of reconstructing the country's social fabric started with the signing of the peace agreements of 1996, and continued with the passing of the 2002 legal framework designed to promote decentralization through social participation. Today, Guatemala is a post-war society that is trying to foster participation in a context full of challenges for the population and for the institutions that promote it. In the municipality of Palencia, there are three different spaces for participation in health: the municipal-level health commission, in community-level social development councils, and in the CHW program. Each of these spaces has participants with

  11. The role of social participation in municipal-level health systems: the case of Palencia, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Ana Lorena

    2013-01-01

    Background Social participation has been recognized as an important public health policy since the declaration of Alma-Ata presented it as one of the pillars of primary health care in 1978. Since then, there have been many adaptations to the original policy but participation in health is still seen as a means to make the health system more responsive to local health needs and as a way to bring the health sector and the community closer together. Objective To explore the role that social participation has in a municipal-level health system in Guatemala in order to inform future policies and programs. Design Documentary analysis was used to study the context of participation in Guatemala. To do this, written records and accounts of Guatemalan history during the 20th century were reviewed. The fieldwork was carried out over 8 months and three field visits were conducted between early January of 2009 and late March of 2010. A total of 38 in-depth interviews with regional health authorities, district health authorities, community representatives, and community health workers (CHWs) were conducted. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Guatemala's armed civil struggle was framed in the cold war and the fight against communism. Locally, the war was fed by the growing social, political, and ethnic inequalities that existed in the country. The process of reconstructing the country's social fabric started with the signing of the peace agreements of 1996, and continued with the passing of the 2002 legal framework designed to promote decentralization through social participation. Today, Guatemala is a post-war society that is trying to foster participation in a context full of challenges for the population and for the institutions that promote it. In the municipality of Palencia, there are three different spaces for participation in health: the municipal-level health commission, in community-level social development councils, and in the CHW program. Each of these

  12. The role of social participation in municipal-level health systems: the case of Palencia, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lorena Ruano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social participation has been recognized as an important public health policy since the declaration of Alma-Ata presented it as one of the pillars of primary health care in 1978. Since then, there have been many adaptations to the original policy but participation in health is still seen as a means to make the health system more responsive to local health needs and as a way to bring the health sector and the community closer together. Objective: To explore the role that social participation has in a municipal-level health system in Guatemala in order to inform future policies and programs. Design: Documentary analysis was used to study the context of participation in Guatemala. To do this, written records and accounts of Guatemalan history during the 20th century were reviewed. The fieldwork was carried out over 8 months and three field visits were conducted between early January of 2009 and late March of 2010. A total of 38 in-depth interviews with regional health authorities, district health authorities, community representatives, and community health workers (CHWs were conducted. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Guatemala's armed civil struggle was framed in the cold war and the fight against communism. Locally, the war was fed by the growing social, political, and ethnic inequalities that existed in the country. The process of reconstructing the country's social fabric started with the signing of the peace agreements of 1996, and continued with the passing of the 2002 legal framework designed to promote decentralization through social participation. Today, Guatemala is a post-war society that is trying to foster participation in a context full of challenges for the population and for the institutions that promote it. In the municipality of Palencia, there are three different spaces for participation in health: the municipal-level health commission, in community-level social development councils, and in the CHW

  13. Description of the Seibersdorf incineration plant for low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, G.; Petschnik, G.

    1986-09-01

    After a description of the design and the construction principles of the incinerator building, the furnace and its attached auxilary devices are explained. The incinerator is layed out for low level wastes. It has a vertical furnace, operates with discontinuous feeding for trashes with heat-values between 600 and 10000 kcal/kg waste. The maximum throughput amounts 40 kg/h. The purification of the off-gas is guaranteed by a multistage filter system: 2 stages with ceramic candles, cooling column and a HEPA-filter system. The control of the off-gas cleaning is carried out by a stack instrumentation, consisting of an aerosol-, gas-, Iodine- and Tritium-monitor; the building is surveilled by doserate- and aerosolmonitors. (Author)

  14. A methodology for the measure of secondary homes tourist flows at municipal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Guizzardi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present public statistical system does not provide information concerning second houses touristic flows at sub-regional level. The lack limits local administrations' capabilities to take decisions about either: environmental, territorial and productive development, as well as regional governments in fair allocation of public financing. In the work, this information lack is overcome by proposing an indirect estimation methodology. Municipalities electric power consumption is proposed as an indicator of the stays on secondary homes. The indicator is connected to tourism flows considering both measurement errors and factors, modifying the local power demand. The application to Emilia-Romagna regional case allow to verify results’ coherence with officials statistics, as weel as to assess municipalities’ tourist vocation.

  15. Automated generation of partial Markov chain from high level descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brameret, P.-A.; Rauzy, A.; Roussel, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    We propose an algorithm to generate partial Markov chains from high level implicit descriptions, namely AltaRica models. This algorithm relies on two components. First, a variation on Dijkstra's algorithm to compute shortest paths in a graph. Second, the definition of a notion of distance to select which states must be kept and which can be safely discarded. The proposed method solves two problems at once. First, it avoids a manual construction of Markov chains, which is both tedious and error prone. Second, up the price of acceptable approximations, it makes it possible to push back dramatically the exponential blow-up of the size of the resulting chains. We report experimental results that show the efficiency of the proposed approach. - Highlights: • We generate Markov chains from a higher level safety modeling language (AltaRica). • We use a variation on Dijkstra's algorithm to generate partial Markov chains. • Hence we solve two problems: the first problem is the tedious manual construction of Markov chains. • The second problem is the blow-up of the size of the chains, at the cost of decent approximations. • The experimental results highlight the efficiency of the method

  16. On the (in)consistency of citizen and municipal level indicators of social capital and local government performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    We study the empirical consistency of survey based (micro level) indicators of social capital and local government performance on the one, and municipality based (aggregate level) measures of these two concepts on the other hand. Knowledge about the behavior of these indicators is helpful for

  17. Scoping Adaptation Needs for Smallholders in the Brazilian Amazon: A Municipal Level Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osuna Vanesa Rodríguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, several climate extreme events have caused considerable economic damage and hardship in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially for small-scale producers. Based on household surveys and focus group interviews in the Municipality of Alenquer as well as secondary data analyses and a literature review at the regional level, this study seeks to assess rural small-scale producers’ vulnerability to climate and non-climate related shocks and identify entry points for government action to support adaptation at the local level. In our case study area, small-scale producers with similar wealth, self-sufficiency, and resource use specialisation levels exhibited stark variation in levels of sensitivity and adaptive capacity to climate and nonclimate related shocks. Our findings indicate that this variation is partly driven by cultural, historical, and environmental resource use specialisation strategies and partly by differences in local governance capacity and the level of social organisation. Emerging governmentled initiatives to promote climate change adaptation in the region would benefit from taking these factors into account when designing local implementation strategies and priorities.

  18. Stress level among intensive care nurses in the municipality of Paraná (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Inoue

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify stress levels among intensive care nurses who work in the municipality of Western Paraná, Brazil. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional cohort study, carried out from May to July 2010, included 60 nurses from intensive care units (adult, pediatric, or neonatal of five hospitals. All participants completed the Bianchi Stress Scale. Results. The mean participant age was 31 years; 70% of the nurses were women, 33% had more than 15 years of experience, and 88% conducted care activities. The general level of stress was medium. Stress levels were low for relationships with other units and supervisors, activities related to adequate functioning of the unit and the coordination of activities of the unit. Levels were medium for the following domains: activities related to personnel management, labor conditions for the development of nursing activities, and delivery of care to patient; this last domain was related to the following stress factors: facing patient death, attending to emergencies in the unit, advising patients' family members, and conducting tasks in the minimal time available. Conclusion. Although the general stress level was medium, the identification of domains with a high score can be used to plan intervention strategies to preserve the health of intensive care nurses and, in turn, improve quality of care delivered to severely ill patients.

  19. MUNICIPAL TAX HARMONIZATION; ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belsy Tortolero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work is a desk study to establish the technical and economic criteria that help to minimize double taxation at the municipal level of this tax in Venezuela, specifically for: industrial taxpayer, the taxpayer eventual merchant and / or walking, and to taxpayer service providers and implementers works on Hence the choice of the Tax Harmonisation Law of Municipal Public power in Article 162 of the Code, and the business tax. The methodology is based on the quantitative paradigm, with documentary research design, descriptive level - explanatory. Concluding that the criteria depend on the connecting factors set forth in the Law, and they are the same governing tax under study.

  20. Sacramento Municipal Utility district's interim onsite storage building for low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillis, E.

    1986-01-01

    In order to meet current and anticipated needs for the low level radwaste management program at the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District has a design and construction program underway which will provide an onsite interim storage facility that can be expanded in two and one-half year increments. The design approach utilized allows capital investment to be minimized and still provides radwaste management flexibility in anticipation of delays in resolution of the nationwide long term radwaste disposal situation. The facility provides storage and material accountability for all low level radwastes generated by the plant. Wastes are segregated by radioactivity level and are stored in two separate storage areas located within one facility. Lower activity wastes are stored in a lightly shielded structure and handled by lift trucks, while the higher activity wastes are stored in a highly shielded structure and handled remotely by manual bridge crane. The layout of the structure provides for economy of operation and minimizes personnel radiation exposure. Design philosophy and criteria, building layout and systems, estimated costs and construction schedule are discussed

  1. CHEMICAL REACTIONS ON ADSORBING SURFACE: KINETIC LEVEL OF DESCRIPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P.Kostrobii

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the effective Hubbard model we suggest a statistical description of reaction-diffusion processes for bimolecular chemical reactions of gas particles adsorbed on the metallic surface. The system of transport equations for description of particles diffusion as well as reactions is obtained. We carry out the analysis of the contributions of all physical processes to the formation of diffusion coefficients and chemical reactions constants.

  2. Assessment of levels of mercury in human breast milk in Obuasi Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asamoah-Antwi, Dinah

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the levels of mercury in breast milk and its potential health risk to the breastfed infants in Obuasi Municipality. Forty eight (48) individual breast milk samples were collected from mothers in selected health facilities in Obuasi town and it’s environ. Total mercury concentrations were determined in the breast milk samples using advanced mercury analyser (AMA254 Altec s.r.o, in the Czech Republic). Methylmercury levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography linked to inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) with isotope dilution. The mean concentrations of Total Hg and Methyl Hg in the breast milk were 0.4043 and 0.1829 μg/L respectively. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations ranged from 0.080 to 2.320 μg/L and 0.008 to 0.734 μg/L respectively. The estimated intake obtained in this study was lower than the reference dose established by the US EPA (0.3μg/kg/day). However the hazard quotients evaluated showed that the one month old infants had hazard quotient above the 0.2, therefore indicating that there is a potential risk for such infants and need to be managed. It was also found that (65.3%) of the mothers had no knowledge of the exposure route to mercury and it toxicity to humans. (au)

  3. A Unified Description of Structural Levels in Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarulla, Alberto; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A single, didactic criterion for the description of all biological macromolecules is proposed. This criterion is applicable to globular, fibrous or mixed proteins, as well as to nucleic acids and lipids or polysaccharides. Specific examples are given for all except lipids and polysaccarides. (KR)

  4. On the (In)Consistency of Citizen and Municipal Level Indicators of Social Capital and Local Government Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampen, Jarl K

    2010-06-01

    We study the empirical consistency of survey based (micro level) indicators of social capital and local government performance on the one, and municipality based (aggregate level) measures of these two concepts on the other hand. Knowledge about the behavior of these indicators is helpful for evaluating the value of studies carried out in isolated contexts, that is, with access to data on either, but not both, levels. The method is by comparing data collected by Statistics Belgium on Flemish municipalities, to data collected at citizen level by means of a face-to-face survey. The available evidence supplies at best a meager basis for presupposing a shared component of the indicators under study.

  5. [The Italian deprivation index at census block level: definition, description and association with general mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caranci, Nicola; Biggeri, Annibale; Grisotto, Laura; Pacelli, Barbara; Spadea, Teresa; Costa, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    the study is aimed at developing a nationwide deprivation index at municipality and census block level, based on the 2001 Census data, and meeting epidemiological needs. The study uses data drawn from the 2001 General Census of Population and Housing. From the 280 variables defined at census block level (352,605 census tracts with average number of inhabitants 169, standard deviation 225; and average area 0.6 km², sd 2.4 km²) five traits that operationally combine to represent the multidimensionality of the social and material deprivation concept have been selected; these are: low level of education, unemployment, non-home ownership, one parent family and overcrowding. The index is calculated by summing standardized indicators and it is also available as categorical by quintiles of population. The same procedure is applied to aggregate frequency data at municipality level. The correlation between mortality and deprivation has been evaluated using 2000-2004 general mortality. considering national data, a strong north-south gradient in deprivation was observed. The municipality deprivation index 2001 is highly correlated to the index likewise calculated on the basis of the previous 1991 Census (r=0.91). General mortality was positively correlated to the index (in particular in population up to 64 years and in larger size municipalities). the pattern described by the deprivation index was coherent with what is already known about geographic distribution of poverty and its impact on mortality. Such outcome bears out the index use for epidemiological purposes.

  6. Translation of a High-Level Temporal Model into Lower Level Models: Impact of Modelling at Different Description Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    2001-01-01

    given types of properties, and examine how descriptions on higher levels translate into descriptions on lower levels. Our example looks at temporal properties where the information is concerned with the existence in time. In a high level temporal model with information kept in a three-dimensional space...... the existences in time can be mapped precisely and consistently securing a consistent handling of the temporal properties. We translate the high level temporal model into an entity-relationship model, with the information in a two-dimensional graph, and finally we look at the translations into relational...... and other textual models. We also consider the aptness of models that include procedural mechanisms such as active and object databases...

  7. Telidon Videotex presentation level protocol: Augmented picture description instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, C. D.; Brown, H. G.; Smirle, J. C.; Lum, Y. F.; Kukulka, J. Z.; Kwan, A.

    1982-02-01

    The Telidon Videotex system is a method by which graphic and textual information and transactional services can be accessed from information sources by the general public. In order to transmit information to a Telidon terminal at a minimum bandwidth, and in a manner independent of the type of communications channel, a coding scheme was devised which permits the encoding of a picture into the geometric drawing elements which compose it. These picture description instructions are an alpha geometric coding model and are based on the primitives of POINT, LINE, ARC, RECTANGLE, POLYGON, and INCREMENT. Text is encoded as (ASCII) characters along with a supplementary table of accents and special characters. A mosaic shape table is included for compatibility. A detailed specification of the coding scheme and a description of the principles which make it independent of communications channel and display hardware are provided.

  8. Quantification of uranium levels in groundwater in the municipality of San Diego de la Union Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez M, H.; Rios L, M. J.; Gaytan H, D.; Romero G, E. T.

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this work was to quantify the levels of uranium (U) in groundwater from 22 wells in the municipality of San Diego de la Union Mexico. The sampled wells were classified as not regularized and regularized according to records of the National Water Commission and classified by zones A, B, C, D and E. Samples were collected in triplicate in 1 L bottles, then acidified with ultra pure HNO 3 at 2% v/v and conserved at 4 degrees Celsius until analysis by mass spectrometry with magnetic sector with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-SFMS). The preparation method was the acid digestion in the open system and re-concentration of the sample. In addition, 1 μg L -1 of indium (In) was used as a tracer to know the performance of the method. Finally, the samples were diluted in 10 ml and introduced to the Icp-SFMS to measure in low resolution the U isotopes (U-234, U-235 and U-238). The average results obtained from total U were: A= 3.65 ± 1.89 μg L -1 , B= 6.37 ± 1.46 μg L -1 , C= 3.20 ± 2.27 μg L -1 , D= 3.87 ± 1.31 μg L -1 and E= 4.44 ± 1.17 μg L -1 . According to the official Mexican standard NOM-014-CONAGUA-2003, the U levels found in the groundwater of San Diego de la Union Mexico do not exceed the permissible limits of 30 μg/L. (Author)

  9. Some aspects of public associations’ participation in implementing public control at municipal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Gornev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to clarify the status of public associations as subjects of public control and to analyze the problems of participation of citizens 39 associations in conducting public expertise and public audits. Methods the methodology of research includes general scientific methods such as dialectic method. Specific jurisprudence methods of scientific cognition have also been used. Systematic method was used for the analysis of forms of public control by citizens39 associations at the municipal level. The principle of scientific objectivity has allowed for a comprehensive and objective analysis of the factual material the totality of factors affecting the interaction of public associations with local authorities in the implementation of public control. The formallegal method allowed to analyze the normativelegal acts to reveal the signs of fixing of such public control forms as public expertise and public audit. In the present study other research methods were also applied allowing to study the theme in detail. Results the study identified the lack of legal regulation of the legal status of public associations as subjects of public control as well as some forms of public control. The additions to the list of subjects of public control by public associations were proposed as well as improvements in the implementation of public expertise and public audit by the citizens39 associations as forms of social control. Scientific novelty the author found a lack of regulation of public associationsrsquo participation in some forms of social control and justified proposals for their improvement from a scientific point of view. Practical significance the possibility to apply the research results in legislative activity aimed at improving the provisions of the Federal Laws quotOn fundamentals of public control in the Russian Federationquot and quotOn the general principles of local selfgovernment organization in the Russian Federationquot. In addition the

  10. Identifying Green Infrastructure as a Basis for an Incentive Mechanism at the Municipality Level in Biscay (Basque Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Rodríguez-Loinaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of green infrastructure (GI to human well-being have been widely recognised; however, pathways for its systematic implementation are missing. Local governments can play a crucial role in the conservation of GI, and a formal recognition of this role in budgeting systems would foster the inclusion of GI in their agenda. The aim of this study is to identify the principal components of GI at the local level to form a basis for a compensatory economic scheme. We identified the principal components of GI based on the mapping of biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision. Furthermore, we analysed the potentiality of an incentive mechanism to promote GI based on the protection status of GI. Finally, an incentive mechanism to promote GI at the municipality level was proposed. The results showed that the GI of Biscay is mainly composed of the natural forests presented in the area, and that 50% of the principal components of the GI are not protected. Furthermore, one third of the protected principal components of the GI only has protection at the municipality level. So, we propose a Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES-like scheme at the municipality level based on the cover of natural forests, where the objective is the conservation and promotion of the GI.

  11. Ground and surface water developmental toxicity at a municipal landfill--Description and weather-related variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, M.A.; Rao, M.; Dumont, J.N.; Hull, M.; Jones, T.; Bantle, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Contaminated groundwater poses a significant health hazard and may also impact wildlife such as amphibians when it surfaces. Using FETAX (Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus), the developmental toxicity of ground and surface water samples near a closed municipal landfill at Norman, OK, were evaluated. The groundwater samples were taken from a network of wells in a shallow, unconfined aquifer downgradient from the landfill. Surface water samples were obtained from a pond and small stream adjacent to the landfill. Surface water samples from a reference site in similar habitat were also analyzed. Groundwater samples were highly toxic in the area near the landfill, indicating a plume of toxicants. Surface water samples from the landfill site demonstrated elevated developmental toxicity. This toxicity was temporally variable and was significantly correlated with weather conditions during the 3 days prior to sampling. Mortality was negatively correlated with cumulative rain and relative humidity. Mortality was positively correlated with solar radiation and net radiation. No significant correlations were observed between mortality and weather parameters for days 4–7 preceding sampling.

  12. ICT and Intellectual Disability: A Survey of Organizational Support at the Municipal Level in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsten, Camilla; Marmstål Hammar, Lena; Martin, Lene; Göransson, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Young adults today have grown up in a society where information and communication technology (ICT) support empowerment and social participation. Young adults with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability are at risk for marginalization by the digital divide. The aim was to map and describe how municipal organizations in Sweden organize…

  13. Modernising solid waste management at municipal level : institutional arrangements in urban centres of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majale, C.

    2011-01-01

    The task of municipal problem solving has become a team sport that has spilled beyond the borders of government agencies and now engages a far more extensive network of social actors - public as well as private, non-profit and profit. Solid waste management is one of the key tasks associated

  14. SOCIO-ENVIRONMENTAL FOOD SECURITY OBSERVATORY: ANALYSIS OF FOOD PRODUCTION INDICATORS AT THE MUNICIPAL LEVEL IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Cristina da Siqueira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990, the theme of Human Rights and Food Security (FS has been developed in Brazil, culminating in the construction of the National Policy and Plan of Food Security (PNSAN Observatório Socioambiental em Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional: análise dos indicadores... Redes (St. Cruz Sul, Online, v. 21, nº 2, p. 49 - 62, maio/ago. 2016 50 and PLANSAN 2012/2015. The PLANSAN proposes sixty indicators divided into seven dimensions, which are clearly related to the Millennium Development Goals. In order to operationalize these indicators in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, the Socio-Environmental Food Security Observatory of Rio Grande do Sul (OBSSAN-RS was created in partnership with the State Council for Nutrition and Food Security (CONSEA-RS and the Informatics Department of UFRGS. In this context, the aim of this paper is to present the analysis of indicators of Dimension I (Food Production of the OBSSAN-RS at municipal level, discussing the importance of this tool for monitoring the establishment of the Human Right to Adequate Food (DHAA. The data available to the municipal level were compared with the indicators suggested by PLANSAN. It was observed that although contemplate important information for understanding the context of food production in the municipalities of the state, the proposed indicators have not reached entirely the requirements to monitoring the SAN in this territorial level, so adapting it is necessary to rating the state of SAN in municipalities of the RS.

  15. The application of municipal renewable energy policies at community level in Denmark: A taxonomy of implementation challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of national renewable energy targets requires policies at the local level. Communities are considered as key arenas of transforming policies into actions, where technical configurations intersect with socioeconomic interests. Local governments put great efforts into developing...... and applying energy strategies. Although many frontrunner projects are well-documented, insufficient attention is paid to the average-performing municipalities that are challenged in linking technical energy scenarios with socioeconomic realities. The following implementation gap between national policy...... and local practice leads to a non-attainment of national energy targets. This paper analyses the Strategic Energy Plans (SEP) of 17 Danish municipalities based on their development, scope, and inclusion of local communities. As a synopsis, the main technical, physical, organizational and socioeconomic...

  16. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 5. Thise, Skive Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Thise, in the Municipality of Skive, northern Jutland. (LN)

  17. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 2. Roedbyhavn, Lolland Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area at Roedbyhavn in the Municipality of Lolland, southern Denmark. (LN)

  18. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 3. Kertinge Mark, Kerteminde Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Kertinge Mark in the Municipality of Kerteminde, the island Funen. (LN)

  19. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 4. Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, Struer Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, in the Municipality of Struer, northern Jutland. (LN)

  20. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 6. Skive Vest, Skive Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Skive Vest, in the Municipality of Skive, northern Jutland. (LN)

  1. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment

  2. Descriptions of Improvisational Thinking by Artist-Level Jazz Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Thought processes of seven artist-level jazz musicians, each of whom recorded an improvised solo, were investigated. Immediately after completing their improvisations, participants listened to recordings of their playing and looked at the notation of their solos as they described in a directed interview the thinking processes that led to the…

  3. Waste management in the regional level: Example of municipalities Pljevlja and Žabljak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljivančanin Dušan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of proper disposal of all types of solid waste and its inadequate treatment is one of the most dominant spatial-ecological problems of modern society, and as such seriously threatens the quality of basic environmental media and public health. The aim is to point out opportunities for sustainable development of Pljevlja and Zabljak Municipalities through the development of waste management system that will control waste generation, educe the impact of waste on the environment, improve resource efficiency, ensure the proper disposal, stimulate investment in public-private sector and maximize the economic opportunities arising from waste. The subject of this paper is to find an effective model of sustainable waste management in the municipalities of Zabljak and Pljevlja, with the main objective of rational use of space, as a limited resource, and reduce overall costs of waste treatment. The studied area that includes the administrative boundaries of these municipalities in the north of Montenegro, among to traffic geographical and functional correlation, present an area that is in the official republic documents (Spatial Rlan of Montenegro until 2020, 2008 recognized as a region in which envisages the construction of regional sanitary landfills and transfer stations network. In this sense, the work will represent the implementation of policies on waste management in Montenegro, in accordance with the recommendations, directives and EU guidelines.

  4. High-level waste description, inventory and hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.; Hennelly, E.J.; McElroy, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    High-level nuclear waste (HLW), including its origin, is described and the current differences in definitions discussed. Quantities of defense and commercial radioactive HLW, both volume and curie content, are given. Current waste handling, which is interimin nature, is described for the several sites. The HLW hazard is defined by the times during which various radionuclides are the dominant contributors. The hazard is also compared to that of the ore. Using ICRP-2, which is the legal reference in the US, the hazard of the waste reduces to a level equal to the ore in about 300 years. The disposal plans are summarized and it is shown that regulatory requirements will probably govern disposal operations in such a conservative manner that the risk (product of hazard times probability of release) may well be lower than for any other wastes in existence or perhaps lower than those for any other human endeavor

  5. Implementation of soil protection objectives at local level - case study in eight municipalities; Maaperaensuojelun toteutuminen paikallistasolla. Tapaustutkimus kahdeksassa kunnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, H.

    2000-06-01

    This study aims to define the possibilities of the local administration to implement the objectives of soil protection. Important soil issues and development needs were analysed from eight group interviews and written material collected from the voluntarily participating municipalities. Relevant legislation was also reviewed as well as the experiences the municipalities included in the study, had about their action plans for the most important groundwater areas. The scope of a local soil protection policy and its objectives were manifested rather narrowly both in the group interviews and in the planning documents. Focus was on the quality of the groundwater resources and on a better control of the contamination risks. Most important soil problems appeared to be related to storage of oil and hazardous chemicals or accidents occurring in their transport, contaminated land areas, or sand and gravel extraction. Moreover the conflicts that arise in municipal decision-making concerning land use and physical planning were discussed in the interviews. Development needs were usually linked to physical planning at a general level, soil research and monitoring, clean-up of contaminated sites, diminishing of traffic contamination risks, and intensifying supervision, counselling and information dissemination. The interviewed groups saw a need to develop soil protection with greater awareness and more systematically than before, as an integral part of existing municipal administration and decision-making. Action plans for groundwater areas were experienced as useful tools to promote soil protection, but the need for other tools was also acknowledged. Stronger emphasise should be put on the economic and social viewpoints in sustainable development when assessing and monitoring further success in soil protection. Appropriate indicators are also needed. (orig.)

  6. Conceptual modular description of the high-level waste management system for system studies model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Young, J.R.; Konzek, G.J.

    1992-08-01

    This document presents modular descriptions of possible alternative components of the federal high-level radioactive waste management system and the procedures for combining these modules to obtain descriptions for alternative configurations of that system. The 20 separate system component modules presented here can be combined to obtain a description of any of the 17 alternative system configurations (i.e., scenarios) that were evaluated in the MRS Systems Studies program (DOE 1989a). First-approximation descriptions of other yet-undefined system configurations could also be developed for system study purposes from this database. The descriptions include, in a modular format, both functional descriptions of the processes in the waste management system, plus physical descriptions of the equipment and facilities necessary for performance of those functions

  7. Nurses’ Knowledge Levels of Chest Drain Management: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Tarhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The physician is responsible for inserting one or more chest tubes into the pleural space or the mediastinal space and connecting them to an appropriate drainage system. When the general principles about care of patients with chest drains were implemented correctly and effectively by nurses, nurse will contribute to accelerate the healing process of patients. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the nurses’ level of knowledge regarding the care of patients with chest drains. Methods: The study was conducted with 153 nurses who worked in a chest diseases and thoracic surgery hospital in July 2014. Questionnaire form of 35 questions prepared by investigators was used to collect data. For the analysis of results, frequency tests, independent sample t-test and oneway ANOVA test were used. Results: 69.3% of nurses stated that they had obtained information from colleguages. 35.3% considered their knowledge about chest drain management to be inadequate. 55.6% scored 13 points and above from knowledge questionnaire about chest drain management. There were statistically significant difference between knowledge level and educational background, clinic work type, working unit, years of professional experience and institutional experience, frequency of contact patients with chest drain and perception of knowledge level (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that lack of evidence-based nursing care and insufficient training has resulted in uncertainty and knowledge deficit in important aspects of chest drain care. It can be concluded that nurses receive training needs and training protocols are about chest drain management.

  8. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettit, N. E.

    2001-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  9. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials

  10. Environmental radon level and radiation dose to residents in Shanghai municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haoran; Chen Peihua; Wen Yin

    1992-01-01

    From 1987 to 1990 we observed the diurnal and seasonal changes of radon concentrations indoors and outdoors in Shanghai Municipality. The average equilibrium factors for radon decay products indoors and outdoors were 0.5 and 0.7, respectively. The indoor radon concentrations at city proper, town and rural area were 11.2, 10.5 and 13.6 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The outdoor radon concentration was 5.1 Bq/m 3 . The occupancy factors in the city proper were 0.82 and 0.18 in the adults, 0.87 and 0.13 in the children for indoor and outdoor exposures, respectively. In 1989 the population weighted means of the annual effective dose equivalent amounted to approximately 0.53 mSv. The collective dose equivalent was 6800 man. Sv

  11. Built environment interventions aimed at improving physical activity levels in rural Ontario health units: a descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghill, Cara-Lee; Valaitis, Ruta K; Eyles, John D

    2015-05-03

    Few studies to date have explored the relationship between the built environment and physical activity specifically in rural settings. The Ontario Public Health Standards policies mandate that health units in Ontario address the built environment; however, it is unclear how public health practitioners are integrating the built environment into public health interventions aimed at improving physical activity in chronic disease prevention programs. This descriptive qualitative study explored interventions that have or are being implemented which address the built environment specifically related to physical activity in rural Ontario health units, and the impact of these interventions. Data were collected through twelve in-depth semi-structured interviews with rural public health practitioners and managers representing 12 of 13 health units serving rural communities. Key themes were identified using qualitative content analysis. Themes that emerged regarding the types of interventions that health units are employing included: Engagement with policy work at a municipal level; building and working with community partners, committees and coalitions; gathering and providing evidence; developing and implementing programs; and social marketing and awareness raising. Evaluation of interventions to date has been limited. Public health interventions, and their evaluations, are complex. Health units who serve large rural populations in Ontario are engaging in numerous activities to address physical activity levels. There is a need to further evaluate the impact of these interventions on population health.

  12. Municipal opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousens, D.; Chuddy, B.; Gleeson, A.; Leckie, D.; Wahl, K.; McGarry, D.

    1997-01-01

    The panel discussing market opportunities for municipal electric companies was moderated by Markham Mayor Don Cousens. He expressed himself in favour of deregulation and was optimistic about the benefits it will bring to municipal electric utilities and their customers. Barry Chuddy, General Manager of Business Development for TransAlta Energy discussed the advantages of recent cogeneration and district energy for municipal utilities in Ontario and Quebec, and expressed his support for incentive-based regulation based on a level playing field, competitive generation, and a reasonable charge for stranded assets. Toronto City Councillor Dan Leckie described cogeneration and district energy as a tremendous opportunity to reduce the cost of doing business in the city core through local job creation and by keeping money in the local economy. Karl Wahl, General Manager of Hydro Mississauga expressed optimism that the government will move expeditiously toward competition, choice and lower-cost supply. David McGarry, President of Elecsar Engineering of Sarnia spoke about the significant job creating potential that deregulation will bring to the electrical industry. He cited several examples from Ontario and British Columbia

  13. Some historical tendencies of the methodological work direction in the education municipal level at the cuban context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Ramos-Álvarez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work leaves from the theoretical and empiric systematizing that shows the necessity to investigate how it has evolved and what factors they have conditioned the behavior of the methodological work direction in the education municipal level. The basic budgets of the educational are approached that serve of referents for the analysis of the relationships of the organizational functional levels of the methodological work. The study is carried out in the period 1959-2017, starting in 1959 as an important milestone in the conception of the Cuban educational system. When the Revolution triumphed there were two conceptions of Education, in Cuban educational practice, on the one hand the abandoned national education system, essentially pragmatic, totally incongruous and on the other the aspirations of the Revolutionary Government, which had been forged in the revolutionary struggle between 1953 and 1959.

  14. Dealing with Multi-Level Governance and Wicked Problems in Urban Transportation Systems: The Case of Palermo Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Noto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Italian New Public Management (NPM has been mainly characterized by a political orientation toward power decentralization to local governments and privatization of public companies. Nowadays, local utilities in Italy are often run by joint stock companies controlled by public agencies such as Regional and Municipal Administrations. Due to this transformation, these companies must comply with a set of diverse expectations coming from a wide range of stakeholders, related to their financial, competitive and social performance. Such fragmented governance increases the presence of “wicked” problems in the decision-making sphere of these entities. Given this multi-level governance structure, how do these agents influence public services performance? In recent years, coordination and inter-institutional joint action have been identified as possible approaches for dealing with governance fragmentation and wicked problems deriving from it. How can we adapt a performance management perspective in order to help us reform the system and so have a better collaboration between the stakeholders involved? In order to address and discuss these research questions, a case study will be developed. The case concerns AMAT, the local utility providing the public transportation service in the Municipality of Palermo (Italy. The result of this study is a dynamic model including a set of performance indicators that help us in understanding the impact of the governing structure on the system’s performance.

  15. Assessment of atrazine levels in Kintampo-North and Techiman municipalities in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwarteng, L.

    2013-06-01

    Successes in Ghana's agriculture and saving lives from vector borne diseases would not have happened without the application of pesticides. The increasing maize farming activities in the Techiman and Kintampo-North Municipalities of the Brong-Ahafo Region have resulted in a corresponding increase in atrazine usage. The presence of pesticides in the environment and food impacts negatively on human health and create barriers to trade in agricultural commodities. Atrazine is a herbicide of concern because of its persistent in the environment. There is growing evidence of cacinogenicity, genotoxicity and endocrine disruption capacity being attributed to the ingestion of or exposure to atrazine. In this study a field survey was conducted to assess farmers' knowledge of safe handling and use of pesticides. The study also evaluated the levels of atrazine in soil at different depth and water from the study area using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and also assessed the potential health risk associated with atrazine contamination of water in the Techiman and Kintampo North Municipalities. Generally a high proportion of farmers were at a high risk of pesticide poisoning from occupational exposure. More than 80% of farmers did not practice safety precautions during pesticide mixing and application leading to considerable prevalence of pesticide related illness in this agricultural community. Atrazine residues were detected in 20% of the total soil samples analysed and the levels ranged between 0.001µg/Kg and 0.011µg/Kg. The estimated doses of atrazine do not pose any direct hazard to human health although present in water samples. Although residue levels of atrazine were low the results implicitly revealed that improper pesticide use in the study area has led to contamination of soil and poor water quality. (au)

  16. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY DUE TO AIDS: A STUDY OF BURDEN OF DISEASE AT A MUNICIPAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane DA SILVA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of measuring the burden of disease involves aggregating morbidity and mortality components into a single indicator, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY, to measure how much and how people live and suffer the impact of a disease. Objective: To estimate the global burden of disease due to AIDS in a municipality of southern Brazil. Methods: An ecological study was conducted in 2009 to examine the incidence and AIDS-related deaths among the population residing in the city of Tubarao, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Data from the Mortality Information System in the National Health System was used to calculate the years of life lost (YLL due to premature mortality. The calculation was based on the difference between a standardized life expectancy and age at death, with a discount rate of 3% per year. Data from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases were used to calculate the years lived with disability (YLD. The DALY was estimated by the sum of YLL and YLD. Indicator rates were estimated per 100,000 inhabitants, distributed by age and gender. Results: A total of 131 records were examined, and a 572.5 DALYs were estimated, which generated a rate of 593.1 DALYs/100,000 inhabitants. The rate among men amounted to 780.7 DALYs/100,000, whereas among women the rate was 417.1 DALYs/100,000. The most affected age groups were 30-44 years for men and 60-69 years for women. Conclusion: The burden of disease due to AIDS in the city of Tubarao was relatively high when considering the global trend. The mortality component accounted for more than 90% of the burden of disease.

  17. Distribution of uncertainties at the municipality level for flood risk modelling along the river Meuse: implications for policy-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotton, Michel; Stilmant, Frédéric; Erpicum, Sébastien; Dewals, Benjamin; Archambeau, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    river), as well as in those of the downstream part of the Meuse in which flow depths in the urbanized floodplains are particularly high when inundation occurs. This is the case of the city of Liege, as a result of a subsidence process following former mining activities. For a given climate scenario, the uncertainty ranges affecting flood risk estimates are significant; but not so much that the results for the different municipalities would overlap substantially. Therefore, these uncertainties do not hamper prioritization in terms of allocation of risk reduction measures at the municipality level. In the present climate, the uncertainties arising from flood frequency analysis have a negligible influence in the upper part of the river, while they have a considerable impact on risk modelling in the lower part, where a threshold effect was observed due to the flood protection structures (sudden transition from no inundation to massive flooding when a threshold discharge is exceeded). Varying the number of exceedance probabilities in the integration of the risk curve has different effects for different municipalities; but it does not change the ranking of the municipalities in terms of flood risk. For the other scenarios, damage estimation contributes most to the overall uncertainties. As shown by this study, the magnitude of the uncertainty and its main origin vary in space and in time. This emphasizes the paramount importance of conducting distributed uncertainty analyses. In the considered study area, prioritization of risk reduction means can be reliably performed despite the modelling uncertainties. Reference Detrembleur, S., Stilmant, F., Dewals, B., Erpicum, S., Archambeau, P., & Pirotton, M. (2015). Impacts of climate change on future flood damage on the river Meuse, with a distributed uncertainty analysis. Natural Hazards, 77(3), 1533-1549. Acknowledgement Part of this research was funded through the ARC grant for Concerted Research Actions, financed by the Wallonia

  18. Association of blood pressure and metabolic syndrome components with magnesium levels in drinking water in some Serbian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasic-Milutinovic, Zorica; Perunicic-Pekovic, Gordana; Jovanovic, Dragana; Gluvic, Zoran; Cankovic-Kadijevic, Milce

    2012-03-01

    Chronic exposure to insufficient levels of magnesium (Mg) in drinking water increases the risk of magnesium deficiency and its association with hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to assess the potential association of mineral contents in drinking water with blood pressure and other components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (BMI as measure of obesity, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin resistance, index-HOMA IR), in a healthy population. This study was conducted in three randomly selected municipalities (Pozarevac, Grocka and Banovci), and recruited 90 healthy blood donors, aged 20-50 years. The Pozarevac area had a four times higher mean Mg level in drinking water (42 mg L(-1)) than Grocka (11 mg L(-1)). Diastolic blood pressure was lowest in subjects from Pozarevac. Serum Mg (sMg) was highest, and serum Ca(2+)/Mg (sCa/Mg) lowest in subjects from Pozarevac, and after adjustment for confounders (age, gender, BMI), only total cholesterol and sMg levels were independent predictors of diastolic blood pressure, sMg levels were independent predictors of triglycerides, and sCa/Mg predicted glucose levels. These results suggest that Mg supplementation in areas of lower magnesium levels in drinking water may be an important measure in the prevention of hypertension and MetS in general.

  19. Support of business and innovations in strategic planning of regional development on the municipal level of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Grebeníček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a strategic planning of the regional development on the municipal level of the Czech Republic with a focus on the theme of business and innovations support. The main aim of this paper is to explore and compare 13 regional capital’s approach to the issue of business and innovations support based on information provided in the basic strategic documents. The results of the analysis show that the topic of the business and innovations support occurs in all reviewed documents. However several partial imperfections of analysed documents were also identified. The paper also fulfilled the secondary objective of assessing the strength of links between the processes of strategic planning of regional development and the processes of budgeting in the thematic area of business and innovations support.

  20. AutoBD: Automated Bi-Level Description for Scalable Fine-Grained Visual Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hantao; Zhang, Shiliang; Yan, Chenggang; Zhang, Yongdong; Li, Jintao; Tian, Qi

    Compared with traditional image classification, fine-grained visual categorization is a more challenging task, because it targets to classify objects belonging to the same species, e.g. , classify hundreds of birds or cars. In the past several years, researchers have made many achievements on this topic. However, most of them are heavily dependent on the artificial annotations, e.g., bounding boxes, part annotations, and so on . The requirement of artificial annotations largely hinders the scalability and application. Motivated to release such dependence, this paper proposes a robust and discriminative visual description named Automated Bi-level Description (AutoBD). "Bi-level" denotes two complementary part-level and object-level visual descriptions, respectively. AutoBD is "automated," because it only requires the image-level labels of training images and does not need any annotations for testing images. Compared with the part annotations labeled by the human, the image-level labels can be easily acquired, which thus makes AutoBD suitable for large-scale visual categorization. Specifically, the part-level description is extracted by identifying the local region saliently representing the visual distinctiveness. The object-level description is extracted from object bounding boxes generated with a co-localization algorithm. Although only using the image-level labels, AutoBD outperforms the recent studies on two public benchmark, i.e. , classification accuracy achieves 81.6% on CUB-200-2011 and 88.9% on Car-196, respectively. On the large-scale Birdsnap data set, AutoBD achieves the accuracy of 68%, which is currently the best performance to the best of our knowledge.Compared with traditional image classification, fine-grained visual categorization is a more challenging task, because it targets to classify objects belonging to the same species, e.g. , classify hundreds of birds or cars. In the past several years, researchers have made many achievements on this topic

  1. Prevalence of antibiotic prescription in southern Italian outpatients: real-world data analysis of socioeconomic and sociodemographic variables at a municipality level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Veronica; Monetti, Valeria Marina; Guerriero, Francesca; Trama, Ugo; Guida, Antonella; Menditto, Enrica; Orlando, Valentina

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the geographic variation in systemic antibiotic prescription at a regional level and to explore the influence of socioeconomic and sociodemographic variables. This study was a retrospective analysis of reimbursement pharmacy records in the outpatient settings of Italy's Campania Region in 2016. Standardized antibiotic prescription rates were calculated at municipality and Local Health Unit (LHU) level. Antibiotic consumption was analyzed as defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 inhabitants per day (DID). Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between antibiotic prescription and sociodemographic and socioeconomic determinants at a municipality level. The average antibiotic prevalence rate was 46.8%. At LHU level, the age-adjusted prevalence rates ranged from 41.1% in Benevento to 51.0% in Naples2. Significant differences were found among municipalities, from 15.2% in Omignano (Salerno LHU [Sa-LHU]) to 61.9% in Moschiano (Avellino [Av-LHU]). The geographic distribution also showed significant differences in terms of antibiotic consumption, from 6.7 DID in Omignano to 41.6 in San Marcelino (Caserta [Ce-LHU]). Logistic regression showed that both municipality type and average annual income level were the main determinants of antibiotic prescription. Urban municipalities were more than eight times as likely to have antibiotic high prevalence rates compared to rural municipalities (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 8.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.06-18.30, P <0.001). Low average annual income level municipalities were more than eight times as likely to have antibiotic high prevalence rates compared to high average annual income level municipalities (adjusted OR: 8.48; 95% CI: 3.45-20.81, P <0.001). We provide a snapshot of Campania's antibiotic consumption, evidencing the impact of both socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors on the prevalence of antibiotic prescription. The observed intraregional variability

  2. Health promotion at local level: a case study of content, organization and development in four Swedish municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Elisabeth VG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several health determinants are related to local conditions and prerequisites at community level. For this reason, strengthening community action has been one of five strategies implemented in health promotion since the end of the 1980s. Such action includes setting priorities, making decisions, planning strategies, and implementing them to achieve better health. The aim of this paper is to obtain a deeper understanding of content, organization and processes in the development of local health promotion. Methods A qualitative multiple case study of four Swedish municipalities. The cases were analyzed in accordance with the principles of cross-case study analysis, and a content analysis of documents and interviews was conducted in two steps. First, a manifest content analysis was performed to identify present and former actors and measures. Thereafter, a latent content analysis was performed to investigate structures and processes in local contexts. Results The results of the inductive content analysis showed development of local health promotion in three phases: initiation, action, and achievement. Strengthening factors were local actors, health statistics and events. Hindering factors were lack of resources and vague objectives. External factors, e.g. national policies, were not perceived as prominent influencing factors. Media reports were regarded as having had an influence, but only to some extent. The content of local health promotion has developed from ad-hoc lifestyle and behaviour-related actions into structural, intersectoral actions related to determinants of health. Conclusions The municipalities have organized and developed their health promotion targets, actions and priorities on the basis of local needs and prerequisites. The three phases in the identified health promotion processes were experienced and documented as being subject to greater influence from internal rather than external strengthening and hindering

  3. Thermodynamic approach to rheological modeling and simulations at the configuration space level of description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongschaap, R.J.J.; Denneman, A.I.M.; Denneman, A.I.M.; Conrads, W.

    1997-01-01

    The so-called matrix model is a general thermodynamic framework for microrheological modeling. This model has already been proven to be applicable for a wide class of systems, in particular to models formulated at the configuration tensor level of description. For models formulated at the

  4. Radon 222 levels in deep well waters of Toluca municipality (county)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin Gutierrez, Maria Teresa.

    1990-01-01

    The levels of Radon 222 were determined in 46 deep (50-180m) wells in the city and county of Toluca, as well as the annual radiation dose that the stomach admits when ingesting such water. The method used for the quantification of Radon 222 was liquid scintillation counting. The result revealed that levels of Radon 222 in the studied area in the range of 0 to 320 pCi l -1 . In the case of the equivalent annual dose that the stomach (empty) admits due to ingestion of water from the wells, values are in an interval between 0 to 95 mrem a -1 . This values are well below the level established by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The wells that had the higher concentration of Radon 222 were found in the regions of Lodo Prieto, Seminario; San Antonio Buenavista and La Trinidad Huichochitlan. (Author)

  5. Attitudinal orientation of first level managers for improvement of municipal service delivery: Experience of training intervention in Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kumar Roy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a program of attitudinal orientation courses provided for functionaries of a large municipal corporation in India. Almost 450 Assistant Managers from the Kolkata Municipal Corporation took part in the training, which was held at the Administrative Training Institute (ATI of the Government of West Bengal, India. Under the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, Indian Municipalities/Corporations (Urban Local Bodies are empowered and entrusted to perform planning, development and governance for the city/ town and to provide services to the citizens. The change in outlook towards the local government reflected in the Act has highlighted the need for greater awareness and a better attitude amongst municipal staff as well as elected representatives towards service delivery. Good governance can be achieved through the overall performance of officials of an organization, provided they possess the necessary knowledge, skills, attitudes and competencies. For historical reasons, knowledge, skills and attitudes amongst officials of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs in India have been traditionally of a low standard. Willingness to perform better in the role of municipal service delivery is not common. Therein lies the need for training for improvement in service delivery, especially for organizations like large municipal corporations and municipalities.

  6. Leachate and Pollution Levels of Heavy Metals in the Groundwater near Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site of Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the concentration of metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, and nickel in the landfill leachate and heavy metals in wells downstream of municipal solid waste landfill site in the city of Mashhad. Methods: In both winter and summer seasons in 2009 samples were collected from five wells that were in landfill downstream in Mashhad. Results: Among heavy metals, nickel concentration in summer and lead concentration in winter had the highest levels. The results showed that the mean concentration of heavy metals in the studied wells was below the national standards of drinking water of Iran, WHO, and the United States. Pearson correlation coefficients also indicated that there was a significant correlation among the studied metals in the wells. Conclusion: Cd and Cu concentrations in all of the wells (except Pb in winter and Ni in summer did not pose any significant water quality problems since these concentrations were below the standards acceptable levels of drinking water.

  7. Serum levels of iron in Sør-Varanger, Northern Norway--an iron mining municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderstad, Ann R; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Dahl, Inger Marie S; Ingebretsen, Ole Christian; Lund, Eiliv

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate iron status in a population with a high proportion of miners in the northernmost part of Norway. Cross-sectional, population-based study performed in order to investigate possible health effects of pollution in the population living on both sides of the Norwegian-Russian border. All individuals living in the community of Sør-Varanger were invited for screening in 1994. In 2000, blood samples from 2949 participants (response rate 66.8 %), age range 30-69 years, were defrosted. S-ferritin and transferrin saturation were analysed in samples from 1548 women and 1401 men. About 30 % (n = 893) were employed in the iron mining industry, 476 of whom were miners and 417 had other tasks in the company. Type and duration of employment and time since last day of work at the company were used as indicators of exposure. Both s-ferritin levels and transferrin saturation were higher in men than in women. S-ferritin increased with increasing age in women, while the opposite was true for men. Iron deficiency occurred with higher frequencies in women (16 %) than in men (4 %). Iron overload was uncommon in both sexes. Adjustment for smoking and self-reported pulmonary diseases did not show any effect on iron levels. Miners had non-significant higher mean s-ferritin and transferrin saturation than non-miners. Neither duration, nor time since employment in the mine, had any impact on iron status. Our analyses did not show any associations between being a miner in the iron mining industry and serum iron levels compared to the general population.

  8. Association between Municipal Health Promotion Volunteers' Health Literacy and Their Level of Outreach Activities in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Taguchi

    Full Text Available To explore the association between health literacy and levels of three types of core activities among health promotion volunteers (developing a healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community members.A cross-sectional, anonymous, self-administered postal survey of registered health promotion volunteers in the Konan area in Shiga Prefecture in Japan, conducted in January 2010. The study sample was 575 registered health promotion volunteers.The survey collected data on health literacy, gender, age, education, self-rated health, perceptions about the volunteer organization, and perceptions of recognition in the community. The level of engagement in health promotion activities was measured by the extent to which the participants engaged in seven healthy behaviors and promoted them to family members and the community. The authors compared the health literacy level and other characteristics of the participants by core health promotion activities, using a chi-squared test, to examine the associations between demographic and other variables and the three core activities (healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community.Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between the degree to which the volunteers engaged in core activities ("healthy lifestyle," "outreach to family," "outreach to community" and the levels of health literacy (low, medium, high among health promotion volunteers, controlling for the effects of age, gender, health condition, education which may also have an impact on volunteers' outreach activities.Four hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned, a 79.0% response rate. Excluding 16 cases with missing values on health literacy or the degree of health promotion activities, 438 research subjects were included in the analysis (valid response rate: 76.2%. Health literacy and a few demographic and other characteristics of the volunteers were associated with the three core

  9. Comparing the subjective task difficulty of human operators with task description levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea; Yang, Joon Eon

    2011-01-01

    Without the loss of generality, it is reasonable to say that an operating procedure consists of many steps including detailed descriptions that provide necessary information in conducting the required tasks safely and effectively. In this regard, since it is widely perceived that procedures are effective for reducing the occurrence of human performance related problems, the use of procedures is very popular in large process control systems including nuclear power plants (NPPs), commercial airplanes and railway systems. However, the secure of an operational safety by using an operating procedure can be accomplished only if human operators are able to effectively obtain necessary information from it. In other words, it is hard to expect the reduction of human performance related problems, if task descriptions are so ambiguous or incomplete that human operators feel an undue difficulty in identifying 'what have to be done' and 'how to do it' from procedures. Unfortunately, it seems that a systematic method that can be used to distinguish the proper level of task descriptions is rare. For this reason, Park et al. developed a decision chart that could be helpful for characterizing the level of task descriptions. In this study, in order to ensure the appropriateness of the suggested decision chart, more detailed investigations were conducted with the support of human operators who are working as the operating personnel of NPPs

  10. The Port Hope area initiative from municipal perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, R.

    2006-01-01

    'Full text:' This paper explores the Municipal perspective of the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI). The PHAI is unique in that it emerged from proposals to the Federal Government and subsequently a tri-partite agreement between the Federal Government and the Municipalities of Port Hope and Clarington for the cleanup and management of historic low-level radioactive wastes in long-term waste management facilities in their Municipalities. A key feature of the Port Hope Project is the remediation of many major and small scale sites in the urban area. As part of this Legal Agreement, each Municipality is required to give consent at key milestones for the project to proceed to the next stage. In addition, the Municipality also has veto authority if the preferred option is changed by the federal government during its final review. The Agreement also ensures that the Municipalities have the resources to conduct an independent assessment of the work completed by the federal proponent and to advise the Municipality on related matters. While this Legal Agreement provides the Municipalities with influence over the outcome of the EA and the project description, especially when compared with the typical role of municipalities in other Federal EAs, there are many challenges that Port Hope faces as partner in this process. These include: Balancing Port Hope's interests with those of the Federal Government; Reaching agreement on how clean the remediation sites should be; Considering the interests of future generations while meeting the needs of existing residents; Ensuring that the Project will have a positive legacy for Port Hope; Ensuring that institutional controls are in place and that Port Hope has a partnership role in monitoring the Project performance during the Construction Phase and the long term Maintenance and Monitoring Phase. In this context, this paper presents the unique aspects of the Municipal involvement in the process to finally achieve a safe, environmentally

  11. Association between Municipal Health Promotion Volunteers' Health Literacy and Their Level of Outreach Activities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Atsuko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2016-01-01

    To explore the association between health literacy and levels of three types of core activities among health promotion volunteers (developing a healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community members). A cross-sectional, anonymous, self-administered postal survey of registered health promotion volunteers in the Konan area in Shiga Prefecture in Japan, conducted in January 2010. The study sample was 575 registered health promotion volunteers. The survey collected data on health literacy, gender, age, education, self-rated health, perceptions about the volunteer organization, and perceptions of recognition in the community. The level of engagement in health promotion activities was measured by the extent to which the participants engaged in seven healthy behaviors and promoted them to family members and the community. The authors compared the health literacy level and other characteristics of the participants by core health promotion activities, using a chi-squared test, to examine the associations between demographic and other variables and the three core activities (healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community).Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between the degree to which the volunteers engaged in core activities ("healthy lifestyle," "outreach to family," "outreach to community") and the levels of health literacy (low, medium, high) among health promotion volunteers, controlling for the effects of age, gender, health condition, education which may also have an impact on volunteers' outreach activities. Four hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned, a 79.0% response rate. Excluding 16 cases with missing values on health literacy or the degree of health promotion activities, 438 research subjects were included in the analysis (valid response rate: 76.2%). Health literacy and a few demographic and other characteristics of the volunteers were associated with the three core health

  12. Association between Municipal Health Promotion Volunteers’ Health Literacy and Their Level of Outreach Activities in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Atsuko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the association between health literacy and levels of three types of core activities among health promotion volunteers (developing a healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community members). Study Design A cross-sectional, anonymous, self-administered postal survey of registered health promotion volunteers in the Konan area in Shiga Prefecture in Japan, conducted in January 2010. The study sample was 575 registered health promotion volunteers. Methods The survey collected data on health literacy, gender, age, education, self-rated health, perceptions about the volunteer organization, and perceptions of recognition in the community. The level of engagement in health promotion activities was measured by the extent to which the participants engaged in seven healthy behaviors and promoted them to family members and the community. The authors compared the health literacy level and other characteristics of the participants by core health promotion activities, using a chi-squared test, to examine the associations between demographic and other variables and the three core activities (healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community).Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between the degree to which the volunteers engaged in core activities (“healthy lifestyle,” “outreach to family,” “outreach to community”) and the levels of health literacy (low, medium, high) among health promotion volunteers, controlling for the effects of age, gender, health condition, education which may also have an impact on volunteers’ outreach activities. Results Four hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned, a 79.0% response rate. Excluding 16 cases with missing values on health literacy or the degree of health promotion activities, 438 research subjects were included in the analysis (valid response rate: 76.2%). Health literacy and a few demographic and other characteristics of the

  13. Assessing the levels of mercury in selected mining communities in the East Akim Municipality of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwateng, I.K.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury concentrations in tailings, soil, sediment and water from one active and one non-active (abandoned) mine site each from Agyapoma, Kibi and Tete Asikam were studied together with water from the Birim River. The concentrations were measured using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - a 30 kW tank-in-pool Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR - 1) operating at a thermal flux of 5 x 10 1 1' ns -1 cm -2 . The samples were irradiated and counted without any chemical treatment. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used for full analysis of all the water samples to measure the concentrations of Hg, Cd, Pb, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and As. Ultra violet visible spectrophotometer was used to measure the concentrations of SO 4 2- , PO 4 3- and NO 3- . Elevated levels of Hg were found in the tailings at all the active sites which ranged from 3.45-5.09 mg/kg. The non-active sites had concentrations ranging from 0.02-0.24 mg/kg. Soil, sediment and water samples analysed for Hg were below detection limit. The difference in Hg concentrations in tailings from one site to another is significant as it ranged from 0.02-5.09 mg/kg. Levels of mercury in drinking water, soil and sediments were below detection limit. The Birim river and dam water showed a wide range of characteristics in terms of physciochemical parameters and elemental concentrations. The temperature ranged from 26.5-56.7 degrees Celsius with a pH range of 5.85-7.18. The electrical conductivity values were in the range 53.8-192.4 μS/cm and TDS values in the range of 23.2-82.2mg/L. the water samples varied largely in total hardness from 21.95-76.8mg/L. Concentrations of Pb and Fe were all above the guidance values of 0.01 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L respectively. The concentration of Pb ranged from 0.067-0.127 mg/L and that of Fe ranged from 0.653-2.1 mg/L. Arsenic concentrations were also above the WHO guidance values of 0.01 mg/L except for samples from the Birim River. The concentration of SO 4 2- ranges from 7.424-57.26 mg/L which

  14. 100% energy supply coverage with renewable energy. Requirements for its implementation at the global, national and municipal level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogall, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This book presents itself as a systematic, easily understandable introduction into the requirements for an energy supply based 100% on renewable energy. Its main focus is on the strategic paths that must be followed for this purpose in the realms of business, technology and governmental policy. It highlights the opportunities and impediments on the way, analysing in the process the roles of political, economic and civil society players from the global down to the municipal level. Starting out from the present state of discussion on the German energy transition it investigates the strengths and weak points of efficiency technologies and renewable energies available today and elaborates a strategic path for developing the necessary infrastructure. In awareness of the fact that 100% coverage will not come about from market mechanisms alone it explores the ecological crash barriers that need to be set up in addition. This is followed by chapters on the roles, interests and means of those players who can exert influence on the framing of the relevant political and legal instruments as well as their means of pursuing their interests. The book thus contributes to clarifying the possibilities of and impediments to achieving an energy supply system based 100% on renewable energy.

  15. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Process Description language Level 1 Version 1.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Stuart; Le Novère, Nicolas; Demir, Emek; Mi, Huaiyu; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Process Description language represents biological entities and processes between these entities within a network. SBGN PD focuses on the mechanistic description and temporal dependencies of biological interactions and transformations. The nodes (elements) are split into entity nodes describing, e.g., metabolites, proteins, genes and complexes, and process nodes describing, e.g., reactions and associations. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the nodes, such as consumption, production, stimulation and inhibition. Among all three languages of SBGN, PD is the closest to metabolic and regulatory pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  16. Boreal forests can have a remarkable role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions locally: Land use-related and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks at the municipal level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhala, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.vanhala@ymparisto.fi [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Bergström, Irina [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Haaspuro, Tiina [University of Helsinki, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, Viikinkaari 1, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kortelainen, Pirkko; Holmberg, Maria; Forsius, Martin [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem services have become an important concept in policy-making. Carbon (C) sequestration into ecosystems is a significant ecosystem service, whereas C losses can be considered as an ecosystem disservice. Municipalities are in a position to make decisions that affect local emissions and therefore are important when considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Integrated estimations of fluxes at a regional level help local authorities to develop land use policies for minimising GHG emissions and maximising C sinks. In this study, the Finnish national GHG accounting system is modified and applied at the municipal level by combining emissions and sinks from agricultural land, forest areas, water bodies and mires (land use-related GHG emissions) with emissions from activities such as energy production and traffic (anthropogenic GHG emissions) into the LUONNIKAS calculation tool. The study area consists of 14 municipalities within the Vanajavesi catchment area located in Southern Finland. In these municipalities, croplands, peat extraction sites, water bodies and undrained mires are emission sources, whereas forests are large carbon sinks that turn the land use-related GHG budget negative, resulting in C sequestration into the ecosystem. The annual land use-related sink in the study area was 78 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 2.8 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Annual anthropogenic GHG emissions from the area amounted to 250 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 9.2 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Since forests are a significant carbon sink and the efficiency of this sink is heavily affected by forest management practices, forest management policy is a key contributing factor for mitigating municipal GHG emissions. - Highlights: • The significance of natural landscapes in the regional C budgets is shown. • Boreal forests can be remarkable C sinks enabling net C sequestration in ecosystems. • The large area of forest may compensate for all C emissions in the municipality.

  17. Cascade Boosting-Based Object Detection from High-Level Description to Hardware Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khattab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Object detection forms the first step of a larger setup for a wide variety of computer vision applications. The focus of this paper is the implementation of a real-time embedded object detection system while relying on high-level description language such as SystemC. Boosting-based object detection algorithms are considered as the fastest accurate object detection algorithms today. However, the implementation of a real time solution for such algorithms is still a challenge. A new parallel implementation, which exploits the parallelism and the pipelining in these algorithms, is proposed. We show that using a SystemC description model paired with a mainstream automatic synthesis tool can lead to an efficient embedded implementation. We also display some of the tradeoffs and considerations, for this implementation to be effective. This implementation proves capable of achieving 42 fps for 320×240 images as well as bringing regularity in time consuming.

  18. Knowledge Level and Determinants of Neonatal Jaundice: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Effutu Municipality of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontor, Kate Adomakowaah; Bentsil, Joseph-Josiah; Anderson, Maxwell; Nsiah, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a major cause of hospital admission during the neonatal period and is associated with significant mortality. This case-control study with cross-sectional design sought to identify the possible factors associated with neonatal jaundice and assess maternal knowledge level of this condition. Methods One hundred and fifty (150) neonates comprising 100 with clinically evident jaundice and 50 without jaundice were conveniently recruited from the Trauma and Specialist Hospital in the Effutu Municipality. Blood samples were collected for the determination of serum bilirubin, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), status and blood group (ABO and Rhesus). Well-structured questionnaire was used to collect maternal and neonate sociodemographic and clinical history. Results Majority (54%) of neonates developed jaundice within 1–3 days after birth with 10% having it at birth. Duration of labour and neonatal birth weight were associated with neonatal jaundice (P jaundice and ABO incompatibility was present in 18%. Neonates delivered by mothers with formal occupation and those who had prolonged duration of labour were significantly more likely to have neonatal jaundice (OR = 4.174, P = 0.003; OR = 2.389, P = 0.025, resp.). Neonates with low birth weight were also more likely to develop neonatal jaundice (OR = 2.347, P = 0.044). Only 17.3% of mothers had heard of neonatal jaundice. School was the major source of information on neonatal jaundice (34.6%). Majority of participants (mothers) did not know that NNJ can cause damage to other organs in the body (90%). Conclusion Low neonatal birth weight and prolonged duration of labour are associated with neonatal jaundice. Mothers had inadequate knowledge of neonatal jaundice and its causes. PMID:29686715

  19. Gender inequalities in the association between area deprivation and perceived social support: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis at the municipality level in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Emily; Kroll, Lars Eric; Maier, Werner; Bolte, Gabriele

    2018-04-12

    To investigate the association between area deprivation at municipality level with low perceived social support, independent of individual socioeconomic position and demographic characteristics. To assess whether there are gender inequalities in this association. Cross-sectional multilevel analysis of survey data. Germany. 3350 men and 3665 women living in 167 municipalities throughout Germany participating in the 'German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults' (DEGS1 2008-2011) as part of the national health monitoring. Perceived social support as measured by Oslo-3 Social Support Scale. Prevalence of low perceived social support was 11.4% in men and 11.1% in women. Low social support was associated in men and women with sociodemographic characteristics that indicate more disadvantaged living situations. Taking these individual-level characteristics into account, municipal-level deprivation was independently associated with low perceived social support in men (OR for the most deprived quintile: 1.80 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.84)), but not in women (OR 1.22 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.90)). The results of our multilevel analysis suggest that there are gender inequalities in the association of municipal-level deprivation with the prevalence of low perceived social support in Germany independent of individual socioeconomic position. Community health interventions aiming at promotion of social support among residents might profit from a further understanding of the observed gender differences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Site descriptions for preliminary radiological assessments of low-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, W.E.; Jones, C.H.; Sumerling, T.J.; Ashton, J.

    1988-07-01

    The environmental contexts of four sites, previously under investigation by UK Nirex Ltd. as potential locations for low-level waste disposal facilities, are described. Information on geographical setting, climate, surface hydrology, land use, agriculture, fisheries, geology and hydrogeology is presented. The geological and hydrogeological data are interpreted with the support of deterministic modelling of groundwater conditions. The routes by which radionuclides may migrate from the site are identified and reduced to 1D statistical descriptions suitable for use in probabilistic risk assessments. Additional data required to improve the assessment of the performance of the site are identified. (author)

  1. Concentration levels of cesium-137 in soils of the municipalities of Guadalupe and Zacatecas before the accident of Fukushima Daiichi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mireles, F.; Davila, J. I.; Pinedo, J. L.; Lopez, H.; Rios, C.; Saucedo, S. A.; Flores, F. E.

    2011-11-01

    The study of the emitter radioisotopes of gamma-rays in soil is very important considering damages to the health and quality of the environment. The main objective of this work is the study of the concentration of the artificial radioisotope 137 Cs in soil of the cities and municipalities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe of the Zacatecas State, Mexico. The study was carried out in two stages for different times, the first stage corresponded to the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe in 2000; and the second corresponded to the municipalities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe in 2008. The first study region was the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe, and environs where 20 soil samples were obtained. The second study region was inside the municipalities of Guadalupe and Zacatecas and 44 samples of near soil to the communities with major population in both municipalities were obtained. A spectrometry system of gamma-rays was used based on a coaxial detector of germanium hyper pure of high resolution, and was calculated the concentration of the 137 Cs with the energy photo-pick 661.66 KeV. In this work the activity concentrations of the 137 Cs in soil are presented and their variation in function of the time. These data will be a reference to evaluate a possible increment of the 137 Cs because of the accident of Fukushima Daiichi (Japan) nuclear power plant happened March 11, 2011. (Author)

  2. Municipality Level Simulations of Dengue Fever Incidence in Puerto Rico Using Ground Based and Remotely Sensed Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Morin, Cory

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is caused by a virus transmitted between humans and Aedes genus mosquitoes through blood feeding. In recent decades incidence of the disease has drastically increased in the tropical Americas, culminating with the Pan American outbreak in 2010 which resulted in 1.7 million reported cases. In Puerto Rico dengue is endemic, however, there is significant inter-annual, intraannual, and spatial variability in case loads. Variability in climate and the environment, herd immunity and virus genetics, and demographic characteristics may all contribute to differing patterns of transmission both spatially and temporally. Knowledge of climate influences on dengue incidence could facilitate development of early warning systems allowing public health workers to implement appropriate transmission intervention strategies. In this study, we simulate dengue incidence in several municipalities in Puerto Rico using population and meteorological data derived from ground based stations and remote sensing instruments. This data was used to drive a process based model of vector population development and virus transmission. Model parameter values for container composition, vector characteristics, and incubation period were chosen by employing a Monte Carlo approach. Multiple simulations were performed for each municipality and the results were compared with reported dengue cases. The best performing simulations were retained and their parameter values and meteorological input were compared between years and municipalities. Parameter values varied by municipality and year illustrating the complexity and sensitivity of the disease system. Local characteristics including the natural and built environment impact transmission dynamics and produce varying responses to meteorological conditions.

  3. Assessment the Relationship Between Parents' Literacy Level with Children Growth in Mashhad: An Analytic Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Saeidi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Present children are the investments of community in the future. Preparing children health which leads to the stability of community health, provided to accurate implementation of educational and health programs in the community and especially in mothers. So it is necessary to determine the relationship between parents' literacy  with growth rate in children. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 mothers referring to 10 selected Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24-month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic statistics and using SPSS 16. Results: Presentfindings showed a significant relationship between literacy  level of parents with child growth status, breast feeding rate, junk food consumption, referring to health care center for growth monitoring, the age of initiating supplementary nutrition, the use of oil and butter in baby food and rate of attending in educational classes. So that higher literacy  level of parents was associated with using more formula, less junk food, oil and butter in baby's food and more referring times to health care center for monitoring child growth, desirable growth, and  also initiating supplementary food more at the assigned time (p

  4. Assessment the Relationship between Parents' Literacy Level with Children Growth in Mashhad: An Analytic Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Leila Hoseini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Present children are the investments of community in the future. Preparing children health which leads to the stability of community health, provided to accurate implementation of educational and health programs in the community and especially in mothers. So it is necessary to determine the relationship between parents' literacy with growth rate in children.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 mothers referring to 10 selected Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24-month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic statistics and using SPSS 16.   Results: Presentfindings showed a significant relationship between literacy  level of parents with child growth status, breast feeding rate, junk food consumption, referring to health care center for growth monitoring, the age of initiating supplementary nutrition, the use of oil and butter in baby food and rate of attending in educational classes. So that higher literacy  level of parents was associated with using more formula, less junk food, oil and butter in baby's food and more referring times to health care center for monitoring child growth, desirable growth, and  also initiating supplementary food more at the assigned time (P

  5. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Le Novère, Nicolas; Nickerson, David; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2015-09-04

    The number, size and complexity of computational models of biological systems are growing at an ever increasing pace. It is imperative to build on existing studies by reusing and adapting existing models and parts thereof. The description of the structure of models is not sufficient to enable the reproduction of simulation results. One also needs to describe the procedures the models are subjected to, as recommended by the Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) guidelines. This document presents Level 1 Version 2 of the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML), a computer-readable format for encoding simulation and analysis experiments to apply to computational models. SED-ML files are encoded in the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and can be used in conjunction with any XML-based model encoding format, such as CellML or SBML. A SED-ML file includes details of which models to use, how to modify them prior to executing a simulation, which simulation and analysis procedures to apply, which results to extract and how to present them. Level 1 Version 2 extends the format by allowing the encoding of repeated and chained procedures.

  6. International experts' conference 'Promotion of environmental protection at municipal level - strategies and approaches for action' in preparation of the UN conference on environment and development (UNCED)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapelfeldt, U.; Klassen, I.

    1992-02-01

    This meeting took place in Berlin in February 1992 in the run-up to the Rio UNCED conference. The proceedings compile the schedule, the opening speeches and the papers contributed on different subjects by the working groups. A declaration ('Berlin Declaration') was passed to summarize some important statements and central targets: An environmentally compatible market economy is an essential prerequisite for a lasting ecologically acceptable development of the urban areas; the towns and cities are the natural allies of the corresponding environmental policies; urban development strategies must comprise all fields which are of environmental relevance; urban development and municipal pollution abatement are interdependent; there must be enough room for sufficiently autonomous decision-making and development at the local level to ensure, last but not least, an efficient municipal environmental management (orig./HP) [de

  7. Serum PCDDs/Fs levels for the residents living in the vicinity and workers of the municipal incinerators in Seoul, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Shin, D. [Inst. for environmental Research, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea); Lim, Y. [Dept. of Environmental Health, Seonam Univ., Namwon (Korea); Chang, Y. [School of Environmental Engineering, Pohang Univ., Pohang (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    PCDDs and PCDFs are detected routinely, as they are widely distributed in the environment and accumulate in the food chain. Moreover, because human beings are at the top of food chain, a relatively high level of these compounds can be found in human adipose tissues, blood lipids, and breast milk fat. In Korea, the number of municipal and hazardous waste incinerators have increased since 1980. In addition, municipal waste incinerators are almost always located in residential areas. Therefore, the human health risks caused by dioxin is become an increasing public concern in Korea. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs in blood from individuals living in the vicinity area of the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI), and to compare PCDDs/PCDFs levels in blood for residents living near the MSWI, workers at the MSWI and general population living in the urban area not including the MSWI. Analysis of the results was made in terms of sociodemographic characteristics such as age, sex, smoking habit, food consumption patters, and proximity to the MSWI.

  8. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML Level 1 Version 3 (L1V3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmann Frank T.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The creation of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research poses challenges to reproduce, annotate, archive, and share such experiments. Efforts such as SBML or CellML standardize the formal representation of computational models in various areas of biology. The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML describes what procedures the models are subjected to, and the details of those procedures. These standards, together with further COMBINE standards, describe models sufficiently well for the reproduction of simulation studies among users and software tools. The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML is an XML-based format that encodes, for a given simulation experiment, (i which models to use; (ii which modifications to apply to models before simulation; (iii which simulation procedures to run on each model; (iv how to post-process the data; and (v how these results should be plotted and reported. SED-ML Level 1 Version 1 (L1V1 implemented support for the encoding of basic time course simulations. SED-ML L1V2 added support for more complex types of simulations, specifically repeated tasks and chained simulation procedures. SED-ML L1V3 extends L1V2 by means to describe which datasets and subsets thereof to use within a simulation experiment.

  9. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 3 (L1V3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; König, Matthias; Moraru, Ion; Nickerson, David; Le Novère, Nicolas; Olivier, Brett G; Sahle, Sven; Smith, Lucian; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2018-03-19

    The creation of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research poses challenges to reproduce, annotate, archive, and share such experiments. Efforts such as SBML or CellML standardize the formal representation of computational models in various areas of biology. The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) describes what procedures the models are subjected to, and the details of those procedures. These standards, together with further COMBINE standards, describe models sufficiently well for the reproduction of simulation studies among users and software tools. The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) is an XML-based format that encodes, for a given simulation experiment, (i) which models to use; (ii) which modifications to apply to models before simulation; (iii) which simulation procedures to run on each model; (iv) how to post-process the data; and (v) how these results should be plotted and reported. SED-ML Level 1 Version 1 (L1V1) implemented support for the encoding of basic time course simulations. SED-ML L1V2 added support for more complex types of simulations, specifically repeated tasks and chained simulation procedures. SED-ML L1V3 extends L1V2 by means to describe which datasets and subsets thereof to use within a simulation experiment.

  10. Transport-level description of the 252Cf-source method using the Langevin technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolle, A.M.; Akcasu, A.Z.

    1991-01-01

    The fluctuations in the neutron number density and detector outputs in a nuclear reactor can be analyzed conveniently by using the Langevin equation approach. This approach can be implemented at any level of approximation to describe the time evolution of the neutron population, from the most complete transport-level description to the very basic point reactor analysis of neutron number density fluctuations. In this summary, the complete space- and velocity-dependent transport-level formulation of the Langevin equation approach is applied to the analysis of the 252 Cf-source-driven noise analysis (CSDNA) method, an experimental technique developed by J.T. Mihalczo at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which makes use of noise analysis to determine the reactivity of subcritical media. From this analysis, a theoretical expression for the subcritical multiplication factor is obtained that can then be used to interpret the experimental data. Results at the transport level are in complete agreement with an independent derivation performed by Sutton and Doub, who used the probability density method to interpret the CSDNA experiment, but differed from other expressions that have appeared in the literature

  11. Improving the description of collective effects within the combinatorial model of nuclear level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilaire, S.; Girod, M.; Goriely, S.

    2011-01-01

    The combinatorial model of nuclear level densities has now reached a level of accuracy comparable to that of the best global analytical expressions without suffering from the limits imposed by the statistical hypothesis on which the latter expressions rely. In particular, it provides naturally, non Gaussian spin distribution as well as non equipartition of parities which are known to have a significant impact on cross section predictions at low energies. Our first global model developed in Ref. 1 suffered from deficiencies, in particular in the way the collective effects - both vibrational and rotational - were treated. We have recently improved this treatment using simultaneously the single particle levels and collective properties predicted by a newly derived Gogny interaction, therefore enabling a microscopic description of energy-dependent shell, pairing and deformation effects. In addition, for deformed nuclei, the transition to sphericity is coherently taken into account on the basis of a temperature-dependent Hartree-Fock calculation which provides at each temperature the structure properties needed to build the level densities. This new method is described and shown to give promising preliminary results with respect to available experimental data. (authors)

  12. Conocimientos sobre implantes dentales en estomatólogos de los municipios de Centro Habana, Habana del Este y Habana Vieja Knowledge level on dental implants in stomatologists from Centro Habana, Habana del Este and Habana Vieja municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida García López

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación descriptiva transversal, con el objetivo de evaluar el nivel de conocimiento sobre implantes dentales de los estomatólogos generales básico e integrales de los municipios, Habana del Este, Centro Habana y Habana Vieja. El Ministerio de Salud Pública tiene especial interés en la implementación y generalización de las técnicas de implantología dental a nivel de los municipios por lo que esta temática se convierte en tema de necesario dominio para los estomatólogos, pues necesitan orientar, tratar y remitir a sus pacientes. Para medir los conocimientos fue aplicada una encuesta que constaba de diez preguntas, y se utilizó los criterios de conocen y desconocen, para evaluar las respuestas según su calidad. El nivel de conocimientos se clasificó en adecuado cuando la encuesta tuvo un 70 % o más de respuestas con el criterio de conocen. El nivel de conocimientos fue no adecuado para los grupos de estudios y para los municipios.A cross-sectional and descriptive research was carried out to assess the knowledge level on dental implants of Basic and Integral General Stomatologists from Habana del Este, Centro Habana and Habana Vieja municipalities and due to its spreading in the different media and the interest of our Public Health Ministry in application of this technique at municipality level it becomes necessary domain of stomatologists because of they need to guide, to treat and to refer the patients. To knowledge measurement we applied a survey including ten questions using to know and not to know criteria to assess the answers according to its quality. The knowledge level was classified as suitable when there was a 70 % or more of answers with the criterion of to know, but this knowledge level was not suitable for study groups and for the municipalities.

  13. Allowable residual contamination levels for decommissioning. Part 1. A description of the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    This paper contains a description of the methods used in a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for decommissioning facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The ARCL method is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for three specific modes of future use of the land and facilities. Thes modes of use are restricted, controlled, and unrestricted. The information on ARCL values for restricted and controlled use is intended to permit a full consideration of decommissioning alternatives. The analysis results in site-specific ARCL values that can be used for determining compliance with any annual dose limit selected. This flexibility permits proper consideration of field situations involving the radionuclide mixtures and physical conditions encountered. In addition, this method permits a full determination of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) conditions

  14. Effect of different levels of municipal waste compost and maternal corm weight on yield and vegetative characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Gholizade

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of different municipal waste compost levels of and maternal corm weights on yield and vegetative characteristics of saffron, an experiment was conducted with a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, University of Birjand during the growing season of 2014-2015. The treatments were four levels of municipal waste compost (0, 5, 10 and 20 t.ha-1 and three mother corm weights (0.1- 4, 4.1- 8 and 8.1- 12 g. The traits included the number of flower, fresh weight of flower, stigma and fresh weight of corm with scale, weight and diameter replacement and number of buds. The results showed that the effect of municipal waste compost was significant on total weight corm with scale, diameter of center corm and replacement corm, weight of fresh flower and stigma. The highest corm weight and number of replacement corms were obtained for treatment 10 t. ha-1 compost (21.33 g. plant -1 and 2.33 number, respectively, while the control had the lowest values (with 16.4 g. plant -1 and 1.66 number. The effect of mother corm weight was significant on the vegetative characteristics of saffron. The highest corm weight with scale, diameter of replacement, flower yield and fresh weight of flower and stigma were observed for 8.1-12 g. The most fresh  and dry weight of stigma (0.31 and 0.11 g. m -1, respectively were observed from treatment  mother corm weight 8.1-12 g, while the lowest values (0.06 and 0.03 g. m -1 were 0.1- 4g.  Interaction between municipal waste compost and corm weight had a significant effect on the weight of fresh flower, sepal, stigma and the number of lateral buds and the highest fresh weight of flower (9.36 g. m-2 and stigma (0.41 g. m-2 were observed for treatment 10 t. ha-1 and 8.1-12g. Generally, the findings of the current study revealed that the use of municipal waste compost (10 t. ha-1 and large mother corms (8/1-12 g

  15. Adaptation to Climate Change in Risk and Vulnerability Analysis on a Municipal Level, a basis for further work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossberg Sonnek, Karin; Lindberg, Anna; Lindgren, Johan

    2007-12-01

    The aim of Risk and Vulnerability Analysis (RVA) at local authority level in Sweden is to increase the capacity of local authorities to handle crises and to reduce vulnerability in the community. RVA processes could be an appropriate starting-point for discussions on how the community is influenced by climate change and how its effects could be reduced using various adjustment measures. In the report we present four methods: ROSA, MVA, IBERO and the Car Dun AB method. These have all been developed to support Swedish local authority RVA processes. We also present five international frameworks that have been developed by the organisations UNDP, USAID, UKCIP, C-CIARN and CSIRO to help decision-makers and stakeholders to adapt to climate change. Together, these descriptions form a foundation for continuing the work being done within the project Climatools, in which tools are being produced to be used by local authorities in adapting to climate change. In the report, we also discuss the concepts 'risk', 'vulnerability' and 'adaptation' and how analysis of adaptation to climate change has changed in recent years

  16. Wetland Ecohydrology: stochastic description of water level fluctuations across the soil surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, S.; Muneepeerakul, R.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2009-12-01

    Wetlands provide a suite of social and ecological critical functions such as being habitats of disease-carrying vectors, providing buffer zones against hurricanes, controlling sediment transport, filtering nutrients and contaminants, and a repository of great biological diversity. More recently, wetlands have also been recognized as crucial for carbon storage in the context of global climate change. Despite such importance, quantitative approaches to many aspects of wetlands are far from adequate. Therefore, improving our quantitative understanding of wetlands is necessary to our ability to maintain, manage, and restore these invaluable environments. In wetlands, hydrologic factors and ecosystem processes interplay and generate unique characteristics and a delicate balance between biotic and abiotic elements. The main hydrologic driver of wetland ecosystems is the position of the water level that, being above or below ground, determines the submergence or exposure of soil. When the water level is above the soil surface, soil saturation and lack of oxygen causes hypoxia, anaerobic functioning of microorganisms and anoxic stress in plants, that might lead to the death of non-adapted organisms. When the water level lies below the soil surface, the ecosystem becomes groundwater-dependent, and pedological and physiological aspects play their role in the soil water balance. We propose here a quantitative description of wetland ecohydrology, through a stochastic process-based water balance, driven by a marked compound Poisson noise representing rainfall events. The model includes processes such as rainfall infiltration, evapotranspiration, capillary rise, and the contribution of external water bodies, which are quantified in a simple yet realistic way. The semi-analytical steady-state probability distributions of water level spanning across the soil surface are validated with data from the Everglades (Florida, USA). The model and its results allow for a quantitative

  17. Local democracy in large municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Annette Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Municipal amalgamations in Denmark in 2007 led to concern for local rural democracy, as the number of politicians from rural areas dropped after the reform. To preserve rural democracy, local councils at the village level were established in some municipalities, and they have begun to prepare local...

  18. Description of Insecticide Effect in Vitro of the Commercial Diatom on Melophagus Ovinus From the Municipality of Oicatá (Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herney Cuevas Morales

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the ectoparasites affecting sheep is the hematophagous diptera (“false tick” or “fly-louse of sheep”, found in temperate and cold zones in South America, which can cause dermatitis and damage of fleece, in addition to acting as a vector for different diseases. Therefore, they are controlled with commercial insecticides that are toxic to humans and animals, disrupting the ecosystem and generating toxic residues on the food; in addition, in some areas, these have become ineffective. In some sheep located in the municipality of Oicatá, a high prevalence of this parasite can be found with limited effectiveness in treatments with traditional insecticides. Hence, the aim of this study was to describe the in vitro efficacy of the commercial diatom in the control of the M. ovinus. 240 individuals of M. ovinus were collected from naturally parasitized animals, from which 120 were divided randomly into four groups of 10 parasites each, running each test three times (replicas. In all cases, the immersion technique was used for adults, to describe the efficacy of the diatom, observing the mortality percentage for each group. After 12 hours of exposure, mortality was higher in the groups exposed to concentrations of diatom (g of diatom: ml of water of 0.1:1, 0.2:1 and 0.3:1. Around the 24th hour, mortality increased to 90%, with diatom in concentrations of 0.1:1 and 0.3:1 and after 48 hours the higher mortality values were obtained with diatom 0.3:1 followed by diatom 0.2:1 and 0.1:1. With the results obtained, we can mention that the diatom has an insecticide effect that exceeds the minimum effective of 60 %.

  19. Anxiety Level and Descriptive Features of Women Requesting Mammography at Early Diagnosis Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadime Gok Ozer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This research was conducted as a descriptive study for the purpose of determining the level of anxiety of women requesting to have mammography done in Denizli State Hospital at the Early Diagnosis Center. METHODS: The research population was comprised of all individuals who came to the Early Diagnosis Center between December 2005 and May 2006 to have mammography done. Between these dates refer to the center (101 persons and women who received oral onamlari working group formed. Data were collected using a survey form and Beck Anxiety Inventory in face-to-face interviews. In the analysis of the data, number and percentage calculations, t test, Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests were used. RESULTS: The mean age of the women participating in the research was 50.68±7.43 years. The majority (71.3% of the women were housewives, married (89.1%, had a child (97.0%, did not have a family history of breast cancer (86.1%, had not previously been diagnosed with any kind of cancer (92.1%, had not had any previous breast-related illness (84.2%, had not had radiation therapy for any reason (86.1%. A statistically significant association was found between women's status of having previously had radiation therapy and their anxiety level (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The anxiety level of women who had previously had radiation therapy for any reason was found to be higher. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 333-338

  20. Blunt traumatic injury during pregnancy: a descriptive analysis from a level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Sathian, Brijesh; Mekkodathil, Ahammed; Thomas, Sam; Mollazehi, Monira; Al-Sulaiti, Maryam; Abdelrahman, Husham

    2018-03-27

    The precise incidence of trauma in pregnancy is not well-known, but trauma is estimated to complicate nearly 1 in 12 pregnancies and it is the leading non-obstetrical cause of maternal death. A retrospective study of all pregnant women presented to national level 1 trauma center from July 2013 to June 2015 was conducted. Descriptive and inferential statistics applied for data analysis. Across the study period, a total of 95 pregnant women were presented to the trauma center. The average incidence rate of traumatic injuries was 250 per 1000 women of childbearing age presented to the Hamad Trauma Center. The mean age of patients was 30.4 ± SD 5.6 years, with age ranging from 20 to 42 years. The mean gestational age at the time of injury was 24.7 ± 8.7 weeks which ranged from 5 to 37 weeks. The majority (47.7%) was in the third trimester of the pregnancy. In addition, the large majority of injuries was due to MVCs (74.7%) followed by falls (15.8%). Trauma during pregnancy is not an uncommon event particularly in the traffic-related crashes. As it is a complex condition for trauma surgeons and obstetrician, an appropriate management protocol and multidisciplinary team are needed to improve the outcome and save lives of both the mother and fetus.

  1. From electricity to heat: A discourse-analytical policy study of the energy system conversion at national, municipal and household levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perman, Karin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse how space heating for single-family houses, and energy system conversion has been constructed and discussed at national, municipal and household levels. Political documents have been studied, and interviews have been carried out with politicians, civil servants and householders in the municipality of Falun. In order to study and analyse similarities and differences between these three political levels, the following main questions were asked: In which sense is the use of electrical heating formulated as problematic? How are the causes of these problems presented, and which solutions are suggested? What are the effects of how problems, causes and solutions are constructed? At the national level, the use of electricity produced by nuclear power was considered a problem. Initially the municipality's policy documents present the same problem, but there is a change of focus to the problem of imported electricity produced by fossil fuel, and the resulting emissions. At household level, the problem was often an old and badly functioning space-heating system. But some households did not formulate a problem before they converted. Instead they were influenced by their neighbours and thereby convinced. At all three political levels, there is consensus on the households' responsibility concerning energy transition. While industry tends to be considered incapable of cutting down its energy consumption, households are expected to take the responsibility seriously. Furthermore, within the household, the heating system tends to be constructed as a predominantly male concern. At all three levels, households are perceived as dependant on economical subsidies when taking the decision to convert from electrical heating. Although it is interesting that the interviewed householders only apply this view to others than themselves. They are convinced that other households need subsidies to act in an environmentally correct way. The discourse concerning

  2. A Qualitative Descriptive Case Study of the Requirements of the IT Industry for Entry-Level IT Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerherm, Todd Michael

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive case study explored the requirements of the IT industry for education, IT certification, and work experience for entry-level IT professionals. Research has shown a growing problem where IT graduates were not able to meet the requirements for entry-level IT jobs. IT enrollment has decreased considerably over the past…

  3. A multi-level biological approach to evaluate impacts of a major municipal effluent in wild St. Lawrence River yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houde, Magali, E-mail: magali.houde@ec.gc.ca [Centre Saint-Laurent, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, QC H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Giraudo, Maeva, E-mail: maeva.giraudo@ec.gc.ca [Centre Saint-Laurent, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, QC H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Douville, Mélanie, E-mail: melanie.douville@ec.gc.ca [Centre Saint-Laurent, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, QC H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Bougas, Bérénice, E-mail: berenice.bougas.1@ulaval.ca [Institut de biologie intégrative et des systèmes, Université Laval, 1030, avenue de la Médecine, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada); Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Couture, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.couture@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); De Silva, Amila O., E-mail: amila.desilva@ec.gc.ca [Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Spencer, Christine, E-mail: christine.spencer@ec.gc.ca [Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Lair, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.lair@umontreal.ca [Centre québécois sur la santé des animaux sauvages, Université de Montréal, C.P. 5000, St-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 7C6 (Canada); and others

    2014-11-01

    The development of integrated ecotoxicological approaches is of great interest in the investigation of global concerns such as impacts of municipal wastewater effluents on aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a major wastewater municipal effluent on fish using a multi-level biological approach, from gene transcription and enzyme activities to histological changes. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were selected based on their wide distribution, their commercial and recreational importance, and the availability of a customized microarray. Yellow perch were sampled upstream of a major municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and 4 km and 10 km downstream from its point of discharge in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metals/trace elements in whole body homogenates were comparable to those from other industrialized regions of the world. Genomic results indicated that the transcription level of 177 genes was significantly different (p < 0.024) between exposed and non-exposed fish. Among these genes, 38 were found to be differentially transcribed at both downstream sites. Impacted genes were associated with biological processes and molecular functions such as immunity, detoxification, lipid metabolism/energy homeostasis (e.g., peroxisome proliferation), and retinol metabolism suggesting impact of WWTP on these systems. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were more elevated in perch collected at the 4 km site. Biomarkers of lipid metabolism, biosynthetic activity, and aerobic capacities were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in fish residing near the outfall of the effluent. Histological examination of the liver indicated no differences between sites. Correlations between PFAS, PBDE, and metal/trace element tissue concentrations and markers of peroxisomal proliferation, oxidative stress, and retinoid metabolism were found

  4. A study of descriptive data for orphans and non-orphans on key criteria of economic vulnerability in two municipalities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Skinner

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is generally assumed that orphan status increases the risk to children of a range of negative outcomes. In South Africa, death of parents due to HIV-related illness is contributing to a rapid increase in the prevalence of orphans. This paper presents descriptive data from two South African communities, namely Kopanong, in the Free State and Kanana in the North West province, characterising the differences between orphans (double, maternal and paternal and non-orphans on key criteria of social vulnerability.Objectives: The objective was to obtain a better understanding of how different types of orphans and non-orphans may differ in these key areas as a crucial starting point for addressing the devastating consequences the AIDS epidemic has on these children’s lives. While the study focuses on two specific areas these will provide insight into the general situation of orphans in South Africa.Methods: A cross-sectional census survey was conducted in the two communities of Kopanong, comprising n = 5254 households and Kanana, comprising n = 12 984 households.Results: In Kopanong, 8.2% of children had lost both parents, 19.1% had lost their father and 6.5% their mother only, whilst in Kanana the results were 6.5%, 28.1% and 3.7% respectively. Loss of both parents appeared to have a consistent impact on material need, including access to food, clothing and essential services, whilst loss of a single parent seems to have a more variable impact. At present, there are very few child headed households, but this constitutes a risk in the longer term. Conclusions: Orphans appear to be more vulnerable in terms of material need. Children assessed in this study as being most in need were not accessing adequately many services directed at them. There is a need to extend understanding and measurement of emotional need and abuse.

  5. Comparison of PCDD/Fs levels and profiles in leachates from ''new'' and ''old'' municipal landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudzinska, M.; Czerwinski, J.; Rut, B. [Lublin Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Although the presence of PCDD/Fs in landfill leachates has been confirmed, not many experiments have been undertaken in this area, probably because of a very low solubility of PCDD/Fs in water. Modern, properly designed landfills should secure (seal) all deposited wastes and possible leakings within the damp. Leachates are collected and treated on the site or transported to a wastewater treatment plant, so they should not cause a release of any pollutants into the soil or groundwater. But PCDD/Fs as well as a number of chlorinated compounds, which may act as precursors of dioxins under aerobic or anaerobic conditions have been identified as trace contaminants in municipal wastes. The formation of dioxins during municipal waste deposition has not been studied, contrary to the formation of OCDD from precursors under aerobic conditions during composting of waste or treatment of sewage sludge5. Some information about the possible dioxin formation during landfilling might be obtained from the comparison of PCDD/F levels in the leachates from ''old - closed'' and ''new'' sites.

  6. Levels and trends of PCDD/Fs in human blood and milk of residents in the vicinity of a modern municipal solid waste incinerator near to Lisbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, C.; M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Aguiar, P. [National School of Public Health, New Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    Possible health hazard from human exposure to municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator emissions, which can include chlorinated persistent organic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs), is of great public concern. The needed rigorous control of these emissions should be reflected by not different time trends in the PCDD/Fs levels of both the populations residing in the vicinity of incinerators and others selected as control, similar in socio-demographic and other factors potentially influencing those levels. To check the possibility of enhanced body burdens due to MSW emissions, well-designed studies have to be performed to determine human exposure to PCDD/Fs over time. Biological (human) monitoring of these chemicals has several advantages over environmental monitoring, since it is able to measure human body burden and accounts for exposure from all sources, environmental pathways and routes of absorption. However, it is practically unable to identify specific sources, routes and pathways, important issues for risk management purposes. Since 1999, a modern municipal solid waste incinerator is operating in the Metropolitan Area of North-Lisbon, Portugal. In order to get a reliable data basis on the body burden of PCDD/Fs in the population residing in the vicinity of the plant, susceptible of identifying time trends and possible regional differences, a biomonitoring program was implemented in the ambit of the VALORSUL Environmental Health Survey, referred elsewhere. The present paper describes results of this biomonitoring program, which includes repeated cross-sectional studies and, as much as possible, regular examinations of blood and breast milk samples, to determine PCDD/F levels.

  7. Detailed description of an SSAC at the facility level for research laboratory facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of a system for the accounting for and control of nuclear material in a research laboratory facility which can be used by a facility operator to establish his own system to comply with a national system for nuclear material accounting and control and to facilitate application of IAEA safeguards. The scope of this document is limited to descriptions of the following SSAC elements: (1) Nuclear Material Measurements; (2) Measurement Quality; (3) Records and Reports; (4) Physical Inventory Taking; (5) Material Balance Closing

  8. Detailed description of an SSAC at the facility level for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of a system for the accounting for and control of nuclear material in a research reactor facility which can be used by a facility operator to establish his own system to comply with a national system for nuclear material accounting and control and to facilitate application of IAEA safeguards. The scope of this document is limited to descriptions of the following SSAC elements: (1) Nuclear Material Measurements; (2) Measurement Quality; (3) Records and Reports; (4) Physical Inventory Taking; (5) Material Balance Closing

  9. Detailed description of an SSAC at the facility level for mixed oxide fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of a system for the accounting for and control of nuclear material in a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility which can be used by a facility operator to establish his own system to comply with a national system for nuclear material accounting and control and to facilitate application of IAEA safeguards. The scope of this document is limited to descriptions of the following SSAC elements: (1) Nuclear Material Measurements; (2) Measurement Quality; (3) Records and Reports; (4) Physical Inventory Taking; (5) Material Balance Closing

  10. Detailed description of a state system for accounting for and control of nuclear material at the state level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1985-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of the technical elements of a system for the accounting for and control of nuclear material at the State Authority level which can be used by a state in the establishment of a national system for nuclear material accounting and control. It is expected that a state system designed along the lines described also will assist the IAEA in carrying out its safeguards responsibilities. The scope of this document is limited to descriptions of the technical elements of a state level system concerned with Laws and Regulations, the Information System, and the Establishment of Requirements for Nuclear Material Accounting and Control. The discussion shows the relationship of these technical elements at the state level to the principal elements of an SSAC at the facility levels

  11. Generic packet descriptions : Verified Parsing and Pretty Printing of Low-Level Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geest, Marcell; Swierstra, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    Complex protocols describing the communication or storage of binary data are difficult to describe precisely. This paper presents a collection of data types for describing a binary data formats; the corresponding parser and pretty printer are generated automatically from a data description. By

  12. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML Level 1 Version 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmann Frank T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The number, size and complexity of computational models of biological systems are growing at an ever increasing pace. It is imperative to build on existing studies by reusing and adapting existing models and parts thereof. The description of the structure of models is not sufficient to enable the reproduction of simulation results. One also needs to describe the procedures the models are subjected to, as recommended by the Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE guidelines.

  13. Level of habitual physical activity and behaviors related to the health of bank clerks of the municipal district of Ipiaú - BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Sindra Virtuoso Júnior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study left of the interest in researching on one of the more affected workers' groups for the modifications that it is happening in the world of the work. Starting from this, the objective was to identify as the behaviors related to the health (smoking, consumption of alcoholic drink, stress level, alimentary habits they are related with the level of those workers' habitual physical activity. The sample selected by convenience it was composed of 30 workers bank clerks of the municipal district of Ipiaú-BA, with the average of 42,6 year-old age (DP=10,5, being 20 women and 10 men. For collection of the information an interview was used, applied in an individual way in the interviewee's home. The results indicated that most of the interviewees was classified as physically assets (average of 23,6 METs diaries and with behaviors related to the health inside of the parameters recommended to the health, and of the analyzed variables, only the alimentary habits were associated as the level of habitual physical activity (2=6,16 p=0,01. It is necessary that the information the about of such a problem they continue being transmitted to several population groups, besides to the bank workers for these are motivated always to obtain and to maintain healthy lifestyles.

  14. LEVEL OF HABITUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND BEHAVIORS RELATED TO THE HEALTH OF BANK CLERKS OF THE MUNICIPAL DISTRICT OF IPIAÚ - BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malú Oliveira Freire

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study left of the interest in researching on one of the more affected workers' groups for the modifications that it is happening in the world of the work. Starting from this, the objective was to identify as the behaviors related to the health (smoking, consumption of alcoholic drink, stress level, alimentary habits they are related with the level of those workers' habitual physical activity. The sample selected by convenience it was composed of 30 workers bank clerks of the municipal district of Ipiaú-BA, with the average of 42,6 year-old age (DP=10,5, being 20 women and 10 men. For collection of the information an interview was used, applied in an individual way in the interviewee's home. The results indicated that most of the interviewees was classified as physically assets (average of 23,6 METs diaries and with behaviors related to the health inside of the parameters recommended to the health, and of the analyzed variables, only the alimentary habits were associated as the level of habitual physical activity (χ 2 =6,16 p=0,01. It is necessary that the information the about of such a problem they continue being transmitted to several population groups, besides to the bank workers for these are motivated always to obtain and to maintain healthy lifestyles.

  15. Sociological survey in a municipality with a high level separate collection programme in an area of historic unpopularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Feo, Giovanni, E-mail: g.defeo@unisa.it

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Behaviours, opinions and knowledge of citizens on MSW management were investigated. • The knowledge level was better than that of nearby university students and citizens. • The higher the education level, the greater the level of knowledge was. • The local authority showed a leading role in terms of waste management. • Trust is the key to any social program success including waste management programs. - Abstract: Behaviours, opinions and knowledge of citizens on MSW and separate collection were investigated in the city of Mercato San Severino (about 22,000 people), in the Campania region of Southern Italy that is an area suffering from a serious solid waste emergency that has lasted over 17 years due to the absence of treatment facilities. The image of heaps of rubbish in the streets of Naples and other nearby cities is only one side of the coin. Mercato San Severino has adopted an effective kerbside collection system since 2001 and a pay-as-you-throw program during 2005, guaranteeing more than the minimum level of recycling required by the Italian legislation. Structured questionnaires were administered to a sample of 500 people in 2010. Chi-square tests of independence were applied to state whether the differences were statistically significant (5%). About 90% of the sample stated that the success of the separate collection program was due to either the citizens and local authority or only the local authority, highlighting the leading role of the local authority and confirming that trust is the key to any social program success. The registered level of knowledge was better than that of nearby university students and citizens. The higher the education level, the greater the level of knowledge was.

  16. Sociological survey in a municipality with a high level separate collection programme in an area of historic unpopularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Feo, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Behaviours, opinions and knowledge of citizens on MSW management were investigated. • The knowledge level was better than that of nearby university students and citizens. • The higher the education level, the greater the level of knowledge was. • The local authority showed a leading role in terms of waste management. • Trust is the key to any social program success including waste management programs. - Abstract: Behaviours, opinions and knowledge of citizens on MSW and separate collection were investigated in the city of Mercato San Severino (about 22,000 people), in the Campania region of Southern Italy that is an area suffering from a serious solid waste emergency that has lasted over 17 years due to the absence of treatment facilities. The image of heaps of rubbish in the streets of Naples and other nearby cities is only one side of the coin. Mercato San Severino has adopted an effective kerbside collection system since 2001 and a pay-as-you-throw program during 2005, guaranteeing more than the minimum level of recycling required by the Italian legislation. Structured questionnaires were administered to a sample of 500 people in 2010. Chi-square tests of independence were applied to state whether the differences were statistically significant (5%). About 90% of the sample stated that the success of the separate collection program was due to either the citizens and local authority or only the local authority, highlighting the leading role of the local authority and confirming that trust is the key to any social program success. The registered level of knowledge was better than that of nearby university students and citizens. The higher the education level, the greater the level of knowledge was

  17. Motivations for Local Climate Adaptation in Dutch Municipalities: Climate Change Impacts and the Role of Local-Level Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Maya Marieke

    2009-01-01

    The local government level is considered to be crucial in preparing society for climate change impact. Yet little is known about why local authorities do or do not take action to adapt their community for climate change impacts. In order to implement effective adaptation policy, the motivations for

  18. NMR paves the way for atomic level descriptions of sparsely populated, transiently formed biomolecular conformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Ashok; Kay, Lewis E

    2013-08-06

    The importance of dynamics to biomolecular function is becoming increasingly clear. A description of the structure-function relationship must, therefore, include the role of motion, requiring a shift in paradigm from focus on a single static 3D picture to one where a given biomolecule is considered in terms of an ensemble of interconverting conformers, each with potentially diverse activities. In this Perspective, we describe how recent developments in solution NMR spectroscopy facilitate atomic resolution studies of sparsely populated, transiently formed biomolecular conformations that exchange with the native state. Examples of how this methodology is applied to protein folding and misfolding, ligand binding, and molecular recognition are provided as a means of illustrating both the power of the new techniques and the significant roles that conformationally excited protein states play in biology.

  19. The Processing Speed of Scene Categorization at Multiple Levels of Description: The Superordinate Advantage Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Hayaki; Saiki, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have sought to determine which levels of categories are processed first in visual scene categorization and have shown that the natural and man-made superordinate-level categories are understood faster than are basic-level categories. The current study examined the robustness of the superordinate-level advantage in a visual scene categorization task. A go/no-go categorization task was evaluated with response time distribution analysis using an ex-Gaussian template. A visual scene was categorized as either superordinate or basic level, and two basic-level categories forming a superordinate category were judged as either similar or dissimilar to each other. First, outdoor/ indoor groups and natural/man-made were used as superordinate categories to investigate whether the advantage could be generalized beyond the natural/man-made boundary. Second, a set of images forming a superordinate category was manipulated. We predicted that decreasing image set similarity within the superordinate-level category would work against the speed advantage. We found that basic-level categorization was faster than outdoor/indoor categorization when the outdoor category comprised dissimilar basic-level categories. Our results indicate that the superordinate-level advantage in visual scene categorization is labile across different categories and category structures. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  20. The role of the peer review process in the clean up of low-level and historic radioactive waste in the municipalities of Port Hope and Clarington, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Haydari, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the role of the Municipal Peer Review Team (MPRT) for the Municipalities of Port Hope (Port Hope Project) and Clarington (Port Granby Project) for the clean-up of low level and historic radioactive waste. The purpose of the MPRT is to provide the municipalities with a team of experts to help assist their participation in the cleanup process. The peer review process has enabled the Municipalities of Port Hope and Clarington to participate in the decision-making processes as equal parties with the Port Hope Area Initiative Management Office and the Regulatory Authorities. Furthermore, the peer review process has stressed the need for a proactive management approach for low-level radioactive waste and marginally contaminated soil clean-ups. With the work of the MPRT, the Port Hope Project has been granted a facility licence (August, 2009). Both Projects have completed the detailed design phase, where the MPRT played a major role in the review of design documentation. The MPRT has developed an excellent working relationship with the Municipal staff and Mayors of Port Hope and Clarington. The MPRT effectively manages the 'people aspects' of the Port Hope and Port Granby Projects for the municipalities and assists in building transparency and trust in all Project activities. Collaborative, multi-disciplinary dialogue has been a key element to project success. Furthermore, the MPRT has become familiar with the local residents from attending community events and public meetings and has become a trusted source on all things Project related. (author)

  1. Transparency of the municipal public management: a study from the homepages of the large Brazilian municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Cláudia Ferreira; Ferreira, Aracéli Cristina de Sousa; Silva, Lino Martins da; Macedo, Marcelo Álvaro da Silva

    2012-01-01

    This study attempts to check the transparency level of information in public administration published in the homepages of 96 municipalities included among the 100 most populous in Brazil and what characteristics and socioeconomic indicators of the municipalities can contribute to explain the level of transparency observed. The level of transparency in public administration was established from a research model called Transparency Index Municipal Public Management (ITGP-M) constructed based on...

  2. Microscopic description of average level spacing in even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huong, Le Thi Quynh; Hung, Nguyen Quang; Phuc, Le Tan

    2017-01-01

    A microscopic theoretical approach to the average level spacing at the neutron binding energy in even-even nuclei is proposed. The approach is derived based on the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory at finite temperature and projection M of the total angular momentum J , which is often used to describe the superfluid properties of hot rotating nuclei. The exact relation of the J -dependent total level density to the M -dependent state densities, based on which the average level spacing is calculated, was employed. The numerical calculations carried out for several even-even nuclei have shown that in order to reproduce the experimental average level spacing, the M -dependent pairing gaps as well as the exact relation of the J -dependent total level density formula should be simultaneously used. (paper)

  3. Accurate description of phase diagram of clathrate hydrates on molecular level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belosludov, V.; Subbotin, O. [Niklaev Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science; Belosludov, R.; Mizuseki, H.; Kawazoe, Y. [Tohoku Univ., Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research

    2008-07-01

    A number of experimental and theoretical studies of hydrogen hydrates have been conducted using different methods. In order to accurately estimate the thermodynamic properties of clathrate hydrates that multiply filling the cages, this paper presented a method based on the solid solution theory of van der Waals and Platteeuw with several modifications, including multiple occupancies, host relaxation, and the description of the quantum nature of hydrogen behavior in the cavities. The validity of the proposed approach was verified for argon, methane, and xenon hydrates. The results were in agreement with known experimental data. The model was then used to calculate the curves of monovariant three-phase equilibrium gas-hydrate-ice and the degree of filling of the large and small cavities for pure hydrogen and mixed hydrogen/propane hydrates in a wide range of pressure and at low temperatures. The paper presented the theory, including equations, monovariant equilibria, and computational details. It was concluded that the proposed model accounted for the influence of guest molecules on the host lattice and guest-guest interaction. The model could be used with other inclusion compounds with the same type of composition such as clathrate silicon, zeolites, and inclusion compounds of semiconductor elements. The calculated curves of monovariant equilibrium agree with the experiment. 33 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  4. Estrogenic activity, chemical levels and health risk assessment of municipal distribution point water from Pretoria and Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zijl, Magdalena Catherina; Aneck-Hahn, Natalie Hildegard; Swart, Pieter; Hayward, Stefan; Genthe, Bettina; De Jager, Christiaan

    2017-11-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are ubiquitous in the environment and have been detected in drinking water from various countries. Although various water treatment processes can remove EDCs, chemicals can also migrate from pipes that transport water and contaminate drinking water. This study investigated the estrogenic activity in drinking water from various distribution points in Pretoria (City of Tshwane) (n = 40) and Cape Town (n = 40), South Africa, using the recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the T47D-KBluc reporter gene assay. The samples were collected seasonally over four sampling periods. The samples were also analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononylphthalate (DINP), 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), estrone (E 1 ) and ethynylestradiol (EE 2 ) using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrophotometry (UPLC-MS/MS). This was followed by a scenario based health risk assessment to assess the carcinogenic and toxic human health risks associated with the consumption of distribution point water. None of the water extracts from the distribution points were above the detection limit in the YES bioassay, but the EEq values ranged from 0.002 to 0.114 ng/L using the T47D-KBluc bioassay. BPA, DEHA, DBP, DEHP, DINP E 1 , E 2, and EE 2 were detected in distribution point water samples. NP was below the detection limit for all the samples. The estrogenic activity and levels of target chemicals were comparable to the levels found in other countries. Overall the health risk assessment revealed acceptable health and carcinogenic risks associated with the consumption of distribution point water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Beyond the knowledge level : descriptions of rational behavior for sharing and reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Schmalhofer, Franz; Aitken, J. Stuart; Bourne, Lyle E.

    1994-01-01

    The currently dominant approach to the sharing and reuse of knowledge strives to develop ontologies, with clearly constrained interpretations. The idea of ontological commitments is based on the knowledge level perspective. Several shortcomings of the knowledge level have been identified (Clancey, 1991). Pursuing Clancey's argument, if KBS are to be situated in ever changing environments, their purposes and significance will change over time and they have to be redescribed accordingly. The be...

  6. Code Description for Generation of Meteorological Height and Pressure Level and Layer Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    defined by user input height or pressure levels. It can process input profiles from sensing systems such as radiosonde, lidar, or wind profiling radar...routine may be required for different input types and formats. meteorological sounding interpolation , integrated mean layer values, US Army Research...or other radiosonde soundings. There are 2 main versions or “methods” that produce output in height- or pressure-based profiles of interpolated level

  7. Brasov people’s fears after EU accession. Study carried out at the level of Brasov Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu COMAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of a wider research, a compared type based sociological survey using the questionnaire, applied in Brasov during January 2010 and June 2010: "Effects of the EU integration perceived at the level of Brasov community and its implications on life quality and styles." By trying to explain precisely these effects of European integration (as research objective it was found that, in the scientific literature, the subject of the EU integration effort was oriented by means of the utilitarian theory (Gabel, 1998. Other international studies have also put in evidence that public opinion on EU integration matters, is determined by economic considerations and personal calculations such as cost-benefit (Anderson, 1995; Eichenberg and Dalton, 1993; Gabel, 1998. Using secondary analysis of the 2010 database and by following the proposed model of Ioan Mărginean, Iuliana PrecupeŃu and Ana Maria Preoteasa (2004 regarding the development of a measurement model of the post-accession EU fears, adapted to the Brasov realities and based on three dimensions (the sphere of private life, the sphere of social life and the relationship between the individual and the society, the statistical analysis provides new clues upon the types, the categories and the attitudinal fears profiles found in Brasov and their correlation with a new global factor - the economic crisis.

  8. A spatial and seasonal description of return-levels for the Berlin-Brandenburg region (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Madlen; Rust, Henning W.; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events have a strong impact on the environment, society and economy. Besides the direct effect, e.g. damage due to hail, extreme precipitation can cause flood events, mudslides and increased erosion, which in turn lead to serious damage. Typically, return levels derived from annual maxima of daily precipitation sums are used for the design of hydraulic structures or for risk assessment in insurance companies. Seasonally or monthly resolved return levels are rarely considered, although they provide additional information: the higher temporal resolution can be beneficial for risk management, e.g. for agriculture or tourism sector. In addition, annual return levels derived from monthly maxima offer lower uncertainties, since a larger data basis are used for estimation. Here, the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) is used to calculate monthly resolved return levels for 323 stations in the region Berlin-Brandenburg (Germany). Instead of estimating the parameters of the GEV for each month separately, the seasonal variation is captured by harmonic functions. This natural approach is particularly suitable for an efficient characterization of the seasonal variation of extreme precipitation. In a first step, a statistical model is developed for each station separately to estimate the monthly return levels. Besides the seasonal smoothness, also smoothness in space is exploited here. We use functions of longitude, latitude and altitude to describe the spatial variation of GEV parameters in the second step. Thus, uncertainty is reduced at gauges with short time series and estimates for ungauged sites can be obtained in a meaningful way.

  9. Process description and plant design for preparing ceramic high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKisson, R.L.; Guon, J.; Flintoff, J.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The ceramics process flow diagram has been simplified and upgraded to utilize only two major processing steps - fluid-bed calcination and hot isostatic press consolidating. Full-scale fluid-bed calcination has been used at INEL to calcine high-level waste for 18 y; and a second-generation calciner, a fully remotely operated and maintained calciner that meets ALARA guidelines, started calcining high-level waste in 1982. Full-scale hot isostatic consolidation has been used by DOE and commercial enterprises to consolidate radioactive components and to encapsulate spent fuel elements for several years. With further development aimed at process integration and parametric optimization, the operating knowledge of full-scale demonstration of the key process steps should be rapidly adaptable to scale-up of the ceramic process to full plant size. Process flowsheets used to prepare ceramic and glass waste forms from defense and commercial high-level liquid waste are described. Preliminary layouts of process flow diagrams in a high-level processing canyon were prepared and used to estimate the preliminary cost of the plant to fabricate both waste forms. The estimated costs for using both options were compared for total waste management costs of SRP high-level liquid waste. Using our design, for both the ceramic and glass plant, capital and operating costs are essentially the same for both defense and commercial wastes, but total waste management costs are calculated to be significantly less for defense wastes using the ceramic option. It is concluded from this and other studies that the ceramic form may offer important advantages over glass in leach resistance, waste loading, density, and process flexibility. Preliminary economic calculations indicate that ceramics must be considered a leading candidate for the form to immobilize high-level wastes

  10. Effective description of general extensions of the Standard Model: the complete tree-level dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blas, J.; Criado, J. C.; Pérez-Victoria, M.; Santiago, J.

    2018-03-01

    We compute all the tree-level contributions to the Wilson coefficients of the dimension-six Standard-Model effective theory in ultraviolet completions with general scalar, spinor and vector field content and arbitrary interactions. No assumption about the renormalizability of the high-energy theory is made. This provides a complete ultraviolet/infrared dictionary at the classical level, which can be used to study the low-energy implications of any model of interest, and also to look for explicit completions consistent with low-energy data.

  11. Assessment the Relationship between Parents' Literacy Level with Children Growth in Mashhad: An Analytic Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saeidi

    2014-04-01

    Results: Presentfindings showed a significant relationship between literacy  level of parents with child growth status, breast feeding rate, junk food consumption, referring to health care center for growth monitoring, the age of initiating supplementary nutrition, the use of oil and butter in baby food and rate of attending in educational classes. So that higher literacy  level of parents was associated with using more formula, less junk food, oil and butter in baby's food and more referring times to health care center for monitoring child growth, desirable growth, and  also initiating supplementary food more at the assigned time (P

  12. SuperPixel based mid-level image description for image recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasli, H.E.; Sicre, R.; Gevers, T.

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a mid-level feature descriptor and aims to validate improvement on image classification and retrieval tasks. In this paper, we propose a method to explore the conventional feature extraction techniques in the image classification pipeline from a different perspective where

  13. High-level intuitive features (HLIFs) for intuitive skin lesion description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelard, Robert; Glaister, Jeffrey; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A

    2015-03-01

    A set of high-level intuitive features (HLIFs) is proposed to quantitatively describe melanoma in standard camera images. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. With rising incidence rates and subjectivity in current clinical detection methods, there is a need for melanoma decision support systems. Feature extraction is a critical step in melanoma decision support systems. Existing feature sets for analyzing standard camera images are comprised of low-level features, which exist in high-dimensional feature spaces and limit the system's ability to convey intuitive diagnostic rationale. The proposed HLIFs were designed to model the ABCD criteria commonly used by dermatologists such that each HLIF represents a human-observable characteristic. As such, intuitive diagnostic rationale can be conveyed to the user. Experimental results show that concatenating the proposed HLIFs with a full low-level feature set increased classification accuracy, and that HLIFs were able to separate the data better than low-level features with statistical significance. An example of a graphical interface for providing intuitive rationale is given.

  14. Descriptions of health states associated with increasing severity and frequency of hypoglycemia: a patient-level perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris SB

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Stewart B Harris,1 Kamlesh Khunti,2 Mona Landin-Olsson,3 Claus B Galbo-Jørgensen,4 Mette Bøgelund,4 Barrie Chubb,5 Jens Gundgaard,6 Marc Evans71Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada; 2Diabetes Research Unit, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK; 3Department of Medicine, Helsingborg Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 4Incentive, Holte Stationsvej, Holte, Denmark; 5EU Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Novo Nordisk Ltd, Crawley, UK; 6Health Economics and HTA, Novo Nordisk A/S, Søborg, Denmark; 7Department of Diabetes, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff, UKAims: We sought to develop descriptions of health states associated with daytime and nocturnal hypoglycemia in a structured fashion from the patient's perspective under different combinations of severity and frequency of hypoglycemic events.Methods: An expert meeting followed by two patient focus groups was used to develop comprehensive descriptions of acute consequences of severe and non-severe, daytime and nocturnal hypoglycemia. Patients with diabetes (type 1 = 85, type 2 = 162 from a survey panel then validated these descriptions and assessed how often they worried and took different actions to prevent hypoglycemia. Severity and frequency of hypoglycemia were compared with respect to how often people worried and took actions to prevent an event. The effect of hypoglycemia on 35 different life activities was quantitatively compared for patients who had and had not experienced a severe hypoglycemic event.Results: At least 95% of respondents agreed that the detailed patient-level descriptions of health states accurately reflected their experience of severe and non-severe, daytime and nocturnal hypoglycemia, thereby validating these descriptions. Respondents who had experienced a severe hypoglycemic event were generally more adversely affected in their worries and actions and life events than those who experienced only non

  15. Kinematic Description of Elite Vs. Low Level Players in Team-Handball Jump Throw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Herbert; Buchecker, Michael; von Duvillard, Serge P.; Müller, Erich

    2010-01-01

    The jump throw is the most applied throwing technique in team- handball (Wagner et al., 2008); however, a comprehensive analysis of 3D-kinematics of the team-handball jump throw is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of our study was: 1) to measure differences in ball release speed in team- handball jump throw and anthropometric parameters between groups of different levels of performance and (2) to analyze upper body 3D-kinematics (flexion/extension and rotation) to determine significant differences between these groups. Three-dimensional kinematic data was analyzed via the Vicon MX 13 motion capturing system (Vicon Peak, Oxford, UK) from 26 male team-handball players of different performance levels (mean age: 21.2 ± 5.0 years). The participants were instructed to throw the ball (IHF Size 3) onto a target at 8 m distance, and to hit the center of a square of 1 × 1 m at about eye level (1.75 m), with maximum ball release speed. Significant differences between elite vs. low level players were found in the ball release speed (p handball players who were taller and of greater body weight have the ability to achieve a higher ball release speed in the jump throw, and that an increase in trunk flexion and rotation angular velocity improve the performance in team-handball jump throw that should result in an increase of ball release speed. Key points Team-handball players who were taller and of greater body weight have the ability to achieve a higher ball release speed. An increase in trunk flexion, trunk rotation and shoulder internal rotation angular velocity should result in an increase of ball release speed. Trunk movements are normally well observable for experienced coaches, easy correctable and therefore practical to improve the performance in team-handball jump throw of low level players during training without using complex measurement devices. PMID:24149381

  16. Automation in the Teaching of Descriptive Geometry and CAD. High-Level CAD Templates Using Script Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, R.; Bazán, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of this work is to study improvements to the learning method of technical drawing and descriptive geometry through exercises with traditional techniques that are usually solved manually by applying automated processes assisted by high-level CAD templates (HLCts). Given that an exercise with traditional procedures can be solved, detailed step by step in technical drawing and descriptive geometry manuals, CAD applications allow us to do the same and generalize it later, incorporating references. Traditional teachings have become obsolete and current curricula have been relegated. However, they can be applied in certain automation processes. The use of geometric references (using variables in script languages) and their incorporation into HLCts allows the automation of drawing processes. Instead of repeatedly creating similar exercises or modifying data in the same exercises, users should be able to use HLCts to generate future modifications of these exercises. This paper introduces the automation process when generating exercises based on CAD script files, aided by parametric geometry calculation tools. The proposed method allows us to design new exercises without user intervention. The integration of CAD, mathematics, and descriptive geometry facilitates their joint learning. Automation in the generation of exercises not only saves time but also increases the quality of the statements and reduces the possibility of human error.

  17. The choice of the optimum terms for semi-empirical description of s-wave neutron resonance level densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczmarczyk, Maria; Lason, Lech [Division of Nuclear Physics, University of Lodz, ul Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a function describing the dependence of the neutron resonance level density {rho} on the neutron number N in the target nucleus. The function describes quite well, with an accuracy of one order, the experimental data for 284 nuclides. Moreover, it adequately describes the general tendency and shell model effects for magic nuclei and for nuclei close to magic ones. The achieved agreement between the values obtained from the proposed description and the experimental data {rho}{sub exp} can be improved if the {rho}{sub exp} values are normalized energetically and reduced to a narrow range of angular momentum J.

  18. Multi-Level Simulated Fault Injection for Data Dependent Reliability Analysis of RTL Circuit Descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIMARA, S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes data-dependent reliability evaluation methodology for digital systems described at Register Transfer Level (RTL. It uses a hybrid hierarchical approach, combining the accuracy provided by Gate Level (GL Simulated Fault Injection (SFI and the low simulation overhead required by RTL fault injection. The methodology comprises the following steps: the correct simulation of the RTL system, according to a set of input vectors, hierarchical decomposition of the system into basic RTL blocks, logic synthesis of basic RTL blocks, data-dependent SFI for the GL netlists, and RTL SFI. The proposed methodology has been validated in terms of accuracy on a medium sized circuit – the parallel comparator used in Check Node Unit (CNU of the Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC decoders. The methodology has been applied for the reliability analysis of a 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES crypto-core, for which the GL simulation was prohibitive in terms of required computational resources.

  19. Preparing medical students for obstetrics and gynecology milestone level one: a description of a pilot curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Morgan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The implementation of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME Milestones in the field of obstetrics and gynecology has arrived with Milestones Level One defined as the level expected of an incoming first-year resident. Purpose: We designed, implemented, and evaluated a 4-week elective for fourth-year medical school students, which utilized a multimodal approach to teaching and assessing the Milestones Level One competencies. Methods: The 78-hour curriculum utilized traditional didactic lectures, flipped classroom active learning sessions, a simulated paging curriculum, simulation training, embalmed cadaver anatomical dissections, and fresh-frozen cadaver operative procedures. We performed an assessment of student knowledge and surgical skills before and after completion of the course. Students also received feedback on their assessment and management of eight simulated paging scenarios. Students completed course content satisfaction surveys at the completion of each of the 4 weeks. Results: Students demonstrated improvement in knowledge and surgical skills at the completion of the course. Paging confidence trended toward improvement at the completion of the course. Student satisfaction was high for all of the course content, and the active learning components of the curriculum (flipped classroom, simulation, and anatomy sessions had higher scores than the traditional didactics in all six categories of our student satisfaction survey. Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrates a practical approach for preparing fourth-year medical students for the expectations of Milestones Level One in obstetrics and gynecology. This curriculum can serve as a framework as medical schools and specific specialties work to meet the first steps of the ACGME's Next Accreditation System.

  20. Effect of different levels of municipal solid waste compost and nitrogen on some grain elements concentration of sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata and some soil properties under Marvdasht conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mojab Ghasrodashti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in order to study the influence of different levels of municipal solid waste compost and nitrogen rate on grain quality of sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata and some soil properties under Marvdasht conditions during growing season of 2008-2009. The experiment was arranged as split plots based on a randomized complete block design with two factors and three replications. Main plot included five levels of nitrogen fertilizer (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg N.ha-1 and sub plots included four levels of municipal solid waste compost (10, 20, 30 and 40 t.ha-1. The Results showed that the highest fresh ear and grain yield resulted from application of 200 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 compost. The grain quality analysis showed that nitrogen had significant effect on grain nitrogen percent and had not significant effect on grain phosphorus and nitrogen content. Also, compost had significant effect on grain nitrogen and phosphorus percent but had no significant effect on grain potassium percent. Soil analysis results showed that effect of compost on organic matter, EC and pH and interactions between nitrogen and compost were significant only on soil nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus percent. Nitrogen had no significant effect only on soil nitrogen percent. Also, the results showed that optimum amount of grain nitrogen and phosphorus percent were gained by using 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost and optimum amount of grain potassium percent was achieved by using 30 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost. Application of 250 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost consequences to optimum amount of soil nitrogen and potassium was gained and optimum amount of soil phosphorus was gained in 150 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost treatments. In general, to achieve the optimum growth of this crop in similar soils, application of 250 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost treatments could

  1. Baseline levels of bioaerosols and volatile organic compounds around a municipal waste incinerator prior to the construction of a mechanical-biological treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Marti; Inza, Isabel; Figueras, Maria J.; Domingo, Jose L.

    2009-01-01

    New waste management programs are currently aimed at developing alternative treatment technologies such as mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) and composting plants. However, there is still a high uncertainty concerning the chemical and microbiological risks for human health, not only for workers of these facilities, but also for the population living in the neighborhood. A new MBT plant is planned to be constructed adjacently to a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). In order to evaluate its potential impact and to differentiate the impacts of MSWI from those of the MBT when the latter is operative, a pre-operational survey was initiated by determining the concentrations of 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols (total bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and Aspergillus fumigatus) in airborne samples around the MSWI. The results indicated that the current concentrations of bioaerosols (ranges: 382-3882, 18-790, 44-926, and 3 for fungi at 25 deg. C, fungi at 37 deg. C, total bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively) and VOCs (ranging from 0.9 to 121.2 μg/m 3 ) are very low in comparison to reported levels in indoor and outdoor air in composting and MBT plants, as well in urban and industrial zones. With the exception of total bacteria, no correlations were observed between the environmental concentrations of biological agents and the direction/distance from the facility. However, total bacteria presented significantly higher levels downwind. Moreover, a non-significant increase of VOCs was detected in sites closer to the incinerator, which means that the MSWI could have a very minor impact on the surrounding environment.

  2. Description of a ceramic waste form and canister for Savannah River Plant high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.L.; Allender, J.S.; Gould, T.H. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    A canistered ceramic waste form for possible immobilization of Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level radioactive wastes is described. Characteristics reported for the form include waste loading, chemical composition, heat content, isotope inventory, mechanical and thermal properties, and leach rates. A conceptual design of a potential production process for making this canistered form are also described. The ceramic form was selected in November 1981 as the primary alternative to the reference waste form, borosilicate glass, for making a final waste form decision for SRP waste by FY-1983. 11 tables

  3. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  4. Microscopic description of dissipative dynamics of a level-crossing transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, M.; Militello, B.; Messina, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy); Vitanov, N. V. [Department of Physics, Sofia University, 5 James Bourchier Boulevard, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-08-15

    We analyze the effect of a dissipative bosonic environment on the Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg-Majorana (LZSM) level crossing model by using a microscopic approach to derive the relevant master equation. For an environment at zero temperature and weak dissipation, our microscopic approach confirms the independence of the survival probability on the decay rate that has been predicted earlier by the simple phenomenological LZSM model. For strong decay the microscopic approach predicts a notable increase of the survival probability, which signals dynamical decoupling of the initial state. Unlike the phenomenological model, our approach makes it possible to study the dependence of the system dynamics on the temperature of the environment. In the limit of very high temperature we find that the dynamics is characterized by a very strong dynamical decoupling of the initial state--the temperature-induced quantum Zeno effect.

  5. GELCOM: a geothermal levelized busbar cost model. Description and user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, J.N.; Leigh, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The model described is designed to project the costs of electricity generated from liquid dominated hydrothermal resources. It is presented in the form of an interactive computer program called GELCOM, written in Fortran IV, together with an analytic explanation of the methodology. GELCOM starts from resource data and estimates the capital and operating costs for the production field and electrical generating plant. The methodology implemented in GELCOM to determine the engineering cost, operating parameter estimates, and the levelized busbar cost is described. The output displayed by GELCOM for one prospect is explained. The input data files maintained in the computer system and the input data card formats are included. A sample session with GELCOM and the economic reports which may be generated from the GELCOM are illustrated. A completed listing of the computer program is given in an appendix. (MHR)

  6. A descriptive study of noise in the neonatal intensive care unit: ambient levels and perceptions of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Ashley E; Hancock, Lauren E; Ware, Emily J

    2008-10-01

    To examine the baseline acoustic environment in several mid-Atlantic region neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and investigate the perceived factors contributing to noise levels in these NICUs. Quantitative data were collected from 3 urban, mid-Atlantic level IIIB and level IIIC NICUs. Qualitative data were collected via interview from 2 RNs employed in each of the study NICUs. This was an exploratory descriptive study utilizing a mixed-methods approach. A quantitative method was used for sound-level data collection, and a qualitative method was utilized during interviews with nurses to examine perceptions of factors contributing to noise. Ambient sound levels, measured in decibels, were taken at 5-minute intervals over a 2-hour period during both day and night shifts in a central location at each NICU. In addition, nurses were interviewed using a standardized interview questionnaire, and these interviews were then reviewed to determine themes regarding perceived factors contributing to sound levels. Hourly mean sound levels in each NICU ranged from 53.9 dB to 60.6 dB, with no statistically significant difference between noise levels recorded on day shift versus night shift, and no statistically significant difference among sites. Qualitative data showed that nurses' believed day shift to be louder than night shift and many perceived their own NICU as "pretty quiet." Key contributing factors to increased sound levels were stated as monitors or alarms, performing invasive procedures, presence of family, nurses or doctors giving report or rounds, and ringing phones. Noise levels were found to be above the American Academy of Pediatrics-recommended 45-dB level and often louder than the 50-dB level, which should not be exceeded more than 10% of the time. The recommended impulse maximum of 65 dB was also exceeded. Environmental Protection Agency recommendations for hospitals include sound levels no louder than 35 dB on night shift; this standard was also violated

  7. A descriptive study of noise in the neonatal intensive care unit. Ambient levels and perceptions of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Ashley E; Hancock, Lauren E; Ware, Emily J

    2008-06-01

    To examine the baseline acoustic environment in several mid-Atlantic region neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and investigate the perceived factors contributing to noise levels in these NICUs. Quantitative data were collected from 3 urban, mid-Atlantic level IIIB and level IIIC NICUs. Qualitative data were collected via interview from 2 RNs employed in each of the study NICUs. This was an exploratory descriptive study utilizing a mixed-methods approach. A quantitative method was used for sound-level data collection, and a qualitative method was utilized during interviews with nurses to examine perceptions of factors contributing to noise. Ambient sound levels, measured in decibels, were taken at 5-minute intervals over a 2-hour period during both day and night shifts in a central location at each NICU. In addition, nurses were interviewed using a standardized interview questionnaire, and these interviews were then reviewed to determine themes regarding perceived factors contributing to sound levels. Hourly mean sound levels in each NICU ranged from 53.9 dB to 60.6 dB, with no statistically significant difference between noise levels recorded on day shift versus night shift, and no statistically significant difference among sites. Qualitative data showed that nurses' believed day shift to be louder than night shift and many perceived their own NICU as "pretty quiet." Key contributing factors to increased sound levels were stated as monitors or alarms, performing invasive procedures, presence of family, nurses or doctors giving report or rounds, and ringing phones. Noise levels were found to be above the American Academy of Pediatrics--recommended 45-dB level and often louder than the 50-dB level, which should not be exceeded more than 10% of the time. The recommended impulse maximum of 65 dB was also exceeded. Environmental Protection Agency recommendations for hospitals include sound levels no louder than 35 dB on night shift; this standard was also violated

  8. Adaptive municipal electronic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Pieternel; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    Adaptation of electronic forms (e-forms) seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer e-forms online that can be used by citizens to request a municipal product or service or by municipal employees to place a request on behalf of a

  9. Program of Hanford high-level waste retrieval task: a narrative description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallskog, H.A.

    1976-12-01

    The objective of this task is to develop and demonstrate the equipment and methods for the retrieval of high-level radioactive wastes from underground storage tanks at Hanford. The approach will be to continue with engineering studies and the conceptual design in progress and follow on with the engineering design, construction, testing and demonstration of a Prototype Retrieval System. This system will consist of a large, mobile platform providing the support and control of an articulated arm used to remotely position waste recovery/removal tools. Other major components include the equipment needed to bring the material up to the platform for packaging and subsequent transport to a processing facility, and the television viewing and lighting subsystem. This prototype system will be functionally complete and will contain items such as a control center, tool change and maintenance/repair capability, etc. The program includes a complete non-radioactive demonstration of the system in a mock waste tank as well as a radioactive demonstration involving one or more waste tanks

  10. Pressure ulcer prevention in nursing homes: nurse descriptions of individual and organization level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellefield, Mary Ellen; Magnabosco, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Sustaining pressure ulcer prevention (PUP) in nursing homes has been difficult to achieve. Implementation science researchers suggest that identification of individual staff and organizational factors influencing current practices is essential to the development of an effective and customized plan to implement practice changes in a specific setting. A mixed methods approach was used to describe nurses' perceptions of individual and organization-level factors influencing performance of PUP in two Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes prior to implementation of a national VHA initiative on Hospital Acquired Pressure Ulcers (HAPUs). Individual interviews of 16 nursing staff were conducted. Individual factors influencing practice were a personal sense of responsibility to Veterans and belief in the effectiveness and importance of preventive measures. Organizational factors were existence of cooperative practices between nursing assistants and licensed nurses in assessing risk; teamwork, communication, and a commitment to Veterans' well-being. Integration and reinforcement of such factors in the development and maintenance of customized plans of PUP initiatives is recommended. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  11. Assessment of the effect of washing and boiling on the levels of pesticide residues in vegetables cultivated in Akuapem North Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opare-Boafo, Maame Serwa

    2016-07-01

    Vegetables play an important role in human nutrition and health. Pesticides are extensively used by vegetable farmers in crop production and this may contaminate the crop. Traditional method of washing vegetables prior to consumption has been assumed to reduce pesticide residues. The study seeks to assess the effect of washing with various solutions and with boiling on the concentration of pesticide residues in vegetables and to estimate the potential human health risk associated with pesticide ingestion via vegetable diet using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method. Results of the study indicated that the farmers involved in vegetable farming in the Akwapim North Municipality are in the middle age group and use pesticides in their farming activities. Majority (65%) of them have no formal training in pesticide usage and apply pesticides in mixtures made of combinations of up to four (4) pesticides in a single tank mixture. The farmers do not use any protective clothing and stores agrochemicals in multipurpose storage structures together with food containers and farm implements. As a result of pesticide exposure, 67% of farmers experienced various kinds of discomfort including headache, tingling or burning of skin, irritation of eyes or skin. Chloropyrifos residue was the only pesticide residue that gave positive detection in the analysed vegetable samples. The raw (non-spiked) vegetable samples (cabbage, lettuce and squash) had 0.29 mg kg -1 , 0.19 mg kg -1 and 0.14 mg kg -1 of Chloropyrifos residue in cabbage, squash and lettuce respectively. The level of chloropyrifos residues detected in raw cabbage samples from the study area was below the maximum permissible limit (MPLs) of 1 mg/kg (Codex, 2003) but the residues found in raw squash was above the maximum permissible limit of 0.01 mg/kg and that of lettuce was also above the maximum permissible limit (0.05mg/kg). Washing of vegetables vigorously in water for 2 minutes before

  12. The Influence of Quality Assurance and Supportive Supervision on the Quality of Medical Care in Children’s Hospitals of the Municipal Level of the Rostov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Kulichenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Improving the quality of medical care is the absolute priority of the World Health Organization and all socially-oriented ministries and departments around the world.Objective. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of quality  assurance and supportive supervision in municipal hospitals to improve the quality of medical care for children (by the example of the Rostov region.Methods. The open observational study included 10 second-level hospitals in the Rostov Region. At the start of the project, the quality of inpatient care for children in the region was audited based on recommendations and tools of the World Health Organization, and training of medical personnel was organized. Monitoring visits to hospitals were carried out by experts every 3 months (supportive supervision. Reaudit of the quality of care was conducted a year later.Results. As a result of regular quality assurance and supportive supervision of hospitals during the first year of operation, such indicators of the quality of medical care as the availability of medical equipment for emergency care for children, the infrastructure of children’s departments, the triage and provision of emergency care in children’s departments, managing patients with various acute conditions (fever, diarrhea, respiratory diseases, supporting care, internal quality assurance, accessibility to standards of care and clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases, respect for children’s rights were significantly (p < 0.05 improved.Conclusion. Supportive supervision and regular external quality assurances of hospitals contribute to a rapid increase in the quality of medical care for children.

  13. The health risk levels of different age groups of residents living in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerator posed by PCDD/Fs in atmosphere and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiafu; Zhang, Ying; Sun, Tingting; Hao, Huawei; Wu, Hao; Wang, Lili; Chen, Yuxing; Xing, Limin; Niu, Zhiguang

    2018-08-01

    In our study, health risk levels of different age groups of residents living in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) posed by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in atmosphere and soil were evaluated. The toxic equivalent concentrations of PCDD/Fs (TEQ) in surrounding atmosphere and soil of studied MSWI were 0.05-0.12 pg I-TEQ Nm -3 and 7.622-15.450 ng I-TEQ kg -1 , respectively. The PCDFs/PCDDs (F/D) values of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere of studied MSWI ranged from 0.40 to 5.90 with a mean of 1.80, suggesting that the PCDD/Fs mainly came from combustion sources and studied MSWI could be a key source of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere. The F/D ratios of PCDD/Fs in surrounding soil ranged from 0.18 to 1.81 with a mean of 0.90, suggesting combustion is not the mainly sources of PCDD/Fs in surrounding soil, and studied MSWI may have limited influence on PCDD/Fs in surrounding soil. O8CDD and 2,3,4,7,8-P5CDF could be the total PCDD/Fs and TEQ indicators in surrounding atmosphere of studied MSWI, respectively. The carcinogenic risk (CR) values of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere and soil for children, teens and adults were 1.24E-06, 9.06E-07 and 4.41E-06, respectively, suggesting that the potential cancer risk occurred but the risk was at acceptable levels for both children and adults (risk for teens was negligible (risk (non-CR) values of three age groups were lower than 1, indicating that no obvious non-carcinogenic effects occurred. Inhalation of air was the largest contributor of health risk (both CR and non-CR) for three age groups. In addition, a comparison of the health risk between PCDD/Fs and other emerging contaminants and traditional pollutants in soil and atmosphere was performed, which will help us have a good view of the health risk levels of PCDD/Fs in surrounding environment of MWSI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Is there anything like a citizen? A descriptive analysis of instituting a citizen's role to represent social values at the municipal level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soma, K.; Vatn, A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental policy-making can be challenging because of lobbying by strong private interests. This results in less consideration about what is best for the wider community. The main goal of this study is to evaluate to what extent it is possible to institutionalize a citizen's role in

  15. A Basic Accounting of Variation in Municipal Solid-Waste Generation at the County Level in Texas, 2006: Groundwork for Applying Metabolic-Rift Theory to Waste Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Matthew Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Environmental social scientists debate whether or not modern development reduces society's impact on the biosphere. The empirical research informing the discussion has not yet adequately examined the social determinants of municipal solid-waste (MSW) generation, an increasingly relevant issue, both ecologically and sociologically. A primary…

  16. Economic City Branding in China : the Multi-Level Governance of Municipal Self-Promotion in the Greater Pearl River Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, H.; de Jong, W.M.; Chen, Y.

    2017-01-01

    In the urban development policy in China, city brands play an important role in setting targets for Chinese cities. These economic city brands, however, are not produced in an institutional vacuum: they are embedded in the visions national, provincial and municipal governments have for these cities,

  17. Economic city branding in China: the multi-level governance of municipal self-promotion in the greater pearl river Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Lu (Haiyan); M. de Jong (Martin); Y. Chen (Yawei)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn the urban development policy in China, city brands play an important role in setting targets for Chinese cities. These economic city brands, however, are not produced in an institutional vacuum: they are embedded in the visions national, provincial and municipal governments have for

  18. Designing a Municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Ulrik; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

    2014-01-01

    Can a municipality be designed? The municipality Kolding in the southern part of Denmark asked this question. The idea emerged as a response to a recognized need for new ways of branding and developing the municipality. It is an ongoing process that was kicked off in 2012 and this paper is theref......Can a municipality be designed? The municipality Kolding in the southern part of Denmark asked this question. The idea emerged as a response to a recognized need for new ways of branding and developing the municipality. It is an ongoing process that was kicked off in 2012 and this paper...... is therefore focusing primarily on the process of changing the perception of how to organize development in a municipality. The most important elements in transforming the whole development setup are described. Finally, a short case describing one of the significant results is included....

  19. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description for high-level waste form development and qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project has been established to convert the high-level radioactive waste associated with nuclear defense production at the Hanford Site into a waste form suitable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will mix processed radioactive waste with borosilicate material, then heat the mixture to its melting point (vitrification) to forin a glass-like substance that traps the radionuclides in the glass matrix upon cooling. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program has been established to support the mission of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. This Quality Assurance Program Description has been written to document the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program

  20. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 5. Thise, Skive Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 5. Omraede Thise, Skive Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Thise, in the Municipality of Skive, northern Jutland. (LN)

  1. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 3. Kertinge Mark, Kerteminde Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 3. Omraede Kertinge Mark, Kerteminde Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Kertinge Mark in the Municipality of Kerteminde, the island Funen. (LN)

  2. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 4. Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, Struer Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 4. Omraede Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, Struer Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, in the Municipality of Struer, northern Jutland. (LN)

  3. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 6. Skive Vest, Skive Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 6. Omraede Skive Vest, Skive Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Skive Vest, in the Municipality of Skive, northern Jutland. (LN)

  4. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 2. Roedbyhavn, Lolland Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 2. Omraede Roedbyhavn, Lolland Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area at Roedbyhavn in the Municipality of Lolland, southern Denmark. (LN)

  5. A quantitative description of state-level taxation of oil and gas production in the continental U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Jeremy G.; Wang, Yongsheng; Chomas, Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    We provide a quantitative description of state-level taxation of oil and gas production in the continental U.S. for 2004–2013. Aggregate revenues from production taxes nearly doubled in real terms over the period, reaching $10.3 billion and accounting for 20% of tax receipts in the top ten revenue states. The average state had a tax rate of 3.6%; nationally, the average dollar of production was taxed at 4.2%. The oil-specific rate estimated for the study period is $2.4 per barrel or $5.5 per ton of carbon. Lastly, state-level tax rates are two-thirds higher in states excluding oil and gas wells from local property taxes, suggesting that the policies are substitutes for one another. - Highlights: •State tax revenue from oil and gas production nearly doubled from 2004 to 2013. •Nationally, the typical dollar of production is taxed at 4.2%. •The rate applied to the typical dollar of production did not increase over time. •On average oil is taxed at $2.4 per barrel or $5.5 per ton of carbon. •State tax rates are two-thirds higher where oil and gas are not taxed as property.

  6. Social change or business as usual at city hall? Examining an urban municipal government's response to neighbourhood-level health inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahuas, Madelaine C; Wakefield, Sarah; Peng, Yun

    2015-05-01

    There is a renewed interest in the potential of municipal governments working collaboratively with local communities to address health inequities. A growing body of literature has also highlighted the benefits and limitations of participatory approaches in neighbourhood interventions initiated by municipal governments. However, few studies have investigated how neighbourhood interventions tackling health inequities work in real-time and in context, from the perspectives of Community Developers (CDs) who promote community participation. This study uses a process evaluation approach and semi-structured interviews with CDs to explore the challenges they face in implementing a community development, participatory process in the City of Hamilton's strategy to reduce health inequities - Neighbourhood Action. Findings demonstrate that municipal government can facilitate and suppress community participation in complex ways. CDs serve as significant but conflicted intermediaries as they negotiate and navigate power differentials between city and community actors, while also facing structural challenges. We conclude that community participation is important to bottom-up, resident-led social change, and that CDs are central to this work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  8. Determinants of absenteeism in public organizations: A unit-level analysis of work absence in a large Danish municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of absenteeism in a large Danish municipality. Based on a review of the literature on absence, an integrative model is developed combining the individual, the social psychological and the economic approaches. The model is tested on data from approximately 5...... frequency and the department manager's observed absence frequency, but the effect is lower and less significant. Furthermore the study shows a positive relationship between absence frequency and being a male deputy head. The contracted number of work hours also has a positive association to absence...

  9. Esco in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to discuss the possible benefits of involving Energy Service Companies (ESCO) in realising energy savings in municipalities, and how ESCO projects can be formulated very differently in the various municipalities, according to building volume, use of technologies......, energy savings, type of collaboration etc. Background: Since 2008, several Danish municipalities have started energy retrofitting of municipal buildings, based on contracts with Energy Service Companies. In spite of the strong growth of ESCOs, there is also widespread scepticism about ESCO, as many...... approaches are being used in Danish municipalities, which we label the basic, the integrated and the strategic ESCO approaches. The three approaches include different ambitions, technologies, economies and innovation potentials. Whereas the basic approach implies a ‘traditional’ guarantee-based model...

  10. Municipal consultation key to understanding haul road maintenance agreements for Saskatchewan rural municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibel, R.E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Current municipal perspectives regarding the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were described. Municipal jurisdiction and authority regarding road development and heavy haul road maintenance agreements were defined. Based on actual work experience, collaborative working relationships between the oil and gas industry and the municipal sector is well worth some industry time and effort since it will result in cost savings for the industry. In general, rural municipalities receive very limited tax benefits to recapture the costs of road reconstruction and maintenance caused by heavy industry traffic. Road servicing costs can be recaptured only if companies respect the weight limits, hauling regulations and road bans. On the whole, municipalities in Saskatchewan are favourably disposed towards the oil and gas industry, and have done well in the past to accommodate industry's needs. It is not unreasonable therefore to expect that industry show sensitivity to the impact of its activities on the local municipality, and does its level best to be on good terms with the municipalities through early two-way communication. Text of some relevant acts of the Legislature respecting the powers and authorities of rural municipalities are appended

  11. Danish Municipal Planning in Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jørgen

    Danish municipal planning at the entrance to the 2000 years, where many things in the everyday of planning are changed after pressure from the market, the state, the municipal organisations, the investors, the citizens and the planners themselves. In this situation of change there may be good reasons...... to bear in mind what the basic task of physical planning at a local level has actually been and to discuss both what it is at the moment and what it can turn into in the future. The paper may actually raise more questions than it answers. The reason is that well-known political, administrative structures...... are breaking up, that the fight for the planning competence in the open country is raging and that the protection of the nature-freindly legislation, for which the previous government was responsible, is under quick phasing-out, at the same time as the traditional professional urban planner standards...

  12. Danish Municipal planning in Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    Danish municipal planning at the entrance to the 2000 years, where many things in the everyday of planning are changed after pressure from the market, the state, the municipal organisation, the investors, the citizens and the planners themselves. In this situation of change there may be good reason...... to bear in mind what the basic task of physical planning at a local level has actually been and to discuss both what it is at the moment and what it can turn into in the future. The paper may actually raise more questions than it answers. The reason is that well-known political, administrative structures...... are breaking up, that the fight for planning competence in the open country is raging and that the protection og nature-friendly legislation, for which the previous gouvernment was responsible, is under quick phasing-out, at the same time as the traditional professional urban planner standards are challenged...

  13. Assessment report: Application from OKG AB for a license according to the Act on Nuclear Activities concerning a shallow land burial/landfill for low-level nuclear waste in Simpevarp in the Oskarshamn municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindbom, G.; Wiebert, A.; Norden, M.; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Loefgren, T.; Lumpus, J.

    2000-10-01

    OKG AB has to SSI submitted an application for a license according to the Act on Nuclear Activities (1984:3) concerning a shallow land burial/landfill for low-level nuclear waste in Simpevarp in the Oskarshamn municipality. The application for a license covers permission to build, possess and operate a shallow land burial/landfill for low-level nuclear waste. Attached to the application is an environmental impact statement. An application for a license according to the Environmental Act (1998:808) has been submitted to the Environmental Court in Vaexjoe. SSI has circulated the application for consideration to the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the County Government Board of Kalmar and the Oskarshamn municipality. SSI has informed the European Commission about the application in accordance with the EURATOM Treaty, article 37. This assessment report constitutes the base for the decision by SSI 2000-09-18 for approval and radiation protection conditions. In the report, earlier permissions for shallow land burials/landfills at the Swedish nuclear installations are described. This report shows the development of the legal system during the last years, the premises for the assessment of the application, and SSI's review of OKG's plans, consequence analysis and environmental impact statement

  14. Detailed description of an SSAC at the facility level for on-load refueled power reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1985-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of a system for the accounting for and control of nuclear material in an on-load refueled power reactor facility which can be used by a facility operator to establish his own system to comply with a national system for nuclear material accounting and control and to facilitate application of IAEA safeguards. The scope of this document is limited to descriptions of the following SSAC elements: (1) Nuclear Material Measurements; (2) Measurement Quality; (3) Records and Reports; (4) Physical Inventory Taking; (5) Material Balance Closing

  15. Esco in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to discuss the possible benefits of involving Energy Service Companies (ESCO) in realising energy savings in municipalities, and how ESCO projects can be formulated very differently in the various municipalities, according to building volume, use of technologies...... municipalities see an in-house approach as a better alternative. Approach (Theory/Methodology): Our research is based on literature studies and on qualitative interviews with Danish municipalities carrying out ESCO projects, as well as with ESCO providers. Results: Our studies suggest that different ESCO......, with relatively few buildings, energy retrofitting and low investments, the integrative and strategic approach include a higher degree of partnership, a more ambitious building renovation approach, and more innovative understandings of facilities management. We also compare ESCO with energy retrofitting as an in...

  16. Municipal Building Energy Usage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set contains energy use data from 2009-2014 for 139 municipally operated buildings. Metrics include: Site & Source EUI, annual electricity, natural...

  17. Performance/Design Requirements and Detailed Technical Description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem for Integration into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A. K.; And Others

    The performance/design requirements and a detailed technical description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem to be integrated into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System are described. The subsystem may be used for computer-assisted lesson construction and has presentation capability for on-the-job training for data automation, staff, and…

  18. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Waste Management Policy in Tourism Area of Saensuk Municipality, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya, Andy Fefta; Kaewmanee, Pongsathon

    2014-01-01

    Saensuk Municipality is a famous tourism city in Thailand, especially Bangsaen beach. In supporting the tourism activity, it has waste managing method by using new generation administrator and technologies. However, the waste problem happened in Saensuk Municipality is included the human resource ability, technical facility, and the amount of waste. By using the qualitative descriptive method and doing a series of interview to selected informants, the researcher studied and analyzed the probl...

  20. Study on Construction Technology of Municipal Road and Bridge Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fuyong

    2018-03-01

    With the continuous development of social economy and the accelerating process of urbanization, municipal road and bridge projects have also shown a trend of rapid development. Municipal road and bridge work can fully reflect the economic and cultural development level of cities and is also an important symbol of urban development. As a basic material of construction, concrete is widely used in engineering construction. This article will analyze the municipal road and bridge concrete construction technology, put forward corresponding measures.

  1. Representative of the municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellnou Barcelo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The decommissioning of the Vandellos-I nuclear power plant was a big challenge for the host community of Vandellos i l'Hospitalet de l'Infant and the close-by region. Closing down of the facility resulted in a rise of unemployment and a decrease of municipal income. The public was concerned with three issues: safety, transparency and information about the decommissioning, and economic future. Therefore, from the very beginning, municipal governments entered into negotiations with ENRESA on socio-economic benefits, including local employment in dismantling activities, and other types of financial and non-financial compensation. The ADE business association, i.e. a network of business organisations was created that guided the allotment of work to local firms. To satisfy public demand, local municipalities focused on the triad of safety, dialogue and local development, considered the three 'pillars of trust'. A Municipal Monitoring Commission was created, made up of representatives of affected municipalities, the regional government, the ADE business association, trade unions, the local university, the NPP management and ENRESA to monitor the dismantling process and regularly inform the local public. Items that were handled by this Commission included: - Work process monitoring. - Workers. - Materials Control. - Conventional and radioactive or contaminated waste management. - Emanation waste management (liquid and gas) - Safety (training and accidents). - Surveillance (radiological and environmental: dust, noise). - Effects. - Fulfillment of agreed conditions. A number of communication tools and channels were used, e.g., public information meetings, an information centre, the municipal magazine, the municipal radio station, and meetings with representatives of the local press. Particularly innovative was the idea to ask academics from the University of Tarragona to help with 'translating' technical information into language that could

  2. Technology transfer for the handling post-harvest of grains at small farmer's level in three villages of the Municipality of La Vega Cundinamarca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Hernandez, Jose Eugenio

    1999-01-01

    The small agricultural producers of La Vega Municipality, in the Cundinamarca Department, the same as most of the rural producers of the country, they have been seeing seriously affected their crops of corn, bean and in general of basic grains, because of the attack of different agents biological considered plagues in the stored grains; as insects, microorganisms, birds and rodents, due to the ignorance of the appropriate techniques for the handling post-harvest of these products already the lack of sure systems of storage and conservation of the same ones. With the co-financing of the Technology National Program Transfer - PRONATTA. The present project developed a methodological model of technology transfer for the handling post-harvest of basic grains; the causes were determined that originated the problem and they thought about several technological alternatives of solution. Among the causes it was the lack of arrangement of the grains after the gathering and the use of systems and storage structures that didn't offer protection to the product, in front of the action of the destructive biological agents, in such a way that they were given training in the handling of the grains, appropriate silos were built, shops were developed with the farmers, to divulge notes, manuals and didactic videos, among others

  3. Detailed description of an SSAC at the facility level for light water moderated (off-load refueled) power reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1985-03-01

    This report is intended to provide the technical details of an effective State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC) which Member States may use, if they wish, to establish and maintain their SSACs. It is expected that systems designed along the lines described would be effective in meeting the objectives of both national and international systems for nuclear material accounting and control. This document accordingly provides a detailed description of a system for the accounting for and control of nuclear material in an off-load refueled light water moderated power reactor facility which can be used by a facility operator to establish his own system to comply with a national system for nuclear material accounting and control and to facilitate application of IAEA safeguards. The scope of this document is limited to descriptions of the following elements: (1) Nuclear Material Measurements; (2) Measurement Quality; (3) Records and Reports; (4) Physical Inventory Taking; (5) Material Balance Closing

  4. Determination of sports health belief levels of individuals who do sports for recreational purposes

    OpenAIRE

    VURAL, Mustafa; CORUH, Yasar

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine sports health belief levels of individuals participating in sporting recreational activities in sports facilities belonging to Konya Metropolitan Municipality in terms of some demographic variables. A method for descriptive survey aimed at revealing the current situation was used in the research. Sample group of the study consists of 150 participants (female = 66 / male = 84) who attend the courses opened in Konya Metropolitan Municipality. In ...

  5. DEPENDENCE OF THE MUNICIPALITIES OF MINAS GERAIS IN RELATION TO FPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington de Oliveira Massardi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research sought to demonstrate the level of dependence of Minas Gerais municipalities on the Municipalities Participation Fund (FPM. To achieve this goal we demonstrated the representativeness of FPM in the financing structure of municipalities, measured by dividing the revenue from FPM and the municipal current revenue. It was found that the level of dependence of the vast majority of municipalities is higher than 50%, ie, the FPM resources represent the main source of municipal funding, especially for those with less than 20,000 inhabitants. Regarding geographical location, it was found that the regions of Zona da Mata and Vale do Rio Doce have the highest concentration of municipalities that have high dependence on FPM. The average population in these municipalities is 3,202 inhabitants, which leads to the conclusion that the dependence of FPM is directly related to the size of the municipality.

  6. Soy Expansion and Socioeconomic Development in Municipalities of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Martinelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Soy occupies the largest area of agricultural land in Brazil, spreading from southern states to the Amazon region. Soy is also the most important agricultural commodity among Brazilian exports affecting food security and land use nationally and internationally. Here we pose the question of whether soy expansion affects only economic growth or whether it also boosts socioeconomic development, fostering education and health improvements in Brazilian municipalities where it is planted. To achieve this objective, we divided more than 5000 municipalities into two groups: those with >300 ha of soy (soy municipalities and those with <300 ha of soy (non-soy municipalities. We compared the Human Development Index (HDI and the Gini coefficient for income for these two groups of municipalities in 1991, 2000, and 2010. We made such comparison at the municipality level for the whole country, but we also grouped the municipalities by major geographical regions and states. We found that the HDI was higher in soy municipalities, especially in the agricultural frontier. That effect was not so clear in more consolidated agricultural regions of the country. Soy municipalities also had a higher Gini coefficient for income than non-soy municipalities. We concluded that soy could be considered a precursor of socioeconomic development under certain conditions; however, it also tends to be associated with an increase in income inequality, especially in the agricultural frontier.

  7. ESCO in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2013-01-01

    development with international ESCO experience as well as refer to public innovation literature. Combined with empirical case studies on ESCO contracting, we discuss factors and conditions that influence decisions on ESCO, the flexibility of ESCO contracts and whether it implies an innovative process...... mainly been used in the industry so far, but in recent years more and more municipalities have taken up ESCO initiatives, in order to retrofit existing public buildings, and to make them more energy efficient. ESCO is in many ways a new way of collaboration for Danish municipalities, and therefore...... in municipalities ESCOs have received much attention in different Danish energy-.efficiency policies, where ESCOs are often described as a promising way to achieve energy savings in existing housing and to overcome barriers encountered by other attempts at energy savings. Instead of assessing ESCO only...

  8. Municipal energy managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    On 1 and 2 July, municipal energy managers from all over Europe met in Stuttgart, Germany. On these two days, more the 150 participants form 22 countries listened to presentations, took part in excursions to cutting-edge energy conservation projects in Stuttgart and, above all, participated in a broad array of workshops presented by experts firmly grounded in local practice. 27 experts drawn from 11 European countries showcased their projects and imparted their experience. The event has been accompanied by an exhibition of companies and service providers offering energy-conservation products and planning services. The first workshop dealt with energy management in Europe and examples from different active municipalities; the second one with energy management in Germany and best practice in the leading cities; the third one with non-municipal and European projects. (A.L.B.)

  9. Sustainability indicators system of tourism development: a case study os the municipality of Areia – PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Cavalcanti Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at identifying and analyzing the level of sustainability of tourism in the city of Areia - PB, by applying the methodology of the Sustainability Indicators System of Tourism Development (SISDTur proposed by Hanai (2009. This work is descriptive and it presents an exploratory and quantitative research. To carry out this investigation, three stages of data analysis criteria were established: analysis of indicators, in which the collected data were processed by statistical techniques (average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation; analysis of dimensions; and analysis of global sustainability. The results indicate that the municipality presents a partly unsustainable tourism, since among the six sustainability dimensions for tourism destinations two dimensions demonstrate intermediary sustainability, two dimensions are partially unsustainable, and the other two dimensions are unsustainable. This situation demands from public administrators the design of new action plans for the implementation of investments and projects that may facilitate the sustainable development of tourism in the municipality.

  10. Detailed description of an SSAC at the facility level for a low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1984-09-01

    Some States have expressed a need for more detailed guidance with regard to the technical elements in the design and operation of SSACs for both the national and the international objectives. To meet this need the present document has been prepared, describing the technical elements of an SSAC in considerable detail. The purpose of this document is therefore, to provide a detailed description of a system for the accounting for and control of nuclear material in a model low enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication facility which can be used by a facility operator to establish his own system in a way which will provide the necessary information for compliance with a national system for nuclear material accounting and control and for the IAEA to carry out its safeguards responsibilities

  11. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  12. Measurements for municipalities 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kuhry; J.J.J. Jonker; with participation of M. Ras

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Maten voor gemeenten 2007. Measurements for municipalities 2007 presents a national picture of the performance delivered by local authorities and the costs of doing so. The analyses relate to the period 2000-2005. This is the fifth time this quantitative and integrated picture

  13. Measurements for municipalities 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kuhry; J.J.J. Jonker; with cooperation of Bureau Zenc

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Maten voor gemeenten 2006. Measurements for municipalities 2006 (Maten voor gemeenten 2006) presents a national picture of the performance delivered by local authorities and the costs of doing so. The analyses relate to the period 1999-2004. This is the fourth time

  14. Measurements for municipalities 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert Pommer; Ingrid Ooms; Ab van der Torre; Saskia Jansen

    2012-01-01

    Original title: Maten voor gemeenten 2012 Local authorities in the Netherlands are playing an ever more important role in the delivery of services to citizens, as more and more tasks are transferred from central to local government. Dutch municipalities spent a combined total of 56 billion

  15. Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBeck, M.F.

    1981-03-27

    An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

  16. Interim oceanographic description of the North-East Atlantic site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbutt, P.A.; Dickson, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Within the terms of the Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Wastes, NEA is requested to assess the suitability of dumping sites proposed by Participating countries and to keep under review those previously thought suitable. The aim of this volume is to provide a further interim description of the North-East Atlantic dumpsite itself. Quantities of known wastes dumpings are summarized. A review of the available data on sediment distribution in the area is presented. The flow field at the site is described so that an experiment to determine the influence on the deep flow of large scale topographic features at the dumpsite. The tide gauge results are briefly presented. The state of knowledge of the hydrographic and chemical conditions prior to 1977 is reviewed; recent results are added. The results of the radioactivity determination in the surface layer (3cm thick) of box cored sediments and the vertical radioactivity profiles are presented in tables. Some results on adsorption and geochemical partitioning of long-lived radionuclides on dumpsite sediments are briefly reviewed. Biological studies have been undertaken: concentration of radionuclides in biological materials, radiation effects on the dumpsite fauna. A dose-limit (critical group) calculation model is presented. Collective dose commitment and mass transfer are briefly discussed. The concentration of radionuclides in sediments and some organisms of the Bay of Biscay has been evaluated. Some isopycnal data for the eastern Atlantic, windstress and stratification are briefly mentioned

  17. Consolidation of municipalities in the newest time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Blagov

    2017-01-01

    of some RF constituent entities, there are urban districts that consist of the large not urbanized territories with a poorly developed transport, social, economic infrastructure and without any common development goals. The authors conclude that the bias towards municipalities' consolidation in many RF constituent entities is justified and caused by ignoring of the vertical command relations in former areas. At the same time, they point out the need to take into account the town-planning, economic and geographical, socio-demographic factors while transforming municipal areas into urban districts, otherwise, all these transformations are fictitious and turn into revising of powers by local elites.Conclusions. The municipal legal policy of consolidation of municipal entities is aimed at liquidating the settlement level of local self-government, which directly contradicts Part 1 of Art. 131 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, which establishes the implementation of local self-government by the population, first of all, at the primary, settlement level

  18. Antipsychotic Medication in Children and Adolescents : A Descriptive Review of the Effects on Prolactin Level and Associated Side Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    Objective: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. Method: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine,

  19. Antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents: a descriptive review of the effects on prolactin level and associated side effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Y.; Harten, P.N. van; Boot, A.M.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. METHOD: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine,

  20. Technical baseline description of high-level waste and low-activity waste feed mobilization and delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, I.G.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a compilation of information related to the high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) feed staging, mobilization, and transfer/delivery issues. Information relevant to current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) inventories and activities designed to feed the Phase I Privatization effort at the Hanford Site is included. Discussions on the higher level Phase II activities are offered for a perspective on the interfaces

  1. A Species-Level Phylogeny of Extant Snakes with Description of a New Colubrid Subfamily and Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Alex; McKelvy, Alexander D; Grismer, L Lee; Bell, Charles D; Lailvaux, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    With over 3,500 species encompassing a diverse range of morphologies and ecologies, snakes make up 36% of squamate diversity. Despite several attempts at estimating higher-level snake relationships and numerous assessments of generic- or species-level phylogenies, a large-scale species-level phylogeny solely focusing on snakes has not been completed. Here, we provide the largest-yet estimate of the snake tree of life using maximum likelihood on a supermatrix of 1745 taxa (1652 snake species + 7 outgroup taxa) and 9,523 base pairs from 10 loci (5 nuclear, 5 mitochondrial), including previously unsequenced genera (2) and species (61). Increased taxon sampling resulted in a phylogeny with a new higher-level topology and corroborate many lower-level relationships, strengthened by high nodal support values (> 85%) down to the species level (73.69% of nodes). Although the majority of families and subfamilies were strongly supported as monophyletic with > 88% support values, some families and numerous genera were paraphyletic, primarily due to limited taxon and loci sampling leading to a sparse supermatrix and minimal sequence overlap between some closely-related taxa. With all rogue taxa and incertae sedis species eliminated, higher-level relationships and support values remained relatively unchanged, except in five problematic clades. Our analyses resulted in new topologies at higher- and lower-levels; resolved several previous topological issues; established novel paraphyletic affiliations; designated a new subfamily, Ahaetuliinae, for the genera Ahaetulla, Chrysopelea, Dendrelaphis, and Dryophiops; and appointed Hemerophis (Coluber) zebrinus to a new genus, Mopanveldophis. Although we provide insight into some distinguished problematic nodes, at the deeper phylogenetic scale, resolution of these nodes may require sampling of more slowly-evolving nuclear genes.

  2. Seasonal Variation in Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Young Norwegian Talented Soccer Players: A Description of Daily Physical Activity Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig A. Sæther, Nils P. Aspvik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Practise makes perfect’ is a well-known expression in most sports, including top-level soccer. However, a high training and match load increases the risk for injury, overtraining and burnout. With the use of accelerometers and a self-report questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players’ physical activity (PA level. Data were collected three times during the 2011 Norwegian Football season (March, June and October. The accelerometer output, counts·min–1 (counts per unit time registered, reports the daily PA-level for young talented soccer players. Results showed a stable PA-level across the season (March: 901.2 counts·min–1, June: 854.9 counts·min–1, October: 861.5 counts·min–1. Furthermore, comparison of five different training sessions across the season showed that the PA-level ranged from 2435.8 to 3745.4 counts·min–1. A one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the three measured weeks during the soccer season (p≤0.814. However, the training sessions in January had a significantly higher PA-level than those in June and October (p≤0.001. Based on these results, we discuss how potential implications of PA-level affect factors such as risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. We argue that player development must be seen as part of an overall picture in which club training and match load should be regarded as one of many variables influencing players’ PA-level.

  3. A Species-Level Phylogeny of Extant Snakes with Description of a New Colubrid Subfamily and Genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvy, Alexander D.; Grismer, L. Lee; Bell, Charles D.; Lailvaux, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    Background With over 3,500 species encompassing a diverse range of morphologies and ecologies, snakes make up 36% of squamate diversity. Despite several attempts at estimating higher-level snake relationships and numerous assessments of generic- or species-level phylogenies, a large-scale species-level phylogeny solely focusing on snakes has not been completed. Here, we provide the largest-yet estimate of the snake tree of life using maximum likelihood on a supermatrix of 1745 taxa (1652 snake species + 7 outgroup taxa) and 9,523 base pairs from 10 loci (5 nuclear, 5 mitochondrial), including previously unsequenced genera (2) and species (61). Results Increased taxon sampling resulted in a phylogeny with a new higher-level topology and corroborate many lower-level relationships, strengthened by high nodal support values (> 85%) down to the species level (73.69% of nodes). Although the majority of families and subfamilies were strongly supported as monophyletic with > 88% support values, some families and numerous genera were paraphyletic, primarily due to limited taxon and loci sampling leading to a sparse supermatrix and minimal sequence overlap between some closely-related taxa. With all rogue taxa and incertae sedis species eliminated, higher-level relationships and support values remained relatively unchanged, except in five problematic clades. Conclusion Our analyses resulted in new topologies at higher- and lower-levels; resolved several previous topological issues; established novel paraphyletic affiliations; designated a new subfamily, Ahaetuliinae, for the genera Ahaetulla, Chrysopelea, Dendrelaphis, and Dryophiops; and appointed Hemerophis (Coluber) zebrinus to a new genus, Mopanveldophis. Although we provide insight into some distinguished problematic nodes, at the deeper phylogenetic scale, resolution of these nodes may require sampling of more slowly-evolving nuclear genes. PMID:27603205

  4. Implementation of health impact assessment in Danish municipal context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraemer, Stella R. J.; Nikolajsen, Louise Theilgaard; Gulis, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    . Conclusions: Systematic and sustainable capacity building is needed to achieve high level implementation of HIA in Danish municipalities. Development of validated tools, most importantly screening tools with focus on priorities of national public health policy would enhance implementation on municipal level.......Aims: Implementation of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Danish municipalities has been analyzed using the Roger's Diffusion of Innovation Theory. Municipalities were chosen from among those who presented their health policies on websites according to the status of inclusion of HIA into health...... policy. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted in 6 municipalities (3 with HIA inducted in their health policy and 3 without it) gathering information on knowledge and attitudes to HIA, barriers to its implementation, social system and communication channels used or expected to be used...

  5. Household food wastage by income level: A case study of five areas in the city of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, FR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is generated throughout the supply chain including at household level. Household waste contains a fairly large percentage of food in developing countries. This study assesses household food wastage in five selected areas in the City...

  6. Seasonal Variation in Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Young Norwegian Talented Soccer Players: A Description of Daily Physical Activity Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sæther, Stig A; Aspvik, Nils P

    2014-12-01

    'Practise makes perfect' is a well-known expression in most sports, including top-level soccer. However, a high training and match load increases the risk for injury, overtraining and burnout. With the use of accelerometers and a self-report questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players' physical activity (PA) level. Data were collected three times during the 2011 Norwegian Football season (March, June and October). The accelerometer output, counts·min(-1) (counts per unit time registered), reports the daily PA-level for young talented soccer players. Results showed a stable PA-level across the season (March: 901.2 counts·min(-1), June: 854.9 counts·min(-1), October: 861.5 counts·min(-1)). Furthermore, comparison of five different training sessions across the season showed that the PA-level ranged from 2435.8 to 3745.4 counts·min(-1). A one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the three measured weeks during the soccer season (p≤0.814). However, the training sessions in January had a significantly higher PA-level than those in June and October (p≤0.001). Based on these results, we discuss how potential implications of PA-level affect factors such as risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. We argue that player development must be seen as part of an overall picture in which club training and match load should be regarded as one of many variables influencing players' PA-level. Key pointsIt is well established that to achieve a high performance level in sport, one must implement a high training and match load in childhood and youth.With the use of accelerometers and a self-reported questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players' total physical activity (PA) load.These results indicate that young talented soccer players must overcome large doses of PA on a weekly basis, exposing them to a high risk of injury, overtraining and burnout.

  7. System-Level Shared Governance Structures and Processes in Healthcare Systems With Magnet®-Designated Hospitals: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Carlisa M; Hayne, Arlene N

    The purpose was to identify and describe structures and processes of best practices for system-level shared governance in healthcare systems. Currently, more than 64.6% of US community hospitals are part of a system. System chief nurse executives (SCNEs) are challenged to establish leadership structures and processes that effectively and efficiently disseminate best practices for patients and staff across complex organizations, geographically dispersed locations, and populations. Eleven US healthcare SCNEs from the American Nurses Credentialing Center's repository of Magnet®-designated facilities participated in a 35-multiquestion interview based on Kanter's Theory of Organizational Empowerment. Most SCNEs reported the presence of more than 50% of the empowerment structures and processes in system-level shared governance. Despite the difficulties and complexities of growing health systems, SCNEs have replicated empowerment characteristics of hospital shared governance structures and processes at the system level.

  8. arXiv Effective description of general extensions of the Standard Model: the complete tree-level dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    de Blas, J.; Perez-Victoria, M.; Santiago, J.

    2018-03-19

    We compute all the tree-level contributions to the Wilson coefficients of the dimension-six Standard-Model effective theory in ultraviolet completions with general scalar, spinor and vector field content and arbitrary interactions. No assumption about the renormalizability of the high-energy theory is made. This provides a complete ultraviolet/infrared dictionary at the classical level, which can be used to study the low-energy implications of any model of interest, and also to look for explicit completions consistent with low-energy data.

  9. Neutron-capture gamma-ray study of levels in 135Ba and description of nuclear levels in the interacting-boson-fermion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.; Koene, B.K.S.; Stelts, M.L.; Meyer, R.A.; Brant, S.; Paar, V.; Lopac, V.

    1993-01-01

    We have performed neutron-capture gamma-ray studies on natural and enriched targets of 134 Ba in order to investigate the nuclear levels of 135 Ba. The low-energy level spectra were compared with the calculations using the interacting-boson-fermion model (IBFM) and the cluster-vibration model. The level densities up to 5 MeV that are calculated within the IBFM are in accordance with the constant temperature Fermi gas model. From the spin distribution we have determined the corresponding spin cutoff parameter σ and compared it to the prediction from nuclear systematics

  10. Implementation of health impact assessment in Danish municipal context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Stella Rebecca Johnsdatter; Nikolajsen, Louise Theilgaard; Gulis, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    Implementation of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Danish municipalities has been analyzed using the Roger's Diffusion of Innovation Theory. Municipalities were chosen from among those who presented their health policies on websites according to the status of inclusion of HIA into health policy. Qualitative interviews were conducted in 6 municipalities (3 with HIA inducted in their health policy and 3 without it) gathering information on knowledge and attitudes to HIA, barriers to its implementation, social system and communication channels used or expected to be used for implementation of HIA. No significant differences were found among analyzed municipalities by status of HIA inclusion into health policy. Among barriers; a lack of tools with general validity, a lack of intersectoral working culture, balance between centralized versus participatory way of working and organizational structure of a municipality, and a lack of capacities were enlisted as most relevant. The last one is a crucial factor of an internal social system of a municipality. With regards to communication channels, reporting and presentation skills of implementers and doers are of key importance. Systematic and sustainable capacity building is needed to achieve high level implementation of HIA in Danish municipalities. Development of validated tools, most importantly screening tools with focus on priorities of national public health policy would enhance implementation on municipal level.

  11. Levels of anxiety in parents in the 24 hr before and after their child's surgery: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomicino, Laura; Maccacari, Elena; Buchini, Sara

    2018-01-01

    To (i) investigate pre- and postoperative anxiety levels in parents of surgical patients; (ii) identify factors that affect parental anxiety; and (iii) analyse assistance provided and overall parental satisfaction to assess whether and how this aspect can impact their anxiety level. Surgery as an event generates anxiety in children and their parents. Children who are anxious before surgery are likely to develop more postoperative psychological and physiological complications than those who are not. The role parents play in influencing emotional states of their children has been well demonstrated. However, specific national programmes aimed at helping parents develop new models for coping are relatively inexistent in Italy. Longitudinal study. One hundred and one parents of children undergoing surgery at a healthcare facility in Padua, Italy, completed the Italian version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y questionnaire. They also answered questions about their parents' socio-demographic situation, the amount and quality of preoperative information received, assistance provided and their overall satisfaction with this information. The preoperative level of anxiety in parents who were interviewed was higher than Italian normative data, especially in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery and Pediatric Urology departments. Mothers had a significantly higher level of anxiety than fathers. Communicating possible complications of surgical procedures increased anxiety, while providing information about pre- and postsurgery nutrition and pain management and providing local anaesthetic on children decreased parental anxiety. Parents expressed a sufficiently high level of satisfaction although they defined the hospital environment as uncomfortable. Aspects of care that can make hospitalisation less traumatic for parents are as follows: greater support, involving them in the treatment process, improving hospital department admission procedures and providing thorough preoperative

  12. Weight Constrained DEA Measurement of the Quality of Life in Spanish Municipalities in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; Cárcaba, Ana; Ventura, Juan

    2018-01-01

    This paper measures quality of life (QoL) in the 393 largest Spanish municipalities in 2011. We follow recent descriptions of QoL dimensions to propose an integrated framework composed of eight dimensions: material living conditions, health, education, environment, economic and physical safety, governance and political voice, social interaction, and personal activities. Using different sources of information we construct 16 indicators, two per each of the QoL dimensions considered. Weight constrained data envelopment analysis (DEA) is then used to estimate a composite indicator of the QoL of each municipality. Robustness is checked by altering the weight ranges introduced within the DEA specification. Results show that the Northern and Central regions in Spain attain the highest levels of QoL, while the Southern and Mediterranean regions report lower scores. These figures are consistent with those obtained by González et al. ( Soc Ind Res 82:111-145 2011) for the Spanish municipalities in 2001, although both the sample and the indicators used are different. The analysis also shows that, while it is important to restrict weights in DEA, the specific restrictions used are less important, since all the composite indicators computed are highly correlated. The results also show important differences between per capita gross domestic product and QoL at the provincial level.

  13. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  14. Mercado municipal Can Vidalet

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Francisco, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    La intención del nuevo mercado municipal de Can Vidalet es crear un escenario en sombra, envuelto por una piel permeable; una "cesta" dentro de la cual se produce una actividad comercial. La topografía del lugar permite establecer un esquema comercial en sección, situando el mercado tradicional en cota superior y el nuevo uso comercial en planta baja, a nivel de plaza pública.

  15. Renewable municipal waste barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In the European Union the production of primary energy from the incineration of municipal waste increased by only 0.7% in 2013 and reached 8.7 million tep (tonnes of oil equivalent). Germany ranks first with the production of 2729 ktep followed by France with 1246 ktep. A positive point is that the sale of heat to heat networks has strongly increased in some countries which means that primary energy is better used. 2 tables give the production of electricity and heat from the incineration of municipal waste in the E.U. member states in 2012 and 2013. Germany ranks first in the 2 tables. The total production of electricity and heat from the incineration of municipal waste in E.U. in 2013 reached 18741 GWh and 2361 tep respectively. A list reviews the most significant companies working in Europe in the sector of waste incineration, 8 companies are listed, 2 are German: EEW, Remondis, 3 are French: SITA (Suez Environment, Veolia and TIRU (EDF), Urbaser is spanish, Gruppo Hera is Italian and AEB-Amsterdan is dutch. (A.C.)

  16. Centralisation and decentralisation in strategic municipal energy planning in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling, Karl; Hvelplund, Frede; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    Denmark's future energy system is to be entirely based on renewable energy sources. Municipalities will play an important role as local energy planning authorities in terms of adopting and refining this vision in different local contexts. Based on a review of 11 municipal energy plans, this paper examines to what extent municipal energy planning matches national 100% renewable energy strategies. The results indicate a willingness among Danish municipalities to actively carry out energy planning, and the plans reveal a large diversity of (new) activities. At the same time, however, there is a strong need for better coordination of municipal energy planning activities at the central level. It is suggested that the role of municipalities as energy planning authorities needs to be outlined more clearly in, e.g., strategic energy planning which integrates savings, efficiency and renewable energy in all (energy) sectors. This requires the state to provide municipalities with the necessary planning instruments and establish a corresponding planning framework. Consequently, there is a need for a simultaneous centralisation and decentralisation during the implementation of the 100% renewable energy vision. The paper outlines a basic division of tasks between the central and the local level within such a strategic energy planning system. - Research highlights: → There is a large variety of energy-related activities in the 11 municipal energy and climate plans. → Only few plans contain all relevant sectors and activities in relation to a 100% RES. → Neglected areas are private transport, system regulation/integration and private buildings. → There is an acute need for coordination of municipal energy planning at the central level. → Strategic energy planning should integrate national policy with municipal energy planning.

  17. Can I Hear You? A Descriptive Longitudinal Study of Hearing Levels of Aeromedical Technicians and Flight Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    flightline) and in flight. The acuity with which they can perceive sound is important to the determination and the communi- cation of the patient’s... Preschool child 60dB 69dB School child 77dB 77dB Housewife 64dB 67dB Office Wroker 72dB 70dB Factory Worker 87dB 87dB ii eq( 2 4 ) - average sound level for...work or home environment, Jansen and Klensch have shown that the audiological re- sponses to pleasant music and to unpleasant noise were similar

  18. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities' preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities' capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change.

  19. Alternative methods for dispoal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 1. Description of methods and assessment of criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.D.; Miller, W.O.; Warriner, J.B.; Malone, P.G.; McAneny, C.C.

    1984-04-01

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 1 of a four-task study entitled Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Agreement States. The alternative methods considered are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults, earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, and augered holes. Each of these alternatives is either being used by other countries for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal or is being considered by other countries or US agencies. In this report the performance requirements are listed, each alternative is described, the experience gained with its use is discussed, and the performance capabilities of each method are addressed. Next, the existing 10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D criteria with respect to paragraphs 61.50 through 61.53, pertaining to site suitability, design, operations and closure, and monitoring are assessed for applicability to evaluation of each alternative. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations are offered on each method's suitability as an LLW disposal alternative, the applicability of the criteria, and the need for supplemental or modified criteria

  20. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description for defense high-level waste form development and qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the quality assurance (QA) program of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project. The purpose of the QA program is to control project activities in such a manner as to achieve the mission of the HWVP Project in a safe and reliable manner. A major aspect of the HWVP Project QA program is the control of activities that relate to high-level waste (HLW) form development and qualification. This document describes the program and planned actions the Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) will implement to demonstrate and ensure that the HWVP Project meets the US Department of Energy (DOE) and ASME regulations. The actions for meeting the requirements of the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) will be implemented under the HWVP product qualification program with the objective of ensuring that the HWVP and its processes comply with the WAPS established by the federal repository

  1. Cd toxicity in Ash amended to plantations; the dilemma of different answers at different levels of description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Ekelund, Flemming; Kjøller, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    . Other more abundant cations like Zn regulate Cd uptake. Mycorrhiza reduce Cd uptake in several plants. In barley Cd gradually decrease from root via stem to seeds. In conclusion for ash amounts up to 10 t/ha, we do not find metal toxicity of ash or evidence for bioaccumulation of metals in soil...... growth, equally because of the pH increase and the nutrients added. The pH increase stimulates decomposition activity. Soil carbon availability is not permanently increased with ash amendment, however, which may suggest that decomposition increase is coupled to primary production increase. Plantation....... Wood ash increase plantation soil Cd, and so did Cd in grass although at a very low level, Cd in lichens and Cd in the small biomass of earthworms. The toxicity of Cd is regulated by metal binding to soil being several orders of magnitude lower than in pure liquid. Ash is toxic towards microarthropods...

  2. Widening a Bottleneck: Towards a Better Patient Flow in Health Services : An analysis of utilization of specialized health services for diagnose-groups at the municipality level. Studied period from years 1999 to 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Alejandra Palacio

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The coordination reform is currently a hot political topic. Part of the reform’s delivery arrangements is related to the expansion of municipal health services. This aims to relocate health services and increase the municipalities’ share of responsibility. Financial measures are also proposed to support the other policy arrangements. Before these policies are introduce, it is important to see if an expansion and relocation of health services to the municipalities reduce the use of...

  3. Digital Governance (in Romanian Municipalities. A Longitudinal Assessment of Municipal Web Sites in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparative cross-country study in order to know the level of web services implementation at the municipality level (what are the public services that municipalities offer to their citizens using the electronic platforms. We’ve accessed each municipality web portal from Romania (103 in total and using a defined scale; and rated every one very strictly. Most of the elements used in this research are taken from previous studies, adapted afterwards to take in relevant values for my country. Although there are numerous Romanian initiatives of connecting to the Internet even smaller communities, like small towns or even communes, we have chosen the municipalities due to the positive relation between the number of inhabitants and the capacity to e-Government of the local public administration. All of the 103 Romanian municipalities have been analysed and the results obtained will be presented on each class (there are 5 different classes – e-doc, transparency, etc., but also by the final results.

  4. Detailed description of a new management system for solid, short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The objective is to modify and extend the existing system at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) for handling of Very Low Level Waste (VLLW), short lived Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LLW-SL and ILW-SL). The ultimate aim is to reduce the risks and the influence on the personnel and the environment. According to the request from INPP, the modified system is based on the existence of an incineration plant. This system description describes treatment of non-combustible VLLW, LLW-SL and ILW-SL at a new waste handling facility (WHF) located in the future buildings 159/2 and 159/3 at the INPP. The new WHF is also handling Exempt Waste (EW), Reusable Material (RM) and Free Release Goods (FRG). The buildings 159/2 and 159/3 are future extensions of the existing building 159. (author)

  5. OPG's long term management proposal for low and intermediate level radioactive waste: project description, operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Although the Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) is approximately 8 years away from being placed into service, it is time to start planning for operations. Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) Nuclear Waste Management Division (NWMD) has a systematic approach to preparing for operation of any new facility that is readily applicable to the DGR. The DGR Operational Readiness Plan has been benchmarked at similar facilities in North America and Europe. The operating vision is a living model, and is constantly being reviewed and refined to align with the detailed design of the DGR as it proceeds through its phases of development. Combined with 40 years of operating surface storage facilities for the storage of Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW), the DGR operating vision will enable NWMD to provide meaningful input during COMS (Constructability, Operability, Maintainability, and Safety) review in the DGR project detailed-design phase in 2011/2012. A Work Breakdown Structure has been used to communicate the detail of the operating vision, and also to estimate the costs of Operational Readiness and Operations during the lifetime of the facility. (author)

  6. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant quality assurance program description for defense high-level waste form development and qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    The US Department of Energy-Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has been designated the national high-level waste repository licensee and the recipient for the canistered waste forms. The Office of Waste Operations executes overall responsibility for producing the canistered waste form. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project, as part of the waste form producer organization, consists of a vertical relationship. Overall control is provided by the US Department of Energy-Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Headquarters; with the US Department of Energy-Office of Waste Operations; the US Department of Energy- Headquarters/Vitrification Project Branch; the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office/Vitrification Project Office; and the Westinghouse Hanford Company, operations and engineering contractor. This document has been prepared in response to direction from the US Department of Energy-Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management through the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office for a quality assurance program that meets the requirements of the US Department of Energy. This document provides guidance and direction for implementing a quality assurance program that applies to the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project management commits to implementing the quality assurance program activities; reviewing the program periodically, and revising it as necessary to keep it current and effective. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  7. Innovation Management in Swedish Municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Wihlman, Thomas; Hoppe, Magnus; Wihlman, Ulla; Sandmark, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Research on public sector innovation is still limited, and increased knowledge of innovation processes is needed. This article is a based on a study of the implementation of innovation policies in Swedish municipalities, and gives a first-hand, empirical view of some of the complexities of innovation in the public sector. The study took place in four municipalities in central Sweden. The municipalities varied in size and organisational forms. Interviews and policy documents were used for data...

  8. Concentration levels of gamma radioactivity on superficial soils of municipalities of Guadalupe and Zacatecas; Niveles de concentracion de radiactividad gamma en suelos superficiales de los municipios de Guadalupe y Zacatecas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mireles, F.; Flores, F. E.; Pinedo, J. L.; Davila, J. I.; Rios, C.; Lopez, H.; Saucedo, S. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)], e-mail: fmireles@uaz.edu.mx

    2009-10-15

    A study on inside of municipalities of Guadalupe and Zacatecas in Zacatecas, Mexico was realized, with the purpose of determine the concentration levels of radionuclides {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs, distributed on superficial soils. For this work was obtained a total of 44 samples of superficial soils nearby to 10 communities more populated of each one of municipalities; those that were prepared and placed on containers Marinelli type of 500 m L. The samples were measured in a gamma rays spectrometry system based on a germanium detector hyper pure, and was utilized the photo pick of 609 KeV of the {sup 214}Bi for to measure the activity of {sup 226}Ra, of 666 KeV for to measure the activity of {sup 137}Cs, of 911 KeV of the {sup 228}Ac for to measure the activity of {sup 232}Th, and of 1461 KeV for to measure the activity of {sup 40}K. The calculations to optimize the detector operation as much in efficiency as in energy were realized, and it was determined a time specifies for to obtain a relative error on the activity measurement smaller to 5%. Was found a minimum perceptible activity of 1.7 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 0.96 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs, 3.7 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and of 6.8 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K; these values were below those measured in the samples with the exception of 12 cases of the total for {sup 137}Cs. The average and concentration range in activity of soils of Guadalupe were of 22.3{+-}1.5% (11-31.3) Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, of 2.7{+-}6% (0.95-5.5) Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs, of 28.2{+-}2.5% (11-41.8) Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and of 540.5{+-}0.6% (339.8-782.6) Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. The average and concentration range in activity of soils of Zacatecas were of 24.8{+-}1.4% (8.3-34.4) Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, of 3.5{+-}1.2% (1.1-7.7) Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs, of

  9. COMPETITIVE DYSFUNCTION: ANALYSIS OF THE LEVEL OF THE GAPS, BY THE SERVQUAL MODEL IN COMPOUNDING PHARMACIES THE MUNICIPALITIES OF SÃO PAULO STATE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Cukier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the application of SERVQUAL model, the level of gaps in the services offered by compounding pharmacies in the cities of São Paulo state. We have worked with a sample of 306 respondents comprised of owners, pharmacists responsible and clients related to fifteen from compounding pharmacies located in Campo Limpo Paulista, Jundiaí, Valinhos and Vinhedo. This work sought to assess the extent of gaps relating to competitive dysfunction, strategic dysfunction and operational dysfunction, to determine which disorders are significant, and what are the results of service provided in relation to competitive factors valued by customers. This research has dealt with qualitative and quantitative data, the data collection instrument was a questionnaire validated model as SERVQUAL, published by Parasuraman et al. (1988, aimed at measuring the quality of service, consisting of five dimensions: tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. The techniques of statistical analysis of nature were expressed in software BioEstatV.05. The results showed that there is a strong adherence of the samples and that the dimension of quality that stood out was the reliability and regarding dysfunctions surveyed indicate a perfect interaction between agents and that there is significant competitive dysfunction.

  10. 100% energy supply coverage with renewable energy. Requirements for its implementation at the global, national and municipal level; 100%-Versorgung mit erneuerbaren Energien. Bedingungen fuer eine globale, nationale und kommunale Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogall, Holger

    2014-07-01

    This book presents itself as a systematic, easily understandable introduction into the requirements for an energy supply based 100% on renewable energy. Its main focus is on the strategic paths that must be followed for this purpose in the realms of business, technology and governmental policy. It highlights the opportunities and impediments on the way, analysing in the process the roles of political, economic and civil society players from the global down to the municipal level. Starting out from the present state of discussion on the German energy transition it investigates the strengths and weak points of efficiency technologies and renewable energies available today and elaborates a strategic path for developing the necessary infrastructure. In awareness of the fact that 100% coverage will not come about from market mechanisms alone it explores the ecological crash barriers that need to be set up in addition. This is followed by chapters on the roles, interests and means of those players who can exert influence on the framing of the relevant political and legal instruments as well as their means of pursuing their interests. The book thus contributes to clarifying the possibilities of and impediments to achieving an energy supply system based 100% on renewable energy.

  11. On the Issue of Individual Culture in Teachers in the Context of Approbation and Implementation of Professional Standard for Teachers on Municipal Level (From the Author’s Work Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mityashov P.V.,

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article refers to one of the most difficult for realization directions of the work of managers of different levels with teaching staff - the expansion of cultural horizons, formation of particular outlook and development of intelligence of the modern school teacher. From his point of view, this direction is a necessary condition for approbation and implementation of the professional standard "Teacher (educational activities in the field of preschool, primary general, basic general, secondary education (tutor, teacher" (hereinafter - Professional standard of the teacher and in general - requirement of life. Analyzing the overall situation in terms of readiness of the teacher to work in the context of the development of the federal state educational standard for general education (hereinafter referred to as FSES, approbation of professional standard, the author refers to the experience of educational management body of Novonikolaevsk municipal district of the Volgograd region offering concrete steps and measures for solution of the overall problem of general culture of teacher personality.

  12. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...... starts will allow effect size calculations to be made in order to evaluate effect over time. Given the difficulties in undertaking controlled experimental studies in the creative arts therapies, descriptive research methods offer a way of quantifying effect through descriptive statistical analysis...

  13. Level crossing analysis of chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization: Towards a common description of liquid-state and solid-state cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnovsky, Denis V.; Ivanov, Konstantin L., E-mail: ivanov@tomo.nsc.ru [International Tomography Centre of SB RAS, Institutskaya 3a, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Jeschke, Gunnar [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Matysik, Jörg [Institut für Analytische Chemie, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstr. 3, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Vieth, Hans-Martin [International Tomography Centre of SB RAS, Institutskaya 3a, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-04-14

    Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (CIDNP) is an efficient method of creating non-equilibrium polarization of nuclear spins by using chemical reactions, which have radical pairs as intermediates. The CIDNP effect originates from (i) electron spin-selective recombination of radical pairs and (ii) the dependence of the inter-system crossing rate in radical pairs on the state of magnetic nuclei. The CIDNP effect can be investigated by using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methods. The gain from CIDNP is then two-fold: it allows one to obtain considerable amplification of NMR signals; in addition, it provides a very useful tool for investigating elusive radicals and radical pairs. While the mechanisms of the CIDNP effect in liquids are well established and understood, detailed analysis of solid-state CIDNP mechanisms still remains challenging; likewise a common theoretical frame for the description of CIDNP in both solids and liquids is missing. Difficulties in understanding the spin dynamics that lead to the CIDNP effect in the solid-state case are caused by the anisotropy of spin interactions, which increase the complexity of spin evolution. In this work, we propose to analyze CIDNP in terms of level crossing phenomena, namely, to attribute features in the CIDNP magnetic field dependence to Level Crossings (LCs) and Level Anti-Crossings (LACs) in a radical pair. This approach allows one to describe liquid-state CIDNP; the same holds for the solid-state case where anisotropic interactions play a significant role in CIDNP formation. In solids, features arise predominantly from LACs, since in most cases anisotropic couplings result in perturbations, which turn LCs into LACs. We have interpreted the CIDNP mechanisms in terms of the LC/LAC concept. This consideration allows one to find analytical expressions for a wide magnetic field range, where several different mechanisms are operative; furthermore, the LAC description gives a way to determine CIDNP sign

  14. Intersectoriality in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heering Holt, Ditte; Frohlich, Katherine L; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2017-01-01

    healthier practices into various settings, e.g. creating healthy school environments for increased physical activity and healthy eating. While other more overarching interventions on the health impacts of broader welfare policies (e.g. education policy) tend to be neglected. The interventions hereby neglect...... the intersectoral policy process legitimates certain practices in the setting of Danish municipal health promotion and the potential impact this can have for long-term, sustainable healthy public policy. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, we show how the intention of intersectoriality produces a strong concern...

  15. Descriptions and characterizations of water-level data and groundwater flow for the Brewster Boulevard and Castle Hayne Aquifer Systems and the Tarawa Terrace Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Robert E.; Jones, L. Elliott; Suárez-Soto, René J.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement of Chapter A (Supplement 3) summarizes results of analyses of groundwater-level data and describes corresponding elements of groundwater flow such as vertical hydraulic gradients useful for groundwater-flow model calibration. Field data as well as theoretical concepts indicate that potentiometric surfaces within the study area are shown to resemble to a large degree a subdued replica of surface topography. Consequently, precipitation that infiltrates to the water table flows laterally from highland to lowland areas and eventually discharges to streams such as Northeast and Wallace Creeks and New River. Vertically downward hydraulic gradients occur in highland areas resulting in the transfer of groundwater from shallow relatively unconfined aquifers to underlying confined or semi-confined aquifers. Conversely, in the vicinity of large streams such as Wallace and Frenchs Creeks, diffuse upward leakage occurs from underlying confined or semi-confined aquifers. Point water-level data indicating water-table altitudes, water-table altitudes estimated using a regression equation, and estimates of stream levels determined from a digital elevation model (DEM) and topographic maps were used to estimate a predevelopment water-table surface in the study area. Approximate flow lines along hydraulic gradients are shown on a predevelopment potentiometric surface map and extend from highland areas where potentiometric levels are greatest toward streams such as Wallace Creek and Northeast Creek. The distribution of potentiometric levels and corresponding groundwater-flow directions conform closely to related descriptions of the conceptual model.

  16. Municipalities as promoters of energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten

    Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since the author......Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since...... with practitioners in the building sector at the local level. The aim of this report is to look into municipal efforts to promote energy efficient buildings to learn from their experiences: What types of challenges are municipalities facing, when attempting to disseminate energy efficient technologies in local...... building projects through municipal planning practices, and how do they cope with these challenges? The report is based on an in-depth study of proactive planning practices performed by municipal partners in the Class 1 project and a series of experiences, strategies and instru-ments are identified...

  17. Economic growth and inflation rate: implications for municipal revenue and health expenditure of the municipalities of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Marciana; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola Benjamin; Santo, Antônio Carlos Gomes do Espírito

    2017-06-01

    This paper analyzes the implications of municipal budget revenue growth and the monetary policy's inflation rates goals in the availability of public health resources of municipalities. This is a descriptive, exploratory, quantitative, retrospective and longitudinal cross-sectional study covering the period 2002-2011. We analyzed health financing and expenditure variables in the municipalities of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, describing the trend and the relationship between them. Data showed the growth of the variables and trend towards homogeneity. The exception was for the participation of Intergovernmental Transfers in the Total Health Expenditure of the Municipality. We found a significant correlation between Budget Revenue per capita and Health Expenditure per capita and a strong significant negative correlation between Inflation Rate, Budget Revenue per capita and Health Expenditure per capita. We concluded that increased health expenditure is due more to higher municipal tax revenue than to increased transfers that, in relative terms, did not increase. The strong inverse relationship between inflation rate and the Financing and Expenditure variables show that the monetary policy's inflation goals have restricted health financing to municipalities.

  18. Description and assessment of regional sea-level trends and variability from altimetry and tide gauges at the northern Australian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharineiat, Zahra; Deng, Xiaoli

    2018-05-01

    This paper aims at providing a descriptive view of the low-frequency sea-level changes around the northern Australian coastline. Twenty years of sea-level observations from multi-mission satellite altimetry and tide gauges are used to characterize sea-level trends and inter-annual variability over the study region. The results show that the interannual sea-level fingerprint in the northern Australian coastline is closely related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) events, with the greatest influence on the Gulf Carpentaria, Arafura Sea, and the Timor Sea. The basin average of 14 tide-gauge time series is in strong agreement with the basin average of the altimeter data, with a root mean square difference of 18 mm and a correlation coefficient of 0.95. The rate of the sea-level trend over the altimetry period (6.3 ± 1.4 mm/yr) estimated from tide gauges is slightly higher than that (6.1 ± 1.3 mm/yr) from altimetry in the time interval 1993-2013, which can vary with the length of the time interval. Here we provide new insights into examining the significance of sea-level trends by applying the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This test is applied to assess if the trends are significant (upward or downward). Apart from a positive rate of sea-level trends are not statistically significant in this region due to the effects of natural variability. The findings suggest that altimetric trends are not significant along the coasts and some parts of the Gulf Carpentaria (14°S-8°S), where geophysical corrections (e.g., ocean tides) cannot be estimated accurately and altimeter measurements are contaminated by reflections from the land.

  19. Quantification of uranium levels in groundwater in the municipality of San Diego de la Union Mexico; Cuantificacion de los niveles de uranio en agua subterranea en el municipio de San Diego de la Union Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez M, H. [Universidad del Centro de Mexico, Capitan Caldera 75, Col. Tequixquiapan, 78250 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico); Rios L, M. J.; Gaytan H, D. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Enfermeria y Nutricion, Unidad de Posgrado, Av. Nino Artillero 130, 78210 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico); Romero G, E. T., E-mail: hector.hernandez520@gmail.com [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Laboratorio Forense Nuclear, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-10-15

    The objective of this work was to quantify the levels of uranium (U) in groundwater from 22 wells in the municipality of San Diego de la Union Mexico. The sampled wells were classified as not regularized and regularized according to records of the National Water Commission and classified by zones A, B, C, D and E. Samples were collected in triplicate in 1 L bottles, then acidified with ultra pure HNO{sub 3} at 2% v/v and conserved at 4 degrees Celsius until analysis by mass spectrometry with magnetic sector with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-SFMS). The preparation method was the acid digestion in the open system and re-concentration of the sample. In addition, 1 μg L{sup -1} of indium (In) was used as a tracer to know the performance of the method. Finally, the samples were diluted in 10 ml and introduced to the Icp-SFMS to measure in low resolution the U isotopes (U-234, U-235 and U-238). The average results obtained from total U were: A= 3.65 ± 1.89 μg L{sup -1}, B= 6.37 ± 1.46 μg L{sup -1}, C= 3.20 ± 2.27 μg L{sup -1}, D= 3.87 ± 1.31 μg L{sup -1} and E= 4.44 ± 1.17 μg L{sup -1}. According to the official Mexican standard NOM-014-CONAGUA-2003, the U levels found in the groundwater of San Diego de la Union Mexico do not exceed the permissible limits of 30 μg/L. (Author)

  20. THE IMPORTANCE OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN FUNDRAISING FOR MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Coriolano Barros Durand Junior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is the constant growth of the public administration challenges in meeting the huge demand generated by the needs in education, health, housing, infrastructure and social assistance,which can rarely be met only by the usual collection of fees of the municipalities. Hence, and in order to properly document the uses of public resources, the Federal Government adopted a new instance on the release of public funds to meet the demands of the municipalities by requiring the production of projects. Thus, mechanisms have been developed in order to receive and review projects developed in municipal levels.

  1. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description for high-level waste form development and qualification. Revision 3, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project has been established to convert the high-level radioactive waste associated with nuclear defense production at the Hanford Site into a waste form suitable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will mix processed radioactive waste with borosilicate material, then heat the mixture to its melting point (vitrification) to forin a glass-like substance that traps the radionuclides in the glass matrix upon cooling. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program has been established to support the mission of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. This Quality Assurance Program Description has been written to document the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program.

  2. User's guide for the implementation of level one of the proposed American National Standard Specifications for an information interchange data descriptive file on control data 6000/7000 series computers

    CERN Document Server

    Wiley, R A

    1977-01-01

    User's guide for the implementation of level one of the proposed American National Standard Specifications for an information interchange data descriptive file on control data 6000/7000 series computers

  3. Adaptive Municipal e-forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, P.M.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Boerma, A.K.; Weibelzahl, S.; Cristea, A.

    2006-01-01

    Adaptation of electronic forms seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer eforms online that can be used to request a municipal product or service. To create adaptive e-forms that satisfy the need of end-users, involvement of

  4. Study on Municipal Energy Companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    This is a summarizing overview of the local, renewable energy initiatives that are grouped under the heading of 'municipal energy company'. A municipal energy company (or sustainable energy company) is a local energy company that initiates, coordinates and/or manages sustainable energy projects with the primary objective of realizing the climate objectives. [nl

  5. Allocation of home care services by municipalities in Norway: a document analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Solrun G; Mathisen, Terje A; Sæterstrand, Torill M; Brinchmann, Berit S

    2017-09-22

    In Norway, elder care is primarily a municipal responsibility. Municipal health services strive to offer the 'lowest level of effective care,' and home healthcare services are defined as the lowest level of care in Norway. Municipalities determine the type(s) of service and the amount of care applicants require. The services granted are outlined in an individual decision letter, which serves as a contract between the municipality and the home healthcare recipient. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the scope and duration of home healthcare services allocated by municipalities and to determine where home care recipients live in relation to home healthcare service offices. A document analysis was performed on data derived from 833 letters to individuals allocated home care services in two municipalities in Northern Norway (Municipality A = 500 recipients, Municipality B = 333 recipients). In Municipality A, 74% of service hours were allotted to home health nursing, 12% to practical assistance, and 14% to support contact; in Municipality B, the distribution was 73%, 19%, and 8%, respectively. Both municipalities allocated home health services with no service end date (41% and 85% of the total services, respectively). Among recipients of "expired" services, 25% in Municipality A and 7% in Municipality B continued to receive assistance. Our findings reveal that the municipalities adhered to the goal for home care recipients to remain at home as long as possible before moving into a nursing home. The findings also indicate that the system for allocating home healthcare services may not be fair, as the municipalities lacked procedures for revising individual decisions. Our findings indicate that local authorities should closely examine how they design individual decisions and increase their awareness of how long a service should be provided.

  6. Indicadores epidemiológicos aplicáveis a estudos sobre a associação entre saneamento e saúde de base municipal Epidemiological indicators applied to studies about association between water supply and sanitation and health based on data at municipal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Silvério da Costa

    2005-06-01

    programs, as well as for identification of priorities, rational planning and funding of water supply and sanitation projects. The present paper is part of a broader study on the selection of sanitary indicators to be used as "sentinel indicators" for prevention and control of diseases associated to water and sanitation. In this context, this paper presents a brief literature review, descriptive statistics of some epidemiological indicators collected from municipalities of 4 Brazilian States, as well as a discussion on the applicability of these indicators in studies of this nature. Among the epidemiological indicators evaluated, infant mortality, diarrhoea mortality in children under 5 years old and the diarrhoea morbidity in children under 5 years old based on data from the Brazilian Monitoring of Acute Diarrhoeal Disease program seem to be the more adequate.

  7. Centralisation and decentralisation in strategic municipal energy planning in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Karl; Hvelplund, Frede; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    need for better coordination of municipal energy planning activities at the central level. It is suggested that the role of municipalities as energy planning authorities needs to be outlined more clearly in, e.g., strategic energy planning which integrates savings, efficiency and renewable energy...... vision. The paper outlines a basic division of tasks between the central and the local level within such a strategic energy planning system.......Denmark’s future energy system is to be entirely based on renewable energy sources. Municipalities will play an important role as local energy planning authorities in terms of adopting and refining this vision in different local contexts. Based on a review of 11 municipal energy plans, this paper...

  8. Community work – the missing link of municipal social policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moors M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Municipal social policy has an important role in dealing with social problems of citizens. On micro level, municipalities spend a substantial amount of their budget solving such problems. However, increasing the amount of money spent on solving problems of each individual at micro level does not provide efficient fulfilment of the tasks defined for municipal social policy making. Thus new, complementary solutions should be looked into, as new ways of development of social work in municipalities should be designed with the aim to increase the level of citizen participation and joint responsibility, especially of socially vulnerable groups. Research results let the author conclude that social activity of socially vulnerable groups should be promoted by creating a series of prerequisites, among which citizen participation, need for organisational support, activities that would foster politician and municipality officials’ attitude towards citizen participation and their social capital increase, two-way relationship between citizens and officials, and the worker that would promote citizen participation, among which is social policy making, are considered to be very important. All of this can be successfully reached by developing community work in local municipalities. This is the missing link to combine macro and micro levels, or political determination and practical implementation of citizen participation.

  9. An Exploration into the Municipal Capacity to Finance Capital Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almos T. Tassony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Municipal governments own and maintain two-thirds of Canada’s stock of public infrastructure. This burden is met by municipalities within the parameters afforded to them by their respective provinces. As a result, municipalities throughout the country rely on three primary revenue streams: issuing debt, financing from dedicated revenue and transfers from higher levels of government. At the same time, strict rules on borrowing, sometimes self-imposed, have left municipalities with considerable unrealized borrowing capacity. Importantly, a shift towards increased borrowing, away from a reliance on intergovernmental grants, would reinforce the linkage between local government spending and accountability and keep spending priorities in order. This paper focuses on infrastructure spending in Alberta and Ontario to illuminate how municipalities in both provinces cope with demands to provide capital- and labour-intensive programs and services. In both provinces, transportation, environmental services and recreation and culture comprise the bulk of infrastructure expenditure. In Ontario, as of 2013, 18 of the largest municipalities held assets valued at $111.8 billion. After accumulated depreciation, those assets are now estimated to be worth $73.8 billion, having lost $38 billion in value since their acquisition — although municipalities’ diligence varies. Mississauga has preserved 82.6 per cent of its assets’ original cost; Thunder Bay has only managed 45.6 per cent. In Alberta, 21 of the largest municipalities held assets valued at $51.7 billion in 2013, although thanks to depreciation, their value is now estimated at $37.8 billion. Again, there is significant variability between municipalities, with Wood Buffalo having preserved 98.6 per cent of its assets’ original value, and Crowsnest Pass with 43.9 per cent. In both provinces, the older the municipality and the weaker its fiscal capacity, the lower the net book value of its capital

  10. FINANCIAL CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR COLLECTING BODY OF A MUNICIPAL TAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article's main purpose is to propose fiscal control strategies for tax collection in a Hall of Carabobo state, taking into account the responsibility of municipal governments within its governance process to provide optimal services to citizens the municipality, in order to improve their quality of life. This research focused on the modality of feasible project and descriptive. The population under study consisted of 10 staff of the institution, applying a survey as a tool for information gathering, allowing coding, tabulating and analyzing the results. The findings established that the institution is presenting negatives in tax revenue of the municipality, which generates large arrears and tax evasion by citizens, hence leading to the importance of design strategies that lead to minimize this situation.

  11. Need for strengthened focus on cancer rehabilitation in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Adamsen, Lis; Kjær Brinkmann, Fie

    2015-01-01

    by “stop smoking” courses, dietary advice, physical training guidance, patient education and individual physical training. Inequality in referral by ethnicity, age and gender was reported.Challenges encountered included low patient numbers, inadequate collaboration within and across sectors and lack......Introduction: Danish municipalities have recently been given a mandate to organise cancer rehabilitation services.Knowledge is therefore needed about the services providedand their utilisation. The aim of this national Danish baseline survey was to explore the availability, utilisation, content...... and organisation of municipal cancer rehabilitation services. Methods: Electronic questionnaires were sent to all 98 Danish municipalities in January 2013. The questionnaire consisted of closed-ended and open-ended questions. Descriptive statistics and contents analysis were used. Results: A total of 91...

  12. Need for strengthened focus on cancer rehabilitation in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Adamsen, Lis; Brinkmann, Fie Kjær

    2015-01-01

    by "stop smoking" courses, dietary advice, physical training guidance, patient education and individual physical training. Inequality in referral by ethnicity, age and gender was reported. Challenges encountered included low patient numbers, inadequate collaboration within and across sectors and lack......INTRODUCTION: Danish municipalities have recently been given a mandate to organise cancer rehabilitation services. Knowledge is therefore needed about the services provided and their utilisation. The aim of this national Danish baseline survey was to explore the availability, utilisation, content...... and organisation of municipal cancer rehabilitation services. METHODS: Electronic questionnaires were sent to all 98 Danish municipalities in January 2013. The questionnaire consisted of closed-ended and open-ended questions. Descriptive statistics and contents analysis were used. RESULTS: A total of 91...

  13. [The values of different study designs on the levels of evidence: a descriptive analysis of the researches published in four general medical journals in 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zu-yao; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Shan-shan; Zhou, Yuan; DU, Yu-kun; Zhan, Si-yan

    2010-12-01

    To discuss the levels of evidence provided by different study designs. Websites of N Engl J Med, JAMA, Lancet, and BMJ were accessed to identify research articles (systematic review and meta-analysis included) published in 2009. A standardized data collection form was established using Epidata 3.1 software to extract the "title", "country of lead author", "clinical problem" (such as treatment, diagnosis, etc.) and "study design" of eligible studies. Descriptive statistics was conducted with SPSS 13.0. Over all, 844 studies were included, among which 35.7% were RCT, 9.4% systematic review and Meta-analysis, and 54.9% other types of studies. Regarding clinical problems, 34.2%, 19.7%, 13.7%, 6.0% and 5.1% of the included researches addressed the issues of treatment, etiology/risk factors, prevention, disease frequency and prognosis, respectively. The study designs that were most frequently adopted to explore these problems were RCT (70.6%), cohort study (44.6%), RCT (68.1%), cross-sectional study (56.9%), and cohort study (93.0%), respectively. High-level evidence does not come exclusively from RCT and systematic review, as each type of study may have its unique value in health related research. The clinical problem of interest, the previous work that has been done to approach the same issue, as well as other factors should be taken into account when deciding whether the selected study design is appropriate.

  14. Transforming your Municipal Electric Utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, P.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on what municipalities should and can do to prepare for a competitive energy market in Ontario. Particular attention was given to business strategies, restructuring and transformation of the Municipal Electric Utilities (MEU). Issues and questions regarding ownership were also discussed. Each municipality will have to decide what is the most appropriate governance and organizational structure for their MEU. It was noted that one of the most contentious areas is refinancing and rate structures. Issues regarding merger or partnering options were also discussed. 1 tab

  15. Descriptive statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Todd G

    2007-01-01

    Statistics is defined by the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) thesaurus as the science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The two broad categories of summarizing and analyzing data are referred to as descriptive and inferential statistics. This chapter considers the science and art of summarizing data where descriptive statistics and graphics are used to display data. In this chapter, we discuss the fundamentals of descriptive statistics, including describing qualitative and quantitative variables. For describing quantitative variables, measures of location and spread, for example the standard deviation, are presented along with graphical presentations. We also discuss distributions of statistics, for example the variance, as well as the use of transformations. The concepts in this chapter are useful for uncovering patterns within the data and for effectively presenting the results of a project.

  16. 40 CFR 62.15265 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... continuously estimate load level (for example, the feed rate of municipal solid waste or refuse-derived fuel... municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15265 Section 62.15265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units...

  17. Research challenges in municipal solid waste logistics management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Xiaoyun; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M; Ramos, Tania Rodrigues Pereira; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana Paula; Wong, Chee Yew; van der Vorst, Jack G A J

    2016-02-01

    During the last two decades, EU legislation has put increasing pressure on member countries to achieve specified recycling targets for municipal household waste. These targets can be obtained in various ways choosing collection methods, separation methods, decentral or central logistic systems, etc. This paper compares municipal solid waste (MSW) management practices in various EU countries to identify the characteristics and key issues from a waste management and reverse logistics point of view. Further, we investigate literature on modelling municipal solid waste logistics in general. Comparing issues addressed in literature with the identified issues in practice result in a research agenda for modelling municipal solid waste logistics in Europe. We conclude that waste recycling is a multi-disciplinary problem that needs to be considered at different decision levels simultaneously. A holistic view and taking into account the characteristics of different waste types are necessary when modelling a reverse supply chain for MSW recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Climate Ambassador Programmes in Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pedersen, Stine Rahbek

    2016-01-01

    Some Danish municipalities have developed ambassador programmes which generate environmental and climate change mitigation efforts in local public administrations and institutions. This chapter analyses the characteristics and experiences of four ambassador programmes now operating...

  19. Energy management in municipal heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Energie-Cites has organized a week dedicated to the practices of energy consumption management in the municipalities and to network practices for energy efficiency. Practical presentations and site visits provided the participants with many methodological elements on energy policy, electricity demand management, optimising the design of municipal buildings, energy efficiency, integrated logistics for use of biomass energy, methods of energy consumption monitoring, legal framework for energy efficiency. (A.L.B.)

  20. Interim oceanographic description of the North-East-Atlantic site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.R.; Gurbutt, P.A.; Kershaw, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The NEA Co-ordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme (CRESP) related to sea disposal of radioactive waste was started in 1981 following a recommendation of the Group of experts convened every five years by NEA to review the continued suitability of the dumping site for radioactive waste in the North-East Atlantic. The objective of CRESP is to increase the available scientific data base related to the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the dump site and elaborate a site specific model of the transfers of radionuclides to human populations. Volume one of the ''Interim Oceanographic Description of the North-East Atlantic Site for the Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste'' was published in early 1983. It was an attempt to identify remaining gaps in current knowledge of conditions at the site and relate these conditions to the physical environment of the North-East Atlantic Ocean as a whole. The amount of data obtained by the CRESP Programme is now sufficient to justify publication of this second volume. Scientists present results of research which is of direct relevance to a better assessment of the impact from dumping radioactive waste in the North-East Atlantic, in particular an evaluation of the potential radiation doses to man. These two volumes represent part of the scientific contribution of the CRESP Programme to the 1985 Review of the Continued Suitability of the North-East Atlantic dump site

  1. Municipal sludge disposal economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J L [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA; Bomberger, Jr, D C; Lewis, F M

    1977-10-01

    Costs for disposal of sludges from a municipal wastewater treatment plant normally represents greater than or equal to 25% of the total plant operating cost. The following 5 sludge handling options are considered: chemical conditioning followed by vacuum filtration, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration or filter press prior to incineration; thermal conditioning, vacuum filtraton, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration, with ash to landfill; aerobic or anaerobic digestion, followed by chemical conditioning, vacuum filtration, and disposal on land; and chemical conditioning, followed by a filter press, flash dryer, and sale as fertilizer. The 1st 2 options result in the ultimate disposal of small amounts of ash in a landfill; the digestion options require a significant landfill; the fertilizer option requires a successful marketing and sales effort. To compare the economies of scale for the options, analyses were performed for 3 plant capacities - 10, 100, and 500 mgd; as plant size increases, the economies of scale for incineration system are quite favorable. The anaerobic digestion system has a poorer capital cost-scaling factor. The incinerator options which start with chemical conditioning consume much less electrical power at all treatment plant sizes; incinerator after thermal conditioning uses more electricity but less fuel. Digestion requires no direct external fossil fuel input. The relative use of fuel is constant at all plant sizes for other options. The incinerator options can produce a significant amount of steam which may be used. The anaerobic digestion process can be a significant net producer of fuel gas.

  2. Knowledge and technology transfer to improve the municipal solid waste management system of Durango City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Vázquez, Roberto; Pérez-López, Maria E; Vicencio-de-la-Rosa, María G; Martínez-Prado, María A; Rubio-Hernández, Rubén

    2014-09-01

    As society evolves its welfare level increases, and as a consequence the amount of municipal solid waste increases, imposing great challenges to municipal authorities. In developed countries, municipalities have established integrated management schemes to handle, treat, and dispose of municipal solid waste in an economical and environmentally sound manner. Municipalities of developing and transition countries are not exempted from the challenges involving municipal solid waste handling, but their task is not easy to accomplish since they face budget deficits, lack of knowledge, and deficiencies in infrastructure and equipment. In the northern territory of Mexico, the municipality of Durango is facing the challenge of increased volumes of waste with a lack of adequate facilities and infrastructure. This article analyses the evolution of the municipal solid waste management of Durango city, which includes actions such as proper facilities construction, equipment acquisition, and the implementation of social programmes. The World Bank, offering courses to municipal managers on landfill operation and waste management, promoted the process of knowledge and technology transfer. Thereafter, municipal authorities attended regional and some international workshops on waste management. In addition they followed suggestions of international contractors and equipment dealers with the intention to improve the situation of the waste management of the city. After a 15-year period, transfer of knowledge and technology resulted in a modern municipal solid waste management system in Durango municipality. The actual system did not reach the standard levels of an integrated waste management system, nevertheless, a functional evaluation shows clear indications that municipality actions have put them on the right pathway. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. How efficient are municipalities in activating cash-help recipients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weatherall, James; Beltov, Tor

    Previous studies do not analyse activation starts as the parameter of interest in evaluating labour market programs. In this paper we evaluate municipality ability to activate cash-help recipients, which helps recipients gain the necessary skills vital to future regular employment in Denmark...... policy (ALMP) practices and organisation can only determine activation participation to a certain extent because unemployed cash-help recipient ability affects participation in activation. Municipalities can improve activation efficiency levels in the future by emulating the efficient municipalities...

  4. The Port Hope area initiative municipal involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, Rick; Stevenson, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Port Hope (Canada) contains one of the world's oldest nuclear facility sites. From the 1930's through to the 1970's, processing residues from radium refining facilities located at the Port Hope Harbour were being stored and/or deposited on numerous sites throughout the municipality. For a variety of reasons, including spillage of material during transportation and un-monitored or unauthorized diversion of materials, many private and public properties in the municipality were contaminated with low level radioactive waste. Over the past 30 years, the community has demanded that the nuclear industry and the federal government clean up the mess left in Port Hope. In the 1980's and 1990's, the federal government sought to fulfill its commitment to clean up over one million cubic metres of contaminated material remaining in Port Hope but was unable to find a solution. The Low Level Radioactive Waste Management Siting Task Force worked in trying to find a home for historic LLRW in the 1980's and 1990's. It is only within the past 6 years that Port Hope's community began to see the 'light at the end of the tunnel'. And, the light began to shine when the communities took the issue of long term management of the waste into their own hands and proposed possible solutions to the federal government. So the Port Hope Area Initiative is a community-based initiative. In this paper the author presents some of the reasons for success (so far) and some opportunities and challenges that his municipality, and specifically municipal Council, faces as a partner in this Environmental Assessment and project development process. He addresses some of the key elements of the Project that he believes have led to the success of the Project to this point, including: the Legal Agreement and Agreement Monitoring process; the Property Value Protection Program; the Hosting Fee; the Municipal veto on some decisions; the end Use as an asset to the Community; the Value of Peer Review. He also touches

  5. Social Capital, Well-Being and Municipality: Salaspils Municipality (Latvia Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jēkabsone Inga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades, social capital has gained prominence throughout the social sciences. The concepts has been analysed in various manners (from perspectives of economics, political sciences, sociology, anthropology etc. providing wide range of theoretical conceptualizations. The aim of paper is to analyse the relation of social capital and possibility to improve the well-being of the municipality’s citizens using co-responsibility approach. In order to achieve the aim, the tasks are formulated as follows: 1 to review theoretical background for concept of social capital and subjective well-being, 2 to analyse the factors of social capital at local level, and 3 to use the results of conducted empirical research at Salaspils municipality in analysing the correlation of level of social capital and possibility to improve well-being implementing inclusive local management. Research methods used: Scientific literature studies, several stages of focus group discussions, statistical data analysis, SPIRAL methodology, scenario method. The main findings of the paper - there are evidences on relation of social capital and possibility to improve the well-being of the municipality’s citizens. In municipalities with sufficient level of social capital are good opportunities to use participatory techniques for achieving higher level of overall well-being. The paper consists of practical value how to mobilise the social capital of the municipality in order to ensure the inclusive management of the territory.

  6. Analysis of the Unified Health System funding and expenditure in the municipalities of the "Rota dos Bandeirantes" health region, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João Alves Dos; Mendes, Áquilas Nogueira; Pereira, Antônio Carlos; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2017-04-01

    The national scenario of lack of resources in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) has led to major differences in the municipalities funding models. Thus, this study aims to analyze SUS funding and expenditure in seven cities of the Rota dos Bandeirantes health region, State of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, from 2009 to 2012. Settled expenditure indicators were collected from the Public Health Budgets Information System (SIOPS) for analysis, showing descriptive data with absolute and relative frequency calculations. We identified that the per capita income available for the city of Barueri is almost tenfold that of the city of Carapicuíba, and that Barueri's health expenditure per capita is more than double that of the regional average and almost fivefold that of Carapicuíba. The Federal Government is responsible for 95.4% of all funding to municipalities. Most of the available income of the municipalities in the region include their own taxes and state transfers. All the municipalities showed a significant positive trend, both for available income and health expenditure. The regional average of own revenue spent on health is 27.3%. Carapicuíba achieved a level of 37.5%, which is much higher than the minimum of 15% required by the Federal Constitution.

  7. Evaluation of Development of Cooperation in South Bohemian Municipalities in the Years 2007–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušek Jiří

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of the research of cooperation of municipalities in the South Bohemian Region, focused on the analysis of forms and means of cooperation between 2007 and 2014. The published results are part of an internal research that lasted for many years, the goal of which was both to analyse the development of cooperation of municipalities in the studied region and to identify the prerequisites and barriers of all cooperative relations. The research was done on a sample of 623 South Bohemian municipalities in the period of 2007-2010 and 2013- 2016, the obtained data was processed using descriptive statistics and multidimensional statistical methods, and the results show an almost 20% increase in the means of municipal cooperation across the entire South Bohemian Region. Based on the respective means of cooperation, National Healthy Cities Network of the Czech Republic saw the biggest growth, amounting to +3.275% between 2007 and 2014. Participation in local action groups, where the total of 580 municipalities are already engaged, increased by 32.12%. Although less dynamic, this growth is much more important, as it significantly contributes to the development of rural areas and their absorption abilities, mainly as regards financial resources from the national and European sources. However, fragmented means of municipal cooperation is a current problem of cooperation of municipalities, leading to the disintegrated power of the respective municipalities.

  8. Programa Nacional de Vigilância em Saúde Ambiental Relacionada à Qualidade da Água para Consumo Humano (Vigiagua: lacunas entre a formulação do programa e sua implantação na instância municipal Drinking-water Quality Surveillance Programme (Vigiagua: identifying gaps in policy making and program implementation on the municipal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Lanza Queiroz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação e o acompanhamento das ações do Programa Nacional de Vigilância em Saúde Ambiental Relacionada à Qualidade da Água para Consumo Humano (Vigiagua são importantes para validar o processo de trabalho, identificar nós e sugerir mudanças objetivando o avanço do Programa. Trabalhos sobre o Vigiagua geralmente exploram aspectos quantitativos e metas atingidas, inexistindo uma avaliação qualitativa sobre a sua implantação na instância municipal. Assim, práticas rotineiras preconizadas pelo Ministério da Saúde referentes à identificação e ao cadastramento das formas de abastecimento de água, à espacialização e ao compartilhamento de informações, intraorganizacional e intersetorialmente, são analisadas por meio de falas captadas em entrevistas com profissionais do Vigiagua em três municípios de diferentes portes populacionais. Recorreu-se ao método da análise de conteúdo de Bardin (1994 para o tratamento e a análise dos relatos, que revelou persistir dificuldades para cadastramento e vigilância a instalações de abastecimento de água, a não realização de séries temporais, a deficiência de instrumentos de georreferenciamento e a integração incipiente entre setores. Ainda, a integração entre a prática dos profissionais do Vigiagua e da Vigilância Epidemiológica é incipiente nos três municípios, restringindo-se basicamente a situações de surto. A implantação muito recente do Vigiagua aponta para a importância de avaliações visando, assim, seu aprimoramento.The monitoring and evaluation of Vigiagua - Brazil's drinking-water quality surveillance programme (Vigiagua - are a potentially important source of programme improvements. Published documentation on Vigiagua refers mainly to its quantitative aspects and achievements, but we present here the results of a qualitative evaluation of the programme's functioning at municipal level, seeking to validate the methodology, identify constraints

  9. Do Municipal Governments Need More Tax Powers? A Background Paper on Municipal Finance in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melville McMillan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Local governments in Alberta have faced considerable and variable challenges over the past 60 years. For example, the rapid population and economic growth during the 1950s, ’60s and ’70s created exceptional demands for schools, schooling and municipal infrastructure; demands exceeding those of the last 30 years. Local and especially municipal financing has relied heavily on the property tax throughout. Questions are being asked today about whether the property tax is sufficient for municipal government. Our historical analysis provides insights into the fiscal situation of Alberta’s municipalities that can assist in addressing those questions. The main findings are highlighted here. We conclude that current demands, though considerable, are not creating stress on the property tax as a source of municipal revenue. • The property tax burden in Alberta during the past decade is the lowest that it has been over the past 60 years. Presently, property taxes are about 3.5 per cent of personal income. They were as high as seven per cent during much of the 1960s and averaged in the four to five per cent range from 1950 to 2000. Local and provincial school taxes were responsible for most of the fluctuations in the property tax burden. Municipal property taxes ranged from two to three per cent of personal incomes and recently amounted to about 2.5 per cent, a level typical of that over the past 20 years. • Investment in local infrastructure has over the past 30 years been at half the rate of that of the previous 30 years. Only since 2006, with the assistance of provincial capital grants, has infrastructure spending shown upward movement. Capital spending lagged population growth for many years and probably contributed to a deterioration of infrastructure. • Municipal current or operating expenditures (about three-quarters of the total have been a declining share of personal incomes since the late 1980s and, since 2000, are a smaller share than

  10. Privatization of municipal electrical utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges and special issues which arise through the sale of a municipal electric utility were discussed. The recent sales of two utilities, the Kentville Electric Commission in Nova Scotia and Cornwall Electric in Ontario, were used as examples to show how the sale of an electric utility differs from the sale of most business enterprises. Municipal utilities are integral parts of the communities they serve which introduces several complexities into the sale. Factors that require special attention in the sale of the utilities, including electricity rates, local accountability, treatment of employees and local economic development, and the need for a comprehensive communication program to deal with the substantial public interest that sale of a municipal utility will engender, were reviewed

  11. Municipal Development Plan, Acerra (Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Benevolo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Municipal Development Plan (Piano Urbanistico Comunale - PUC of Acerra has been drafted by a group of young professionals and researchers, led by Leonardo Benevolo, in accordance with the guidelines laid out by Regional Law no. 16 of 2004. Its complex drafting process was compressed into a brief, nine-month period in 2008 and 2009, at the end of which its initial adoption (or “predisposizione” – “preparation” or “predisposition” – in Italian legal terms was ratified by the municipal council. This article reconstructs the key moments, illustrating the main elements of the plan and how the debate about it took shape both inside and outside the municipal administration.

  12. Liberalisation of municipal waste handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    2006-01-01

    for improved performance of municipal waste management. The study stresses the need for training and guidance of municipal administrators. Highlighting ‘best practice’ examples the study shows, however, that it is perfectly possible to end up with quality service on contract. It takes a mixture of careful...... of price reductions in stead of quality demands in both environmental and working environmental terms. A recent study showed major deficits in the capacities of the municipalities to administer qualitative requirements in the tender process and to manage the contracts as an integral part of a scheme...... forces and low quality performance. By assuming responsibility, setting and following up on high quality standards the tender instrument presents an additional instrument to legislation and market based means to institutionalize more sustainable practices in waste management...

  13. Teatro Municipal, en Gelsenkirchen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhnau, Werner

    1963-10-01

    Full Text Available Two very up to date principles have been tried at Gelsenkirchen, namely that of «transformable theatre», and the integration of the style of a building with that of the town and the landscape. Following these principles, two municipal theatres have been built, one seating 1,050 and the other 450 spectators. They are situated in the centre of the city, and constitute the nucleus of a new cultural centre in the midst of a highly industrial town; This is a project not aimed at any particular social group, but placed at the service of every man with an intellectual or artistic interest. These two buildings have reinforced concrete structures, metal roofs, and the trusses are protected against Are by means of a special asbestos treatment. Efficient air conditioning ducts are taken inside suspended concrete tubing, which run over the main theatre hall. This air conditioning produces no audible noise. The «transformability» of the theatre presented other difficult accoustical problems, which were overcome by means of plates which osciIate and open out. Aluminium laminas, with a large number of tiny holes to absorb noise, have also been fitted. These two buildings involve a close cooperation between the plastic artist and the architect. A number of works by Paul Dierkes and Yves Klein are placed inside these theatres. Externally. they are adorned with a concrete sculpture by Robert Adams, seeking to express the power of the spirit over matter.Dos principios muy de actualidad —de «teatro transformable» y de integración de la arquitectura en la ciudad y paisaje— han sido intentados en Gelsenkirchen, donde se construyeron dos teatros municipales: uno con 1.050 localidades y otro con 450. Emplazados en el centro de la ciudad, constituyen, como el núcleo de un nuevo foro, una obra al servicio del arte, del espíritu, en medio de una urbe industrial: una obra destinada no a una determinada clase social, sino para cada hombre interesado intelectual

  14. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  15. The municipality as a stakeholder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmqvist, Roland

    2006-01-01

    The author explains how local politicians look upon the dialogue regarding nuclear installations in their municipalities. As seen from the map of European reactors there is a lot of local districts affected by nuclear operations. What has a mayor from such a community to say about the shut-down phase of such operations and especially about the need for communication between stakeholders when closing and decommissioning a nuclear power reactor? To answer this question the author has structured his presentation into 4 parts as follows: 1. The European municipalities ? some characteristics; 2. The siting of NPPs (nuclear power plants) in Europe; 3. The shutdown, decommissioning and the dismantling phases; 4. Lessons learnt

  16. Adaptation to Climate Change in Risk and Vulnerability Analysis on a Municipal Level, a basis for further work; Anpassning till klimatfoeraendringar i risk- och saarbarhetsanalyser paa kommunal nivaa, underlag foer fortsatt arbete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mossberg Sonnek, Karin; Lindberg, Anna; Lindgren, Johan

    2007-12-15

    The aim of Risk and Vulnerability Analysis (RVA) at local authority level in Sweden is to increase the capacity of local authorities to handle crises and to reduce vulnerability in the community. RVA processes could be an appropriate starting-point for discussions on how the community is influenced by climate change and how its effects could be reduced using various adjustment measures. In the report we present four methods: ROSA, MVA, IBERO and the Car Dun AB method. These have all been developed to support Swedish local authority RVA processes. We also present five international frameworks that have been developed by the organisations UNDP, USAID, UKCIP, C-CIARN and CSIRO to help decision-makers and stakeholders to adapt to climate change. Together, these descriptions form a foundation for continuing the work being done within the project Climatools, in which tools are being produced to be used by local authorities in adapting to climate change. In the report, we also discuss the concepts 'risk', 'vulnerability' and 'adaptation' and how analysis of adaptation to climate change has changed in recent years.

  17. Innovation Forms and Mechanisms of Forming the Conception of Effective Municipal Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Aleksandrovna Mikhaylova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic, uncertain external environment increases the dependence of the objectives of the system of state and municipal government on the conditions and the actions of environmental factors that entail a change in the behavior of the subjects of management, improving the ability of government to carry out strategic management and interaction of bodies of state and municipal authorities with the city-forming enterprises. The article revealed the lack of alternative mechanisms, based on an integrated management system industries and areas of the municipality and to improve the efficiency of the municipal administration in general. The use of innovative methods and mechanisms is important in the municipal administration. The analysis of innovative technologies and concepts of effective management of a municipality, such as: the “smart city” or high-tech city; “open city” or “open municipality”; city corporation or a city as in excess of corporation; city management is based on the model “contract manager”; quality management technology built into the system of municipal management based on the quality management system model. The analysis showed that the state and municipal institutions in many developed countries and in Russia are converted in order to improve its efficiency, ensuring higher service levels and transparency of its operations, giving a positive example for the extrapolation of the municipalities that have not yet using innovative forms and mechanisms management. In general, the application of innovative developments in the formation of the concept of effective municipal administration should be maintained as the regional and municipal authorities, as well as at the federal level, as innovation is the key to the further development of state and municipal management system.

  18. Operation and profits of energy boards. A study of the basis of municipal business activities and the equitableness of the profits of municipal energy boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karhu, V.; Nissinen, T.; Valkama, P.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the empirical part of the study (Chapter 6) is to evaluate the equitableness of profits on capital invested of the 16 municipal energy boards selected for this study and, at the same time, to create a general evaluation basis for equity decisions made by the authorities case by case. In this part of the study, answers are sought for the following questions: (1) how has the economic situation of the energy boards studied been recently developing based on various economic parameters? (2) have there been differences in the returns and profitability of energy boards operating as public utilities or energy boards operating in company form? (3) what kind of a price level the energy boards studied have maintained in relation to the national averages of this field? (4) is a city in a weaker economic position more tempted to require higher profits on capital invested than a city with a sound economic basis? (5) how high profits on capital invested can be considered reasonable for the whole energy board and particularly for a network business holding a monopoly? The structure of the study is as follows. Chapter 2 contains a brief description of the energy boards selected for this study and of the economic situation of the cities owning them. The theoretical part of the study is included in Chapter 3 'Municipal Self-Government and Business'. It analyses rather deeply the terminology of the municipal business, norm basis, steering of actions, restructuring of companies into business profit centres and privatisation, as well as application of the Act on Restrictions on Competition from the standpoint of a municipal self-government. Chapter 4 deals with the establishment of energy board activity, the legal basis and the criteria for pricing electricity, network services and district heat. Chapter 5 examines the Act on Restrictions on Competition as a regulator of the energy board activities. After this, there are the presentations of the research results of the

  19. Descriptive data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cheryl Bagley

    2009-01-01

    This 13th article of the Basics of Research series is first in a short series on statistical analysis. These articles will discuss creating your statistical analysis plan, levels of measurement, descriptive statistics, probability theory, inferential statistics, and general considerations for interpretation of the results of a statistical analysis.

  20. Allegheny County Municipal Land Use Ordinances

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Many municipalities have their own land use ordinances and establish standards and requirements for land use and development in that municipality. This dataset is...

  1. Evaluation in Physical Education: an analysis in state and municipal schools in Maringá-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Giovana dos Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to evaluation deal with many issues that Physical Education, as a pedagogical subject, has been facing. In order to investigate these aspects, this study has as its aim to analyse how and with purpose, the professionals from the area of Physical Education are evaluating studentes from the 5th to the 8th forms in state and municipal schools in Maringá. A questionnaire was used. The sample was formed by 30 teachers from 12 schools: 15 teachers from state schools and 15 from municipal schools. Descriptive statistics at simple frequency level and non-parametric test (χ2 were used. Results show that evaluation in the subject Physical Education is performed only to follow the norms, without planning and consequently without pre-defined educational objectives showing, thus, the contradictions and confusions inherent to evaluation modalities by the professionals of this area. These professionals demonstrated the precaroiusness of the understanding of evaluation role in teaching-learning process.

  2. Modes of governance for municipal energy efficiency services - the case of LED street lighting in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polzin, F.H.J.; von Flotow, Paschen; Nolden, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits are often impeded by high perceived investment risks, long payback periods and a lack of skills. At the municipal level these issues are particularly pronounced as procuring, implementing, and managing retrofits can exceed existing municipal governance capacities. The

  3. Urban ecology and the municipal utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    Current management of municipal utilities for energy, water and solid waste is often in conflict with the ideas of ecological demonstrationprojects. The writer argue there is a need of transformation within municipal utilities and a need of new planning tools......Current management of municipal utilities for energy, water and solid waste is often in conflict with the ideas of ecological demonstrationprojects. The writer argue there is a need of transformation within municipal utilities and a need of new planning tools...

  4. Analysis of Municipal Pipe Network Franchise Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Sun; Haichuan, Tian; Feng, Xu; Huixia, Zhou

    Franchise institution of municipal pipe network has some particularity due to the characteristic of itself. According to the exposition of Chinese municipal pipe network industry franchise institution, the article investigates the necessity of implementing municipal pipe network franchise institution in China, the role of government in the process and so on. And this offers support for the successful implementation of municipal pipe network franchise institution in China.

  5. Municipal waste - management and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paudel, E.S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Though per capita waste generation in Nepalese urban cities is not so high, the lack of proper waste management is considered one of the severe problems to be faced by urban people in future. With rapid urbanization, life style of people is changing their habits and consuming more materials and producing a large volume of waste in urban areas in Nepal. The nature and amount of waste generated in municipality is dependent of demography and geography. But most common aspect of municipal waste in Nepal is more than 60% of the waste biodegradable. Whatever the nature and amount of waste generated, the most common practice of managing municipal waste is to dispose in the riverside nearby or dumped elsewhere. The involvement of private sector in waste management is a new concept adopted by many municipalities in Nepal. One of the most progress approaches, 4R (reduces, reuse, recycle and refuse) principle is being practiced. The need of awareness progressive like segregation of wastes at collection point also being practiced in Nepal. Finally, Proper formulation of program and legislation and its application is one of the major challenges for local authorities in Nepal. (author)

  6. 76 FR 823 - Registration of Municipal Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... financial products.\\12\\ For example, as derivatives have developed in the municipal securities market, some... public information regarding the size of the municipal securities derivative market. Estimates of the..., Municipal Derivative Securities--Uses and Valuation 21 (1995) (discussion of revenue bonds). See also...

  7. Some remarks on bankrupt municipalities | Stander | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insolvency of municipalities is no longer a rare incident; it is a reality. It is interesting to note that even in the United States of America the insolvency of municipalities is currently an equally serious concern. In South Africa there is much speculation regarding the causes of the insolvency of municipalities, and possible ...

  8. Municipal Revenue Generation and Development in the Calgary and Edmonton Metropolitan Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Conger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipal reliance on property taxes and the competing priorities of municipalities—in terms of where they plan and approve land development within their boundaries—in order to capture new property taxes, has led to political conflict between adjacent municipalities.1 Nowhere in Alberta is this more evident than in the Edmonton and Calgary metropolitan regions, where sustained high-levels of growth has led to the expansion of the core-cities, rapid residential development rates in peripheral urban centres and the rise urban-scale development in the rural municipal districts – spurring intrametropolitan competition, harsh words and hurt feelings amongst municipalities.2 In response to this ongoing conflict, the province and at times the municipalities themselves have developed successive regional planning frameworks over the past 60 years3 to guide development and encourage—and at times enforce—intermunicipal collaboration. In an exploration of the contemporary relationship between municipal finance and development patterns in the Calgary and Edmonton metropolitan regions, we use municipal property tax and building-permit data for new residential, commercial and industrial development to track the incidence of development since 1983 and the property tax rates for municipalities in both regions from 2001 to 2015. In looking at the tax data there is evidence of increasing competition among municipalities, in particular for non-residential development; however, the trends could also be consistent with collusion. In looking at the building permit data, although there has been a lot of development in the peripheral urban and rural municipalities, proportionately, growth and development has occurred overwhelmingly in the core-cities. Our findings point to a system where local development considerations in both metropolitan regions, and the municipal prerogative to set municipal tax rates to attract development, take precedence over the

  9. Planning future care services: Analyses of investments in Norwegian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Terje P; Tingvold, Laila

    2018-06-01

    To analyse whether the Norwegian Central Government's goal of subsidizing 12,000 places in nursing homes or sheltered housing using an earmarked grant was reached and to determine towards which group of users the planned investments were targeted. Data from the investment plans at municipal level were provided by the Norwegian Housing Bank and linked to variables describing the municipalities' financial situation as well as variables describing the local needs for services provided by Statistics Norway. Using regression analyses we estimated the associations between municipal characteristics and planned investments in total and by type of care place. The Norwegian Central Government reached its goal of giving subsidies to 12,000 new or rebuilt places in nursing homes and sheltered housing. A total of 54% of the subsidies (6878 places) were given to places in nursing homes. About 7500 places were available by the end of the planning period and the rest were under construction. About 50% of the places were planned for user groups aged Investments in nursing homes were correlated with the share of the population older than 80 years and investments in sheltered houses were correlated with the share of users with intellectual disabilities. Earmarked grants to municipalities can be adequate measures to affect local resource allocation and thereby stimulate investments in future care. With the current institutional setup the municipalities adapt investments to local needs.

  10. Shared use agreements between municipalities and public schools in the United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, John D; Carlson, Susan A; Paul, Prabasaj; Sliwa, Sarah; Onufrak, Stephen J; Fulton, Janet E

    2017-02-01

    Shared use agreements allow public use of school facilities during non-school hours. Such agreements can cover outdoor facilities alone or may be more comprehensive by also including indoor facilities. Our aim was to: 1) estimate the prevalence of shared use agreements and facility types covered among U.S. municipalities and 2) identify differences in prevalence by municipality characteristics. The 2014 National Survey of Community-based Policy and Environmental Supports for Healthy Eating and Active Living is a representative survey of US municipalities (n=2029). Data were analyzed using survey weights to create national estimates. Logistic and multinomial regression models determined odds ratios adjusting for municipality characteristics. Among 1930 municipalities with a school, 41.6% had a shared use agreement as reported by a local official, 45.6% did not, and 12.8% did not know. Significant differences in prevalence existed by population size, rural/urban status, poverty prevalence, median education level, and census region; however, after adjustment for other municipality characteristics significant differences remained only by population size, median education level, and census region. Among municipalities with a shared use agreement, 59.6% covered both outdoor and indoor facilities, 5.5% covered indoor facilities only, and 34.9% covered outdoor facilities only. Opportunities exist to expand the use of shared use agreements particularly in municipalities with small populations, lower education levels, and in the South, and to promote more comprehensive shared use agreements that include both indoor and outdoor facilities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Performance management by co-operating and participating. Lessons learned from transfering service responsibiliy from state to municipal level Árangursstjórnun með samstarfi og þátttöku: Lærdómur af yfirfærslu verkefna frá ríki til sveitarfélaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óskar Dýrmundur Ólafsson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning from decentralization of services from state to municipal level: The transfer of services from state to municipality level in the past 15 years has created an environment for learning and provides opportunities for development and innovation. This article is mainly based on findings from a case study in Akureyri, a municipality in north Iceland, which did implement services from the state to the municipal level and has been called the Akureyri model. The change was made possible by a legislative change in 1994. The case study is based on qualitative interviews with management personel about their management methods during implementation and data collection from previous sources. Findings show that cross-professional methods, wholistic solutions and a service orientated approach matter for performance. The organizational structure of the municipality support these methods and can improve performance. When managing municipalities it is recommended to put more emphasize on empowerment, learning and enable possibilities to increase efficiency by systems thinking.Yfrfærsla á þjónustu frá ríki til sveitarfélaga sem hefur átt sér stað síðastliðinn 15 ár hefur stuðlað að þróun og nýsköpun hjá sveitarfélögunum. Því er gagnlegt að líta til reynslu þeirra og draga fram lærdóm um slíkar breytingar. Þessi grein byggir meðal annars á niðurstöðum tilviksrannsóknar um stjórnun Akureyrarbæjar við yfirfærslu þjónustu frá ríki til sveitarfélaga. Hófust breytingarnar með lögum frá 1994 og gengu undir heitinu Akureyrarlíkanið. Tekin voru sex viðtöl við stjórnendur bæjarins og reynsla þeirra af yfirfærslunni sem og aðferðir við stjórnun skoðuð. Fram kom að árangur þeirra byggðist meðal annars á þverfaglegu samstarfi, heildstæðum lausnum og þjónustu sem byggist fyrst og fremst á þörfum íbúa. Skipulag sveitarfélaga hentaði vel til þess að ná þessum árangri. Fram kemur a

  12. [Municipal public health spending in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, from 2000 to 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espírito Santo, Antônio Carlos Gomes do; Fernando, Virgínia Conceição Nascimento; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola Benjamin

    2012-04-01

    In order to assess the impact of macro-political measures implemented in the latter half of the 1990s on the increase in public spending on health and the possible reduction in allocation inequity, a descriptive, quantitative, cross-sectional study was carried out involving 184 municipalities in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Data from the Public Health Budget Information System was used, with the selected indicator being spending on health per inhabitant under the responsibility of the municipality. The correlations of this variable with the municipal Human Development Index, population size and value of the municipal budget per capita were analyzed. It was seen that, although the mean increase in municipal spending on health is 190.76%, the value per capita has remained relatively low - at around R$183.79 - which is below the national and macro-regional averages. Both spending on health per capita and growth percentages are distributed irregularly among health regions as well as among municipalities within a single region. In conclusion, there is marked allocation inequity among municipalities with regard to the distribution of public resources for health, despite the macro-political measures adopted to reduce this inequity.

  13. A Comprehensive Model of Municipal Housing Stock Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muczyński Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In many European countries there are still substantial housing needs which social landlords have to fulfill. Especially in countries with a shortage of affordable housing for underprivileged households, the effective and efficient management of the existing social housing stock, which includes technical, social, financial and tenure management activities on the strategic, tactical and operational level, is very important. The paper presents a comprehensive model of municipal housing stock management in the context of Polish conditions. This model was built by adapting the multidimensional concept of real estate management originally developed for commercial real estate portfolio management. It shows an integrative view of municipal housing stock management in Poland and contributes to the better organization and coordination of management activities and tasks in this area. The prepared model may be of interest to other countries where the functions of social landlords are mostly carried out directly by municipalities and their organizational units.

  14. A municipal forest report card: Results for California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.Gregory McPherson; Louren Kotow

    2013-01-01

    This study integrates two existing computer programs, the Pest Vulnerability Matrix and i-Tree Streets, into a decision-support tool for assessing municipal forest stability and recommending strategies to mitigate risk of loss. A report card concept was developed to communicate levels of performance in terms that managers and the public easily understand. Grades were...

  15. Fooling the Market? Municipal Yields and Unfunded State Pension Liabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekniute, Z.; Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Ponds, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Existing empirical evidence at the country level exhibits a positive relationship between public indebtedness and the yield on the public debt. Using panel data over the period 2001 – 2014, we show that this relationship holds also for municipal bond yields and the indebtedness of U.S. states.

  16. Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors For Cost-Effective Municipal Water Reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgün, H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology has been increasingly researched for municipal wastewater treatment as a means to produce nutrient-rich, solids free effluents with low levels of pathogens, while occupying a small footprint. An AnMBR can be used not only for on-site

  17. Regional and municipal energetic statistics - Sao Paulo State - 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The main Brazilian energetic information for subsidizing planning studies in regional and municipal level are presented, including data for the year 1987 that represent the sale of the main petroleum by-product and hydrated alcohol and the electricity consumption. (C.G.C.)

  18. Career Trajectories of Municipal Servants: Two Types of Professional Mobility (Case Study in Novgorod Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Kurakin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The case study of a district in the Novgorod region shows some scenarios of recruiting new employees in the district and town municipalities, their work motivation and the most plausible career trajectories. The author argues that on the municipal level (district or its administrative center there are parallel career ladders for the top-ranked municipal clerks and for the rest of the municipal staff: the career trajectory of the high-ranked clerks can be described as a step-by-step trajectory, while the one of the lower-ranked employees — as a shuttle trajectory. There is an almost insurmountable border line between these two levels of municipal hierarchy, an obstacle for implementing the classical Weberian characteristics of “proper” bureaucracy: meritocratic recruitment and workers’ promotion and predictable long-term career ladders.

  19. Opportunities and Challenges for Public Primary School Head Teachers in the Implementation of Free Primary Education in Kisumu Municipality, Kenya: An Analytical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akech, Benta Achieng' Opul; Simatwa, Enose M. W.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated opportunities and challenges for public primary school head teachers in the implementation of Free Primary Education in Kisumu municipality. Being a descriptive research, the study population consisted of 114 head teachers, 17,100 class seven and eight pupils in the municipality. Out of this, a sample of 37 head teachers…

  20. The evaluation of the state of the Sopot Municipality environment as a condition for sustainable development of the municipality area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sopot Municipality can be conditionally characterized as 'an ecological municipality' considering it is known for its preserved and quality environment, which is the result of the absence of greater sources of degradation and environmental pollution. The structure and usage of the Sopot municipality space was influenced by its specific position and historic development, the resources, the fact it is in the vicinity of Belgrade, as well as the processes taking places in the last few decades. Besides natural, anthropogenic factors substantially influenced the way of spatial development, often violating natural conditions and possibilities. In that sense, the current environmental condition analysis represents the important integral planning base for further spatial development of the Municipality. In this paper the environmental condition is shown according to single elements (air, water, soil, the attention is drawn to the problem of waste on the Sopot Municipality area, and in the end the valorization of the environment was performed from the aspect of pollution level.

  1. SK policies the view of nuclear municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'abadal, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear policies of the most important countries in Western Europe, already influenced by the evolution of the public opinion, have experimented strong changes together with political evolution. The future of NNP in some important countries is doubtful, as for the case of Sweden, Germany, Spain, Holland, Belgium, The large democratic discussions that affect permanently our society, as well as the new society of information that is being implanted, have turned the decision making processes into what is referred to as public participation and transparency, especially when these affect the environment or the immediate future of the citizens. The installation policies of nuclear plants are very similar in all the countries. Most of them are located in low density population areas, with low activity rate, high rate of elder people. These territories have many water resources, low communication infrastructure level, etc. So the typographic aspects of the European municipalities are alike (in eastern countries as well). Nuclear energy whose existence is sometimes called in question by press media, citizens and inhabitants, needs full agreement within the territory in order to work at its best. Moreover, the territory on which the plant is installed must have the necessary means of infrastructure ( development from a social and economic point of view) as well as the dues for its future and for a new positive reality as far as the citizens are concerned in order to face the corresponding challenges. Having got to this point, a territorial debate should be focused on the balance between the state's general interest and the local one as normalised operation of nuclear facilities is and will be possible only in a context of mutual respect. The new European political map and the last governmental decisions in energetic strategies grant more value to the opinion of the local authorities on the territories affected by these facilities. So, in order to express their opinion

  2. Isomorphism in Provision of Culture: The Case of Municipalities in Istanbul and Their Cultural Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayça İnce

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of the diminishing budgets for investment in the cultural sphere, especially at the municipality level. Since 2000, 61 cultural centers have been opened in Istanbul alone. In spite of the growing cultural and artistic diversity and Turkish society's various demands in cultural services, of Turkish cultural policies on a local, city, and national level serves as a starting point for investigating how isomorphism transpires to the provision of cultural services on the level of Istanbul's district municipalities. This study not only explains the role of district municipalities in the cultural field of Istanbul, but also argues that three interconnected concepts—democratization, professionalization, and marketization—promote cultural convergence.

  3. Report of testing and sampling of municipal supply well PM-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Richard J.; Longmire, Patrick; Rogers, David B.; Mullen, Ken

    1999-01-01

    During drilling of regional aquifer characterization borehole R-25, located in the western part of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at Technical Area (TA) 16, groundwater samples were collected from perched zones of saturation and the regional aquifer that contained elevated levels of high explosive (HE) compounds. One of the nearest Los Alamos County municipal supply wells potentially located down gradient from borehole R-25 is PM-4, located on Mesita del Buey at the west end of TA-54. During the winter of 1998 and 1999 the pump in PM-4 had been removed from the well for scheduled maintenance by the Los Alamos County Public Utilities Department (PUD). Because the pump was removed from PM-4, the opportunity existed to enter the well to (1) perform tests to determine where within the regional aquifer groundwater entered the well and (2) collect groundwater samples from the producing zones for analyses to determine if HE contaminants were present in discrete zones within the regional aquifer. The report of the activities that were performed during March 1999 for the testing and sampling of municipal supply well PM-4 is provided. The report provides a description of the field activities associated with the two phases of the project, including (1) the results of the static and dynamic spinner log surveys, and (2) a description of the sampling activities and the field-measured groundwater quality parameters that were obtained during sampling activities. This report also provides the analytical results of the groundwater samples and a brief discussion of the results of the project

  4. System Description:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Poswolsky, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Delphin is a functional programming language [Adam Poswolsky and Carsten Schürmann. Practical programming with higher-order encodings and dependent types. In European Symposium on Programming (ESOP), 2008] utilizing dependent higher-order datatypes. Delphin's two-level type-system cleanly separates...

  5. MODERNIZATION, OPTIMIZATION PROCESS OF REGULATION OF THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK AS A BASIS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY OF MUNICIPALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Krylova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the problems associated with the maintenance of financial stability of municipalities. The process of improving the regulatory framework in the public sector of the economy, ensuring the development of economic entities of financial relations at the municipal level, and contributing to the achievement of financial sustainability of municipalities. We consider a number of theses that constitute the theoretical basis of the financial sustainability of municipalities

  6. Delegation within municipal health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystedt, Maria; Eriksson, Maria; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil

    2011-05-01

    To describe how registered nurses (RNs) perceive delegation to unlicensed personnel (UP) in a municipal healthcare context in Sweden. Within municipal health care RNs often delegate tasks to UP. The latter have practical training, but lack formal competence. Twelve RNs were interviewed and the material was analysed using a phenomenographic approach. Owing to a shortage of RNs, delegation is seen as a prerequisite for a functioning organization. This necessity also involves a number of perceived contradictions in three areas: (1) the work situation of RNs - facilitation and relief vs. lack of control, powerlessness, vagueness regarding responsibility, and resignation; (2) the relationship with unlicensed personnel - stimulation, possibility for mentoring, use of UP competence and the creation of fairness vs. questioning UP competence; and (3) The patients - increase in continuity, quicker treatment, and increased security vs. insecurity (with respect to, for example, the handling of medicine). Registered nurses perceptions of delegation within municipal healthcare involve their own work situation, the UP and the patients. Registered nurses who delegate to UP must be given time for mentoring such that the nursing care is safe care of high quality. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. 40 CFR 62.14105 - Requirements for municipal waste combustor operator training and certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Service Center, 22 Law Drive, Post Office Box 2900, Fairfield, NJ..., Service Center, 22 Law Drive, Post Office Box 2900, Fairfield, NJ 07007. You may inspect a copy at the... subpart; (2) A description of basic combustion theory applicable to a municipal waste combustor unit; (3...

  8. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 4, Appendix B: RDF technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  9. The Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories contingency plan -a brief description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    A brief description of the contingency plan which deals with both the on-site and off-site consequences of a serious nuclear accident is given. The off-site consequences of different size releases and the subsequent action taken by employees, radiation protection experts, municipal, Provincial and Federal authorities is described and the interaction of the various groups is discussed. (author)

  10. Prefeitura Municipal de Amparo - Prefeitura Municipal de Amparo

    Science.gov (United States)

    , educação inclusiva, calendário educação, plano municipal de educação, projetos, notícias entre estagiários Confira as vagas para estagiários Painel de Vagas de Estágio ENSINO MEDIO (2501642 Sebastião 07 de Janeiro de 2017 - 29 de Janeiro de 2017 Carnaval de rua de Amparo 25 de Fevereiro de 2017

  11. Hepatitis A behaviour in Yaguajay Municipality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Iluminada Hernández Pérez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective-descriptive study was made to characterize the behavior of “Hepatitis A” in Yaguajay Municipality in the period between 2006 and 2007, in which were included all the patients that were notified by Declaration Card (EDO. For collecting data, EDO cards were analized; as well as the endemic accumulative and the annual chronological series. The prevalence of this disease was determined in health areas and small population, so as to establish a geographic stratification. The disease was characterized by social-demographic variables (sex, age, home and also the seasonally of Hepatitis A. As a result all the disease prognosis in both years were over the expectation and are regarded as “Normal”, this disease behavior was higher in Meneses and Mayajigua areas representing the majority of the community population The most affected ages were under 10, from 11 to 20 and from 21 to 29. Females and the urban area registered the highest amount of cases. The seasonally was different in both years. As a conclusion we can say that the Epidemic was characterized by a wide geographical distribution where Jarahueca and Perea were the most affected communities; causing injuries in male sex, affected ages were babies, teenagers and young adults, the seasonally behaved differently in both years.

  12. Blazing the energy trail: The Municipal Energy Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force pioneers energy and environmental solutions for US cities and counties. When local officials participate in the task force, they open the door to many resources for their communities. The US is entering a period of renewed interest in energy management. Improvements in municipal energy management allow communities to free up energy operating funds to meet other needs. These improvements can even keep energy dollars in the community through the purchase of services and products used to save energy. With this idea in mind, the US Department of Energy Municipal Energy Management Program has funded more than 250 projects that demonstrate innovative energy technologies and management tools in cities and counties through the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF). UCETF helps the US Department of Energy foster municipal energy management through networks with cities and urbanized counties and through links with three national associations of local governments. UCETF provides funding for projects that demonstrate innovative and realistic technologies, strategies, and methods that help urban America become more energy efficient and environmentally responsible. The task force provides technical support to local jurisdictions selected for projects. UCETF also shares information about successful energy management projects with cities and counties throughout the country via technical reports and project papers. The descriptions included here capsulize a sample of UCETF`s demonstration projects around the country.

  13. [Trend in inequalities in mortality due to external causes among the municipalities of Antioquia (Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo-Velásquez, Beatriz; Álvarez-Castaño, Luz Stella; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Borrell, Carme

    2016-01-01

    To analyse the trend in inequalities in mortality due to external causes among municipalities in Antioquia, department of Colombia, from 2000 to 2010, and its association with socioeconomic conditions. External causes included violent deaths, such as homicides, suicides and traffic accidents, among others. Ecological design of mortality trends, with the 125 municipalities of Antioquia as the unit of analysis. The age-adjusted smoothed standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was estimated for each of the municipalities by using an empirical Bayesian model. Differences in the SMR between the poorest and least poor municipalities were estimated by using a two-level hierarchical model (level-1: year, level-2: municipality). Mortality due to external causes showed a downward trend in the department in the period under review, although the situation was not similar in all municipalities. The findings showed that the risk of death from external causes significantly increased in poor and underdeveloped municipalities. Intervention is required through policies that take into account local differences in mortality due to external causes. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiometric monitoring outdoor municipality Pocinhos-PB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinalli Araujo Costa, Michelle; Araujo dos Santos Junior, Jose; Dos Santos Amaral, Romilton

    2015-01-01

    Studies on human exposure to terrestrial radionuclides are important for human health. Therefore, this investigation presents aimed at making radiometric dosimetry Pocinhos municipality in the state of Paraiba. Monitoring was performed in 50 points in urban and rural areas Pocinhos. The estimated external effective dose rate in outdoor environments was obtained in triplicate using a portable gamma spectrometer, to 1.0 m away from the Earth's surface and time set acquisition in terms of environmental radiation levels. The values of these dose rates outdoor environments ranging from 0.53 to 3.94 mSv.y -1 . the arithmetic mean was 0.79 mSv.y -1 , which exceeds the value 0.07 mSv.y -1 corresponding to the global average in outdoor environments. In the city, found a higher radioactivity in rural areas that were uninhabited at the time of the survey. (Author)

  15. The deficit mechanism of the Hungarian municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Vasvári, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    The management of the Hungarian municipal sector has received special attention since the crisis in 2008 and interest in the sector increased further due to the changes in legislation in 2011. A great number of economy experts and speakers on behalf of the government or the municipalities provided further details on prevailing issues in the municipal sector, however, their assessment of the severity of these issues varied greatly. By describing the logical framework of the deficit mechanism t...

  16. The Main Recreative Areas in Podujeva Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    , F. Isufi; , F. Humolli; , S. Bulliqi

    2016-01-01

    Recreation is time available to human kind, excluding normal working hours that are a time for physiological and physical needs of human kind and time for sleep, which is used for entertainment, sport, hobby, rest etc. Well known fact is that recreation is a need of contemporary man, which is at the same time the reason for elaborating this subject. Podujeva Municipality is one of Republic of Kosova’s municipality, and likewise all other municipalities, offer possibilities and have similar pr...

  17. Information System of Municipal Office

    OpenAIRE

    Surý, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá problematikou návrhu a implementací informačního systému obecního úřadu. Pro práci byly použity tyto programovací jazyky: PHP, JavaScript, HTML, CSS a databáze MySQL. The Bachelor's Thesis is concerned with the dilemma of suggestion and implementation of information system for municipal office. The programming languages: PHP, JavaScript, HTML, CSS and database MySQL were used for this bachelor's thesis. E

  18. Canadian municipal carbon trading primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seskus, A.

    2002-01-01

    The trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is being suggested as an effective economic way to meet Canada's Kyoto target. Emissions trading is a market-based instrument that can help achieve environmental improvements while using the market to absorb the economical and effective measures to achieve emissions reductions. Placing a value on emissions means that in order to minimize costs, companies will be motivated to apply the lowest-cost emission reductions possible for regulatory approval. The two main types of emissions trading that exist in Canada are the trading of emissions that lead to the formation of smog or acid rain, and the trading of greenhouse gas emissions that lead to climate change. Since carbon dioxide is the most prevalent GHG, making up approximately 75 per cent of Canadian GHG emissions, the trading of units of GHGs is often referred to as carbon trading. The impact that emissions trading will have on municipal operations was the focus of this primer. The trading of GHG involves buying and selling of allowances of GHGs between contracting parties, usually between one party that is short of GHG credits and another that has excess credits. The 3 common approaches to emissions trading include allowance trading (cap and trade), credit trading (baseline and credit), and a hybrid system which combines both credit and allowance trading systems. The issues that impact municipalities include the debate regarding who owns the credits from landfills, particularly if power is generated using landfill gas and the power is sold as green power. Other viable questions were also addressed, including who can claim emission reduction credits if a city implements energy efficiency projects, or fuel substitution programs. Also, will municipalities be allowed to trade internationally, for example, with municipalities in the United States, and how should they spend their money earned from selling credits. This report also presents highlights from 3 emissions

  19. New Orleans may go municipal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woehrle, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent moves by the New Orleans City Council to consolidate two investor-owned utilities operating under franchise agreements into a publicly owned utility could make the 179,000-user utility the nation's 12th ranking public power system. Voters have changed their minds on the advantages of local control because of costly blackouts. At the root of the effort are economic concerns and some unpaid IOUs owed by the franchise companies because of nuclear plant construction. A task force recommended a municipal buyout

  20. Public deliberation in municipal planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohøj, Morten; Borchorst, Nikolaj Gandrup; Bødker, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory participatory design process aimed at supporting citizen deliberation in municipal planning. It presents the main outcomes of this process in terms of selected prototypes and an approach to the use setting. We support and discuss different ways for citizens...... to act and reflect on proposed plans: in-situ, while physically close to the planning object, and ex-situ, when citizens are remote from this. The support of in-situ and ex-situ participation allows citizens to engage in continuous reflection-in and on-action as a collaborative activity with other...

  1. Mercado municipal en Sant Quirze

    OpenAIRE

    Redondo Díez, Laura

    2010-01-01

    El proyecto satisface la necesidad de un Mercado Municipal en Sant Quirze. Situado en el actual recinto ferial del pueblo, el parque de la Betzuca, un punto céntrico cerca del casco antiguo y de las nuevas urbanizaciones. Las condiciones del lugar enriquecen el proyecto permitiendo usos múltiples muy adecuados a cada banda del solar: zona de mercado, galerías exteriores, supermercado, guardería, restaurante y bares vinculados a la zona del río, almacenes, zonas de carga y descarga y un gra...

  2. Resource Prospects of Municipal Solid Wastes Generatedin the Ga East Municipal Assembly of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Benedicta Abiti; Susanne Hartard; Heike B. Bradl; Davar Pishva; John Kojo Ahiakpa

    2017-01-01

    Background. Municipal solid wastes management has recently become an important public health concern. Municipal solid wastes are a major source of raw materials that could be used for resource recovery for diverse applications. Objectives. The present study aimed to determine the composition of municipal solid waste and recoverable resources from the waste of the Ga East Municipal Assembly (GEMA) in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Methods. An exploratory approach was used to collect ...

  3. Effect of fat level on the perception of five flavor chemicals in ice cream with or without fat mimetics by using a descriptive test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, B K; Grün, I U

    2007-10-01

    Fat mimetics are commonly used in the manufacture of low-fat and fat-free ice creams. However, the use of fat mimetics affects flavor and texture characteristics of ice cream, which results in decreased overall acceptability by consumers. The initial objective of this study was to investigate the release behavior of 5 strawberry flavor compounds in ice creams with Simplesse((R)), Litesse((R)), and Litesse((R))/Simplesse((R)) mixes using descriptive analysis. Fat mimetics and flavor formulation significantly influenced the perception of Furaneoltrade mark (cooked sugar flavor), alpha-ionone (violet flavor), and gamma-undecalactone (peach flavor), but there was no interaction between ice cream type and flavor formulation for the 3 flavors. Furaneol and ethyl-3-methyl-3-phenylglycidate (candy flavor) were perceived more strongly in full-fat ice cream, while cis-3-hexen-1-ol (grassy flavor), alpha-ionone, and gamma-undecalactone were perceived more strongly in low-fat ice cream. Ice creams with Simplesse and full-fat ice cream had similar sensory characteristics, while ice creams with Litesse were similar to low-fat ice creams in flavor characteristics, and ice creams with Litesse/Simplesse mixes were closer in flavor profile to low-fat ice cream but had similar texture properties to those of full-fat ice cream. Simplesse was found to be a better fat mimetic for duplicating the flavor profiles and mouthfeel of full-fat ice cream.

  4. Description of the U.S. Geological Survey's water-quality sampling and water-level monitoring program at the Hallam Nuclear Facility, August through September 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A water-quality and water-level program between the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) was re-established in August 1997 to (1) collect one set of water-quality samples from 17 of the 19 USDOE monitor wells, and (2) make five water-level measurements during a 2-month period from the 19 USDOE monitor wells at the Hallam Nuclear Facility, Hallam, Nebraska. Data from these wells are presented

  5. Governance in managing public health resources in Brazilian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, George; Barberia, Lorena G; Biderman, Ciro

    2014-09-01

    This study contributes to the health governance discussion by presenting a new data set that allows for comparisons of the management of health resources among Brazilian municipalities. Research on Brazil is particularly important as the provision of health services was decentralized in 1988 and since then municipalities have been given greater responsibilities for the management of fiscal resources for public health service provision. Based on detailed information on corruption practices (such as over-invoicing, illegal procurement and fake receipts) from audit reports of health programmes in 980 randomly selected Brazilian municipalities, this study deepens understanding of the relationship between health governance institutions and the incidence of corruption at the local level by exploring the extent to which horizontal and vertical accountabilities contribute to reducing the propensity of municipal government officials to divert public health resources for private gain. The results of our multiple regression analysis suggest that the experience of health municipal councils is correlated with reductions in the incidence of corruption in public health programmes. This impact is significant over time, with each additional year of health council experience reducing corruption incidence levels by 2.1% from baseline values. The findings reported in this study do not rely on the subjectivity of corruption measures which usually conflate the actual incidence of corruption with its perception by informants. Based on our results, we provide recommendations that can assist policy makers to reduce corruption. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  6. Local Self-Government Financing and Costs of Municipality in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zan Jan OPLOTNIK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This research paper focuses on the compliance of the actual system of financing local selfgovernment in Slovenia with the basic principles of the theory of decentralization and guidelines of the European Charter of Local Self-Government. It addresses the level of costs coverage within the municipal competence by using the allocated appropriate expenditure resources calculated according to the Law of Financing Municipality Act. The purpose of the paper is, therefore, to look for an answer to the question whether and to what extent the obtained funds correspond to the actual workload that municipalities have for performing statutory tasks and for exercising their competences. Analysis shows that, on an aggregate level, these actual systems ensure enough resources for local governments to cover their actual costs and current expenditures; some groups of municipalities, e.g. larger urban municipalities, municipalities with large proportions of elderly people etc. are faced with lack of funding, according to the actual costs data available, while other groups of municipalities receive more funds than they need.

  7. The relationship between the Municipal Master Plan and local Watershed Plans in water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gallo Pizella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Water Resources Policy has as one of its tools the drafting of local Water Resource Plans. In view of water resources planning and its relationship to land use planning, the aim of this work is to analyze the institutional and legal difficulties and the potential for an integrated system of water resources management. For this, we used the method of documentary and bibliographic research, beginning with the “Estatuto da Cidade”, a law for urban policy in Brazil, and literature on water management at the municipal and watershed levels. At the municipal level, the “Master Plan” (municipal plan of land use planning became the main instrument of territorial and municipal management, defining the parameters for the compliance of social, environmental and economic functions of real property. In this sense, the municipalities have a responsibility to protect water resources and, without local support, territorial and water management cannot be integrated in the context of the river basin. Despite the difficulties of including environmental variable in urban planning, the Master Plan has the potential to shape local water management systems that are environmentally sustainable and that progressively improve water quality and quantity within the watershed. Similarly, with more significant participation of the municipality in the Basin Committee, it is possible that the forms of municipal land use and occupation can be considered during the development and implementation of the Basin Plan. Thus, the management of water resources can occur integrally.

  8. Factors Associated with Maternal Serum Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Organochlorines: A Descriptive Study of Parous Women in Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Hilde B.; Larose, Tricia L.; Øien, Torbjørn; Odland, Jon Ø.; van de Bor, Margot; Jacobsen, Geir W.; Sandanger, Torkjel M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and organochlorines (OCs) are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment and proposed endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). They can be transferred across the placenta during pregnancy, and studies suggest that the prenatal period may be particularly sensitive for influences on fetal growth and development. Several studies have investigated socio-demographic and pregnancy related factors associated with maternal serum PFAS and OC levels, but few studies have been conducted in time periods with increasing emissions of PFASs and recent emissions of OCs. Methods Serum from 424 pregnant women participating in the NICHD Scandinavian Successive Small-for-gestational Age (SGA) births study was collected in 1986–1988, and analyses of two PFASs and six OCs were conducted. Associations between EDCs and geographic, time dependent, socio-demographic and pregnancy related variables were evaluated by using multivariable linear regression models. Results Previous breastfeeding duration, time since last breastfeeding period, sampling date and country of residence were important factors associated with serum levels of PFOS and PFOA. Smoking status and pre-pregnancy BMI were negatively associated with PFOS, and maternal height was borderline negatively associated with PFOS and PFOA. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was negatively associated with PFOS in a sub-sample. Maternal serum levels of OCs were positively associated with maternal age, and negatively associated with previous breastfeeding duration and sampling date. Smoking had a consistently negative association with PCB 118 in a dose-dependent manner. Education level, pre-pregnancy BMI and alcohol consumption varied in importance according to the compound under study. Conclusions Several maternal factors, including potentially modifiable factors, markers of pregnancy physiology and factors also related to perinatal outcomes were associated with EDC levels. Results from this

  9. Factors Associated with Maternal Serum Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Organochlorines: A Descriptive Study of Parous Women in Norway and Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde B Lauritzen

    Full Text Available Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs and organochlorines (OCs are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment and proposed endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. They can be transferred across the placenta during pregnancy, and studies suggest that the prenatal period may be particularly sensitive for influences on fetal growth and development. Several studies have investigated socio-demographic and pregnancy related factors associated with maternal serum PFAS and OC levels, but few studies have been conducted in time periods with increasing emissions of PFASs and recent emissions of OCs.Serum from 424 pregnant women participating in the NICHD Scandinavian Successive Small-for-gestational Age (SGA births study was collected in 1986-1988, and analyses of two PFASs and six OCs were conducted. Associations between EDCs and geographic, time dependent, socio-demographic and pregnancy related variables were evaluated by using multivariable linear regression models.Previous breastfeeding duration, time since last breastfeeding period, sampling date and country of residence were important factors associated with serum levels of PFOS and PFOA. Smoking status and pre-pregnancy BMI were negatively associated with PFOS, and maternal height was borderline negatively associated with PFOS and PFOA. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR was negatively associated with PFOS in a sub-sample. Maternal serum levels of OCs were positively associated with maternal age, and negatively associated with previous breastfeeding duration and sampling date. Smoking had a consistently negative association with PCB 118 in a dose-dependent manner. Education level, pre-pregnancy BMI and alcohol consumption varied in importance according to the compound under study.Several maternal factors, including potentially modifiable factors, markers of pregnancy physiology and factors also related to perinatal outcomes were associated with EDC levels. Results from this study are relevant to

  10. A Description of Methodologies Used in Estimation of A-Weighted Sound Levels for FAA Advisory Circular AC-36-3B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    second) Dia propeller diameter (expressed in inches) T°F air temperature in degrees Farenheit T°C air temperature in degrees Celsius T:dBA total dBA...eMpiriC31 function to the absolute noise level ordinate. The term 240 log ( MH is the most sensitive and important part of the equation. The constant (240...standard day, zero wind, dry, zero gradient runway, at a sea level airport. 2. All aircraft operate at maximum takeoff gross weight. 3. All aircraft climb

  11. Description of the U.S. Geological Survey's water-quality sampling and water-level monitoring program at the Hallam Nuclear Facility, June through September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A water-quality and water-level program of the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in cooperation with the US Geological Survey (USGS) was re-established in June 1996 to develop six new USDOE observation wells, collect one set of water-quality samples from 17 of the 19 USDOE observation wells, and take monthly water-level measurements for a 3-month period in all 19 USDOE observation wells at the Hallam Nuclear Facility, Hallam, Nebraska. Thirteen of the observation wells were installed by HWS Consulting Group, Inc., in June 1993 and the remaining six were installed by Applied Research Associates in August 1995

  12. Assessment of municipal infrastructure development and its critical influencing factors in urban China: A FA and STIRPAT approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    Full Text Available Municipal infrastructure is a fundamental facility for the normal operation and development of an urban city and is of significance for the stable progress of sustainable urbanization around the world, especially in developing countries. Based on the municipal infrastructure data of the prefecture-level cities in China, municipal infrastructure development is assessed comprehensively using a FA (factor analysis model, and then the stochastic model STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology is examined to investigate key factors that influence municipal infrastructure of cities in various stages of urbanization and economy. This study indicates that the municipal infrastructure development in urban China demonstrates typical characteristics of regional differentiation, in line with the economic development pattern. Municipal infrastructure development in cities is primarily influenced by income, industrialization and investment. For China and similar developing countries under transformation, national public investment remains the primary driving force of economy as well as the key influencing factor of municipal infrastructure. Contribution from urbanization and the relative consumption level, and the tertiary industry is still scanty, which is a crux issue for many developing countries under transformation. With economic growth and the transformation requirements, the influence of the conventional factors such as public investment and industrialization on municipal infrastructure development would be expected to decline, meanwhile, other factors like the consumption and tertiary industry driven model and the innovation society can become key contributors to municipal infrastructure sustainability.

  13. Assessment of municipal infrastructure development and its critical influencing factors in urban China: A FA and STIRPAT approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Zheng, Ji; Li, Fei; Jin, Xueting; Xu, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Municipal infrastructure is a fundamental facility for the normal operation and development of an urban city and is of significance for the stable progress of sustainable urbanization around the world, especially in developing countries. Based on the municipal infrastructure data of the prefecture-level cities in China, municipal infrastructure development is assessed comprehensively using a FA (factor analysis) model, and then the stochastic model STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) is examined to investigate key factors that influence municipal infrastructure of cities in various stages of urbanization and economy. This study indicates that the municipal infrastructure development in urban China demonstrates typical characteristics of regional differentiation, in line with the economic development pattern. Municipal infrastructure development in cities is primarily influenced by income, industrialization and investment. For China and similar developing countries under transformation, national public investment remains the primary driving force of economy as well as the key influencing factor of municipal infrastructure. Contribution from urbanization and the relative consumption level, and the tertiary industry is still scanty, which is a crux issue for many developing countries under transformation. With economic growth and the transformation requirements, the influence of the conventional factors such as public investment and industrialization on municipal infrastructure development would be expected to decline, meanwhile, other factors like the consumption and tertiary industry driven model and the innovation society can become key contributors to municipal infrastructure sustainability.

  14. The impact of municipal budgets and land-use management on the hazardous waste production of Malaga municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, Ismael P.; Gemar, German; Jimenez-Madrid, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Economic development and the search for competitiveness have become key issues in regions' economic success. However, despite the direct relationship between economic and environmental management, few land-use plans consider the latter aspect, and city managers delegate the responsibility for environmental impacts to state legislation and private initiatives. This myopic search for competitiveness has meant that a holistic view of environmental issues is often not integrated into municipal decision-making processes. Therefore, this study's objective was to determine the relevant direct and indirect relationships of land management and budgetary procedures of municipalities with overall production levels of hazardous waste. To this end, a primary tourist region, Málaga, was examined in terms of how this waste's environmental impacts can affect the region's vital tourism sector. This research used principal component analysis, regression by ordinary least squares, cluster analysis in two stages and a means test to compare the data for the Province of Malaga's subregions. The results confirm a positive relationship between municipal expenditure and waste production and highlight the environmental benefits of land use involving environmentally non-aggressive crops. The results also reveal a negative relationship between waste production and financial assets and a direct relationship between unproductive land and the production of hazardous waste. The findings also highlight the necessity of raising awareness about the need for collaboration between different agents, especially in the development of inter-municipal strategies.

  15. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, P.

    1997-12-01

    Extensive use of heavy metals in modern society influences routes followed by fluxes on the surface of the Earth. The changed flow paths may be harmful for the balance of biological systems at different levels, micro-organisms, human beings and whole ecosystems, since the toxicity of heavy metals is determined by their concentrations and chemical forms. Despite the low mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in municipal landfills, it was found that extensive transformations of the binding forms of heavy metal take place within the waste mass during the degradation of the waste. These changes appear to be closely related to the development of early diagenetic solid phases, i.e. new secondary solid phases formed in the waste. The heavy metals often constitute a minor part of these phases and the bindings include several forms such as adsorption, complexation, coprecipitation, precipitation, etc. It was also found that the associations between heavy metals and solid phases are dominated by several binding forms to one specific substrate rather than bindings to various solid phases. The mobility of iron and manganese seems to increase during the processes involved in waste degradation due to the solution of oxide/hydroxide phases, while the heavy metals appear to become less mobile due to their binding to organic compounds and sulphides. However, one exception in this case may be nickel. Another aspect of the transformation of heavy metals is the accumulation of pools of heavy metals which can become susceptible to environmental changes, such as oxidation or acidification. However, the risk of increased mobilization caused by lower pH values seem to be limited since municipal solid waste has a large buffer capacity. 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Renewable municipal waste barometer - EurObserv'ER - November 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    7,7 Mtoe of primary energy produced from the combustion of renewable municipal waste in the European Union in 2009. Approximately half the energy produced in Union European's municipal waste incineration plants is obtained from fermentescible waste (ie biomass waste). To date, incineration is still the main energy conversion channel for renewable municipal waste, for in 2009, biomass energy output stood at 7.7 million toe, which is a 3.3% increase on 2008. Furthermore, this amount could be doubled, assuming a constant level of waste, by investing in modernisation and combustion efficiency improvements

  17. Optimization of energy planning strategies in municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    approach, suffers from insufficient information, tools and resources. Municipalities are often unable to take on a steering role in community energy planning. To overcome these barriers and guide municipalities in the pre-project phase, a decision-support methodology, based on community energy profiles...

  18. Comparing probabilistic and descriptive analyses of time–dose–toxicity relationship for determining no-observed-adverse-effect level in drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatard, Anaïs; Berges, Aliénor; Sahota, Tarjinder; Ambery, Claire; Osborne, Jan; Smith, Randall; Hénin, Emilie; Chen, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of a drug defined from animal studies is important for inferring a maximal safe dose in human. However, several issues are associated with its concept, determination and application. It is confined to the actual doses used in the study; becomes lower with increasing sample size or dose levels; and reflects the risk level seen in the experiment rather than what may be relevant for human. We explored a pharmacometric approach in an attempt to address these issues. We first used simulation to examine the behaviour of the NOAEL values as determined by current common practice; and then fitted the probability of toxicity as a function of treatment duration and dose to data collected from all applicable toxicology studies of a test compound. Our investigation was in the context of an irreversible toxicity that is detected at the end of the study. Simulations illustrated NOAEL's dependency on experimental factors such as dose and sample size, as well as the underlying uncertainty. Modelling the probability as a continuous function of treatment duration and dose simultaneously to data from multiple studies allowed the estimation of the dose, along with its confidence interval, for a maximal risk level that might be deemed as acceptable for human. The model-based data integration also reconciled between-study inconsistency and explicitly provided maximised estimation confidence. Such alternative NOAEL determination method should be explored for its more efficient data use, more quantifiable insight to toxic doses, and the potential for more relevant animal-to-human translation. - Highlights: • Simulations revealed issues with NOAEL concept, determination and application. • Probabilistic modelling was used to address these issues. • The model integrated time-dose-toxicity data from multiple studies. • The approach uses data efficiently and may allow more meaningful human translation.

  19. Comparing probabilistic and descriptive analyses of time–dose–toxicity relationship for determining no-observed-adverse-effect level in drug development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatard, Anaïs; Berges, Aliénor; Sahota, Tarjinder; Ambery, Claire [Clinical Pharmacology Modelling and Simulation, GlaxoSmithKline, 1 Iron Bridge Road, Uxbridge, UB11 1BT London (United Kingdom); Osborne, Jan [Non-Clinical Safety Projects, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Smith, Randall [Computational Toxicology, GlaxoSmithKline, Upper Merion (United States); Hénin, Emilie [UMR 5558 Laboratoire Biométrie et de Biologie Evolutive, Equipe EMET (Evaluation et Modélisation des Effets Thérapeutiques), Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, Service de Pharmacologie Clinique et Essais Thérapeutiques, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Chen, Chao, E-mail: chao.c.chen@gsk.com [Clinical Pharmacology Modelling and Simulation, GlaxoSmithKline, 1 Iron Bridge Road, Uxbridge, UB11 1BT London (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of a drug defined from animal studies is important for inferring a maximal safe dose in human. However, several issues are associated with its concept, determination and application. It is confined to the actual doses used in the study; becomes lower with increasing sample size or dose levels; and reflects the risk level seen in the experiment rather than what may be relevant for human. We explored a pharmacometric approach in an attempt to address these issues. We first used simulation to examine the behaviour of the NOAEL values as determined by current common practice; and then fitted the probability of toxicity as a function of treatment duration and dose to data collected from all applicable toxicology studies of a test compound. Our investigation was in the context of an irreversible toxicity that is detected at the end of the study. Simulations illustrated NOAEL's dependency on experimental factors such as dose and sample size, as well as the underlying uncertainty. Modelling the probability as a continuous function of treatment duration and dose simultaneously to data from multiple studies allowed the estimation of the dose, along with its confidence interval, for a maximal risk level that might be deemed as acceptable for human. The model-based data integration also reconciled between-study inconsistency and explicitly provided maximised estimation confidence. Such alternative NOAEL determination method should be explored for its more efficient data use, more quantifiable insight to toxic doses, and the potential for more relevant animal-to-human translation. - Highlights: • Simulations revealed issues with NOAEL concept, determination and application. • Probabilistic modelling was used to address these issues. • The model integrated time-dose-toxicity data from multiple studies. • The approach uses data efficiently and may allow more meaningful human translation.

  20. LEAP: local environmental action plan. Municipality of Dolneni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Municipality of Dolneni is situated in the northern part of the Pelagonia Valley, at about 600 meters above the sea level. It is surrounded on three sides (north, northeast, east and northwest) by the mountain massifs of Dautica, Babuna and Busova Planina. The assesment of the state of the environment in the Municipality of Dolneni presented in this document is based on several principles, including, before all, human health, as well as impacts from human activities on urban and natural environment, social and economic development, etc. The impacts from environmental pollution on human health in the Municipality of Dolneni are evident. Major problem is the lack of sewerage system to collect wastewater and absence of organized landfill(s) for solid waste disposal. In addition, the improper drinking water supply in most of the settlements contributes to the increased human health risk in the Municipality. The absence of urban planning has lead to developments and uncontrolled use of natural resources that cause degradation of the environment and consequently decrease in quality of living for the population. The above problems affect the quality of living conditions and human health both directly and indirectly. In recent years, incidence of epidemics of communicable hepatitis was recovered (Debreste, Desovo), and there is a concern for a high risk of appearance of intestinal and other infectious diseases. There are no indicators of the soil quality of surface running water resources with regard to pollution. In any case, on the basis of the manner of land use and specific human activities on the territory of the Municipality, as well as on the basis of the above mentioned solid waste and waste water related problems, it may be concluded that these resources are in a rather poor condition. Other aspects of determining the quality of the environment (atmosphere, noise, natural ecosystems and biodiversity in general) are not under serious human pressure at present

  1. The Impact of the Information Logistics Flows on the Processes of Municipal Wastes Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samohovych Oleksandr S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at identifying the impact of information incompleteness and asymmetry, irrational behavior of actors on the processes of municipal wastes management. It has been found that, at the present moment in Ukraine, quality of the transfer of information flows on the municipal wastes management between the State authority, local government bodies, enterprises, and the public stays at a low level. The urban sanitation schemes are being adopted and waste management technologies are being introduced at the local level, but the local government bodies have not been provided with sufficient information to make optimal decisions. Acting independently, the market mechanism would not be able to overcome the asymmetry of information in the short terms, and the State intervention would be needed to correct the information inadequacy of the municipal waste market. Prospect for future research will be determining conditions for an effective distribution of information flows in the process of municipal wastes management.

  2. The hidden face of Leviathan: fiscal transparency in brazilian municipalities and its socioeconomic determinants and tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Pereira de Paiva Ribeiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify which factors influence the level of transparency of electronic municipalities. For this, we performed an evaluation of the level of transparency of municipalities, and using the discriminant analysis identify the socioeconomic and fiscal factors that influence the Fiscal Transparency Index of Municipalities. It was found that fiscal transparency is still incipient in public administration and we confirmed that transparency is associated with better indicators of socioeconomic and fiscal development, as proposed by Bellver and Kalfinann (2005. Indirectly, you can infer that better management of resources destined to health, education and employment and income generation are more important than the amount of money invested in these items for classifying the municipalities analyzed, indicating that no matter the amount of resources invested, but the quality of expenditure made.

  3. Mental health among the unemployed and the unemployment rate in the municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Mattias; Novo, Mehmed; Hammarström, Anne

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that unemployment experiences increase the risk of poor mental health and that this effect differs depending on individual characteristics. Relatively little is known, however, about how the unemployment rate and labour market conditions impact the relationship. This study investigates how municipal unemployment rates and vacancy rates affect mental health in a nationally representative longitudinal survey of initially unemployed Swedish respondents. The study uses a nationally representative longitudinal survey of currently and recently unemployed people in Sweden, in which respondents were re-interviewed one year after the initial interview. Mental health was measured using the GHQ-12. The present article uses multilevel models (hierarchical linear models) to combine municipal-level information on unemployment levels and vacancy rates with individual-level control variables. Higher municipal vacancy rates improved mental health among the unemployed. However, no coherent effect of municipal unemployment rate on the relationship between unemployment and mental health was found. The effect of municipal vacancy rates can be understood in terms of the impact of perceived opportunity on the sense of life-course predictability. That there was no effect of municipal unemployment rate indicates that high local unemployment levels do not reduce the sense of shame and perceived stigma among the unemployed. Taken together, our findings would seem to present a rather bleak picture of the current dramatic labour market situation. The unemployed will be negatively affected by the extremely low demand for labour, while they will not be able to take comfort from their growing numbers.

  4. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 5: Dispersal of radionuclides in the oceans: Models, data sets and regional descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marietta, M.G.; Simmons, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report summarizes the development of a realistic and credible methodology to describe the oceanic dispersion of radionuclides for risk assessment calculations

  5. Agglomeration, accessibility and industrial location: evidence from spanish municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Alañón Pardo, Ángel; Arauzo Carod, Josep María

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the location decisions of manufacturing firms in Spain. We analyse how agglomeration economies and transport accessibility influence the location decisions of firms at municipality level and in three industries. The main empirical contributions of this paper are the econometric techniques used (spatial econometric models) and some of the explanatory variables (local gross domestic product, road accessibility, and the characteristics of firms in neighbouring municipalitie...

  6. Municipal resilience: A paradigm shift in emergency and continuity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solecki, Greg; Luchia, Mike

    More than a decade of emergency and continuity management vision was instrumental in providing the unprecedented level of response and recovery from the great flood of 2013. Earlier assessments, planning and validation promulgated development of corporate continuity, emergency and contingency plans along with tactical, strategic and recovery operations centres that all led to a reliable emergency management model that will continue to provide the backbone for municipal resilience.

  7. 75 FR 54465 - Temporary Registration of Municipal Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... derivatives, guaranteed investment contracts, and the recommendation of and brokerage of municipal escrow... concerning guaranteed investment contracts, (4) recommendation and/or brokerage of municipal escrow...

  8. Could the description on polynuclear superhalogens by DFT be comparable with high-level ab initio results? A comparison between DFT and CCSD(T)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yin-Yin; Li, Jin-Feng; Li, Miao-Miao; Zhou, Fu-Qiang; Li, Jian-Li; Yin, Bing

    2016-01-01

    A systematic density functional theory study including 17 exchange-correlation functionals was performed on different types of superhalogens with high level coupled-cluster single double including perturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)) results as the reference. The superhalogens selected here cover the ranges from mononuclear to polynuclear structures and from structures with halogen-atom ligands to those with non-halogen ligands, e.g., [MgX 3 ] − , [Mg 2 X 5 ] − , and [Mg 3 X 7 ] − (X = F, Cl, CN). It is clearly indicated that three double-hybrid functionals B2T-PLYP, B2GP-PLYP, B2K-PLYP as well as the range-separated hybrid functional ωB97X are capable of providing results which approach the accuracy at the CCSD(T) level. The basis set effect is usually moderate and, in most cases, it is enough to utilize the basis set of triple-ξ quality, e.g., Def2-TZVP. In addition, the results of the HF and MP2 method are also acceptable here, especially for polynuclear superhalogens where CCSD(T) is probably unpractical

  9. The Political-administrative interface in South African municipalities: Assessing the quality of local democracies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap de Visser

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available South African municipalities experience serious challenges in dealing wit the interface between politicians and officials. Inappropriate political interference in administrative matters as well as strained relations between key political and administrative officials in the municipalities appear to be the order of the day. Oftentimes, the lack of a separation of powers between legislative and executive authority at local government level is blamed for this. This contribution has attempted to draw the attention away from the conflation of legislative and executive authority in the municipal council while still recognising it as an important background. It is suggested that, instead of spending energy on examining a possible separation of powers in local government, the relevant stakeholders (i.e. national lawmakers, municipalities and supervising provinces should consider smaller institutional changes to the governance makeup of municipalities. Even more importantly, the political and administrative leadership of municipalities and political structures that surround them should be acutely aware of the consequences that inappropriate political leadership has on the functioning of municipalities and therefore on service delivery.

  10. Effectiveness of the Use and Management of Municipal Real Property in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Statty Stattev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an assessment of the effectiveness of the use and management of municipal real property (MRP, using data gathered through 173 questionnaires, addressed to representatives of 39 municipalities in Bulgaria. The paper is structured as follows: The first section gives information about the municipalities and is based on the following criteria: evaluation of the conditions in the cities; appraisal of the financial situation of the municipalities, the main sources of funding, and the sources that should be used in order to improve the their finances; existence of the relevant planning instruments, etc. The second section focuses on MRP and refers to criteria such as: rating of different aspects of MRP; existence of MRP inventory, municipal strategy and municipal unit dealing exclusively with MRP; evaluation of the selling values and the level of actual MPR rents in comparison to market rents; outsourcing of MRP management functions; assessment of the interdependence between different units of the municipalities; analysis of the focus of the attention of the elected decision makers. The paper ends with some conclusions concerning the identified problems in the process of MRP management in Bulgaria.

  11. Collection of castor-oil plant germoplasm (Ricinus communis L. in two municipalities of Arauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Iván Cardozo Conde

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L., commonly known as the castor-oil plant, is important for its use in biofuels production. With the objective of learning about its current status, in 40 villages influential to the oil complex of Caricare (municipality of Arauquita and Caño Limón (municipality of Arauca in Arauca, Colombia (where five years earlier the crop had been established, a collection of sexual seed was carried out between December 2011 and January 2012. The variables studied include passport data as a collection resource, local name, relief, and soil type among others. A Garmin map76CSx was used in order to identify the transects and record data such as geographic location and elevation. Simple descriptive statistics were used to identify the variables of greatest variation. Using the qualitative variables of greatest importance, a contingency table analysis with a significance level of 5%, a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA and principal component analysis (PCA were performed for quantitative and qualitative variables, in addition to a classification analysis through a similarity matrix. The castor-oil plant was found in 25% of the villages visited. 12 introductions were collected, four from Caricare and eight from Caño Limón. Although the environmental conditions were favo­rable for its cultivation, there are no castor-oil plant crops in the locations visited. The absence of grain commercialization and oil extraction equipment is the main limiting factor. A garden was established using collected materials for the purpose of research, breeding and propagation.

  12. An Approach to assess the Urban Management Performance of Municipalities in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayani Ranasinghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization tends bring out a number of problems, such as inadequate housing and urban services, increase land prices and construction costs, propagation of slums, pollution and deterioration of the urban environment. Currently, spatial development activities focusing on major cities of Sri Lanka are demanding urban infrastructure and services where municipalities are facing challenges on provision of the infrastructure and proper urban management too. This study seeks to identify the relevant criteria, indicators and a method for assessing the urban management performance of municipalities in Sri Lanka since specific measurement criteria and related indicators are not yet identified to evaluate urban management by the central government or local government levels. Based on Literature review, five criteria and 25 indicators were selected considering their applicability for the context of Sri Lanka. The Full Permutation Polygon Synthetic Indicator Method (FPPSI was applied to synthesize indicators and the Synthetic indicator has been used to show the performance of each criterion in terms of urban service delivery. Colombo Municipal Council (CMC, Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte Municipal Council (SJKMC and Moratuwa Municipal Council (MMC have been selected as the case studies for this research. Although selected cases are within Colombo Metropolitan Region, none of the municipalities were achieved the “High” or “Very High” level of synthetic indicator (SR>= 0.50 that shows the standard of municipal service delivery of Sri Lanka as a whole. This research lays the platform to evaluate the functional performance of Municipal Councils to guide the future scenario and to make decisions at the grass root level for managing the urbanization related issues in the country. Also this research helps the government to know the current trends of development impact and to take necessary policy level decisions to guide the economic growth in a correct

  13. How Danish communal heat planning empowers municipalities and benefits individual consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chittum, Anna; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    Danish municipal heat planning empowers municipalities to implement locally appropriate energy solutions that are the best fit for the locality as a whole and the individual consumers served. Supportive policies and actions at the national and local levels have encouraged heat planning that confe...... locations, the practical aspects of power sharing, socio-economic cost–benefit analyses, and communal decision-making may inform approaches to local heat planning around the world....

  14. Municipal energy audit: a practical guide to the identification of energy expenditures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This publication was designed to provide small- to medium-sized Canadian municipalities with a ready-to-use, practical guide to indentify energy consumption and costs in all those operations that normally fall under the control of municipal governments. The manual was based on 7 pilot audits conducted in Ottawa, Ontario, Montague and Summerside, Prince Edward Island, Granby, Quebec, Victoria, British Columbia, St. John, New Brunswick, and Winnipeg, Manitoba, from which summaries of energy consumption patterns were drawn. Audit analysis is explained for such municipal responsibilities as street lighting, water supply, sewage disposal, public transit, police and fire protection services, garbage collection and disposal, snow and ice control and road maintenance in general, with figures presented from the survey results. A description of the audit method and worksheet forms are also included. 3 figs., 33 tabs.

  15. Olkiluoto site description 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, J.; Ahokas, H.; Hudson, J.A.

    2007-03-01

    subjective criteria are used for identifying faults; Regarding the rock mechanics description, presented in Chapter 5, additional data have been assessed and the overall level of rock mechanics understanding has increased compared with previous model versions; A new hydrogeological model has been developed, which is presented in Chapter 6, which places more emphasis on the hydraulic data. Pressure anomalies are now stronger drivers for including hydraulic zones in the model and the number of explicit uncertain cases is greater; The hydrogeochemical description, presented in Chapter 7, is consistent with the previous model and there is an increased level of internal consistency in the hydrogeochemical understanding. Information on gases and understanding of their origin has increased significantly. Based on these descriptions, the report also makes a second set of predictions in Chapter 9 concerning the expected geology and rock mechanics properties to be found during the excavation of the ONKALO and also predicts the hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical impacts of these excavations. Two types of predictions are made: type A predictions, that use only the latest version of the overall Site Model; and type B predictions, that also use all the data from the tunnel, which are derived from activities, such as tunnel mapping and Pilot holes. The Site Descriptive Modelling involves uncertainties and it is necessary to assess the confidence in such modelling. This has been assessed through special protocols in a technical auditing exercise, which is presented in Chapter 10. These protocols investigate whether all data have been considered and understood; where the uncertainties lie and what the potential is for alternative interpretations; whether there is sufficient consistency between disciplines and consistency with the past evolution of the site; as well as comparisons with previous model versions. Chapter 11 concludes that, overall, the uncertainty and confidence assessment

  16. Municipal Bonds in Developing Countries. Case Study: Municipality of Stip, Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija GOGOVA SAMONIKOV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The developing countries, especially in the Balkans, barely use the municipal bonds as an alternative way of financing their activities. This paper is part of the project “The municipal bonds as an alternative source of financing municipals activities and the effective management of funds, with a special emphasis to the Municipality of Stip, R. Macedonia”. The paper has an important impact, according to both academic and practical perspective. It combines the experts’ academic analysis with the municipals potential in order to facilitate a successful municipal bond emission that would support the local economic growth. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ability and willingness of the Municipality of Stip to issue municipal bonds. The main hypothesis states that the Municipality of Stip is able to issue a municipal bond as an alternative way of financing its investment activities. The research includes the classical SWOT analysis regarding the Municipality of Stip and continues with a statistical analysis based on correlation and regression relationships within the accounts of the Municipality’s annual reports. The methodological framework is based on quantitative research methods (correlations and regression methods which result in acceptance of the main hypothesis in the paper - the municipal bonds as an alternative source for funding municipal’s activities are justified, especially if the funds are associated with a specific revenue-generating project. The findings would serve as a basis for the municipal bonds prospect, which would be the ultimate goal of combining the academic knowledge with the practical potential of the Municipality of Stip. The conclusions reveal that this would be the first municipal bond emission in the Republic of Macedonia. However, this fact can serve as an advantage in the market in terms of introducing financial instrument innovation. This paper suggests that the usage of municipal bonds is

  17. Adoption and diffusion of zoning bylaws banning fast food drive-through services across Canadian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Campbell, Elizabeth J; Macridis, Soultana; McKennitt, Daniel; Atkey, Kayla; Raine, Kim D

    2018-01-15

    Healthy public policy is an important tool for creating environments that support human health and wellbeing. At the local level, municipal policies, such as zoning bylaws, provide an opportunity for governments to regulate building location and the type of services offered. Across North America, there has been a recent proliferation of municipal bylaws banning fast food drive-through services. Research on the utilization of this policy strategy, including bylaw adopters and adopter characteristics, is limited within the Canadian context. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Canadian municipalities based on level of policy innovation and nature of their adopted bylaw banning fast food drive-through services. A multiple case history methodology was utilized to identify and analyse eligible municipal bylaws, and included development of a chronological timeline and map of adopter municipalities within Canada. Grey literature and policy databases were searched for potential adopters of municipal fast food drive-through service bylaws. Adopters were confirmed through evidence of current municipal bylaws. Geographic diffusion and diffusion of innovations theories provided a contextual framework for analysis of bylaw documents. Analysis included assignment of adopter-types, extent and purpose of bans, and policy learning activities of each adopter municipality. From 2002 to 2016, 27 municipalities were identified as adopters: six innovators and twenty-one early adopters. Mapping revealed parallel geographic diffusion patterns in western and eastern Canada. Twenty-two municipalities adopted a partial ban and five adopted a full ban. Rationales for the drive-through bans included health promotion, environmental concerns from idling, community character and aesthetics, traffic concerns, and walkability. Policy learning, including research and consultation with other municipalities, was performed by nine early adopters. This study detailed the adoption of

  18. Improvement of economic security management system of municipalities with account of transportation system development: methods of assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khe Sun, Pak; Vorona-Slivinskaya, Lubov; Voskresenskay, Elena

    2017-10-01

    The article highlights the necessity of a complex approach to assess economic security of municipalities, which would consider municipal management specifics. The approach allows comparing the economic security level of municipalities, but it does not describe parameter differences between compared municipalities. Therefore, there is a second method suggested: parameter rank order method. Applying these methods allowed to figure out the leaders and outsiders of the economic security among municipalities and rank all economic security parameters according to the significance level. Complex assessment of the economic security of municipalities, based on the combination of the two approaches, allowed to assess the security level more accurate. In order to assure economic security and equalize its threshold values, one should pay special attention to transportation system development in municipalities. Strategic aims of projects in the area of transportation infrastructure development in municipalities include the following issues: contribution into creating and elaborating transportation logistics and manufacture transport complexes, development of transportation infrastructure with account of internal and external functions of the region, public transport development, improvement of transport security and reducing its negative influence on the environment.

  19. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 6. Characterization and description of areas. Sjaelland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 5 and 6 on Zealand. (LN)

  20. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 7. Characterization and description of areas. Langeland, Taesinge and Fyn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, high sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 7,8,9,10, and 11 on the islands Langeland, Taasinge and Funen. (LN)

  1. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 8. Characterization and description of areas. Oestjylland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, high sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 12,13,14 and 15 in Eastern Jutland. (LN)

  2. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 11. Description of areas. Danish and English summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by choosing deposits with low water flow and high sorption potential of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs, salt pillows and salt deposits and deep basement rocks are not included in the present study. These rocks and deposits are situated too deep for the present study and salt deposits seem to be unstable for a disposal (e.g. German salt mines). The regional geologic survey based on existing data was concluded by selecting 22 areas in Denmark. There remains now to reduce the number of potential areas to 1-3 where detailed field studies will be performed in order to select the final location. (LN)

  3. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 4. Characterization and description of areas. Bornholm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities and high sorption potentials of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier been focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks, but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 2-3 more precise locations, where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological-hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. The present report describes areas 1 and 2 on Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  4. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 9. Characterization and description of areas. Limfjorden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 16,17,18,19,20 and 21 around Limfjorden. (LN)

  5. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 5. Characterization and description of areas. Falster and Lolland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes areas 3 and 4 on Falster and Lolland. (LN)

  6. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 4. Characterization and description of areas. Bornholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities and high sorption potentials of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier been focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks, but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 2-3 more precise locations, where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological-hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. The present report describes areas 1 and 2 on Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  7. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 10. Characterization and description of areas. Nordjylland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the area 22 in Northern Jutland. (LN)

  8. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 8. Characterization and description of areas. OEstjylland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, high sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 12,13,14 and 15 in Eastern Jutland. (LN)

  9. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 7. Characterization and description of areas. Langeland, Taasinge and Fyn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, high sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 7,8,9,10, and 11 on the islands Langeland, Taasinge and Funen. (LN)

  10. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 9. Characterization and description of areas. Limfjorden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 16,17,18,19,20 and 21 around Limfjorden. (LN)

  11. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 5. Characterization and description of areas. Falster and Lolland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes areas 3 and 4 on Falster and Lolland. (LN)

  12. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 6. Characterization and description of areas. Sjaelland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 5 and 6 on Zealand. (LN)

  13. Municipal Governments and Development in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Victory

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The processes of democratization, State reforms and administrative de-concentration that have marked the last 15 years of Latin American societies have brought about a reevaluation of the role of municipalities. The decentralization of the State has been put forth as basic objective and the economic productive restructuring happening around the world calls for a response from local initiatives: that is to say, initiatives to effect a new strategy of development “from the bottom up” that values territory as a geographic space bounded by a community of interests. One of the important actors in these local initiatives are the municipal governments who, as a first government resort, must respond to the vast demands of the population. These institutions are not consolidated, however. Instead, they are generally weak, with little economic, political and ideological power, and are limited in their autonomy, authority, legitimacy and capacity for management. In the first part of the article, and in an effort to characterize the political autonomy of the region’s municipalities, their distinct elements are analyzed – the system of representative democracy, competencies and resources, etc.. The most notorious deficiencies of Latin American municipalities are also studied. The second section analyzes the roles that these municipalities should take on to overcome these deficiencies, and goes on to offer action proposals towards creating a new model for municipal management, new ways of making policy from the municipality, and an analysis of the different instruments for promoting the local economy.

  14. Mapeamento e Caracterização Ambiental das Áreas Apícolas dos Municípios de Mucajaí e Cantá do Estado de Roraima. Mapping and Environmental Description of Beekeeping Areas in Mucajaí and Cantá Municipalities of Roraima State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorvanir da S. Barros

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo mapear, identificar e caracterizar ambientalmente as áreas apícolas dos municípios de Mucajaí e Cantá do Estado de Roraima, a partir de informações referentes às cartas temáticas de geologia, geomorfologia, pedologia, vegetação, hidrografia, aptidão agrícola e informações da atividade apícola local. Um mapa básico destes municípios foi gerado, numa escala de 1:200.000 e 1:500.000, respectivamente, correlacionados com as cartas temáticas das áreas apícolas e localização dos apiários. Constatou-se que todas as áreas são favoráveis a exploração apícola, visto que, tanto em áreas inaptas e/ou restritas as culturas de ciclo curto e longo, da diversidade da vegetação, da rede de drenagem, contribuem para o desenvolvimento e ampliação da apicultura. Consubstanciando para cadastro dos apicultores junto ao Programa Nacional de Georeferenciamento das áreas apícolas do País, usufruindo dos benefícios de um sistema de informações geográficas (SIG, consolidando uma melhor alternativa de preservação das florestas em áreas com severas restrições a pecuária e a agricultura. Ressaltando que a exploração apícola engloba o tripé da sustentabilidade: O econômico, o social e o Ecológico. = This study aimed to map, identify and environmentally describe beekeeping areas of two municipalities in the state of Roraima, derived from information related to thematic maps on geology, geomorphology, pedology, vegetation, hydrography, agricultural capability and geopositioning of beekeeping areas. It was drawn a cartographic map of the two municipalities on the scales of 1:200.000 and 1:500.000, respectively, correlated with the thematic maps describing the apiculture areas. It appeared that all areas are in favor of holding beekeeping. So, those areas unfit and / or restricted to the short and long cycle culture, as well as those areas with a diversity of vegetation, and areas where a

  15. National public health policy in a local context--implementation in two Swedish municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Elisabeth; Fosse, Elisabeth; Tillgren, Per

    2011-12-01

    In 2003 the wide-ranging Swedish National Public Health Policy (SNPHP), with a focus on health determinants, was adopted by the Swedish parliament. In the context of multilevel governance, SNPHP implementation is dependent on self-governed municipalities and counties. The aim of the study is, from a municipal perspective, to investigate public-health policies in two municipalities. Content analysis of documents and interviews provided a foundation for an explorative case study. The SNPHP at national level is overriding but politically controversial. At local level, a health-determinants perspective was detectable in the policies implemented, but none regarding to health equality. At local level, the SNPHP is not regarded as implementable; rather, limited parts have, to varying degrees, been reconciled with local public-health goals, according to municipal needs and conditions. A success-promoting factor in the two municipalities was the presence of committed and knowledgeable actors/implementers. Also, the municipality with a more centrally controlled and stable party-political leadership succeeded better in implementing structural and intersectoral community-wide policies for coordinated local health promotion. The contents of national and local public-health policies differ, and municipalities that have implemented their own local health policies do not seem to regard the SNPHP as justifiable or adoptable. If the SNPHP overall aim regarding equal health is to be achieved homogeneously in Swedish municipalities, its contents and purpose need clearer management and negotiation, so that implementation of the national policy locally is understandable and motivated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Political or dental power in private and public service provision: a study of municipal expenditures for child dental care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L. B.; Bech, M.; Lauridsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Both professionals and politicians may affect expenditures for highly professional services provided in the public and private sector. We investigated Danish publicly financed child dental care with a special focus on the influence of politicians and dentists on the expenditure level. By studying...... from 1996 to 2001 for 226 Danish municipalities, thus allowing for the control for heterogeneity between municipalities and for intra-municipal correlations across time. The results point to differences in expenditures between municipalities with privately and publicly produced dental care. Furthermore...... spatial patterns in expenditure levels across municipalities, we are able to test the influences of these two main actors and the networks through which learning is achieved. Four hypotheses on the existence of different spatial spillover effects are tested. The empirical analysis is based on annual data...

  17. European municipalities and the liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Municipalities are directly affected by the liberalization of the energy markets. Because they all consume or even produce energy, whether it be for their own consumption or to resell it, they often distribute gas, electricity or heat, they plan urban areas and organize the energy networks on their territory, while in addition citizens expect municipalities to inform them and even protect them against the possible excesses of energy salesmen. Elected representatives administrations, local agencies, municipal companies, citizens' associations etc., all have to innovate. This supplement to Energie-Cites INFO is intended to provide you with practical information and further analyses of the liberalization process. (authors)

  18. A System of Indicators for Financial Analysis of the Municipal Real Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Feschiyan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a system of financial indicators for the efficiency of use of municipal real property. Such a system must provide for meeting the information needs of a number of internal and external consumers and is of primary significance in the analysis of municipalities’ overall financial condition. The following may be pointed out as the major aspects of the practical analysis: i the analysis of the municipality’s provision with immoveable property; ii the analysis of the efficient use of certain categories of municipal real property. The paper aims at clarifying the major moments in the analysis of the structure, composition, and effective use of municipal real property, and the determination of definite indicators to be applied to this analysis oriented towards its implementation. The wide variety of parameters is reduced to a system of 16 indicators: reporting value, depreciation, ratio of replacement, ratio of cost efficiency, ratio of revenue efficiency, return on total assets, return on revenues, return on expenses, ratio of the fitness, ratio of the repair, ratio of real energy provision, ratio of workload, present value of a series of regular cash flows, equivalent yield model, return on investment, return on investment. The paper presents the structure and content of the indicators of the analysis of the municipal real property, as well as the input of these indicators. The estimation (values necessary to determine the indicators, the indicators themselves and their meaning make it possible to study the effectiveness of the operations (functioning of the municipal real property in terms of description of its physical condition, structure, content, purpose and functions, which generates revenues or brings expenditures to the municipality. The system of indicators provides for decision making with a view to boosting the efficiency of public sector management and more specifically – the management of municipal real property.

  19. Investment of financial resources for the procurement of medicines for primary care in Brazilian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Marcela Amaral; Tavares, Noemia Uruth Leão; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Naves, Janeth de Oliveira Silva

    2017-08-01

    This study shows a descriptive data analysis related to the procurement of medicines for primary care in Brazilian municipalities, as recorded in the National database of Pharmaceutical Service Actions and Services for the period July 2013 - June 2014, by geographic region and population size. Nine hundred and sixty municipalities were analyzed, of which 27% invested monetary value equal to or greater than the minimum statutory recommendations and 43% of these are located in the Southeast. The North region has the highest number of municipalities with less investment. Municipalities with a population over 500,000 inhabitants used, on average, lower resources to provide more items to users. The average number of items purchased was 86 and represents 25% of the National List of Essential Medicines (Rename); 64% had a decentralized resource management and the most commonly used procurement method was "tender". The most purchased drugs are in line with the most prevalent primary care diseases. Findings showed that most municipalities invests below statutory recommendations and are located mainly in the North, Northeast and Midwest. It was not possible to establish a trend between population and amount invested per capita/year.

  20. Local government units initiatives on coastal resource management in adjacent municipalities in Camarines Sur, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, A. Z.; Madela, H. L.

    2018-03-01

    This research was conducted to determine the local government units (LGUs) initiatives on coastal resource management (CRM) in adjacent municipalities in Camarines Sur, Philippines. The respondents of this study are 100 fisherfolk leaders in the municipalities of Calabanga, Tinambac and Siruma. Descriptive, comparative and evaluative methods of research were employed and a survey questionnaire was used as the primary tool in data gathering. On the test of difference, the computed F-value of 12.038 and p-value of .001 revealed a very high difference in the implementation of CRM initiatives in the adjacent municipalities. The respondents in this study live below the poverty threshold. The intrusion of commercial fishers and the use of active fishing gears inside the 15-km municipal waters significantly affect the marine habitat while fishpond conversion kills the natural cycle in the mangrove forests. However, the FOs membership in the Municipal Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management Council empower them to engage in governance which can be a venue for them to recommend policies related to CRM. As a result of this study, a CRM monitoring and evaluation model was crafted to guide the LGUs in the review, revision and crafting of CRM programs.

  1. Development of an automated system for the decentral fractioning of municipal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Vesper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a growing problem of the increasing amount of unsorted municipal wastes with the resulting consequences for the environment. The aim of this study was to present a new solutions of the system for the decentral fractioning of municipal wastes, which enable simplification and improvement of the process together with the reduction of total costs. Methods: The description of  the problem of the increasing amount of unsorted municipal wastes with the resulting consequences for the environment as well as an alternative solution for the decentral fractioning of such wastes was presented. The influence onto the environment as well as the efficiency of the costly mechanical sorting of wastes was queried. The nowadays used principles of sorted and unsorted waste disposal were elucidated and their advantages and disadvantages evaluated. Results and conclusions: Based on this evaluation an innovative and future oriented development of an automated system for the decentral fractioning of municipal wastes was presented. The new developed systems aim at the achievement of an easier, less costly and environment-friendlier process for the disposal of municipal wastes from apartment buildings.

  2. FAMILY HEALTH STRATEGY OF PARTICIPATION IN MUNICIPAL HEALTH PLAN CONSTRUCTION: AN EXPERIENCE REPOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ribeiro dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Municipal Health Plan is an important planning tool in the management at the Unified Health System and at the same time, a mechanism for popular participation. This study aims to report the experience of the Municipal Health Plan’s workshop conducted by a Family Health Program team in a municipality in the south of Bahia Construção do Plano Municipal de Saúde. in the year 2014. This is an experience report that consolidates itself as a descriptive research tool that presents a reflection about an action that addresses a situation experienced in the professional interest of the scientific community. The workshop included the team and community members’ participation. The population's health problems follow a national trend, highlighting problems like diabetes, hypertension, worms, abuse of alcohol and other drugs inaddition to viruses. The health system problems reveal the weaknesses in local management of the Unified Health System by the insufficiency and/or lack of resources such as drugs, tests, equipment maintenance and others. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of the Municipal Health Plan as a management tool of the Unified Health System that allows closeness between users, workers and managers, as well as being a space for policy vocalization, contributing to the real effectiveness of the Unified Health System, based on participatory planning in accordance with the needs of users.

  3. Absenteeism for low back pain in the municipal administration of Goiânia in the years 2008 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aparecida Neves Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Objective To establish and evaluate the indicators of absenteeism for low back pain among municipal public servants of the city of Goiania in 2008 and 2009. Material and methods This is a descriptive, epidemiological, retrospective study. We used secondary data provided by the Municipal Medical Board of Goiânia. The sample was composed by active, statutory and commissioned civil servants of the executive branch, of both sexes, who took sick leaves for health care in the period from January 2008 to December 2009. We analyzed all cases of sick leave for health care which were taken for a period of more than 3 days and caused by low back pain. Frequency and severity indexes, proportion of lost time and average length of absences were calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results 625 sick leaves were analyzed. In 2008, 32% of public servants took sick leave for health care. 2.83% of these leaves were for low back pain, generating 3541 days of absence. In 2009, the total percentage of sick leaves was 30%. 5.38% of these were due to low back pain, leading to 6890 lost working days. The indicators of absenteeism for 2008 and 2009 were, respectively: frequency index = 0.009 and 0.015; severity index = 0.14 and 0.26, proportion of lost time = 13.89% and 27.34%; average length of absences = 16.39 and 16.84 days. Conclusion The results indicate the need for the creation of intervention policies on work organization, since low back pain is a disorder that can be prevented at the primary level.

  4. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in the Dormaa Municipality, Ghana: why some residents remain uninsured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Thompson

    2014-02-21

    The paper presents a quantitative investigation on the national health insurance scheme (nhis) in dormaa municipality, Ghana: why some residents remain uninsured? Since its implementation has been a little over a decade now. The aim is to identify the obstacles to enrollment by the public which would enable policy direction to ensure that all residents are registered with the scheme. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted between May and July, 2013. Both purposive and simple random sampling technique were used to select 210 respondents and data obtained through self-administered and face-to-face interviews guided by structured questionnaire. chi square (X2) test of independence was adopted to show the association between socioeconomic and demographic features and membership. Findings from the research suggest that residents' decision to enrol have significant associated with gender, education, number of children, place of residence, employment and income. It was also observed that membership is highly affected by premium level. The discussion of the findings and recommendations offered, if incorporated into the policy guideline of NHIS could maintain and at the same time increase enrollment level which would guarantee quality, accessible and affordable basic health care protection for the good people of Ghana.

  5. Models of municipal solid waste generation and collection costs applicable to all municipalities in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chira Bureecam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify and measure the variables which influence municipal solid waste (MSW generation and collection costs in Thai municipality. The empirical analysis is based on the information derived from a survey conducted in a sample size of 570 municipalities across the country. The results from the MSW generation model indicate that the population density, the household size and the size of municipality are the significant determinant of waste generation. Meanwhile, with regards to the MSW collection cost model, the results showed some existence of positive in the volume of MSW collected, population density, the distance between the center of municipality to the disposal site the hazardous sorting and the size of municipality whereas, there were no evidence of the frequency of collection and the ratio of recycled material to waste generation on cost.

  6. Forsmark - site descriptive model version 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    During 2002, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is starting investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian basement of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Forsmark, which lies in the municipality of Oesthammar, on the east coast of Sweden, about 150 kilometres north of Stockholm. The site description should present all collected data and interpreted parameters of importance for the overall scientific understanding of the site, for the technical design and environmental impact assessment of the deep repository, and for the assessment of long-term safety. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. The site descriptive models are devised and stepwise updated as the site investigations proceed. The point of departure for this process is the regional site descriptive model, version 0, which is the subject of the present report. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. This information, with the exception of data from tunnels and drill holes at the sites of the Forsmark nuclear reactors and the underground low-middle active radioactive waste storage facility, SFR, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. For this reason, the Forsmark site descriptive model, version 0, as detailed in the present report, has been developed at a regional scale. It covers a rectangular area, 15 km in a southwest-northeast and 11 km in a northwest-southeast direction, around the

  7. Importance of physical infrastructure in the economic growth of municipalities in the northern border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Alonso Barajas Bustillos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the importance of infrastructure on economic growth for the Mexican northern border municipalities. From the growth literature, we know that infrastructure, besides other factors, has been pointed out as a key factor in the long run perspectives of regional growth. Nevertheless, and within this thematic context, works that use a disaggregated analysis down to the level of the municipality are still scarce, which in the case of the northern border constitutes a scenario of much relevance given the development model adopted by the Mexican economy in recent decades. Empirical models results indicate that the municipalities of Piedras Negras, Nogales and Torreon maintain a positive relationship between physical infrastructure and growth. In the case of other municipalities like Tijuana, its elevated population growth inhibits a proper infrastructure allocation, although the positive effect induced by infrastructure on growth remains.

  8. Use of point-of-care HbA1c measurement to estimate the level of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus among 67-year-old participants in a cardiovascular screening programme in the municipality of Viborg, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Winkler; Dahl, Marie; Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet

    2018-01-01

    Aims To determine the prevalence of unidentified diabetes mellitus among 67‐year‐olds in Denmark participating in a screening programme focusing on cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and to describe glycaemic levels in individuals according to point‐of‐care HbA1c combined with self‐reported dia...

  9. Enlisting municipal governments in a national approach to clean air and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) and the Government of Canada have a shared commitment to improve environmental performance and protect the health of Canadians. Air pollution and climate change are also a shared responsibility among federal, municipal and provincial/territorial governments. Although they operate independently, their policies and programs tend to overlap. This is both costly and inefficient. In order to create synergies and leverage the role and potential of each level of government, the FCM proposed a national approach to clean air and climate change. The approach involves all levels of government in a nationally coordinated effort, with roles appropriate to their capacities. The municipal role in clean air and climate change action, roles and responsibilities of municipal governments, and guiding principles of a new Canadian approach were discussed in this document. Recommendations and next steps were also identified. They centred on the following themes: enhancing public transit, clean transportation and related infrastructure; improving commercial and residential building efficiency; stimulating ongoing productivity and pollution prevention within municipal operations through incentives and policies; enhancing clean energy; strengthened and enforceable air quality standards; emissions trading; climate change adaptation; public education and awareness; and demonstrating success and ensuring accountability. The document concluded that only a long-term intergovernmental partnership can meet the challenges posed by climate change and air pollution. FCM urged the Government of Canada to adopt an integrative and strategic approach to clean air and climate change by enlisting municipal governments as partners in both its development and implementation

  10. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a municipal or private water supply system. (b) Possible loss of values: Discharges can affect the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a) Municipal...

  11. evaluation of municipal solid waste management system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: solid waste, household, waste bin, willingness to pay, municipal. 1. INTRODUCTION .... significant differences between WTP and household ... Gender. Income of Household. Education Status. House Type. Household Size. Male.

  12. Municipal Forest Management in Latin America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... Book cover Municipal Forest Management in Latin America ... forest management schemes we could use as models to develop policies? ... Call for proposals: Innovations for the economic inclusion of marginalized youth.

  13. SAFE DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL WASTES IN NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    affairs in the management of municipal solid waste in most parts of Nigeria. ... 1 John G. Rau and David Wooten (eds), Environmental Impact Analysis Handbook (Mc- ..... Up to date efficient “cleaner production technologies” are expected to be.

  14. Do Municipal Mergers Improve Fiscal Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Welling; Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Improved fiscal management is a frequent justification for promoting boundary consolidations. However, whether or not this is actually the case is rarely placed under rigorous empirical scrutiny. Hence, this article investigates if fiscal outcomes are improved when municipalities are merged....... The basic argument is that the conceptualisation of fiscal management in political science is often too narrow as it focuses on the budget and pays hardly any attention to balances in the final accounts and debts – elements of management which are central to policy making. On this background, the causal...... relationship between municipal mergers and fiscal outcomes is analysed. Measured on the balance between revenues and expenses, liquid assets and debts, municipal mergers improve the fiscal outcomes of the municipalities in a five-year perspective, although the pre-reform effects tend to be negative...

  15. A proposed groundwater management framework for municipalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A proposed groundwater management framework for municipalities in South Africa. ... Hence, the Water Research Commission (WRC) has commissioned a project ... and available tools to achieve sustainable groundwater management reflect ...

  16. When municipalities lead co-production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tortzen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    from research in governance and leadership, the paper analyses a critical case of co-production in the Danish Municipality of Holbæk. The main focus is on exploring how leadership interventions are enacted by civil servants and politicians, and how these shape the co-production process. The analysis...... points to the significant role played by municipalities as hands-off leaders of co-production processes, and identifies leadership dynamics which merit further exploration....

  17. Development of Municipal Solid Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Teibe, Inara

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on an empirical work done by author on a series of case studies such us document studies and analyzing the best practices examples. The objective of this research is to find out barriers to reach regional waste management plan demands in three municipalities: Salacgriva, Saulkrasti and Ikskile. Author gives proposal with some recommendations for development of municipal waste management as well. There are several views and attitudes of local stakeholders such us municipali...

  18. Lessons Learned: Community Solar for Municipal Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    This report outlines the work that STAT has completed, discusses the range of approaches utilities are taking, and highlights several challenges municipal utilities face in deciding whether and how to pursue community solar. As this report shows, there is no 'silver bullet' in terms of municipal utility community solar design or implementation - programs vary significantly and are highly dependent on localized contexts.

  19. Safety of Municipal Loan in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetsenko Tetiana V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is justification of the necessity of legal regulation of actions of the bodies of local self-government when detecting signs of insolvency. Each stage of municipal loans management is analysed from the point of view of availability of legal rules, which do not allow making municipal loans by territorial communities of the cities with weak financial state or regulate sequence of actions of municipalities in default times. The following results were obtained: majority of legal restrictions in the sphere of local finance management are directed at prevention of ungrounded loans or have the form of sanctions, applied to local bodies, which perform their debt obligations with delay; the state formally controls the process of making municipal loans, avoiding financial responsibility; the national legislation does not contain the mechanism of regulation of actions of territorial communities, which experience difficulties when performing debt obligations. The article proves expediency of adoption of a uniform regulatory-legal act in Ukraine, which would regulate all economic relations connected with making municipal loans. This legal document shall contain a section about actions of the municipality-debtor when signs of default start to appear, announcement of default and declaration of the debtor insolvent (bankrupt. The article recommends the following structure of this section: regulation of the procedure of default announcement avoidance; announcement of default with the pre-trial restoration of the debtor’s solvency; and announcement of default with declaring the debtor bankrupt juridically.

  20. Promoting Peace Education for Behaviourial Changes in Public Secondary Schools in Calabar Municipality Council Area, Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uko, E. S.; Igbineweka, P. O.; Odigwe, F. N.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the promotion of peace education for behavioural changes in public secondary schools in Calabar Municipal Council Area of Cross River State. A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A set of questionnaire items were validated and used for the collection of data involving 310 respondents, selected…

  1. Guidelines for Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, P.; Horsman, Peter; Kühnel, Karsten; Priddy, M.; Reijnhoudt, Linda; Merenmies, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Guidelines follow the conceptual metadata model (deliverable 17.2). They include guidelines for description of collection-holding institutions, document collections, organisations, personalities, events, camps and ghettos. As much as possible the guidelines comply with the descriptive standards

  2. A descriptive retrospective study of time consumption in home care services: how do employees use their working time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Solrun G; Angelsen, Ragnhild O

    2014-09-26

    Home care services in Norway are provided for free, and municipalities are responsible for their provision to all those in need of them, in accordance with the Act on Municipal Health and Care Services. The costs of home care services are increasing. Many municipalities are now working to find the best cost-effective solutions to ensure that home care services are of sufficient quality but still affordable. This paper describes how nurses and health workers spend their working time, with a hypothesis that driving time and time required to document details of the care given are underestimated in weekly planning schedules. This article sets out a descriptive retrospective study of day-schedules and driving routes for staff working in home care services. Data were analyzed using GIS. The driving time was between 18% and 26% of working time in municipality A, and between 21% and 23% in municipality B. Visiting time varied between 44% and 62% in municipality A, and 40% and 56% in municipality B. Other tasks, including the legally-required documentation of the care given, varied between 19% and 32% in municipality A and 21% and 38% in municipality B. Overall, 22% of the driving routes in municipality A, and 14% in municipality B, took more time than expected. In municipality A, 22% of the day-schedules underestimated overtime; this figure was 14% in municipality B. In home care services, time taken for driving and to write statutory documentation seems to have been underestimated. Better planning and organization of driving routes would reduce driving time and allow more time for other necessary work.

  3. Subotica municipality as a learning region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some differences in territorial organization between Serbian and EU countries are obvious. The level of centralization and tradition in systems for implementation of ideas are differently back- grounded. However, these are the most important facts for the opportunity to realize Learning Region as a concept of the European future. There is no part of space that should be considered as unchangeable and the way to a better position and Learning Region concept implementation of each region in Serbia in practice should lead towards few necessary steps and further. The starting point is awareness of the facts on the creation of Subotica region as it is at present. The healthy future of each region is provided by looking back in the past and learning from the history. The other important thing is bench marking- learning on the positive and successful experiences of other regions, and finally, making its own concept of Learning Region adapted to local surrounding and true need of local people. Some experiences, suggestions and comparisons will be made in this case study, in relation to one of the Serbian municipalities nearest t to EU neighboring countries in a territorial way. .

  4. Waste Management Policy In Tourism Area of Saensuk Municipality, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsathon Kaewmanee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saensuk Municipality is a famous tourism city in Thailand, especially Bangsaen beach. In supporting the tourism activity, it has waste managing method by using new generation administrator and technologies. However, the waste problem happened in Saensuk Municipality is included the human resource ability, technical facility, and the amount of waste. By using the qualitative descriptive method and doing a series of interview to selected informants, the researcher studied and analyzed the problem, factors, and solutions of the issue. This study found that the nature of the beach and the visitor behavior is among the reason behind the large amount of waste daily in the site. Moreover, the regulation by the local government is sufficient to cover the issue if implemented fully. The study shows that the city had implemented the good governance idea in several instances, and giving the waste management to the private sector is one of the optionsto resolve the problem since the quality of the work could be improved. Keywords:waste management,public policy, tourism area, Thailand

  5. Sexual harassment among females in working place at Dhangadhi municipality Kailali, District of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Lal Bahadur Kunwar; Bir Bahadur Kunwar; Poshan Thapa; Ishor Sharma; Shankar Singh Dhami; Lalit Jung Rokaya

    2014-01-01

    Sexual harassment is a challenging issue where women and men work together. It is being recognized as a violation of human rights and human dignity which undermines the equality of opportunity and treatment between men and women. So, this descriptive study was conducted in Dhangadhi Municipality Kailali District, Nepalto find out the experience of sexual harassment in female at working place. Only female respondents who were working in office were taken purposively from four sectors such as g...

  6. Simpevarp - site descriptive model version 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    During 2002, SKB is starting detailed investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian rocks of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Simpevarp, which lies in the municipality of Oskarshamn, on the southeast coast of Sweden, about 250 kilometres south of Stockholm. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. SKB maintains two main databases at the present time, a site characterisation database called SICADA and a geographic information system called SKB GIS. The site descriptive model will be developed and presented with the aid of the SKB GIS capabilities, and with SKBs Rock Visualisation System (RVS), which is also linked to SICADA. The version 0 model forms an important framework for subsequent model versions, which are developed successively, as new information from the site investigations becomes available. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. In the case of Simpevarp, this is essentially the information which was compiled for the Oskarshamn feasibility study, which led to the choice of that area as a favourable object for further study, together with information collected since its completion. This information, with the exception of the extensive data base from the nearby Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. Against this background, the present report consists of the following components: an overview of the present content of the databases

  7. Forsmark - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    During 2002, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is starting investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian basement of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Forsmark, which lies in the municipality of Oesthammar, on the east coast of Sweden, about 150 kilometres north of Stockholm. The site description should present all collected data and interpreted parameters of importance for the overall scientific understanding of the site, for the technical design and environmental impact assessment of the deep repository, and for the assessment of long-term safety. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. The site descriptive models are devised and stepwise updated as the site investigations proceed. The point of departure for this process is the regional site descriptive model, version 0, which is the subject of the present report. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. This information, with the exception of data from tunnels and drill holes at the sites of the Forsmark nuclear reactors and the underground low-middle active radioactive waste storage facility, SFR, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. For this reason, the Forsmark site descriptive model, version 0, as detailed in the present report, has been developed at a regional scale. It covers a rectangular area, 15 km in a southwest-northeast and 11 km in a northwest-southeast direction, around the

  8. The Role of Transnational Municipal Networks in Transboundary Water Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitri Jetoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transboundary nature of stressors impacting shared water bodies has been traditionally recognized in agreements between nation states. Several developments have led to new layers of cross border environmental actors, including regional and city level interactions. This proliferation of non-state actors is witnessed in two large water bodies, the Baltic Sea and the North American Great Lakes. In both regions, transboundary water governance was led by nation states in agreements to improve heavily contaminated waters, the Helsinki Convention (1974 and the North American Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (1972, respectively. Whilst there has been much research on transnational regional networks, especially in Europe, there has been less theoretical work done on transnational municipal transboundary water networks due to the delay of recognition of the legitimacy of these local government actors. This paper aims to examine the role of the transnational municipal networks in transboundary water governance by looking at the case studies of the Union of Baltic cities in the Baltic Sea region and the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Cities Initiative in the North American Great Lakes Basin. It does this by assessing the role of these transnational municipal networks in bridging water governance gaps in these regions.

  9. Trans-Americas leads the way into municipal textile recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgley, H.

    1998-08-01

    Most textile waste in the US still goes to the landfill--an estimated 6.6 million tons each year. But thanks to the efforts of textile recycles--such as Trans-Americas Textile Recycling CO. (Brooklyn, NY)--another 1.25 million tons gets salvaged for reuse overseas or as a feedstock for the wiping and fiber industries, according to the Council for Textile Recycling. In an era where global population levels are increasing the demand for textile waste from the Western world and municipalities are struggling to reach their waste diversion goals, boosting textile recovery rates makes sense. And it`s a waste that can be easily incorporated into existing municipal curbside or drop-off recycling programs. Since 1942, when the company first opened its doors in Brooklyn, NY, it purchased textile discards from charities. While those discards still make up the majority of Trans-Americas` supply, in the last two years, the company also began purchasing post-consumer material from municipalities. Textiles are definitely going to be an increasingly important part of recycling, as states look to meet their mandates.

  10. Carbon Footprint Analysis of Municipalities – Evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Angelakoglou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The economical crisis that hit Greece after 2009, significantly affected its energy consumption profile due to the increased price of domestic heating oil and gasoline. The specific study aims at the quantification of the carbon dioxide emissions in municipal level due to energy and fuel consumption. Three different municipalities in North Greece (Kavala, Alexandroupolis and Drama were assessed with the application of three different carbon footprint estimation approaches in each one of them, including two life cycle assessment methods. Results ranged from 511,799 to 571,000, 435,250 to 489,000 and 355,207 to 398,000 tons CO2 and tons CO2-eq. for Kavala, Alexandroupolis and Drama respectively. The analysis per energy type indicated the electrical energy consumption as the key factor affecting the results due to the relatively high CO2 emission coefficient of the electricity produced in Greece. The analysis per sector indicated that a percentage of nearly 75% of the total carbon footprint is assigned to the building sector whereas the private and commercial transport is accountable for the rest. Municipal activities (buildings, facilities, lighting and fleet contributed to a small percentage to the total carbon footprint (approx. 3-8%.

  11. Dissinfection of municipal sludge and wastewater by energized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trump, J.G.; Wright, K.A.; Sinskey, A.J.; Shah, D.N.; Fernald, R.

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory studies at M.I.T. and high flow rate studies at the M.D.C. Deer Island Wastewater Treatment Plant in Boston have shown the practicality and cost effectiveness of disinfecting liquid municipal sludges by injecting energized electrons. A dosage of 400 Kilorads (4 Kilograys) reduces gram-negative bacteria, including coliforms, fecal coliforms, salmonellae and shigellae, in primary raw or anaerobically digested sludges to undetectable levels. Enteric viruses are reduced by one to two orders of magnitude. This treatment also destroys parasite eggs or renders them non-infectious. Model system studies indicate that trace toxic compounds such as PCBs in water are degraded. The estimated cost of sludge disinfection by electron treatment is about $0.80 per liquid tonne for modular systems of 650 liquid tonnes per day capacity. About 6 Kilowatt-hours of input electric power per tonne is required. The temperature rise of the disinfected watery sludge is about 2 0 C. Electron disinfection combined with subsurface soil injection offers an environmentally attractive, energy-efficient, and economic two -step process for land disposal of municipal sludges with water conservation and soil improvement benefits. Combined with widely-distributed ocean feeding, electron disinfection of the municipal sludge of coastal communities offers a safe marine nutrient for increasing fish population in treated ocean areas. The electron disinfection of effluent wastewater, in lieu of chlorination, is a future application which avoids the production of potentially toxic chlorinated hydrocarbons. (Author) [pt

  12. Financial compensation due to municipalities that host radioactive waste deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Renata A. da; Simoes, Francisco Fernando L.; Martins, Vivian B.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to perform calculation about the financial compensation due to municipalities where there is viability for construction of radioactive waste deposits from low and medium activity. Were used like base structure de Resolution No. 96 of August, 10, 2010, entitled 'Model of Calculation For Financial Compensation to Municipalities' where are determinate those principal characteristics by the waste and deposits, such as the half-life, activity level, type of deposits (initial, intermediate or final), costs for construction and maintenance of deposits, demography, between others. The calculation was made according to the temporally or definitive storage for solids waste like personal protection equipment (gloves, shoes, masks, etc) resins and filters used in wastewater treatment, between others, from of nuclear and radioactivity facilities. There are presented some countries that do the compensation, financial or not, for some municipalities for the construction of waste deposits and in some cases, the way that occurred the negotiation between the stake holders, in other words, the local population and the companies. Also are presented others forms of financial compensation in Brazil in consequence of activities in large scale which result in potential risk for the surrounding population and for the environment, like compensation for oil and natural gas, hydropower plants and mining. Were used on methodology the inventory of waste presented on RMBN project (Repository of Waste of Low and Medium Activity) developed by the CDTN which present the implementation of a repository for final storage to radioactive waste. With this was possible to develop a case study with the creation of four scenarios. Values were found which initially range from R$2,6 thousand to R$79,8 thousand for month. Finally are analyzed the possible influences which that values may have on the municipality budget revenue and some divergent points about the resolution. (author)

  13. Financial compensation due to municipalities that host radioactive waste deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Renata A. da; Simoes, Francisco Fernando L.; Martins, Vivian B., E-mail: renata.amaral@ufrj.br, E-mail: flamego@ien.gov.br, E-mail: vbmartins@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to perform calculation about the financial compensation due to municipalities where there is viability for construction of radioactive waste deposits from low and medium activity. Were used like base structure de Resolution No. 96 of August, 10, 2010, entitled 'Model of Calculation For Financial Compensation to Municipalities' where are determinate those principal characteristics by the waste and deposits, such as the half-life, activity level, type of deposits (initial, intermediate or final), costs for construction and maintenance of deposits, demography, between others. The calculation was made according to the temporally or definitive storage for solids waste like personal protection equipment (gloves, shoes, masks, etc) resins and filters used in wastewater treatment, between others, from of nuclear and radioactivity facilities. There are presented some countries that do the compensation, financial or not, for some municipalities for the construction of waste deposits and in some cases, the way that occurred the negotiation between the stake holders, in other words, the local population and the companies. Also are presented others forms of financial compensation in Brazil in consequence of activities in large scale which result in potential risk for the surrounding population and for the environment, like compensation for oil and natural gas, hydropower plants and mining. Were used on methodology the inventory of waste presented on RMBN project (Repository of Waste of Low and Medium Activity) developed by the CDTN which present the implementation of a repository for final storage to radioactive waste. With this was possible to develop a case study with the creation of four scenarios. Values were found which initially range from R$2,6 thousand to R$79,8 thousand for month. Finally are analyzed the possible influences which that values may have on the municipality budget revenue and some divergent points about the resolution. (author)

  14. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  15. NOAA Weather Radio - EAS Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-Zero All Hazards Logo Emergency Alert Description Event Codes Fact Sheet FAQ Organization Search Search For Go NWS All NOAA Emergency Alert System (EAS) List of EAS Event Codes NWS EAS fact sheet What Management Agency (FEMA) and the NWS, implements the EAS at the federal level. The EAS is the nation's public

  16. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia, E-mail: iraia.oribe@deusto.es; Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M.; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have modelled household waste generation in Biscay municipalities. • We have identified relevant characteristics regarding household waste generation. • Factor models are used in order to identify the best subset of explicative variables. • Biscay’s municipalities are grouped by means of hierarchical clustering. - Abstract: The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation.

  17. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia; Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M.; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have modelled household waste generation in Biscay municipalities. • We have identified relevant characteristics regarding household waste generation. • Factor models are used in order to identify the best subset of explicative variables. • Biscay’s municipalities are grouped by means of hierarchical clustering. - Abstract: The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation

  18. Conditions in tax collection: an analysis for the municipalities of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Aparecida Vieira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to know which local characteristics influence the own tax revenues of municipalities in Minas Gerais, the bibliographic referential of this article versa on federalism and fiscal decentralization, indicating variables identified in the literature as determinants of municipal tax collection. The own tax revenues depends mainly on municipal tax bases and the rates levied on these bases. Thus, the municipality's income, as well as the weight of urban activities and the degree of formalization of economic activity, determine the size of this tax base and consequently the amount of funds raised. To analyze the local characteristics, secondary data were collected on the fiscal capacity of Minas Gerais municipalities for 2010, in view of the availability of data for this year. Was used factor analysis to group the variables, and quantile regression (RQ to check the effect of these in different stages of Municipal Own Revenues (MOR. Were obtained three factors: "Economic Aspects"; "Structural Aspects" and "Financial Aspects", which grouped the variables according to the correlation shown between them. With the RQ could be seen that these factors affect differently the quantile MOR (q.10, q.25, q.50, q.75 and q.90, and the highest rates are attributed to higher own tax revenues levels, demonstrating that these factors are most influential in the municipalities of higher own tax revenues. Knowing the conditions of own revenues of municipalities allows the public administration to implement actions to avoid the tax collection inefficiency, promoting the main economic activities that make up your tax base.

  19. Sekhukhune District Municipality workshop proceedings: Wastewater treatment: Towards improved water quality to promote social and economic development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntombela, C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the workshop was to reinforce, at the strategic decision-making level within the municipality, the significance of properly managed wastewater treatment facilities towards improved water quality....

  20. Integrated energy and waste water solutions to solve small town municipal service delivery problems in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Providing municipal services such as electricity and waste water treatment is a major challenge for small towns that often lack the institutional capacity to manage and maintain the necessary infrastructure. High levels of poverty in these towns...

  1. Desigualdades sócio-espaciais da adequação das informações de nascimentos e óbitos do Ministério da Saúde, Brasil, 2000-2002 Socio-spatial inequalities in the adequacy of Ministry of Health data on births and deaths at the municipal level in Brazil, 2000-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lourenço Tavares de Andrade

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, analisam-se as desigualdades sócio-espaciais da adequação das informações de nascimentos (SINASC e óbitos (SIM do Ministério da Saúde para o cálculo da mortalidade infantil por município. A análise foi realizada de acordo com o porte populacional do município e região geográfica no período 2000-2002, considerando-se cinco indicadores: coeficiente geral de mortalidade padronizado por idade; razão entre nascidos vivos informados e estimados; desvio médio relativo do coeficiente de mortalidade; desvio médio relativo da taxa de natalidade; percentual de óbitos sem definição da causa básica de morte. Os critérios de adequação foram estabelecidos estatisticamente nas Unidades da Federação com informações consideradas adequadas. Os resultados mostram desigualdades sócio-espaciais importantes: o percentual de adequação é maior no Centro-Sul e entre os municípios de maior porte populacional. Em relação aos três aspectos estudados, o SINASC teve a melhor avaliação. Quanto ao SIM, além de reduzir a subnotificação, é preciso melhorar a qualidade do preenchimento da causa de óbito, para que as informações possam orientar adequadamente os programas de saúde voltados para a redução das iniqüidades da mortalidade infantil no Brasil.This study analyzed socio-spatial inequalities in the adequacy of Ministry of Health data systems on live births (SINASC and deaths (SIM for estimating infant mortality at the municipal level in Brazil. Data from 2000-2002 for all municipalities were analyzed according to population size and geographic region. Five indicators were considered: age-standardized mortality rate; ratio of reported-to-estimated live births; relative mean deviation of the mortality rate; relative mean deviation of the birth rate; and proportion of deaths with undetermined causes. Adequacy criteria were established statistically for eight Brazilian States in which vital statistics were

  2. Performance of Early Diagnosis of Breast and Cervical Cancer in the Municipality of Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Padrón González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: breast and cervical cancer are among the most frequent causes of death in women. Therefore, the early detection of these diseases is one of the prioritized programs of the Public Health System. Objective: to describe the performance of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in the municipality of Cienfuegos. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted over the period 2010-2011 in the context of the CARMEN project. A random sample was selected which was randomly stratified. The variables analyzed included age, marital status, skin color, health professional’s visits, knowledge of breast self-examination, clinical breast exam, mammography, cervical smear and time from the last medical examination of each test. The questionnaire of the CARMEN study was used. Results analysis was performed by SPSS package version 15, 0. Statistical significance level used was 95 %. Results: a total of 428 women (41,1 % had not been examined in over a year; 49 of them (4,6 % had not been checked for more than five years. 7,2 % of the study sample have never undergone a mammography, 28,6 % have had this test performed. 91,0 % of the women whose ages are included in the program has undergone a cervical smear. Conclusions: the objectives of the General Program for Cancer Control in Cuba are not being achieved. The inefficient areas of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program are exposed.

  3. The role of municipal public policies in oral health socioeconomic inequalities in Brazil: A multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Violeta Rodrigues; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Celeste, Roger Keller

    2017-12-07

    It is known that fluoridation has a contextual effect on oral health socioeconomic inequalities, but broad public policies have not been investigated. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of municipal public policies on oral health across different social strata. This was a cross-sectional study with 7328 12-year-old children and 5445 15-19-year-old adolescents from 177 Brazilian municipalities. Information at municipal level was collated for dental services, educational services, sanitation and water fluoridation. The main individual-level exposure was the disposable equivalent household income. The dichotomous outcomes were as follows: untreated dental caries (≥1 tooth), missing teeth (≥1 tooth) and filled teeth (≥1 tooth). Analyses were carried out using multilevel logistic regression. Interaction terms were tested between individual-level income and policy variables. The prevalence of untreated dental caries, missing and filled teeth was 47.0%, 15.1% and 47.5%, respectively. There was no significant interaction between income and policy indicators. Individuals living in municipalities with no water fluoridation had 1.42 (95% CI: 1.08-1.86) higher odds of having untreated dental caries; the odds ratio (OR) for those in municipalities with less education policies was 1.36 (95% CI: 1.07-1.73); those in municipalities with less sanitation had OR = 1.05 (95% CI: 0.78-1.40); and those in municipalities with less dental care had OR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.02-1.80). Fluoridation and policies about sanitation, education and dental care were similarly associated with oral health in different social strata. Other policies on social and economic fields may be further explored. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. NIVELES DE DISFUNCIÓN FAMILIAR, EN VEINTE MUJERES VÍCTIMAS DE VIOLENCIA INTRAFAMILIAR EN EL MUNICIPIO DE ARMENIA. FAMILY DYSFUNCTION LEVELS IN TWENTY WOMEN, VICTIMS OF INTRAFAMILY VIOLENCE, IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ARMENIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gonzales Portillo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación pretende encontrar posibles niveles de disfunción familiar en las familias de 20 mujeres víctimas de violencia intrafamiliar en la ciudad de Armenia - Quindío, para lo cual se aplicó el APGAR familiar, el cual evalúa la satisfacción respecto a 5 variables: adaptación, participación, ganancia o crecimiento, afecto y recursos. El estudio encontró que las familias presentan disfunción leve (35%, moderada (30% y severa (20%, mientras un porcentaje muy bajo tiene buena función familiar (15%; lo anterior indica una correlación importante entre violencia intrafamiliar y disfunción familiar, condición que disminuye la calidad de vida del núcleo familiar, alterando los roles, los modos de expresión afectiva y la interiorización de lo normativo. ABSTRACT. This research aims to find possible levels of family dysfunction in families of 20 women victims of domestic violence in the city of Armenia - Quindío, which applied the family Apgar. It evaluates satisfaction with respect to 5 variables: adaptation, participation, gain or growth, affection and resources. The study found that the 35% families have mild dysfunction, 30% moderate dysfunction, and 20% severe dysfunction, while a very low percentage has good family function, which represents 15%. This indicates a significant correlation between intrafamily violence and family dysfunction, a condition that reduces the family unit's quality of life, altering roles, modes of emotional expression, and the internalization of norms.

  5. Simpevarp - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    During 2002, SKB is starting detailed investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian rocks of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Simpevarp, which lies in the municipality of Oskarshamn, on the southeast coast of Sweden, about 250 kilometres south of Stockholm. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. SKB maintains two main databases at the present time, a site characterisation database called SICADA and a geographic information system called SKB GIS. The site descriptive model will be developed and presented with the aid of the SKB GIS capabilities, and with SKBs Rock Visualisation System (RVS), which is also linked to SICADA. The version 0 model forms an important framework for subsequent model versions, which are developed successively, as new information from the site investigations becomes available. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. In the case of Simpevarp, this is essentially the information which was compiled for the Oskarshamn feasibility study, which led to the choice of that area as a favourable object for further study, together with information collected since its completion. This information, with the exception of the extensive data base from the nearby Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. Against this background, the present report consists of the following components: an overview of the present content of the databases

  6. Antenatal services for pregnant teenagers in Mbarara Municipality, Southwestern Uganda: health workers and community leaders' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Abaasa, Catherine; Natukunda, Peace Byamukama; Ashabahebwa, Bob Harold; Allain, Dominic

    2015-12-23

    Globally, about 11% of all annual births involve adolescents aged 15-19 years. Uganda has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed stakeholders' views concerning factors affecting availability, accessibility and utilization of teenager friendly antenatal services in Mbarara Municipality, southwestern Uganda. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study utilizing Key Informant Interviews (KIIs). It was conducted in three divisions of Mbarara Municipality. The KIIs were held six Village Health Team (VHT) members, three gynecologists, six midwives, three Community leaders (LC 3 Secretaries for women affairs), one police officer from the Family and Child protection unit at Mbarara Police and three Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). Data analysis was done manually by identifying emergent themes which were later coded and organized into concepts which were later developed into explanations. Reproductive health stakeholders generally considered teenage pregnancy to be among the high risk pregnancies that need to be handled with care. In addition, the reproductive health workers described their experience with teenagers as challenging due to their limited skills when it comes to addressing adolescent-specific needs. Adolescent-friendly services were defined as those that could provide privacy, enough time and patience when dealing with teenagers. With this description, there were no teenager-friendly antenatal services in Mbarara municipality at the time of the study. There is need for proactive steps to establish these services if the needs of this subgroup are to be met. There are no teenager friendly antenatal services in Mbarara municipality and few teenagers access and utilise the available general antenatal services. There is need for specialized training for health workers who deal with pregnant teens in Mbarara Municipality in order for them to provide teenager friendly services.

  7. [Financial and economic sustainability of public spending on health care by local governments: an analysis of data from municipalities in Mato Grosso State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatena, João Henrique Gurtler; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Avila; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi

    2009-11-01

    Brazil's Unified National Health System is financed according to a model known as fiscal federalism, the fund-sharing rules of the Social Security Budget, Ministry of Health norms, and Constitutional Amendment 29 (EC-29), which links Federal, State, and municipal resources to health. This article discusses the sustainability of public spending on health at the municipal level. Twenty-one municipalities were studied, using municipal budget data. From 1996 to 2006, total current per capita revenues increased by 280% above the accumulated inflation and Gross Domestic Product, varying by size of municipality, which also defined the composition of the municipal budgets. Meanwhile, the budget comprising the basis for EC-29 increased less (178%), thus placing limits on the municipal share of health spending. The results observed in these municipalities are believed to reflect the reality in thousands of other Brazilian municipalities, thus jeopardizing the capacity for municipal investment in health, especially beginning in 2008. The situation may become even worse, considering the repeal of the so-called Bank Transaction Tax (CPMF), Bills of Law 306/08 and 233/08 (currently under review in the National Congress), and the world recession stemming from the U.S. financial crisis.

  8. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

  9. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  10. RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN PRACTICE OF VALUATING MUNICIPAL REAL ESTATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Likhomanov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the real estate tax system of England, France, Germany, the USA, Canada, Sweden, Denmark, Holland, Spain, Portugal, Poland, Chile, Singapore, the Philippines, and Japan. The following activities are proposed with the aim of creating an effective system of municipal real estate management and improving the quality of local government: to organize the smooth functioning of full and timely accounting of the municipal real estate, the introduction of an automated registry system, including legal, technical, and economic components of records; to develop scientifically based optimal management solutions on the disposal of municipal property, in compliance with the balance of fiscal, investment and socially-oriented objectives in the course of operational management, transfer in use or trust, disposition, use as the authorized capital; to develop the optimal solutions for selecting strategies for achieving maximum economic efficiency and increasing investment attractiveness of municipal property; to exercise effective control over regulatory use of municipal property (especially land resources for its intended purpose; to organize work on reliable cadastral valuation of the property; to provide the state budget institutions for cadastral valuation established in the regions with qualified personnel from among the practicing independent appraisers; to engage independent appraisers for analysis and monitoring of real estate market with the aim of identifying pricing factors and ensuring reliable results, compliant with relevant market data; to completely eliminate the possibility of pressure by officials of local self-government bodies at the state budget institutions for the cadastral valuation to establish the desired orientations of the cadastral value. The authors propose to initiate the introduction of uniform date of establishment of the cadastral value on the territory of the Russian Federation with the aim of providing a

  11. Avaliação da Vigilância Epidemiológica em âmbito municipal Evaluation of epidemiological surveillance in municipal ambit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Freese de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a vigilância epidemiológica (VE e as características específicas da gestão municipal. MÉTODOS: foram selecionados onze municípios de Pernambuco conforme critérios geográficos, porte populacional e condição de gestão. O grau de implantação foi estimado através de entrevistas com atores-chave em três níveis de atuação da VE: nível central, unidades de saúde da família (USF e unidades de saúde tradicionais (UST, enfatizando aspectos relativos à infra-estrutura e ao processo de trabalho. Às variáveis selecionadas foram atribuídos pontos, cujo somatório, classificou a VE como: implantada, parcialmente implantada e não implantada. Para avaliar as características da gestão foram entrevistados os onze secretários municipais de saúde. RESULTADOS: a VE apresentou-se implantada em apenas 27% dos municípios e parcialmente implantada em 46%, encontrando-se mais estruturada nos municípios de grande porte e com gestão plena do sistema municipal, onde, dos três níveis estudados, observou-se que o nível central apresentou mais fragilidades, e as USF, quando comparadas às UST, obtiveram melhor desempenho. Quanto às características de gestão, embora todos os municípios estivessem certificados para realizar ações de VE, foram identificados entraves significativos para sua efetiva realização. CONCLUSÕES: A VE apresentou deficiências que comprometem a sua implantação plena no âmbito municipal.ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: to evaluate epidemiological surveil-lance (ES and its specifics management at municipal level. METHODS: eleven municipalities were selected in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, based on the geographical, demographic and management criteria. The level of implementation was estimated by way of interviews with key-players at three levels of ES: the headquarters, family health units (FHUs and traditional health units (THUs, laying emphasis on features relating to infrastructure and the work

  12. Municipal energy managers; Responsables energie municipaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    On 1 and 2 July, municipal energy managers from all over Europe met in Stuttgart, Germany. On these two days, more the 150 participants form 22 countries listened to presentations, took part in excursions to cutting-edge energy conservation projects in Stuttgart and, above all, participated in a broad array of workshops presented by experts firmly grounded in local practice. 27 experts drawn from 11 European countries showcased their projects and imparted their experience. The event has been accompanied by an exhibition of companies and service providers offering energy-conservation products and planning services. The first workshop dealt with energy management in Europe and examples from different active municipalities; the second one with energy management in Germany and best practice in the leading cities; the third one with non-municipal and European projects. (A.L.B.)

  13. Composition of municipal solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Data for the composition of municipal solid waste is a critical basis for any assessment of waste technologies and waste management systems. The detailed quantification of waste fractions is absolutely needed for a better technological development of waste treatment. The current waste composition...... comparability to characterize municipal solid waste. This methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1,442 households in three municipalities in Denmark. The main fractions contributing to the residual household waste were food waste and miscellaneous waste. Statistical analysis suggested...... of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterization methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. The purpose of this study was to introduce a consistent methodology that reduces uncertainties and ensures data...

  14. Municipal service provision in rural communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    EU policies for rural development stress the importance of investments rather than subsidies and aim at integrating different sectoral policies in order to improve the coherence and effectiveness of public expenditure. Policies also emphasize a place-based approach for rural development and thereby...... hierarchies and considering local resources and place bound potentials.  This paper draws on a study of rural municipalities in Denmark examining how service adjustments e.g. closing of local schools are managed by rural municipalities and local communities. The paper further discusses whether rural...... municipalities can plan strategically, manage service provision and support place bound potential in rural communities in light of a competitive framework for local development....

  15. Political or dental power in private and public service provision: a study of municipal expenditures for child dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Bech, Mickael; Lauridsen, Jørgen

    2012-07-01

    Both professionals and politicians may affect expenditures for highly professional services provided in the public and private sector. We investigated Danish publicly financed child dental care with a special focus on the influence of politicians and dentists on the expenditure level. By studying spatial patterns in expenditure levels across municipalities, we are able to test the influences of these two main actors and the networks through which learning is achieved. Four hypotheses on the existence of different spatial spillover effects are tested. The empirical analysis is based on annual data from 1996 to 2001 for 226 Danish municipalities, thus allowing for the control for heterogeneity between municipalities and for intra-municipal correlations across time. The results point to differences in expenditures between municipalities with privately and publicly produced dental care. Furthermore, dentists appear to be the most important actors for the spatial spillover effects, and these effects are especially strong for municipalities situated in the same county that use private dental clinics. There is no evidence of political spatial spillover effects between municipalities.

  16. Evalutive Descriptions of Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Lah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that, throughout history, certain artworks have been considered as “worth of watching” (according to the Greek etymon ἀξιοϑέατος / aksioteatos, preservation, or theorizing, while others were not, one is led to investigate the various types of evaluative descriptions. Those artworks that are more valuable than others, or simply valuable in themselves on the basis of rather specific features, have always represented the paradigmatic model for the evaluator, thus revealing the identitary nature of value as different from one epoch to another. Our aim has been to discern, with regard to this starting point, the way in which the process of evaluating artworks fits the general matrix of the universal theory of value, with its clearly distinguished levels of evaluation, beginning with value descriptions, continuing through the features of evaluation or abstract qualities of values extracted from these descriptions, and ending with value norms or systems of accepted generalizations in evaluation. Value standpoints in such an evaluation matrix represent dispositions or preferences in procedures, which reflect the norms or signifying concepts of the time. Corresponding procedures, or applications of the hierarchicized signification of artworks, are manifested in all known forms of artwork assessment: attribution, institutionalization, and setting of priorities in terms of exhibition, conservation, acquisition, restoration, and so on. Research in the history of European art-historical ideas has corroborated the hypothesis that, prior to the late 18th century, clear normative patterns were applied when it came to the evaluation of artworks. However, with the emergence of early Romanticism, this could no longer be done in the traditional way. Before the period in question, visual art was created (regardless of some stylistic discrepancies between individual authors and classified according to well-defined thematic

  17. Internal audit risk management in metropolitan municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Ackermann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Internal audit functions (IAFs of organisations are regarded as crucial components of the combined assurance model, alongside the audit committee, management and external auditors. The combined assurance model aims at having integrated and aligned assurance in organisations with the overall aim of maximising risk and governance oversight and control efficiencies. In this regard, internal audit plays a crucial role, insofar as it consists of experts in risk, governance and control consultancy who provide assurance to senior management and the audit committee. Audit committees are dependent on internal audit for information and their effectiveness revolves around a strong and well-resourced internal audit function which is able to aid audit committees to meet their oversight responsibilities. There is thus a growing demand for managing risk through the process of risk management and internal audit is in a perfect position to assist with the improvement of such processes. If internal auditors wish to continue being an important aspect of the combined assurance model, they need to address the critical area, amongst others, of risk management as part of their work. If not, it follows that the board, audit committees and other levels of management will remain uninformed on the status of these matters which, in turn, will negatively impact the ability of these stakeholders to discharge their responsibilities. This study therefore focuses on analysing the functioning of IAFs, with specific reference to their risk management mandate. The study followed a mixed method approach to describe internal audits risk management functioning in the big eight metropolitan municipalities in South Africa. The results show that internal audit provide a broad scope of risk management work which assist senior management in the discharge of their responsibilities. However, in the public eye, internal audits risk management functioning is scant

  18. Selection of technologies for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In water environmental planning in watersheds should contain aspects for the decontamination of receiving water body, therefore the selection of the treatment plants municipal wastewater in developing countries, you should consider aspects of the typical composition raw wastewater pollutant removal efficiency by technology, performance indicators for technology, environmental aspects of localization and spatial localization strategy. This methodology is built on the basis of technical, economic and environmental attributes, such as a tool for decision making future investments in treatment plants municipal wastewater with multidisciplinary elements.

  19. Municipalities as facilitators, regulators and energy consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Kjær, Tyge

    2015-01-01

    Biogas provides many potential benefits as far as renewable energy production, environmental protection and job creation etc. Insufficient initiatives from government/municipalities however hamper more biogas plants to be established, and hence that the large manure potential, and other types...... of digestible organic waste materials, are being utilized for energy purposes. By looking at municipalities as energy consumer’s, that constitutes a local market for biogas, as regulator’s, enforcing new requirements and regulations on the biogas sector, and finally as facilitator’s, assisting and helping...

  20. Compliance audits in the federal funds programs of the municipalities of Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis M. López

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The municipalities of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are eligible to receive funds from the federal government of the United States. This study presents a descriptive discussion of the federal funding received by these municipalities during fiscal years 2005 to 2009. The findings of the audits performed in connection with these funds are also discussed. The results indicate that the municipalities in the sample received an average of $8.2 million a year in federal funding. The municipality of San Juan, the capital city of Puerto Rico, received an average of $126.5 million a year and was largest recipient of federal funds during the sample period. The results also indicate that 72.99 percent of the audits disclosed reportable conditions and 31.02 percent disclosed material weaknesses. In addition,auditors issued a qualified opinion report on 33.69 percent of the conducted audits. Lastly, 53.15 percent of all audited funds are associated with programs that disclosed audit findings.

  1. CONSTRUCTION OF SOCIAL CONTROL IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF FAIR SANTANA - BAHIA: THE DECENTRALIZATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Lima Falcão do Vale

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of Brazil as a citizen tends to open spaces for democratic construction, so that with this organizing principle of society shall participate effectively in state actions. Thus, the goal of research is to understand the process of implementation of local health councils in the county. The study is exploratory and descriptive, using secondary data collected through document analysis. The period of data collection began in September 2012 until January 2013. The bill (PL that provides for the establishment of Local Health Councils (CLS was approved in 1999, but the following year the city suffers a setback in social control when, after new municipal management, the same PL was repealed. The apex of the discussions was the Municipal Health Conference VI moment it strengthens the idea of embedding the CLS in the municipality. In 2006 it is proposed to draw up a supplementary standard to ensure the inclusion of this event in the municipal health plan. Procedurally, the next actions are updates of directors and expansion of CLS. We consider the technical and political empowerment of the counselors are essential to respond to the needs of the community.

  2. New municipal waste management in opinion of inhabitants of urban and rural areas of the Słupsk Powiat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Klein

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to determine the satisfaction level and to assess the opinion of urban and rural area inhabitants of new municipal waste management system. The assessment was based on population surveys. The survey group consisted of 119 people. According to the obtained data, more than 70% of Słupsk Powiat inhabitants declare the selective collection of municipal waste. The respondents well asses the educational activities of local government. Furthermore, on the basis of the results obtained, it can be said that the inhabitants of rural areas are more involved in the implementation of sustainable municipal waste management.

  3. Organizing principles and management climate in high-performing municipal elderly care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajonius, Petri; Kazemi, Ali; Tengblad, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - Previous research has shown that user-oriented care predicts older persons' satisfaction with care. What is yet to be researched is how senior management facilitates the implementation of user-oriented care. The purpose of this study is to investigate the organizing principles and management climate characterizing successful elderly care. Design/methodology/approach - The department in one highly ranked municipality was selected and compared with a more average municipality. On-site in-depth semi-structured interviews with department managers and participatory observations at managers' meetings were conducted in both municipalities. Findings - Results revealed three key principles for successful elderly care: organizing care from the viewpoint of the older person; recruiting and training competent and autonomous employees; instilling a vision for the mission that guides operations at all levels in the organization. Furthermore, using climate theory to interpret the empirical material, in the highly successful municipality the management climate was characterized by affective support and cognitive autonomy, in contrast to a more instrumental work climate primarily focusing on organizational structure and doing the right things characterizing the more average municipality. Originality/value - The authors suggest that guiding organizing principles are intertwined with management climate and that there are multiple perspectives that must be considered by the management, that is, the views of the older persons, the co-workers and the mission. These results can guide future care quality developments, and increase the understanding of the importance of organizational climate at the senior management level.

  4. Cacao in México: Restrictive factors and productivity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Díaz-José

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. represents one of the most important agricultural crops of the humid Mexican tropics. In the last 10 yr, approximately 23.000 t of this grain were no longer produced per cycle. The objective of this study was to identify characteristics and factors that restrict production in the states of Tabasco and Chiapas. A survey was applied to obtain information about 184 producers and their plantations by two-stage sampling. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multilevel models were adjusted to analyze the information. Results show that there are differences (P < 0.05 in cacao yield between municipalities (380 kg ha-1 + u,o j is the estimated residual for each municipality. Crop productivity levels are higher in the state of Tabasco than in Chiapas (644 and 344 kg ha-1, respectively. Incidence of frosty pod rot of cacoa, also known as moniliasis, induced by Moniliophthora roreri [(Cif H.C. Evans, Stalpers, Samson & Benny 1978] is significantly greater (P < 0.05 in the state of Chiapas (60% than in Tabasco (48%.Producers who carry out more crop management practices increase yields and decrease the pathogen's impact on their plantations. Results suggest the need to apply differentiated public policies to promote production within each region or municipality.

  5. Descriptive set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakis, YN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in paperback, this monograph is a self-contained exposition of the main results and methods of descriptive set theory. It develops all the necessary background material from logic and recursion theory, and treats both classical descriptive set theory and the effective theory developed by logicians.

  6. Description logics of context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  7. Physics 3204. Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newfoundland and Labrador Dept. of Education.

    A description of the physics 3204 course in Newfoundland and Labrador is provided. The description includes: (1) statement of purpose, including general objectives of science education; (2) a list of six course objectives; (3) course content for units on sound, light, optical instruments, electrostatics, current electricity, Michael Faraday and…

  8. On the perceived usefulness of risk descriptions for decision-making in disaster risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Lexin; Nilsson, Anders; Sjölin, Johan; Abrahamsson, Marcus; Tehler, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Managing risk using an “all-hazards” and “whole of society”-approach involves extensive communication of risk descriptions among many stakeholders. In the present study we investigate how professionals working with disaster risk management in such contexts perceive the usefulness of different descriptions of risk. Empirical data from the Swedish disaster risk management system were used in an attempt to investigate the aspects of a risk description that affect its usefulness (as perceived by professionals). Thirty-three local municipal risk and vulnerability assessments (RVA documents) produced in the region of Scania in 2012 were analyzed in terms of six variables. The documents were then ranked by professionals based on their perceived usefulness for decision-making. Statistical analysis was conducted to identify any possible correlations between the overall ranking of the usefulness of the municipal RVA:s and each of the variables. We conclude that the way the likelihood and consequences of scenarios are described influence the perceived usefulness of a risk description. Furthermore, whether descriptions of scenarios are included in a risk description or not, and whether background information concerning the likelihood of scenarios are included also influence perceived usefulness of risk descriptions. - Highlights: • Written communication of risk between professionals is investigated. • The way likelihood is described influences a risk description's usefulness. • The way consequences are described influence a risk description's usefulness. • Whether background information is included in a risk description influences its usefulness

  9. [Estimates of the prevalence of child malnutrition in Brazilian municipalities in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Barros, Aluísio Jardim Dornellas de

    2013-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of malnutrition in children for all Brazilian municipalities. A multilevel logistic regression model was used to estimate the individual probability of malnutrition in 5,507 Brazilian municipalities in 2006, in terms of predictive factors grouped according to hierarchical levels. The response variable was child malnutrition (children aged from six to 59 months with height for age and sex below -2 z-scores, according to the World Health Organization standard). The predictive variables were determinants of malnutrition measured similarly by the National Demographics and Health Survey-2006 and the Sample from the 2000 Demographic Census. At level 1 (individual): sex and age, level 2 (household): socioeconomic variables, water and indoor plumbing, urban or rural area and level 3 (municipal): location of the municipality and coverage of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) in 2006. The study detected a statistically significant chance of malnutrition in male children, those living in households with two or more individuals per room, those belonging to the lowest quintiles of the socioeconomic score, those with three or more children under five in the household, those with no access to running water or located in the North. There was a negative dose-response association between FHS coverage and the chance of malnutrition (p = 0.007). FHS coverage in the municipality equal to or greater than 70% showed a 45% reduction in the chance of infant malnutrition. Estimates of the prevalence of child malnutrition show that most of the cities have the risk of malnutrition under control, very low or low. Risks of greater magnitude exist only in 158 municipalities in the North Region. Childhood malnutrition as a public health problem is concentrated in the cities of the North region, where FHS coverage is lower. A protective effect of FHS in relation to child malnutrition was found in the country as a whole, irrespective of other determinants of the problem.

  10. Implementation of a bridge management system in the municipal environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of a bridge management system (BMS) in the municipal environment, with specific reference to the City of Cape Town, the Johannesburg Roads Agency and the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality...

  11. Carbon footprint estimation of municipal water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Ali A.

    2009-11-01

    This research investigates the embodied energy associated with water use. A geographic information system (GIS) was tested using data from Loudoun County, Virginia. The objective of this study is to estimate the embodied energy and carbon emission levels associated with water service at a geographical location and to improve for sustainability planning. Factors that affect the carbon footprint were investigated and the use of a GIS based model as a sustainability planning framework was evaluated. The carbon footprint metric is a useful tool for prediction and measurement of a system's sustainable performance over its expected life cycle. Two metrics were calculated: tons of carbon dioxide per year to represent the contribution to global warming and watt-hrs per gallon to show the embodied energy associated with water consumption. The water delivery to the building, removal of wastewater from the building and associated treatment of water and wastewater create a sizable carbon footprint; often the energy attributed to this water service is the greatest end use of electrical energy. The embodied energy in water depends on topographical characteristics of the area's local water supply, the efficiency of the treatment systems, and the efficiency of the pumping stations. The questions answered by this research are: What is the impact of demand side sustainable water practices on the embodied energy as represented by a comprehensive carbon footprint? What are the major energy consuming elements attributed to the system? What is a viable and visually identifiable tool to estimate the carbon footprint attributed to those Greenhouse Gas (GHG) producing elements? What is the embodied energy and emission associated with water use delivered to a building? Benefits to be derived from a standardized GIS applied carbon footprint estimation approach include: (1) Improved environmental and economic information for the developers, water and wastewater processing and municipal

  12. Valuation Bases and Accounting System Entries in Financial Analysis of the Municipal Real Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Feschiyan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a conceptual framework for an accounting of the municipal real property, and defines a respective system of indicators. The development of this framework is seen as an important prerequisite for the efficient property management. It aims to overcome the lack or poor accessibility of the information, and thus to ensure the successful municipal real property management in a strategic context. The developing of the applied approach implies that accounting indicators are divided into three main groups – values, revenues, and costs. Beside the above mentioned classification, the municipal revenues and costs are classified also as existing and proposed. The existing indicators are defined by International Accounting Standards in public sector, and some of them are considered as being appropriate for the inclusion in the financial analysis as accounting system entries. The proposed indicators are perceived as appropriate to carry out a detailed analysis of the municipal property at a lower level of desegregations. The first two paragraphs explain the main bases for the municipal property valuation - historical cost, current price, market value, present value, with a special emphasis on the use of the historical value, and the types of valuation respectively. The next three paragraphs are concentrated mainly on the accounting indicators for the municipal property assessment. The sixth paragraph represents several major accounting bases - an accounting value, a carrying value, a market value, an accumulated depreciation, revenues from the sale of assets and services, costs by economic elements, revenues from future periods and costs for future periods, and revenues from other events and costs for other events. The seventh section presents a brief comparative analysis of accounting systems of 6 municipalities in South-Eastern Europe and the last paragraph highlights the identified “good practices”.

  13. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Zanzibar Municipality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Saltwater intrusion problems are widespread where there are over pumping of groundwater from coastal aquifers. Water samples were .... urbanized area. Although more than 70% of the municipality residents are connected to public water system, it does not meet the demand (Table 1) and as such there are many private ...

  14. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  15. TOURISM AS A FACTOR OF MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefka Timareva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world, which has extremely diverse impact on the lifestyle of the local population on the one hand and on the other for the modern traveler. At the same time, this modern "phenomenon" plays an important role in the socio-economic and political development of the host country, region or municipality, offering new employment opportunities for the local population and improving the way of life by providing additional income. The development of tourism in a municipality is based on a certain resource base, which consists of a variety of natural and anthropogenic resources, a prerequisite for the development of various alternative types of tourism. Its importance as a form of recreation consists mainly of its potential to be a leading factor in the development of municipalities and in diversifying their economic structure. Tourism has significant effects manifested by positive migratory balance, especially where the tourism industry is leading and is a driver of positive development. For the successful realization of tourism as a leading economic and social factor, it is important to make a real and precise system for its planning and management, adequate human resources competence as well as close cooperation between the public and private sector, legal tourist base, development and the implementation of tourism projects and last but not least, a real development strategy in the relevant municipality.

  16. 40 CFR 40.115-4 - Municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 208 of the act. (b) Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, a city, town, borough, county... subdivision thereof. (c) In all other cases, a city, town, borough, county, parish, district, or other public... DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.115-4 Municipality. (a) Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, a city, town...

  17. Types, risks and market of municipal bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal bonds are issued by cities, municipalities or other local communities in order to quickly raise funds to cover current budget deficits, finish infrastructure projects for production and distribution of thermal energy, improve water supply, road construction, sports and recreation centers, schools or to fund such projects on more favorable terms than to borrow from banks. In this manner, necessary conditions are created for faster development of the real sector. The aim of this study is to evaluate the importance, possibilities and effects of the bond issue in the Republika Srpska aimed at securing funding for and development of local communities. Good examples that local government bonds enhance community development include capital markets in countries that have made the transition from the socialist system design, similar to the market of the Republika Srpska, like the Polish, Slovakian, Hungarian and Croatian markets. Issues of municipal bonds in the Republika Srpska succeeded mostly due to the workings of Investment-Development Bank of RS. However, it certainly shows that further high-quality municipal bonds could attract more interest from various institutional investors, especially mutual funds and insurance companies, and investors who are more risk-averse will be able to familiarize and inform themselves with the functioning of capital markets. In this manner, our capital market would confirm its essential role and thus become a generator of overall economic development of the Republika Srpska because it would enable more efficient collection and allocation of capital resources.

  18. MUNICIPAL FOREST MANAGEMENT IN LATIN AMERICA

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    National Library of Indonesia Cataloging – in-Publication Data: ..... with both the threat of specific population sectors or elites monopolizing local power and the .... These units have been quite active in delimiting municipal forest areas; many .... in the health and education sectors than those in other Latin American countries.

  19. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 11. Description of areas. Danish and English summary; Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 11. Omraadebeskrivelser - Description of areas. Dansk og engelsk resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by choosing deposits with low water flow and high sorption potential of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs, salt pillows and salt deposits and deep basement rocks are not included in the present study. These rocks and deposits are situated too deep for the present study and salt deposits seem to be unstable for a disposal (e.g. German salt mines). The regional geologic survey based on existing data was concluded by selecting 22 areas in Denmark. There remains now to reduce the number of potential areas to 1-3 where detailed field studies will be performed in order to select the final location. (LN)

  20. Effect of municipal liquid waste on corrosion susceptibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation studied the effect of municipal liquid waste discharged into the environment within Kano municipal area on the corrosion susceptibility of galvanized steel pipe burial underground. Six stagnant and six moving municipal liquid waste samples were used for the investigation. The corrosion rate of the ...

  1. Modeling of municipal greenhouse gas emissions. Calculation of greenhouse gas emissions and the reduction possibilities of Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries de, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Summary Municipalities represent an active governmental layer in the Netherlands. They often have ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this way the municipalities take responsibility to reduce the threat of global warming. To implement effect

  2. Energy management in municipal heritage; Management de l'energie dans le patrimoine municipal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Energie-Cites has organized a week dedicated to the practices of energy consumption management in the municipalities and to network practices for energy efficiency. Practical presentations and site visits provided the participants with many methodological elements on energy policy, electricity demand management, optimising the design of municipal buildings, energy efficiency, integrated logistics for use of biomass energy, methods of energy consumption monitoring, legal framework for energy efficiency. (A.L.B.)

  3. Energy management in municipal heritage; Management de l'energie dans le patrimoine municipal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Energie-Cites has organized a week dedicated to the practices of energy consumption management in the municipalities and to network practices for energy efficiency. Practical presentations and site visits provided the participants with many methodological elements on energy policy, electricity demand management, optimising the design of municipal buildings, energy efficiency, integrated logistics for use of biomass energy, methods of energy consumption monitoring, legal framework for energy efficiency. (A.L.B.)

  4. Papel de los comites de participacion ciudadana en la gestion del gobierno municipal: Caso Municipio de Monterrey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillen, A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental basics of participating civic committees with regards to the governmental decision making at the municipality levels are described. An example and a practical case resulting from research on participation of these committees for the Monterrey municipality are provided. The role of these civic participating committees in good democratic functioning and correct achievement of the aims of the governmental plans for the enhancement and improvement of the sociopolitical, economical and environmental quality of citizen’s life are discussed.

  5. Current status and problems of decontamination by municipalities in Fukushima Prefecture. Records from four and a half years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Kota

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses the current status and problems of decontamination by 52 municipalities out of 59 municipalities in Fukushima Prefecture, four and a half years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, mainly based on the results of a questionnaire survey. The area corresponds to in all municipalities except for the 7 whose entire administrative area has been designated as Special Decontamination Area. This study reveals that (1) the number of municipalities which planned, ordered and implemented decontamination work has peaked although decontamination work of public facilities, housing, roads, farmland and forests has been still carried out in many municipalities, (2) about half of the municipalities have not secured enough temporary storage sites for contaminated soil and waste, (3) many municipalities recognize that construction of interim storage facilities, transfer of contaminated soil and waste from each municipality to interim storage facilities, and maintenance of temporary storage sites are major challenges concerning decontamination work, (4) about half of the municipalities regard efforts concerning decontamination work by the national government and the Fukushima prefectural government office as inadequate, (5) not a few municipalities recognize that residents cannot live their lives with a sense of safety and security unless air radiation dose is reduced to the level before the accident, and (6) most municipalities recognize that safe living environments can be recovered by decontamination work. Finally, based on these results, this study points out early completion of interim storage facilities and development of conditions to maintain and manage temporary storage sites, the end of decontamination work based on the air radiation dose rate, and establishment of decontamination policies concerning forests, rivers and waterways, as main future challenges concerning decontamination work by municipalities. (author)

  6. Implementation of public policy on alcohol and other drugs in Brazilian municipalities: comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Daniela Belchior; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2016-07-01

    One of the challenges with respect to public health and the abuse of alcohol and other drugs is to implement policies in support of greater co-ordination among various levels of government. In Brazil, policies are formulated by the Secretaria Nacional de Políticas sobre Drogas (SENAD - State Department for Policies on Drugs) and the Ministério da Saúde (MS - Ministry of Health). This study aims to compare implementation of policies adopted by SENAD and MS at the municipal level. Three municipalities were intentionally selected: Juiz de Fora having a larger network of treatment services for alcohol and drug users; Lima Duarte, a small municipality, which promotes the political participation of local actors (COMAD - Municipal Council on Alcohol and Drugs); and São João Nepomuceno, also a small municipality, chosen because it has neither public services specialised to assist alcohol and other drugs users, nor COMAD. Data collection was conducted through interviews with key informants (n = 19) and a review of key documents concerned with municipal policies. Data analysis was performed using content analysis. In Juiz de Fora, there are obstacles regarding the integration of the service network for alcohol and other drug users and also the articulation of local actors, who are predominant in the mental health sector. In Lima Duarte, while there is a link between local actors through COMAD, their actions within the local service network have not been effective. In São João Nepomuceno, there were no public actions in the area of alcohol and drugs, and consequently insufficient local debate. However, some voluntary, non-governmental work has been undertaken. There were weaknesses in the implementation of national-level policies by SENAD and the MS, due to the limited supply of available treatment, assistance and the lack of integration among local actors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Tracking persistent pharmaceutical residues from municipal sewage to drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, Thomas

    2002-09-01

    In urban areas such as Berlin (Germany) with high municipal sewage water discharges and low surface water flows there is a potential risk of drinking water contamination by polar organic compounds when groundwater recharge is used in drinking water production. Thus, some pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are not eliminated completely in the municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they are discharged as contaminants into the receiving waters. In terms of several monitoring studies carried out in Berlin between 1996 and 2000, PhACs such as clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, propyphenazone, primidone and carbamazepine were detected at individual concentrations up to the μg/l-level in influent and effluent samples from STPs and in all surface water samples collected downstream from the STPs. Under recharge conditions, several compounds were also found at individual concentrations up to 7.3 μg/l in samples collected from groundwater aquifers near to contaminated water courses. A few of the PhACs were also identified at the ng/l-level in Berlin tap water samples.

  8. Nitrate and trace elements in municipal and bottled water in Spain Nitrato y elementos traza en agua embotellada y municipal en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Espejo-Herrera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe levels of nitrate and trace elements in drinking water from the study areas of a multicase-control study of cancer in Spain (MCC-Spain. Methods: A total of 227 tap water samples were randomly collected from 67 municipalities in 11 provinces and the nine most frequently consumed bottled water brands were sampled to measure levels of nitrate, arsenic, nickel, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium and zinc. Results: The median nitrate level was 4.2mg/l (rangeObjetivos: Determinar las concentraciones de nitrato y de elementos traza en el agua de consumo de las áreas del estudio Multicaso-Control de Cáncer en España (MCC-Spain. Métodos: Se tomaron al azar 227 muestras de agua municipal en 67 municipios de 11 provincias, y 9 muestras de las aguas embotelladas más consumidas, para cuantificar la cantidad presente de nitrato, arsénico, níquel, cromo, cadmio, plomo y zinc. Resultados: La mediana de las cifras de nitrato fue 4,2mg/l (rango<1-29,0, con similares resultados en municipios urbanos y rurales (p=0,86. Los elementos traza fueron incuantificables en el 94% de las muestras de agua municipal. Se observaron diferencias entre áreas para nitrato (p<0,001 y arsénico (p=0,03. Solo el nitrato fue cuantificable en el agua embotellada (rango 2,3-15,6mg/l. Conclusiones: La cantidad de nitrato en el agua municipal difiere entre regiones y es menor que el límite regulatorio en todas las muestras. Los elementos traza son mayormente incuantificables tanto en el agua municipal como en la embotellada.

  9. Should large Spanish municipalities be financially compensated? Costs and benefits of being a capital/central municipality [WP-IEB

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch Roca, Núria; Espasa Queralt, Marta; Montolio, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyse the costs and benefits of being a capital or central municipality, where central costs are understood to be incurred specifically as a result of the problems large municipalities located at the centre of an urban agglomeration face and capital costs are understood to result from the presence of regional and/or central government institutions in the municipality. However, these two qualities might also be beneficial to municipalities, resulting in a direct increase in their ...

  10. Local Environmental Action Plan of municipalities of Centar, Zrnovci, Veles and Gevgelija (Republic of Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    The Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC) is an independent, international organization established in 1990 by Hungary, the United States and the Commission of the European Communities. Twelve countries have since joined these founding sponsors. All of the REC's programs are unified in their resolve to promote regional cooperation among diverse interest groups in Central and Eastern Europe, to build the capacity of stake holders, to solve environmental problems, and to promote the development of a civil society. The book provides description of environmental action plans (LEAPs) of four different municipalities in Macedonia, identified by REC in collaboration with the Ministry for Urban Planning, Construction and Environmental of Republic of Macedonia. These municipalities are: 1) Centar (Skopje), which occupies central part of the capital of Macedonia, as a typical urban area; 2) Veles as a typical industrial area; 3) Zrnovci as a typical agricultural area; 4) Gevgelija as a transboundary and transit area

  11. What implies the good work for registered nurses in municipal elderly care in Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsson, Karin; Aling, Jenny; Östin, Britt-Louise

    2011-08-01

    The aim was to describe registered nurses' perceptions of what the good work implies to them in municipal elderly care. A descriptive design and a structured questionnaire specifically designed for this study were used. Sixty housing units for older people and 213 nurses participated, with a response rate of 62%. The good work included the following aspects: intellectually stimulating without guilt feelings; freedom and independence with the possibility to influence; having appreciative and pleasant fellow workers and a fair and understanding manager; a good physical and risk-free environment; work security and a steady income with the possibility of improving salary through work effort; work effort should be beneficial to others; innovative thinking and initiative should be highly valued; and pride in work without compromising personal values. Employers must take this into consideration to retain those nurses already employed and recruit nurses to municipal elderly care.

  12. Copper Tube Pitting in Santa Fe Municipal Water Caused by Microbial Induced Corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Thomas D; Gierke, Casey G; Fredj, Narjes; Boston, Penelope J

    2014-06-05

    Many copper water lines for municipal drinking water in Santa Fe, New Mexico USA, have developed pinhole leaks. The pitting matches the description of Type I pitting of copper, which has historically been attributed to water chemistry and to contaminants on the copper tubing surface. However, more recent studies attribute copper pitting to microbial induced corrosion (MIC). In order to test for microbes, the copper tubing was fixed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), then the tops of the corrosion mounds were broken open, and the interior of the corrosion pits were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis found that microbes resembling actinobacteria were deep inside the pits and wedged between the crystallographic planes of the corroded copper grains. The presence of actinobacteria confirms the possibility that the cause of this pitting corrosion was MIC. This observation provides better understanding and new methods for preventing the pitting of copper tubing in municipal water.

  13. Copper Tube Pitting in Santa Fe Municipal Water Caused by Microbial Induced Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Burleigh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many copper water lines for municipal drinking water in Santa Fe, New Mexico USA, have developed pinhole leaks. The pitting matches the description of Type I pitting of copper, which has historically been attributed to water chemistry and to contaminants on the copper tubing surface. However, more recent studies attribute copper pitting to microbial induced corrosion (MIC. In order to test for microbes, the copper tubing was fixed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS, then the tops of the corrosion mounds were broken open, and the interior of the corrosion pits were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The analysis found that microbes resembling actinobacteria were deep inside the pits and wedged between the crystallographic planes of the corroded copper grains. The presence of actinobacteria confirms the possibility that the cause of this pitting corrosion was MIC. This observation provides better understanding and new methods for preventing the pitting of copper tubing in municipal water.

  14. Integration of the ecosystem services concept in planning documents from six municipalities in southwestern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C. Nordin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem services (ES concept refers to benefits that humanity receives from nature. Investigating how this concept has been embraced within urban planning is important when assessing the awareness of human dependence on natural functions and the potential for the ES concept to increase this awareness. We analyzed planning documents from three small and three large municipalities in southern Sweden to see how explicitly the ES concept was addressed and which individual services were mentioned. We found that five of the municipalities mentioned the ES concept explicitly and the remaining municipality addressed it implicitly. Comprehensive and green plans referred to the ES concept more explicitly than did plans that focused on a single issue. We used 23 individual ES as a reference; each was mentioned in at least one document, but those concerning habitat and recreation were mentioned most frequently. Individual ES were generally described at an elaborate level. No major differences were identified between large and small municipalities except that large ones mentioned more individual ES. Our study demonstrates that municipalities in southern Sweden have started to integrate the ES concept into their planning documents. However, there is great potential to increase and concretize the awareness of ES.

  15. The impact of socioeconomic factors on municipal solid waste generation in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Victor H Argentino de Morais; Matheus, Dácio R

    2018-01-01

    Social factors have not been sufficiently explored in municipal solid waste management studies. Latin America has produced even fewer studies with this approach; technical and economic investigations have prevailed. We explored the impacts of socioeconomic factors on municipal solid waste generation in Greater Sao Paulo, which includes 39 municipalities. We investigated the relations between municipal solid waste generation and social factors by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The Student's t-test (at p ← 0.01) proved significance, and further regression analysis was performed with significant factors. We considered 10 socioeconomic factors: population, rural population, density, life expectancy, education (secondary, high and undergraduate level), income per capita, inequality and human development. A later multicollinearity analysis resulted in the determination of inequality (r p = 0.625) and income per capita (r p = 0.607) as major drivers. The results showed the relevance of considering social aspects in municipal solid waste management and isolated inequality as an important factor in planning. Inequality must be used as a complementary factor to income, rather than being used exclusively. Inequality may explain differences of waste generation between areas with similar incomes because of consumption patterns. Therefore, unequal realities demand unequal measures to avoid exacerbation, for example, pay-as-you-throw policies instead of uniform fees. Unequal realities also highlight the importance of tiering policies beyond the waste sector, such as sustainable consumption.

  16. Localizing Climate Information for Municipal Planning in the Central U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulski, M.; Umphlett, N.; Abdel-Monem, T.; Tang, Z.; Uhlarik, F.

    2017-12-01

    The impacts of projected climate change are an ongoing concern for municipalities. Planning at the local level often involves investigations of multiple hazards on decadal timescales. Of particular interest to cities are implications of too much or too little water, snow storms, heat waves, and freeze/thaw cycles on infrastructure, health, energy demands and water quality and availability. A two-year project led by the University of Nebraska - Lincoln has brought together scientist and stakeholder for the purpose of informing municipal planning and climate adaptation for 12 cities in the lower Missouri River Basin states (IA, NE, KS, MO). City-specific climate reports have been developed with municipal input to aid local planning efforts. Surveys to assess municipal climate data usage were distributed to all cities with a population greater than 5,000 in the four-state region. In addition, planning efforts for 18 municipalities have been evaluated for nearly 20 cities in the region to investigate local hazard mitigation, emergency, and comprehensive plans. This presentation will outline key outcomes of the project and discuss decision support tools developed in co-production with city planners.

  17. Intervención municipal en la gestión del riesgo por desastre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Vargas, Lorena

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available El documento describe el papel que tienen las municipalidades, como actores sociales, en la reducción del riesgo por desastre a corto, mediano y largo plazo. Señala que no existe a nivel municipal una política establecida al respecto, no obstante, se puede realizar una intervención correctiva y prospectiva dentro de las potencialidades y limitaciones existentes. Expone acciones que se pueden ejecutar desde el quehacer cotidiano municipal, las cuales pueden llevarse en paralelo a procesos, programas, proyectos o actividades que se realizan The document describes the role of the municipalities as social actors in the risk reduction by disasters at short, medium and long term. It indicates that at the municipal level there is not a policy established in this regard; nevertheless, there could be a corrective and prospective intervention within the existing potentiality and limitations. It presents actions that can be executed from the daily operation of the municipality and that can be developed in parallel processes, programs, projects or activities

  18. Implementation of energy efficiency measures by municipal utilities; Umsetzung von Energieeffizienzmassnahmen durch Stadtwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, Juri; Droeschel, Barbara [Institut fuer ZukunftsEnergieSysteme (IZES), Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Local players have a very special role to fill in the implementation of the German federal government's ambitious energy efficiency goals. In the past the contributions made by municipal utilities in the way of special offers or measures to develop efficiency potentials were only modest. Moreover there were specific impediments that discouraged a significant competition-driven efficiency services market from developing. However, there are other instruments available that could encourage municipal utilities to implement efficiency goals. A recent research project has shown how standardised efficiency programmes can be used to tap into existing efficiency potentials at a sufficient level of intensity and with macroeconomic benefit.

  19. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. in brackish groundwater supplemented with municipal wastewater as a nutrient source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Lins de Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study growth potential of the green microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. using brackish groundwater from a well in the semi-arid northeast region of Brazil as culture medium. The medium was supplemented with (% 19.4, 22.0, 44.0 and 50.0% of municipal wastewater after UASB treatment as a low-cost nutrient source. The results showed that the culture tested was capable of growing in the brackish groundwater even at salinity levels as low as 2 ppt. Furthermore it was shown that municipal wastewater could be used as a sole nutrient source for Nannochloropsis sp.

  20. Fuel-related Emissions from the Croatian Municipal Solid Waste Collection System in 2013: Mixed Municipal Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Grbeš

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste removal (collection and landfilling in the Republic of Croatia is the responsibility of the municipalities and local governments in 21 administrative units (counties. They entrust the respective economic activity to 208 private and public companies specialized in waste collection and treatment. Organised waste collection affects 99 % of the population. The mixed waste from households and enterprises is at various frequencies collected at the door (kerbside collection and transported by truck to a landfill, or processing plant. This article aims to estimate fuel consumption and fuel-related airborne emissions from the collection of mixed municipal waste in Croatia in 2013. The input data and emission results are shown for Croatia and each Croatian county, in total, and relative to the number of inhabitants and mass of collected waste. Annual consumption of diesel for the collection of mixed waste is estimated at 10.6 million litres. At the county level, fuel consumption ranges from 87 thousand litres to 2.2 million litres, on average 504 thousand litres per county. Total emission of CO2 is estimated at 28 000 t, which at county level ranges from 231 to 5711 t. Relative emission ranges from 3.3 to 13 kg CO2 per capita (average 6.6 kg per capita, or 8.6–28.1 kg t−1 of municipal waste (average 17 kg CO2 per ton of municipal waste. The average values of CO2 emission from MSW collection that should also be the target values are 7–9 kg for mixed waste, and 8–15 kg CO2 for separate waste streams. Apart from CO2 emission, this research estimates emission of other, diesel combustion related compounds, such as NOx, CO, lubricant related CO2, NMVOC, PM, f-BC, N2O, SO2, NH3, Pb, ID[1,2,3-cd]P, B[k]F, B[b]F, B[a]P, as well as total distance of transport.