WorldWideScience

Sample records for municipal wastewater outfall

  1. Wastewater Outfalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Outfalls which discharge wastewater from wastewater treatment facilities with individual NPDES permits. It does not include NPDES general permits.

  2. Outfall as a Suitable Alternative for Disposal of Municipal Wastewater in Coastal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Takdastan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of raw municipal wastewater or effluent of preliminary treatment into the sea and ocean is economically more accepted and technically more efficient than secondary treatment. In this method, the wastewater disposed at the bottom of the sea in some points from diffuser. Nowadays, lots of researchers select outfall as a suitable alternative treatment method for coastal cities. The goal of this paper was to introduce the outfall as a wastewater treatment method and its design criteria considering different characteristics of the sea such as salinity, density, temperature, stratification etc. In addition, stagnant sea and thermal stratification is reviewed. In this paper the latest information were reviewed. In this alternative the wastewater treated under dilution, mixing and natural conditions. Moreover, sensitive coastal point are preserved from different wastewater pollutants. Usually, there is no limitation regarding discharge of coliform, DO, BOD, and nutrient concentrations in initial mixing zoom. The parameters such as thermal stratification, salinity stratification, density stratification, marine flows influence design of outfall.

  3. PBDE and PCB accumulation in benthos near marine wastewater outfalls: The role of sediment organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinn, Pamela M.; Johannessen, Sophia C.; Ross, Peter S.; Macdonald, Robie W.; Whiticar, Michael J.; Lowe, Christopher J.; Roodselaar, Albert van

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in sediments and benthic invertebrates near submarine municipal outfalls in Victoria and Vancouver, B.C., Canada, two areas with contrasting receiving environments. PBDE concentrations in wastewater exceeded those of the legacy PCBs by eight times at Vancouver and 35 times at Victoria. Total PBDE concentrations in benthic invertebrates were higher near Vancouver than Victoria, despite lower concentrations in sediments, and correlated with organic carbon-normalized concentrations in sediment. Principal Components Analysis indicated uptake of individual PBDE congeners was determined by sediment properties (organic carbon, grain size), while PCB congener uptake was governed by physico-chemical properties (octanol-water partitioning coefficient). Results suggest the utility of sediment quality guidelines for PBDEs and likely PCBs benefit if based on organic carbon-normalized concentrations. Also, where enhanced wastewater treatment increases the PBDEs to particulate organic carbon ratio in effluent, nearfield benthic invertebrates may face increased PBDE accumulation. - Highlights: ► Physical receiving environment affects PBDE bioaccumulation by benthic invertebrates. ► PBDE uptake is correlated with organic-carbon normalized sediment concentrations. ► PBDE and PCB congener uptake are governed by different properties. ► PBDE sediment quality guidelines may benefit by using organic carbon-normalized data. ► Enhanced wastewater treatment may mean increased benthic invertebrate PBDE bioaccumulation. - The physical receiving environment affects the accumulation of PBDEs by benthic invertebrates near submarine municipal outfalls, and uptake of PBDE congeners is governed by different properties than for PCB congeners.

  4. Nearshore circulation revealed by wastewater discharge from a submarine outfall, Aveiro Coast, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Figueiredo da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological and climatic conditions of the Atlantic coast of northern Portugal result in a prevailing upwelling circulation over the continental shelf. A submarine outfall releases wastewater into the ocean c. 3 km directly offshore (at ∼16 m water depth from S. Jacinto, 5 km to the north of the inlet to the estuarine coastal lagoon system of the Ria de Aveiro. The buoyant plume has a distinctive reddish brown colour and is clearly visible at the water surface. The transport and dispersion of the plume was monitored by airborne photography and by in situ water sampling. Results revealed the surface currents present and water mass fronts in the nearshore zone of the Aveiro coast. During the spring and summer, the plume was not transported offshore in the manner expected by the upwelling shelf circulation. Instead, it was commonly observed to be transported alongshore with the prevailing southerly circulation or with an onshore component. The transport to the south caused the outfall plume to interact with the circulation associated with the tidal currents generated in the inlet channel to the Ria de Aveiro. The observations suggest that the trophic status of the Ria de Aveiro is unlikely to change because of the operation of the submarine outfall. Furthermore, this study demonstrates how simple observations of wastewater discharge from a submarine outfall can be used to improve understanding of nearshore circulation. Keywords: water circulation, upwelling, ocean outfall, remote sensing, eutrophication, Ria de Aveiro

  5. Comparison of small mammal species diversity near wastewater outfalls, natural streams, and dry canyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymer, D.F.; Biggs, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    A wide range of plant and wildlife species utilizes water discharged from facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this study was to compare nocturnal small mammal communities at wet areas created by wastewater outfalls with communities in naturally created wet and dry areas. Thirteen locations within LANL boundaries were selected for small mammal mark-recapture trapping. Three of these locations lacked surface water sources and were classified as open-quotes dry,close quotes while seven sites were associated with wastewater outfalls (open-quotes outfallclose quotes sites), and three were located near natural sources of surface water (open-quotes naturalclose quotes sites). Data was collected on site type (dry, outfall or natural), location, species trapped, and the tag number of each individual captured. This data was used to calculate mean number of species, percent capture rate, and species diversity at each type of site. When data from each type of site was pooled, there were no significant differences in these variables between dry, outfall, and natural types. However, when data from individual sites was compared, tests revealed significant differences. All sites in natural areas were significantly higher than dry areas in daily mean number of species, percent capture rate, and species diversity. Most outfall sites were significantly higher than dry areas in all three variables tested. When volume of water from each outfall site was considered, these data indicated that the number of species, percent capture rate, and species diversity of nocturnal small mammals were directly related to the volume of water at a given outfall

  6. Necessity of Initial Dilution for Sea Outfall Diffusers in Respect to the European Directive on Municipal Discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    The European Directive on municipal discharges prescribes that discharges of sewage to the sea should at least be treated biologically. The author claims that this treatment is an argument for reducing the requirement for initial dilution for sea outfall diffusers. By reducing the costs...

  7. EPA Region 2 NPDES Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System Outfalls (MS4) GIS Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ArcGIS 10.3 point feature class contains identification, location, and outfall attributes including outfall size and receiving water body, and class information...

  8. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Municipal Wastewater and the Marine Receiving Environment Near Victoria Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Krogh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concerns over the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP within the environment have been growing with the advent of more precise analytical methods. The discharge of municipal wastewater has been identified as a significant source of these contaminants, particularly where wastewater treatment is minimal. Here we present results from a comprehensive monitoring regime located around Victoria, BC, Canada. Samples were collected between 2009 and 2016 from a variety of sources including marine water, sediment and biota adjacent to two major untreated sewage outfalls, as well as the sewage itself. PPCP concentrations within the untreated sewage were high, and the sediment surrounding the outfalls showed corresponding contamination. However, this contamination dropped quickly with distance from the outfall such that by 800 m distance most PPCPs were below detection limits. Tissue samples of resident Northern Horse mussels (Modiolus modiolus collected adjacent to one of the major sewage outfalls showed high single sample concentrations of the antimicrobial triclosan (317 ng g−1 dry weight, the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (176 ng g−1 dry weight, as well as the antidepressant sertraline (84.1 ng g−1 dry weight. Reference stations from around the region showed very low concentrations of contamination with almost all PPCP concentrations being below detection limits. Within the sewage, concentrations were largely stable overtime, with the exception of triclosan and triclocarban which both showed declines over the study period.

  9. Selection of technologies for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In water environmental planning in watersheds should contain aspects for the decontamination of receiving water body, therefore the selection of the treatment plants municipal wastewater in developing countries, you should consider aspects of the typical composition raw wastewater pollutant removal efficiency by technology, performance indicators for technology, environmental aspects of localization and spatial localization strategy. This methodology is built on the basis of technical, economic and environmental attributes, such as a tool for decision making future investments in treatment plants municipal wastewater with multidisciplinary elements.

  10. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  11. The effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater on fish communities of a small river tributary in Southern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Carolyn J.M.; Knight, Brendan W.; McMaster, Mark E.; Munkittrick, Kelly R.; Oakes, Ken D.; Tetreault, Grald R.; Servos, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Fish community changes associated with a tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent outfall in the Speed River, Ontario, Canada, were evaluated at nine sites over two seasons (2008) using standardized electrofishing. Habitat evaluations were conducted to ensure that the riffle sites selected were physically similar. The fish community was dominated by several species of darters that differed in their response to the effluent outfall. There was a significant decrease in Greenside Darter (Etheostoma blennioides) but an increase in Rainbow Darter (E. caeruleum) abundance directly downstream of the outfall. Stable isotope signatures (δ 13 C and δ 15 N), which indicate shifts in energy utilization and flow, increased in Rainbow Darter downstream, but showed no change in Greenside Darter. Rainbow Darter may be exploiting a food source that is not as available at upstream sites giving them a competitive advantage over the Greenside Darter immediately downstream of the outfall. - Highlights: → Fish communities are altered by tertiary treated municipal wastewater exposure. → Relative abundance of the two dominant fish (darter) species changed downstream. → Differing stable isotope signatures in fish suggests shifting energy flow and diet. → The altered environment may allow resilient species a competitive advantage. → The system recovers quickly downstream. - Tertiary treated effluent altered fish community composition in a small receiving stream possibly as a result of altered availability of resources (diet) as indicated by stable isotopes.

  12. Ultraviolet disinfection of treated municipal wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vander Laan, H; Cairns, B

    1993-12-31

    A wastewater disinfection system developed by a Canadian company, Trojan Technologies Inc., was discussed. Disinfection for pathogen reduction prior to discharge of treated municipal wastewater back into rivers and lakes has been either ignored or treated by the use of chemicals. In 1979 the first pilot ultraviolet (UV) wastewater disinfection system was established. Since then, over 500 municipal UV installations have been commissioned. The largest installation can process 212 million gallons of water per day. The advantages of UV as a disinfectant are: (1) It is more effective than chlorine. (2) There are no mutagenic/carcinogenic byproducts formed with UV. (3) No toxic chemical residuals are discharged. (4) UV is safe to both the operators and the public. (5) It is cost effective. Europe has not been as active in wastewater disinfection as has North America. One result of the absence of wastewater disinfection in Europe is that the Rhine River, for example, carries 50 million salmonella per second. Disinfection of wastewater effluents is, of course, indispensable in protecting our drinking water supply. 2 figs.

  13. Sonochemical disinfection of municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, Apostolos; Poulios, Ioannis; Nikolakaki, Eleni; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2007-01-01

    The application of high intensity, low frequency ultrasound for the disinfection of simulated and septic tank wastewaters is evaluated in this work. Laboratory scale experiments were conducted at 24 and 80 kHz ultrasound frequency with horn-type sonicators capable of operating in continuous and pulsed irradiation modes at nominal ultrasound intensities up to 450 W. For the experiments with simulated wastewaters, Escherichia coli were used as biological indicator of disinfection efficiency, while for the experiments with septic tank wastewaters, the total microbiological load was used. Complete elimination of E. coli could be achieved within 20-30 min of irradiation at 24 kHz and 450 W with the efficiency decreasing with decreasing intensity and frequency. Moreover, continuous irradiation was more effective than intermittent treatment based on a common energy input. Irradiation of the septic tank effluent prior to biological treatment at 24 kHz and 450 W for 30 min resulted in a three-log total microbiological load reduction, and this was nearly equal to the reduction that could be achieved during biological treatment. Bacterial cell elimination upon irradiation was irreversible as no reappearance of the microorganisms occurred after 24 h

  14. Water Quality Monitoring Around Submerged Wastewater Outfalls in Southern California: From Compliance Assessment to Impact of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezlin, N. P.

    2016-02-01

    Routine monitoring near major submerged ocean outfalls in southern California is focused on the assessment of the effects of wastewater discharge on water-quality (WQ), including dissolved oxygen, pH, transmissivity, and phytoplankton biomass. The proposed WQ compliance assessment using DO as an indicator includes 1) identification of the area affected by effluent wastewater using Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) as an effluent plume tracer, 2) selection of reference sampling sites representing `natural' conditions, and 3) comparison between DO profiles in the reference and plume-affected zones. This strategy is implemented as an interactive web-based tool including convenient data visualization options. At the same time, the data of WQ monitoring (regular quarterly observations starting 1998-present) provides an excellent platform to analyze the spatial and temporal (seasonal and interannual) variations in near-shore ocean ecosystem. An illustrative example is the trends in the depths of the euphotic layer and subsurface chlorophyll maximum layer (SCML), abruptly deepening during the most recent four-year period (2011-2014). These dramatic changes are associated with declining intensity of the North Pacific gyre circulation (NPGO index), decreasing upwelling and increasing transport of warm water from equatorial Pacific (PDO and ENSO cycles).

  15. Marine outfalls monitoring at the CSIR: Evaluating the impact of wastewater discharge on our marine environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Arabi, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available is used in coastal cities throughout the world and, if correctly managed, is recognised as an acceptable disposal option from multiple perspectives, including human and environmental health, social acceptability, and economic prudence. However..., wastewater contains contaminants that can affect the ecological functioning of the marine environment and compromise human health. The impact of wastewater discharge therefore requires careful monitoring. The CSIR uses a wide suite of indicators...

  16. Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant sewage sludge as a source of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) contamination in the environment The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  17. Agricultural use of treated municipal wastewaters preserving environmental sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Rubino; Maurizia Catalano; Antonio Lonigro

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the utility of the treated municipal wastewaters in agriculture, analyzing the chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics and their pollution indicators evaluation are being illustrated. Some methods employed for treating wastewaters are examined, as well as instructions and rules actually in force in different countries of the world, for evaluating the legislative hygienic and sanitary and agronomic problems connected with the treated wastewaters use, are being coll...

  18. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Outfall Points, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for waste water treatment plants which generally represent the site of the discharge....

  19. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Outfall Points, Region 9, 2007, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for waste water treatment plants which generally represent the site of the discharge....

  20. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Outfall Points, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for waste water treatment plants which generally represent the site of the discharge....

  1. Tidal Flushing Characteristics of Municipal and Industrial Waste in the Karachi Coastal Waters and Simulation of Waste Field Dilution at Sewage Outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T. M. A.; Abid, K.; Jaffery, S.; Ali, I.; Zakai, H. M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The deterioration of Karachi coast and the marine environment near to it cannot be ignored. Effluents from industries and untreated sewage discharge into the coastal waters through Malir and Lyari Rivers and this ultimately have a negative impact on marine life and also to human health. The toxicants present in the industrial wastewater play a vital role in declining the marine population and also cause contamination. The knowledge of flushing and residence times of estuaries and creeks is very important. However, the estimated flushing time by using the freshwater fraction method ranges 15-20 days at both sites. The freshwater fraction method is considered to be a reasonable estimation method as in this method salinity variation in the estuary and open sea are also incorporated in the calculation. Discharging the effluents in the estuary results the destruction of the ecosystem of the area. Thus the discharge of polluted water directly in the deep offshore water certainly improves the quality of life in the coastal areas. Therefore, submarine outfall construction is an effective way to discharge the sewage far away from the coast where diffusion, dispersion and dilution are enhanced. This paper deals with the estimation of flushing time scales and marine environmental parameters in the offshore waters of HawkesBay and Gizri creek/DHA coastlines. The outfall model, DESCAR, is used to determine the spreading and dilution of pollutants under different oceanographic and meteorological forcing. The other outfall parameters such as Initial dilution and Froude numbers and return back travel time are also estimated by using USEPA spread sheet and the ocean-atmosphere archived data. (author)

  2. Physical-chemical pretreatment as an option for increased sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : municipal wastewater treatment, physical-chemical pretreatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment, organic polymers, environmental sustainability

    Most of the currently applied municipal wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands are

  3. Agricultural use of treated municipal wastewaters preserving environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the utility of the treated municipal wastewaters in agriculture, analyzing the chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics and their pollution indicators evaluation are being illustrated. Some methods employed for treating wastewaters are examined, as well as instructions and rules actually in force in different countries of the world, for evaluating the legislative hygienic and sanitary and agronomic problems connected with the treated wastewaters use, are being collected and compared. Successively, in order to provide useful indications for the use of treated municipal wastewaters, results of long-term field researches, carried out in Puglia, regarding two types of waters (treated municipal wastewater and conventional water and two irrigation methods (drip and capillary sub-irrigation on vegetable crops grown in succession, are being reported. For each crop cycle, chemical physical and microbiological analyses have been performed on irrigation water, soil and crop samples. The results evidenced that although irrigating with waters having high colimetric values, higher than those indicated by law and with two different irrigation methods, never soil and marketable yield pollutions have been observed. Moreover, the probability to take infection and/or disease for ingestion of fruits coming from crops irrigated with treated wastewaters, calculated by Beta-Poisson method, resulted negligible and equal to 1 person for 100 millions of exposed people. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil and crops were lesser than those admissible by law. The free chlorine, coming from disinfection, found in the wastewaters used for watering, in some cases caused toxicity effects, which determined significant yield decreases. Therefore, municipal wastewaters, if well treated, can be used for irrigation representing a valid alternative to the conventional ones.

  4. Removal of Alkylphenols from Industrial and Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Derco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of removal of nonylphenol, octylphenol and their ethoxylates from real industrial and municipal wastewater are presented. Industrial wastewater was pre-treated by coagulation with FeCl3 and adsorption on zeolite, before discharging into municipal sewer system. Their removal efficiencies in primary sedimentation tank of municipal WWTP were very low. From the practical point of view, the highest and the most significant removal efficiencies within the whole WWTP were observed for nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates. Dominancy of abiotic mechanisms of alkylphenols removal follows from adsorption measurements. Activated sludge cultivated in lab-scale extended aeration tank accounted for relatively high adsorption affinity to these substances. Activated sludge sampled from municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP receiving industrial wastewater containing alkylphenols accounted for very low adsorption affinity to these pollutants. Significantly higher removal efficiency of octylphenol ethoxylates was observed with the O3/granular active carbon (GAC process compared to the ozonation process alone. Lower toxicity impact of intermediates and products of ozonation treatment on Vibrio fischeri was measured in comparison to the O3/GAC process. Actually, the municipal WWTP effluent discharge concentration values complies with EQS values, including nonylphenols.

  5. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Young Choi; Seung-Ryong Baek; Jae-In Kim; Jeong-Woo Choi; Jin Hur; Tae-U Lee; Cheol-Joon Park; Byung Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industri...

  6. Developing Anammox for mainstream municipal wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotti, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), like activated sludge systems, are energy demanding requiring a large electrical energy supply (e.g. 25 kWh PE-1 year-1) which, especially during peak-load periods, may account for an important quote of the grid installed power of the surrounding

  7. Improvement of municipal wastewater pretreatment by direct membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Thiago A; Mejía, Fanny R; Fdz-Polanco, Fernando; Peña Miranda, Mar

    2017-10-01

    The high content of particulate matter in municipal wastewater hinders the conventional anaerobic treatments at psychrophilic temperatures. The hydrolysis of the particulate chemical oxygen demand (pCOD) could be the limiting step under these conditions. Therefore, new pretreatments or improved conventional pretreatments are needed in order to separate pCOD. In this work, direct membrane filtration of municipal wastewater, using an ultrafiltration membrane, was investigated. This intensive pretreatment, which aims to separate soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and to concentrate pCOD, together with anaerobic treatments of both streams at psychrophilic and mesophilic conditions respectively, could be an alternative to the conventional activated sludge process. The obtained results show a removal yield of 24.9% of the total solids (TS) and 45% of total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD), obtaining a permeate free of suspended solids. This physical removal implies the accumulation of solids inside the membrane tank, reaching the values of 45.4 and 4.4 g/L of TS in the sedimentation and filtration sections, respectively. The membrane operated with filtration, backwashing cycles and continuous gas sparging, with a permeate flux predominantly around 10 L/(m 2  h). The results show the viability of the technology to concentrate pCOD and so to improve energy recovery from municipal wastewater.

  8. Municipal wastewater biological nutrient removal driven by the fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Yinguang; Wu, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Carbon substrate is required by biological nutrient removal (BNR) microorganism, but it is usually insufficient in the influent of many municipal wastewater treatment plants. In this study the use of ethanol-enriched fermentation liquid, which was derived from dairy wastewater, as the preferred carbon substrate of BNR was reported. First, the application of dairy wastewater and food processing wastewater and their fermentation liquid as the carbon substrate of BNR was compared in the short-term tests. The fermented wastewater showed higher BNR performance than the unfermented one, and the fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater (FL-DW), which was obtained under pH 8 and fermentation time of 6 day, exhibited the highest phosphorus (95.5%) and total nitrogen (97.6%) removal efficiencies due to its high ethanol content (57.9%). Then, the long-term performance of FL-DW acting as the carbon substrate of BNR was compared with that of acetate and ethanol, and the FL-DW showed the greatest phosphorus and total nitrogen removal. Further investigation showed that the use of FL-DW caused the highest polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) synthesis in BNR microbial cells, and more PHAs were used for phosphorus uptake and denitrification rather than glycogen synthesis and microbial growth. The FL-DW can be used as a preferred carbon substrate for BNR microbes. AB: aerobic end sludge active biomass; BNR: biological nutrient removal; DW: dairy wastewater; FL-DW: fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater; FPW: food processing wastewater; FL-FPW: fermentation liquid of food processing wastewater; PHAs: polyhydroxyalkanoates; PHB: poly-3-hydroxybutyrate; PHV: poly-3-hydroxyvalerate; PH2MV: poly-3-hydroxy-2- methylvalerate; PAOs: phosphorus accumulating organisms; SBR: sequencing batch reactor; SOP: soluble ortho-phosphorus; TN: total nitrogen; TSS: total suspended solids; VSS: volatile suspended solids; VFAs: volatile fatty acids; WWTPs: wastewater treatment plants.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment to Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J. s.; Herrera, I.; Rodriguez, A.

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation was done at a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP), through the application of the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) performed by using a commercial tool called SIMAPRO. The objective of this study was to apply Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in two systems: municipal wastewater effluent without treatment and Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that is operating in poor condition and has a direct discharge to a natural body, which is a threat to the environment. A LCA was done using SIMAPRO 7, in order to determine the environmental impact in each scenery was assessed, a comparison of the impacts and propose improvements to decrease, following the steps this methodology and according to the respective standardized normative (ISO 14040/ ISO 14044). In this study, most of used data have been reported by the plant from early 2010 and some data from literature. We identified the environmental impacts generated by the treatment, making emphasis on those related to the subsequent use of the water body receiving the discharge, such as eutrophication (near to 15% reduction). Likewise, a comparative analysis between the impacts in the two systems, with and without treatment by analyzing the variation in the impact categories studied. Finally within this work, alternatives of improvements, in order to reduce the identified and quantified impacts are proposed. (Author) 33 refs.

  10. Dissinfection of municipal sludge and wastewater by energized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trump, J.G.; Wright, K.A.; Sinskey, A.J.; Shah, D.N.; Fernald, R.

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory studies at M.I.T. and high flow rate studies at the M.D.C. Deer Island Wastewater Treatment Plant in Boston have shown the practicality and cost effectiveness of disinfecting liquid municipal sludges by injecting energized electrons. A dosage of 400 Kilorads (4 Kilograys) reduces gram-negative bacteria, including coliforms, fecal coliforms, salmonellae and shigellae, in primary raw or anaerobically digested sludges to undetectable levels. Enteric viruses are reduced by one to two orders of magnitude. This treatment also destroys parasite eggs or renders them non-infectious. Model system studies indicate that trace toxic compounds such as PCBs in water are degraded. The estimated cost of sludge disinfection by electron treatment is about $0.80 per liquid tonne for modular systems of 650 liquid tonnes per day capacity. About 6 Kilowatt-hours of input electric power per tonne is required. The temperature rise of the disinfected watery sludge is about 2 0 C. Electron disinfection combined with subsurface soil injection offers an environmentally attractive, energy-efficient, and economic two -step process for land disposal of municipal sludges with water conservation and soil improvement benefits. Combined with widely-distributed ocean feeding, electron disinfection of the municipal sludge of coastal communities offers a safe marine nutrient for increasing fish population in treated ocean areas. The electron disinfection of effluent wastewater, in lieu of chlorination, is a future application which avoids the production of potentially toxic chlorinated hydrocarbons. (Author) [pt

  11. Analysis of some pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater of Almadinah Almunawarah

    KAUST Repository

    Shraim, Amjad

    2012-11-29

    The chemical pollution of water resources is a major challenge facing the humanity in this century. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are a group of emerging environmental chemical pollutants distinguished by their bioactivity and high solubility. They may also cause health complications to humans and living organisms. Pharmaceuticals enter the environment, mainly via wastewater and can eventually reach the surface and ground water. Despite this, PPCPs received less attention as environmental pollutants than other chemical pollutants (e.g. heavy metals and pesticides). The purpose of this work was to investigate the presence of some of the most frequently dispensed drugs for the residents of Almadinah Almunawarah, Saudi Arabia in the municipal wastewater before and after treatment. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected biweekly from the city’s sewage treatment plant for a period of 4 months and analyzed the targeted drugs using tandem LC–MS. Out of the 19 investigated drugs, 5 pharmaceuticals have been found in concentrations greater than the limit of detection in both the influents and effluents of the sewage treatment plant. As expected, the concentrations of investigated pharmaceuticals in the wastewater were found to be low. These drugs and their average concentrations (in ng mL−1) in the influents were: acetaminophen (38.9), metformin (15.2), norfluoxetine (7.07), atenolol (2.04), and cephalexin (1.88). Meanwhile, the effluents contained slightly lower levels (in ng mL−1) than those of influents: acetaminophen (31.2), metformin (3.19), norfluoxetine (7.25), atenolol (0.545), and cephalexin (1.53). The results of this study supported by many other investigations indicate the inefficiency of current conventional wastewater treatment protocols in eliminating such a group of active and potentially hazardous pollutants from the wastewater.

  12. Analysis of some pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater of Almadinah Almunawarah

    KAUST Repository

    Shraim, Amjad; Diab, Atef; Alsuhaimi, Awadh; Niazy, Esmail; Metwally, Mohammed; Amad, Maan H.; Sioud, Salim; Dawoud, Abdulilah

    2012-01-01

    The chemical pollution of water resources is a major challenge facing the humanity in this century. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are a group of emerging environmental chemical pollutants distinguished by their bioactivity and high solubility. They may also cause health complications to humans and living organisms. Pharmaceuticals enter the environment, mainly via wastewater and can eventually reach the surface and ground water. Despite this, PPCPs received less attention as environmental pollutants than other chemical pollutants (e.g. heavy metals and pesticides). The purpose of this work was to investigate the presence of some of the most frequently dispensed drugs for the residents of Almadinah Almunawarah, Saudi Arabia in the municipal wastewater before and after treatment. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected biweekly from the city’s sewage treatment plant for a period of 4 months and analyzed the targeted drugs using tandem LC–MS. Out of the 19 investigated drugs, 5 pharmaceuticals have been found in concentrations greater than the limit of detection in both the influents and effluents of the sewage treatment plant. As expected, the concentrations of investigated pharmaceuticals in the wastewater were found to be low. These drugs and their average concentrations (in ng mL−1) in the influents were: acetaminophen (38.9), metformin (15.2), norfluoxetine (7.07), atenolol (2.04), and cephalexin (1.88). Meanwhile, the effluents contained slightly lower levels (in ng mL−1) than those of influents: acetaminophen (31.2), metformin (3.19), norfluoxetine (7.25), atenolol (0.545), and cephalexin (1.53). The results of this study supported by many other investigations indicate the inefficiency of current conventional wastewater treatment protocols in eliminating such a group of active and potentially hazardous pollutants from the wastewater.

  13. Analysis of some pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater of Almadinah Almunawarah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Shraim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical pollution of water resources is a major challenge facing the humanity in this century. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs are a group of emerging environmental chemical pollutants distinguished by their bioactivity and high solubility. They may also cause health complications to humans and living organisms. Pharmaceuticals enter the environment, mainly via wastewater and can eventually reach the surface and ground water. Despite this, PPCPs received less attention as environmental pollutants than other chemical pollutants (e.g. heavy metals and pesticides. The purpose of this work was to investigate the presence of some of the most frequently dispensed drugs for the residents of Almadinah Almunawarah, Saudi Arabia in the municipal wastewater before and after treatment. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected biweekly from the city's sewage treatment plant for a period of 4 months and analyzed the targeted drugs using tandem LC–MS. Out of the 19 investigated drugs, 5 pharmaceuticals have been found in concentrations greater than the limit of detection in both the influents and effluents of the sewage treatment plant. As expected, the concentrations of investigated pharmaceuticals in the wastewater were found to be low. These drugs and their average concentrations (in ng mL−1 in the influents were: acetaminophen (38.9, metformin (15.2, norfluoxetine (7.07, atenolol (2.04, and cephalexin (1.88. Meanwhile, the effluents contained slightly lower levels (in ng mL−1 than those of influents: acetaminophen (31.2, metformin (3.19, norfluoxetine (7.25, atenolol (0.545, and cephalexin (1.53. The results of this study supported by many other investigations indicate the inefficiency of current conventional wastewater treatment protocols in eliminating such a group of active and potentially hazardous pollutants from the wastewater.

  14. Vermistabilization of Municipal Wastewater Sludge with Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Parvaresh, H Movahedian, L Hamidian

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Sludges are stabilized to reduce pathogens, eliminate offensive odors and inhibit, reduce or eliminate the potential for putrification. In this study, stabilization of municipal wastewater sludge with and without earthworms (Eisenia fetida was tested in a pilot study. The earthworms were fed at the optimum level of 0.75 kg-feed/kg-worm/day. Decomposition and stabilization of wastewater sludge occurred both in the presence and in the absence of earthworms during 9 weeks but the process was accelerated in their presence. Phosphorus content increased in the sludge with earthworms but decreased in it without them. Nitrogen content in the resulting vermicompost showed no difference with its quantity in the original substrate while it increased in the control treatment.

  15. Phycoremediation of municipal wastewater by microalgae to produce biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Sharma, Nikunj; Farooqi, Humaira; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Mock, Thomas; Kumar, Shashi

    2017-09-02

    Municipal wastewater (WW), if not properly remediated, poses a threat to the environment and human health by carrying significant loads of nutrients and pathogens. These contaminants pollute rivers, lakes, and natural reservoirs where they cause eutrophication and pathogen-mediated diseases. However, the high nutrient content of WW makes it an ideal environment for remediation with microalgae that require high nutrient concentrations for growth and are not susceptible to toxins and pathogens. Given that an appropriate algal strain is used for remediation, the incurred biomass can be refined for the production of biofuel. Four microalgal species (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella sp., Parachlorella kessleri-I, and Nannochloropsis gaditana) were screened for efficient phycoremediation of municipal WW and potential use for biodiesel production. Among the four strains tested, P. kessleri-I showed the highest growth rate and biomass production in 100% WW. It efficiently removed all major nutrients with a removal rate of up to 98% for phosphate after 10 days of growth in 100% municipal WW collected from Delhi. The growth of P. kessleri-I in WW resulted in a 50% increase of biomass and a 115% increase of lipid yield in comparison to growth in control media. The Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), and fuel properties of lipids isolated from cells grown in WW complied with international standards. The present study provides evidence that the green alga P. kessleri-I effectively remediates municipal WW and can be used to produce biodiesel.

  16. Disinfection of Ebola Virus in Sterilized Municipal Wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Bibby

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised regarding handling of Ebola virus contaminated wastewater, as well as the adequacy of proposed disinfection approaches. In the current study, we investigate the inactivation of Ebola virus in sterilized domestic wastewater utilizing sodium hypochlorite addition and pH adjustment. No viral inactivation was observed in the one-hour tests without sodium hypochlorite addition or pH adjustment. No virus was recovered after 20 seconds (i.e. 4.2 log10 unit inactivation to detection limit following the addition of 5 and 10 mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite, which resulted in immediate free chlorine residuals of 0.52 and 1.11 mg L-1, respectively. The addition of 1 mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite resulted in an immediate free chlorine residual of 0.16 mg L-1, which inactivated 3.5 log10 units of Ebola virus in 20 seconds. Further inactivation was not evident due to the rapid consumption of the chlorine residual. Elevating the pH to 11.2 was found to significantly increase viral decay over ambient conditions. These results indicate the high susceptibility of the enveloped Ebola virus to disinfection in the presence of free chlorine in municipal wastewater; however, we caution that extension to more complex matrices (e.g. bodily fluids will require additional verification.

  17. Disinfection of Ebola Virus in Sterilized Municipal Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, Kyle; Fischer, Robert J; Casson, Leonard W; de Carvalho, Nathalia Aquino; Haas, Charles N; Munster, Vincent J

    2017-02-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding handling of Ebola virus contaminated wastewater, as well as the adequacy of proposed disinfection approaches. In the current study, we investigate the inactivation of Ebola virus in sterilized domestic wastewater utilizing sodium hypochlorite addition and pH adjustment. No viral inactivation was observed in the one-hour tests without sodium hypochlorite addition or pH adjustment. No virus was recovered after 20 seconds (i.e. 4.2 log10 unit inactivation to detection limit) following the addition of 5 and 10 mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite, which resulted in immediate free chlorine residuals of 0.52 and 1.11 mg L-1, respectively. The addition of 1 mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite resulted in an immediate free chlorine residual of 0.16 mg L-1, which inactivated 3.5 log10 units of Ebola virus in 20 seconds. Further inactivation was not evident due to the rapid consumption of the chlorine residual. Elevating the pH to 11.2 was found to significantly increase viral decay over ambient conditions. These results indicate the high susceptibility of the enveloped Ebola virus to disinfection in the presence of free chlorine in municipal wastewater; however, we caution that extension to more complex matrices (e.g. bodily fluids) will require additional verification.

  18. Scenario Analysis of Nutrient Removal from Municipal Wastewater by Microalgal Biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.; Temmink, H.; Janssen, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae can be used for the treatment of municipal wastewater. The application of microalgal biofilms in wastewater treatment systems seems attractive, being able to remove nitrogen, phosphorus and COD from wastewater at a short hydraulic retention time. This study therefore investigates the area

  19. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Young Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industrial discharges in a biological WWTP. In contrast to most previous studies targeting a specific group of organic compounds or traditional water quality indices, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD, this study was purposed to quantify and characterize the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions of the wastewater organic matter. Chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation tests and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the industrial discharge from dyeing or pulp mill factories contained more non-biodegradable soluble organic matter than did the domestic wastewater. Statistical analysis on the WWTPs’ monitoring data indicated that the industrial discharge containing non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was not treated effectively in a biological WWTP, but was escaping from the system. Thus, industrial discharge that contained non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was a major factor in the decrease in biodegradability of the discharge, affecting the ultimate fate of wastewater organic matter in a biological WWTP. Further application of COD fractionation and fluorescence spectroscopy to wastewaters, with various industrial discharges, will help scientists and engineers to better design and operate a biological WWTP, by understanding the fate of wastewater organic matter.

  20. Performance assessment of aquatic macrophytes for treatment of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mumtaz; Hashmi, Hashim Nisar; Ali, Arshad; Ghumman, Abdul Razzaq

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of three different aquatic macrophytes for treatment of municipal wastewater collected from Taxila (Pakistan). A physical model of treatment plant was constructed and was operated for six experimental runs with each species of macrophyte. Every experimental run consist of thirty days period. Regular monitoring of influent and effluent concentrations were made during each experimental run. For the treatment locally available macrophyte species i.e. water hyacinth, duckweed & water lettuce were selected to use. To evaluate the treatment performance of each macrophyte, BOD5, COD, and Nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphorus) were monitored in effluent from model at different detention time of every experimental run after ensuring steady state conditions. The average reduction of effluent value of each parameter using water hyacinth were 50.61% for BOD5, 46.38% for COD, 40.34% for Nitrogen and 18.76% for Phosphorus. For duckweed the average removal efficiency for selected parameters were 33.43% for BOD5, 26.37% for COD, 17.59% for Nitrogen and 15.25% for Phosphorus and for Water Lettuce the average removal efficiency were 33.43% for BOD5, 26.37% for COD, 17.59% for Nitrogen and 15.25% for Phosphorus. The mechanisms of pollutant removal in this system include both aerobic and anaerobic microbiological conversions, sorption, sedimentation, volatilization and chemical transformations. The rapid growth of the biomass was measured within first ten days detention time. It was also observed that performance of macrophytes is influenced by variation of pH and Temperature. A pH of 6-9 and Temperature of 15-38°C is most favorable for treatment of wastewater by macrophytes. The option of macrophytes for treatment of Municipal sewage under local environmental conditions can be explored by further verifying the removal efficiency under variation of different environmental conditions. Also this is need of time that macrophyte

  1. Recovery of polyhydroxyalkanoates from municipal secondary wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Ghosh, Pooja; Khosla, Khushboo; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2018-05-01

    In the current study, the feasibility of utilizing municipal secondary wastewater sludge for Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) extraction was improved by optimization of various parameters (temperature, duration and concentration of sludge solids). Optimized process parameters resulted in PHA recovery of 0.605 g, significantly higher than un-optimized conditions. The characterization of PHA was carried out by GC-MS, FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) spectroscopy. The PHA profile was found to be dominated by mcl PHA (58%) along with other diverse PHA. The results of the present study show rich diversity of PHA extracted from a raw material which is readily available at minimal cost. In conclusion, exploring the potential of wastes for production of bioplastics not only reduces the cost of bioplastic production, but also provides a sustainable means for waste management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish blood collected near the outfall of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuemei; Yeung, Leo Wai Yin; Xu Muqi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, Paul K.S.; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Dai Jiayin

    2008-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in zooplankton and five fish species collected from Gaobeidian Lake, which receives discharge from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing, China. The mean total PFCs in five fish were in the order: crucian carp > common carp > leather catfish > white semiknife carp > tilapia. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) occurred at the greatest concentrations, with mean concentrations ranging from 5.74 to 64.2 ng/ml serum. Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was the second dominant PFC in fish samples except for common carp in which perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) was dominant. A positive linear relationship (r 2 = 0.85, p 15 N) if tilapia was excluded. The risk assessment showed that PFOS might not pose an immediate risk to fish in Gaobeidian Lake. - Distribution of PFCs reveals varied composition profiles in zooplankton and fish from a recipient water affected by WWTPs in Beijing

  3. Efficient Bacteria Inactivation by Ultrasound in Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Ernesto Amabilis-Sosa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of treated wastewaters could contribute to reducing water stress. In this research, ultrasound application on bacterial inactivation in municipal wastewater (MWW was evaluated. Total and fecal coliforms were used as standard fecal indicators; volatile suspended solids (VSS were analyzed too. Samples were taken from the effluent of secondary clarifiers. In addition, inactivation tests were carried out on pure cultures of E. coli (EC and B. subtilis (BS. Sonication was performed at 20 kHz, 35% amplitude and 600 W/L for 15, 30 and 45 min. After 15 min of sonication, bacterial density was reduced by 1.85 Log10 MPN/100 mL for EC and 3.16 Log10 CFU/mL for BS. After 30 min, no CFU/mL of BS were observed in MWW and, after 45 min, the reduction of total and fecal coliforms was practically 6.45 Log10 MPN/100mL. Inactivation mechanism was made by cavitation, which causes irreversible damage to the cell wall. Although high bacterial densities were employed, percentages of inactivation >99% were reached at 45 min. This research contributes to the implementation of ultrasound as a disinfection technique with high potential due to its high efficiency without producing byproducts. In fact, the water meets the guidelines for reuse in direct human contact services.

  4. Study on evaluation index system of operational performance of municipal wastewater treatment plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoxin, Zhang; Jin, Huang; Ling, Lin; Yan, Li

    2018-05-01

    According to the undeveloped evaluation method for the operational performance of the municipal wastewater treatment plants, this paper analyzes the policies related to sewage treatment industry based on the investigation of the municipal wastewater treatment plants. The applicable evaluation method for the operational performance was proposed from environmental protection performance, resources and energy consumption, technical and economic performance, production management and main equipment, providing a reliable basis for scientific evaluation of the operation as well as improving the operational performance of municipal wastewater treatment plant.

  5. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish blood collected near the outfall of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xuemei [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Yeung, Leo Wai Yin [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Xu Muqi [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Taniyasu, Sachi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Lam, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (China); Yamashita, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)], E-mail: nob.yamashita@aist.go.jp; Dai Jiayin [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)], E-mail: daijy@ioz.ac.cn

    2008-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in zooplankton and five fish species collected from Gaobeidian Lake, which receives discharge from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing, China. The mean total PFCs in five fish were in the order: crucian carp > common carp > leather catfish > white semiknife carp > tilapia. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) occurred at the greatest concentrations, with mean concentrations ranging from 5.74 to 64.2 ng/ml serum. Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was the second dominant PFC in fish samples except for common carp in which perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) was dominant. A positive linear relationship (r{sup 2} = 0.85, p < 0.05) was observed between ln PFOS concentrations (ln ng/ml) and trophic level (based on {delta}{sup 15}N) if tilapia was excluded. The risk assessment showed that PFOS might not pose an immediate risk to fish in Gaobeidian Lake. - Distribution of PFCs reveals varied composition profiles in zooplankton and fish from a recipient water affected by WWTPs in Beijing.

  6. Evaluation of flat sheet membrane bioreactor efficiency for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Fazeli

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: It is concluded that FS-MBR can be used in the large scale municipal wastewater treatment plants to improve effluent quality due to high removal of COD, BOD 5 , TSS and VSS to meet effluent discharge standards.

  7. Phytoremediation potential of water caltrop (Trapa natans L.) using municipal wastewater of the activated sludge process-based municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2018-01-01

    Phytoremediation experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of water caltrop (Trapa natans L.) using municipal wastewater collected from the activated sludge process- (ASP) based municipal wastewater treatment plant. The results revealed that T. natans significantly (P ≤ .05/P ≤ .01/P ≤ .001) reduced the contents of total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), chemical oxygen demand, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphate ([Formula: see text]), sodium (Na + ), potassium (K + ), calcium (Ca 2+ ), magnesium (Mg 2+ ), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), standard plate count, and most probable number of the municipal wastewater after phytoremediation experiments. The maximum removal of these parameters was obtained at 60 days of the phytoremediation experiments, but the removal rate of these parameters was gradually increased from 15 to 45 days and it was slightly decreased at 60 days. Most contents of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were translocated in the leaves of T. natans, whereas most contents of Cr and Pb were accumulated in the root of T. natans after phytoremediation experiments. The contents of different biochemical components were recorded in the order of total sugar > crude protein > total ash > crude fiber > total fat in T. natans after phytoremediation of municipal wastewater. Therefore, T. natans was found to be effective for the removal of different parameters of municipal wastewater and can be used effectively to reduce the pollution load of municipal wastewater drained from the ASP-based treatment plants.

  8. Aerobic Biological treatment of municipal wastewaters and pig slurry and the associated bacteriological and parasitological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasokova, N.; Juris, P.; Papajova, I.; Vargova, M.; Ondrasovicova, O.; Ondrasovic, M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacteriological and parasitological risk associated with the products of aerobic treatment of pig slurry and municipal sewage. We focused on the quality of effluents and on sewage sludge and pig slurry solids from two wastewater treatment plants (pig slurry WWTP.1; municipal wastewater WWTP-2 with regard to place counts of selected groups of bacteria (mesophilic, coliform, faecal coliform) and the efficiency of their removal. (Author)

  9. Aerobic Biological treatment of municipal wastewaters and pig slurry and the associated bacteriological and parasitological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasokova, N.; Juris, P.; Papajova, I.; Vargova, M.; Ondrasovicova, O.; Ondrasovic, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacteriological and parasitological risk associated with the products of aerobic treatment of pig slurry and municipal sewage. We focused on the quality of effluents and on sewage sludge and pig slurry solids from two wastewater treatment plants (pig slurry WWTP.1; municipal wastewater WWTP-2 with regard to place counts of selected groups of bacteria (mesophilic, coliform, faecal coliform) and the efficiency of their removal. (Author)

  10. Treatment of winery wastewater in a conventional municipal activated sludge process: five years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzonella, D; Zanette, M; Battistoni, P; Cecchi, F

    2007-01-01

    A full-scale wastewater treatment plant where municipal and winery wastewaters were co-treated was studied for five years. The experimental results showed that suspended solids, COD, nitrogen and phosphorous were effectively removed both during the treatment of municipal wastewater and the cotreatment of municipal and winery wastewater. The sludge production increase from 4 tons to 5.5 tons per day during the harvesting and wine making period. In any case the specific sludge production was 0.2 kgMLVSS per kgCOD(removed) despite the organic loading increasing. About 70% of the COD was removed through respiration. Also the energy demand increased from 6,000 to 7,000 kWh per day. The estimated costs for the treatment of the winery wastewater was 0.2-0.3 Euros per m3 of treated wastewater. With reference to the process efficiency, the nitrogen removal was just 20%. The co-treatment of municipal and winery wastewater in conventional activated sludge processes can be a feasible solution for the treatment of these streams at relatively low costs.

  11. Physicochemical Characteristic of Municipal Wastewater in Tropical Area: Case Study of Surabaya City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, I. M. W.; Soedjono, E. S.

    2018-03-01

    Municipal wastewater is the main contributor to diverse water pollution problems. In order to prevent the pollution risks, wastewater have to be treated before discharged to the main water. Selection of appropriated treatment process need the characteristic information of wastewater as design consideration. This study aims to analyse the physicochemical characteristic of municipal wastewater from inlet and outlet of ABR unit around Surabaya City. Medokan Semampir and Genteng Candi Rejo has been selected as wastewater sampling point. The samples were analysed in laboratory with parameters, such as pH, TSS, COD, BOD, NH4 +, NO3 -, NO2 -, P, and detergent. The results showed that all parameters in both locations are under the national standard of discharged water quality. In other words, the treated water is securely discharged to the river

  12. Dutch analysis for P-recovery from municipal wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeleveld, Paul; Loeffen, Patricia; Temmink, Hardy; Klapwijk, Bram

    2003-07-01

    There is a considerable practical interest in phosphorus recovery from water authorities, elementary P-industry, fertilizer industry and regulators in a number of countries. Due to a handful of full-scale plants worldwide, P-recovery can be seen as technically feasible. However, the economic feasibility of P-recovery from sewage can still be judged as dubious. Most important reason for this is that the prices of the techniques (in Euro/tonne P) are much higher compared to the prices of phosphate rock. In this paper an analysis is given to recover phosphate from municipal wastewater for the elementary P-industry Thermphos International B.V. and the fertiliser industry Amsterdam Fertilizers B.V. in The Netherlands. Several scenarios are evaluated and the end products of these scenarios are compared to the quality required by both industries. From a Dutch study it became clear that all end products from the final sludge treatment do not provide a good source of secondary phosphate. As a consequence of this, the most preferred possibility for P-recovery is to extract phosphate before sludge goes to the final sludge treatment. Different scenario's can be selected based on the position of P-recovery in the WWTP configuration, the type of P-recovery product, and the precipitation technique. Local conditions will determine which scenario is the most expedient. Because it is more realistic to judge a practical situation instead of theoretical estimations based on literature, some local situations have to be assessed in sufficient detail to gain more feeling for the expenses and possible savings of P-recovery. One important actor that should be involved in the process management around P-recovery, is the national government. Especially they have the responsibility for a sustainable development and should have attention for some stimulation of P-recovery in The Netherlands. Water authorities and the P- and fertilizer industry made already some good steps. (author)

  13. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Iman [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Walker, Michael E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Hsieh, Ming-Kai [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Dzombak, David A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Liu, Wenshi [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Vidic, Radisav D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Abbasian, Javad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A process simulation model has been developed using Aspen Plus® with the OLI (OLI System, Inc.) water chemistry model to predict water quality in the recirculating cooling loop utilizing secondary- and tertiary-treated municipal wastewater as the source of makeup water. Simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experimental data on makeup water alkalinity, loop pH, and ammonia evaporation. The effects of various parameters including makeup water quality, salt formation, NH3 and CO2 evaporation mass transfer coefficients, heat load, and operating temperatures were investigated. The results indicate that, although the simulation model can capture the general trends in the loop pH, experimental data on the rates of salt precipitation in the system are needed for more accurate prediction of the loop pH. It was also found that stripping of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the cooling tower can influence the cooling loop pH significantly. The effects of the NH3 mass transfer coefficient on cooling loop pH appear to be more significant at lower values (e.g., kNH3 < 4×10-3 m/s) when the makeup water alkalinity is low (e.g., <90 mg/L as CaCO3). The effect of the CO2 mass transfer coefficient was found to be significant only at lower alkalinity values (e.g., kCO2<4×10-6 m/s).

  14. Influences of mechanical pretreatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2017-09-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps for protecting the environment from adverse effects. The biological treatment step consumes the most energy and can create greenhouse gases. This study investigates municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pretreatment configurations, for example, direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pretreatment, for example, microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using Aquaporin Inside™ and Hydration Technologies Inc. (HTI) membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested in parallel for the different types of pretreated feed and evaluated in terms of water flux and solute rejection, that is, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 7 ) and total and soluble phosphorus contents. The Aquaporin and HTI membranes achieved a stable water flux with rejection rates of more than 96% for BOD 7 and total and soluble phosphorus, regardless of the type of mechanical pretreated wastewater considered. This result indicates that forward osmosis membranes can tolerate exposure to municipal waste water and that the permeate can fulfil the Swedish discharge limits.

  15. Detection of a wide variety of human and veterinary fluoroquinolone antibiotics in municipal wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke; Soares, Ana Dulce; Adejumo, Hollie; McDiarmid, Melissa; Squibb, Katherine; Blaney, Lee

    2015-03-15

    As annual sales of antibiotics continue to rise, the mass of these specially-designed compounds entering municipal wastewater treatment systems has also increased. Of primary concern here is that antibiotics can inhibit growth of specific microorganisms in biological processes of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) or in downstream ecosystems. Growth inhibition studies with Escherichia coli demonstrated that solutions containing 1-10 μg/L of fluoroquinolones can inhibit microbial growth. Wastewater samples were collected on a monthly basis from various treatment stages of a 30 million gallon per day WWTP in Maryland, USA. Samples were analyzed for the presence of 11 fluoroquinolone antibiotics. At least one fluoroquinolone was detected in every sample. Ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin exhibited detection frequencies of 100% and 98%, respectively, across all sampling sites. Concentrations of fluoroquinolones in raw wastewater were as high as 1900 ng/L for ciprofloxacin and 600 ng/L for ofloxacin. Difloxacin, enrofloxacin, fleroxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, and orbifloxacin were also detected at appreciable concentrations of 9-170 ng/L. The total mass concentration of fluoroquinolones in raw wastewater was in the range that inhibited E. coli growth, suggesting that concerns over antibiotic presence in wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water are valid. The average removal efficiency of fluoroquinolones during wastewater treatment was approximately 65%; furthermore, the removal efficiency for fluoroquinolones was found to be negatively correlated to biochemical oxygen demand removal and positively correlated to phosphorus removal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. in brackish groundwater supplemented with municipal wastewater as a nutrient source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Lins de Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study growth potential of the green microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. using brackish groundwater from a well in the semi-arid northeast region of Brazil as culture medium. The medium was supplemented with (% 19.4, 22.0, 44.0 and 50.0% of municipal wastewater after UASB treatment as a low-cost nutrient source. The results showed that the culture tested was capable of growing in the brackish groundwater even at salinity levels as low as 2 ppt. Furthermore it was shown that municipal wastewater could be used as a sole nutrient source for Nannochloropsis sp.

  17. Treatment of micropollutants in municipal wastewater using white-rot fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Margot, Jonas; Vargas, Micaela; Contijoch, Andreu; Barry, David Andrew; Holliger, Christof

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and pesticides in municipal wastewater is challenging due to their very low concentrations (ng/l to µg/l), their relatively low biodegradability, and their different physico-chemical characteristics. One potential way to improve micropollutant biodegradation in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent is by using microorganisms such as white-rot fungi that produce powerful unspecific oxidative exo-enzymes (laccase, peroxidase) that are ab...

  18. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

    2012-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

  19. Design Seminar for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirjian, Y. A.

    This document reports the development and operation of a country-wide wastewater treatment program. The program was designed to treat liquid wastewater by biological treatment in aerated lagoons, store it, and then spray irrigate on crop farmland during the growing season. The text discusses the physical design of the system, agricultural aspects,…

  20. Effect of static magnetic field on the oxygen production of Scenedesmus obliquus cultivated in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Renjie; Jin, Wenbiao; Xi, Tingting; Yang, Qian; Han, Song-Fang; Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah

    2015-12-01

    Algal-bacterial symbiotic system, with biological synergism of physiological functions of both algae and bacteria, has been proposed for cultivation of microalgae in municipal wastewater for biomass production and wastewater treatment. The algal-bacterial symbiotic system can enhance dissolved oxygen production which enhances bacterial growth and catabolism of pollutants in wastewater. Therefore, the oxygen production efficiency of microalgae in algal-bacterial systems is considered as the key factor influencing the wastewater treatment efficiency. In the present study, we have proposed a novel approach which uses static magnetic field to enhance algal growth and oxygen production rate with low operational cost and non-toxic secondary pollution. The performance of oxygen production with the magnetic field was evaluated using Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater and was calculated based on the change in dissolved oxygen concentration. Results indicated that magnetic treatment stimulates both algal growth and oxygen production. Application of 1000 GS of magnetic field once at logarithmic growth phase for 0.5 h increased the chlorophyll-a content by 11.5% over the control after 6 days of growth. In addition, magnetization enhanced the oxygen production rate by 24.6% over the control. Results of the study confirmed that application of a proper magnetic field could reduce the energy consumption required for aeration during the degradation of organic matter in municipal wastewater in algal-bacterial symbiotic systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influences of mechanical pre-treatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada

    2016-01-01

    municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pre-treatment configurations, e.g., direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pre-treatment......, e.g., microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using thin-film-composite, Aquaporin Inside(TM) and HTI membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested......-sized wastewater treatment plants....

  2. Thermo-Oxidization of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge for Production of Class A Biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-scale reactors were used to test a novel thermo-oxidation process on municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) waste activated sludge (WAS) using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to achieve a Class A sludge product appropriate for land application. Reactor ...

  3. Air Emission Reduction Benefits of Biogas Electricity Generation at Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2018-02-06

    Conventional processes for municipal wastewater treatment facilities are energy and materially intensive. This work quantifies the air emission implications of energy consumption, chemical use, and direct pollutant release at municipal wastewater treatment facilities across the U.S. and assesses the potential to avoid these damages by generating electricity and heat from the combustion of biogas produced during anaerobic sludge digestion. We find that embedded and on-site air emissions from municipal wastewater treatment imposed human health, environmental, and climate (HEC) damages on the order of $1.63 billion USD in 2012, with 85% of these damages attributed to the estimated consumption of 19 500 GWh of electricity by treatment processes annually, or 0.53% of the US electricity demand. An additional 11.8 million tons of biogenic CO 2 are directly emitted by wastewater treatment and sludge digestion processes currently installed at plants. Retrofitting existing wastewater treatment facilities with anaerobic sludge digestion for biogas production and biogas-fueled heat and electricity generation has the potential to reduce HEC damages by up to 24.9% relative to baseline emissions. Retrofitting only large plants (>5 MGD), where biogas generation is more likely to be economically viable, would generate HEC benefits of $254 annually. These findings reinforce the importance of accounting for use-phase embedded air emissions and spatially resolved marginal damage estimates when designing sustainable infrastructure systems.

  4. COD fractions changes in the SBR-type reactor treating municipal wastewater with controlled percentage of dairy sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struk-Sokołowska Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the influence of percentage of dairy wastewater in the municipal wastewater on the changes of COD fractions during the cycle of SBR-type reactor. The scope of the research included physicochemical analyses of municipal wastewater without dairy wastewater, dairy wastewater, mixture of municipal and dairy wastewater as well as treated sewage. Both the concentrations and the proportions between COD fractions changed in the SBR cycle. In raw municipal and dairy wastewater - XS, insoluble hardly bio-degradable fraction of COD dominated (49.6 and 64.5% respectively. In treated wastewater SI, COD for dissolved compounds that are not biologically decomposed (inert (from 62.1 to 74.6% dominated, while XS fraction was from 19.1 to 24.4%. The consumption rate of organic compounds depended on the type of COD fraction, SBR cycle phase and the percentage of dairy wastewater. The highest rates of organic compounds consumption were noted in the phase of mixing. In the case of fraction SI, no differences in concentration in the SBR cycle time, were found. Concentration of COD in treated wastewater was from 34.8 to 58.9 mgO2·L-1 (efficiency wastewater treatment from 96.0 to 98.6%.

  5. Fouling Characterization of Forward Osmosis Biomimetic Aquaporin Membranes Used for Water Recovery from Municipal Wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarebska, Agata; Petrinic, Irena; Hey, Tobias

    , organic, and biological fouling, membrane characterization is not a trivial task. The aim of this work is to characterize fouling of FO biomimetic aquaporin membranes during water recovery from municipal wastewater. Membrane fouling was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Dispersive......Generally more than 99.93% of municipal wastewater is composed of water, therefore water recovery can alleviate global water stress which currently exists. Traditional ways to extract water from wastewater by the use of membrane bioreactors combined with reverse osmosis (RO), or micro...... compared to other pressure driven membrane processes, some fouling can occur. This entails that by reducing fouling, increased FO membrane performance can be expected, thus increasing the economic viability of FO processes. Since various types of fouling might occur in membrane systems such as inorganic...

  6. The State of Water and Wastewater Management in the Municipalities of the Polesie National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Jóżwiakowski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to present the current state of water and wastewater management in the municipalities where the Polesie National Park (PNP is located. The PNP is situated in Lublin Voivodeship, in the area of six municipalities: Sosnowica, Hańsk, Urszulin, Stary Brus, Wierzbica and Ludwin. The data used in this paper, were obtained on the basis of the surveys conducted in these municipalities in 2016 by the Department of Environmental Engineering and Geodesy of the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. In the analyzed communes, there was a very large disproportion between the usage of sewerage and the water supply network. It has been shown that 79.1% of the inhabitants living in the afore-mentioned communes used the water supply network and only 22.5% of them used sewerage. In the discussed communities there are 9 collective, mechanical and biological wastewater treatment plants with a capacity of over 5 m3d-1. On the farms located in the scattered areas, which are not connected to the sewerage, wastewater is discharged mainly to the septic tanks. In four out of the six analyzed municipalities, there were 2345 septic tanks registered. Domestic sewage from some farms is purified in household wastewater treatment plants (395 pieces. The plants with the drainage systems are prevalent (84.9%, which may contribute to the groundwater quality degradation. In order to protect the natural environment within the communes that form the PNP, it is necessary to undertake the actions that will contribute to the improvement of the current state of water and wastewater management. While solving the existing problems related to water supply and wastewater treatment, it is strongly required to adhere to the principle of sustainable development and use highly effective systems in order to ensure that the ecological effects are appropriate.

  7. Immunological responses, histopathological finding and disease resistance of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) exposed to treated and untreated municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, Fabiola M.; St-Jean, Sylvie D.; Bishay, Farida; Clarke, John; Rabitto, Ines da S.; Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro A. de

    2007-01-01

    This study provides new information on the response of the immune system of Mytilus edulis exposed to untreated and treated sewage, linking immune response to ecologically relevant endpoints, such as disease resistance. Our goal was to assess the potential effects of sewage on the immune system (phagocytic activity and production of cytotoxic metabolites, disease resistance) and gills (light microscope) of mussels through a bioassay and field study in an estuarine receiving environment (RE). A semi-static experiment was developed in a wastewater treatment plant in New Glasgow, NS Canada. Mussels were exposed for 21 days to 12.5%, 25%, 50% and 100% of untreated sewage influent and artificial seawater control. Sampling occurred after 7, 14 and 21 days of exposure. In the field study, eight sites were selected in East River and Pictou Harbour, NS, positioned upstream and downstream of sewage effluents outfalls. Caged mussels were exposed to the RE for 90 days (May-July 2005). Mussels were challenged to test their efficiency at eliminating the bacteria, Listonella anguillarium in the bioassay and field studies. The bioassay results showed that higher concentrations of untreated sewage could modulate the immune system of mussels through increased of phagocytic activity (PA), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) production during 14 days of exposure, and decreased activity and production at 21 days, with the exception of H 2 O 2 production which was high even at 21 days. Mussels exposed to untreated sewage RE also presented a high PA, NO and H 2 O 2 production and lower number of haemocytes compared to mussels from reference sites. In the bacterial challenge, mussels pre-exposed to 100% sewage died 24 h after being infected with L. anguillarium, while mussels pre-exposed to 50% eliminated bacteria had a mortality rate of 30%. Mussels from the control, 12.5% and 25% groups eliminated bacteria and no mortality was observed. No significant difference was

  8. ASSESSMENT OF CARBON, NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS TRANSFORMATIONS DURING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Bogumiła Przywara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Proper exploitation of waste water treatment plant is strictly connected with monitoring of basic parameters and effectiveness of particular its stages. Legal requirements include not only organic compounds (BOD5, COD and general suspensions but also highly effective removal of nutrients: nitrogen and phosphorus. Effectiveness of removal of biogenic compounds interferes with temperature fluctuations, effluent quality, problems of active sediment. The aim of this study was to show changes in concentrations of organic compounds, nitrogen and phosphorus in the municipal wastewater after subsequent stages of mechanical-biological treatment. During researches samples were taken down by the wastewater treatment line: raw wastewater, after mechanical treatment, pre-denitrification, dephosphatation, denitrification, nitrification and treated wastewater. Another aspect of this study was determination of COD fractions, and their changes in the municipal wastewater, after the successive stages of mechanical-biological treatment. It allows separation of dissolved and non-dissolved organic substances, taking into account also their biodegradability and the lack of susceptibility to biological decomposition. It can also be a very important method of the processes control during wastewater treatment.

  9. Municipal wastewater treatment for effective removal of organic matter and nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebenevich, E.V.; Zaletova, N.A.; Terentieva, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The organic matter, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus, are nutrient substances. Their excess concentrations in water receiving bodies lead to eutrophication, moreover, the nitrogen content in water bodies is standardized according the sanitary-toxicological criterion of harmfulness: NH 4 + -N ≤0,39-2,0 mgl - , NO 3 -N ≤9,1-10 mgl - . The municipal wastewater contain, usually, organic matter estimated by BOD 150-200 mgl - , and COD 300-400 mgl - , the nitrogen compounds 50-60 mgl - , and NH 4 + -N 20-25 mgl - . NO x -N are practically absent. Their presence indicated on discharge of industrial wastewater. The total phosphorus is present in the concentration of 15 mgl - , PO 4 - - P 5-8 mgl - . Activated sludge process has been most widely used in the USSR for municipal wastewater treatment. The activated sludge is biocenoses of heterotrophic and auto trophic microorganisms. They consume nutrient matters, transferring pollution of wastewater by means of enzyme systems in acceptable forms. C, N and P-containing matters are removed from wastewater by biological intake for cell synthesis. Moreover C- containing matters are removed by oxidation to CO 2 and H 2 O. P-containing compounds under definite conditions associate with solid fraction of activated sludge and thus simultaneously removed from wastewater. The removal of nitrogen in addition to biosynthesis is carried out only in the denitrification process, when oxygen of NO x -N is used for oxidation of organic matter and produced gaseous nitrogen escapes into the atmosphere

  10. Microalgae cultivation for bioenergy production using wastewaters from a municipal WWTP as nutritional sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunja; Lee, Nakyeong; Park, Seonghwan; Yu, Jaecheul; Luong, Thanh Thao; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Taeho

    2013-03-01

    In order to reduce input cost for microalgal cultivation, we investigated the feasibility of wastewater taken from a municipal WWTP in Busan, Korea as wastewater nutrients. The wastewaters used in this study were the effluent from a primary settling tank (PS), the effluent from an anaerobic digestion tank (AD), the conflux of wastewaters rejected from sludge-concentrate tanks and dewatering facilities (CR), and two combined wastewaters of AD:PS (10:90, v/v) and AD:CR (10:90, v/v). Chlorella sp. ADE5, which was isolated from the AD, was selected for the feasibility test. The highest biomass production (3.01 g-dry cell weight per liter) of the isolate was obtained with the combined wastewater ADCR, and it was 1.72 times higher than that with BG 11 medium. Interestingly, the cells cultivated with wastewater containing PS wastewater were easily separated from the culture and improved lipid content, especially oleic acid content, in their cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A nine-point pH titration method to determine low-concentration VFA in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Hainan; Zhang, Daijun; Lu, Peili; He, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of volatile fatty acid (VFA) in wastewater is significant for understanding the wastewater nature and the wastewater treatment process optimization based on the usage of Activated Sludge Models (ASMs). In this study, a nine-point pH titration method was developed for the determination of low-concentration VFA in municipal wastewater. The method was evaluated using synthetic wastewater containing VFA with the concentration of 10-50 mg/l and the possible interfering buffer systems of carbonate, phosphate and ammonium similar to those in real municipal wastewater. In addition, the further evaluation was conducted through the assay of real wastewater using chromatography as reference. The results showed that the recovery of VFA in the synthetic wastewater was 92%-102 and the coefficient of variance (CV) of reduplicate measurements 1.68%-4.72%. The changing content of the buffering substances had little effect on the accuracy of the method. Moreover, the titration method was agreed with chromatography in the determination of VFA in real municipal wastewater with R(2)= 0.9987 and CV =1.3-1.7. The nine-point pH titration method is capable of satisfied determination of low-concentration VFA in municipal wastewater.

  12. Efficiency of electrical coagulation process using aluminum electrodes for municipal wastewater treatment: a case study at Karaj wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Gholami Yengejeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reuse of treated municipal wastewater is an important source of water for different purposes. This study evaluated the efficiency of the electrocoagulation process in removing turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS, chemical oxygen demand (COD, nitrate, and phosphate from wastewater at the treatment facility in Karaj, Iran. Methods: This experimental study was performed at a pilot scale and in a batch system. A 4-liter tank made from safety glass with 4 plate electrodes made from aluminum was unipolarly connected to a direct current power supply with a parallel arrangement. Wastewater samples were taken from the influent at the Karaj wastewater treatment facility. Rates of turbidity, TSS, COD, nitrate, and phosphate removal under different conditions were determined. Results: The highest efficiency of COD, TSS, nitrate, turbidity, and phosphate elimination was achieved at a voltage of 30 volts and a reaction time of 30 minutes. The rates were 88.43%, 87.39%, 100%, 80.52%, and 82.69%, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, electrocoagulation is an appropriate method for use in removing nitrate, phosphate, COD, turbidity, and TSS from wastewater.

  13. Research and development on municipal Wastewater treatment processes using electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwaya, Mamoru

    1994-01-01

    This paper was described concerning the experimental results and their engineering evaluations on electron beam irradiation treatment to effluent and sludge produced in existing municipal wastewater treatment plants implemented by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the study committee for past five years. Laboratory tests using an electron accelerator were carried out for the purposes of disinfection both to effluent and to dewatered sludge. And composting tests by a pilot-plant were also carried out to find the optimal conditions on design and operation, and initial and operational cost estimations for pelletized sludge with/without the irradiation. It was found that these applications to effluent, sludge and supernatant were quite effective. However, several problems awaiting solution were found from the tests and evaluating works on the matters of marketed electron accelerators. As the results of tests and evaluating works, electron beam irradiation treatment process applied to effluent should be carried out at the municipal wastewater treatment plants. Regenerated granular activated carbon treated by electron beam irradiation may also be applicable to remove hazardous organic substances in effluent. However, long-term tests by pilotplants will be necessary to determine the design criteria, operation and maintenance conditions, and so on. For composting of dewatered sludge produced at municipal wastewater treatment plants, several sizes of smaller electron accelerator are required to be on the market. Especially, medium and small sizes municipalities expect to install composting facilities in the plant. (J.P.N.)

  14. Stabilisation of Biological Phosphorus Removal from Municipal Wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krühne, Ulrich

    variations of the influent wastewater concentrations and are not yet always guaranteed. Even though the scientific knowledge and practical experience has reached a high level of understanding of the involved key-processes it is still necessary to apply chemical precipitation of phosphorus during the time...... periods, where the complete BPR can not be achieved. The understanding of the main phenomena involved into such failure of BPR and the development of operational or control strategies to overcome these deficiencies are the main areas of investigation of this thesis. Investigations of the failure of BPR...... and increased hydraulic load, with subsequent re-establishment of normal conditions. A process disturbance of this type results in an increase in the phosphate concentration level in the effluent, shortly after the wastewater returns to normal strength. During the first part of the thesis it was examined...

  15. Inactivation of microorganisms in treated municipal wastewater and biosolids by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Increasing growth of the world's population, waste minimization policies and agricultural needs make the recycling of domestic wastewater quite a desirable practice. Factors like environmental and public health risks must be taken into account when considering treated wastewater for field irrigation and biosolids for land application. Pathogens present in wastewater and biosolids may remain active after treatment and there is always a great risk of transmission of infections via consuming crop and vegetables. Therefore it is very important to treat domestic wastewater properly before using it as an irrigation water and as a fertilizer. The work reported herein represents an evaluation of the variations in the population densities of below indicated pathogens monitored during a one year study in Ankara Central Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant, and the efficiency of gamma irradiation for the inactivation of these important waterborne pathogens. Parasitological investigation Treated wastewater and biosolids - Cryptosporidium sp. - Giardia lamblia - Entamoeba histolytica - Cyclospora cayetanensis - Helminth ova Bacteriological investigation Treated wastewater - Total coliforms - Salmonella sp. - Fecal streptococci - Enterococcus sp. Biosolids - Fecal coliforms - Salmonella sp. (Includes 12 tables, 16 figures)

  16. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria And Their Associated Resistance Genes in a Conventional Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.

    2013-12-01

    With water scarcity as a pressing issue in Saudi Arabia and other Middle Eastern countries, the treatment and reuse of municipal wastewater is increasingly being used as an alternative water source to supplement country water needs. Standards are in place to ensure a safe treated wastewater quality, however they do not regulate pathogenic bacteria and emerging contaminants. Information is lacking on the levels of risk to public health associated with these factors, the efficiency of conventional treatment strategies in removing them, and on wastewater treatment in Saudi Arabia in general. In this study, a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Saudi Arabia is investigated to assess the efficiency of conventional treatment in meeting regulations and removing pathogens and emerging contaminants. The study found pathogenic bacterial genera, antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic resistant bacteria, many of which were multi-resistant in plant discharges. It was found that although the treatments are able to meet traditional quality guidelines, there remains a risk from the discussed contaminants with wastewater reuse. A deeper understanding of this risk, and suggestions for more thorough guidelines and monitoring are needed.

  17. Electron beam technology for purification of municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.; Podzorova, E.A.; Bakhtin, O.M.; Lysenko, S.L.; Belyshev, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results from the study on EB and ozone treatment of wastewater in the aerosol flow. It includes the description of the respective pilot plant with output 500 m 3 /day (it is equipped with electron accelerator with electron energy 0.3 MeV and beam power 15 kW), the results of the study on the effects of electron irradiation on various group parameters (colour, COD, BOD 5 , total number of microbes, odour and so on) and content of inorganic and organic pollutants of municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow and the preliminary data on economic feasibility of the purification method. (author)

  18. Balancing the organic load and light supply in symbiotic microalgal–bacterial biofilm reactors treating synthetic municipal wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.; Temmink, B.G.; Janssen, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic microalgal–bacterial biofilms can be very attractive for municipal wastewater treatment. Microalgae remove nitrogen and phosphorus and simultaneously produce the oxygen that is required for the aerobic, heterotrophic degradation of organic pollutants. For the application of these biofilms

  19. Sekhukhune District Municipality workshop proceedings: Wastewater treatment: Towards improved water quality to promote social and economic development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntombela, C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the workshop was to reinforce, at the strategic decision-making level within the municipality, the significance of properly managed wastewater treatment facilities towards improved water quality....

  20. Removal of micropollutants from municipal wastewater by graphene adsorption and simultaneous electrocoagulation/electrofiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Tang, Pei-Ling; Yen, Chia-Heng

    2017-04-01

    In this work the optimal operating conditions for removing selected micropollutants (also known as emerging contaminants, ECs) from actual municipal wastewater by graphene adsorption (GA) and simultaneous electrocoagulation/electrofiltration (EC/EF) process, respectively, were first determined and evaluated. Then, performance and mechanisms for the removal of selected phthalates and pharmaceuticals from municipal wastewater simultaneously by the GA and EC/EF process were further assessed. ECs of concern included di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), acetaminophen (ACE), caffeine (CAF), cefalexin (CLX) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX). It was found that GA plus EC/EF process yielded the following removal efficiencies: DnBP, 89 ± 2%; DEHP, 85 ± 3%; ACE, 99 ± 2%; CAF, 94 ± 3%; CLX, 100 ± 0%; and SMX, 98 ± 2%. Carbon adsorption, size exclusion, electrostatic repulsion, electrocoagulation, and electrofiltration were considered as the main mechanisms for the removal of target ECs by the integrated process indicated above.

  1. Methane production as from the mixture of the urban solid waste lixiviate and municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroy-Hermosillo, Oscar; Ramírez-Vives, Florina; Rodríguez-Pimentel, Reyna I.; Rodríguez-Pérez, Suyén

    2015-01-01

    The generation of solid wastes and wastewater in Mexico , as other countries, has increased considerably of late years, so its treatment is very important to reduce the pollution. In this work are presented the results on the anaerobic digestion of lixiviate generated with the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste recollected in the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Unidad Iztapalapa coffee shop. Theses lixiviated were diluted with municipal wastewater to different organic loads (2,3-20 gCOD/L.d) and after treated anaerobically in UASB reactor. Biogas's average production in the last load of the UASB reactor was up to 12 L/L.d with an efficiency to remove COD on top of 90 % and a production of methane of 0,38 LCH4. gSSV-1. (author)

  2. Multi-year prediction of estrogenicity in municipal wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlos, Maricor J; Parker, Wayne J; Bicudo, José R; Law, Pam; Marjan, Patricija; Andrews, Susan A; Servos, Mark R

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the estrogenicity of two major wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents located in the central reaches of the Grand River watershed in southern Ontario was estimated using population demographics, excretion rates, and treatment plant-specific removals. Due to the lack of data on estrogen concentrations from direct measurements at WWTPs, the treatment efficiencies through the plants were estimated using the information obtained from an effects-directed analysis. The results show that this approach could effectively estimate the estrogenicity of WWTP effluents, both before and after major infrastructure upgrades were made at the Kitchener WWTP. The model was then applied to several possible future scenarios including population growth and river low flow conditions. The scenario analyses showed that post-upgrade operation of the Kitchener WWTP will not release highly estrogenic effluent under the 2041 projected population increase (36%) or summer low flows. Similarly, the Waterloo WWTP treatment operation is also expected to improve once the upgrades have been fully implemented and is expected to effectively treat estrogens even under extreme scenarios of population growth and river flows. The developed model may be employed to support decision making on wastewater management strategies designed for environmental protection, especially on reducing the endocrine effects in fish exposed to WWTP effluents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. UASB/flash aeration enable complete treatment of municipal wastewater for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abid Ali; Gaur, Rubia Zahid; Lew, Beni; Diamantis, Vasileios; Mehrotra, Indu; Kazmi, A A

    2012-08-01

    A simple, efficient and cost-effective method for municipal wastewater treatment is examined in this paper. The municipal wastewater is treated using an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor followed by flash aeration (FA) as the post-treatment, without implementing aerobic biological processes. The UASB reactor was operated without recycle, at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h and achieved consistent removal of BOD, COD and TSS of 60-70% for more than 12 months. The effect of FA on UASB effluent post-treatment was studied at different HRT (15, 30 and 60 min) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (low DO = 1-2 mg/L and high DO = 5-6 mg/L). The optimum conditions for BOD, COD and sulfide removal were 30-60 min HRT and high DO concentration inside the FA tank. The final effluent after clarification was characterized by BOD and COD values of 28-35 and 50-58 mg/L, respectively. Sulfides were removed by more than 80%, but the fecal coliform only by ~2 log. The UASB followed by FA is a simple and efficient process for municipal wastewater treatment, except for fecal coliform, enabling water and nutrients recycling to agriculture.

  4. Corrosion control when using secondary treated municipal wastewater as alternative makeup water for cooling tower systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Chowdhury, Indranil; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2010-12-01

    Secondary treated municipal wastewater is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water, especially in arid regions. Laboratory and field testing was conducted in this study to evaluate the corrosiveness of secondary treated municipal wastewater for various metals and metal alloys in cooling systems. Different corrosion control strategies were evaluated based on varied chemical treatment. Orthophosphate, which is abundant in secondary treated municipal wastewater, contributed to more than 80% precipitative removal of phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors. Tolyltriazole worked effectively to reduce corrosion of copper (greater than 95% inhibition effectiveness). The corrosion rate of mild steel in the presence of free chlorine 1 mg/L (as Cl2) was approximately 50% higher than in the presence of monochloramine 1 mg/L (as Cl2), indicating that monochloramine is a less corrosive biocide than free chlorine. The scaling layers observed on the metal alloys contributed to corrosion inhibition, which could be seen by comparing the mild steel 21-day average corrosion rate with the last 5-day average corrosion rate, the latter being approximately 50% lower than the former.

  5. Microalgal biomass and lipid production in mixed municipal, dairy, pulp and paper wastewater together with added flue gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Francesco G

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to grow microalgae on mixed municipal and industrial wastewater to simultaneously treat the wastewater and produce biomass and lipids. All algal strains grew in all wastewater mixtures; however, Selenastrum minutum had the highest biomass and lipids yields, up to 37% of the dry matter. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal were high and followed a similar trend in all three strains. Ammonium was reduced from 96% to 99%; this reduction was due to algal growth and not to stripping to the atmosphere, as confirmed by the amount of nitrogen in the dry algal biomass. Phosphate was reduced from 91% to 99%. In all strains used the lipid content was negatively correlated to the nitrogen concentration in the algal biomass. Mixtures of pulp and paper wastewater with municipal and dairy wastewater have great potential to grow algae for biomass and lipid production together with effective wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelic, Aleksandra [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134, Verona (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium ' Chemistry for the Environment' (INCA), Via delle Industrie, I-30135, Marghera-Venice (Italy); Petrovic, Mira, E-mail: mpetrovic@icra.cat [Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Passeig Lluis Companys 23, 80010 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain); Cecchi, Franco [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134, Verona (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium ' Chemistry for the Environment' (INCA), Via delle Industrie, I-30135, Marghera-Venice (Italy); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ss-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification-denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 {mu}g/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. < 20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (< 500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain

  7. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelic, Aleksandra; Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia; Petrovic, Mira; Cecchi, Franco; Barcelo, Damia

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ß-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification–denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 μg/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. < 20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (< 500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain

  8. Energy optimization of water and wastewater management for municipal and industrial applications conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Energy Optimization of Water and Wastewater Management for Municipal and Industrial Applications Conference, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The conference was organized and coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory. The conference focused on energy use and conservation in water and wastewater. The General Session also reflects DOE's commitment to the support and development of waste and wastewater systems that are environmentally acceptable. The conference proceedings are divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the General Session and Sessions 1 to 5. Volume 2 covers Sessions 6 to 12. Separate abstracts are prepared for each item within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

  9. Energy optimization of water and wastewater management for municipal and industrial applications conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Energy Optimization of Water and Wastewater Management for Municipal and Industrial Applications, Conference, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The conference was organized and coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory. The conference focused on energy use on conservation in water and wastewater. The General Session also reflects DOE's commitment to the support and development of waste and wastewater systems that are environmentally acceptable. The conference proceedings are divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the General Session and Sessions 1 to 5. Volume 2 covers Sessions 6 to 12. Separate abstracts are prepared for each item within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

  10. Optimization of aeration for biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song-Fang; Jin, Wenbiao; Tu, Renjie; Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah; Wang, Zhi-Han

    2016-07-01

    Despite the significant breakthroughs in research on microalgae as a feedstock for biodiesel, its production cost is still much higher than that of fossil diesel. One possible solution to overcome this problem is to optimize algal growth and lipid production in wastewater. The present study examines the optimization of pretreatment of municipal wastewater and aeration conditions in order to enhance the lipid productivity of Scenedesmus obliquus. Results showed that no significant differences were recorded in lipid productivity of S. obliquus grown in primary settled or sterilized municipal wastewater; however, ultrasound pretreatment of wastewater significantly decreased the lipid production. Whereas, aeration rates of 0.2 vvm significantly increased lipid content by 51 %, with respect to the non-aerated culture, which resulted in maximum lipid productivity (32.5 mg L(-1) day(-1)). Furthermore, aeration enrichment by 2 % CO2 resulted in increase of lipid productivity by 46 % over the CO2 non-enriched aerated culture. Fatty acid profile showed that optimized aeration significantly enhanced monounsaturated fatty acid production, composed mainly of C18:1, by 1.8 times over the non-aerated S. obliquus culture with insignificant changes in polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion; suggesting better biodiesel characteristics for the optimized culture.

  11. Autonomous mobile platform for monitoring air emissions from industrial and municipal wastewater ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Long; Huda, Quamrul; Yang, Zheng; Zhang, Lucas; Hashisho, Zaher

    2017-11-01

    Significant amounts of volatile organic compounds and greenhouse gases are generated from wastewater lagoons and tailings ponds in Alberta, Canada. Accurate measurements of these air pollutants and greenhouse gases are needed to support management and regulatory decisions. A mobile platform was developed to measure air emissions from tailings pond in the oil sands region of Alberta. The mobile platform was tested in 2015 in a municipal wastewater treatment lagoon. With a flux chamber and a CO 2 /CH 4 sensor on board, the mobile platform was able to measure CO 2 and CH 4 emissions over two days at two different locations in the pond. Flux emission rates of CO 2 and CH 4 that were measured over the study period suggest the presence of aerobic and anaerobic zones in the wastewater treatment lagoon. The study demonstrated the capabilities of the mobile platform in measuring fugitive air emissions and identified the potential for the applications in air and water quality monitoring programs. The Mobile Platform demonstrated in this study has the ability to measure greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fugitive sources such as municipal wastewater lagoons. This technology can be used to measure emission fluxes from tailings ponds with better detection of spatial and temporal variations of fugitive emissions. Additional air and water sampling equipment could be added to the mobile platform for a broad range of air and water quality studies in the oil sands region of Alberta.

  12. Environmental monitoring near the Macaulay Point and Clover Point marine sewage outfalls at Victoria, British Columbia in 1989 and 1990. Regional data report No. DR 92-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colodey, A G; Salmon, R A; Lim, P G

    1992-01-01

    The marine environment surrounding the Capital Region district (CRD) of British Columbia that includes the City of Victoria has been monitored by municipal, provincial, and federal authorities over the past 20 years to determine the impact of wastewater discharges. This report presents data from limited sampling conducted near the main CRD deep-water outfalls at Clover and Macaulay Points, the Canadian Department of National Defence septic tank outfall off Belmont and Esquimault Lagoon, and reference locations on Constance Bank and Discovery Island. Samples for this study were collected in April and October 1989, and April 1990. Parameters investigated were sediment and biota trace metals, sediment particle size, sediment volatile residues, visual descriptions of sediment, bacterial counts, water conductivity, temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen.

  13. Ultraviolet and solar photocatalytic ozonation of municipal wastewater: Catalyst reuse, energy requirements and toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecha, Achisa C; Onyango, Maurice S; Ochieng, Aoyi; Momba, Maggy N B

    2017-11-01

    The present study evaluated the treatment of municipal wastewater containing phenol using solar and ultraviolet (UV) light photocatalytic ozonation processes to explore comparative performance. Important aspects such as catalyst reuse, mineralization of pollutants, energy requirements, and toxicity of treated wastewater which are crucial for practical implementation of the processes were explored. The activity of the photocatalysts did not change significantly even after three consecutive uses despite approximately 2% of the initial quantity of catalyst being lost in each run. Analysis of the change in average oxidation state (AOS) demonstrated the formation of more oxidized degradation products (ΔAOS values of 1.0-1.7) due to mineralization. The energy requirements were determined in terms of electrical energy per order (E EO ) and the collector area per order (A CO ). The E EO (kWh m -3  Order -1 ) values were 26.2 for ozonation, 38-47 for UV photocatalysis and 7-22 for UV photocatalytic ozonation processes. On the other hand, A CO (m 2  m -3  order -1 ) values were 31-69 for solar photocatalysis and 8-13 for solar photocatalytic ozonation. Thus photocatalytic ozonation processes required less energy input compared to the individual processes. The cytotoxicity of the wastewater was analysed using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay with Vero cells. The cell viability increased from 28.7% in untreated wastewater to 80% in treated wastewater; thus showing that the treated wastewater was less toxic. The effectiveness of photocatalytic ozonation, recovery and reusability of the photocatalysts, as well as detoxification of the wastewater make this low energy consumption process attractive for wastewater remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Deactivation of Legionella Pneumophila in municipal wastewater by ozone generated in arrays of microchannel plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shengkun; Li, Jun; Kim, Min-Hwan; Cho, Jinhoon; Park, Sung-Jin; Nguyen, Thanh H.; Eden, J. Gary

    2018-06-01

    A greater than four log10 reduction in the concentration of Legionella pneumophila in municipal wastewater has been achieved in 1 min with ozone produced by a microchannel plasma reactor. Requiring less than 22 W of electrical power, and ambient air as the feedstock gas, the microplasma ozone generator is robust and a promising alternative to conventional corona and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technologies. Contrary to previous studies, the Ct model for pathogen deactivation (i.e. rate proportional to the product of the available disinfectant concentration and the exposure duration) is found to be valid for L. pneumophila. Accordingly, wastewater-specific Ct equations have been developed to predict the deactivation of L. pneumophila in the secondary wastewater environment. Inactivation of this pathogen was found to be dependent on temperature only in the absence of wastewater organic matter (WOM). In the presence of WOM, pathogen deactivation is controlled by the disinfection contact time, initial ozone concentration (varied between 15 and 281 µg l‑1), and initial WOM loading. The data reported here will assist in the implementation of plasma ozone generators for L. pneumophila deactivation in cooling towers, point-of-use systems, and wastewater reclamation facilities.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, Vanessa; Svardal, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Operating wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) represent a source of greenhouse gases (GHG). Direct GHG emissions include emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) that can be biologically produced during wastewater and sewage sludge treatment. This is also highlighted in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2006) guidelines used for national GHG inventories. Indirect GHG emissions occur at WWTPs mainly by the consumption of electricity, fossil fuel for transportation and by the use of chemicals (e.g. coagulants). In this study, the impact of direct and indirect GHG emissions was quantified for two model WWTPs of 50.000 person equivalents (p.e.) using carbon footprint analyses. It was assumed that at one WWTP sewage sludge is digested anaerobically, at the other one it is aerobically stabilised in the activated sludge tank. The carbon footprint analyses were performed using literature emission factors. A new estimation model based on measurements at eight Austrian WWTPs was used for the assessment of N2O direct emissions (Parravicini et al., 2015). The results of the calculations show that, under the selected assumptions, the direct N2O emission from the activated sludge tank can dominate the carbon footprint of WWTP with a poor nitrogen removal efficiency. Through an improved operation of nitrogen removal several advantages can be gained: direct N2O emissions can be reduced, the energy demand for aeration can be decreased and a higher effluent quality can be achieved. Anaerobic digesters and anaerobic sludge storage tanks can become a relevant source of direct CH4 emissions. Minimising of CH4 losses from these sources improves the carbon footprint of the WWTP also increasing the energy yield achievable by combusting this renewable energy carrier in a combined heat and power unit. The estimated carbon footprint of the model WWTPs lies between 20 and 40 kg CO2e/p.e./a. This corresponds to 0.2 to 0.4% of the CO2e average emission caused yearly

  16. Evaluation of the performances of wastewater treatment services provided by the metropolitan municipalities in Turkey using Entropy integrated SAW, MOORA and TOPSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyıldız, Ertuğrul; Özçelik, Gökhan

    2018-01-01

    Reusingof the wastewater has a vital importance because of limited natural waterresources all around the world. Recycled wastewater can be used in many areassuch as agriculture, industry, cleaning etc. Treatment of wastewater is one ofthe important tasks of metropolitan municipalities. The aim of this study is toevaluate the performances of wastewater treatment services provided by themetropolitan municipalities in Turkey using Entropy integrated SAW, MOORA andTOPSIS methods. In the scope of ...

  17. Potential investigation of Reusing Ardabil Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge Based on AHP and TOPSIS Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhan Maghsoudlou Kamali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction :By ever-increasing of population, shortage of water resources and the necessity of wastewater treatment, huge volumes of sludge that is a byproduct of wastewater treatment, requires to be disposed in environmentally secure ways. The target of specifying strategic preferences of reuse of sludge has been to find the correct way of disposal or beneficial use of sludge. Material and methods: In this study, to select the best alternative for reuse of wastewater sludge two systematic methods are introduced, which four alternatives for reuse of sludge (use in agriculture, use in green space, biogas, desert combat are introduced and they are compared by four main parameters including: 1- physicochemical 2-biological 3 - economic, social and cultural, and 4 - environmental pollution situation, that each contains some criteria. In this study, first each of the related parameters and criteria are compared by the expert groups of and through questionnaire. Then these weights are entered into Expert Choice software for the analyze of AHP model and paired comparisons and weightings have been done on the related parameters and criteria. Ultimately, the output of the software is entered into TOPSIS software for the analyze of TOPSIS model until the best alternative is selected. Results: sludge of Ardabil municipal wastewater treatment plant, according to standards and EPA regulations is eligible to class B, and due to the chemical in terms of heavy metals have special (excellent quality and contains considerable quantities of organic substance, nutrients and micronutrients which indicates the fertilizer value of the sludge. Conclusion: The result of this comparison has shown that the application of sludge in green spaces is the most appropriate alternative and then use in agriculture, biogas alternative, and desert combat alternative are, respectively, placed in the second to fourth preference for the reuse of sludge derived from municipal

  18. Coagulation and electrocoagulation for co-treatment of stabilized landfill leachate and municipal wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohini Verma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate and municipal wastewater at various ratios (1:20, 1:10, 1:7 and 1:5 were subjected to coagulation and electrocoagulation (EC. Alum was used in conventional coagulation at pH 6 and aluminum plate as electrode was used in EC at a current density of 386 A/m2 with 5 cm inter electrode spacing. Treatment efficiency was assessed from removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS, turbidity, ammonia, nitrate and phosphate. At 1:5 ratio of landfill leachate to municipal wastewater, highest COD removal was with 3.8 g/L alum whereas highest turbidity removal was with 3.3 g/L alum during coagulation. EC exhibited almost similar removal efficiency for all the parameters at different ratios tested except for COD which was considerably higher at 1:20 ratio. Aluminum consumption from electrode was 0.7 g/L following EC as compared to 3.8 g/L alum used in coagulation. The amount of sludge produced was found to be higher with EC as compared to coagulation which could be due to the fact that the electrochemical method was performed for a longer duration than conventional coagulation. For minimal sludge generation, EC reaction time should be ∼30 min. Further studies with EC process on costing and sludge generation will help to advance the technology for wastewater treatment.

  19. Mixotrophic cultivation of a microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in municipal wastewater supplemented with food wastewater and flue gas CO2 for biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Park, Young-Tae; Kabra, Akhil N; Oh, In-Hwan; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2015-08-15

    The biomass and lipid/carbohydrate production by a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus under mixotrophic condition using food wastewater and flue gas CO2 with municipal wastewater was investigated. Different dilution ratios (0.5-2%) of municipal wastewater with food wastewater were evaluated in the presence of 5, 10 and 14.1% CO2. The food wastewater (0.5-1%) with 10-14.1% CO2 supported the highest growth (0.42-0.44 g L(-1)), nutrient removal (21-22 mg TN L(-1)), lipid productivity (10-11 mg L(-1)day(-1)) and carbohydrate productivity (13-16 mg L(-1)day(-1)) by S. obliquus after 6 days of cultivation. Food wastewater increased the palmitic and oleic acid contents up to 8 and 6%, respectively. Thus, application of food wastewater and flue gas CO2 can be employed for enhancement of growth, lipid/carbohydrate productivity and wastewater treatment efficiency of S. obliquus under mixotrophic condition, which can lead to development of a cost effective strategy for microalgal biomass production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in a municipal wastewater treatment plant: mass balance and removal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pin; Ding, Yunjie; Li, Hui; Xagoraraki, Irene

    2012-06-01

    Occurrence and removal efficiencies of fifteen pharmaceuticals were investigated in a conventional municipal wastewater treatment plant in Michigan. Concentrations of these pharmaceuticals were determined in both wastewater and sludge phases by a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer. Detailed mass balance analysis was conducted during the whole treatment process to evaluate the contributing processes for pharmaceutical removal. Among the pharmaceuticals studied, demeclocycline, sulfamerazine, erythromycin and tylosin were not detected in the wastewater treatment plant influent. Other target pharmaceuticals detected in wastewater were also found in the corresponding sludge phase. The removal efficiencies of chlortetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamerazine, acetaminophen and caffeine were >99%, while doxycycline, oxytetracycline, sulfadiazine and lincomycin exhibited relatively lower removal efficiencies (e.g., <50%). For sulfamethoxazole, the removal efficiency was approximately 90%. Carbamazepine manifested a net increase of mass, i.e. 41% more than the input from the influent. Based on the mass balance analysis, biotransformation is believed to be the predominant process responsible for the removal of pharmaceuticals (22% to 99%), whereas contribution of sorption to sludge was relatively insignificant (7%) for the investigated pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. THE USE OF HALLOYSITE TO REDUCE POLLUTIONS CONCENTRATION IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Machnicka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods of municipal wastewater treatment allows the use of biofilters. The study used a bed filled halloysite. In operation of the bed, depending on the hydraulic load, the concentration of phosphate, ammonium and organic matter was reduced. Highest reduction of the concentration PO43- (89% and N – NH4+ (81% in the waste water of the hydraulic load – 0,04 m3/m2h was obtained. The concentration of the organic substrate was reduced by approximately 86%.

  2. Study of efficiency of particles removal by different filtration systems in a municipal wastewater tertiary treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreu, P. S.; Lardin Mifsut, C.; Farinas Iglesias, M.; Sanchez-Arevalo Serrano, J.; Perez Sanchez, P.; Rancano Perez, A.

    2009-01-01

    The disinfection of municipal wastewater using ultraviolet radiation depends greatly on the presence within the water of particles in suspension. This work determines how the level of elimination of particles varies depending on the technique of filtration used (open, closed sand filters, with continuous washing of the sand, cloth, disk and ring filters). all systems are very effective in the removal of particles more than 25 microns and for removing helminth eggs. The membrane bio-reactors with ultrafiltration membranes were superior in terms of particle removal when compared to conventional filters. (Author) 11 refs.

  3. Performance of the Subsurface Flow Wetland in Batch Flow for Municipal Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazle Rahmani sani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface flow wetlands are one of the natural treatment methods used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment that are economical in terms of energy consumption and cost-effectiveness. Much research has been conducted on wetland operation with continuous flow but not enough information is available on batch flow. This study investigates wetland efficiency in batch flow. For the purposes of this research, two pretreatment units of the anaerobic pond type with digestion pits and two subsurface flow wetlands with a 2-day detention time were built on the pilot scale. The cells were charged with sand of 5 mm effective size, uniformity coefficient of 1.5, and a porosity of 35%. One wetland cell and one pretreatment unit were used as control. The municipal wastewater selected to be monitored for the one-year study period had a flow rate of 26 m3/day and average BOD5 of 250mg/l, TSS of 320mg/l, TKN of 35mg/l, TP of 12mg/l and TC of 2×108 MPN/100ml from Sabzevar Wastewater Treatment Plant. The average removal efficiencies of BOD5,TSS,TKN,TP, and TC in the continuous flow for the combined control pretreatment and wetland cell were 77.2%, 92%, 91%, 89%, 96.5% while the same values for the batch flow for the combined experimental pretreatment and wetland cell were 92%, 97%, 97.5%, 97%, and 99.75%, respectively. The removal efficiency in the subsurface flow wetlands in the batch flow was higher than that of the continuous flow. Thus, for wastewaters with a high pollution level, the batch flow can be used in cell operation in cases where there is not enough land for spreading the wetland cell.

  4. Peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection of primary, secondary and tertiary treated municipal wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunen, J; Heinonen-Tanski, H

    2005-11-01

    The efficiency of peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection against enteric bacteria and viruses in municipal wastewaters was studied in pilot-scale. Disinfection pilot-plant was fed with the primary or secondary effluent of Kuopio municipal wastewater treatment plant or tertiary effluent from the pilot-scale dissolved air flotation (DAF) unit. Disinfectant doses ranged from 2 to 7 mg/l PAA in the secondary and tertiary effluents, and from 5 to 15 mg/l PAA in the primary effluents. Disinfection contact times were 4-27 min. Disinfection of secondary and tertiary effluents with 2-7 mg/l PAA and 27 min contact time achieved around 3 log reductions of total coliforms (TC) and enterococci (EC). PAA disinfection also significantly improved the hygienic quality of the primary effluents: 10-15 mg/l PAA achieved 3-4 log reductions of TC and EC, 5 mg/l PAA resulting in below 2 log reductions. F-RNA coliphages were more resistant against the PAA disinfection and around 1 log reductions of these enteric viruses were typically achieved in the disinfection treatments of the primary, secondary and tertiary effluents. Most of the microbial reductions occurred during the first 4-18 min of contact time, depending on the PAA dose and microorganism. The PAA disinfection efficiency remained relatively constant in the secondary and tertiary effluents, despite of small changes of wastewater quality (COD, SS, turbidity, 253.7 nm transmittance) or temperature. The disinfection efficiency clearly decreased in the primary effluents with substantially higher microbial, organic matter and suspended solids concentrations. The results demonstrated that PAA could be a good alternative disinfection method for elimination of enteric microbes from different wastewaters.

  5. Seasonal variation of diclofenac concentration and its relation with wastewater characteristics at two municipal wastewater treatment plants in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Sevgi; Ozdemir, Gamze; Yangin-Gomec, Cigdem; Zengin, Gulsum Emel; Topuz, Emel; Aydin, Egemen; Pehlivanoglu-Mantas, Elif; Okutman Tas, Didem

    2014-05-15

    The pharmaceutically active compound diclofenac has been monitored during one year at separate treatment units of two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to evaluate its seasonal variation and the removal efficiency. Conventional wastewater characterization was also performed to assess the possible relationship between conventional parameters and diclofenac. Diclofenac concentrations in the influent and effluent of both WWTPs were detected in the range of 295-1376 and 119-1012ng/L, respectively. Results indicated that the higher diclofenac removal efficiency was observed in summer season in both WWTPs. Although a consistency in diclofenac removal was observed in WWTP_1, significant fluctuation was observed at WWTP_2 based on seasonal evaluation. The main removal mechanism of diclofenac in the WWTPs was most often biological (55%), followed by UV disinfection (27%). When diclofenac removal was evaluated in terms of the treatment units in WWTPs, a significant increase was achieved at the treatment plant including UV disinfection unit. Based on the statistical analysis, higher correlation was observed between diclofenac and suspended solids concentrations among conventional parameters in the influent whereas the removal of diclofenac was highly correlated with nitrogen removal efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Peracetic Acid (PAA Disinfection: Inactivation of Microbial Indicators and Pathogenic Bacteria in a Municipal Wastewater Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bonetta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have noted that treated and untreated wastewaters are primary contributors of a variety of pathogenic microorganisms to the aquatic ecosystem. Conventional wastewater treatment may not be sufficient to achieve microbiologically safe effluent to be discharged into natural waters or reused, thus requiring wastewater effluents to be disinfected. In recent years, peracetic acid (PAA has been adopted as a disinfectant for wastewater effluents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the disinfection efficiency of PAA at low doses (range 0.99–2.10 mg/L against microbial indicators and pathogenic bacteria in a municipal wastewater plant. Samples of untreated sewage and effluents before and after PAA treatment were collected seasonally for 1 year and were analysed for pathogenic Campylobacter, Salmonella spp., E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli virulence genes using molecular methods; moreover, the detection of specific microbial indicators (E. coli, faecal coliforms, enterococci, C. perfringens and Salmonella spp. were carried out using culturing methods. Salmonella spp. DNA was found in all untreated sewage and effluent before PAA treatment, whereas it was recovered in 50% of the samples collected after PAA treatment. Although E. coli O157:H7 was never identified, the occurrence of Shiga-like toxin I amplicons was identified in 75% of the untreated sewage samples, in 50% of the effluents assayed before PAA treatment, and in 25% of the effluents assayed after PAA treatment, whereas the stx2 gene was never found. Campylobacter coli was only detected in one effluent sample before PAA treatment. In the effluents after PAA treatment, a lower load of indicator bacteria was observed compared to the effluents before treatment. The results of this study highlight that the use of low doses of PAA seems to lead to an improvement of the microbiological quality of the effluent, although it is not sufficient to guarantee its suitability for irrigation

  7. Integrated nitrogen removal biofilter system with ceramic membrane for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dong-Jin; Yun, Chan-Young; Kim, Woo-Yeol; Zhang, Xing-Ya; Kim, Dae-Gun; Chang, Duk; Sunwoo, Young; Hong, Ki-Ho

    2016-12-01

    The pre-denitrification biofilm process for nitrogen removal was combined with ceramic membrane with pore sizes of 0.05-0.1 µm as a system for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater. The system was operated under an empty bed hydraulic retention time of 7.8 h, recirculation ratio of 3, and transmembrane pressure of 0.47 bar. The system showed average removals of organics, total nitrogen, and solids as high as 93%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. Rapid nitrification could be achieved and denitrification was performed in the anoxic filter without external carbon supplements. The residual particulate organics and nitrogen in effluent from biofilm process could be also removed successfully through membrane filtration and the removal of total coliform was noticeably improved after membrane filtration. Thus, a system composed of the pre-denitrification biofilm process with ceramic membrane would be a compact and flexible option for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater.

  8. Application of photo-fenton as a tertiary treatment of emerging contaminants in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamerth, N; Malato, S; Maldonado, M I; Agüera, A; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2010-03-01

    This work focuses on the treatment of real effluents from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (RE) with solar photo-Fenton (5 mg and 20 mg L(-1) Fe, pH approximately 3 and 50 mg L(-1) initial H(2)O(2) concentration) at pilot plant scale. In some experiments RE was spiked with 15 different (acetaminophen, antipyrine, atrazine, caffeine, carbamazepine, diclofenac, flumequine, hydroxybiphenyl, ibuprofen, isoproturon, ketorolac, ofloxacin, progesterone, sulfamethoxazole, and triclosan) emerging contaminants (ECs) at 100 and 5 microg L(-1) each which were added directly into RE prior to treatment. All experiments showed successful degradation of ECs in real effluents from different municipal wastewater treatment plants at low iron concentration (5 mg L(-1)). Although the most degradation took place during the Fenton process, photo-Fenton was necessary to degrade all ECs below their limit of detection (LOD). In the case of the RE containing 52 ECs (determined by HPLC-QTRAP-MS), four of them could not be degraded to their LOD and were still present, although at extremely low concentrations (nicotine 47 ng L(-1), cotinine 11 ng L(-1), chlorfenvinphos 99 ng L(-1), and caffeine 8 ng L(-1)). ECs were easily degraded by (*)OH without substantial competition with the organic content of the RE.

  9. Removal of phthalates and pharmaceuticals from municipal wastewater by graphene adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Tang, Pei-Ling

    2016-01-01

    In this work graphene was used for evaluation of its adsorption behavior and performance in removing phthalate esters and pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), acetaminophen (ACE), caffeine (CAF), cephalexin (CLX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were emerging contaminants (ECs) with detection frequencies over 92% in a one-year monitoring of the occurrence of ECs in influent samples of a sewage treatment plant in Taiwan. Thus, these ECs were selected as the target contaminants for removal by graphene adsorption process. Experimental results showed that the adsorption isotherm data were fitted well to Langmuir model equation. It was also found that the adsorption process obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. A graphene dosage of 0.1 g/L and adsorption time of 12 h were found to be the optimal operating conditions for the ECs of concern in model solutions in a preliminary study. By using the determined optimal operating conditions for removal of such ECs in actual municipal wastewater, removal efficiencies for various ECs were obtained and given as follows: (1) DnBP, 89%, (2) DEHP, 86%, (3) ACE, 43%, (4) CAF, 84%, (5) CLX, 81%, and (6) SMX, 34%.

  10. Study on Relationship between Seasonal Temperatures and Municipal Wastewater Pollutant Concentration and Removal Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the temperatures, pollutant concentrations and other indicators of municipal wastewater influent and effluent were tested for 7 months in 6 constructed wetland microcosms; the hydraulic retention time is 2 days. The results indicated that for both influent and effluent, there was a highly significant negative correlation (P<0.01 between the temperature and the pollutant concentrations, there was a significant difference (P<0.05 between seasonal temperatures, and the pollutant concentrations in summer and autumn were significantly different from those in winter (P<0.05. Furthermore, a regression analysis of pollutant concentration (y based on changes in water temperature (x in different seasons was performed. The analysis revealed that the relationship has the form ‘y = a -bx + cx2’, that under certain circumstances, pollutant concentrations can be calculated based on the temperature, and that the concentrations of NH4-N, Total Phosphorus (TP and Soluble Reactive Phosphorus (SRP had a significantly negative correlation with their removal rate (P < 0.01. However, seasonal temperature clearly did not have a direct impact on the pollutant concentration, and some studies have indicated that the different manners in which urban residents use water as the temperature changes may be the real reason that the pollutant concentrations of municipal wastewater vary with seasonal temperature. Furthermore, when designing and operating constructed wetlands, the impact of the changes in pollutant concentrations generated by seasonal temperature should be fully considered, dilution and other means should be taken to ensure purification.

  11. An Assessment of the Spatial and Temporal Variability of Biological Responses to Municipal Wastewater Effluent in Rainbow Darter (Etheostoma caeruleum) Collected along an Urban Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Leslie M.; Tetreault, Gerald R.; Bahamonde, Paulina A.; Tanna, Rajiv N.; Bennett, Charles J.; McMaster, Mark E.; Servos, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Municipal wastewater effluent (MWWE) and its constituents, such as chemicals of emerging concern, pose a potential threat to the sustainability of fish populations by disrupting key endocrine functions in aquatic organisms. While studies have demonstrated changes in biological markers of exposure of aquatic organisms to groups of chemicals of emerging concern, the variability of these markers over time has not been sufficiently described in wild fish species. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial and temporal variability of biological markers in response to MWWE exposure and to test the consistency of these responses between seasons and among years. Rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum) were collected in spring and fall seasons over a 5-year period in the Grand River, Ontario, Canada. In addition to surface water chemistry (nutrients and selected pharmaceuticals), measures were taken across levels of biological organization in rainbow darter. The measurements of hormone production, gonad development, and intersex severity were temporally consistent and suggested impaired reproduction in male fish collected downstream of MWWE outfalls. In contrast, ovarian development and hormone production in females appeared to be influenced more by urbanization than MWWE. Measures of gene expression and somatic indices were highly variable between sites and years, respectively, and were inconclusive in terms of the impacts of MWWE overall. Robust biomonitoring programs must consider these factors in both the design and interpretation of results, especially when spatial and temporal sampling of biological endpoints is limited. Assessing the effects of contaminants and other stressors on fish in watersheds would be greatly enhanced by an approach that considers natural variability in the endpoints being measured. PMID:27776151

  12. An Assessment of the Spatial and Temporal Variability of Biological Responses to Municipal Wastewater Effluent in Rainbow Darter (Etheostoma caeruleum Collected along an Urban Gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan L M Fuzzen

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater effluent (MWWE and its constituents, such as chemicals of emerging concern, pose a potential threat to the sustainability of fish populations by disrupting key endocrine functions in aquatic organisms. While studies have demonstrated changes in biological markers of exposure of aquatic organisms to groups of chemicals of emerging concern, the variability of these markers over time has not been sufficiently described in wild fish species. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial and temporal variability of biological markers in response to MWWE exposure and to test the consistency of these responses between seasons and among years. Rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum were collected in spring and fall seasons over a 5-year period in the Grand River, Ontario, Canada. In addition to surface water chemistry (nutrients and selected pharmaceuticals, measures were taken across levels of biological organization in rainbow darter. The measurements of hormone production, gonad development, and intersex severity were temporally consistent and suggested impaired reproduction in male fish collected downstream of MWWE outfalls. In contrast, ovarian development and hormone production in females appeared to be influenced more by urbanization than MWWE. Measures of gene expression and somatic indices were highly variable between sites and years, respectively, and were inconclusive in terms of the impacts of MWWE overall. Robust biomonitoring programs must consider these factors in both the design and interpretation of results, especially when spatial and temporal sampling of biological endpoints is limited. Assessing the effects of contaminants and other stressors on fish in watersheds would be greatly enhanced by an approach that considers natural variability in the endpoints being measured.

  13. Regulating specific organic substances and heavy metals in industrial wastewater discharged to municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Munk, L.; Pedersen, F.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the extension of wastewater treatment plants to nutrient removal and the development towards reuse of sludge m agriculture, new guidelines for regulating industrial discharges m Denmark were needed. The paper describes how a concept for regulating the discharge of specific organic substances...... substances, present knowledge of fate and effects in biological treatment plants is too scarce to underpin the setting of general standards. Therefore, it has been decided to base the developed priority system on the data used in the EEC-system for classification of hazardous chemicals. This includes ready...... degradability, defined by the OECD-test, bio-sorption and bio-accumulation, defined by the octanol/water distribution coefficient and toxic effects on water organisms. Several potential effects of seven heavy metals have been evaluated, and the most critical effects were found to be the quality criteria...

  14. Estimating the energy independence of a municipal wastewater treatment plant incorporating green energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kang, Jihoon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We estimated green energy production in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. • Engineered approaches in mining multiple green energy resources were presented. • The estimated green energy production accounted for 6.5% of energy independence in the plant. • We presented practical information regarding green energy projects in water infrastructures. - Abstract: Increasing energy prices and concerns about global climate change highlight the need to improve energy independence in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This paper presents methodologies for estimating the energy independence of a municipal WWTP with a design capacity of 30,000 m 3 /d incorporating various green energy resources into the existing facilities, including different types of 100 kW photovoltaics, 10 kW small hydropower, and an effluent heat recovery system with a 25 refrigeration ton heat pump. It also provides guidance for the selection of appropriate renewable technologies or their combinations for specific WWTP applications to reach energy self-sufficiency goals. The results showed that annual energy production equal to 107 tons of oil equivalent could be expected when the proposed green energy resources are implemented in the WWTP. The energy independence, which was defined as the percent ratio of green energy production to energy consumption, was estimated to be a maximum of 6.5% and to vary with on-site energy consumption in the WWTP. Implementing green energy resources tailored to specific site conditions is necessary to improve the energy independence in WWTPs. Most of the applied technologies were economically viable primarily because of the financial support under the mandatory renewable portfolio standard in Korea

  15. Evaluation of synergy and bacterial regrowth in photocatalytic ozonation disinfection of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecha, Achisa C; Onyango, Maurice S; Ochieng, Aoyi; Momba, Maggy N B

    2017-12-01

    The use of solar and ultraviolet titanium dioxide photocatalytic ozonation processes to inactivate waterborne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, Shigella species and Vibrio cholerae) in synthetic water and secondary municipal wastewater effluent is presented. The performance indicators were bacterial inactivation efficiency, post-disinfection regrowth and synergy effects (collaboration) between ozonation and photocatalysis (photocatalytic ozonation). Photocatalytic ozonation effectively inactivated the target bacteria and positive synergistic interactions were observed, leading to synergy indices (SI) of up to 1.86 indicating a performance much higher than that of ozonation and photocatalysis individually (SI≤1, no synergy; SI>1 shows synergy between the two processes). Furthermore, there was a substantial reduction in contact time required for complete bacterial inactivation by 50-75% compared to the individual unit processes of ozonation and photocatalysis. Moreover, no post-treatment bacterial regrowth after 24 and 48h in the dark was observed. Therefore, the combined processes overcame the limitations of the individual unit processes in terms of the suppression of bacterial reactivation and regrowth owing to the fact that bacterial cells were irreparably damaged. The treated wastewater satisfied the bacteriological requirements in treated wastewater for South Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and prospects of standardization in the German municipal wastewater sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimuth, Claudia; Oelmann, Mark; Amann, Erwin

    2018-04-17

    Given the significance of wastewater treatment and disposal for society and the economy together with the omnipresence of standards in the sector, we studied the development and prospects of the rules governing standardization in the German municipal wastewater sector. We thereby provide a detailed description of sector-specific committee-based standardization and significantly contribute to the understanding of this complex arena. We find that the German Association for Water Wastewater and Waste (DWA) has significantly improved its rules on standardization over time by aligning them closer to the generally accepted superordinate standardization principles. However, by focusing on theoretical findings of committee decision-making and committee composition, we argue that there is still scope for improvement with respect to rule reading and rule compliance. We show that the incentives at work in standardization committees are manifold, whereas the representation of the different stakeholder groups needs' remains unbalanced. Due to vested interests and potential strategic behavior of the various agents involved in standardization rule compliance does not necessarily happen naturally. To this end, we claim that the implementation of monitoring mechanisms can be a significant contribution to the institutional design of standardization and briefly discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different schemes. Finally, we show that there is ample need for future research on the optimal design of such a scheme. Even though the analysis relates specifically to the DWA our claims apply to a wide range of standards development organizations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rice production with minimal irrigation and no nitrogen fertilizer by intensive use of treated municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Ayumi; Watanabe, Toru; Sasaki, Atsushi; Ito, Hiroaki; Kajihara, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    We designed a new cultivation system of rice with circulated irrigation to remove nitrogen from treated municipal wastewater effectively and assessed the possibility of nitrogen removal in the new system without any adverse effects on rice production through bench-scale experiments through two seasons. Overgrowth of the rice plant, which can lead to lodging and tasteless rice, was found in the first season probably because nitrogen supply based on standard practice in normal paddy fields was too much in the closed irrigation system. In the second season, therefore, the amount of treated wastewater initially applied to the system was reduced but this resulted in a considerably decreased yield. On the other hand, the taste of the rice was significantly improved. The two-season experiments revealed that the new system enabled rice production with minimal irrigation (approximately 50% on the yield base compared to normal paddy fields) and no nitrogen fertilizer. The system also achieved >95% removal of nitrogen from the treated wastewater used for circulated irrigation. The accumulation of harmful metals in the rice was not observed after one season of cultivation in the new system. The accumulation after cultivation using the same soil repeatedly for a longer time should be examined by further studies.

  18. Evaluation of direct membrane filtration and direct forward osmosis as concepts for compact and energy-positive municipal wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Davidsson, Åsa

    2018-01-01

    electricity, energy and area demands. Both concepts would fulfil the Swedish discharge demands for small- and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants at full scale: (1) direct MF and (2) direct FO with seawater as the draw solution. The framework of this study is based on a combination of data obtained from...... positive with respect to electricity and energy, as more biogas can be produced compared to that using conventional wastewater treatment. Furthermore, the specific area demand is significantly reduced. This study demonstrates that municipal wastewater could be treated in a more energy- and area...

  19. Municipal wastewater characteristics in Thailand and effects of soft intervention measures in households on pollutant discharge reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Y; Koottatep, T; Jiawkok, S; Saengpeng, S

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries with large Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) sanitation indicator, pollutant discharge reduction function of wastewater treatment systems should be considered. In this paper, pollutant generations per capita (PGCs) and pollutant discharges per capita (PDCs) are estimated as a base dataset for wastewater management in Thailand. PDCs of black water, i.e. toilet wastewater, are found to be much smaller than PGCs of black water. However, PDCs of gray water, i.e. municipal wastewater other than toilet wastewater are large. Gray water is often discharged without treatment and contributes much to ambient water deterioration. Moreover, possible 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) discharge reductions with "soft interventions", i.e. measurements in households to reduce wastewater pollutant discharge such as using a paper filter or a plastic net in kitchen sinks and so on, are estimated as 39, 21 and 34% for BOD5, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and phosphate (PO4-P), respectively. For the estimation, environmental accounting housekeeping (EAH) books of domestic wastewater, spreadsheets with pollutant discharges by water usages and possible effects of "soft interventions" are applied. The framework of this study with "soft intervention" effects on pollutant discharge reductions should enhance wastewater management especially in the areas under development of wastewater treatment systems.

  20. Municipal wastewater treatment in Mexico: current status and opportunities for employing ecological treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Florentina; Roy, Eric D; White, John R

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current status of municipal wastewater (MWW) treatment in Mexico, as well as to assess opportunities for using ecological treatment systems, such as constructed wetlands. In 2008, Mexico had 2101 MWW treatment plants that treated only 84 m3/s of wastewater (208 m3/s ofMWW were collected in sewer systems). Unfortunately, most treatment plants operate below capacity owing to a lack of maintenance and paucity of properly trained personnel. The main types of treatment systems applied in Mexico are activated sludge and waste stabilization ponds, which treat 44.3% and 18% of the MWW collected, respectively. As in many other developing nations around the world, there is a great need in Mexico for low-cost, low-maintenance wastewater treatment systems that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. In 2005, 24.3 million Mexicans lived in villages of less than 2500 inhabitants and 14.1 million lived in towns with 2500-15,000 inhabitants. An opportunity exists to extend the use of ecological treatment systems to these low population density areas and considerably increase the percentage of MWW that is treated in Mexico. Small-scale and medium-size constructed wetlands have been built successfully in some states, primarily during the past five years. Several barriers need to be overcome to increase the adoption and utilization of ecological wastewater technology in Mexico, including: a lack of knowledge about this technology, scarce technical information in Spanish, and the government's concentration on constructing MWW treatment plants solely in urban areas.

  1. Treatment of micropollutants in municipal wastewater: Ozone or powdered activated carbon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margot, Jonas; Kienle, Cornelia; Magnet, Anoÿs; Weil, Mirco; Rossi, Luca; Alencastro, Luiz Felippe de; Abegglen, Christian; Thonney, Denis; Chèvre, Nathalie; Schärer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Many organic micropollutants present in wastewater, such as pharmaceuticals and pesticides, are poorly removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To reduce the release of these substances into the aquatic environment, advanced wastewater treatments are necessary. In this context, two large-scale pilot advanced treatments were tested in parallel over more than one year at the municipal WWTP of Lausanne, Switzerland. The treatments were: i) oxidation by ozone followed by sand filtration (SF) and ii) powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption followed by either ultrafiltration (UF) or sand filtration. More than 70 potentially problematic substances (pharmaceuticals, pesticides, endocrine disruptors, drug metabolites and other common chemicals) were regularly measured at different stages of treatment. Additionally, several ecotoxicological tests such as the Yeast Estrogen Screen, a combined algae bioassay and a fish early life stage test were performed to evaluate effluent toxicity. Both treatments significantly improved the effluent quality. Micropollutants were removed on average over 80% compared with raw wastewater, with an average ozone dose of 5.7 mg O 3 l −1 or a PAC dose between 10 and 20 mg l −1 . Depending on the chemical properties of the substances (presence of electron-rich moieties, charge and hydrophobicity), either ozone or PAC performed better. Both advanced treatments led to a clear reduction in toxicity of the effluents, with PAC-UF performing slightly better overall. As both treatments had, on average, relatively similar efficiency, further criteria relevant to their implementation were considered, including local constraints (e.g., safety, sludge disposal, disinfection), operational feasibility and cost. For sensitive receiving waters (drinking water resources or recreational waters), the PAC-UF treatment, despite its current higher cost, was considered to be the most suitable option, enabling good removal of most

  2. Characteristic numbers of granular activated carbon for the elimination of micropollutants from effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benstoem, F; Pinnekamp, J

    2017-07-01

    Adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC) is a promising step to extend existing treatment trains in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and, thus, to reduce the concentration of micropollutants (MPs) (e.g. pharmaceuticals) in wastewater. It is common practice to use characteristic numbers when choosing GAC for a specific application. In this study, characteristic numbers were correlated for five different GACs, with measured adsorption capacities of these carbons for three pharmaceutical MPs (carbamazepine, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole) and dissolved organic carbon of a WWTP effluent. The adsorption capacities were measured using rapid small scale column tests. Density of GAC showed the highest correlation to adsorption of MP. All other characteristic numbers (iodine number, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface and methylene blue titre) are not suitable markers for choosing an appropriate activated carbon product for the elimination of MPs from municipal wastewater.

  3. Evaluating the potential for dissimilatory nitrate reduction by anammox bacteria for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Barros, Celia M; Jia, Mingsheng; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Volcke, Eveline I P; Winkler, Mari K H

    2017-06-01

    Anammox bacteria can perform dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) with nitrite as intermediate coupled to the oxidation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). Batch tests with enriched anammox and a co-culture of anammox and heterotrophic bacteria showed the capacity of Candidatus 'Brocadia fulgida' to perform the DNRA coupled to the anammox reaction (DNRA-anammox) at a high rate although the culture was not previously adapted to VFA. From thermodynamic calculations it could be stated that low COD/N influent ratios favour the DNRA-anammox transformation over heterotrophic conversions since more free energy is gained. A process scheme is proposed for an innovative nitrogen removal system in which the nitrate produced by nitrite oxidizing bacteria and/or anammox bacteria is converted during DNRA-anammox pathway, resulting in a sustainable nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater while circumventing the troublesome out-selection of nitrite oxidizing bacteria encountered in mainstream applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Modelling of sludge blanket height and flow pattern in UASB reactors treating municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.S.; Viraraghavan, T.

    2002-01-01

    Two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were started-up and operated for approximately 900 days to examine the feasibility of treating municipal wastewater under low temperature conditions. A modified solid distribution model was formulated by incorporating the variation of biogas production rate with a change in temperature. This model was used to optimize the sludge blanket height of UASB reactors for an effective operation of gas-liquid-solid (GLS) separation device. This model was found to simulate well the solid distribution as confirmed experimental observation of solid profile along the height of the reactor. Mathematical analysis of tracer curves indicated the presence of a mixed type of flow pattern in the sludge-bed zone of the reactor. It was found that the dead-zone and by-pass flow fraction were impacted by the change in operating temperatures. (author)

  5. Evaluation of direct membrane filtration and direct forward osmosis as concepts for compact and energy-positive municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Davidsson, Åsa; Vogel, Jörg; Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Jönsson, Karin

    2018-02-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment commonly involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps to protect humans and the environment from adverse effects. Membrane technology has gained increasing attention as an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment due to increased urbanization. Among the available membrane technologies, microfiltration (MF) and forward osmosis (FO) have been selected for this study due to their specific characteristics, such as compactness and efficient removal of particles. In this study, two treatment concepts were evaluated with regard to their specific electricity, energy and area demands. Both concepts would fulfil the Swedish discharge demands for small- and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants at full scale: (1) direct MF and (2) direct FO with seawater as the draw solution. The framework of this study is based on a combination of data obtained from bench- and pilot-scale experiments applying direct MF and FO, respectively. Additionally, available complementary data from a Swedish full-scale wastewater treatment plant and the literature were used to evaluate the concepts in depth. The results of this study indicate that both concepts are net positive with respect to electricity and energy, as more biogas can be produced compared to that using conventional wastewater treatment. Furthermore, the specific area demand is significantly reduced. This study demonstrates that municipal wastewater could be treated in a more energy- and area-efficient manner with techniques that are already commercially available and with future membrane technology.

  6. The State of Water and Wastewater Management in the Municipalities of the Roztocze National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Jóżwiakowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the current state of water and sewage management in the communes where the Roztocze National Park (RNP is located. The park is located in Lubelskie voivodship, in the territory of four communes: Zamość, Zwierzyniec, Adamów and Józefów, while its buffer zone is located in the communes of Krasnobród, Tereszpol and Szczebrzeszyn. The paper uses data from surveys conducted in these municipalities in 2016. On average, 68.9% of the population used the water supply system in the municipalities surveyed, while 33.4% of the inhabitants had the possibility of discharging sewage to the sewerage system. In the area of the communes, there are 10 collective, mechanical and biological wastewater treatment plants with a capacity exceeding 5 m 3 ·d -1 . The households which are not connected to the sewage network discharge wastewater mainly to non-return tanks. Four out of the seven surveyed communities had 64 domestic sewage treatment plants, including 60 systems with infiltration drainage, which do not ensure high efficiency of removing pollution and may even contribute to the degradation of groundwater quality. In order to solve the existing problems in the area of sewage and water management occurring in the communes where the Roztocze National Park is located, it is necessary to further develop collective sewage systems and equip the areas with dispersed buildings with highly efficient, residential sewage treatment plants, e.g. constructed wetlands.

  7. Treatment efficiency in wastewater treatment plant of Hat Yai Municipality by quantitative removal of microbial indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangporn Kantachote

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of treatment in a wastewater treatment plant of Hat Yai Municipality through stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands was monitored by using the bacterial indicators, total coliforms (TC, fecal coliforms (FC, Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci (FS, and photosynthetic microbes. The sequence of water flow in the wastewater treatment plant is as follows: primary or anaerobic pond (P, facultative pond (F, maturation pond (M, constructed wetlands (W1, W2 and W3, and an effluent storage pond (S for the treated wastewater. The wastewater treatment plant has an approximate area of 3,264,000 m2 (2,040 rai and its dry weather flow was running at only 40,000 m3/ day. There were 10 sampling times used for all the 7 ponds during July-October, 2006.Statistical analysis using a Two-Factorial Design model, indicated that pond types significantly affected temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO, and pH (p<0.05, whereas the time of sampling during the day had a significant effect (p<0.05 only on the temperature and light intensity available to the ponds. There were also significant different removal efficiencies of the different bacterial indicator groups tested (p<0.05. The overall performance of the wastewater treatment plant effectively removed TC, FC, E. coli, and FS as follows, 99.8%, 99.8%, 75.8% and 98.8%, respectively. The amounts of bacterial indicators, except for E. coli, showed a negative correlation with levels of light intensity and DO, whereas there was no correlation between the pH and the different indicator bacteria. There was a positive middle level correlation between pHand chlorophyll a.There were five different divisions of photosynthetic organisms detected throughout the plant as follows, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Euglenophyta, and Pyrrhophyta. The least diversity was found in the anaerobic pond (P as there were only 15 genera. Euglena, an indicator of dirty water, was detected only in this pond. The

  8. Impact of municipal wastewater effluent on seed bank response and soils excavated from a wetland impoundment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchiaro, R.G.; Kremer, R.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive management of wetlands to improve wildlife habitat typically includes the manipulation of water depth, duration, and timing to promote desired vegetation communities. Increased societal, industrial, and agricultural demands for water may encourage the use of alternative sources such as wastewater effluents in managed wetlands. However, water quality is commonly overlooked as an influence on wetland soil seed banks and soils. In four separate greenhouse trials conducted over a 2-yr period, we examined the effects of municipal wastewater effluent (WWE) on vegetation of wetland seed banks and soils excavated from a wildlife management area in Missouri, USA. We used microcosms filled with one of two soil materials and irrigated with WWE, Missouri River water, or deionized water to simulate moist-soil conditions. Vegetation that germinated from the soil seed bank was allowed to grow in microcosms for approximately 100 d. Vegetative taxa richness, plant density, and biomass were significantly reduced in WWE-irrigated soil materials compared with other water sources. Salinity and sodicity rapidly increased in WWE-irrigated microcosms and probably was responsible for inhibiting germination or interfering with seedling development. Our results indicate that irrigation with WWE promoted saline-sodic soil conditions, which alters the vegetation community by inhibiting germination or seedling development. ?? 2009, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  9. Efficacy of HRF in COD Removal from Secondary Effluent of Yasuj Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ehteshami

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Re-use of wastewater is an appropriate approach for development of water resources and water supply strategies. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of HRF in COD removal from secondary effluent of municipal wastewater in Yasouj. Methods: The pilot which was used in the present study was a horizontal roughing filter designed and prepared according to the Wegelin’s Design Criteria. The Samples were removed daily and instantaneous based on the predicted number of samples (28 samples at each filtration rate from the input and output filter, and then tested in the laboratory by the D5000 device. The collected data was analyzed using ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: The results indicated that the average COD removal in the filtration rate of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 were 60, 51, and 38 percent respectively. Conclusion: The average output of the HRF for all three filtration rates was lower than the maximum EPA standard of Iran.

  10. Unit Process Wetlands for Removal of Trace Organic Contaminants and Pathogens from Municipal Wastewater Effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Justin T.; Nguyen, Mi T.; Jones, Zackary L.; Ismail, Niveen S.; Sedlak, David L.; Sharp, Jonathan O.; Luthy, Richard G.; Horne, Alex J.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Treatment wetlands have become an attractive option for the removal of nutrients from municipal wastewater effluents due to their low energy requirements and operational costs, as well as the ancillary benefits they provide, including creating aesthetically appealing spaces and wildlife habitats. Treatment wetlands also hold promise as a means of removing other wastewater-derived contaminants, such as trace organic contaminants and pathogens. However, concerns about variations in treatment efficacy of these pollutants, coupled with an incomplete mechanistic understanding of their removal in wetlands, hinder the widespread adoption of constructed wetlands for these two classes of contaminants. A better understanding is needed so that wetlands as a unit process can be designed for their removal, with individual wetland cells optimized for the removal of specific contaminants, and connected in series or integrated with other engineered or natural treatment processes. In this article, removal mechanisms of trace organic contaminants and pathogens are reviewed, including sorption and sedimentation, biotransformation and predation, photolysis and photoinactivation, and remaining knowledge gaps are identified. In addition, suggestions are provided for how these treatment mechanisms can be enhanced in commonly employed unit process wetland cells or how they might be harnessed in novel unit process cells. It is hoped that application of the unit process concept to a wider range of contaminants will lead to more widespread application of wetland treatment trains as components of urban water infrastructure in the United States and around the globe. PMID:23983451

  11. Integrated system of phytodepuration and water reclamation: A comparative evaluation of four municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroselli, Andrea; Giannotti, Maurizio; Marras, Tatiana; Allegrini, Elena

    2017-06-03

    In dry regions, water resources have become increasingly limited, and the use of alternative sources is considered one of the main strategies in sustainable water management. A highly viable alternative to commonly used water resources is treated municipal wastewater, which could strongly benefit from advanced and low-cost techniques for depuration, such as the integrated system of phytodepuration (ISP). The current manuscript investigates four Italian case studies with different sizes and characteristics. The raw wastewaters and final effluents were sampled on a monthly basis over a period of up to five years, allowing the quantification of the ISP performances. The results obtained show that the investigated plants are characterized by an average efficiency value of approximately 83% for chemical oxygen demand removal, 84% for biochemical oxygen demand, 89% for total nitrogen, 91% for total phosphorus, and 85% for total suspended solids. Moreover, for three of the case studies, the ISP final effluent is suitable for irrigation, and in the fourth case study, the final effluent can be released in surface water.

  12. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in the river receiving the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Taherkhani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Listeria spp. in the river water before and after discharge of the effluent of the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 66 samples were collected bi-weekly over 4 months from eleven discrete sampling locations in Zayandehrood River, Iran. Three sampling sites were located above the discharge point and five sites were located after the discharge point of WWTP. Samples were also collected from the influent and the effluent of WWTP. Listeria spp. were isolated using a selective enrichment procedure and a subculture onto polymyxin-acriflavine-lithium chloride-ceftazidime-esculin-mannitol Agar. All isolates were subjected to standard biochemical tests. Results: L. monocytogenes was isolated from influent (83%, effluent (50% and (18.5% river water. Listeria spp. was not found before the discharge point in river water. However, L. monocytogenes was isolated in samples collected from 200 m (33%, 500 m (33%, 2 km (16.5%, 5 km (16.5% and 10 km (16.5% downstream from the WWTP. Listeria innocua (9% and Listeria seeligeri (10% were the second most frequently isolated species. Conclusion: During the wastewater treatment, Listeria spp. is not removed completely. L. monocytogenes is widely distributed in the Zayandehrood river. L. monocytogenes released into surface water demonstrates a potential risk for public health. These results indicate the need for appropriate water management in order to reduce human and animal exposure to such pathogens.

  13. Unit Process Wetlands for Removal of Trace Organic Contaminants and Pathogens from Municipal Wastewater Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Justin T; Nguyen, Mi T; Jones, Zackary L; Ismail, Niveen S; Sedlak, David L; Sharp, Jonathan O; Luthy, Richard G; Horne, Alex J; Nelson, Kara L

    2013-08-01

    Treatment wetlands have become an attractive option for the removal of nutrients from municipal wastewater effluents due to their low energy requirements and operational costs, as well as the ancillary benefits they provide, including creating aesthetically appealing spaces and wildlife habitats. Treatment wetlands also hold promise as a means of removing other wastewater-derived contaminants, such as trace organic contaminants and pathogens. However, concerns about variations in treatment efficacy of these pollutants, coupled with an incomplete mechanistic understanding of their removal in wetlands, hinder the widespread adoption of constructed wetlands for these two classes of contaminants. A better understanding is needed so that wetlands as a unit process can be designed for their removal, with individual wetland cells optimized for the removal of specific contaminants, and connected in series or integrated with other engineered or natural treatment processes. In this article, removal mechanisms of trace organic contaminants and pathogens are reviewed, including sorption and sedimentation, biotransformation and predation, photolysis and photoinactivation, and remaining knowledge gaps are identified. In addition, suggestions are provided for how these treatment mechanisms can be enhanced in commonly employed unit process wetland cells or how they might be harnessed in novel unit process cells. It is hoped that application of the unit process concept to a wider range of contaminants will lead to more widespread application of wetland treatment trains as components of urban water infrastructure in the United States and around the globe.

  14. Phytoaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Natural Vegetation at the Municipal Wastewater Site in Abbottabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Muhammad; Ruqia, Bibi; Hussain, Zahid

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in crops and soils from wastewater irrigation poses a significant threat to the human health. A study was carried out to investigate the removal potential of heavy metals (HM) by native plant species, namely Cannabis sativa L., Chenopodium album L., Datura stramonium L., Sonchus asper L., Amaranthus viridus L., Oenothera rosea (LHer), Xanthium stramonium L., Polygonum macalosa L., Nasturtium officinale L. and Conyza canadensis L. growing at the municipal wastewater site in Abbottabad city, Pakistan. The HM concentrations varied among plants depending on the species. Metal concentrations across species varied in the order iron (Fe) > zinc (Zn) > chromium (Cr) > nickel (Ni) > cadmium (Cd). Majority of the species accumulated more HM in roots than shoots. Among species, the concentrations (both in roots and shoots) were in the order C. sativa > C. album > X. stramonium > C. canadensis > A. viridus > N. officinale > P. macalosa > D. stramonium > S. asper > O. rosea. No species was identified as a hyperaccumulator. All species exhibited a translocation factor (TF) less than 1. Species like C. sativa, C. album and X. stramonium gave higher (> 1) biological concentration factor (BCF) and biological accumulation coefficient (BAC) especially for Fe, Cr and Cd than other species. Higher accumulation of heavy metals in these plant species signifies the general application of these species for phytostabilization and phytoextraction of HM from polluted soils.

  15. Tetracycline antibiotics in hospital and municipal wastewaters: a pilot study in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, A; Paulo, M; Silva, L J G; Seifrtová, M; Lino, C M; Solich, P

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of tetracyclines (TCs), namely minocycline (MIN), TC, and its epimer epitetracycline (ETC), and doxycycline (DC), in four hospital wastewater effluents and its fate in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), in Coimbra, Portugal. Analytical determination was carried out by solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. A gradient system with a mobile phase containing oxalic acid 0.02 M and acetonitrile was used. After postcolumn derivatization with magnesium reagent, TCs were detected at lambda(exc) 386 nm and lambda(em) 500 nm. The proposed method allowed good sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. LOQs were 0.5 microg l(-1) for ETC and TC and 15 and 5 microg l(-1) for MIN and DC, respectively. The recovery values ranged between 66.4% and 117.1%, and intraday and interday repeatability was lower than 6.8%. The method was successfully used to determine the presence of the above-mentioned TCs in 24 wastewater composite samples obtained from hospital effluents and from influent and effluent of the WWTP located in Coimbra, Portugal. MIN and TC were found in 41.7% of the samples; ETC and DC were found in 25% and 8.3% of the samples, respectively. The levels found ranged from 6 to 531.7 microg l(-1) in hospital effluents, while its concentrations in WWTP ranged from 95.8 to 915.3 microg l(-1). A seasonal influence in the concentrations found has also been observed, the levels found in samples collected during spring being higher than those observed in samples collected during autumn; however, these are only preliminary results. The WWTP removal rate ranged between 89.5% and 100%.

  16. A pilot-scale forward osmosis membrane system for concentrating low-strength municipal wastewater: performance and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Zheng, Junjian; Tang, Jixu; Wang, Xinhua; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-02-01

    Recovery of nutrients and energy from municipal wastewater has attracted much attention in recent years; however, its efficiency is significantly limited by the low-strength properties of municipal wastewater. Herein, we report a pilot-scale forward osmosis (FO) system using a spiral-wound membrane module to concentrate real municipal wastewater. Under active layer facing feed solution mode, the critical concentration factor (CCF) of this FO system was determined to be 8 with 0.5 M NaCl as draw solution. During long-term operation at a concentration factor of 5, (99.8 ± 0.6)% of chemical oxygen demand and (99.7 ± 0.5)% of total phosphorus rejection rates could be achieved at a flux of 6 L/(m2 h) on average. In comparison, only (48.1 ± 10.5)% and (67.8 ± 7.3)% rejection of ammonium and total nitrogen were observed. Cake enhanced concentration polarization is a major contributor to the decrease of water fluxes. The fouling also led to the occurrence of a cake reduced concentration polarization effect, improving ammonium rejection rate with the increase of operation time in each cycle. This work demonstrates the applicability of using FO process for wastewater concentrating and also limitations in ammonium recovery that need further improvement in future.

  17. Removal of Organic Pollutants from Municipal Wastewater by Applying High-Rate Algal Pond in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Keneni; Assefa, Berhanu; Kifle, Demeke; Kloos, Helmut

    2018-05-01

    The discharge of inadequately treated municipal wastewater has aggravated the pollution load in developing countries including Ethiopia. Conventional wastewater treatment methods that require high capital and operational costs are not affordable for many developing nations, including Ethiopia. This study aimed to investigate the performance of two high-rate algal ponds (HRAPs) in organic pollutant removal from primary settled municipal wastewater under highland tropical climate conditions in Addis Ababa. The experiment was done for 2 months at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 2 to 8 days using an organic loading rates ranging 333-65 kg {BOD}5 /ha/day using two HRAPs, 250 and 300 mm deep, respectively. In this experiment, Chlorella sp., Chlamydomonas sp., and Scenedesmus sp., the class of Chlorophyceae, were identified as the dominant species. Chlorophyll-a production was higher in the shallower ponds (250 mm) throughout the course of the study, whereas the deeper HRAP (300 mm) showed better dissolved oxygen production. The maximum COD and {BOD}5 removal of 78.03 and 81.8% was achieved at a 6-day HRT operation in the 250-mm-deep HRAP. Therefore, the 300-mm-deep HRAP is promising for scaling up organic pollutant removal from municipal wastewater at a daily average organic loading rate of 109.3 kg {BOD}5 /ha/day and a 6-day HRT. We conclude that the removal of organic pollutants in HRAP can be controlled by pond depth, organic loading rate, and HRT.

  18. A Survey on the Removal Efficiency of Fat, Oil and Grease in Shiraz Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Fat, oil and grease (FOG in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP caused many problems. Objectives This study aimed to determine the removal efficiency of FOG in Shiraz MWWTP. Materials and Methods The removal efficiencies of FOG in the MWWTP were studied from June 2011 to September 2011 in Shiraz (Iran. The influent and effluent wastewater samples were collected in a volume of one liter (4 samples per week and analyzed according to the standard methods. Samples are transferred to the laboratory immediately. The concentration of FOG was determined using the solvent extraction and separating funnel and then compared with the effluent standards. To analyze the data, SPSS (version 11.5, Chi-square test and t test were used. Results The results showed that the FOG amount in input raw sewage in the MWWTP from June 2011 to September 2011 was around 25.5 mg/L and the amount in treated wastewater was about 8.1 mg/L. The FOG removal efficiency in this refinery was about 70% and met the environmental standards for the discharge (less than 10 mg/L (P < 0.05. Conclusions The effluent can be discharged to surface waters or used for irrigation. In order to the FOG concentration met the effluent standards, it is very crucial to control the entrance of industrial wastewater to the municipal wastewater collection networks. Otherwise, the MWWTP should be upgraded and the special techniques used to reduce FOG.

  19. Toxicities of sediments below 10 effluent outfalls to near-coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.; Weber, D.; Stanley, R.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical quality and toxicities of sediments collected in the receiving waters below 10 wastewater outfalls to Northwest Florida coastal areas were evaluated at multiple stations during 1994--1996. Eight types of toxicity tests using 11 test species were used to assess acute and chronic toxicity of the sediments collected below industrial, municipal, power generation and pulp mill outfalls. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate the relative ability of different assessment procedures to detect toxicity and to provide some much-needed perspective on the impact of major point sources on sediment quality in Gulf of Mexico estuaries. The major chemical contaminants were heavy metals and PAHs. Acute and chronic toxicities were noted. Results of tests with sediment collected at the same location but several months later often differed. The most sensitive species were mysids and an estuarine amphipod. The least sensitive species were fish and macrophyte seedlings. There was poor correlation of effluent toxicity to sediment toxicity in the receiving water. Toxicity of the effluents was greater than that of the sediments. Overall, the unavailability of relevant chronic toxicity methods, uncertain criteria for choice of control stations, lack of guidance on frequency of testing and the dynamic physical and chemical characteristics of sediments are factors that need consideration if sediment monitoring is to be part of the NPDES regulatory process

  20. Locations of Combined Sewer Overflow Outfalls - US EPA Region 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data layer identifies the locations of Combined sewer overflow outfalls. Combined sewer systems are sewers that are designed to collect rainwater runoff, domestic sewage, and industrial wastewater in the same pipe. Most of the time, combined sewer systems transport all of their wastewater to a sewage treatment plant, where it is treated and then discharged to a water body. During periods of heavy rainfall or snowmelt, however, the wastewater volume in a combined sewer system can exceed the capacity of the sewer system or treatment plant. For this reason, combined sewer systems are designed to overflow occasionally and discharge excess untreated wastewater directly to nearby streams, rivers, or other water bodies. For further information visit: http://cfpub1.epa.gov/npdes/home.cfm?program_id=5

  1. UASB reactor startup for the treatment of municipal wastewater followed by advanced oxidation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Bhatti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was done to shorten the start-up time of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor. Two different nutrients were used during the UASB start-up period, which was designed to decrease the hydraulic retention time (HRT from 48 to 24 and 12 to 6 hrs at average temperatures of 25-34 ºC. In the first stage, start-up was with glucose for 14 days and then the reactor was also fed with macro- and micronutrients as a synthetic nutrient influent (SNI from 15 to 45 days as the second stage. For the control, a second reactor was kept on glucose feeding from day 1 to 45. The removal efficiencies of the chemical oxygen demand (COD were 80% and 98% on the 6th and 32nd day of the first and second stage, respectively. The maximum substrate removal rate of 0.08 mg COD mg-1 VSS d-1 was observed for glucose and synthetic nutrient influent (SNI on the 8th and 40th days, respectively. When the reactor reached the maximum COD removal efficiency it was then shifted to municipal wastewater (MWW mixed with industrial wastewater. The HRT was reduced gradually with a one week gap while treating MWW. For further cleaning, the UASB effluent was treated with 40% waste hydrogen peroxide. The whole integrated treatment process was successful to reduce the COD by 99%, total suspended solids (TSS by 73%, total nitrogen (TN by 84% and turbidity by 67%.

  2. Low removal of acidic and hydrophilic pharmaceutical products by various types of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gagnon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical substances represent a risk for aquatic environments and their potential impacts on the receiving environment are poorly understood. Municipal effluents are important sources of contaminants including common pharmaceuticals like anti-inflammatory and anti-convulsive substances. The removal of pharmaceuticals, particularly those highly soluble can represent a great challenge to conventional wastewater treatment processes. Hydrophilic drugs (e.g. acidic drugs have properties that can highly influence removal efficiencies of treatment plants. The performance of different wastewater treatment processes for the removal of specific pharmaceutical products that are expected to be poorly removed was investigated. The obtained results were compared to inherent properties of the studied substances. Clofibric acid, carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen and naproxen were largely found in physicochemical primary-treated effluents at concentrations ranging from 77 to 2384 ng/L. This treatment type showed removal yields lower than 30%. On the other hand, biological treatments with activated sludge under aerobic conditions resulted in much better removal rates (>50% for 5 of the 8 studied substances. Interestingly, this latter type of process showed evidence of selectivity with respect to the size (R2=0.7388, solubility (R2=0.6812, and partitioning (R2=0.9999 of the removed substances; the smallest and least sorbed substances seemed to be removed at better rates, while the persistent carbamazepine (392 ng/L and diclofenac (66 ng/L were poorly removed (<10% after biological treatment. In the case of treatment by aerated lagoons, the most abundant substances were the highly soluble hydroxy-ibuprofen (350-3321 ng/L, followed by naproxen (42-413 n/L and carbamazepine (254-386 ng/L. In order to assess the impacts of all these contaminants of various properties on the environment and human health, we need to better understand the chemical and physical

  3. Occurrence and removal of benzotriazoles and ultraviolet filters in a municipal wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yousheng; Ying Guangguo; Shareef, Ali; Kookana, Rai S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence and removal of four benzotriazoles (BTs) (benzotriazole: BT; 5-methyl-benzotriazole: 5-TTri; 5-chloro-benzotriazole: CBT; 5,6-dimethyl-benzotriazole: XTri) and six UV filters (benzophenone-3: BP-3; 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor: 4-MBC; octyl 4-methoxycinnamate: OMC; 2-(3-t-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-5-chloro benzotriazole: UV-326; 2-(2′-Hydroxy-5′-octylphenyl)-benzotriazole: UV-329; octocrylene: OC) in a full scale municipal wastewater treatment in South Australia. BT, 5-TTri and BP-3 were found as the dominant compounds detected in the wastewater samples with average concentrations up to 5706 ± 928 ng/L, 6758 ± 1438 ng/L and 2086 ± 1027 ng/L in influent, and up to 2439 ± 233 ng/L, 610 ± 237 ng/L and 153 ± 121 ng/L in effluent, respectively. In the biosolid, 4-MBC and OC were found with the highest concentrations of 962 ± 135 ng/g and 465 ± 65 ng/g, respectively. Sorption onto sludge played a dominant role in the removal for UV filters, especially for 4-MBC, UV-326 and OC, which accounted for 54%–92% of influent loads, while biological degradation played a significant role for the other compounds. Highlights: ► Selected benzotriazoles (BTs) and UV filters were removed at various rates in a full scale WWTP. ► High aqueous phase removals were achieved for UV filters, and low to moderate removals for benzotriazoles. ► Sorption played a dominant role in elimination of UV filters, while degradation is the main factor for the others. - Various removal rates were achieved for benzotriazoles and UV filters by sorption and degradation processes in different stages of WWTPs.

  4. Two strategies for phosphorus removal from reject water of municipal wastewater treatment plant using alum sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Zhao, Y Q; Babatunde, A O; Kearney, P

    2009-01-01

    In view of the well recognized need of reject water treatment in MWWTP (municipal wastewater treatment plant), this paper outlines two strategies for P removal from reject water using alum sludge, which is produced as by-product in drinking water treatment plant when aluminium sulphate is used for flocculating raw waters. One strategy is the use of the alum sludge in liquid form for co-conditioning and dewatering with the anaerobically digested activated sludge in MWWTP. The other strategy involves the use of the dewatered alum sludge cakes in a fixed bed for P immobilization from the reject water that refers to the mixture of the supernatant of the sludge thickening process and the supernatant of the anaerobically digested sludge. Experimental trials have demonstrated that the alum sludge can efficiently reduce P level in reject water. The co-conditioning strategy could reduce P from 597-675 mg P/L to 0.14-3.20 mg P/L in the supernatant of the sewage sludge while the organic polymer dosage for the conditioning of the mixed sludges would also be significantly reduced. The second strategy of reject water filtration with alum sludge bed has shown a good performance of P reduction. The alum sludge has P-adsorption capacity of 31 mg-P/g-sludge, which was tested under filtration velocity of 1.0 m/h. The two strategies highlight the beneficial utilization of alum sludge in wastewater treatment process in MWWTP, thus converting the alum sludge as a useful material, rather than a waste for landfill.

  5. The Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Cost Implications of Municipal Water Supply & Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Winter, Thelma

    All man-made structures and materials have a design life. Across the United States there is a common theme for our water and wastewater treatment facilities and infrastructure. The design life of many of our mid 20 th century water and wastewater infrastructures in the United States have reached or are reaching life expectancy limits (ASCE, 2010). To compound the financial crisis of keeping up with the degradation, meeting and exceeding quality standards has never been more important in order to protect local fresh water supplies. This thesis analyzes the energy consumption of a municipal water and wastewater treatment system from a Lake Erie intake through potable treatment and back through wastewater treatment then discharge. The system boundary for this thesis includes onsite energy consumed by the treatment system and distribution/reclamation system as well as the energy consumed by the manufacturing of treatment chemicals applied during the study periods. By analyzing energy consumption, subsequent implications from greenhouse gas emissions and financial expenditures were quantified. Through the segregation of treatment and distribution processes from non-process energy consumption, such as heating, lighting, and air handling, this study identified that the potable water treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.42E+08 kBtu, spent 5,812,144 for treatment and distribution, and emitted 28,793 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. Likewise, the wastewater treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.45E+08 kBtu, spent 3,331,961 for reclamation and treatment, and emitted 43,780 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. The area with the highest energy usage, financial expenditure, and greenhouse gas emissions for the potable treatment facility and distribution system was from the manufacturing of the treatment chemicals, 1.10E+08 kBtu, 3.7 million, and 17,844 metric tons of CO2 equivalent, respectively. Of the onsite energy (1.4E-03 kWh per gallon

  6. Treatment of Copper Contaminated Municipal Wastewater by Using UASB Reactor and Sand-Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor and its posttreatment unit of sand-chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust (CCRWSD column system for the treatment of a metal contaminated municipal wastewater was investigated. Copper ion contaminated municipal wastewater was introduced to a laboratory scale UASB reactor and the effluent from UASB reactor was then followed by treatment with sand-CCRWSD column system. The laboratory scale UASB reactor and column system were observed for a period of 121 days. After the posttreatment column the average removal of monitoring parameters such as copper ion concentration (91.37%, biochemical oxygen demand (BODT (93.98%, chemical oxygen demand (COD (95.59%, total suspended solid (TSS (95.98%, ammonia (80.68%, nitrite (79.71%, nitrate (71.16%, phosphorous (44.77%, total coliform (TC (99.9%, and fecal coliform (FC (99.9% was measured. The characterization of the chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF, and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Overall the system was found to be an efficient and economical process for the treatment of copper contaminated municipal wastewater.

  7. Treatment of Copper Contaminated Municipal Wastewater by Using UASB Reactor and Sand-Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swarup; Mishra, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and its posttreatment unit of sand-chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust (CCRWSD) column system for the treatment of a metal contaminated municipal wastewater was investigated. Copper ion contaminated municipal wastewater was introduced to a laboratory scale UASB reactor and the effluent from UASB reactor was then followed by treatment with sand-CCRWSD column system. The laboratory scale UASB reactor and column system were observed for a period of 121 days. After the posttreatment column the average removal of monitoring parameters such as copper ion concentration (91.37%), biochemical oxygen demand (BODT) (93.98%), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (95.59%), total suspended solid (TSS) (95.98%), ammonia (80.68%), nitrite (79.71%), nitrate (71.16%), phosphorous (44.77%), total coliform (TC) (99.9%), and fecal coliform (FC) (99.9%) was measured. The characterization of the chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF), and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Overall the system was found to be an efficient and economical process for the treatment of copper contaminated municipal wastewater.

  8. Combined treatment of municipal waste-water and landfill leachate by means of membrane bioreactor: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannelli, R.; Lizza, E.; Giraldi, D.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the results of an experimental study focusing on the applicability of the membrane bioreactor technology for the combined treatment of municipal wastewater and landfill leachate. In the experiment we used both a micro-filtration unit and a traditional secondary settler in an innovative combined process that can present some economic advantages on the pure membrane separation, so as to evaluate and compare the efficiencies of the two adopted technologies. The experiment was carried out in two phases: first, we evaluated the system only with municipal wastewater; then we tested the treatment of a mixture of municipal wastewater and landfill leachate. We obtained good results in both cases for standard quality indicators (COD, TSS, NH 4 ), specific inorganic compounds such as Fe and Zn and microorganisms. The micro-filtrations unit had very good performances with respect to both treatment efficiency and hydraulic behaviour: after the first start-up period, we observed a regular running of the unit with no need for special chemical or mechanical treatment different from the ones adopted ordinarily in the MBR treatment systems [it

  9. Design of future municipal wastewater treatment plants: A mathematical approach to manage complexity and identify optimal solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist

    The increasing number of alternative wastewater treatment (WWT) technologies and stricter effluent requirements imposed by regulations make the early stage decision making for WWTP layout design, which is currently based on expert decisions and previous experiences, much harder. This paper...... therefore proposes a new approach based on mathematical programming to manage the complexity of the problem and generate/identify novel and optimal WWTP layouts for municipal/domestic wastewater treatment. Towards this end, after developing a database consisting of primary, secondary and tertiary WWT...... solved to obtain the optimal WWT network and the optimal wastewater and sludge flow through the network. The tool is evaluated on a case study, which was chosen as the Benchmark Simulation Model no.1 (BSM1) and many retrofitting options for obtaining a cost-effective treatment were investigated...

  10. Electrodialytic treatment of municipal wastewater and sludge for the removal of heavy metals and recovery of phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbers, Benjamin; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2015-01-01

    Municipal wastewater and sewage sludge is an abundant source of phosphorus (P), but its usage is often limited due to wastewater treatment methods and contaminants, mostly heavy metals (HM's). Three compartment (3C) electrodialysis (ED) was used to simultaneously extract HM's (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb...... of heavy metals or recovery of phosphorus using ED, the end-products in wastewater treatment, like anaerobically digested sludge and reject-water streams, are therefore best to be treated....... pH using anaerobically digested sludge. The hydrolysis of OM during anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic conditions allowed for easier extraction of HM's such as Cd, Ni and Zn as they had fewer adsorption places, and improved P availability and extractability. Extraction of P from high...

  11. Survey of onsite wastewater treatment systems in Kristiansand municipality Norway : pollutants removal performance and solutions : performance analysis based on Web-GIS model

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    In Norway, 16% of the population lives in rural areas where centralized infrastructure for wastewater treatment is neither cost effective and nor sustainable due to topography and long distance to connect a treatment facility. There are 330,000 small decentralized wastewater treatment plants in Norway and out of those 1,500 plants are located in Kristiansand municipality. Eutrophication and fecal contamination in the recipients are the major cause of concern to wastewater disposal from such o...

  12. Hydrothermal liquefaction of municipal wastewater cultivated algae: Increasing overall sustainability and value streams of algal biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Griffin William

    The forefront of the 21st century presents ongoing challenges in economics, energy, and environmental remediation, directly correlating with priorities for U.S. national security. Displacing petroleum-derived fuels with clean, affordable renewable fuels represents a solution to increase energy independence while stimulating economic growth and reducing carbon-based emissions. The U.S. government embodied this goal by passing the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in 2007, mandating 36 billion gallons of annual biofuel production by 2022. Algae possess potential to support EISA goals and have been studied for the past 30-50 years as an energy source due to its fast growth rates, noncompetitive nature to food markets, and ability to grow using nutrient waste streams. Algae biofuels have been identified by the National Research Council to have significant sustainability concerns involving water, nutrient, and land use. Utilizing municipal wastewater to cultivate algae provides both water and nutrients needed for growth, partially alleviating these concerns. This dissertation demonstrates a pathway for algae biofuels which increases both sustainability and production of high-value products. Algae are cultivated in pilot-scale open ponds located at the Lawrence Wastewater Treatment Plant (Lawrence, KS) using solely effluent from the secondary clarifier, prior to disinfection and discharge, as both water and nutrient sources. Open ponds were self-inoculated by wastewater effluent and produced a mixed-species culture of various microalgae and macroalgae. Algae cultivation provided further wastewater treatment, removing both nitrogen and phosphorus, which have devastating pollution effects when discharged to natural watersheds, especially in large draining watersheds like the Gulf Coast. Algae demonstrated significant removal of other trace metals such as iron, manganese, barium, aluminum, and zinc. Calcium did not achieve high removal rate but did present a

  13. Occurrence of antibiotics in hospital, residential, and dairy effluent, municipal wastewater, and the Rio Grande in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn D; Kulis, Jerzy; Thomson, Bruce; Chapman, Timothy H; Mawhinney, Douglas B

    2006-08-01

    This study had three objectives: 1) determine occurrence of antibiotics in effluent from hospitals, residential facilities, and dairies, and in municipal wastewater 2) determine antibiotic removal at a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Albuquerque, NM, and 3) determine concentrations of antibiotics in the Rio Grande, which receives wastewater from the Albuquerque WWTP. Twenty-three samples of wastewater and 3 samples of Rio Grande water were analyzed for the presence of 11 antibiotics. Fifty-eight percent of samples had at least one antibiotic present while 25% had three or more. Hospital effluent had detections of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, lincomycin, and penicillin G, with 4 of 5 hospital samples having at least one antibiotic detected and 3 having four or more. At the residential sampling sites, ofloxacin was found in effluent from assisted living and retirement facilities, while the student dormitory had no detects. Only lincomycin was detected in dairy effluent (in 2 of 8 samples, at 700 and 6600 ng/L). Municipal wastewater had detections of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin, with 4 of 6 samples having at least one antibiotic present and 3 having 3 or more. The relatively high concentrations (up to 35,500 ng/L) of ofloxacin found in hospital and residential effluent may be of concern due to potential genotoxic effects and development of antibiotic resistance. At the Albuquerque WWTP, both raw wastewater and treated effluent had detections of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and ofloxacin, at concentrations ranging from 110 to 470 ng/L. However, concentrations in treated effluent were reduced by 20% to 77%. No antibiotics were detected in the Rio Grande upstream of the Albuquerque WWTP discharge, and only one antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole, was detected in the Rio Grande (300 ng/L) below the WWTP.

  14. Development of permeate flux model for municipal wastewater treatment using membrane bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissler, S.; Zhou, H.; Zytner, R.; Melin, T.

    2002-01-01

    In municipal wastewater treatment, membrane filtration technologies receive great attention because they usually produce the better quality effluent, generate less sludge and require a smaller aeration tank volume. However, one main challenge of using membranes is membrane fouling, which results in a permeate flux decrease or transmembrane pressure increase over the time. Many efforts have been directed to develop the mechanistic permeate flux model to correlate the permeate flux with process parameters. However, their applicability has been largely thwarted due to complicated membrane fouling mechanisms and the interactions of many factors affecting the membrane bioreactor. This paper proposes a semi-empirical permeate flux model for the membrane bioreactor (MBR) process using ZENON immersed hollow fibre membrane modules. The semi-empirical model was proposed by assuming that the permeate flux is equal to transmembrane pressure divided by total resistance. The total resistance is divided into two components: an inside membrane resistance and an outer fouling layer resistance. These membrane resistances are then related to the ageing of membrane used. Good correlation was found between the predicted and measured flux, with the mean absolute deviation being less than 4%. The observations also identified some general rules for operating membrane systems. Ideally, it is advisable that high pressure periods be avoided as this leads to a faster increase of non-reversal membrane resistance. It was also observed that membrane preservatives should be washed out carefully prior to use. (author)

  15. Microalgae Cultivation on Anaerobic Digestate of Municipal Wastewater, Sewage Sludge and Agro-Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Zuliani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are fast-growing photosynthetic organisms which have the potential to be exploited as an alternative source of liquid fuels to meet growing global energy demand. The cultivation of microalgae, however, still needs to be improved in order to reduce the cost of the biomass produced. Among the major costs encountered for algal cultivation are the costs for nutrients such as CO2, nitrogen and phosphorous. In this work, therefore, different microalgal strains were cultivated using as nutrient sources three different anaerobic digestates deriving from municipal wastewater, sewage sludge or agro-waste treatment plants. In particular, anaerobic digestates deriving from agro-waste or sewage sludge treatment induced a more than 300% increase in lipid production per volume in Chlorella vulgaris cultures grown in a closed photobioreactor, and a strong increase in carotenoid accumulation in different microalgae species. Conversely, a digestate originating from a pilot scale anaerobic upflow sludge blanket (UASB was used to increase biomass production when added to an artificial nutrient-supplemented medium. The results herein demonstrate the possibility of improving biomass accumulation or lipid production using different anaerobic digestates.

  16. Heavy metal removal in an UASB-CW system treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Varga, D; Díaz, M A; Ruiz, I; Soto, M

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate for the first time the long-term removal of heavy metals (HMs) in a combined UASB-CW system treating municipal wastewater. The research was carried out in a field pilot plant constituted for an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) digester as a pretreatment, followed by a surface flow constructed wetland (CW) and finally by a subsurface flow CW. While the UASB showed (pseudo) steady state operational conditions and generated a periodical purge of sludge, CWs were characterised by the progressive accumulation and mineralisation of retained solids. This paper analyses the evolution of HM removal from the water stream over time (over a period of 4.7 year of operation) and the accumulation of HMs in UASB sludge and CW sediments at two horizons of 2.7 and 4.0 year of operation. High removal efficiencies were found for some metals in the following order: Sn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Zn > Fe (63-94%). Medium removal efficiencies were registered for Ni (49%), Hg (42%), and Ag (40%), and finally Mn and As showed negative percentage removals. Removal efficiencies of total HMs were higher in UASB and SF units and lower in the last SSF unit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Two-stage combined treatment of acid mine drainage and municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dongyang; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of the combined treatment of field-collected acid mine drainages (AMD, pH = 4.2 ± 0.9, iron = 112 ± 118 mg/L, sulfate = 1,846 ± 594 mg/L) and municipal wastewater (MWW, avg. chemical oxygen demand (COD) = 234-333 mg/L) using a two-stage process. The process consisted of batch mixing of the two wastes to condition the mixture solutions, followed by anaerobic biological treatment. The mixings performed under a range of AMD/MWW ratios resulted in phosphate removal of 9 to ∼100%, the mixture pH of 6.2-7.9, and COD/sulfate concentration ratio of 0.05-5.4. The biological treatment consistently removed COD and sulfate by >80% from the mixture solutions for COD/sulfate ratios of 0.6-5.4. Alkalinity was produced in the biological treatment causing increased pH and further removal of metals from the solutions. Scanning electron microscopy of produced sludge with energy dispersion analysis suggested chemical precipitation and associated adsorption and co-precipitation as the mechanisms for metal removal (Fe: >99%, Al: ∼100%, Mn: 75 to ∼100%, Ca: 52-81%, Mg: 13-76%, and Na: 56-76%). The study showed promising results for the treatment method and denoted the potential of developing innovative technologies for combined management of the two wastes in mining regions.

  18. Removal of nitrate and sulphate from biologically treated municipal wastewater by electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun Kumar; Chopra, A. K.

    2017-06-01

    The present investigation observed the effect of current density ( j), electrocoagulation (EC) time, inter electrode distance, electrode area, initial pH and settling time on the removal of nitrate (NO3 -) and sulphate (SO4 2-) from biologically treated municipal wastewater (BTMW), and optimization of the operating conditions of the EC process. A glass chamber of two-liter volume was used for the experiments with DC power supply using two electrode plates of aluminum (Al-Al). The maximum removal of NO3 - (63.21 %) and SO4 2- (79.98 %) of BTMW was found with the optimum operating conditions: current density: 2.65 A/m2, EC time: 40 min, inter electrode distance: 0.5 cm, electrode area: 160 cm2, initial pH: 7.5 and settling time: 60 min. The EC brought down the concentration of NO3 - within desirable limit of the Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS)/WHO for drinking water. Under optimal operating conditions, the operating cost was found to be 1.01/m3 of water in terms of the electrode consumption (23.71 × 10-5 kg Al/m3) and energy consumption (101.76 kWh/m3).

  19. Nitrogen and Phosphorous Removal in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in China: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface water environment in China was degraded rapidly in the last two decades, resulting in increasingly tighten criteria issued for municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. This paper reviewed the recent advances of process design and operational optimization for nutrients removal. Three major processes, as anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (AAO process, oxidation ditch (OD, and sequencing batch reactor (SBR occupied 65% of WWTPs amounts and 54% of treatment volumes of China in 2006. However conservative process designs and operational faults often impaired the process performances and energy efficiency. Therefore, typical processes were modified, combined, and innovated to meet the requirements of the diverse influent characteristics and lower energy consumptions. Furthermore, operational optimization techniques by modeling, simulation, and real-time control were also developed and applied in China to improve the process operation. Although great efforts had been contributed to improve the WWTPs performances in China, attentions should be continuously paid to the introduction, instruction, and implementation of advanced techniques. At last, the technical demands and appropriated techniques of WWTPs in China were briefly discussed.

  20. Anaerobic Codigestion of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge with Food Waste: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubayeda Zahan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the codigestion of food manufacturing and processing wastes (FW with sewage sludge (SS, that is, municipal wastewater treatment plant primary sludge and waste activated sludge. Bench scale mesophilic anaerobic reactors were fed intermittently with varying ratio of SS and FW and operated at a hydraulic retention time of 20 days and organic loading of 2.0 kg TS/m3·d. The specific biogas production (SBP increased by 25% to 50% with the addition of 1%–5% FW to SS which is significantly higher than the SBP from SS of 284±9.7 mLN/g VS added. Although the TS, VS, and tCOD removal slightly increased, the biogas yield and methane content improved significantly and no inhibitory effects were observed as indicated by the stable pH throughout the experiment. Metal screening of the digestate suggested the biosolids meet the guidelines for use as a soil conditioner. Batch biochemical methane potential tests at different ratios of SS : FW were used to determine the optimum ratio using surface model analysis. The results showed that up to 47-48% FW can be codigested with SS. Overall these results confirm that codigestion has great potential in improving the methane yield of SS.

  1. Novel passive co-treatment of acid mine drainage and municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosnider, William H J; Winfrey, Brandon K; Nairn, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory-scale, four-stage continuous-flow reactor system was constructed to test the viability of high-strength acid mine drainage (AMD) and municipal wastewater (MWW) passive co-treatment. Synthetic AMD of pH 2.6 and acidity of 1870 mg L(-1) as CaCO3 equivalent containing a mean 46, 0.25, 2.0, 290, 55, 1.2, and 390 mg L(-1) of Al, As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn, respectively, was added at a 1:2 ratio with raw MWW from the City of Norman, OK, to the system which had a total residence time of 6.6 d. During the 135-d experiment, dissolved Al, As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations were consistently decreased by 99.8, 87.8, 97.7, 99.8, 13.9, 87.9, and 73.4%, respectively, pH increased to 6.79, and net acidic influent was converted to net alkaline effluent. At a wasting rate of 0.69% of total influent flow, the system produced sludge with total Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn concentrations at least an order of magnitude greater than the influent mix, which presents a metal reclamation opportunity. Results indicate that AMD and MWW passive co-treatment is a viable approach to use wastes as resources to improve water quality with minimal use of fossil fuels and refined materials.

  2. Outfall K-018 TRC investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skiff, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    During 1993, 7 different samples taken at Reactor Outfall K-018 for Total Residual Chlorine exceeded the permitted requirement for the outfall of < 0.1 mg/L. Following the second exceedance, a Mitigation Action Plan was issued to investigate and identify the cause of the exceedances. The following potential causes were identified: (1) unauthorized/unknown operational discharge; (2) upstream industrial discharge to the Savannah River prior to SRS usage; (3) sanitary waste treatment plant discharge; (4) sampling methodology; (5) naturally occurring river water interference. Of these possibilities, it was determined that naturally occurring river water interference was the most likely cause and an in-depth sampling program, outlined in a Program Action Plan, was initiated to complete the investigation. The investigation determined that oxidized manganese present in the river water prior to usage within K-Area causes a false high reading for Total Residual Chlorine. It is this presence of the manganese interference, not operational discharge, that caused the exceedances at Outfall K-018

  3. Non linear relationship between change in awareness in municipal solid waste management and domestic wastewater management - A case of the Jodipan and Ksatrian village, Malang, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiyya, Nida Maisa; Sarli, Prasanti Widyasih; Soewondo, Prayatni

    2017-11-01

    In developing countries the awareness on the importance of sanitation facilities, whether it is for municipal solid waste or domestic wastewater treatment, is still very low. Jodipan and Ksatrian Village, in Malang, East Java, are two slum areas that have recently been improved visually by using simple colorful paints. The visual improvement was expected to increase the resident's awareness on the importance of keeping the area clean; adjacent to the project, a new municipal waste management system was also put in place, changing the president's behaviour towards municipal solid waste. This study focuses on the relationship between community awareness in municipal solid waste management and domestic wastewater management. The result is expected to be an input for the government to enhance wastewater infrastructure program and its sustainability, related to its awareness on municipal solid waste. A descriptive model through questionnaire to 48 households of Jodipan sub district in Kampung Warna-warni and 69 households of Ksatrian sub district in Kampung 3D by random sampling, with an error of 0.1, was used to conduct this research. A nonlinear relationship between the change in awareness in municipal solid waste management (MSW) and domestic wastewater management was observed, with only 0.1312 of determination coefficient. Weak Spearman correlation coefficient number was found, ranging from 0.284 to 0.39, indicating another parameter turned into a role on affecting the awareness of wastewater. Further study about another parameter (eg. social and economic parameter) intervension on sanitation awareness could be investigated.

  4. Coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge and reuse in post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Abhilash T; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of recovering the coagulant from water treatment plant sludge with sulphuric acid and reusing it in post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater were studied. The optimum conditions for coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Sludge obtained from plants that use polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and alum coagulant was utilised for the study. Effect of three variables, pH, solid content and mixing time was studied using a Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. RSM model was developed based on the experimental aluminium recovery, and the response plots were developed. Results of the study showed significant effects of all the three variables and their interactions in the recovery process. The optimum aluminium recovery of 73.26 and 62.73 % from PACl sludge and alum sludge, respectively, was obtained at pH of 2.0, solid content of 0.5 % and mixing time of 30 min. The recovered coagulant solution had elevated concentrations of certain metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) which raised concern about its reuse potential in water treatment. Hence, the coagulant recovered from PACl sludge was reused as coagulant for post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater. The recovered coagulant gave 71 % COD, 80 % turbidity, 89 % phosphate, 77 % suspended solids and 99.5 % total coliform removal at 25 mg Al/L. Fresh PACl also gave similar performance but at higher dose of 40 mg Al/L. The results suggest that coagulant can be recovered from water treatment plant sludge and can be used to treat UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater which can reduce the consumption of fresh coagulant in wastewater treatment.

  5. Biological nutrient removal from municipal wastewater in sequencing batch biofilm reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnz, P

    2001-07-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) has only been put into practice in activated sludge systems. In recent years, the Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (SBBR) has emerged as an alternative allowing EBPR to be achieved in a biofilm reactor. High efficiency of phosphate removal was demonstrated in a SBBR fed with synthetic wastewater containing acetate. The aim of this study was to investigate EBPR from municipal wastewater in semi full-scale and laboratory-scale SBBRs. The focus of the investigation in the semi full-scale reactor was on determination of achievable reaction rates and effluent concentrations under varying influent conditions throughout all seasons of a year. Interactions between nitrogen and phosphorus removal and the influence of backwashing on the reactor performance was examined. Summing up, it can be stated that the SBBR proved to be an attractive alternative to activated sludge systems. Phosphorus elimination efficiency was comparable to common systems but biomass sedimentation problems were avoided. In order to further exploit the potential of the SBBR and to achieve reactor performances superior to those of existing systems designing a special biofilm carrier material may allow to increase the phenomenon of simultaneous nitrification/denitrification while maintaining EBPR activity. (orig.) [German] Die vermehrte biologische Phosphorelimination (Bio-P) aus Abwasser wurde bisher nur in Belebtschlammsystemen praktiziert. In den letzten Jahren konnte jedoch gezeigt werden, dass sich durch die Anwendung des Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (SBBR) - Verfahrens auch in Biofilmreaktoren Bio-P verwirklichen laesst. Versuche in Laboranlagen haben ergeben, dass sich eine weitgehende Phosphorelimination aufrecht erhalten laesst, wenn die Reaktoren mit einem ideal zusammengesetzten, synthetischen Abwasser beschickt werden. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, Bio-P aus kommunalem Abwasser in SBBR-Versuchsanlagen im halbtechnischen und im Labormassstab zu

  6. Sewage outfall plume dispersion observations with an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, P; Cunha, S R; Neves, M V; Pereira, F L; Quintaneiro, I

    2005-01-01

    This work represents one of the first successful applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for interdisciplinary coastal research. A monitoring mission to study the shape and estimate the initial dilution of the S. Jacinto sewage outfall plume using an AUV was performed on July 2002. An efficient sampling strategy enabling greater improvements in spatial and temporal range of detection demonstrated that the sewage effluent plume can be clearly traced using naturally occurring tracers in the wastewater. The outfall plume was found at the surface highly influenced by the weak stratification and low currents. Dilution varying with distance downstream was estimated from the plume rise over the outfall diffuser until a nearly constant value of 130:1, 60 m from the diffuser, indicating the near field end. Our results demonstrate that AUVs can provide high-quality measurements of physical properties of effluent plumes in a very effective manner and valuable considerations about the initial mixing processes under real oceanic conditions can be further investigated.

  7. Class 1 Integrons and the Antiseptic Resistance Gene (qacEΔ1) in Municipal and Swine Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment Plants and Wastewater-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Min Tao; Chou, Chin Cheng

    2015-06-02

    Class 1 integrons are mobile gene elements (MGEs) containing qacEΔ1 that are resistant to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) disinfectants. This study compared the abundances of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in municipal (M) and swine slaughterhouse (S) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and investigated the presence of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from wastewater samples. The abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in 96 wastewater samples were quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR), and 113 MRSA isolates recovered from the wastewater samples were detected class 1 integrons and linked antiseptic resistance genes (qacEΔ1), and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for QAC antiseptics. The intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes were detected in all the wastewater samples, and they were more abundant in S-WWTP samples than in M-WWTP samples. A higher percentage of MRSA isolates carried qacEΔ1 in MRSA from swine wastewater samples (62.8%) than in municipal MRSA (3.7%). All the MRSA isolates showed high MICs for antiseptic agents. This study provides important evidence regarding the abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in municipal and swine slaughterhouse wastewater, and antiseptic-resistant MRSA strains were detected in swine slaughterhouse wastewater.

  8. Heavy metals in sediments from the Athens sewage outfall area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papakostidis, G.; Grimanis, A.P.; Zafiropoulos, D.; Griggs, G.B.; Hopkins, T.S.

    1975-01-01

    Sediments in the upper Saronikos Gulf have been contaminated by heavy metals from the discharge of untreated industrial and domestic wastewater from the area around Athens. Neutron activation analysis indicates concentrations of antimony, arsenic, chromium, gold, mercury, silver and zinc at 8 to 200 times greater than in the surrounding uncontaminated sediments. The bottom area affected by increased metal concentrations is at least 13km 2 and indicates a nearly radial dispersal pattern from the main outfall with higher concentrations extending to the southeast and southwest. (author)

  9. Microbial-based evaluation of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for the sustainable and efficient treatment of municipal wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moustapha

    2017-03-01

    Conventional activated sludge-based wastewater treatment is an energy and resource-intensive process. Historically it has been successful at producing safely treated wastewater effluents in the developed world, specifically in places that have the infrastructure and space to support its operation. However, with a growing need for safe and efficient wastewater treatment across the world in both urban and rural settings, a paradigm shift in waste treatment is proving to be necessary. The sustainability of the future of wastewater treatment, in a significant way, hinges on moving towards energy neutrality and wastewater effluent reuse. This potential for reuse is threatened by the recent emergence and study of contaminants that have not been previously taken into consideration, such as antibiotics and other organic micropollutants (OMPs), antibiotic resistance genes, and persistent pathogenic bacteria. This dissertation focuses on investigating the use of anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology for the sustainable treatment of municipal-type wastewaters. Specifically, a microbial approach to understanding biofouling and methane recovery potential in anaerobic MBR systems has been employed to assess different reactor systems’ efficiency. This dissertation further compares AnMBRs to their more widely used aerobic counterparts. This comparison specifically focuses on the removal and biodegradation of OMPs and antibiotics in both anaerobic and aerobic MBRs, while also investigating their effect on the proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes. Due to rising interest in wastewater effluent reuse and the lack of a comprehensive understanding of MBR systems’ effects on pathogen proliferation, this dissertation also investigates the presence of pathogens in both aerobic and anaerobic MBR effluents by using molecularbased detection methods. The findings of this dissertation demonstrate that membrane-associated anaerobic digestion processes have significant

  10. Seasonal and diurnal variability of N{sub 2}O emissions from a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daelman, Matthijs R.J., E-mail: m.r.j.daelman@tudelft.nl [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands); Department of Biosystems engineering, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Voorthuizen, Ellen M. van [Royal HaskoningDHV, P.O. Box 151, 6500AD Nijmegen (Netherlands); Dongen, Udo G.J.M. van [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands); Volcke, Eveline I.P. [Department of Biosystems engineering, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Loosdrecht, Mark C.M. van [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-12-01

    During nitrogen removal in conventional activated sludge processes, nitrous oxide can be emitted. With a global warming potential of 298 CO{sub 2}-equivalents it is an important greenhouse gas that affects the sustainability of wastewater treatment. The present study reports nitrous oxide emission data from a 16 month monitoring campaign on a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment. The emission demonstrated a pronounced diurnal and seasonal variability. This variability was compared with the variability of a number of process variables that are commonly available on a municipal wastewater treatment plant. On a seasonal timescale, the occurrence of peaks in the nitrite concentration correlated strongly with the emission. The diurnal trend of the emission coincided with the diurnal trend of the nitrite and nitrate concentrations in the tank, suggesting that suboptimal oxygen concentrations may induce the production of nitrous oxide during both nitrification and denitrification. This study documents an unprecedented dataset that could serve as a reference for further research. - Highlights: • Unique dataset of long-term nitrous oxide emission from activated sludge tanks • Emission exhibited pronounced diurnal variability, superimposed on seasonal trend • Seasonal nitrous oxide emission trend correlated with daily nitrite peaks • Emission’s diurnal trend suggests suboptimal oxygen concentrations as cause.

  11. Consumption-based approach for assessing the contribution of hospitals towards the load of pharmaceutical residues in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Kristell S; Ort, Christoph; Kateley, Diana; Allen, Belinda; Escher, Beate I; Keller, Jurg

    2012-09-15

    Hospitals are considered as major sources of pharmaceutical residues discharged to municipal wastewater, but recent experimental studies showed that the contribution of hospitals to the loads of selected, quantifiable pharmaceuticals in sewage treatment plant (STP) influents was limited. However such conclusions are made based on the experimental analysis of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater which is hindered by a number of factors such as access to suitable sampling sites, difficulties in obtaining representative samples and availability of analytical methods. Therefore, this study explores a refined and extended consumption-based approach to predict the contribution of six selected Australian hospitals to the loads of 589 pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater. In addition, the possibility that hospital-specific substances are present at levels that may pose a risk for human health was evaluated. For 63 to 84% of the pharmaceuticals investigated, the selected hospitals are not a major point source with individual contributions likely to be less than 15% which is in line with previous experimental studies. In contrast, between 10 and 20% of the pharmaceuticals consumed in the selected hospitals are exclusively used in these hospitals. For these hospital-specific substances, 57 distinct pharmaceuticals may cause concerns for human health as concentrations predicted in hospital effluents are less than 100-fold lower than effect thresholds. However, when concentrations were predicted in the influent of the corresponding STP, only 12 compounds (including the antineoplastic vincristine, the antibiotics tazobactam and piperacillin) remain in concentration close to effect thresholds, but further decrease is expected after removal in STP, dilution in the receiving stream and drinking water treatment. The results of this study suggest that risks of human exposure to the pharmaceuticals exclusively administered in the investigated hospitals are limited and

  12. Region 9 NPDES Outfalls 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for facilities which generally represent the site of the discharge. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from treated waste water that is discharged into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more dischargers. The location represents the discharge point of a discrete conveyance such as a pipe or man made ditch.

  13. Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge: A Preliminary Techno-Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schmidt, Andrew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hallen, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Billing, Justin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Samuel P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maupin, Gary D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-08

    A preliminary process model and techno-economic analysis (TEA) was completed for fuel produced from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of sludge waste from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and subsequent biocrude upgrading. The model is adapted from previous work by Jones et al. (2014) for algae HTL, using experimental data generated in fiscal year 2015 (FY15) bench-scale HTL testing of sludge waste streams. Testing was performed on sludge samples received from MetroVancouver’s Annacis Island WWTP (Vancouver, B.C.) as part of a collaborative project with the Water Environment and Reuse Foundation (WERF). The full set of sludge HTL testing data from this effort will be documented in a separate report to be issued by WERF. This analysis is based on limited testing data and therefore should be considered preliminary. Future refinements are necessary to improve the robustness of the model, including a cross-check of modeled biocrude components with the experimental GCMS data and investigation of equipment costs most appropriate at the smaller scales used here. Environmental sustainability metrics analysis is also needed to understand the broader impact of this technology pathway. The base case scenario for the analysis consists of 10 HTL plants, each processing 100 dry U.S. ton/day (92.4 ton/day on a dry, ash-free basis) of sludge waste and producing 234 barrel per stream day (BPSD) biocrude, feeding into a centralized biocrude upgrading facility that produces 2,020 barrel per standard day of final fuel. This scale was chosen based upon initial wastewater treatment plant data collected by the resource assessment team from the EPA’s Clean Watersheds Needs Survey database (EPA 2015a) and a rough estimate of what the potential sludge availability might be within a 100-mile radius. In addition, we received valuable feedback from the wastewater treatment industry as part of the WERF collaboration that helped form the basis for the selected HTL and upgrading

  14. Variation of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater treatment plant with A(2)O-MBR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing; Geng, Jinju; Ren, Hongqiang; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Yan

    2015-03-01

    The variation of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs)-tetG, tetW, tetX, sul1, and intI1-in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant with A(2)O-MBR system was studied. The concentrations of five resistance genes both in influent and in membrane bioreactor (MBR) effluent decreased as sul1 > intI1 > tetX > tetG > tetW, and an abundance of sul1 was statistically higher than three other tetracycline resistance genes (tetG, tetW, and tetX) (p MBR effluent. The reduction of tetW, intI1, and sul1 was all significantly positively correlated with the reduction of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in the wastewater treatment process (p MBR was observed for all ARGs.

  15. Start-up period investigation of pilot-scale submerged membrane electro-bioreactor (SMEBR) treating raw municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Shadi W; Elektorowicz, Maria; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

    2014-02-01

    Submerged membrane electro-bioreactor (SMEBR) is a new hybrid technology for wastewater treatment employing electrical field and microfiltration in a nutrient-removing activated sludge process. A pilot SMEBR system was located at the wastewater treatment plant in the City of l'Assomption (Quebec, Canada) with the objective of investigating the start-up period performance under variable organic loadings and environmental conditions with respect to effluent quality, membrane fouling, and sludge properties. The pilot SMEBR facility was fed with the raw de-gritted municipal wastewater. At steady state operation, the removal efficiencies of ammonia (as NH3(+)-N), phosphorus (as PO4(3-)-P), and COD were 99%, 99%, and 92%, respectively. No substantial increase in the monitored transmembrane pressure as 0.02kPad(-1) was reported. The time necessary to filter 100mL of the sludge sample has decreased by 78% after treatment whilst the sludge volume index averaged 119mLg(-1). Energy requirements were in the range of 1.1-1.6kWhm(-3) of wastewater. It was concluded that the SMEBR is a very competitive technology when compared to conventional membrane systems as it can enhance treatment performance to an appreciable extent, remove phosphorus and reduce fouling. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Trace Pharmaceuticals and Related Compounds in Municipal Wastewaters by Preconcentration, Chromatography, Derivatization, and Separation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Camilla Lindholm

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of pharmaceuticals and other organic chemicals consumed by people and animals are released into municipal wastewater treatment plants. Most of them are degraded during the wastewater treatment processes, but some of them degrade only partially and may be widely transported and dispersed into the aquatic environment. This is why efficient and fast analytical methods are needed for detection of organic compounds in wastewaters at trace levels. Because wastewaters often consist of complex matrices and high-molecular mass materials, e.g., lignocellulosic biomass, which may bring challenges to the sample preparation procedures, efficient pre-concentration methods such as solid phase extraction (SPE solid phase microextraction (SPME, or single drop microextraction (SDME are needed. The most common analysis methods are gas chromatography (GC and liquid chromatography (LC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS. The aim of this review is to give an overview of chromatographic and spectroscopic methods when characterizing low- and medium-molecular weight organic pollutants, mainly focusing on pharmaceuticals, biocides, and personal care products in environmental matrices.

  17. Impact assessment of mine drainage water and municipal wastewater on the surface water in the vicinity of Bor

    OpenAIRE

    Gardić Vojka R.; Petrović Jelena V.; Đurđevac-Ignjatović Lidija V.; Kolaković Srđan R.; Vujović Svetlana R.

    2015-01-01

    Mining and copper production in Bor, in the past hundred years, had a huge impact on the environment of town, but also in a wide region. In the area of Bor, in the zone of Mining and Smelting Company (RTB) activity, over 29,000 ha of land under forests and fields is degraded. The area of degraded agricultural land in the Bor municipality is over 60% of total agricultural land. Wastewater, generated in the sites of RTB Bor, pollute the Bor River and Krivelj ...

  18. Pretreatment techniques of biodegradable municipal wastewater for sustainable development of surface and groundwater resources: a survey/case studies (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, A.; Sajjad, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Water being a scarce commodity, recharge of groundwater with clean surface water is important to maintain good quality water resources. This paper reviews and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different techniques for the treatment of municipal wastewater's in developing countries. Different processes discussed include from simple stabilization ponds and land treatment to aerated lagoons and oxidation ditches. More sophisticated techniques of activated sludge and anaerobic digestion are also discussed. The feasibility of these techniques in terms of cost, land area, removal of pathogens, effluent quality and need of technical expertise is discussed. (author)

  19. Municipal Wastewater Privatization: An Alternative with Solutions for Infrastructure Development, Environmental Compliance, and Improved Efficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    wakeman, Roger

    1998-01-01

    .... Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed...

  20. Study of soil bacterial and crop quality irrigated with treated municipal wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinezhadian, A; Karim, A; Mohammadi, J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In arid and semi-arid regions, wastewater reuse has become an important element in agriculture. However, irrigation with this resource can be either beneficial or harmful, depending on the wastewater characteristics. The aim of this research was to investigate the soil...... bacterial and crops quality irrigated with treated wastewater. Material and Methods: This research was conducted on a maize field near the wastewater treatment plant in Shahr-e-kord in summer,2011. Plots were arranged in a randomized complete block design in 3 replications and 2 treatments, well water (W1...

  1. Reduction of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhuang, Yao; Geng, Jinju, E-mail: jjgeng@nju.edu.cn; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Ding, Lili

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), intI1 and 16S rRNA genes, by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), namely Fenton oxidation (Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process. The ARGs include sul1, tetX, and tetG from municipal wastewater effluent. The results indicated that the Fenton oxidation and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process could reduce selected ARGs effectively. Oxidation by the Fenton process was slightly better than that of the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} method. Particularly, for the Fenton oxidation, under the optimal condition wherein Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} had a molar ratio of 0.1 and a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration of 0.01 mol L{sup −1} with a pH of 3.0 and reaction time of 2 h, 2.58–3.79 logs of target genes were removed. Under the initial effluent pH condition (pH = 7.0), the removal was 2.26–3.35 logs. For the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process, when the pH was 3.5 with a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration of 0.01 mol L{sup −1} accompanied by 30 min of UV irradiation, all ARGs could achieve a reduction of 2.8–3.5 logs, and 1.55–2.32 logs at a pH of 7.0. The Fenton oxidation and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process followed the first-order reaction kinetic model. The removal of target genes was affected by many parameters, including initial Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molar ratios, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, solution pH, and reaction time. Among these factors, reagent concentrations and pH values are the most important factors during AOPs. - Highlights: • AOPs including Fenton oxidation and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process could reduce ARGs effectively. • Fenton oxidation is slightly more effective than UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process in ARG reduction. • Removal of ARGs by AOPs follows the first-order reaction kinetic model. • Selected ARGs and 16S rRNA genes exhibit similar change trends during AOPs.

  2. Removal and Degradation Pathways of Sulfamethoxazole Present in Synthetic Municipal Wastewater via an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Sanchez Huerta, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    The current global water crisis in addition to continues contamination of natural water bodies with harmful organic micropollutants (OMPs) have driven the development of new water treatment technologies that allow the efficient removal of such compounds. Among a long list of OMPs, antibiotics are considered as top priority pollutants to be treated due to their great resistance to biological treatments and their potential to develop bacterial resistance. Different approaches, such as membrane-based and advance oxidation processes have been proposed to alleviate or minimize antibiotics discharge into aquatic environments. However most of these processes are costly and generate either matrices with high concentration of OMPs or intermediate products with potentially greater toxicity or persistence. Therefore, this thesis proposes the study of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for the treatment of synthetic municipal wastewater containing sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a world widely used antibiotic. Besides the general evaluation of AnMBR performance in the COD removal and biogas production, this research mainly focuses on the SMX removal and its degradation pathway. Thus 5 SMX quantification was performed through solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and the identification of its transformation products (TPs) was assessed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. The results achieved showed that, working under optimal conditions (35°C, pH 7 and ORP around -380 to -420 mV) and after a biomass adaptation period (maintaining 0.85 VSS/TSS ratio), the AnMBR process provided over 95% COD removal and 95-98% SMX removal, while allowing stable biogas composition and methane production (≈130 mL CH4/g CODremoved). Kinetic analysis through a batch test showed that after 24 h of biological reaction, AnMBR process achieved around 94% SMX removal, indicating a first order kinetic reaction with K= 0.119, which highlights the high degradation

  3. Polishing of Anaerobic Secondary Effluent and Symbiotic Bioremediation of Raw Municipal Wastewater by Chlorella Vulgaris

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Tuoyuan

    2016-05-01

    To assess polishing of anaerobic secondary effluent and symbiotic bioremediation of primary effluent by microalgae, bench scale bubbling column reactors were operated in batch modes to test nutrients removal capacity and associated factors. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) together with oil and grease in terms of hexane extractable material (HEM) in the reactors were measured after batch cultivation tests of Chlorella Vulgaris, indicating the releasing algal metabolites were oleaginous (dissolved HEM up to 8.470 mg/L) and might hazard effluent quality. Ultrafiltration adopted as solid-liquid separation step was studied via critical flux and liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Although nutrients removal was dominated by algal assimilation, nitrogen removal (99.6% maximum) was affected by generation time (2.49 days minimum) instead of specific nitrogen removal rate (sN, 20.72% maximum), while phosphorus removal (49.83% maximum) was related to both generation time and specific phosphorus removal rate (sP, 1.50% maximum). COD increase was affected by cell concentration (370.90 mg/L maximum), specific COD change rate (sCOD, 0.87 maximum) and shading effect. sCOD results implied algal metabolic pathway shift under nutrients stress, generally from lipid accumulation to starch accumulation when phosphorus lower than 5 mg/L, while HEM for batches with initial nitrogen of 10 mg/L implied this threshold around 8 mg/L. HEM and COD results implied algal metabolic pathway shift under nutrients stress. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent polishing showed similar results to synthetic anaerobic secondary effluent with slight inhibition while 4 symbiotic bioremediation of raw municipal wastewater with microalgae and activated sludge showed competition for ammonium together with precipitation or microalgal luxury uptake of phosphorus. Critical flux was governed by algal cell concentration for ultrafiltration membrane with pore size of 30 nm, while

  4. Reduction of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhuang, Yao; Geng, Jinju; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Ding, Lili

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), intI1 and 16S rRNA genes, by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), namely Fenton oxidation (Fe"2"+/H_2O_2) and UV/H_2O_2 process. The ARGs include sul1, tetX, and tetG from municipal wastewater effluent. The results indicated that the Fenton oxidation and UV/H_2O_2 process could reduce selected ARGs effectively. Oxidation by the Fenton process was slightly better than that of the UV/H_2O_2 method. Particularly, for the Fenton oxidation, under the optimal condition wherein Fe"2"+/H_2O_2 had a molar ratio of 0.1 and a H_2O_2 concentration of 0.01 mol L"−"1 with a pH of 3.0 and reaction time of 2 h, 2.58–3.79 logs of target genes were removed. Under the initial effluent pH condition (pH = 7.0), the removal was 2.26–3.35 logs. For the UV/H_2O_2 process, when the pH was 3.5 with a H_2O_2 concentration of 0.01 mol L"−"1 accompanied by 30 min of UV irradiation, all ARGs could achieve a reduction of 2.8–3.5 logs, and 1.55–2.32 logs at a pH of 7.0. The Fenton oxidation and UV/H_2O_2 process followed the first-order reaction kinetic model. The removal of target genes was affected by many parameters, including initial Fe"2"+/H_2O_2 molar ratios, H_2O_2 concentration, solution pH, and reaction time. Among these factors, reagent concentrations and pH values are the most important factors during AOPs. - Highlights: • AOPs including Fenton oxidation and UV/H_2O_2 process could reduce ARGs effectively. • Fenton oxidation is slightly more effective than UV/H_2O_2 process in ARG reduction. • Removal of ARGs by AOPs follows the first-order reaction kinetic model. • Selected ARGs and 16S rRNA genes exhibit similar change trends during AOPs.

  5. Crossflow ultrafiltration of raw municipal wastewater : Investigations using PVDF tubular membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravazzini, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the usual wastewater treatment schemes the application of membranes follows a biological process. However, ultrafiltration of untreated wastewater produces permeate free of particles and bacteria in one single step and could represent the starting point for new water-reuse concepts. This thesis

  6. Inter-Municipal Cooperation For Wastewater Treatment: Case studies from Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon; Kliot, Nurit

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, local authorities in Israel have been engaged in promoting advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) projects throughout the country, resulting in the “wastewater treatment revolution” of the 1990s. These achievements are extremely important in the water-scarce

  7. A study on the migration and transformation law of nitrogen in urine in municipal wastewater transportation and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Ren; Pengkang, Jin; Chenggang, Liang; Xiaochang, Wang; Lei, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Many studies suggest that the total nitrogen (TN) in urine is around 9,000 mg/L and about 80% of nitrogen in municipal wastewater comes from urine, because nitrogen mainly occurs in the form of urea in fresh human urine. Based on this fact, the study on the migration and transformation law of nitrogen in urine and its influencing factors was carried out. It can be seen from the experimental results that the transformation rate of urea in urine into ammonia nitrogen after standing for 20 days is only about 18.2%, but the urea in urine can be hydrolyzed into ammonia nitrogen rapidly after it is catalyzed directly with free urease or indirectly with microorganism. Adding respectively a certain amount of urease, activated sludge and septic-tank sludge to urine samples can make the maximum transformation rate achieve 85% after 1 day, 2 days and 6 days, respectively. In combination with some corresponding treatment methods, recycling of nitrogen in urine can be achieved. The results are of great significance in guiding denitrification in municipal wastewater treatment.

  8. Sustainable organic loading rate and energy recovery potential of mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2014-08-01

    The overall performance of a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for synthetic municipal wastewater treatment was investigated under a range of organic loading rate (OLR). A very steady and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (around 98%) was achieved over a broad range of volumetric OLR of 0.8-10gCOD/L/d. The sustainable volumetric and sludge OLR satisfying a permeate COD below 50mg/L for general reuse was 6gCOD/L/d and 0.63gCOD/gMLVSS (mixed liquor volatile suspended solids)/d, respectively. At a high sludge OLR of over 0.6gCOD/gMLVSS/d, the AnMBR achieved high methane production of over 300ml/gCOD (even approaching the theoretical value of 382ml/gCOD). A low biomass production of 0.015-0.026gMLVSS/gCOD and a sustainable flux of 6L/m2/h were observed. The integration of a heat pump and forward osmosis into the mesophilic AnMBR process would be a promising way for net energy recovery from typical municipal wastewater in a temperate area. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Pecan shell-based granular activated carbon for treatment of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansode, R R; Losso, J N; Marshall, W E; Rao, R M; Portier, R J

    2004-09-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to compare the adsorption efficiency of pecan shell-based granular activated carbon with the adsorption efficiency of the commercial carbon Filtrasorb 200 with respect to uptake of the organic components responsible for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of municipal wastewater. Adsorption efficiencies for these two sets of carbons (experimental and commercial) were analyzed by the Freundlich adsorption model. The results indicate that steam-activated and acid-activated pecan shell-based carbons had higher adsorption for organic matter measured as COD, than carbon dioxide-activated pecan shell-based carbon or Filtrasorb 200 at all the carbon dosages used during the experiment. The higher adsorption may be related to surface area as the two carbons with the highest surface area also had the highest organic matter adsorption. These results show that granular activated carbons made from agricultural waste (pecan shells) can be used with greater effectiveness for organic matter removal from municipal wastewater than a coal-based commercial carbon. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Sustainable organic loading rate and energy recovery potential of mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai; Harb, Moustapha; Amy, Gary L.; Hong, Pei-Ying; Leiknes, TorOve

    2014-01-01

    The overall performance of a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for synthetic municipal wastewater treatment was investigated under a range of organic loading rate (OLR). A very steady and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (around 98%) was achieved over a broad range of volumetric OLR of 0.8-10gCOD/L/d. The sustainable volumetric and sludge OLR satisfying a permeate COD below 50mg/L for general reuse was 6gCOD/L/d and 0.63gCOD/gMLVSS (mixed liquor volatile suspended solids)/d, respectively. At a high sludge OLR of over 0.6gCOD/gMLVSS/d, the AnMBR achieved high methane production of over 300ml/gCOD (even approaching the theoretical value of 382ml/gCOD). A low biomass production of 0.015-0.026gMLVSS/gCOD and a sustainable flux of 6L/m2/h were observed. The integration of a heat pump and forward osmosis into the mesophilic AnMBR process would be a promising way for net energy recovery from typical municipal wastewater in a temperate area. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Ocean outfalls as an alternative to minimizing risks to human and environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Renato Castiglia

    2017-06-01

    Submarine outfalls are proposed as an efficient alternative for the final destination of wastewater in densely populated coastal areas, due to the high dispersal capacity and the clearance of organic matter in the marine environment, and because they require small areas for implementation. This paper evaluates the probability of unsuitable bathing conditions in coastal areas nearby to the Ipanema, Barra da Tijuca and Icaraí outfalls based on a computational methodology gathering hydrodynamic, pollutant transport, and bacterial decay modelling. The results show a strong influence of solar radiation and all factors that mitigate its levels in the marine environment on coliform concentration. The aforementioned outfalls do not pollute the coastal areas, and unsuitable bathing conditions are restricted to nearby effluent launching points. The pollution observed at the beaches indicates that the contamination occurs due to the polluted estuarine systems, rivers and canals that flow to the coast.

  12. Disinfection process of municipal wastewater through ultraviolet radiation: Application in the wastewater treatment plant of Jerez de la Frontera; Desinfeccion de aguas residuales urbanas mediante radiacion ultravioleta: Aplicacion enla EDAR de Jerez de la Frontera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo Davila, I.; Andrades Balao, J. A.; Quiroga Alonso, J. M.

    2002-07-01

    This paper reports the results obtained of the disinfection through ultraviolet radiation of the treated municipal wastewater in the plant of Jerez de la Frontera for possible municipal and tourist/recreational reuse. The results obtained show that 1.265 J/m''2 of UV doses cause nearly a 99, 9% decrease of the studied microorganisms (total coliform, fecal coliform and fecal strepto cocos) in more than 77% of the carried out studies. The disinfection unitary cost, at industrial scale, was 0.03 E/m''3 waste-water, which means the UV radiation treatment is very competitive against others disinfection systems. (Author) 10 refs.

  13. Stress-related gene expression changes in rainbow trout hepatocytes exposed to various municipal wastewater treatment influents and effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, F; Smyth, S A; André, C; Douville, M; Gélinas, M; Barclay, K

    2013-03-01

    processes had the best performance. We found that the effects of municipal effluents on gene expression depended on the population size, the initial properties of the incoming influent, and the wastewater treatment method applied. Considering that the long-term goals of wastewater treatment is to produce clean effluents for the aquatic biota and independent of the incoming influent, more research is needed in developing treatment processes to better protect aquatic life from anthropogenic contamination.

  14. THE IMPACT OF FOOD WASTE DISCHARGE INTO THE MUNICIPAL SEWERAGE ON COD CONCENTRATION IN URBAN WASTEWATER IN OLSZTYN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Janczukowicz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The operators of wastewater treatment plants in Poland have been observing an increase in the concentration of raw sewage for several years. In particular for organic substances. This is the effect of water consumption reduction, restoration of the sewerage networks, growing wealth, widespread waste of food. The most serious adverse, influencing on the municipal wastewater composition is colloid mills application in gastronomical objects and the discharge of shredded food waste to sewer. That widespread behavior has been noticed and negated, in 2010 year, by the common position of GIS and the ME. Far too late, which confirms the situation observed at the Olsztyn wastewater treatment plant, where the biggest increase of COD values ​​was observed in 2008–2010. The average concentration of COD of sewage in the period 2011–2014 was almost twice higher than in 1996, real PE is close to the design value, despite the fact that the hydraulic load of the object slightly exceeded 50% of design value. Removing such large organic pollutant loads generates high costs, that could be avoided by reasonable food waste management.

  15. Palm oil mill effluent and municipal wastewater co-treatment by zeolite augmented sequencing batch reactors: Turbidity removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farraji, Hossein; Zaman, Nastaein Qamaruz; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Sa'at, Siti Kamariah Md

    2017-10-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is the largest wastewater in Malaysia. Of the 60 million tons of POME produced annually, 2.4-3 million tons are total solids. Turbidity is caused by suspended solids, and 75% of total suspended solids are organic matter. Coagulation and flocculation are popular treatments for turbidity removal. Traditional commercial treatments do not meet discharge standards. This study evaluated natural zeolite and municipal wastewater (MWW)-augmented sequencing batch reactor as a microbiological digestion method for the decontamination of POME in response surface methodology. Aeration, contact time, and MWW/POME ratio were selected as response factors for turbidity removal. Results indicated that turbidity removal varied from 96.7% (MWW/POME ratio=50 %, aeration flow=0.5 L/min, and contact time=12) to 99.31% (MWW/POME ratio=80%, aeration flow 4L/min, and contact time 12 h). This study is the first to present MWW augmentation as a suitable microorganism supplier for turbidity biodegradation in high-strength agroindustrial wastewater.

  16. Investigation of the environmental impacts of municipal wastewater treatment plants through a Life Cycle Assessment software tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, G; Ferrara, C

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the total and per capita environmental impacts of municipal wastewater treatment in the function of the population equivalent (PE) with a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach using the processes of the Ecoinvent 2.2 database available in the software tool SimaPro v.7.3. Besides the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), the study also considers the sewerage system. The obtained results confirm that there is a 'scale factor' for the wastewater collection and treatment even in environmental terms, in addition to the well-known scale factor in terms of management costs. Thus, the more the treatment plant size is, the less the per capita environmental impacts are. However, the Ecoinvent 2.2 database does not contain information about treatment systems with a capacity lower than 30 PE. Nevertheless, worldwide there are many sparsely populated areas, where it is not convenient to realize a unique centralized WWTP. Therefore, it would be very important to conduct an LCA study in order to compare alternative on-site small-scale systems with treatment capacity of few PE.

  17. Comparative Inactivation of Murine Norovirus and MS2 Bacteriophage by Peracetic Acid and Monochloramine in Municipal Secondary Wastewater Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkin, Nathan; Weng, ShihChi; Schwab, Kellogg J; McQuarrie, James; Bell, Kati; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2017-03-07

    Chlorination has long been used for disinfection of municipal wastewater (MWW) effluent while the use peracetic acid (PAA) has been proposed more recently in the United States. Previous work has demonstrated the bactericidal effectiveness of PAA and monochloramine in wastewater, but limited information is available for viruses, especially ones of mammalian origin (e.g., norovirus). Therefore, a comparative assessment was performed of the virucidal efficacy of PAA and monochloramine against murine norovirus (MNV) and MS2 bacteriophage in secondary effluent MWW and phosphate buffer (PB). A suite of inactivation kinetic models was fit to the viral inactivation data. Predicted concentration-time (CT) values for 1-log 10 MS2 reduction by PAA and monochloramine in MWW were 1254 and 1228 mg-min/L, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-log 10 model predicted CT values for MNV viral reduction in MWW were 32, 47, and 69 mg-min/L for PAA and 6, 13, and 28 mg-min/L for monochloramine, respectively. Wastewater treatment plant disinfection practices informed by MS2 inactivation data will likely be protective for public health but may overestimate CT values for reduction of MNV. Additionally, equivalent CT values in PB resulted in greater viral reduction which indicate that viral inactivation data in laboratory grade water may not be generalizable to MWW applications.

  18. Nondeterministic computational fluid dynamics modeling of Escherichia coli inactivation by peracetic acid in municipal wastewater contact tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Domenico; Crapulli, Ferdinando; Raisee, Mehrdad; Raspa, Giuseppe; Haas, Charles N

    2015-06-16

    Wastewater disinfection processes are typically designed according to heuristics derived from batch experiments in which the interaction among wastewater quality, reactor hydraulics, and inactivation kinetics is often neglected. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study was conducted in a nondeterministic (ND) modeling framework to predict the Escherichia coli inactivation by peracetic acid (PAA) in municipal contact tanks fed by secondary settled wastewater effluent. The extent and variability associated with the observed inactivation kinetics were both satisfactorily predicted by the stochastic inactivation model at a 95% confidence level. Moreover, it was found that (a) the process variability induced by reactor hydraulics is negligible when compared to the one caused by inactivation kinetics, (b) the PAA dose required for meeting regulations is dictated equally by the fixed limit of the microbial concentration as well as its probability of occurrence, and (c) neglecting the probability of occurrence during process sizing could lead to an underestimation of the PAA dose required by as much as 100%. Finally, the ND-CFD model was used to generate sizing information in the form of probabilistic disinfection curves relating E. coli inactivation and probability of occurrence with the average PAA dose and PAA residual concentration at the outlet of the contact tank.

  19. Research on sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) for synthetic and municipal wastewater treatment in biological aerated filter (BAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaqin; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Renbo; Yue, Min; Han, Shuxin; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Qian; Yu, Hui

    2009-11-01

    Sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) and clay ceramic particles (CCP) were employed in two lab-scale up-flow biological aerated filters (BAF) for wastewater treatment to investigate the availability of SFCP used as biofilm support compared with CCP. For synthetic wastewater, under the selected hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 1.5, 0.75 and 0.37 h, respectively, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)) and ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N) in SFCP reactor were all higher than those of CCP reactor all through the media height. Moreover, better capabilities responding to loading shock and faster recovery after short intermittence were observed in the SFCP reactor compared with the CCP reactor. For municipal wastewater treatment, which was carried out under HRT of 0.75 h, air-liquid ratio of 7.5 and backwashing period of 48 h, the SFCP reactor also performed better than the CCP reactor, especially for the removal of NH(4)(+)-N.

  20. Genotoxicity biomonitoring of sewage in two municipal wastewater treatment plants using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewes, Márcia Regina; Junior, Delio Endres; Droste, Annette

    2011-10-01

    The genotoxicity of untreated and treated sewage from two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WTP BN and WTP SJN) in the municipality of Porto Alegre, in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, was evaluated over a one-year period using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea (Trad-MCN) bioassay. Inflorescences of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed to sewage samples in February (summer), April (autumn), July (winter) and October (spring) 2009, and the micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were estimated in each period. The high genotoxicity of untreated sewage from WTP BN in February and April was not observed in treated sewage, indicating the efficiency of treatment at this WTP. However, untreated and treated sewage samples from WTP SJN had high MCN frequencies, except in October, when rainfall may have been responsible for reducing these frequencies at both WTPs. Physicochemical analyses of sewage from both WTPs indicated elevated concentrations of organic matter that were higher at WTP SJN than at WTP BN. Chromium was detected in untreated and treated sewage from WTP SJN, but not in treated sewage from WTP BN. Lead was found in all untreated sewage samples from WTP SJN, but only in the summer and autumn at WTP BN. These results indicate that the short-term Trad-MCN genotoxicity assay may be useful for regular monitoring of municipal WTPs.

  1. Full-scale Applications of Membrane Filtration in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holba, Marek; Plotěný, K.; Dvořák, L.; Gómez, M.; Růžičková, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 5 (2012), s. 479-486 ISSN 1863-0650 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : membrane bioreactors * wastewater treatment * full-scale application Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.046, year: 2012

  2. Alternative Treatment Technologies for Low-Cost Industrial and Municipal Wastewater Management

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    Roughly the same volume of water that rushes over the Niagara Falls is produced as wastewater in North America. This wastewater is treated through a variety of means to ensure that it can be safely returned to the natural ecosystem. This thesis examines two novel means for this treatment, one biological and one physical-chemical in nature, namely, Rotating Algae Biofilm Reactor treatment and expanded shale augmented coagulation-flocculation. Rotating algae biofilm reactors (RABRs) support ...

  3. Regulation of wastewater treatment plants in the Ba-Phalaborwa municipality / Q.N. Gopo

    OpenAIRE

    Gopo, Nothando Lilian Queen

    2013-01-01

    South Africa is a water-scarce country and over the years, the quality of water resources has deteriorated due to poor effluent discharge, agricultural, industrial, mining and human activities. The major contributing factors of poorly-treated or inadequately treated wastewater may be attributed to: (a) the poor design and construction of wastewater treatment plants; (b) lack of qualified process controllers; (c) non-compliance with applicable legislation; (d) lack of proper monitoring; and (e...

  4. Marine outfall location off South Chennai

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Jayakumar, S.; AshokKumar, K.

    dilution and dispersion of the effluent can be achieved by locating the outfall appropriately. Study on the marine environmental parameters off south Chennai. Tamil Nadu, India near Mahabalipuram has been made to understand the environment and to suggest a...

  5. EPA Method 614: The Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Municipal and Industrial Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 614 describes procedures for preparation and analysis of samples for determination of organophosphate pesticides in industrial and municipal discharges using a GC with a phosphorus-specific flame photometric detector (FPD).

  6. Phosphorus recovery from municipal wastewater: An integrated comparative technological, environmental and economic assessment of P recovery technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, L; Rechberger, H; Krampe, J; Zessner, M

    2016-11-15

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential and limited resource. Municipal wastewater is a promising source of P via reuse and could be used to replace P derived from phosphate rocks. The agricultural use of sewage sludge is restricted by legislation or is not practiced in several European countries due to environmental risks posed by organic micropollutants and pathogens. Several technologies have been developed in recent years to recover wastewater P. However, these technologies target different P-containing flows in wastewater treatment plants (effluent, digester supernatant, sewage sludge, and sewage sludge ash), use diverse engineering approaches and differ greatly with respect to P recycling rate, potential of removing or destroying pollutants, product quality, environmental impact and cost. This work compares 19 relevant P recovery technologies by considering their relationships with existing wastewater and sludge treatment systems. A combination of different methods, such as material flow analysis, damage units, reference soil method, annuity method, integrated cost calculation and a literature study on solubility, fertilizing effects and handling of recovered materials, is used to evaluate the different technologies with respect to technical, ecological and economic aspects. With regard to the manifold origins of data an uncertainty concept considering validity of data sources is applied. This analysis revealed that recovery from flows with dissolved P produces clean and plant-available materials. These techniques may even be beneficial from economic and technical perspectives under specific circumstances. However, the recovery rates (a maximum of 25%) relative to the wastewater treatment plant influent are relatively low. The approaches that recover P from sewage sludge apply complex technologies and generally achieve effective removal of heavy metals at moderate recovery rates (~40-50% relative to the WWTP input) and comparatively high costs. Sewage sludge ash is

  7. Effects of the dissolved organic carbon of treated municipal wastewater on soil infiltration as related to sodium adsorption ratio and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing scarcity of fresh water in arid and semi arid regions means that we must utilize alternative water supplies for irrigation if we are to sustain agricultural production in these regions. Treated municipal wastewaters are being increasingly utilized for irrigation. In general only the salin...

  8. Removal of Nitrate and Phosphate from Municipal Wastewater Sludge by Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal K.C.A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate and phosphorus in wastewater contribute to health and environmental threats as they are linked to illnesses as well as ecosystem disruption via algal blooms in contaminated water bodies. Based on above perspectives a comparative study was conducted on three local freshwater microalgae:Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda to evaluate their effects on nitrate and phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Algae performance in removing nitrate and phosphorus was evaluated by measuring nitrate and phosphorus content of MWS incubated with the strains for 7 days. Instantaneous readings were taken every 48 hours to determine periodic levels of the nutrients phosphate and nitrate. BOD5 was also evaluated to identify the strain with the most robust growth that would demand for oxygen the most in the dark. Spirulina platensis was shown as the most efficient microalgae to reduce nitrate in MWS and the best-growing among the three strains, while Chlorella vulgaris removed phosphorus the most effectively. Thus Spirulina and Chlorella could be potential candidates by showing their intrinsic merit for the reduction of phosphate and nitrate in wastewater treatment.ABSTRAK: Nitrat dan fosforus dalam air sisa menggugat kesihatan dan mengancam alam sekitar memandangkan ia berkait dengan penyakit-penyakit serta gangguan terhadap ekosistem melalui pembiakan alga dalam air yang tercemar. Berdasarkan perspektif di atas, satu kajian perbandingan telah dijalankan terhadap tiga mikro alga air tawar tempatan : Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis dan Scenedesmus quadricauda untuk dinilai kesannya terhadap penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dari enap cemar air sisa bandaran (municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Kebolehan alga dalam penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dikaji dengan menyukat kandungan nitrat dan fosforus dalam MWS yang dieramkan dengan strain ini selama 7 hari. Bacaan serta-merta diambil setiap 48 jam untuk

  9. Municipal wastewater affects adipose deposition in male mice and increases 3T3-L1 cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biasiotto, Giorgio; Zanella, Isabella; Masserdotti, Alice; Pedrazzani, Roberta; Papa, Matteo; Caimi, Luigi; Di Lorenzo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Trace concentration of EDs (endocrine disrupting compounds) in water bodies caused by wastewater treatment plant effluents is a recognized problem for the health of aquatic organisms and their potential to affect human health. In this paper we show that continuous exposure of male mice from early development to the adult life (140 days) to unrestricted drinking of wastewater collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant, is associated with an increased adipose deposition and weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. In parallel, bisphenol A (BPA) at the administration dose of 5 μg/kg/body weight, shows an increasing effect on total body weight and fat mass. In vitro, a solid phase extract (SPE) of the wastewater (eTW), caused stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at dilutions of 0.4 and 1 % in the final culture medium which contained a concentration of BPA of 40 nM and 90 nM respectively. Pure BPA also promoted adipocytes differentiation at the concentration of 50 and 80 μM. BPA effect in 3T3-L1 cells was associated to the specific activation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in undifferentiated cells and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in differentiated cells. BPA also activated the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) upregulating a minimal 3XPPARE luciferase reporter and the PPARγ-target promoter of the aP2 gene in adipose cells, while it was not effective in preadipocytes. The pure estrogen receptor agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES) played an opposite action to that of BPA inhibiting PPARγ activity in adipocytes, preventing cell differentiation, activating ERα in preadipocytes and inhibiting ERα and ERβ regulation in adipocytes. The results of this work show that the drinking of chemically-contaminated wastewater promotes fat deposition in male mice and that EDs present in sewage are likely responsible for this effect through a nuclear receptor-mediated mechanism. - Highlights: • Sewage

  10. Municipal wastewater affects adipose deposition in male mice and increases 3T3-L1 cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasiotto, Giorgio; Zanella, Isabella [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Civic Hospital of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Masserdotti, Alice [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Civic Hospital of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Pedrazzani, Roberta [DIMI Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Brescia, via Branze 38, I-25123 Brescia (Italy); Papa, Matteo [DICATAM Department of Civil, Environmental, Architectural Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brescia, via Branze 43, I-25123 Brescia (Italy); Caimi, Luigi [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Civic Hospital of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Di Lorenzo, Diego, E-mail: diego.dilorenzo@yahoo.it [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Civic Hospital of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Trace concentration of EDs (endocrine disrupting compounds) in water bodies caused by wastewater treatment plant effluents is a recognized problem for the health of aquatic organisms and their potential to affect human health. In this paper we show that continuous exposure of male mice from early development to the adult life (140 days) to unrestricted drinking of wastewater collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant, is associated with an increased adipose deposition and weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. In parallel, bisphenol A (BPA) at the administration dose of 5 μg/kg/body weight, shows an increasing effect on total body weight and fat mass. In vitro, a solid phase extract (SPE) of the wastewater (eTW), caused stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at dilutions of 0.4 and 1 % in the final culture medium which contained a concentration of BPA of 40 nM and 90 nM respectively. Pure BPA also promoted adipocytes differentiation at the concentration of 50 and 80 μM. BPA effect in 3T3-L1 cells was associated to the specific activation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in undifferentiated cells and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in differentiated cells. BPA also activated the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) upregulating a minimal 3XPPARE luciferase reporter and the PPARγ-target promoter of the aP2 gene in adipose cells, while it was not effective in preadipocytes. The pure estrogen receptor agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES) played an opposite action to that of BPA inhibiting PPARγ activity in adipocytes, preventing cell differentiation, activating ERα in preadipocytes and inhibiting ERα and ERβ regulation in adipocytes. The results of this work show that the drinking of chemically-contaminated wastewater promotes fat deposition in male mice and that EDs present in sewage are likely responsible for this effect through a nuclear receptor-mediated mechanism. - Highlights: • Sewage

  11. Illicit drugs in Canadian municipal wastewater and estimates of community drug use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, Chris, E-mail: cmetcalfe@trentu.c [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Tindale, Kathryn [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Li, Hongxia, E-mail: lihongxia@trentu.c [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Rodayan, Angela [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University St., Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Yargeau, Viviane, E-mail: viviane.yargeau@mcgill.c [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University St., Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    In this study of wastewater treatment plants in three Canadian cities, selected illicit drugs, including cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE), amphetamine, methamphetamine and ecstasy (i.e. MDMA) were detected in untreated wastewater. Cocaine was the most widely used illicit drug at a median level for the 3 cities of 15.7 doses per day per 1000 people. For the other drugs, the median doses per day per 1000 people were 1.8 for amphetamine, 4.5 for methamphetamine and 0.4 for ecstasy. Methamphetamine use was highest in the largest city and cocaine use was lowest in the smallest city. Removal of the illicit drugs by wastewater treatment was generally >50%, except in a WWTP that uses primary treatment. The community consumption estimate for ecstasy in the present study is far below published estimates of the prevalence of ecstasy use among the Canadian population, which may be due to only occasional use of ecstasy. - Cocaine and amphetamines were detected in untreated and treated sewage in the wastewater treatment plants of three Canadian cities, and community consumption patterns estimated from the concentrations of the drugs in untreated wastewater were consistent with estimates of the use of illicit drugs in Canada.

  12. Illicit drugs in Canadian municipal wastewater and estimates of community drug use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, Chris; Tindale, Kathryn; Li, Hongxia; Rodayan, Angela; Yargeau, Viviane

    2010-01-01

    In this study of wastewater treatment plants in three Canadian cities, selected illicit drugs, including cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE), amphetamine, methamphetamine and ecstasy (i.e. MDMA) were detected in untreated wastewater. Cocaine was the most widely used illicit drug at a median level for the 3 cities of 15.7 doses per day per 1000 people. For the other drugs, the median doses per day per 1000 people were 1.8 for amphetamine, 4.5 for methamphetamine and 0.4 for ecstasy. Methamphetamine use was highest in the largest city and cocaine use was lowest in the smallest city. Removal of the illicit drugs by wastewater treatment was generally >50%, except in a WWTP that uses primary treatment. The community consumption estimate for ecstasy in the present study is far below published estimates of the prevalence of ecstasy use among the Canadian population, which may be due to only occasional use of ecstasy. - Cocaine and amphetamines were detected in untreated and treated sewage in the wastewater treatment plants of three Canadian cities, and community consumption patterns estimated from the concentrations of the drugs in untreated wastewater were consistent with estimates of the use of illicit drugs in Canada.

  13. The effect of food waste disposers on municipal waste and wastewater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashlian, Natasha; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2005-02-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of introducing food waste disposers as a waste minimization option within urban waste management schemes, taking the Greater Beirut Area (GBA) as a case study. For this purpose, the operational and economic impacts of food disposers on the solid waste and wastewater streams are assessed. The integration of food waste disposers can reduce the total solid waste to be managed by 12 to 43% under market penetration ranging between 25 and 75%, respectively. While the increase in domestic water consumption (for food grinding) and corresponding increase in wastewater flow rates are relatively insignificant, wastewater loadings increased by 17 to 62% (BOD) and 1.9 to 7.1% (SS). The net economic benefit of introducing food disposers into the waste and wastewater management systems constitutes 7.2 to 44.0% of the existing solid waste management cost under the various scenarios examined. Concerns about increased sludge generation persist and its potential environmental and economic implications may differ with location and therefore area-specific characteristics must be taken into consideration when contemplating the adoption of a strategy to integrate food waste disposers in the waste-wastewater management system.

  14. Evaluation of Diverse Microalgal Species as Potential Biofuel Feedstocks Grown Using Municipal Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiibel, Sage R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Lemos, Mark S.; Kelly, Brian P.; Cushman, John C., E-mail: jcushman@unr.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-05-11

    Microalgae offer great potential as a third-generation biofuel feedstock, especially when grown on wastewater, as they have the dual application for wastewater treatment and as a biomass feedstock for biofuel production. The potential for growth on wastewater centrate was evaluated for forty microalgae strains from fresh (11), brackish (11), or saltwater (18) genera. Generally, freshwater strains were able to grow at high concentrations of centrate, with two strains, Neochloris pseudostigmata and Neochloris conjuncta, demonstrating growth at up to 40% v/v centrate. Fourteen of 18 salt water Dunaliella strains also demonstrated growth in centrate concentrations at or above 40% v/v. Lipid profiles of freshwater strains with high-centrate tolerance were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and compared against those obtained on cells grown on defined maintenance media. The major lipid compounds were found to be palmitic (16:0), oleic (18:1), and linoleic (18:2) acids for all freshwater strains grown on either centrate or their respective maintenance medium. These results demonstrate the highly concentrated wastewater can be used to grow microalgae, which limits the need to dilute wastewater prior to algal production. In addition, the algae produced generate lipids suitable for biodiesel or green diesel production.

  15. Evaluation of diverse microalgal species as potential biofuel feedstocks grown using municipal wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sage R Hiibel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae offer great potential as a third-generation biofuel feedstock, especially when grown on wastewater, as they have the dual application for wastewater treatment and as a biomass feedstock for biofuel production. The potential for growth on wastewater centrate was evaluated for forty microalgae strains from fresh (11, brackish (11, or saltwater (18 genera. Generally, freshwater strains were able to grow at high concentrations of centrate, with two strains, Neochloris pseudostigmata and N. conjuncta, demonstrating growth at up to 40% v/v centrate. Fourteen of eighteen salt water Dunaliella strains also demonstrated growth in centrate concentrations at or above 40% v/v. Lipid profiles of freshwater strains with high-centrate tolerance were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and compared against those obtained on cells grown on defined maintenance media. The major lipid compounds were found to be palmitic (16:0, oleic (18:1, and linoleic (18:2 acids for all freshwater strains grown on either centrate or their respective maintenance medium. These results demonstrate the highly concentrated wastewater can be used to grow microalgae, which limits the need to dilute wastewater prior to algal production. In addition, the algae produced generate lipids suitable for biodiesel or green diesel production.

  16. Inhibition effect of phosphorus-based chemicals on corrosion of carbon steel in secondary-treated municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhanhui; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jinju; Ding, Lili

    2013-01-01

    Secondary-treated municipal wastewater (MWW) could supply a viable alternative water resource for cooling water systems. Inorganic salts in the concentrated cooling water pose a great challenge to corrosion control chemicals. In this study, the inhibition effect of 1-hydroxy ethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) and 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (PBTCA) on corrosion of carbon steel in secondary-treated MWW was investigated by the means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The inhibition effect increased with increasing concentration of inhibitors. The corrosion rates of carbon steel were 1.5, 0.8, 0.2 and 0.5 mm a(-1) for blank, HEDP, ATMP and PBTCA samples at 50 mg L(-1), respectively. The phosphorus-based chemicals could adsorb onto the surface of the carbon steel electrode, form a coat of protective film and then protect the carbon steel from corrosion in the test solution.

  17. New insights into comparison between synthetic and practical municipal wastewater in cake layer characteristic analysis of membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijie; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Wang, Xin; Yu, Ke; Yang, Shufang; Xia, Siqing

    2017-11-01

    In previous studies, cake layer analysis in membrane bioreactor (MBR) was both carried out with synthetic and practical municipal wastewater (SMW and PMW), leading to different results. This study aimed to identify the comparison between SMW and PMW in cake layer characteristic analysis of MBR. Two laboratory-scale anoxic/oxic MBRs were operated for over 90days with SMW and PMW, respectively. Results showed that PMW led to rough cake layer surface with particles, and the aggravation of cake layer formation with thinner and denser cake layer. Additionally, inorganic components, especially Si and Al, in PMW accumulated into cake layer and strengthened the cake layer structure, inducing severer biofouling. However, SMW promoted bacterial metabolism during cake layer formation, thus aggravated the accumulation of organic components into cake layer. Therefore, SMW highlighted the organic components in cake layer, but weakened the inorganic functions in practical MBR operation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of the irrigation feasibility of low-cost filtered municipal wastewater for red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L cv. Surma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokul Chandra Biswas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the scarcity of clean water, treated wastewater potentially provides an alternative source for irrigation. In the present experiment, the feasibility of using low-cost filtered municipal wastewater in the irrigation of red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L cv. Surma cultivation was assessed. The collected municipal wastewater from fish markets, hospitals, clinics, sewage, and kitchens of households in Sylhet City, Bangladesh were mixed and filtered with nylon mesh. Six filtration methods were applied using the following materials: sand (T1; sand and wood charcoal consecutively (T2; sand, wood charcoal and rice husks consecutively (T3; sand, wood charcoal, rice husks and sawdust consecutively (T4; sand, wood charcoal, rice husks, sawdust and brick chips consecutively (T5; and sand, wood charcoal, rice husks, sawdust, brick chips and gravel consecutively (T6. The water from ponds and rivers was considered as the control treatment (To. The chemical properties and heavy metals content of the water were determined before and after the low cost filtering, and the effects of the wastewater on seed germination, plant growth and the accumulation rate of heavy metals by plants were assessed. After filtration, the pH, EC and TDS ranged from 5.87 to 9.17, 292 to 691 µS cm−1 and 267 to 729 mg L−1, respectively. The EC and TDS were in an acceptable level for use in irrigation, satisfying the recommendations of the FAO. However, select pH values were unsuitable for irrigation. The metal concentrations decreased after applying each treatment. The reduction of Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, As and Zn were 73.23%, 92.69%, 45.51%, 69.57%, 75.47% and 95.06%, respectively. When we considered the individual filtering material, the maximum amount of As and Pb was absorbed by sawdust; Cu and Zn by wood charcoal; Mn and Cu by sand and Fe by gravel. Among the six filtration treatments, T5 showed the highest seed germination (67.14%, similar to the control T0 (77

  19. Ocean outfall plume characterization using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, Peter; Terrill, Eric; Otero, Mark; Hazard, Lisa; Middleton, William

    2013-01-01

    A monitoring mission to map and characterize the Point Loma Ocean Outfall (PLOO) wastewater plume using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) was performed on 3 March 2011. The mobility of an AUV provides a significant advantage in surveying discharge plumes over traditional cast-based methods, and when combined with optical and oceanographic sensors, provides a capability for both detecting plumes and assessing their mixing in the near and far-fields. Unique to this study is the measurement of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) in the discharge plume and its application for quantitative estimates of the plume's dilution. AUV mission planning methodologies for discharge plume sampling, plume characterization using onboard optical sensors, and comparison of observational data to model results are presented. The results suggest that even under variable oceanic conditions, properly planned missions for AUVs equipped with an optical CDOM sensor in addition to traditional oceanographic sensors, can accurately characterize and track ocean outfall plumes at higher resolutions than cast-based techniques.

  20. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by

  1. Comparison of two anaerobic systems for hydrogen production from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and synthetic wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana M. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Universidad Politecnica de Chiapas, 29010 Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Perez-Hernandez, Antonino [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31109 (Mexico); Eapen, D. [Universidad Politecnica de Chiapas, 29010 Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Two laboratory scale anaerobic digestion systems for hydrogen production from organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and synthetic wastewater were compared in this study. One of them was formed by a coupled packed bed reactor (PBR) containing 19.4 L of OFMSW and the other an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) of 3.85 L. The reactors were inoculated with a mixture of non-anaerobic inocula. In the UASB the percentage of hydrogen yield reached 51% v/v and 127NmLH{sub 2}/gvs removed with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h. The concentration of synthetic wastewater in the affluent was 7 g COD/L. For the PBR the percentage yield was 47% v/v and 99NmLH{sub 2}/gvs removed with a mass retention time (MRT) of 50 days and the organic load rate of 16 gvs (Grams Volatile Solids)/(kg-day). The UASB and PBR systems presented maximum hydrogen yields of 30% and 23%, respectively, which correspond to 4molH{sub 2}/mol glucose. These values are similar to those reported in the literature for the hydrogen yield (37%) in mesophilic range. The acetic and butyric acids were present in the effluent as by-products in watery phase. In this work we used non-anaerobic inocula made up of microorganism consortium unlike other works where pure inocula or that from anaerobic sludge was used. (author)

  2. Structure and Composition of Mangrove Associations in Tubli Bay of Bahrain as Affected by Municipal Wastewater Discharge and Anthropogenic Sedimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholoud Abou Seedo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of municipal wastewater discharge and anthropogenic sedimentation on the structure and composition of gray mangrove (Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh. communities along Tubli Bay coastlines in Bahrain were investigated. Growth and regeneration of mangrove were measured, and its community was characterized. Sediment profile was analyzed for texture, pH, and salinity. Mangrove area covered by sand depositions was measured using Google Earth Pro. ANOVA and regression tests were employed in the analysis of the data. Results indicated that mangrove overwhelmingly dominated plant community in the study area, which was zoned by a community of other salt-tolerant species. Three main habitats exist in the study area with high similarity in their floristic composition. Species richness and the number of habitats were low due to the aridity and high sediment salinity. The dilution effect of the secondary treated wastewater had a favorable effect on height and diameters of mangrove trees. However, no differences were observed in leaf area index, basal area, and density of mangrove. The long-term accumulation of anthropogenic sedimentation had a detrimental effect on the mangrove community, expressed in swath death of mangrove trees due to root burials and formation of high topography within the community boundaries.

  3. Modeling the fate of antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 integrons during thermophilic anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Tucker R; Sadowsky, Michael J; LaPara, Timothy M

    2015-10-19

    This study investigated the use of thermophilic anaerobic digestion for removing antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from residual municipal wastewater solids. Four laboratory-scale anaerobic digesters were operated in 8-day batch cycles at temperatures of 40, 56, 60, and 63 °C. Two tetracycline resistance genes (tet(W) and tet(X)), a fluoroquinolone resistance gene (qnrA), the integrase gene of class 1 integrons (intI1), 16S rRNA genes of all Bacteria, and 16S rRNA genes of methanogens were quantified using real-time quantitative PCR. ARG and intI1 quantities decreased at all temperatures and were described well by a modified form of the Collins-Selleck disinfection kinetic model. The magnitudes of Collins-Selleck kinetic parameters were significantly greater at thermophilic temperatures compared to 40 °C, but few statistically significant differences were observed among these parameters for the thermophilic anaerobic digesters. This model allows for the direct comparison of different operating conditions (e.g., temperature) on anaerobic digestion performance in mitigating the quantity of ARGs in wastewater solids and could be used to design full-scale anaerobic digesters to specifically treat for ARGs as a "pollutant" of concern.

  4. Selective elimination of chromophoric and fluorescent dissolved organic matter in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofang; Zhou, Zhongbo; Raju, Maddela Naga; Cai, Xiaoxuan; Meng, Fangang

    2017-07-01

    Effluent organic matter (EfOM) from municipal wastewater treatment plants potentially has a detrimental effect on both aquatic organisms and humans. This study evaluated the removal and transformation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant under different seasons. The results showed that bio-treatment was found to be more efficient in removing bulk DOM (in term of dissolved organic carbon, DOC) than CDOM and FDOM, which was contrary to the disinfection process. CDOM and FDOM were selectively removed at various stages during the treatment. Typically, the low molecular weight fractions of CDOM and protein-like FDOM were more efficiently removed during bio-treatment process, whereas the humic-like FDOM exhibited comparable decreases in both bio-treatment and disinfection processes. Overall, the performance of the WWTP was weak in terms of CDOM and FDOM removal, resulting in enrichment of CDOM and FDOM in effluent. Moreover, the total removal of the bulk DOM (PCDOM and the humic-like FDOM showed little differences between summer and winter. In all, the results provide useful information for understanding the fate and transformation of DOM, illustrating that sub-fractions of DOM could be selectively removed depending on treatment processes and seasonality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Feasibility of geothermal heat use in the San Bernardino Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report, September 1980-June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racine, W.C.; Larson, T.C.; Stewart, C.A.; Wessel, H.B.

    1981-06-01

    A system was developed for utilizing nearby low temperature geothermal energy to heat two high-rate primary anaerobic digesters at the San Bernardino Wastewater Treatment Plant. The geothermal fluid would replace the methane currently burned to fuel the digesters. A summary of the work accomplished on the feasibility study is presented. The design and operation of the facility are examined and potentially viable applications selected for additional study. Results of these investigations and system descriptions and equipment specifications for utilizing geothermal energy in the selected processes are presented. The economic analyses conducted on the six engineering design cases are discussed. The environmental setting of the project and an analysis of the environmental impacts that will result from construction and operation of the geothermal heating system are discussed. A Resource Development Plan describes the steps that the San Bernardino Municipal Water Department could follow in order to utilize the resource. A preliminary well program and rough cost estimates for the production and injection wells also are included. The Water Department is provided with a program and schedule for implementing a geothermal system to serve the wastewater treatment plant. Regulatory, financial, and legal issues that will impact the project are presented in the Appendix. An outline of a Public Awareness Program is included.

  6. Investigation of relationships between removals of tetracycline and degradation products and physicochemical parameters in municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Murat; Uslu Şenel, Gülşad; Öbek, Erdal; Arslan Topal, E Işıl

    2016-05-15

    Determination of the effect of physicochemical parameters on the removal of tetracycline (TC) and degradation products is important because of the importance of the removal of antibiotics in Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between removals of TC and degradation products and physicochemical parameters in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWWTP). For this aim, (i) the removals of physicochemical parameters in a MWWTP located in Elazığ city (Turkey) were determined (ii) the removals of TC and degradation products in MWWTP were determined (iii) the relationships between removals of TC and degradation products and physicochemical parameters were investigated. TC, 4-epitetracycline (ETC), 4-epianhydrotetracycline (EATC), anhydrotetracycline (ATC), and physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), suspended solids (SS), BOD5, COD, total organic carbon (TOC), NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N, NO3(-)-N and O-PO4(-3)) were determined. The calculation of the correlation coefficients of relationships between the physicochemical parameters and TC, EATC, ATC showed that, among the investigated parameters, EATC and SS most correlated. The removals of other physicochemical parameters were not correlated with TC, EATC and ATC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Monitoring and evaluation of antibiotic resistance genes in four municipal wastewater treatment plants in Harbin, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qinxue; Yang, Lian; Duan, Ruan; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    The development and proliferation of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and environmental microorganisms is of great concern for public health. In this study, the distribution and removal efficiency of intI1 and eight subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) for tetracycline, sulfonamides, beta-lactams resistance in four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Harbin, which locates in Songhua River basin in cold areas of China, were monitored by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that intI1 and 6 ARGs except for blaTEM and blaSHV were detected in wastewater and sludge samples and 0.3-2.7 orders of magnitude of ARGs removal efficiency in the four WWTPs were observed. The investigation on the removal of ARGs of different treatment units in one WWTP showed that the biological treatment unit played the most important role in ARGs removal (1.2-1.8 orders of magnitude), followed by UV disinfection, while primary physical treatment units can hardly remove any ARGs. Although all the WWTPs can remove ARGs effectively, ARGs concentrations are still relatively high in the effluent, their further attenuation should be investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Superstructure development and optimization under uncertainty for design and retrofit of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist

    2014-01-01

    n this contribution, an optimization - based approach is presented for optimal process selec tion and design for domestic wastewater treatment plant s (WWTP s ). In particular, we address the issue of uncertainties by formulating the WWTP design problem as a Stochastic Mixed Integer (Non) Linear ...

  9. Assessment of toxicological profiles of the municipal wastewater effluents using chemical analyses and bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smital, Tvrtko; Terzic, Senka; Zaja, Roko; Senta, Ivan; Pivcevic, Branka; Popovic, Marta; Mikac, Iva; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Thomas, Kevin V; Ahel, Marijan

    2011-05-01

    The hazardous chemical contamination of untreated wastewater and secondary effluent from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of the city of Zagreb, Croatia was comprehensively characterized using large-volume solid-phase extraction (SPE) and silica gel fractionation, followed by a detailed analysis of the resulting extracts by a combination of chemical and bioassay methods. Over 100 individual contaminants or closely related-contaminant groups were identified by high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF). Ecotoxicity profiling of the investigated samples, including cytotoxicity, chronic toxicity and EROD activity; inhibition of the multixenobiotic resistance (MXR), genotoxicity and estrogenic potential, revealed the most significant contribution of toxic compounds to be present in polar fractions. Wastewater treatment using conventional activated sludge process reduced the initial toxicity of raw wastewater to various extents, ranging from 28% for algal toxicity to 73.2% for an estrogenic activity. The most efficient toxicity removal was observed for the polar compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Micropollutants removal from secondary-treated municipal wastewater using weak polyelectrolyte multilayer based nanofiltration membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abtahi, S. Mehran; Ilyas, Shazia; Joannis Cassan, Claire; Albasi, Claire; de Vos, Wiebe M.

    2018-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is seen as a very promising technology to remove micropollutants (MPs) from wastewater. Unfortunately this process tends to produce a highly saline concentrate stream, as commercial NF membranes retain both the MPs and most of the ions. The high salinity makes subsequent

  11. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli from municipal wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Čornejová

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions. The results showed that the wastewater is a source of ESBLs, carbapenemases and plasmid fluoroquinolone resistance. Strains with biofilm production, antibiotic resistance of CTX-M group, CMY-2, qnrS genes and virulence factors present a potential environmental health risk.

  12. Performance of a biomass adapted to oncological ward wastewater vs. biomass from municipal WWTP on the removal of pharmaceutical molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, P; Moulin, P; Ercolei, L; Marrot, B

    2018-01-01

    The performance of a biomass adapted to Oncological Ward Wastewater (OWW) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was compared with that of a municipal WWTP, on the removal of pharmaceutical molecules and more specifically on their overall resistance and purifying ability in the presence of pharmaceutical cocktails. Sorption and biotransformation mechanisms on two antineoplastics, one antibiotic and a painkiller were evaluated. Sludge acclimated to OWW allowed for a 34% increase in the removal rate and in the minimum inhibition concentration. The percentage of the amounts of specific pharmaceutical compounds removed by biotransformation or by sorption were measured. These results are positive, as they show that the observed removal of pharmaceutical molecules by biomass acclimated to OWW can mostly be attributed to developed biotransformation, unlike the biomass from the municipal WWTP for which sorption is sometimes the only removal mechanism. The biotransformation kinetic and the solid-water distribution coefficients in this study show good agreement with literature data, even for much higher pharmaceutical concentrations in OWW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparison between two full-scale MBR and CAS municipal wastewater treatment plants: techno-economic-environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertanza, Giorgio; Canato, Matteo; Laera, Giuseppe; Vaccari, Mentore; Svanström, Magdalena; Heimersson, Sara

    2017-07-01

    A holistic assessment procedure has been used in this study for comparing conventional activated sludge (CAS) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) processes for the treatment of municipal wastewater. Technical, social, administrative, economic and environmental impacts have been evaluated based on 1 year of operational data from three full-scale lines (one MBR and two CAS) working in parallel in a large municipal treatment plant. The comparative assessment evidences a slight advantage of the conventional process in the studied case, essentially due to lower costs, complexity and energy consumption. On the other hand, the MBR technology has a better social acceptance and similar overall environmental footprint. Although these results are influenced by site-specific parameters and cannot be generalized, the assessment procedure allowed identifying the most important factors affecting the final scores for each technology and the main differences between the compared technologies. Local conditions can affect the relative importance of the assessed impacts, and the use of weighting factors is proposed for better tailoring the comparative assessment to the local needs and circumstances. A sensitivity analysis on the weighted final scores demonstrated how local factors are very important and must be carefully evaluated in the decision making process.

  14. Monitoring and evaluation of antibiotic resistance genes in four municipal wastewater treatment plants in Harbin, Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Qinxue; Yang, Lian; Duan, Ruan; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The development and proliferation of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and environmental microorganisms is of great concern for public health. In this study, the distribution and removal efficiency of intI1 and eight subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) for tetracycline, sulfonamides, beta-lactams resistance in four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Harbin, which locates in Songhua River basin in cold areas of China, were monitored by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that intI1 and 6 ARGs except for bla_T_E_M and bla_S_H_V were detected in wastewater and sludge samples and 0.3–2.7 orders of magnitude of ARGs removal efficiency in the four WWTPs were observed. The investigation on the removal of ARGs of different treatment units in one WWTP showed that the biological treatment unit played the most important role in ARGs removal (1.2–1.8 orders of magnitude), followed by UV disinfection, while primary physical treatment units can hardly remove any ARGs. Although all the WWTPs can remove ARGs effectively, ARGs concentrations are still relatively high in the effluent, their further attenuation should be investigated. - Highlights: • The distribution of 8 ARGs and intI1 in WWTPs in Harbin in winter were monitored. • ARGs removal in 4 WWTPs with different processes were investigated. • Biological treatment process plays the most important role in ARGs removal. • A relatively high level of ARGs is still present in the effluent after wastewater treatment. • Regional uses of antibiotics other than season temperature affects the fate of ARGs in WWTPs.

  15. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, E-E [Department of Biochemistry, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei City, Taiwan 110, Taiwan, ROC (China); Pan, Shu-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10673, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Liuhanzi [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Haidin District, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Yi-Hung [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, 1, Sec. 3, Zhongxiao E. Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10608, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kim, Hyunook [Department of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiang, Pen-Chi, E-mail: pcchiang@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10673, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Carbonation was performed using CO{sub 2}, wastewater and bottom ash in a slurry reactor. • A maximum capture capacity of 102 g CO{sub 2} per kg BA was achieved at mild conditions. • A maximum carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was predicted to be 95% by RSM. • The CO{sub 2} emission from Bali incinerator could be expected to reduce by 6480 ton/y. • The process energy consumption per ton CO{sub 2} captured was estimated to be 180 kW h. - Abstract: Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO{sub 2} concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO{sub 2} flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO{sub 2} fixation capacity of 102 g per kg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO{sub 2} reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO{sub 2} fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion.

  16. Isolation and characterization of NDM-positive Escherichia coli from municipal wastewater in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Mantilla-Calderon, David

    2016-06-20

    The emergence of resistance to last resort antibiotics is a public health concern of global scale. Besides direct person-to-person propagation, environmental pathways might contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Here, we describe the incidence of blaNDM-1, a gene conferring resistance to carbapenems, in the wastewater of Jeddah city over a one-year period. blaNDM-1 was detected at concentrations ranging from 104 to 105 copies per m3 of untreated wastewater during the entire monitoring period. These results indicate the ubiquity and high incidence of blaNDM-1 in the local wastewater. To track the bacteria carrying blaNDM-1, we isolated Escherichia coli PI7, a strain of the sequence type ST101, from wastewater around the Hajj event in October 2013. Genome sequencing of this strain revealed an extensive repertoire of ARGs as well as virulence and invasive traits. These traits were further confirmed by antibiotic resistance profiling and in-vitro cell internalization in HeLa cell cultures. Given that this strain remains viable even after a certain duration in the sewerage, and that Jeddah lacks a robust sanitary infrastructure to fully capture all generated sewage, the presence of this bacterium in the untreated wastewater would represent a potential hazard to the local public health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a blaNDM-1-positive E. coli isolated from a non-nosocomial environment in Saudi Arabia, and may set a preceding concern for the need to establish an improved surveillance for carbapenem-resistant E. coli in the country and nearby regions.

  17. Isolation and characterization of NDM-positive Escherichia coli from municipal wastewater in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Mantilla-Calderon, David; Jumat, Muhammad; Wang, Tiannyu; Ganesan, Pugalenthi; Aljassim, Nada I.; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of resistance to last resort antibiotics is a public health concern of global scale. Besides direct person-to-person propagation, environmental pathways might contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Here, we describe the incidence of blaNDM-1, a gene conferring resistance to carbapenems, in the wastewater of Jeddah city over a one-year period. blaNDM-1 was detected at concentrations ranging from 104 to 105 copies per m3 of untreated wastewater during the entire monitoring period. These results indicate the ubiquity and high incidence of blaNDM-1 in the local wastewater. To track the bacteria carrying blaNDM-1, we isolated Escherichia coli PI7, a strain of the sequence type ST101, from wastewater around the Hajj event in October 2013. Genome sequencing of this strain revealed an extensive repertoire of ARGs as well as virulence and invasive traits. These traits were further confirmed by antibiotic resistance profiling and in-vitro cell internalization in HeLa cell cultures. Given that this strain remains viable even after a certain duration in the sewerage, and that Jeddah lacks a robust sanitary infrastructure to fully capture all generated sewage, the presence of this bacterium in the untreated wastewater would represent a potential hazard to the local public health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a blaNDM-1-positive E. coli isolated from a non-nosocomial environment in Saudi Arabia, and may set a preceding concern for the need to establish an improved surveillance for carbapenem-resistant E. coli in the country and nearby regions.

  18. Abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in five municipal wastewater treatment plants in the Monastir Governorate, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafraf, Ikbel Denden; Lekunberri, Itziar; Sànchez-Melsió, Alexandre; Aouni, Mahjoub; Borrego, Carles M; Balcázar, José Luis

    2016-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a growing and significant threat to global public health, requiring better understanding of the sources and mechanisms involved in its emergence and spread. We investigated the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) before and after treatment in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in different areas of the Monastir Governorate (Tunisia). Three of these WWTPs (Frina, Sahline and Zaouiet) use a conventional activated sludge process as secondary treatment, whereas the WWTP located in Beni Hassen applies an ultraviolet disinfection step after the activated sludge process and the WWTP located in Moknine treats wastewater using naturally aerated lagoons as a secondary treatment process. The abundance of six ARGs (bla CTX-M , bla TEM , qnrA, qnrS, sul I and ermB) and the class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) were determined by quantitative PCR. All ARGs and the intI1 gene were detected in the wastewater samples, except the bla CTX-M gene, which was not detected in both influent and effluent samples from Sahline and Beni Hassen WWTPs, and the qnrS gene, which was not detected neither in the WWTP influent in Moknine nor in the WWTP effluent in Beni Hassen. Although the relative concentration of ARGs was generally found to be similar between samples collected before and after the wastewater treatment, the abundance of bla CTX-M , bla TEM , and qnrS genes was higher in the effluent of the Frina WWTP which, unlike other WWTPs, not only receives domestic or industrial sewage but also untreated hospital waste. To the best of our knowledge, this study quantified for the first time the abundance of ARGs in different Tunisian WWTPs, and the results agree with previous studies suggesting that conventional wastewater treatment does not efficiently reduce ARGs. Therefore, these findings could be useful to improve the design or operation of WWTPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of wastewater effluent and river discharge on benthic heterotrophic production, organic biomass and respiration in marine coastal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burd, B.; Macdonald, T.; Bertold, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • High river particulate flux results in low sediment P/B due to large burrowers. • Sewage deposition results in high P/B from biomass depletion and bacterial increase. • Heterotrophic production was 56% of oxidized OC flux with 35% growth efficiency. • Production was correlated with organic/inorganic flux – biomass was not. • δ 15 N patterns illustrate feeding strategies of key taxa near the outfall. -- Abstract: We examine effects of high river particulate flux and municipal wastewater effluent on heterotrophic organic carbon cycling in coastal subtidal sediments. Heterotrophic production was a predictable (r 2 = 0.95) proportion (56%) of oxidized OC flux and strongly correlated with organic/inorganic flux. Consistent growth efficiencies (36%) occurred at all stations. Organic biomass was correlated with total, OC and buried OC fluxes, but not oxidized OC flux. Near the river, production was modest and biomass high, resulting in low P/B. Outfall deposition resulted in depleted biomass and high bacterial production, resulting in the highest P/B. These patterns explain why this region is production “saturated”. The δ 15 N in outfall effluent, sediments and dominant taxa provided insight into where, and which types of organisms feed directly on fresh outfall particulates, on older, refractory material buried in sediments, or utilize chemosynthetic symbiotic bacteria. Results are discussed in the context of declining bottom oxygen conditions along the coast

  20. Cultivation and characterization of Candidatus Nitrosocosmicus exaquare, an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon from a municipal wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Laura A; Albertsen, Mads; Engel, Katja; Schwarz, Jasmin; Nielsen, Per H; Wagner, Michael; Neufeld, Josh D

    2017-05-01

    Thaumarchaeota have been detected in several industrial and municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), despite the fact that ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are thought to be adapted to low ammonia environments. However, the activity, physiology and metabolism of WWTP-associated AOA remain poorly understood. We report the cultivation and complete genome sequence of Candidatus Nitrosocosmicus exaquare, a novel AOA representative from a municipal WWTP in Guelph, Ontario (Canada). In enrichment culture, Ca. N. exaquare oxidizes ammonia to nitrite stoichiometrically, is mesophilic, and tolerates at least 15 mm of ammonium chloride or sodium nitrite. Microautoradiography (MAR) for enrichment cultures demonstrates that Ca. N. exaquare assimilates bicarbonate in association with ammonia oxidation. However, despite using inorganic carbon, the ammonia-oxidizing activity of Ca. N. exaquare is greatly stimulated in enrichment culture by the addition of organic compounds, especially malate and succinate. Ca. N. exaquare cells are coccoid with a diameter of ~1-2 μm. Phylogenetically, Ca. N. exaquare belongs to the Nitrososphaera sister cluster within the Group I.1b Thaumarchaeota, a lineage which includes most other reported AOA sequences from municipal and industrial WWTPs. The 2.99 Mbp genome of Ca. N. exaquare encodes pathways for ammonia oxidation, bicarbonate fixation, and urea transport and breakdown. In addition, this genome encodes several key genes for dealing with oxidative stress, including peroxidase and catalase. Incubations of WWTP biofilm demonstrate partial inhibition of ammonia-oxidizing activity by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO), suggesting that Ca. N. exaquare-like AOA may contribute to nitrification in situ. However, CARD-FISH-MAR showed no incorporation of bicarbonate by detected Thaumarchaeaota, suggesting that detected AOA may incorporate non-bicarbonate carbon sources or rely on an alternative and yet unknown

  1. Enhancement of biogas production at the municipal wastewater treatment plant by co-digestion with poultry industry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budych-Gorzna, Magdalena; Smoczynski, Marcin; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laboratory and full-scale trials on co-digestion of sludge and poultry waste were performed. • Successful scaling-up of the results from laboratory to full-scale was accomplished. • Incremental addition of poultry waste to the full-scale anaerobic digesters did not cause any inhibition of the process. • WWTP energy dependency can be reduced significantly by co-digestion of sludge and external source of waste. - Abstract: Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are energy-intensive and thus cost-intensive facilities; therefore, it is crucial to increase energy production directly at the WWTP. Enhancement of biogas production by addition of external substrates is one of the solutions to increase energy self-sufficiency of the WWTPs with an additional benefit of cutting down the greenhouse gas emission. The main aim of the work was to investigate full utilization of the capacity of full-scale digesters at the municipal WWTP by addition of poultry industry waste. At first, laboratory trials were conducted in order to identify the most suitable dose for co-digestion with primary and waste activated sludge and finally, based on the achieved laboratory results, full-scale trials were carried out directly at the municipal WWTP. Poultry industrial waste yielded between 0.39 and 0.88 m 3 of methane per kg of volatile solids during laboratory trials, depending on the added concentration. During full-scale investigation yield of 0.81 m 3 /kg VS was achieved. Enhanced biogas production improved WWTP energy self-sufficiency bringing closer to the aim of increasing the share of self-produced energy up to 80%.

  2. 77 FR 1687 - EPA Workshops on Achieving Water Quality Through Integrated Municipal Stormwater and Wastewater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... quality benefits and consider various innovative approaches, such as green infrastructure, that may be... approach, EPA encourages municipalities to pursue more innovative approaches such as green infrastructure technologies and asset management or similar utility-wide planning approaches. EPA has strongly encouraged...

  3. An innovative process for treatment of municipal wastewater with superior charcteristics compared to traditional techologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Fitsios, E.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    An innovative treatment process for municipal sewage, which results in low sludge production, low energy consumption, high COD removal and high energy and nutrients recovery, is described. The organic matter will primarly be removed through anaerobic degradation using high-flow reactors. For nitr...

  4. Electronic Out-fall Inspection Application - 12007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weymouth, A Kent III; Pham, Minh; Messick, Chuck [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In early 2009 an exciting opportunity was presented to the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) team at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS maintenance group was directed to maintain all Out-falls on Site, increasing their workload from 75 to 183 out-falls with no additional resources. The existing out-fall inspection system consisted of inspections performed manually and documented via paper trail. The inspections were closed out upon completion of activities and placed in file cabinets with no central location for tracking/trending maintenance activities. A platform for meeting new improvements required for documentation by the Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) out-fall permits was needed to replace this current system that had been in place since the 1980's. This was accomplished by building a geographically aware electronic application that improved reliability of site out-fall maintenance and ensured consistent standards were maintained for environmental excellence and worker efficiency. Inspections are now performed via tablet and uploaded to a central point. Work orders are completed and closed either in the field using tablets (mobile application) or in their offices (via web portal) using PCs. And finally completed work orders are now stored in a central database allowing trending of maintenance activities. (authors)

  5. Plant-integrated measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from a municipal wastewater treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    experiencing operational problems, such as during foaming events in anaerobic digesters and during sub-optimal operation of biological nitrogen removal in the secondary treatment of wastewater. Methane emissions detected during measurement campaigns corresponded to 2.07-32.7% of the methane generated......Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contribute to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Due to its spatial and temporal variation in emissions, whole plant characterization of GHG emissions from WWTPs face a number of obstacles. In this study, a tracer dispersion method was applied...... in the plant. As high as 4.27% of nitrogen entering the WWTP was emitted as nitrous oxide under the sub-optimal operation of biological treatment processes. The study shows that the unit process configuration, as well as the operation of the WWTP, determines the rate of GHG emission. The applied plant...

  6. Antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater treatment systems and receiving waters in Arctic Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neudorf, Kara D.; Huang, Yan Nan; Ragush, Colin M.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic wastewater discharges may adversely impact arctic ecosystems and local indigenous people, who rely on being able to hunt and harvest food from their local environment. Therefore, there is a need to develop efficient wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which can be operated in remote...... communities under extreme climatic conditions. WWTPs have been identified as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this work was to quantify the presence of nine different ARG markers (int1, sul1, sul2, tet(O), erm(B), mecA, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and qnr(S)) in two passive systems...... (waste stabilization ponds [WSPs]) and one mechanical filtration plant operating in two smaller and one large community, respectively, in Nunavut, Canada. Measurement of water quality parameters (carbonaceous oxygen demand, ammonia, total suspended solids, Escherichia coli and total coliforms) showed...

  7. Environmental transport and fate of endocrine disruptors from non-potable reuse of municipal wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, B; Beller, H; Bartel, C M; Kane, S; Campbell, C; Grayson, A; Liu, N; Burastero, S

    2005-11-16

    This project was designed to investigate the important but virtually unstudied topic of the subsurface transport and fate of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) when treated wastewater is used for landscape irrigation (non-potable water reuse). Although potable water reuse was outside the scope of this project, the investigation clearly has relevance to such water recycling practices. The target compounds, which are discussed in the following section and include EDCs such as 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 17{beta}-estradiol, were studied not only because of their potential estrogenic effects on receptors but also because they can be useful as tracers of wastewater residue in groundwater. Since the compounds were expected to occur at very low (part per trillion) concentrations in groundwater, highly selective and sensitive analytical techniques had to be developed for their analysis. This project assessed the distributions of these compounds in wastewater effluents and groundwater, and examined their fate in laboratory soil columns simulating the infiltration of treated wastewater into an aquifer (e.g., as could occur during irrigation of a golf course or park with nonpotable treated water). Bioassays were used to determine the estrogenic activity present in effluents and groundwater, and the results were correlated with those from chemical analysis. In vitro assays for estrogenic activity were employed to provide an integrated measure of estrogenic potency of environmental samples without requiring knowledge or measurement of all bioactive compounds in the samples. For this project, the Las Positas Golf Course (LPGC) in the City of Livermore provided an ideal setting. Since 1978, irrigation of this area with treated wastewater has dominated the overall water budget. For a variety of reasons, a group of 10 monitoring wells were installed to evaluate wastewater impacts on the local groundwater. Additionally, these wells were regularly monitored for tritium ({sup 3}H

  8. Effects of Hydraulic Retention Time on the Performance of a Membrane Bioreactor Treating Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Falahati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for effluents of higher quality from wastewater treatment plants due to the more stringent quality standards as well as the increasing pressure on water resources worldwide, which calls for effluent recycle and reuse. Membrane bioreactors (MBRs have been recently gaining rapid popularity as a promising technology for wastewater treatment. In order to improve the quality of the effluent from Shiraz wastewater treatment plant, an on-site pilot-scale membrane bioreactor was operated for 9 months. The pilot plant built at Shiraz wastewater treatment plant consisted of an aerobic reactor and a membrane compartment containing one submerged hollow fiber membrane module. In this study, eleven different aerobic hydraulic retention times (HRT ranging from 2 to 12 hours were tested to determine the membrane capacity and to investigate the performance of the system in removing total ammonia nitrogen, organic matter, total suspended solids, and turbidity.The system recorded a perfectly stable removal efficiency over the whole experimental period, except for the 2-hour aerobic HRT, so that its COD and BOD reductions exceeded 95% and 99%, respectively. Moreover, the system achieved complete nitrification in a stable manner during the whole study period, except for the 2-hour aerobic operation period. TSS concentration was almost zero and turbidity was less than 1 NTU. Membrane capacity measurements showed an average flux of 5.5 Lm-2h-1 with a mean trans-membrane pressure difference of 30 kPa. Results showed that the MBR outperformed the conventional sewage treatment processes. Additionally, it was not affected by aerobic HRT changes (12, 10, 8, 6, 4, and 3h. Based on the effluent qulity, teh system may be recommended for application toward water reuse in industrial and agricultural settings

  9. Abiotic transformation of estrogens in synthetic municipal wastewater: An alternative for treatment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marfil-Vega, Ruth; Suidan, Makram T.; Mills, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    The abiotic transformation of estrogens, including estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and ethinylestradiol (EE2), in the presence of model vegetable matter was confirmed in this study. Batch experiments were performed to model the catalytic conversion of E1, E2, E3 and EE2 in synthetic wastewater. Greater than 80% reduction in the parent compounds was achieved for each target chemical after 72 h with the remaining concentration distributed between aqueous and solid phases as follows: 13% and 7% for E1, 10% and 2% for E2, 6% and 2% for E3, and 8% and 3% for EE2, respectively. Testosterone, androstenedione and progesterone were also monitored in this study, and their concentrations were found to be in agreement with initially spiked amount. Data collected under laboratory conditions provided the basis for implementing new abiotic wastewater treatment technologies that use inexpensive materials. - Abiotic transformation of estrogens in wastewater matrices can be harnessed for improving their removal from the environment.

  10. Abiotic transformation of estrogens in synthetic municipal wastewater: An alternative for treatment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marfil-Vega, Ruth [School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, 701 Engineering Research Center, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0071 (United States); Suidan, Makram T., E-mail: Makram.Suidan@uc.ed [School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, 701 Engineering Research Center, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0071 (United States); Mills, Marc A. [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The abiotic transformation of estrogens, including estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and ethinylestradiol (EE2), in the presence of model vegetable matter was confirmed in this study. Batch experiments were performed to model the catalytic conversion of E1, E2, E3 and EE2 in synthetic wastewater. Greater than 80% reduction in the parent compounds was achieved for each target chemical after 72 h with the remaining concentration distributed between aqueous and solid phases as follows: 13% and 7% for E1, 10% and 2% for E2, 6% and 2% for E3, and 8% and 3% for EE2, respectively. Testosterone, androstenedione and progesterone were also monitored in this study, and their concentrations were found to be in agreement with initially spiked amount. Data collected under laboratory conditions provided the basis for implementing new abiotic wastewater treatment technologies that use inexpensive materials. - Abiotic transformation of estrogens in wastewater matrices can be harnessed for improving their removal from the environment.

  11. Water harvesting from municipal wastewater via osmotic gradient: An evaluation of process performance

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Li, Zhenyu; Abu-Ghdaib, Muhannad; Wei, Chunhai; Amy, Gary L.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2013-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) presents a unique opportunity for integrated wastewater treatment and seawater desalination. This study assesses the efficiency of a submerged FO system to reduce the volume of wastewater that needs to be treated while recovering high quality water that can be further treated for sustainable fresh water production. A semi-batch operation was employed with two membrane orientations in terms of active and support layers. A change of membrane orientation could improve the flux and slightly reduce the salt leakage from the draw solution to the feed solution. The formation of fouling on the membrane resulted in a decrease of the initial flux and average flux with both membrane orientations. The fouling layer on the membrane surface was determined to be caused by biopolymer-like substances. Osmotic backwash removed almost all organic foulants from the membrane surface, but did not improve the flux. There was a moderate to high retention of nutrients (N and P), varying from 56% to 99%, and almost a complete retention for trace metals regardless of membrane orientation. However the membrane showed a limited ability to retain low molecular weight acids and low molecular weight neutral compounds. This study identified a possible role of the FO process to integrate wastewater treatment and seawater desalination for a sustainable solution of the water-energy nexus for coastal cities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V..

  12. Water harvesting from municipal wastewater via osmotic gradient: An evaluation of process performance

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2013-11-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) presents a unique opportunity for integrated wastewater treatment and seawater desalination. This study assesses the efficiency of a submerged FO system to reduce the volume of wastewater that needs to be treated while recovering high quality water that can be further treated for sustainable fresh water production. A semi-batch operation was employed with two membrane orientations in terms of active and support layers. A change of membrane orientation could improve the flux and slightly reduce the salt leakage from the draw solution to the feed solution. The formation of fouling on the membrane resulted in a decrease of the initial flux and average flux with both membrane orientations. The fouling layer on the membrane surface was determined to be caused by biopolymer-like substances. Osmotic backwash removed almost all organic foulants from the membrane surface, but did not improve the flux. There was a moderate to high retention of nutrients (N and P), varying from 56% to 99%, and almost a complete retention for trace metals regardless of membrane orientation. However the membrane showed a limited ability to retain low molecular weight acids and low molecular weight neutral compounds. This study identified a possible role of the FO process to integrate wastewater treatment and seawater desalination for a sustainable solution of the water-energy nexus for coastal cities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V..

  13. Outfall Pipeline Lines, Tutuila AS, 2009, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The outfalls extend from coastal points, originating from canneries and sewage treatment plants.Tafuna Outfall: This polyethylene pipeline installed in 1996, is...

  14. Methodological approach for evaluating the response of soil hydrological behavior to irrigation with treated municipal wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, A.; Santini, A.; Botti, P.; Vacca, S.; Comegna, V.; Severino, G.

    2004-06-01

    This paper aims mainly to provide experimental evidence of the consequences of urban wastewater reuse in irrigation practices on the hydrological behavior of soils. The effects on both the hydraulic and dispersive properties of representative soils in southern Sardinia are illustrated. Ten undisturbed soil monoliths, 120 cm in height and 40 cm in diameter, were collected from plots previously selected through a soil survey. Soil hydraulic and solute transport properties were determined before and after application of wastewater using transient water infiltration and steady state-solute transport column experiments. Detailed spatial-temporal information on the propagation of water and solute through the soil profiles were obtained by monitoring soil water contents, θ, pressure heads, h, and solute concentrations, C, measured by a network of time domain reflectometry probes, tensiometers and solution samplers horizontally inserted in each column at different depths. A disturbed layer at the soil surface, which expands in depth with time, was observed, characterized by reduced soil porosity, translation of pore size distribution towards narrower pores and consequent decrease in water retention, hydraulic conductivity and hydrodynamic dispersion. It is shown that these changes occurring in the disturbed soil layer, although local by nature, affect the hydrological behavior of the whole soil profile. Due to the disturbed layer formation, the soil beneath never saturates. Such behavior has important consequences on the solute transport in soils, as unsaturated conditions mean higher residence times of solutes, even of those normally characterized by considerable mobility (e.g. boron), which may accumulate along the profile. The results mainly provide experimental evidence that knowledge of the chemical and microbiological composition of the water is not sufficient to evaluate its suitability for irrigation. Other factors, mainly soil physical and hydrological

  15. Occurrence of illicit drugs and selected pharmaceuticals in Slovak municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodík, Igor; Mackuľak, Tomáš; Fáberová, Milota; Ivanová, Lucia

    2016-10-01

    We analyzed illicit drugs and their metabolites and pharmaceuticals in wastewater from 15 selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Slovakia. Our results indicate that methamphetamine is one of the most commonly used illegal drugs in all the regions of Slovakia monitored in this study. Compared with the international results, the Slovak cities of Dunajská Streda (479 mg/day/1000inh) and Trnava (354 mg/day/1000inh) are among the cities with the largest numbers of methamphetamine users in Europe. These results indicate an increase in the incidence of drugs in big cities and in the satellite cities (Trnava and Dunajská Streda) near Bratislava. These results also confirm the police statistics about production and use of illicit drugs in Slovakia. The highest specific loads of cocaine were found in Bratislava (112 mg/day/1000inh), followed by Petržalka (74 mg/day/1000inh). Compared with other European cities, Bratislava and the other Slovak cities in this study have a relatively low number of COC consumers. The ecstasy load in wastewater from larger cities also significantly increased over the weekend and during music festivals. The highest 2-year mean concentrations of THC-COOH, a cannabis biomarker, were observed in the sewage from BA-Petržalka and BA-Central (191 and 171 ng/L, respectively). A first complex monitoring of pharmaceuticals in all therapeutic groups was also realized in selected Slovak WWTPs. Occurrence of wide spectrum of pharmaceuticals with very high concentrations as well as consumptions were observed mainly in small Slovak cities. Considering all 120 monitored pharmaceuticals, Valsartan had the highest concentrations: 6000 ng/L, on average.

  16. Copper Removal from A-01 Outfall by Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L.N.

    1999-01-01

    Chelex100, a commercially available ion exchange resin, has been identified in this study as having a significant affinity for copper and zinc in the A-01 outfall water. Removal of copper and zinc from A-01 outfall water will ensure that the outfall meets the state of South Carolina's limit on these heavy metals

  17. Inhibition of the nitrification process in municipal wastewater treatment plants by industrial discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Winther-Nielsen, M.; Jorgensen, L.

    1994-01-01

    of inhibitory substances are to be found among the industries, and that nearly all of the industries investigated exhibited some kind of inhibitory effect. Further, is was demonstrated that the toxic unit calculation might be used in the quantification of the sources, and that the observed effects could...... be explained by the chemical substances in the wastewater from the industries. Based on the above described results, a strategy for control of the inhibitory effects at the different levels of the catchment area was suggested....

  18. A comprehensive substance flow analysis of a municipal wastewater and sludge treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Guildal, T.

    2015-01-01

    The fate of total organic carbon, 32 elements (Al, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, N, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn) and 4 groups of organic pollutants (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, polychlorinated biphenyl...... on the assessment, it is evident that both inorganic and organic elements accumulated in the sewage sludge, with the exception of elements that are highly soluble or degradable by wastewater and sludge treatment processes. The majority of metals and metalloids were further accumulated in the incineration ash, while...

  19. Evaluation of an ASM1 Model Calibration Precedure on a Municipal-Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Britta; Gernaey, Krist; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    treatment plant. In the case that was studied it was important to have a detailed description of the process dynamics, since the model was to be used as the basis for optimisation scenarios in a later phase. Therefore, a complete model calibration procedure was applied including: (1) a description......The purpose of the calibrated model determines how to approach a model calibration, e.g. which information is needed and to which level of detail the model should be calibrated. A systematic model calibration procedure was therefore defined and evaluated for a municipal–industrial wastewater...

  20. Peracetic acid as disinfectant of municipal wastewaters; L'acido peracetico nella disinfezione dei reflui urbani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funari, E. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale, Reparto di Medicina Ambientale, Rome (Italy); Lopez, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca sulle Acque, Reparto di Chimica e Tecnologia delle Acque, Bari (Italy)

    2000-09-01

    Based on the currently available literature, this paper is aimed at providing a sort of the <> on the use of peracetic acid (C{sub 3}COOOH{identical_to} Paa) as disinfectant of biologically treated municipal wastewater: the growing interest for this substance, used since many years in other sectors (e.g., food-industry, breweries, etc.) is mainly due to the claimed limited formation, if any, of harmful disinfecting by-products (Dbp) with consequent lack of toxicity in Paa treated wastewaters. Such features are just the opposite of those of chlorine, i.e. the most used disinfectant for municipal wastewater. During chlorine-disinfecting, in fact, numerous harmful organo-chlorinated Dbp are formed and, accordingly, the toxicity of chlorinated effluents results very high. In spite of the above reported <> properties of Paa, its use at large scale facilities is still restricted and this not only because of its costs but even for the limited knowledge concerning: the actual disinfecting effectiveness towards different pathogens, the nature and the toxicological properties of its potential Dbp, and the disinfecting performances at large scale facilities. The present paper, besides reporting an extensive and useful collection of references concerning Paa, provides a critical review on the current knowledge regarding specific Paa features such as: its disinfecting effectiveness towards different pathogenic micro-organisms, the nature and the toxicity of its disinfecting by-products, the environmental impact of Paa treated effluents, and the operative conditions used at large scale wastewater treatment plants. [Italian] Il presente lavoro, basandosi sui dati disponibili in letteratura, si propone di fare il punto sull'impiego dell'acido peracetico (CH{sub 3}COOOH{identical_to} PAA) come disinfettante di reflui urbani depurati. Il crescente interesse nei confronti di questa sostenza, gia' nota come disinfettante in

  1. Inactivation of natural enteric bacteria in real municipal wastewater by solar photo-Fenton at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Gómez, E; Esteban García, B; Ballesteros Martín, M M; Fernández Ibáñez, P; Sánchez Pérez, J A

    2014-10-15

    This study analyses the use of the solar photo-Fenton treatment in compound parabolic collector photo-reactors at neutral pH for the inactivation of wild enteric Escherichia coli and total coliform present in secondary effluents of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (SEWWTP). Control experiments were carried out to find out the individual effects of mechanical stress, pH, reactants concentration, and UVA radiation as well as the combined effects of UVA-Fe and UVA-H2O2. The synergistic germicidal effect of solar-UVA with 50 mg L(-1) of H2O2 led to complete disinfection (up to the detection limit) of total coliforms within 120 min. The disinfection process was accelerated by photo-Fenton, achieving total inactivation in 60 min reducing natural bicarbonate concentration found in the SEWWTP from 250 to 100 mg L(-1) did not give rise to a significant enhancement in bacterial inactivation. Additionally, the effect of hydrogen peroxide and iron dosage was evaluated. The best conditions were 50 mg L(-1) of H2O2 and 20 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+). Due to the variability of the SEWWTP during autumn and winter seasons, the inactivation kinetic constant varied between 0.07 ± 0.04 and 0.17 ± 0.04 min(-1). Moreover, the water treated by solar photo-Fenton fulfilled the microbiological quality requirement for wastewater reuse in irrigation as per the WHO guidelines and in particular for Spanish legislation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The implications of drought and water conservation on the reuse of municipal wastewater: Recognizing impacts and identifying mitigation possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quynh K; Jassby, David; Schwabe, Kurt A

    2017-11-01

    As water agencies continue to investigate opportunities to increase resilience and local water supply reliability in the face of drought and rising water scarcity, water conservation strategies and the reuse of treated municipal wastewater are garnering significant attention and adoption. Yet a simple water balance thought experiment illustrates that drought, and the conservation strategies that are often enacted in response to it, both likely limit the role reuse may play in improving local water supply reliability. For instance, as a particular drought progresses and agencies enact water conservation measures to cope with drought, influent flows likely decrease while influent pollution concentrations increase, particularly salinity, which adversely affects wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) costs and effluent quality and flow. Consequently, downstream uses of this effluent, whether to maintain streamflow and quality, groundwater recharge, or irrigation may be impacted. This is unfortunate since reuse is often heralded as a drought-proof mechanism to increase resilience. The objectives of this paper are two-fold. First, we illustrate-using a case study from Southern California during its most recent drought- how drought and water conservation strategies combine to reduce influent flow and quality and, subsequently, effluent flow and quality. Second, we use a recently developed regional water reuse decision support model (RWRM) to highlight cost-effective strategies that can be implemented to mitigate the impacts of drought on effluent water quality. While the solutions we identify cannot increase the flow of influent or effluent coming into or out of a treatment plant, they can improve the value of the remaining effluent in a cost-effective manner that takes into account the characteristics of its demand, whether it be for landscaping, golf courses, agricultural irrigation, or surface water augmentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultra high temperature gasification of municipal wastewater primary biosolids in a rotary kiln reactor for the production of synthesis gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Petros

    2017-12-01

    Primary Fine-Sieved Solids (PFSS) are produced from wastewater by the use of micro-sieves, in place of primary clarification. Biosolids is considered as a nuisance product, however, it contains significant amounts of energy, which can be utilized by biological (anaerobic digestion) or thermal (combustion or gasification) processes. In the present study, an semi-industrial scale UHT rotary kiln gasifier, operating with electric energy, was employed for the gasification of PFSS (at 17% moisture content), collected from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Two gasification temperatures (950 and 1050 °C) had been tested, with minimal differences, with respect to syngas yield. The system appears to reach steady state after about 30-40 min from start up. The composition of the syngas at near steady state was measured approximately as 62.4% H 2 , 30.0% CO, 2.4% CH 4 and 3.4% CO 2 , plus 1.8% unidentified gases. The potential for electric energy production from the syngas produced is theoretically greater than the electric energy required for gasification. Theoretically, approximately 3.8 MJ/kg PFSS of net electric energy may be produced. However, based on the measured electric energy consumption, and assuming that all the syngas produced is used for electric energy production, addition of excess electric energy (about 0.43 MJ/kg PFSS) is required to break even. The latter is probably due to heat losses to the environment, during the heating process. With the improvement of energy efficiency, the process can be self sustained, form the energy point of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Two synthetic progestins and natural progesterone are responsible for most of the progestagenic activities in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents in the Czech and Slovak republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šauer, Pavel; Stará, Alžběta; Golovko, Oksana; Valentová, Olga; Bořík, Adam; Grabic, Roman; Kroupová, Hana Kocour

    2018-06-15

    Vast numbers of xenobiotics are known still to be present in treated municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. Some of these possess endocrine-disrupting potency and pose risks for exposed aquatic animals. We searched for 17 potential environmental contaminants having affinity to the progesterone receptor. Relative potency values of these progesterone receptor-active chemicals were obtained. On the basis of relative potencies and measured environmental concentrations, the contribution of progestins to measured progestagenic activities was evaluated. Wastewaters (influent and effluent) and surrounding surface waters (upstream and downstream) at six municipal WWTPs were screened using instrumental chemical analysis and in vitro reporter gene bioassay. We showed the presence of target compounds and (anti-)progestagenic activities in municipal wastewater and surface water. Nine and seven progestins were identified in influent and effluent wastewaters, respectively. Only two compounds, progesterone and medroxyprogesterone were found in surface waters. Progestagenic agonistic activities in influents were partially masked by strong anti-progestagenic activities that were detected in all influents and ranged from 2.63 to 83 ng/L of mifepristone equivalents (EQs). Progestagenic activities were detected in all effluents and ranged from 0.06 to 0.47 ng/L of reference compound ORG 2058 EQs (a synthetic progestin equivalents), thus indicating incomplete removal of progestins during wastewater treatment processing. This activity poses a continuing risk for the aquatic environment. By contrast, anti-progestagenic activities showed better removal efficiency in WWTPs compared to progestagenic agonistic activities. Anti-progestagenic activities were found in only three of six effluents and ranged from 0.26 to 2.1 ng/L mifepristone EQs. We explained most of the progestagenic activity in municipal WWTP effluents by the presence of synthetic progestins and

  5. Seawater-driven forward osmosis for enriching nitrogen and phosphorous in treated municipal wastewater: effect of membrane properties and feed solution chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenchao; Tobino, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Fumiyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-02-01

    Seawater-driven forward osmosis (FO) is considered to be a novel strategy to concentrate nutrients in treated municipal wastewater for further recovery as well as simultaneous discharge of highly purified wastewater into the sea with low cost. As a preliminary test, the performance of FO membranes in concentrating nutrients was investigated by both batch experiments and model simulation approaches. With synthetic seawater as the draw solution, the dissolved organic carbon, phosphate, and ammonia in the effluent from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal wastewater were 2.3-fold, 2.3-fold, and 2.1-fold, respectively, concentrated by the FO process with approximately 57% of water reduction. Most of the dissolved components, including trace metals in the MBR effluent, were highly retained (>80%) in the feed side, indicating high water quality of permeate to be discharged. The effect of membrane properties on the nutrient enrichment performance was investigated by comparing three types of FO membranes. Interestingly, a polyamide membrane possessing a high negative charge demonstrated a poor capability of retaining ammonia, which was hypothesized because of an ion exchange-like mechanism across the membrane prompted by the high ionic concentration of the draw solution. A feed solution pH of 7 was demonstrated to be an optimum condition for improving the overall retention of nutrients, especially for ammonia because of the pH-dependent speciation of ammonia/ammonium forms. The modeling results showed that higher than 10-fold concentrations of ammonia and phosphate are achievable by seawater-driven FO with a draw solution to feed solution volume ratio of 2:1. The enriched municipal wastewater contains nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations comparable with typical animal wastewater and anaerobic digestion effluent, which are used for direct nutrient recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Wave Induced Saline Intrusion in Sea Outfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Burrows, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the influence of wave increases the tendency of saline intrusion in multi-riser sea outfalls. The flow field in the diffusor under such unsteady and inhomogeneous circumstances is in general very complex, but when sufficient wave energy is dissip...

  7. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    KAUST Repository

    Roth, Florian; Lessa, G.C.; Wild, C.; Kikuchi, R.K.P.; Naumann, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ13Corg and δ15N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  8. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    KAUST Repository

    Roth, Florian

    2016-03-30

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ13Corg and δ15N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  9. Mass flows and removal of antibiotics in two municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2011-05-01

    The mass flows and removal of 20 antibiotics of seven classes in two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Hong Kong were investigated in different seasons of a whole year, using bihourly 24h flow proportional composite samples. Antibiotics were detected at concentrations of 3.2-1718, 1.3-1176 and 1.1-233ngL(-1) in influents, secondary and disinfection effluents. Total daily discharges of all the detected antibiotics from effluents of Shatin and Stanley WWTPs were 470-710 and 3.0-5.2gd(-1), respectively. Ampicillin, cefalexin, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, chlortetracycline and vancomycin were effectively (52-100%) eliminated by activated sludge process while ampicillin and cefalexin were effectively (91-99%) eliminated by disinfection. Bihourly variation analysis showed that concentrations of the major antibiotics in influents varied more significantly in Stanley WWTP which served small communities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Negatively Charged Hyperbranched Polyglycerol Grafted Membranes for Osmotic Power Generation from Municipal Wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xue; Cai, Tao; Chen, Chunyan; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    Osmotic power holds great promise as a clean, sustainable and largely unexploited energy resource. Recent membrane development for pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) is making the osmotic power generation more and more realistic. However, severe performance declines have been observed because the porous layer of PRO membranes is fouled by the feed stream. To overcome it, a negatively charged antifouling PRO hollow fiber membrane has been designed and studied in this work. An antifouling polymer, derived from hyperbranched polyglycerol and functionalized by α-lipoic acid and succinic anhydride, was synthesized and grafted onto the polydopamine (PDA) modified poly(ether sulfone) (PES) hollow fiber membranes. In comparison to unmodified membranes, the charged hyperbranched polyglycerol (CHPG) grafted membrane is much less affected by organic deposition, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption, and highly resistant to microbial growths, demonstrated by E. coli adhesion and S. aureus attachment. CHPG-g-TFC was also examined in PRO tests using a concentrated wastewater as the feed. Comparing to the plain PES-TFC and non-charged HPG-g-TFC, the newly developed membrane exhibits not only the smallest decline in water flux but also the highest recovery rate. When using 0.81 M NaCl and wastewater as the feed pair in PRO tests at 15 bar, the average power density remains at 5.6 W/m2 in comparison to an average value of 3.6 W/m2 for unmodified membranes after four PRO runs. In summary, osmotic power generation may be sustained by properly designing and anchoring the functional polymers to PRO membranes.

  11. Negatively charged hyperbranched polyglycerol grafted membranes for osmotic power generation from municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Cai, Tao; Chen, Chunyan; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-02-01

    Osmotic power holds great promise as a clean, sustainable and largely unexploited energy resource. Recent membrane development for pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) is making the osmotic power generation more and more realistic. However, severe performance declines have been observed because the porous layer of PRO membranes is fouled by the feed stream. To overcome it, a negatively charged antifouling PRO hollow fiber membrane has been designed and studied in this work. An antifouling polymer, derived from hyperbranched polyglycerol and functionalized by α-lipoic acid and succinic anhydride, was synthesized and grafted onto the polydopamine (PDA) modified poly(ether sulfone) (PES) hollow fiber membranes. In comparison to unmodified membranes, the charged hyperbranched polyglycerol (CHPG) grafted membrane is much less affected by organic deposition, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption, and highly resistant to microbial growths, demonstrated by Escherichia coli adhesion and Staphylococcus aureus attachment. CHPG-g-TFC was also examined in PRO tests using a concentrated wastewater as the feed. Comparing to the plain PES-TFC and non-charged HPG-g-TFC, the newly developed membrane exhibits not only the smallest decline in water flux but also the highest recovery rate. When using 0.81 M NaCl and wastewater as the feed pair in PRO tests at 15 bar, the average power density remains at 5.6 W/m(2) in comparison to an average value of 3.6 W/m(2) for unmodified membranes after four PRO runs. In summary, osmotic power generation may be sustained by properly designing and anchoring the functional polymers to PRO membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Negatively Charged Hyperbranched Polyglycerol Grafted Membranes for Osmotic Power Generation from Municipal Wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xue

    2015-11-18

    Osmotic power holds great promise as a clean, sustainable and largely unexploited energy resource. Recent membrane development for pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) is making the osmotic power generation more and more realistic. However, severe performance declines have been observed because the porous layer of PRO membranes is fouled by the feed stream. To overcome it, a negatively charged antifouling PRO hollow fiber membrane has been designed and studied in this work. An antifouling polymer, derived from hyperbranched polyglycerol and functionalized by α-lipoic acid and succinic anhydride, was synthesized and grafted onto the polydopamine (PDA) modified poly(ether sulfone) (PES) hollow fiber membranes. In comparison to unmodified membranes, the charged hyperbranched polyglycerol (CHPG) grafted membrane is much less affected by organic deposition, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption, and highly resistant to microbial growths, demonstrated by E. coli adhesion and S. aureus attachment. CHPG-g-TFC was also examined in PRO tests using a concentrated wastewater as the feed. Comparing to the plain PES-TFC and non-charged HPG-g-TFC, the newly developed membrane exhibits not only the smallest decline in water flux but also the highest recovery rate. When using 0.81 M NaCl and wastewater as the feed pair in PRO tests at 15 bar, the average power density remains at 5.6 W/m2 in comparison to an average value of 3.6 W/m2 for unmodified membranes after four PRO runs. In summary, osmotic power generation may be sustained by properly designing and anchoring the functional polymers to PRO membranes.

  13. Effluent Mixing Modeling for Liquefied Natural Gas Outfalls in a Coastal Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Samad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Natural Gas (LNG processing facilities typically are located on ocean shores for easy transport of LNG by marine vessels. These plants use large quantities of water for various process streams. The combined wastewater effluents from the LNG plants are discharged to the coastal and marine environments typically through submarine outfalls. Proper disposal of effluents from an LNG plant is essential to retain local and regional environmental values and to ensure regulatory and permit compliance for industrial effluents. Typical outfall designs involve multi-port diffuser systems where the design forms a part of the overall environmental impact assessment for the plant. The design approach needs to ensure that both near-field plume dispersion and far-field effluent circulation meets the specified mixing zone criteria. This paper describes typical wastewater process streams from an LNG plant and presents a diffuser system design case study (for an undisclosed project location in a meso-tidal coast to meet the effluent mixing zone criteria. The outfall is located in a coastal and marine ecosystem where the large tidal range and persistent surface wind govern conditions for the diffuser design. Physical environmental attributes and permit compliance criteria are discussed in a generic format. The paper describes the design approach, conceptualization of numerical model schemes for near- and far-field effluent mixing zones, and the selected diffuser design.

  14. Co-composting of hair waste from the tanning industry with de-inking and municipal wastewater sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena, Raquel; Pagans, Estel la; Artola, Adriana; Vázquez, Felícitas; Sánchez, Antoni

    2007-06-01

    Production of waste hair in the leather manufacturing industry is increasing every year due to the adoption of hair-save unhairing techniques, leaving the tanners with the problem of coping with yet another solid by-product. Numerous potential strategies for hair utilisation have been proposed. However, the use of hair waste as agricultural fertiliser is one of its most promising applications due to the high nitrogen content of hair. Agricultural value of hair can be increased by composting. This paper deals with the composting of hair from the unhairing of bovine hide. Results indicated that hair cannot be either composted on its own or co-composted with de-inking sludge, a chemical complementary co-substrate. However, good results were obtained when co-composted with raw sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant at hair:raw sludge weight ratios 1:1, 1:2 and, 1:4 in lab scale and pilot plant scale composters. In all cases, a more stable product was achieved at the end of the process. Composting in the pilot plant composter was effectively monitored using Static Respiration Indices determined at process temperature at sampling (SRI(T)) and at 37 degrees C (SRI(37)). Notably, SRI(T) values were more sensitive to changes in the biological activity. In contrast, Respiratory Quotient (RQ) values were not adequate to follow the development of the process.

  15. Integration of coagulation and adsorption for removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors from biologically treated municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miaomiao; Meng, Yingjie; Ma, Defang; Wang, Yan; Li, Fengli; Xu, Xing; Xia, Chufan; Gao, Baoyu

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential of various dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions in biologically treated municipal wastewater by UF fractionation, XAD-8 resin adsorption isolation, and excitation and emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Removal of various NDMA precursor fractions was also analyzed to evaluate the efficiency of traditional water treatment processes (coagulation, adsorption, and coagulation-adsorption). Results showed that NDMA were mainly formed by low molecular weight (MW) fractions (NDMA formation potential (57%), followed by isolated adsorption treatment (50%) and isolated coagulation treatment (28%). The powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption process could reduce the high MW precursors (>30 kDa) by 48%, which was higher than other treatments. In contrast, the highest uptake (66%) of low MW precursors (<30 kDa) was achieved by the coagulation-adsorption process. All treatments preferentially removed the hydrophobic acids (HoA) fraction compared to other fractions. Coagulation could remove more fulvic acid-like substances and adsorption could remove more microbial by-products and aromatic proteins.

  16. Changes in the components and biotoxicity of dissolved organic matter in a municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying-Xue; Hu, Hong-Ying; Shi, Chun-Zhen; Yang, Zhe; Tang, Fang

    2016-09-01

    The characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the biotoxicity of these components were investigated in a municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) system with a microfiltration (MF) pretreatment unit. The MF pretreatment step had little effect on the levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the secondary effluent, but the addition of chlorine before MF promoted the formation of organics with anti-estrogenic activity. The distribution of excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence constituents exhibited obvious discrepancies between the secondary effluent and the reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate. Using size exclusion chromatography, DOM with low molecular weights of approximately 1.2 and 0.98 kDa was newly formed during the mWRRO. The normalized genotoxicity and anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate were 32.1 ± 10.2 μg4-NQO/mgDOC and 0.36 ± 0.08 mgTAM/mgDOC, respectively, and these values were clearly higher than those of the secondary effluent and MF permeate. The florescence volume of Regions I and II in the EEM spectrum could be suggested as a surrogate for assessing the genotoxicity and anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate.

  17. Membrane fouling of forward osmosis (FO) membrane for municipal wastewater treatment: A comparison between direct FO and OMBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Tian, Jiayu; Zhao, Zhiwei; Shi, Wenxin; Liu, Dongmei; Cui, Fuyi

    2016-11-01

    In this work, membrane fouling behavior in a direct forward osmosis (FO) and an osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) for municipal wastewater treatment was systematically investigated and compared. During the long-term operation, much severer flux decline was observed for the direct FO than that for the OMBR. The cake layer was found to be much thicker, together with large amounts of microorganisms growing on the membrane surface in direct FO. Interestingly, no obvious attachment of microorganisms on the membrane surface was observed in the OMBR. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and excitation emission matrices (EEM) analyses showed the polysaccharides and proteins were the dominant organic foulants in the fouling layer, and the quantity of the organic substances was also higher in direct FO than that in OMBR. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) results indicated the main inorganic elements in the fouling layer were Ca, Mg, Fe and P, all of which exhibited higher relative percentages in direct FO than that in OMBR. The occurrence of higher contents of microorganisms, organic foulants and inorganic elements in the cake layer caused a higher filtration resistance for the FO membrane in the direct FO. Although more severe membrane fouling was identified in direct FO, the hydraulic and chemical cleaning was more effective on recovering the water permeability of the membrane in direct FO than that in OMBR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A new hybrid treatment system of bioreactors and electrocoagulation for superior removal of organic and nutrient pollutants from municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Ngo, Huu Hao; Yoon, Yong Soo

    2014-02-01

    This paper evaluated a novel pilot scale hybrid treatment system which combines rotating hanging media bioreactor (RHMBR), submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) along with electrocoagulation (EC) as post treatment to treat organic and nutrient pollutants from municipal wastewater. The results indicated that the highest removal efficiency was achieved at the internal recycling ratio as 400% of the influent flow rate which produced a superior effluent quality with 0.26mgBOD5L(-1), 11.46mgCODCrL(-1), 0.00mgNH4(+)-NL(-1), and 3.81mgT-NL(-1), 0.03mgT-PL(-1). During 16months of operation, NH4(+)-N was completely eliminated and T-P removal efficiency was also up to 100%. It was found that increasing in internal recycling ratio could improve the nitrate and nitrogen removal efficiencies. Moreover, the TSS and coliform bacteria concentration after treatment was less than 5mgL(-1) and 30MPNmL(-1), respectively, regardless of internal recycling ratios and its influent concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrates from municipal wastewater reclamation by coagulation and granular activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying-Xue; Yang, Zhe; Ye, Tao; Shi, Na; Tian, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) contains elevated concentrations of contaminants which pose potential risks to aquatic environment. The treatment of ROC from an mWRRO using granular activated carbon (GAC) combined pretreatment of coagulation was optimized and evaluated. Among the three coagulants tested, ferric chloride (FeCl3) presented relatively higher DOC removal efficiency than polyaluminium chloride and lime at the same dosage and coagulation conditions. The removal efficiency of DOC, genotoxicity, and antiestrogenic activity concentration of the ROC could achieve 16.9, 18.9, and 39.7 %, respectively, by FeCl3 coagulation (with FeCl3 dosage of 180.22 mg/L), which can hardly reduce UV254 and genotoxicity normalized by DOC of the DOM with MW activity were completely eliminated by the GAC adsorption. The results suggest that GAC adsorption combined pretreatment of FeCl3 coagulation as an efficient method to control organics, genotoxicity, and antiestrogenic activity in the ROC from mWRRO system.

  20. Recovery of soluble chloride salts from the wastewater generated during the washing process of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hailong; Erzat, Aris; Liu, Yangsheng

    2014-01-01

    Water washing is widely used as the pretreatment method to treat municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, which facilitates the further solidification/stabilization treatment or resource recovery of the fly ash. The wastewater generated during the washing process is a kind of hydrosaline solution, usually containing high concentrations of alkali chlorides and sulphates, which cause serious pollution to environment. However, these salts can be recycled as resources instead of discharge. This paper explored an effective and practical recovery method to separate sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride salts individually from the hydrosaline water. In laboratory experiments, a simulating hydrosaline solution was prepared according to composition of the waste washing water. First, in the three-step evaporation-crystallization process, pure sodium chloride and solid mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides were obtained separately, and the remaining solution contained potassium and calcium chlorides (solution A). And then, the solid mixture was fully dissolved into water (solution B obtained). Finally, ethanol was added into solutions A and B to change the solubility of sodium, potassium, and calcium chlorides within the mixed solvent of water and ethanol. During the ethanol-adding precipitation process, each salt was separated individually, and the purity of the raw production in laboratory experiments reached about 90%. The ethanol can be recycled by distillation and reused as the solvent. Therefore, this technology may bring both environmental and economic benefits.

  1. Molecular-based detection of potentially pathogenic bacteria in membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems treating municipal wastewater: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Moustapha; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2017-02-01

    Although membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems provide better removal of pathogens compared to conventional activated sludge processes, they do not achieve total log removal. The present study examines two MBR systems treating municipal wastewater, one a full-scale MBR plant and the other a lab-scale anaerobic MBR. Both of these systems were operated using microfiltration (MF) polymeric membranes. High-throughput sequencing and digital PCR quantification were utilized to monitor the log removal values (LRVs) of associated pathogenic species and their abundance in the MBR effluents. Results showed that specific removal rates vary widely regardless of the system employed. Each of the two MBR effluents' microbial communities contained genera associated with opportunistic pathogens (e.g., Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter) with a wide range of log reduction values (5.5). Digital PCR further confirmed that these bacterial groups included pathogenic species, in several instances at LRVs different than those for their respective genera. These results were used to evaluate the potential risks associated both with the reuse of the MBR effluents for irrigation purposes and with land application of the activated sludge from the full-scale MBR system.

  2. Molecular-based detection of potentially pathogenic bacteria in membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems treating municipal wastewater: a case study

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moustapha

    2016-12-24

    Although membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems provide better removal of pathogens compared to conventional activated sludge processes, they do not achieve total log removal. The present study examines two MBR systems treating municipal wastewater, one a full-scale MBR plant and the other a lab-scale anaerobic MBR. Both of these systems were operated using microfiltration (MF) polymeric membranes. High-throughput sequencing and digital PCR quantification were utilized to monitor the log removal values (LRVs) of associated pathogenic species and their abundance in the MBR effluents. Results showed that specific removal rates vary widely regardless of the system employed. Each of the two MBR effluents’ microbial communities contained genera associated with opportunistic pathogens (e.g., Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter) with a wide range of log reduction values (< 2 to >5.5). Digital PCR further confirmed that these bacterial groups included pathogenic species, in several instances at LRVs different than those for their respective genera. These results were used to evaluate the potential risks associated both with the reuse of the MBR effluents for irrigation purposes and with land application of the activated sludge from the full-scale MBR system.

  3. Study of Kinetic coefficients of a Membrane Bioreactor (MBR for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Naghizadeh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: In order to design membrane bioreactors (MBR properly, it is essential to comprehend the behavior of microorganisms in such wastewater treatment processes. Materials & Methods: In this study, a lab-scale MBR process was operated to determine the biokinetic coefficients of the MBR system under different MLSS concentrations of 6800, 7000, 7400, and 7800 mg/l and organic loading rates of 0.5 kg COD/m3/day. Results: The results of this study showed that the yield of microorganisms (Y, the endogenous decay coefficient (kd, the maximum specific growth rate (μmax and the saturation constant (Ks were in the range of 0.67 g VSS/g COD, 0.56 d−1, 1.86 d−1 and 6.65 mg COD/l, respectively. Conclusions: The kinetic coefficients in this study can be used to improve the operation and design the MBR system in full scale.

  4. Agricultural reuse of municipal wastewater through an integral water reclamation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intriago, Juan Carlo; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Vivaldi, Gaetano Alessandro; Camposeo, Salvatore; Nicolás Nicolás, Emilio; Alarcón, Juan José; Pedrero Salcedo, Francisco

    2018-05-01

    The DESERT-prototype, a state-of-the-art compact combination of water treatment technologies based on filtration and solar-based renewable energy, was employed to reclaim water for agricultural irrigation. Water reclaimed through the DESERT-prototype (PW) from a secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant, as well as conventional irrigation water (CW) and the secondary effluent (SW) itself, were employed to cultivate baby romaine lettuces in a greenhouse in Murcia (Spain), by means of drip and sprinkler irrigation methods, thus establishing six treatments. Assessments of physicochemical and microbiological quality of irrigation water, as well as agronomic and microbiological quality of crops from all treatments, showed that results associated to PW complied in all cases with relevant standards and guidelines. In contrast, results linked to SW and CW presented certain non-compliance cases of water and crop microbiological quality. These assessments lead to conclude that the DESERT-prototype is an appropriate technology for safe water reclamation oriented to agricultural production, that can be complemented by a proper irrigation method in reaching safety targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Advanced tertiary treatment of municipal wastewater using raw and modified diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinlu; Yang, Y S; Lin, Jinhua

    2005-12-09

    Advanced technology for more efficient and effective wastewater treatment is always timely needed. The feasibility of using raw and modified diatomite for advanced treatment of secondary sewage effluents (SSE) was investigated in this study. Raw diatomite at a dosing rate of 300 mg/l showed a similar potential as activated carbon for removing most organic pollutants and toxic metals from SSE. Its performance was found poor in removal of arsenic and crop nutrient constituents (e.g. ammoniacal nitrogen and phosphate) and remained unsatisfactory even when the dosing rate increased up to 500 mg/l. Where modified diatomite was in lieu of raw diatomite, the removal efficiency for all target constituents was improved by 20-50%. At the dosing rate of 150 mg/l, modified diatomite enabled the post-treated effluents to satisfy the discharge consents, with the levels of all target constituents below the regulatory limits. Modified diatomite has advantages over raw diatomite in improving removal efficiency and reducing the dosing rate required for satisfactory treatment of SSE. It is concluded that modified diatomite is much more effective and efficient than raw diatomite, as an alternative to activated carbon, for economic treatment of SSE.

  6. Polar pollutants in municipal wastewater and the water cycle: occurrence and removal of benzotriazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reemtsma, Thorsten; Miehe, Ulf; Duennbier, Uwe; Jekel, Martin

    2010-01-01

    1H-benzo-1,2,3-triazole (BTri) and its methylated analogues (tolyltriazole, TTri) are corrosion inhibitors used in many industrial applications, but also in households in dishwashing agents and in deicing fluids at airports and elsewhere. BTri and one of the TTri-isomers (4-TTri) are typical examples of polar and poorly degradable trace pollutants. Benzotriazole elimination in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Berlin ranged from 20 to 70% for 5-TTRi over 30 to 55% for BTri to insignificant for 4-TTri. WWTP effluent concentrations were in the range of 7-18 microg/L of BTri, 1-5 microg/L of 4-TTri and 0.8-1.2 microg/L of 5-TTri. BTri and 4-TTri proved to be omnipresent in surface waters of the rivers Rhine and Elbe with concentrations increasing from water for drinking water production from surface waters. Even after residence times of several months BTri and 4-TTri were determined in concentrations of a few hundred ng/L in bank filtration water. Isotherm data from batch experiments indicate that activated carbon filtration should be suitable to avoid intrusion of TTri into drinking water in partially closed water cycles. For BTri, however, sorption to activated carbon appears to be too weak and ozonation may be mandatory to remove it from raw waters. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramani, Aparna; Howell, Nathan L.; Rifai, Hanadi S.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K oc values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K ow , organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs

  8. Disinfection of wastewater by hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid: development of procedures for measurement of residual disinfectant and application to a physicochemically treated municipal effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Monika; Brumelis, Daina; Gehr, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    The Montreal Urban Community Wastewater Treatment Plant (MUCWTP) located in Montreal. Quebec, Canada, uses physicochemical treatment processes prior to discharging wastewater into the St. Lawrence River via an outfall tunnel of 2 hours retention time. Although chlorination facilities exist, they are not being used, and the MUCWTP is seeking alternative methods for disinfection to achieve a 2- to 3-log fecal coliform reduction. Liquid chemical disinfectants were attractive options because of their low capital costs. This led to an investigation of the feasibility of using hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid. A method for measuring peroxycompounds (hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid plus hydrogen peroxide) was developed using the peroxidase-based oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfuric acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) with hydrogen peroxide. The validity of the method was confirmed using effluent from the MUCWTP. Recovery was higher than 90% for peracetic acid levels as low as 1.0 mg/L. Quenching of hydrogen peroxide was achieved with 50-mg/L catalase; quenching of peracetic acid was achieved with 100 mg/L of sodium thiosulfate, followed by 50 mg/L of catalase. Batch disinfection tests were conducted on MUCWTP effluent. Hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid in wastewater over time could be modeled as a second-order decay, with the decay "constant" being a function of the initial concentration of peroxycompounds. This function was the same for both hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid, possibly indicating similar decomposition pathways in wastewater matrices. Disinfection was modeled using a modified Hom equation. Required doses of hydrogen peroxide to reach the target fecal coliform levels ranged from 106 to 285 mg/L, with the higher doses occurring when ferric chloride instead of alum was used as the coagulant. Hence, hydrogen peroxide was infeasible as a disinfectant for this application. On the other hand, the peracetic acid dose needed to

  9. Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in the municipal wastewater system: effect of hospital effluent and environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Suvi; Morris, Carol; Morris, Dearbhaile; Cormican, Martin; Cummins, Enda

    2014-01-15

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria is increasing worldwide and remains a significant medical challenge which may lead to antimicrobial redundancy. The contribution of hospital effluent to the prevalence of resistance in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents is not fully understood. AMR bacteria contained in hospital effluent may be released into the aquatic and soil environments after WWTP processing. Hence, the objective of this study is to identify the extent hospital effluent contributes to contamination of these environments by comparing two WWTPs, one which receives hospital effluent and one which does not. AMR Escherichia coli were monitored in the two WWTPs. A model was developed using these monitored values to predict the effect of hospital effluent within a WWTP. The model predicted levels of AMR E. coli in the aquatic environment and potential bather exposure to AMR E. coli. The model results were highly variable. WWTP influent containing hospital effluent had a higher mean percentage of AMR E. coli; although, there appeared to be no within treatment plant effect on the prevalence of AMR E. coli. Examination of WWTP sludge showed a similar variation. There appeared to be no consistent effect from the presence of hospital effluent. The human exposure assessment model predicted swimmer intake of AMR E. coli between 6 and 193CFU/100ml sea water. It appears that hospital effluent is not the main contributing factor behind the development and persistence of AMR E. coli within WWTPs, although resistance may be too well-developed to identify an influence from hospital effluent. Mitigation needs to focus on the removal of already present resistant bacteria but for new or hospital specific antimicrobials focus needs to be on their limited release within effluents or separate treatment. © 2013.

  10. Disinfection efficiency of peracetic acid, UV and ozone after enhanced primary treatment of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehr, Ronald; Wagner, Monika; Veerasubramanian, Priya; Payment, Pierre

    2003-11-01

    The City of Montreal Wastewater Treatment Plant uses enhanced physicochemical processes (ferric and/or alum coagulation) for suspended solids and phosphorus removal. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of peracetic acid (PAA), UV, or ozone to inactivate the indicator organisms fecal coliforms, Enterococci, MS-2 coliphage, or Clostridium perfringens in the effluent from this plant. PAA doses to reach the target fecal coliform level of 9000 CFU/100mL exceeded 6 mg/L; similar results were obtained for enterococci, and no inactivation of Clostridium perfringens was observed. However a 1-log reduction of MS-2 occurred at PAA doses of 1.5 mg/L and higher. It was expected that this effluent would have a high ozone demand, and would require relatively high UV fluences, because of relatively high effluent COD, iron and suspended solids concentrations, and low UV transmittance. This was confirmed herein. For UV, the inactivation curve for fecal coliforms showed the typical two-stage shape, with the target of 1000 CFU/100 mL (to account for photoreactivation) occurring in the asymptote zone at fluences >20 mJ/cm(2). In contrast, inactivation curves for MS-2 and Clostridium perfringens were linear. Clostridium perfringens was the most resistant organism. For ozone, inactivation was already observed before any residuals could be measured. The transferred ozone doses to reach target fecal coliform levels ( approximately 2-log reduction) were 30-50 mg/L. MS-2 was less resistant, but Clostridium perfringens was more resistant than fecal coliforms. The different behaviour of the four indicator organisms studied, depending on the disinfectant, suggests that a single indicator organism might not be appropriate. The required dose of any of the disinfectants is unlikely to be economically viable, and upstream changes to the plant will be needed.

  11. Removal of chlortetracycline from spiked municipal wastewater using a photoelectrocatalytic process operated under sunlight irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daghrir, Rimeh, E-mail: rimeh.daghrir@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec, Qc G1K 9A9 (Canada); Drogui, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.drogui@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec, Qc G1K 9A9 (Canada); Delegan, Nazar, E-mail: delegan@emt.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Qc J3X 1S2 (Canada); El Khakani, My Ali, E-mail: elkhakani@emt.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Qc J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of chlortetracycline in synthetic solution and in municipal effluent was investigated using a photoelectrocatalytic oxidation process under visible irradiation. The N-doped TiO{sub 2} used as photoanode with 3.4 at.% of nitrogen content was prepared by means of a radiofrequency magnetron sputtering (RF-MS) process. Under visible irradiation, higher photoelectrocatalytic removal efficiency of CTC was recorded using N-doped TiO{sub 2} compared to the conventional electrochemical oxidation, direct photolysis and photocatalysis processes. The photoelectrocatalytic process operated at 0.6 A of current intensity during 180 min of treatment time promotes the degradation of 99.1 ± 0.1% of CTC. Under these conditions, removal rates of 85.4 ± 3.6%, 87.4 ± 3.1% and 55.7 ± 2.9% of TOC, TN and NH{sub 4}{sup +} have been recorded. During the treatment, CTC was mainly transformed into CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The process was also found to be effective in removing indicator of pathogens such as fecal coliform (log-inactivation was higher than 1.2 units). - Highlights: •PECO process is a feasible technology for the treatment of MWW contaminated by CTC. •99.1% ± 0.1% of CTC was degraded by PECO using N-doped TiO{sub 2}. •85.4% ± 3.6% of TOC removal and 97.5% ± 1.2% of COD removal were achieved. •87.4% ± 3.1% of TN removal and 55.7% ± 2.9% of NH{sub 4}{sup +} removal were recorded. •More than 94% of fecal coliform was removed (abatement > 1.2-log units)

  12. Flexible and stable heat energy recovery from municipal wastewater treatment plants using a fixed-inverter hybrid heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kyu-Jung; Ren, Xianghao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Specially designed fixed-inverter hybrid heat pump system was developed. • Hybrid operation performed better at part loads than single inverter operation. • The applied heat pump can work stably over a wide range of heat load variations. • Heat energy potential of treated effluent was better than influent. • The heat pump’s COP from the field test was 4.06 for heating and 3.64 for cooling. - Abstract: Among many options to improve energy self-sufficiency in sewage treatment plants, heat extraction using a heat pump holds great promise, since wastewater contains considerable amounts of thermal energy. The actual heat energy demand at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) varies widely with time; however, the heat pumps typically installed in WWTPs are of the on/off controlled fixed-speed type, thus mostly run intermittently at severe part-load conditions with poor efficiency. To solve this mismatch, a specially designed, fixed-inverter hybrid heat pump system incorporating a fixed-speed compressor and an inverter-driven, variable-speed compressor was developed and tested in a real WWTP. In this hybrid configuration, to improve load response and energy efficiency, the base-heat load was covered by the fixed-speed compressor consuming relatively less energy than the variable-speed type at nominal power, and the remaining varying load was handled by the inverter compressor which exhibits a high load-match function while consuming relatively greater energy. The heat pump system developed reliably extracted heat from the treated effluent as a heat source for heating and cooling purposes throughout the year, and actively responded to the load changes with a high measured coefficient of performance (COP) of 4.06 for heating and 3.64 for cooling. Moreover, this hybrid operation yielded a performance up to 15.04% better on part loads than the single inverter operation, suggesting its effectiveness for improving annual energy saving when

  13. Simultaneous remediation of nutrients from liquid anaerobic digestate and municipal wastewater by the microalga Scenedesmus sp. AMDD grown in continuous chemostats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, K E; Bjornsson, W J; Garrison, L L; Whitney, C G; Park, K C; Banskota, A H; McGinn, P J

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of a microalga, Scenedesmus sp. AMDD, to remediate nutrients from municipal wastewater, either as the sole nutrient source or after blending with wastewater obtained from the anaerobic digestion of swine manure. A complimentary aim was to study and define the effects of these wastewaters on microalgal growth, biomass productivity and composition which have important implications for a commercial biofuels production system. A microalga, Scenedesmus sp. AMDD, was grown in continuous chemostats in municipal wastewater or wastewater supplemented with 1·6× or 2·4× higher levels of nitrogen (N) obtained through supplementation with anaerobic digestates. Biomass productivity increased with increasing nutrient supplementation, but was limited by light at high cell densities. Cellular quotas of carbon (C), nitrogen and phosphorus (P) all increased in direct proportion to their concentrations in the combined wastewaters. At higher cell densities, total carbohydrate decreased while protein increased. Fatty acid content remained relatively constant. Under high nutrient levels, the fatty acid profiles contained a higher concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids at the expense of monounsaturated fatty acids. Chlorophyll a was 2·5 times greater in the treatment of greatest nutrient supplementation compared to the treatment with the least. Ammonium (NH4(+)) and phosphate (PO4(3-)) were completely removed by algal growth in all treatments and with maximal removal rates of 41·2 mg N l(-1) d(-1) and 6·7 mg P l(-1) d(-1) observed in wastewater amended with 2·4× higher N level. The study is the first to report stable, long-term continuous algal growth and productivity obtained by combining wastewaters of different sources. The study is supported by detailed analyses of the composition of the cultivated biomass and links composition to the nutrient and light availabilities in the cultures. Simultaneous remediation

  14. Class 1 Integrons and the Antiseptic Resistance Gene (qacEΔ1) in Municipal and Swine Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment Plants and Wastewater—Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Min Tao; Chou, Chin Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Class 1 integrons are mobile gene elements (MGEs) containing qacEΔ1 that are resistant to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) disinfectants. This study compared the abundances of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in municipal (M) and swine slaughterhouse (S) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and investigated the presence of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from wastewater samples. The abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in 96 wastewater samples were quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR), and 113 MRSA isolates recovered from the wastewater samples were detected class 1 integrons and linked antiseptic resistance genes (qacEΔ1), and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for QAC antiseptics. The intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes were detected in all the wastewater samples, and they were more abundant in S-WWTP samples than in M-WWTP samples. A higher percentage of MRSA isolates carried qacEΔ1 in MRSA from swine wastewater samples (62.8%) than in municipal MRSA (3.7%). All the MRSA isolates showed high MICs for antiseptic agents. This study provides important evidence regarding the abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in municipal and swine slaughterhouse wastewater, and antiseptic-resistant MRSA strains were detected in swine slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:26042365

  15. Prevalence and proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes in two municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Daqing; Yu, Shuai; Rysz, Michal; Luo, Yi; Yang, Fengxia; Li, Fengxiang; Hou, Jie; Mu, Quanhua; Alvarez, P J J

    2015-11-15

    The propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is an emerging health concern worldwide. Thus, it is important to understand and mitigate their occurrence in different systems. In this study, 30 ARGs that confer resistance to tetracyclines, sulfonamides, quinolones or macrolides were detected in two activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in northern China. Bacteria harboring ARGs persisted through all treatment units, and survived disinfection by chlorination in greater percentages than total Bacteria (assessed by 16S rRNA genes). Although the absolute abundances of ARGs were reduced from the raw influent to the effluent by 89.0%-99.8%, considerable ARG levels [(1.0 ± 0.2) × 10(3) to (9.5 ± 1.8) × 10(5) copies/mL)] were found in WWTP effluent samples. ARGs were concentrated in the waste sludge (through settling of bacteria and sludge dewatering) at (1.5 ± 2.3) × 10(9) to (2.2 ± 2.8) × 10(11) copies/g dry weight. Twelve ARGs (tetA, tetB, tetE, tetG, tetH, tetS, tetT, tetX, sul1, sul2, qnrB, ermC) were discharged through the dewatered sludge and plant effluent at higher rates than influent values, indicating overall proliferation of resistant bacteria. Significant antibiotic concentrations (2%-50% of raw influent concentrations) remained throughout all treatment units. This apparently contributed selective pressure for ARG replication since the relative abundance of resistant bacteria (assessed by ARG/16S rRNA gene ratios) was significantly correlated to the corresponding effluent antibiotic concentrations. Similarly, the concentrations of various heavy metals (which induce a similar bacterial resistance mechanism as antibiotics - efflux pumps) were also correlated to the enrichment of some ARGs. Thus, curtailing the release of antibiotics and heavy metals to sewage systems (or enhancing their removal in pre-treatment units) may alleviate their selective pressure and mitigate ARG proliferation in WWTPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  16. Life Cycle Assessment to Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant; Analisis de Ciclo de Vida de una Planta de Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales Municipales. Caso: PTARM de Yautepec (Morelos, Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J s; Herrera, I; Rodriguez, A

    2011-05-13

    The evaluation was done at a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP), through the application of the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) performed by using a commercial tool called SIMAPRO. The objective of this study was to apply Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in two systems: municipal wastewater effluent without treatment and Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that is operating in poor condition and has a direct discharge to a natural body, which is a threat to the environment. A LCA was done using SIMAPRO 7, in order to determine the environmental impact in each scenery was assessed, a comparison of the impacts and propose improvements to decrease, following the steps this methodology and according to the respective standardized normative (ISO 14040/ ISO 14044). In this study, most of used data have been reported by the plant from early 2010 and some data from literature. We identified the environmental impacts generated by the treatment, making emphasis on those related to the subsequent use of the water body receiving the discharge, such as eutrophication (near to 15% reduction). Likewise, a comparative analysis between the impacts in the two systems, with and without treatment by analyzing the variation in the impact categories studied. Finally within this work, alternatives of improvements, in order to reduce the identified and quantified impacts are proposed. (Author) 33 refs.

  17. Characterization and biotoxicity assessment of dissolved organic matter in RO concentrate from a municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying-Xue; Gao, Yue; Hu, Hong-Ying; Tang, Fang; Yang, Zhe

    2014-12-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate from municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) system containing organic compounds may associate with toxic risk, and its discharge might pose an environmental risk. To identify a basis for the selection of feasible technology in treating RO concentrates, the characteristics and biotoxicity of different fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in RO concentrates from an mWRRO system were investigated. The results indicated that the hydrophilic neutrals (HIN), hydrophobic acids (HOA) and hydrophobic bases (HOB) accounted for 96% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of the total DOM in the RO concentrate. According to the SEC chromatograph detected at 254 nm wavelength of UV, the DOM with molecular weight (MW) 1-3 kDa accounted for the majority of the basic and neutral fractions. The fluorescence spectra of the excitation emission matrix (EEM) indicated that most aromatic proteins, humic/fulvic acid-like and soluble microbial by-product-like substances existed in the fractions HOA and hydrophobic neutrals (HON). The genotoxicity and anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate were 1795.6 ± 57.2 μg 4-NQOL(-1) and 2.19 ± 0.05 mg TAM L(-1), respectively. The HIN, HOA, and HOB contributed to the genotoxicity of the RO concentrate, and the HIN was with the highest genotoxic level of 1007.9 ± 94.8 μg 4-NQOL(-1). The HOA, HON, and HIN lead to the total anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate, and HOA occupied approximately 60% of the total, which was 1.3 ± 0.17 mg TAM L(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Differences in microbial communities and performance between suspended and attached growth anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating synthetic municipal wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moustapha

    2015-08-14

    Two lab-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), one up-flow attached-growth (UA) and another continuously stirred (CSTR), were operated under mesophilic conditions (35 °C) while treating synthetic municipal wastewater (800 mg L−1 COD). Each reactor was attached to both polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyethersulfone (PES) microfiltration (MF) membranes in an external cross-flow configuration. Both reactors were started up and run under the same operating conditions for multiple steady-state experiments. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates were similar for both reactors (90–96%), but captured methane was found to be 11–18% higher for the CSTR than the UA reactor. Ion Torrent sequencing targeting 16S rRNA genes showed that several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) most closely related to fermentative bacteria (e.g., Microbacter margulisiae) were dominant in the suspended biomass of the CSTR, accounting for 30% of the microbial community. Conversely, methanogenic archaea (e.g., Methanosaeta) and syntrophic bacteria (e.g., Smithella propionica) were found in significantly higher relative abundances in the UA AnMBR as compared to the CSTR due to their affinity for surface attachment. Of the methanogens that were present in the CSTR sludge, hydrogenotrophic methanogens dominated (e.g., Methanobacterium). Measured EPS (both proteins and carbohydrates), which has been broadly linked to fouling, was determined to be consistently lower in the UA AnMBR membrane samples than in CSTR AnMBR membrane samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on HPLC profiles of soluble microbial products (SMPs) further demonstrated these differences between reactor types in replicate runs. The results of this study showed that reactor configuration can significantly impact the development of the microbial communities of AnMBRs that are responsible for both membrane and reactor performance.

  19. Phylogenetic comparison of the methanogenic communities from an acidic, oligotrophic fen and an anaerobic digester treating municipal wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Lisa M; Regan, John M

    2008-11-01

    Methanogens play a critical role in the decomposition of organics under anaerobic conditions. The methanogenic consortia in saturated wetland soils are often subjected to large temperature fluctuations and acidic conditions, imposing a selective pressure for psychro- and acidotolerant community members; however, methanogenic communities in engineered digesters are frequently maintained within a narrow range of mesophilic and circumneutral conditions to retain system stability. To investigate the hypothesis that these two disparate environments have distinct methanogenic communities, the methanogens in an oligotrophic acidic fen and a mesophilic anaerobic digester treating municipal wastewater sludge were characterized by creating clone libraries for the 16S rRNA and methyl coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes. A quantitative framework was developed to assess the differences between these two communities by calculating the average sequence similarity for 16S rRNA genes and mcrA within a genus and family using sequences of isolated and characterized methanogens within the approved methanogen taxonomy. The average sequence similarities for 16S rRNA genes within a genus and family were 96.0 and 93.5%, respectively, and the average sequence similarities for mcrA within a genus and family were 88.9 and 79%, respectively. The clone libraries of the bog and digester environments showed no overlap at the species level and almost no overlap at the family level. Both libraries were dominated by clones related to uncultured methanogen groups within the Methanomicrobiales, although members of the Methanosarcinales and Methanobacteriales were also found in both libraries. Diversity indices for the 16S rRNA gene library of the bog and both mcrA libraries were similar, but these indices indicated much lower diversity in the 16S digester library than in the other three libraries.

  20. Nitrification in Saline Industrial Wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moussa, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal is widely and successfully applied for municipal wastewater. However, these experiences are not directly applicable to industrial wastewater, due to its specific composition. High salt levels in many industrial wastewaters affect nitrification negatively and improved

  1. Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge: A Preliminary Techno-Economic Analysis, Rev.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schmidt, Andrew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hallen, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Billing, Justin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Samuel P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maupin, Gary D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A preliminary process model and techno-economic analysis (TEA) was completed for fuel produced from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of sludge waste from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and subsequent biocrude upgrading. The model is adapted from previous work by Jones et al. (2014) for algae HTL, using experimental data generated in fiscal year 2015 (FY15) bench-scale HTL testing of sludge waste streams. Testing was performed on sludge samples received from Metro Vancouver’s Annacis Island WWTP (Vancouver, B.C.) as part of a collaborative project with the Water Environment and Reuse Foundation (WERF). The full set of sludge HTL testing data from this effort will be documented in a separate report to be issued by WERF. This analysis is based on limited testing data and therefore should be considered preliminary. In addition, the testing was conducted with the goal of successful operation, and therefore does not represent an optimized process. Future refinements are necessary to improve the robustness of the model, including a cross-check of modeled biocrude components with the experimental GCMS data and investigation of equipment costs most appropriate at the relatively small scales used here. Environmental sustainability metrics analysis is also needed to understand the broader impact of this technology pathway. The base case scenario for the analysis consists of 10 HTL plants, each processing 100 dry U.S. ton/day (92.4 ton/day on a dry, ash-free basis) of sludge waste and producing 234 barrel per stream day (BPSD) biocrude, feeding into a centralized biocrude upgrading facility that produces 2,020 barrel per standard day of final fuel. This scale was chosen based upon initial wastewater treatment plant data collected by PNNL’s resource assessment team from the EPA’s Clean Watersheds Needs Survey database (EPA 2015a) and a rough estimate of what the potential sludge availability might be within a 100-mile radius. In addition, we received

  2. Treatment of municipal wastewater in full-scale on-site sand filter reduces BOD efficiently but does not reach requirements for nitrogen and phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Petteri; Sinkkonen, Aki; Zaitsev, Gennadi; Mäkinen, Esa; Grönroos, Timo; Romantschuk, Martin

    2017-04-01

    A traditional sand filter for treatment of household wastewater was constructed in the fall of 2012 at Biolinja 12, Turku, Finland. Construction work was led and monitored by an authorized wastewater treatment consultant. The filter was placed on a field bordered by open ditches from all sides in order to collect excess rain and snowmelt waters. The filter was constructed and insulated from the environment so that all outflowing water was accounted for. Untreated, mainly municipal, wastewater from Varissuo suburb was pumped from a sewer separately via three septic tanks (volume = 1 m 3 each) into the filters. Normally, wastewater was distributed to ground filters automatically according to pre-programmed schedule. Initially, the daily flow was 1200 L day -1 to reflect the average organic load of a household of five persons (load: ca 237 g day -1 BOD; 73 g day -1 total N; and 10.4 g day -1 total P). Later in the test, the flow rate was decreased first to 900 and then to 600 L day -1 to better reflect the average volume produced by five persons. Volumes of inlet wastewater as well as treated water were monitored by magnetic flow meters. Samples were withdrawn from the inlet water, from the water entering the filters after the third septic tank, and from the outflowing water. After an initial adaption time, the reductions in BOD and chemical oxygen demand were constantly between 92 and 98%, showing that the biological degradation process in the filters functioned optimally and clearly comply with the national and EU standards. The reduction in total nitrogen and total phosphorus, however, reached required levels only during the first months of testing, apparently when buildup of microbial biomass was still ongoing. After this initial period of 3 months showing satisfactory reduction levels, the reduction of total nitrogen varied between 5 and 25% and total phosphorus mostly between 50 and 65%. Nitrification was efficient in the filter, but as indicated

  3. Comparative experimental study on municipal wastewater disinfection with ozone and peracetic acid; Indagine sperimentale comparata sulla disinfezione di acque reflue urbane con ozono e acido peracetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreottola, G.; Bertola, P.; Ziglio, G. [Trento Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria Civile Ambientale

    1996-04-01

    The results of a pilot experimental study on the disinfection of treated municipal wastewater to be used in agriculture are presented. A comparative evaluation has been carried out on two parallel pilot-scale disinfection plants using respectively ozone and peracetic acid. After a preliminary sand filtration pilot unit. Both processes showed the capability of meeting the Italian standards for agricultural reuse, but the disinfection process with ozone required much higher doses than the one with peracetic acid, probably because of the higher reactivity of ozone, if compared to peracetic acid with the organic matter present in wastewater. Further research is needed in order to evaluate the efficiency of peracetic acid applied to microorganism different from the bacterial ones and to identify nature and consequences of possible disinfection by products.

  4. Recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from alkaline fermentation liquid of waste activated sludge and application of the fermentation liquid to promote biological municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Chen, Yinguang

    2009-07-01

    In previous publications we reported that by controlling the pH at 10.0 the accumulation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) during waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation was remarkably improved [Yuan, H., Chen, Y., Zhang, H., Jiang, S., Zhou, Q., Gu, G., 2006. Improved bioproduction of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from excess sludge under alkaline conditions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 2025-2029], but significant ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N) and soluble ortho-phosphorus (SOP) were released [Chen, Y., Jiang, S., Yuan, H., Zhou, Q., Gu, G., 2007. Hydrolysis and acidification of waste activated sludge at different pHs. Water Res. 41, 683-689]. This paper investigated the simultaneous recovery of NH(4)-N and SOP from WAS alkaline fermentation liquid and the application of the fermentation liquid as an additional carbon source for municipal wastewater biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The central composite design (CCD) of the response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize and model the simultaneous NH(4)-N and SOP recovery from WAS alkaline fermentation liquid. Under the optimum conditions, the predicted and experimental recovery efficiency was respectively 73.4 and 75.7% with NH(4)-N, and 82.0 and 83.2% with SOP, which suggested that the developed models described the experiments well. After NH(4)-N and SOP recovery, the alkaline fermentation liquid was added to municipal wastewater, and the influence of volume ratio of fermentation liquid to municipal wastewater (FL/MW) on biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal was investigated. The addition of fermentation liquid didn't significantly affect nitrification. Both SOP and total nitrogen (TN) removal were increased with fermentation liquid, but there was no significant increase at FL/MW greater than 1/35. Compared to the blank test, the removal efficiency of SOP and TN at FL/MW=1/35 was improved from 44.0 to 92.9%, and 63.3 to 83.2%, respectively. The enhancement of phosphorus and nitrogen

  5. Transport processes near coastal ocean outfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, M.A.; Sherwood, C.R.; Lee, Hooi-Ling; Xu, Jie; Dartnell, P.; Robertson, G.; Martini, M.

    2001-01-01

    The central Southern California Bight is an urbanized coastal ocean where complex topography and largescale atmospheric and oceanographic forcing has led to numerous sediment-distribution patterns. Two large embayments, Santa Monica and San Pedro Bays, are connected by the short, very narrow shelf off the Palos Verdes peninsula. Ocean-sewage outfalls are located in the middle of Santa Monica Bay, on the Palos Verdes shelf and at the southeastern edge of San Pedro Bay. In 1992, the US Geological Survey, together with allied agencies, began a series of programs to determine the dominant processes that transport sediment and associated pollutants near the three ocean outfalls. As part of these programs, arrays of instrumented moorings that monitor currents, waves, water clarity, water density and collect resuspended materials were deployed on the continental shelf and slope information was also collected on the sediment and contaminant distributions in the region. The data and models developed for the Palos Verdes shelf suggest that the large reservoir of DDT/DDE in the coastal ocean sediments will continue to be exhumed and transported along the shelf for a long time. On the Santa Monica shelf, very large internal waves, or bores, are generated at the shelf break. The near-bottom currents associated with these waves sweep sediments and the associated contaminants from the shelf onto the continental slope. A new program underway on the San Pedro shelf will determine if water and contaminants from a nearby ocean outfall are transported to the local beaches by coastal ocean processes. The large variety of processes found that transport sediments and contaminants in this small region of the continental margin suggest that in regions with complex topography, local processes change markedly over small spatial scales. One cannot necessarily infer that the dominant transport processes will be similar even in adjacent regions.

  6. Wastewater Industrial Contributors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Industrial contributors to municipal wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  7. Tracer a application in marine outfall studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genders, S.

    1979-01-01

    The applicability of radioactive and fluorescent tracers for field studies to predict or investigate waste water transport and dispersion from marine outfalls is evaluated. The application of either instantaneous or continuous tracer release, 'in situ' detection of tracers and data processing are considered. The necessity of a combined use of tracer techniques and conventional hydrographic methods for a statistical prediction of transport and dillution of waste water are pointed out. A procedure to determine an outlet distance from the coast, which satisfy bathing water criteria is outlined. (M.A.) [pt

  8. Impact assessment of mine drainage water and municipal wastewater on the surface water in the vicinity of Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardić Vojka R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining and copper production in Bor, in the past hundred years, had a huge impact on the environment of town, but also in a wide region. In the area of Bor, in the zone of Mining and Smelting Company (RTB activity, over 29,000 ha of land under forests and fields is degraded. The area of degraded agricultural land in the Bor municipality is over 60% of total agricultural land. Wastewater, generated in the sites of RTB Bor, pollute the Bor River and Krivelj River, which still flow into the Timok River and Danube River. These pollutions are often presented by low pH value, increased content of heavy metal ions, suspended particles and fine particles of flotation tailings, which is deposited in the valleys of these rivers on the area of over 2000 hectares. During the decades of exploitation of ore from the open pit Bor at different locations ("Visoki Planir" - also called “Oštreljski planir”, "Severni planir" dump of ore body "H" (RTH gangue and tailings were delayed. The largest amount of tailings, about 150 million tons, was postponed on location Visoki planir. The effect of the mining waste and the impact of the whole process of processing copper ore to the final products on the environment, was conducted during the 4th study period of the project "Management of mining waste-tailing dump in the Bor region," supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion Science (Eng. Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and the Japan international cooperation Agency and the Ministry of environment, Mining and Spatial planning of the Republic of Serbia. Influence of season on the level of pollutants in soil and water, the impact on water quality in the river Timok and the River Danube, was conducted during first three periods of project. This paper presents the results of the third study period. The third period of research, which was conducted over a period of 17. 10. 2012 to 17. 01.2013 year, included a review of pollution sources and define their

  9. From municipal/industrial wastewater sludge and FOG to fertilizer: A proposal for economic sustainable sludge management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratina, Božidar; Šorgo, Andrej; Kramberger, Janez; Ajdnik, Urban; Zemljič, Lidija Fras; Ekart, Janez; Šafarič, Riko

    2016-12-01

    After a ban on the depositing of untreated sludge in landfills, the sludge from municipal and industrial water-treatment plants can be regarded as a problem. Waste products of the water treatment process can be a problem or an opportunity - a source for obtaining raw materials. In the European Union, raw sludge and fats, oil and grease (FOG) from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) cannot be deposited in any natural or controlled environment. For this reason, it must be processed (stabilized, dried) to be used later as a fertilizer, building material, or alternative fuel source suitable for co-incineration in high temperature furnaces (power plants or concrete plants). The processes of drying sludge, where heat and electricity are used, are energy consuming and economically unattractive. Beside energy efficiency, the main problem of sludge drying is in its variability of quality as a raw material. In addition to this, sludge can be contaminated by a number of organic and inorganic pollutants and organisms. Due to the presence or absence of pollutants, different end products can be economically interesting. For example, if the dried sludge contains coliform bacteria, viruses, helminths eggs or smaller quantities of heavy metals, it cannot be used as a fertilizer but can still be used as a fuel. The objectives of the current article is to present a batch-processing pilot device of sludge or digestate that allows the following: (1) low pressure and low temperature energy effective drying of from 10 to 40% remaining water content, (2) disinfection of pathogen (micro)organisms, (3) heavy metal reduction, (4) production of products of predetermined quality (e.g. containing different quantities of water; it can be used as a fertilizer, or if the percentage of water in the dry sludge is decreased to 10%, then the dried sludge can be used as a fuel with a calorific value similar to coal). An important feature is also the utilization of low

  10. Inactivation of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by chlorination and sequential UV/chlorination disinfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhuang, Yao; Geng, Jinju, E-mail: jjgeng@nju.edu.cn; Ren, Hongqiang, E-mail: hqren@nju.edu.cn; Zhang, Yan; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke

    2015-04-15

    This study investigated disinfection methods including chlorination, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and sequential UV/chlorination treatment on the inactivation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). ARGs including sul1, tetX, tetG, intI1, and 16S rRNA genes in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) effluent were examined. The results indicated a positive correlation between the removal of ARGs and chlorine dosage (p = 0.007–0.014, n = 6),as well as contact time (p = 0.0001, n = 10). Greater free chlorine (FC) dosage leads to higher removal for all the genes and the maximum removal (1.30–1.49 logs) could be achieved at FC dosage of 30 mg L{sup −1}. The transformation kinetic data for ARGs removal (log C{sub 0} / C) followed the second-order reaction kinetic model with FC dosage (R{sup 2} = 0.6829–0.9999) and contact time (R{sup 2} = 0.7353–8634), respectively. Higher ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}–N) concentration was found to lead to lower removal of ARGs at the same chlorine dosage. When the applied Cl{sub 2}:NH{sub 3}–N ratio was over 7.6:1, a significant reduction of ARGs (1.20–1.49 logs) was achieved. By using single UV irradiation, the log removal values of tetX and 16Ss rRNA genes were 0.58 and 0.60, respectively, while other genes were 0.36–0.40 at a fluence of 249.5 mJ cm{sup −2}, which was observed to be less effective than chlorination. With sequential UV/chlorination treatment, 0.006 to 0.31 log synergy values of target genes were observed under different operation parameters. - Highlights: • Chlorine is more effective than UV irradiation in removing ARGs from MWTP effluent. • The chlorination reaction followed the second-order reaction kinetic model. • Higher NH{sub 3}–N contents result in lower ARGs removal in the chlorination process. • FC is more effective than CC on the inactivation of ARGs. • UV irradiation followed by chlorination shows high efficiency in removing ARGs.

  11. Prevention of PCDD/Fs emission from a municipal wastewater sludge incinerator through enhanced control of copper aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, E.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater sludge incineration (MWSI leads to products of incomplete combustion, including chlorinated species such as dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs. Other pollutants, such as heavy metals (HM, are released too as a consequence of feed traces, which depend on the specific activities of each area. The main aim of this work is to determine whether the early separation of the potential catalysts on the PCDD/Fs formation –HM as copper or zinc– offers a promising way to prevent the emission of these trace pollutants, considering that the current end-of-pipe measures don’t ensure their stable emission. Experimental results cover the size distributed target metal contents along the incineration line. These results show a high concentration of copper in the most penetrating aerosol size range of the electrostatic precipitator (0.6 μm - 1.0 μm, and how low emission values of both, total and metallic aerosol (mass basis, are compatible with irregular and unexplained outliers of PCDD/Fs emission.

    La incineración de lodos de aguas residuales urbanas acarrea la formación de compuestos derivados de combustiones incompletas, incluyendo especies cloradas como dioxinas y furanos (PCDD/Fs. Otros contaminantes, como metales pesados, se emiten como consecuencia de las trazas del lodo, las cuales dependen de las actividades del entorno. El objetivo principal es determinar si la separación de catalizadores potenciales en reacciones de formación de PCDD/Fs (cobre o zinc puede abrir vías para prevenir la emisión de contaminantes traza, considerando que ninguna de las técnicas de prevención actuales aseguran emisiones estables de metales pesados o PCDD/Fs. Se determinan concentraciones de metales pesados segregados por tamaño de partícula a lo largo de la línea de incineración. Los resultados muestran concentraciones elevadas de cobre en el aerosol de máxima penetración del electrofiltro (0,6 μm - 1,0 μm, y cómo concentraciones

  12. The effects of wastewater effluent and river discharge on benthic heterotrophic production, organic biomass and respiration in marine coastal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, B; Macdonald, T; Bertold, S

    2013-09-15

    We examine effects of high river particulate flux and municipal wastewater effluent on heterotrophic organic carbon cycling in coastal subtidal sediments. Heterotrophic production was a predictable (r(2)=0.95) proportion (56%) of oxidized OC flux and strongly correlated with organic/inorganic flux. Consistent growth efficiencies (36%) occurred at all stations. Organic biomass was correlated with total, OC and buried OC fluxes, but not oxidized OC flux. Near the river, production was modest and biomass high, resulting in low P/B. Outfall deposition resulted in depleted biomass and high bacterial production, resulting in the highest P/B. These patterns explain why this region is production "saturated". The δ(15)N in outfall effluent, sediments and dominant taxa provided insight into where, and which types of organisms feed directly on fresh outfall particulates, on older, refractory material buried in sediments, or utilize chemosynthetic symbiotic bacteria. Results are discussed in the context of declining bottom oxygen conditions along the coast. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biological nutrient removal and molecular biological characteristics in an anaerobic-multistage anaerobic/oxic (A-MAO) process to treat municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Dong, Wenyi; Wang, Hongjie; Jiang, Shilong

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to present an anaerobic-multistage anaerobic/oxic (A-MAO) process to treat municipal wastewater. The average COD, NH 4 + -N, TN, and TP removal efficiency were 91.81%, 96.26%, 83.73% and 94.49%, respectively. Temperature plunge and C/N decrease have a certain impact on the modified process. Characteristics of microbial community, function microorganism, and correlation of microbial community with environmental variables in five compartments were carried out by Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing. The differences of microbial community were observed and Blastocatella, Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas were the dominant genus. Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira occupied a dominant position in AOB and NOB, respectively. Rhodospirillaceae and Rhodocyclaceae owned a considerable proportion in phosphorus removal bacteria. DO and COD played significant roles on affecting the microbial components. The A-MAO process in this study demonstrated a high potential for nutrient removal from municipal wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, F.; Lessa, G.C.; Wild, C.; Kikuchi, R.K.P.; Naumann, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ 13 C org and δ 15 N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. - Highlights: •Pollution by untreated sewage discharge is evident at the outfall and in Salvador's coastal zone. •Seasonal wind- and tide-driven surface currents control advective transport of discharged sewage. •Water quality at Salvador's recreational beaches is impacted by a plume of untreated sewage.

  15. Outfall 51 air stripping feasibility study for the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent (RMPE) Project. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant there are a number of industrial wastewater discharge points or outfalls that empty into East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). EFPC originates within and runs continuously throughout the plant site and subsequently flows out the east end of the Y-12 Plant into the City of Oak Ridge. Mercury is present in outfall discharges due to contact of water with the soils surrounding past mercury-use buildings. As a result, the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent (RMPE) Project was developed to achieve and maintain environmental compliance with regards to mercury, and, in particular with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit for the Y-12 Plant. To achieve a reduction in mercury loading to EFPC, a number of options have already been studied and implemented as part of the RMPE project. With the successful implementation of these options, Outfall 51 remains as a significant contributor to mercury load to EFPC. The primary purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of removing mercury from contaminated spring water using air stripping. In order to accomplish this goal, a number of different areas were addressed. A pilot-scale unit was tested in the field using actual mercury-contaminated source water. Properties which impact the mercury removal via air stripping were reviewed to determine their effect. Also, enhanced testing was performed to improve removal efficiencies. Finally, the variable outfall flow was studied to size appropriate processing equipment for full-scale treatment

  16. Groundwater quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in a large karstic spring basin: Chemical and microbiological indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Brian G.; Griffin, Dale W.; Davis, J. Hal

    2009-01-01

    Geochemical and microbiological techniques were used to assess water-quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in the karstic Wakulla Springs basin in northern Florida. Nitrate-N concentrations have increased from about 0.2 to as high as 1.1 mg/L (milligrams per liter) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a regional discharge point for groundwater (mean flow about 11.3 m 3 /s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). A major source of nitrate to the UFA is the approximately 64 million L/d (liters per day) of treated municipal wastewater applied at a 774 ha (hectare) sprayfield farming operation. About 260 chemical and microbiological indicators were analyzed in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir, wells upgradient from the sprayfield, and from 21 downgradient wells and springs to assess the movement of contaminants into the UFA. Concentrations of nitrate-N, boron, chloride, were elevated in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and in monitoring wells at the sprayfield boundary. Mixing of sprayfield effluent water was indicated by a systematic decrease in concentrations of these constituents with distance downgradient from the sprayfield, with about a 10-fold dilution at Wakulla Springs, about 15 km (kilometers) downgradient from the sprayfield. Groundwater with elevated chloride and boron concentrations in wells downgradient from the sprayfield and in Wakulla Springs had similar nitrate isotopic signatures, whereas the nitrate isotopic composition of water from other sites was consistent with inorganic fertilizers or denitrification. The sprayfield operation was highly effective in removing most studied organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds and microbial indicators. Carbamazepine (an anti-convulsant drug) was the only pharmaceutical compound detected in groundwater from two sprayfield monitoring wells (1-2 ppt). One other detection of carbamazepine was found in a distant well water

  17. Groundwater quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in a large karstic spring basin: Chemical and microbiological indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Brian G. [U.S. Geological Survey, 2010 Levy Avenue, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States)], E-mail: bkatz@usgs.gov; Griffin, Dale W.; Davis, J. Hal [U.S. Geological Survey, 2010 Levy Avenue, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Geochemical and microbiological techniques were used to assess water-quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in the karstic Wakulla Springs basin in northern Florida. Nitrate-N concentrations have increased from about 0.2 to as high as 1.1 mg/L (milligrams per liter) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a regional discharge point for groundwater (mean flow about 11.3 m{sup 3}/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). A major source of nitrate to the UFA is the approximately 64 million L/d (liters per day) of treated municipal wastewater applied at a 774 ha (hectare) sprayfield farming operation. About 260 chemical and microbiological indicators were analyzed in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir, wells upgradient from the sprayfield, and from 21 downgradient wells and springs to assess the movement of contaminants into the UFA. Concentrations of nitrate-N, boron, chloride, were elevated in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and in monitoring wells at the sprayfield boundary. Mixing of sprayfield effluent water was indicated by a systematic decrease in concentrations of these constituents with distance downgradient from the sprayfield, with about a 10-fold dilution at Wakulla Springs, about 15 km (kilometers) downgradient from the sprayfield. Groundwater with elevated chloride and boron concentrations in wells downgradient from the sprayfield and in Wakulla Springs had similar nitrate isotopic signatures, whereas the nitrate isotopic composition of water from other sites was consistent with inorganic fertilizers or denitrification. The sprayfield operation was highly effective in removing most studied organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds and microbial indicators. Carbamazepine (an anti-convulsant drug) was the only pharmaceutical compound detected in groundwater from two sprayfield monitoring wells (1-2 ppt). One other detection of carbamazepine was found in a distant well water

  18. Determination of nonylphenol isomers in landfill leachate and municipal wastewater using steam distillation extraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixiang; Eganhouse, Robert P.; Pontolillo, James; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Wang, Yanxin

    2012-01-01

    4-Nonylphenols (4-NPs) are known endocrine disruptors and by-products of the microbial degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants. One of the challenges to understanding the toxic effects of nonylphenols is the large number of isomers that may exist in environmental samples. In order to attribute toxic effects to specific compounds, a method is needed for the separation and quantitation of individual nonylphenol isomers. The pre-concentration methods of solvent sublimation, solid-phase extraction or liquid–liquid extraction prior to chromatographic analysis can be problematic because of co-extraction of thousands of compounds typically found in complex matrices such as municipal wastewater or landfill leachate. In the present study, steam distillation extraction (SDE) was found to be an effective pre-concentration method for extraction of 4-NPs from leachate and wastewater, and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled with fast mass spectral data acquisition by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS) enhanced the resolution and identification of 4-NP isomers. Concentrations of eight 4-NP isomers were determined in leachate from landfill cells of different age and wastewater influent and effluent samples. 4-NP isomers were about 3 times more abundant in leachate from the younger cell than the older one, whereas concentrations in wastewater effluent were either below detection limits or <1% of influent concentrations. 4-NP isomer distribution patterns were found to have been altered following release to the environment. This is believed to reflect isomer-specific degradation and accumulation of 4-NPs in the aquatic environment.

  19. Estimation of the electric power potential using wastewater sludge produced from the Percy Steward Wastewater Treatment Works (PS-WWTW) in Mogale City local municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mema, V

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available at PS-WWTW in Mogale City local municipality indicates that high energy savings potential compared to using energy from fossil fuels. Analysis of the annual energy (electricity) consumption at the PS-WWTW over the past 3 years (2011 – 2014) shows...

  20. The current status on the selection and management of vegetation for slow rate and overland flow application systems to treat municipal wastewater in the North Central region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.G. Brockway; T.M. Burton; J.H. Cooley; F.M. D' Itri; R.H. Dowdy; B.G. Ellis; L. Epstein; A.E. Erickson; J.E. Hook; L.W. Jacobs; S.N. Kerr; B.D. Knezek; E.A. Myers; A.J. Palazzo; S. Poloncsik; G.R. Safir; W.E. Sopper; J.C. Sutherland; M.B. Tesar; R.E. Thomas; D.H. Urie

    1981-01-01

    The 1977 Clean Water Amendments to Public Law 92-500 were enacted to strengthen the orignal policy of encouraging the utilization ofinnovative, alternative management techniques far the treatment and disposal of municipal wastewater. These alternative techniques include spray irigation and overland flow land treatment systems which can be used individual cr...

  1. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a

  2. Problems with textile wastewater discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantala, Pentti

    1987-01-01

    The general character of textile industry wastewaters is briefly discussed. General guidelines and practice in Finland when discharging textile industry wastewaters to municipal sewer systems is described. A survey revealed that most municipalities experience some problems due to textile industry wastewaters. Pretreatment is not always practiced and in some cases pretreatment is not operated efficiently. (author)

  3. Environmental exposure of pharmaceuticals and musk fragrances in the Somes River before and after upgrading the municipal wastewater treatment plant Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Zaharie; Chira, Romeo; Alder, Alfredo C

    2009-08-01

    Pharmaceutically active substances are a class of emerging contaminants, which has led to increasing concern about potential environmental risks. After excretion, substantial amounts of unchanged pharmaceuticals and their metabolites are discharged into domestic wastewaters. The absence of data on the environmental exposure in Eastern Europe is significant, since use patterns and volumes differ from country to country. In Romania, the majority of wastewater, from highly populated cities and industrial complex zones, is still discharged into surface waters without proper treatment or after inefficient treatment. In respect to this, it is important to determine the environmental occurrence and behavior of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewaters and surface waters. The objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of selected PPCPs during the transport in the Somes River by mass flow analysis before and after upgrading a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Cluj-Napoca, which serves 350,000 inhabitants and is the largest plant discharging into the Somes River. The concentrations of PPCPs at Cluj-Napoca can be correlated with the high population and a high number of hospitals located in the catchment area leading to higher mass flows. The results of this study are expected to provide information, with respect to the Romanian conditions, for environmental scientists, WWTP operators, and legal authorities. The data should support the improvement of existing WWTPs and implementation of new ones where necessary and, therefore, minimize the input of contaminants into ambient waters. The PPCPs were selected on the basis of consumption at the regional scale, reported aquatic toxicity, and the suitability of the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method for the determination of the compounds at trace levels. The studied PPCPs, caffeine (stimulant), carbamazepine (antiepileptic), pentoxifylline (anticoagulant

  4. Pilot-scale removal of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater: Comparison of granular and powdered activated carbon treatment at three wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårelid, Victor; Larsson, Gen; Björlenius, Berndt

    2017-05-15

    Adsorption with activated carbon is widely suggested as an option for the removal of organic micropollutants including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in wastewater. In this study adsorption with granular activated carbon (GAC) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) was analyzed and compared in parallel operation at three Swedish wastewater treatment plants with the goal to achieve a 95% PhAC removal. Initially, mapping of the prevalence of over 100 substances was performed at each plant and due to low concentrations a final 22 were selected for further evaluation. These include carbamazepine, clarithromycin and diclofenac, which currently are discussed for regulation internationally. A number of commercially available activated carbon products were initially screened using effluent wastewater. Of these, a reduced set was selected based on adsorption characteristics and cost. Experiments designed with the selected carbons in pilot-scale showed that most products could indeed remove PhACs to the target level, both on total and individual basis. In a setup using internal recirculation the PAC system achieved a 95% removal applying a fresh dose of 15-20 mg/L, while carbon usage rates for the GAC application were much broader and ranged from carbon product. The performance of the PAC products generally gave better results for individual PhACs in regards to carbon availability. All carbon products showed a specific adsorption for a specific PhAC meaning that knowledge of the target pollutants must be acquired before successful design of a treatment system. In spite of different configurations and operating conditions of the different wastewater treatment plants no considerable differences regarding pharmaceutical removal were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risks associated with use of treated municipal wastewater in subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Kamran; Najafi, Payam; Cornelis, Wim M.

    2014-05-01

    Constant use of treated wastewater for irrigation over long periods may cause buildup of heavy metals up to toxic levels for plants, animals, and entails environmental hazards in different aspects. However, application of treated wastewater on agricultural land might be an effective and sustainable strategy in arid and semi-arid countries where fresh water resources are under great pressure, as long as potential harmful effects on the environment including soil, plants, and fresh water resources, and health risks to humans are minimized. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of using a deep emitter installation on lowering the potential heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risk under drip irrigation with treated municipal wastewater. A field experiment was conducted according to a split block design with two treatments (fresh and wastewater) and three sub treatments (0, 15 and 30 cm depth of emitters) in four replicates on a sandy loam soil, in Esfahan, Iran. The annual rainfall is about 123 mm, mean annual ETo is 1457 mm, and the elevation is 1590 m a.s.l.. A two-crop rotation of wheat [Triticum spp.] and corn [Zea mays]) was established on each plot with wheat growing from February to June and corn from July to September. Soil samples were collected before planting (initial value) and after harvesting (final value) for each crop in each year. Edible grain samples of corn and wheat were also collected. Elemental concentrations (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni) in soil and grains were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils were not significantly different (P>0.05) compared with the freshwater-irrigated soils. The results showed no significant difference (P>0.05) of soil heavy metal content between different depths of emitters. A pollution load index PLI showed that there was not substantial buildup of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils compared to

  6. Contribution of domestic wastewater to the total pollutant loading influent to a municipal wastewater treatment plant; Contribuciond e las aguas residuales domesticas a la carga total que accede a una EDAr municipal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Galvin, R.; Perez de Siles, L. A.; Rojas Moreno, F. J.; Gonzalez Jimenez, M. M.

    2004-07-01

    A study on the purely domestic wastewater from Cordoba city (Abril to july 2003) has found a pollutant loading very high on these domestic wastewaters, by showing mean values of suspended solid, BOD{sub 5} and COD equal to respectively 452 mg/l, 505 mg/1 and 793 mg/l. This pollutants power probably emanates from the products for domestic cleaning used in our homes and must be associated to chemicals as citrates, oxalates, surfactants, polialcohols, organics complexing, ammonium compounds..., which show high value of pollutant loading up to 200 mg/l of BOD{sub 5} per ml of product have been measured on a commercial domestic dishwasher, and 9.000 mg/l of DQO for a domestic smoothing. Furthermore, the increasing use of pre-cooked foods can add to domestic wastewater fats, oils, and flours which can also increase the BOD:5 and COD values of these effluents. On the other hand, the measured pollutant loading or domestic wastewater from monofamily homes has been lower than those from multifamily buildings. Finally, due to the fact that the Golondrina's WWTP (Cordoba, 1991) was designed for treat values of suspended solids, BOD, and COD lower than those actually detected, its treatment processes should be probably modified in a near future. (Author) 24 refs.

  7. Treatment of municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents with modified photo-Fenton as a tertiary treatment for the degradation of micro pollutants and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamerth, Nikolaus; Malato, Sixto; Agüera, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo; Mailhot, Gilles

    2012-03-06

    The goal of this paper was to develop a modified photo-Fenton treatment able to degrade micro pollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) effluents at a neutral pH with minimal iron and H(2)O(2) concentrations. Complexation of Fe by ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) leads to stabilization and solubilization of Fe at natural pH. Photo-Fenton experiments were performed in a pilot compound parabolic collector (CPC) solar plant. Samples were treated with solid phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by HPLC-Qtrap-MS. The rapid degradation of contaminants within the first minutes of illumination and the low detrimental impact on degradation of bicarbonates present in the water suggested that radical species other than HO(•) are responsible for the efficiency of such photo-Fenton process. Disinfection of MWTP effluents by the same process showed promising results, although disinfection was not complete.

  8. Reactor performance and microbial community dynamics during anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge with restaurant grease waste at steady state and overloading stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaviarani, Vahid; Buchanan, Ian D

    2014-11-01

    Linkage between reactor performance and microbial community dynamics was investigated during mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of restaurant grease waste (GTW) with municipal wastewater sludge (MWS) using 10L completely mixed reactors and a 20day SRT. Test reactors received a mixture of GTW and MWS while control reactors received only MWS. Addition of GTW to the test reactors enhanced the biogas production and methane yield by up to 65% and 120%, respectively. Pyrosequencing revealed that Methanosaeta and Methanomicrobium were the dominant acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogen genera, respectively, during stable reactor operation. The number of Methanosarcina and Methanomicrobium sequences increased and that of Methanosaeta declined when the proportion of GTW in the feed was increased to cause an overload condition. Under this overload condition, the pH, alkalinity and methane production decreased and VFA concentrations increased dramatically. Candidatus cloacamonas, affiliated within phylum Spirochaetes, were the dominant bacterial genus at all reactor loadings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Monitoring and control of UV and UV-TiO2 disinfections for municipal wastewater reclamation using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chuang-Hung; Yu, Ruey-Fang; Cheng, Wen-Po; Liu, Chun-Ru

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ANN models can effectively control both UV and UV-TiO 2 disinfections for wastewater reuse. ► Comparing to UV disinfection, UV-TiO 2 disinfection can save 13.2–15.7% of UV dosage and capacity. ► SS decreases disinfection efficiency when UV doses were 2 . - Abstract: The use of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as a physical wastewater disinfection has increased in recent years, especially for wastewater reuse. The UV-TiO 2 can generate OH radicals, which is highly effective to inactivate microorganisms in wastewater disinfection. However, both UV and UV-TiO 2 disinfections create multiple physical, chemical, and bio-chemical phenomena that affect their germicidal efficiency. It is difficult to build a precise control model using existing mathematic models. This study applies artificial neural network (ANN) models to control UV and UV-TiO 2 disinfections. Experimental results indicate that the ANN models, which precisely generate relationships among multiple monitored parameters, total coliform counts in influent and effluent, and UV doses, can be used as control models for UV and UV-TiO 2 disinfections. A novel ANN control strategy is applied to control UV and UV-TiO 2 disinfection processes to meet three total coliform count limits for three wastewater reuse purposes. The proposed controlled strategy effectively controls UV and UV-TiO 2 disinfection, resulting in acceptable total coliform counts in effluent for the three wastewater reuse purposes. The required UV doses for UV-TiO 2 disinfection were lower than those for UV disinfection, resulting in energy saving and capacity reduction of 13.2–15.7%.

  10. Performance of granular activated carbon to remove micropollutants from municipal wastewater-A meta-analysis of pilot- and large-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benstoem, Frank; Nahrstedt, Andreas; Boehler, Marc; Knopp, Gregor; Montag, David; Siegrist, Hansruedi; Pinnekamp, Johannes

    2017-10-01

    For reducing organic micropollutants (MP) in municipal wastewater effluents, granular activated carbon (GAC) has been tested in various studies. We did systematic literature research and found 44 studies dealing with the adsorption of MPs (carbamazepine, diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole) from municipal wastewater on GAC in pilot- and large-scale plants. Within our meta-analysis we plot the bed volumes (BV [m 3 water /m 3 GAC ]) until the breakthrough criterion of MP-BV20% was reached, dependent on potential relevant parameters (empty bed contact time EBCT, influent DOC DOC 0 and manufacturing method). Moreover, we performed statistical tests (ANOVAs) to check the results for significance. Single adsorbers operating time differs i.e. by 2500% until breakthrough of diclofenac-BV20% was reached (800-20,000 BV). There was still elimination of the "very well/well" adsorbable MPs such as carbamazepine and diclofenac even when the equilibrium of DOC had already been reached. No strong statistical significance of EBCT and DOC 0 on MP-BV20% could be found due to lack of data and the high heterogeneity of the studies using GAC of different qualities. In further studies, adsorbers should be operated ≫20,000 BV for exact calculation of breakthrough curves, and the following parameters should be recorded: selected MPs; DOC 0; UVA 254 ; EBCT; product name, manufacturing method and raw material of GAC; suspended solids (TSS); backwash interval; backwash program and pressure drop within adsorber. Based on our investigations we generally recommend using reactivated GAC to reduce the environmental impact and to carry out tests on pilot scale to collect reliable data for process design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Locations of Combined Sewer Overflow Outfalls - US EPA Region 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies the locations of Combined sewer overflow outfalls. Combined sewer systems are sewers that are designed to collect rainwater runoff,...

  12. A Multitracer Approach to Detecting Wastewater Plumes from Municipal Injection Wells in Nearshore Marine Waters at Kihei and Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.; Rosa, Sarah N.

    2009-01-01

    Municipal wastewater plumes discharging from aquifer to ocean were detected by nearshore wading surveys at Kihei and Lahaina, on the island of Maui in Hawaii. Developed in cooperation with the Hawaii State Department of Health, the survey methodology included instrument trolling to detect submarine groundwater discharge, followed by analysis of water and macroalgae for a suite of chemical and isotopic constituents that constitute a 'multitracer' approach. Surveys were conducted May 6-28, 2008, during fair-weather conditions and included: (1) wading and kayak trolling with a multiparameter water-quality sonde, (2) marine water-column sampling, and (3) collection of benthic algae samples. Instrument trolling helped guide the water sampling strategy by providing dense, continuous transects of water properties on which groundwater discharge zones could be identified. Water and algae samples for costly chemical and isotopic laboratory analyses were last to be collected but were highly diagnostic of wastewater presence and nutrient origin because of low detection levels and confirmation across multiple tracers. Laboratory results confirmed the presence of wastewater constituents in marine water-column samples at both locales and showed evidence of modifying processes such as denitrification and mixing of effluent with surrounding groundwater and seawater. Carbamazepine was the most diagnostic pharmaceutical, detected in several marine water-column samples and effluent at both Kihei and Lahaina. Heavy nitrogen-isotope compositions in water and algae were highly diagnostic of effluent, particularly where enriched to even heavier values than effluent source compositions by denitrification. Algae provided an added advantage of time-integrating their nitrogen source during growth. The measured Kihei plume coincided almost exactly with prior model predictions, but the Lahaina plume was detected well south of the expected direct path from injection wells to shore and may be

  13. Occurrence of Vibrio Pathotypes in the Final Effluents of Five Wastewater Treatment Plants in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyokazi Nongogo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the occurrence of Vibrio pathogens in the final effluents of five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs located in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities in South Africa over a 12 months period between September 2012 and August 2013 using standard membrane filtration technique followed by cultivation on thiosulphate citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS agar. The identities of the presumptive Vibrio isolates were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR including delineation into V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. fluvialis pathotypes. The counts of Vibrio spp. varied with months in all the study sites and ranged in the order of 101 and 104 CFU/100mL. Vibrio distribution also showed seasonality with high counts being obtained in autumn and spring (p < 0.05. Prevalence of Vibrio spp. among the five WWTPs also differed significantly (p < 0.05. Of the 300 isolates that were confirmed as belonging to the Vibrio genus, 29% (86 were V. fluvialis, 28% (84 were V. vulnificus and 12% (35 were V. parahaemolyticus. The isolation of Vibrio pathogens from the final effluent suggests that this pathogen is in circulation in some pockets of the population and that the WWTPs under study do not efficiently remove bacterial pathogens from the wastewater and consequently are threats to public health.

  14. Performance of MBBR in the Treatment of Combined Municipal and Industrial Wastewater A Case Study: Mashhad Sewage Treatment Plant of Parkandabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Mohammadyari

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available MBBR is a combination of three systems: Activated sludge, Fixed film, and Fluidized bed. This system has been designed in a manner to include the advantages of the above systems but removing most of their disadvantages. The main characteristic of the system is the growth of a biofilm on the small packing that moves through the reactor. Because of the biofilm growth on the kaldnes packing, the internal special area of the MBBR is high and around 350 m2/m3. Evidenced by reports in the literature, MBBR has been successfully used for the treatment of different industrial effluents from dairy industries, food industries, slaughter houses, paper mills, refineries, and chemical plants. In this study, the operation of MBBR in treating the combined municipal and industrial wastewater (Parkand Abad Wastewater Treatment Plant, Mashhad, Iran is studied. The results from the pilot study revealed that MBBR was capable of reducing COD levels to 43, 57, 76% at such low hydraulic retention times of 8, 12, 24 hrs, respectively. The system was also found to be capable of handling hydraulic shocks such that the system regained its stability over a short time after the shock and that the effluent COD fluctuation before and after the shock was as low as 70 mg/l.

  15. Influence of air scouring on the performance of a Self Forming Dynamic Membrane BioReactor (SFD MBR) for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Carlo; Vergine, Pompilio; Berardi, Giovanni; Pollice, Alfieri

    2017-01-01

    The Membrane BioReactor (MBR) is a well-established filtration-based technology for wastewater treatment. Despite the high quality of the effluent produced, one of the main drawbacks of the MBR is membrane fouling. In this context, a possible evolution towards systems having potentially lower installation and operating costs is the Self Forming Dynamic Membrane BioReactor (SFD MBR). Key of this technology is the self-formation of a biological filtering layer on a support of inert material. In this work, a lab-scale aerobic SFD MBR equipped with a nylon mesh was operated at approximately 95Lm -2 h -1 . Two mesh pore sizes (20 and 50μm) and three air scouring flow rates (150, 250, and 500mL air min -1 ) were tested at steady state. Under all the tested conditions, the SFD MBR effectively treated real municipal wastewater. The quality of the produced effluent increased for lower mesh size and lower air scouring intensity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) producing bacterial strains of municipal wastewater sludge: isolation, molecular identification, EPS characterization and performance for sludge settling and dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala Subramanian, S; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2010-04-01

    Wastewater treatment plants often face the problems of sludge settling mainly due to sludge bulking. Generally, synthetic organic polymer and/or inorganic coagulants (ferric chloride, alum and quick lime) are used for sludge settling. These chemicals are very expensive and further pollute the environment. Whereas, the bioflocculants are environment friendly and may be used to flocculate the sludge. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by sludge microorganisms play a definite role in sludge flocculation. In this study, 25 EPS producing strains were isolated from municipal wastewater treatment plant. Microorganisms were selected based on EPS production properties on solid agar medium. Three types of EPS (slime, capsular and bacterial broth mixture of both slime and capsular) were harvested and their characteristics were studied. EPS concentration (dry weight), viscosity and their charge (using a Zetaphoremeter) were also measured. Bioflocculability of obtained EPS was evaluated by measuring the kaolin clay flocculation activity. Six bacterial strains (BS2, BS8, BS9, BS11, BS15 and BS25) were selected based on the kaolin clay flocculation. The slime EPS was better for bioflocculation than capsular EPS and bacterial broth. Therefore, extracted slime EPS (partially purified) from six bacterial strains was studied in terms of sludge settling [sludge volume index (SVI)] and dewatering [capillary suction time (CST)]. Biopolymers produced by individual strains substantially improved dewaterability. The extracted slime EPS from six different strains were partially characterized. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A cost analysis of microalgal biomass and biodiesel production in open raceways treating municipal wastewater and under optimum light wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zion; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Ramanan, Rishiram; Choi, Jong-Eun; Yang, Ji-Won; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Open raceway ponds are cost-efficient for mass cultivation of microalgae compared with photobioreactors. Although low-cost options like wastewater as nutrient source is studied to overcome the commercialization threshold for biodiesel production from microalgae, a cost analysis on the use of wastewater and other incremental increases in productivity has not been elucidated. We determined the effect of using wastewater and wavelength filters on microalgal productivity. Experimental results were then fitted into a model, and cost analysis was performed in comparison with control raceways. Three different microalgal strains, Chlorella vulgaris AG10032, Chlorella sp. JK2, and Scenedesmus sp. JK10, were tested for nutrient removal under different light wavelengths (blue, green, red, and white) using filters in batch cultivation. Blue wavelength showed an average of 27% higher nutrient removal and at least 42% higher chemical oxygen demand removal compared with white light. Naturally, the specific growth rate of microalgae cultivated under blue wavelength was on average 10.8% higher than white wavelength. Similarly, lipid productivity was highest in blue wavelength, at least 46.8% higher than white wavelength, whereas FAME composition revealed a mild increase in oleic and palmitic acid levels. Cost analysis reveals that raceways treating wastewater and using monochromatic wavelength would decrease costs from 2.71 to 0.73 $/kg biomass. We prove that increasing both biomass and lipid productivity is possible through cost-effective approaches, thereby accelerating the commercialization of low-value products from microalgae, like biodiesel.

  18. Feasibility of geothermal heat use in the San Bernardino Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report, September 1980-June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racine, W.C.; Larson, T.C.; Stewart, C.A.; Wessel, H.B.

    1981-06-01

    The results of the feasibility study for utilizing low temperature geothermal heat in the City of San Bernardino Wastewater Treatment Plant are summarized. The study is presented in terms of preliminary engineering design, economic analysis, institutional issues, environmental impacts, resource development, and system implementation.

  19. Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Brian G.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2008-08-01

    Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures (δ18O and δ2H) were found in water from the effluent reservoir and a sprayfield monitoring well (MW-7) due to evaporation; however, groundwater samples downgradient from the sprayfield have δ18O and δ2H concentrations that represented recharge of meteoric water. Boron and chloride concentrations also were elevated in water from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and MW-7, but concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially with distance downgradient to background levels in the springs (about 12 km) and indicated at least a tenfold dilution factor. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope (δ15N NO3) values above 10 ‰ in most water samples were indicative of organic nitrogen sources except Blue Hole Spring (δ15N NO3 = 4.6 4.9 ‰), which indicated an inorganic source of nitrogen (fertilizers). The detection of low concentrations the insect repellent N, N-diethyl-metatoluamide (DEET), and other organic compounds associated with domestic wastewater in Devil’s Eye Spring indicated that leakage from a nearby septic tank drainfield likely has occurred. Elevated levels of fecal coliforms and enterococci were found in Blue Hole Spring during higher flow conditions, which likely resulted from hydraulic connections to upgradient sinkholes and are consistent with previoius dye-trace studies. Enteroviruses were not detected in the sprayfield effluent reservoir, but were found in low concentrations in water samples from a downgradient well and Blue Hole Spring during high-flow conditions indicating a human wastewater source. The Upper Floridan aquifer

  20. Irrigation of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L. and Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. Plant Species with Municipal Wastewater Effluent: Impacts on Soil Properties and Seed Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios A. Tzanakakis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of plant species (castor bean (Ricinus communis L. versus sunflower (Helianthus annus L. and irrigation regime (freshwater versus secondary treated municipal wastewater on soil properties and on seed and biodiesel yield were studied in a three year pot trial. Plant species were irrigated at rates according to their water requirements with either freshwater or wastewater effluent. Pots irrigated with freshwater received commercial fertilizer, containing N, P, and K, applied at the beginning of each irrigation period. The results obtained in this study showed that irrigation with effluent did not result in significant changes in soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, and dehydrogenase activity, whereas soil available P was found to increase in the upper soil layer. Soil salinity varied slightly throughout the experiment in effluent irrigated pots but no change was detected at the end of the experiment compared to the initial value, suggesting sufficient salt leaching. Pots irrigated with effluent had higher soil salinity, P, and dehydrogenase activity but lower SOM and TKN than freshwater irrigated pots. Sunflower showed greater SOM and TKN values than castor bean suggesting differences between plant species in the microorganisms carrying out C and N mineralization in the soil. Plant species irrigated with freshwater achieved higher seed yield compared to those irrigated with effluent probably reflecting the lower level of soil salinity in freshwater irrigated pots. Castor bean achieved greater seed yield than sunflower. Biodiesel production followed the pattern of seed yield. The findings of this study suggest that wastewater effluent can constitute an important source of irrigation water and nutrients for bioenergy crop cultivations with minor adverse impacts on soil properties and seed yield. Plant species play an important role with regard to the changes in soil properties and to the related factors of

  1. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Concentration of PAHs in Municipal Wastewater in Selected Sewer Collectors of the Upper Silesian Urban Area, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pistelok Franciszek

    2014-12-01

    (GC-MS. The concentrations of 16 PAHs sum (EPA list ranged between 1.025 and 3.056 μg/L. Phenanthrene dominated in nearly all the analysed samples. The contents of PAHs, which are priority hazardous substances according to the directive, were high in the analysed samples. The obtained results and the analysis of diagnostic ratios for the emissions of PAHs into the air helped to reach the conclusion that traffic emissions were the main source of PAHs in the examined wastewater.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramani, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.27889@gmail.com; Howell, Nathan L., E-mail: nlhowell@central.uh.edu; Rifai, Hanadi S., E-mail: rifai@uh.edu

    2014-03-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K{sub oc} values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K{sub ow}, organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs.

  4. Fate and impact of phthalates in activated sludge treated municipal wastewater on the water bodies in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaudeen, Taofeek; Okoh, Omobola; Agunbiade, Foluso; Okoh, Anthony

    2018-07-01

    The concentration and fates of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs); dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) in wastewaters from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which adopted the activated sludge technology in the Amathole Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa were investigated. The six PAEs were detected in all the influents and in almost all the WWTP effluent of which DBP was the most abundant in the influent followed by DEHP. Influent concentration of DBP in the three WWTPs ranged between 2.7 and 2488 μgL -1 and the average effluent concentration was 4.90-8.88 μgL -1 . On average, the concentration of PAEs in WWTP effluents were higher than PAEs in the upstream and downstream of the discharging point suggesting PAE impact on the receiving water. The concentrations detected in the sludge of which DEHP and DBP were more pervasive ranged between 130 and 1094 μg/g dry weight. The average removal capacity; 27.3-99.5% suggested more adsorption on settling particles and sludge than biodegradation as high significant correlation was found between PAEs removal, total suspended solid and turbidity. Removal of high molecular weight and high octanol-water partition coefficient (logK ow ) PAEs through adsorption was found to be significantly high. It could be concluded that the release of PAEs into the sludge, and the amount in the final effluent which were found to exceed the acceptable levels allowed internationally, raises safety concern for both aquatic and human's health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The potential of hybrid forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (FOMBR) processes in achieving high throughput treatment of municipal wastewater with enhanced phosphorus recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guanglei; Zhang, Sui; Srinivasa Raghavan, Divya Shankari; Das, Subhabrata; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2016-11-15

    Extensive research in recent years has explored numerous new features in the forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (FOMBR) process. However, there is an aspect, which is revolutionary but not yet been investigated. In FOMBR, FO membrane shows high rejection for a wide range of soluble contaminants. As a result, hydraulic retention time (HRT) does not correctly reflect the nominal retention of these dissolved contaminants in the bioreactor. This decoupling of contaminants retention time (CRT, i.e. the nominal retention of the dissolved contaminants) from HRT endows FOMBR a potential in significantly reducing the HRT for wastewater treatment. In this work, we report our results in this unexplored treatment potential. Using real municipal wastewater as feed, both a hybrid microfiltration-forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (MF-FOMBR) and a newly developed hybrid biofilm-forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (BF-FOMBR) achieved high removal of organic matter and nitrogen under HRT of down to 2.0 h, with significantly enhanced phosphorus recovery capacities. In the BF-FOMBR, the used of fixed bed biofilm not only obviated the need of additional solid/liquid separation (e.g. MF) to extract the side-stream for salt accumulation control and phosphorus recovery, but effectively quarantined the biomass from the FO membrane. The absence of MF in the side-stream further allowed suspended growth to be continuously removed from the system, which produced a selection pressure for the predominance of attached growth. As a result, a significant reduction in FO membrane fouling (by 24.7-54.5%) was achieved in the BF-FOMBR due to substantially reduced bacteria deposition and colonization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Complete nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater via partial nitrification by appropriately alternating anoxic/aerobic conditions in a continuous plug-flow step feed process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shijian; Peng, Yongzhen; Qiu, Shuang; Zhu, Ao; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-05-15

    This study assessed the technical feasibility of removing nitrogen from municipal wastewater by partial nitrification (nitritation) in a continuous plug-flow step feed process. Nitrite in the effluent accumulated to over 81.5  ± 9.2% but disappeared with the transition of process operation from anoxic/oxic mode to the anaerobic/anoxic/oxic mode. Batch tests showed obvious ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) stimulation (advanced ammonia oxidation rate) and nitrite (NOB) oxidizing bacteria inhibition (reduced nitrite oxidation rate) under transient anoxic conditions. Two main factors contributed to nitritation in this continuous plug-flow process: One was the alternating anoxic and oxic operational condition; the step feed strategy guaranteed timely denitrification in anoxic zones, allowing a reduction in energy supply (nitrite) to NOB. Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that NOB population gradually decreased to 1.0  ± 0.1% of the total bacterial population (dominant Nitrospira spp., 1.55 × 10(9) copies/L) while AOB increased approximately two-fold (7.4  ± 0.9%, 1.25 × 10(10) copies/L) during the above anoxic to anaerobic transition. Most importantly, without addition of external carbon sources, the above wastewater treatment process reached 86.0  ± 4.2% of total nitrogen (TN) removal with only 7.23 ± 2.31 mg/L of TN in the effluent, which met the discharge requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electricity Recovery from Municipal Sewage Wastewater Using a Hydrogel Complex Composed of Microbially Reduced Graphene Oxide and Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Yoshida

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide (GO has recently been shown to be an excellent anode substrate for exoelectrogens. This study demonstrates the applicability of GO in recovering electricity from sewage wastewater. Anaerobic incubation of sludge with GO formed a hydrogel complex that embeds microbial cells via π-π stacking of microbially reduced GO. The rGO complex was electrically conductive (23 mS·cm−1 and immediately produced electricity in sewage wastewater under polarization at +200 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. Higher and more stable production of electricity was observed with rGO complexes (179–310 μA·cm−3 than with graphite felt (GF; 79–95 μA·cm−3. Electrochemical analyses revealed that this finding was attributable to the greater capacitance and smaller internal resistance of the rGO complex. Microbial community analysis showed abundances of Geobacter species in both rGO and GF complexes, whereas more diverse candidate exoelectrogens in the Desulfarculaceae family and Geothrix genus were particularly prominent in the rGO complex.

  8. Removal of fecal indicators and pathogens in a waste stabilization pond system treating municipal wastewater in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Kazmi, A A; Chopra, A K

    2008-11-01

    This study assess the removal of fecal indicators (i.e., total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, fecal streptococci, and pathogens [Salmonella sp. and helminth eggs]) in a full-scale facultative and maturation pond system with primary screening and manual grit removal facility. The capacity of the plant is 6 ML/d. The results showed that the system was able to remove approximately 2.0 to 3.5 log units of fecal indicators and almost 100% of helminth eggs. Meanwhile, Salmonella was not eliminated significantly, as only 1.26 log units removal was found. Removal efficiency of fecal indicator bacteria was reported maximum during summers (3.4 to 4.0 log units) and minimum (1.9 to 2.0 log units) in winters. Further efforts were made to seek the correlation between key physicochemical wastewater quality parameters (biochemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and suspended solids) and indicator microorganisms (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci). Among all these parameters, suspended solids showed the highest correlation coefficient (r2) with total coliforms (0.79), fecal coliforms (0.78), and fecal streptococci (0.75). These correlations manifest that the improvement of microbiological quality of wastewater is strongly linked to the removal of suspended solids.

  9. Occurrence and fate of emerging contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plants from different geographical regions-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Reinhard, Martin; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2018-04-15

    Emerging contaminants, such as antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, hormones, and artificial sweeteners, are recognized as new classes of water contaminants due to their proven or potential adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. This review provides comprehensive data on the occurrence of 60 emerging contaminants (ECs) in influent, treated effluent, sludge, and biosolids in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In particular, data on the occurrence of ECs in the influents and effluents of WWTPs are systematically summarized and categorized according to geographical regions (Asia, Europe, and North America). The occurrence patterns of ECs in raw influent and treated effluents of WWTPs between geographical regions were compared and evaluated. Concentrations of most ECs in raw influent in Asian region tend to be higher than those in European and North American countries. Many antibiotics were detected in the influents and effluents of WWTPs at concentrations close to or exceeding the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for resistance selection. The efficacy of EC removal by sorption and biodegradation during wastewater treatment processes are discussed in light of kinetics and parameters, such as sorption coefficients (K d ) and biodegradation constants (k biol ), and physicochemical properties (i.e. log K ow and pK a ). Commonly used sampling and monitoring strategies are critically reviewed. Analytical research needs are identified, and novel investigative approaches for future monitoring studies are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of pharmaceutical residues and assessment of their removal efficiency at the Daugavgriva municipal wastewater treatment plant in Riga, Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholds, I; Muter, O; Pugajeva, I; Rusko, J; Perkons, I; Bartkevics, V

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products (PPs) belong to emerging contaminants that may accumulate along with other chemical pollutants in wastewaters (WWs) entering industrial and/or urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In the present study, the technique of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap-HRMS) was applied for the analysis of 24 multi-class PPs in WW samples collected at different technological stages of Daugavgriva WWTP located in Riga, Latvia. Caffeine and acetaminophen levels in the range of 7,570-11,403 ng/L and 810-1,883 ng/L, respectively, were the predominant compounds among 19 PPs determined in the WW. The results indicate that aerobic digestion in biological ponds was insufficiently effective to degrade most of the PPs (reduction efficiency <0-50.0%) with the exception of four PPs that showed degradation efficiency varying from 55.0 to 99.9%. Tests of short-term chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis for PP degradation in WW samples were performed, and the results reflected the complexity of different degradation mechanisms and physicochemical transformations of PPs. The toxicological studies of WW impact on Daphnia magna indicated gradual reduction of the total toxicity through the treatment stages at the WWTP.

  11. Ultrafiltration (UF Pilot Plant for Municipal Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture: Impact of the Operation Mode on Process Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Falsanisi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Following increasing interest in the use of UltraFiltration (UF membrane processes as an alternative advanced disinfection technique, the performance of a UF pilot plant was investigated under two opposite operating conditions (“stressed operating condition” versus “conventional operating condition”. The results indicate that for both conditions, the reclaimed effluent complied with the Italian regulations for unrestricted wastewater reuse (i.e., Total Suspended Solids (TSS < 10 mg/L; Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD < 100 mg/L and Escherichia coli < 10 CFU/100 mL. On the other hand, when compared with the Title 22 of the California Wastewater Reclamation Criteria, only the effluent produced under the “conventional operating condition” met the stipulated water quality standards (i.e., TSS and turbidity undetectable and total coliforms < 2.2 CFU/100 mL. It should be noted that, in spite of the nominal cut-off size, total coliforms breakthrough was indeed occasionally observed. A localized membrane pore micro-enlargement mechanism was hypothesized to explain the total coliforms propagation in the ultrafiltered effluent, as monitoring of the membrane permeability and transmembrane pressure highlighted that gel/cake formation had only a minor contribution to the overall membrane fouling mechanism with respect to pore plugging and pore narrowing mechanisms.

  12. Effects of pharmaceutical micropollutants on the membrane fouling of a submerged MBR treating municipal wastewater: case of continuous pollution by carbamazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengcheng; Cabassud, Corinne; Reboul, Bernard; Guigui, Christelle

    2015-02-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is increasingly used for municipal wastewater treatment and reuse and great concerns have been raised to some emerging trace pollutants found in aquatic environment in the last decade, notably the pharmaceuticals. As a consequence the removal of pharmaceutical micropollutants by MBRs has been extensively investigated. But there is still a lack of knowledge on the effects of the current presence of pharmaceutical micropollutants in domestic wastewaters on MBR fouling. Among the different pharmaceuticals, it was decided to focus on carbamazepine (CBZ), an anti-epileptic drug, because of its occurrence in domestic wastewaters and persistency in biological processes including MBRs. This paper focuses on the effects of continuous carbamazepine pollution on MBR fouling. A continuous introduction of CBZ into the MBR via the feed (about 90 μg L(-1) CBZ in the feed) provoked a TMP jump. It occurred just 1 day after the addition of CBZ in MBR and a significantly higher increase rate of TMP was also observed after 1 day after addition of CBZ in MBR, as compared to that before addition of CBZ. This indicates that the pharmaceutical stress induced by CBZ causes more severe membrane fouling. Addition of CBZ was shown to induce a significant increase of the concentration of proteins in the supernatant at the beginning several days then stabilized to original level whereas no significant change was found for polysaccharides. HPLC-SEC analysis showed that addition of CBZ induced a decrease of 100-1000 kDa protein-like SMPs and a more significant increase of 10-100 kDa protein-like SMPs in the supernatant. Moreover it was found that addition of CBZ in the MBR affected the sludge microbial activities, as a slight inhibition (about 20%) of the exogenous respiration rate was observed. The increased membrane fouling could be related to the change in biomass characteristics and supernatant quality after addition of CBZ in MBR. This study allows also

  13. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci with vanA gene in treated municipal wastewater and their association with human hospital strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravcova, Veronika; Mihalcin, Matus; Zakova, Jana; Pospisilova, Lucie; Masarikova, Martina; Literak, Ivan

    2017-12-31

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are pathogens of increasing medical importance. In Brno, Czech Republic, we collected 37 samples from the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), 21 surface swabs from hospital settings, and 59 fecal samples from hospitalized patients and staff. Moreover, we collected 284 gull cloacal swabs from the colony situated 35km downstream the WWTP. Samples were cultured selectively. Enterococci were identified using MALDI-TOF MS, phenotypically tested for susceptibility to antibiotics, and by PCR for occurrence of resistance and virulence genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) were used to examine genotypic diversity. VRE carrying the vanA gene were found in 32 (86%, n=37) wastewater samples, from which we obtained 49 isolates: Enterococcus faecium (44) and Enterococcus gallinarum (2), Enterococcus casseliflavus (2), and Enterococcus raffinosus (1). From 33 (69%) of 48 inpatient stool samples, we obtained 39 vanA-carrying VRE, which belonged to E. faecium (33 isolates), Enterococcus faecalis (4), and Enterococcus raffinosus (2). Nearly one-third of the samples from hospital surfaces contained VRE with the vanA gene. VRE were not detected among gulls. Sixty-seven (84%, n=80) E. faecium isolates carried virulence genes hyl and/or esp. Virulence of E. faecalis was encoded by gelE, asa1, and cylA genes. A majority of the E. faecium isolates belonged to the clinically important sequence types ST17 (WWTP: 10 isolates; hospital: 4 isolates), ST18 (9;8), and ST78 (5;0). The remaining isolates belonged to ST555 (2;0), ST262 (1;6), ST273 (3;0), ST275 (1;0), ST549 (2;0), ST19 (0;1), ST323 (3;0), and ST884 (7;17). Clinically important enterococci carrying the vanA gene were almost continually detectable in the effluent of the WWTP, indicating insufficient removal of VRE during wastewater treatment and permanent shedding of these antibiotic resistant pathogens into the environment from this

  14. Comparison of Microbial and Chemical Source Tracking Markers To Identify Fecal Contamination Sources in the Humber River (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and Associated Storm Water Outfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Grabuski, Josey; Sverko, Ed; Edge, Thomas A

    2016-11-01

    Storm water runoff is a major source of pollution, and understanding the components of storm water discharge is essential to remediation efforts and proper assessment of risks to human and ecosystem health. In this study, culturable Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli levels were quantified and microbial source tracking (MST) markers (including markers for general Bacteroidales spp., human, ruminant/cow, gull, and dog) were detected in storm water outfalls and sites along the Humber River in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and enumerated via endpoint PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Additionally, chemical source tracking (CST) markers specific for human wastewater (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, acetaminophen, and acesulfame) were quantified. Human and gull fecal sources were detected at all sites, although concentrations of the human fecal marker were higher, particularly in outfalls (mean outfall concentrations of 4.22 log 10 copies, expressed as copy numbers [CN]/100 milliliters for human and 0.46 log 10 CN/100 milliliters for gull). Higher concentrations of caffeine, acetaminophen, acesulfame, E. coli, and the human fecal marker were indicative of greater raw sewage contamination at several sites (maximum concentrations of 34,800 ng/liter, 5,120 ng/liter, 9,720 ng/liter, 5.26 log 10 CFU/100 ml, and 7.65 log 10 CN/100 ml, respectively). These results indicate pervasive sewage contamination at storm water outfalls and throughout the Humber River, with multiple lines of evidence identifying Black Creek and two storm water outfalls with prominent sewage cross-connection problems requiring remediation. Limited data are available on specific sources of pollution in storm water, though our results indicate the value of using both MST and CST methodologies to more reliably assess sewage contamination in impacted watersheds. Storm water runoff is one of the most prominent non-point sources of biological and chemical contaminants which can

  15. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Michael E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Theregowda, Ranjani B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept of Civil and Mechanical Engineering; Safari, Iman [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Abbasian, Javad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Arastoopour, Hamid [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Dzombak, David A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept of Civil and Mechanical Engineering; Hsieh, Ming-Kai [Tamkang Univ., Taipei (Taiwan). Waer Resources Management and Policy Research Center; Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-10-01

    A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondary-treated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

  16. A novel approach of anaerobic co-digestion between organic fraction of food waste and waste sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant: Effect of mixing ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Dinh Thi; Ngoc, Tran Thi Minh; Van Ty, Nguyen; Thuan, Van Tan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mixing ratio of co-anaerobic digestion between dewatered waste sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant (DS) and organic fraction of food waste (FW). The experiment was carried out in 3L reactors for 16 days at ambient temperature. Four mixing ratios of DW and FW was investigated including 100 % DS : 0 % FW (Run S100); 75% DS : 25 % FW (Run S75); 50% DS : 50% FW (Run S50); and 25% DS : 75% FW (Run S25) in term of VS concentration. As a result, the Run S50 achieved best performance among the four funs indicated in biogas accumulation of 32.48 L biogas and methane yield of 358.9 400ml CH4/g VS removal after 16 days operation at ambient temperature. Biogas accumulation of Run S25 was higher than that of Run S75. Run S100 produced the lowest of biogas of all runs. It is concluded that co-anaerobic digestion of different organic sources could enhance the performance of methane fermentation.

  17. Single-stage versus two-stage anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactors in treating municipal wastewater: Performance, foulant characteristics, and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Li, Yifei; Lim, Weikang; Lee, Shi Lin; Guo, Qiming; Fane, Anthony G; Liu, Yu

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the receptive performance, membrane foulant characteristics, and microbial community in the single-stage and two-stage anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (AFMBR) treating settled raw municipal wastewater with the aims to explore fouling mechanisms and microbial community structure in both systems. Both AFMBRs exhibited comparable organic removal efficiency and membrane performances. In the single-stage AFMBR, less soluble organic substances were removed through biosorption by GAC and biodegradation than those in the two-stage AFMBR. Compared to the two-stage AFMBR, the formation of cake layer was the main cause of the observed membrane fouling in the single-stage AFMBR at the same employed flux. The accumulation rate of the biopolymers was linearly correlated with the membrane fouling rate. In the chemical-cleaned foulants, humic acid-like substances and silicon were identified as the predominant organic and inorganic fouants respectively. As such, the fluidized GAC particles might not be effective in removing these substances from the membrane surfaces. High-throughout pyrosequencing analysis further revealed that beta-Proteobacteria were predominant members in both AFMBRs, which contributed to the development of biofilms on the fluidized GAC and membrane surfaces. However, it was also noted that the abundance of the identified dominant in the membrane surface-associated biofilm seemed to be related to the permeate flux and reactor configuration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate on phosphorus removal and membrane fouling in MBR treating BAF effluent of municipal wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A membrane bioreactor (MBR was used for treating biological aerated filter effluent in a municipal wastewater plant, and chemical phosphorus removal was accomplished in the MBR. The results showed that ferric chloride of 20 mg/L and aluminum sulfate of 30 mg/L were the optimal dosages for total phosphorus (TP removal, and the TP removal efficiency was over 80%. In long-term continuous operations, both ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate effectively mitigated membrane fouling, with the corresponding growth rate of transmembrane pressure decreased to 0.08 and 0.067 kPa/d, respectively. Sludge particle sizes analysis demonstrated that the decrease of particle sizes lower than 50 μm was the main reason for membrane fouling control. Simultaneously, the proteins and polysaccharide (PS concentrations in the MBR supernatant were analyzed, and the PS concentration significantly decreased to 2.02 mg/L at aluminum sulfate of 30 mg/L, indicating the flocculation of aluminum sulfate on PS was the main reason for mitigation of membrane fouling.

  19. Antibiotic-resistant genes and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the effluent of urban residential areas, hospitals, and a municipal wastewater treatment plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianan; Cheng, Weixiao; Xu, Like; Strong, P J; Chen, Hong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we determined the abundance of 8 antibiotics (3 tetracyclines, 4 sulfonamides, and 1 trimethoprim), 12 antibiotic-resistant genes (10 tet, 2 sul), 4 antibiotic-resistant bacteria (tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and combined resistance), and class 1 integron integrase gene (intI1) in the effluent of residential areas, hospitals, and municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) systems. The concentrations of total/individual targets (antibiotics, genes, and bacteria) varied remarkably among different samples, but the hospital samples generally had a lower abundance than the residential area samples. The WWTP demonstrated removal efficiencies of 50.8% tetracyclines, 66.8% sulfonamides, 0.5 logs to 2.5 logs tet genes, and less than 1 log of sul and intI1 genes, as well as 0.5 log to 1 log removal for target bacteria. Except for the total tetracycline concentration and the proportion of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (R (2) = 0.330, P antibiotics and the corresponding resistant bacteria (P > 0.05). In contrast, various relationships were identified between antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (P antibiotic-resistant bacteria (P < 0.01).

  20. Enhanced treatment of secondary municipal wastewater effluent: comparing (biological) filtration and ozonation in view of micropollutant removal, unselective effluent toxicity, and the potential for real-time control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chys, Michael; Demeestere, Kristof; Ingabire, Ange Sabine; Dries, Jan; Van Langenhove, Herman; Van Hulle, Stijn W H

    2017-07-01

    Ozonation and three (biological) filtration techniques (trickling filtration (TF), slow sand filtration (SSF) and biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration) have been evaluated in different combinations as tertiary treatment for municipal wastewater effluent. The removal of 18 multi-class pharmaceuticals, as model trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), has been studied. (Biological) activated carbon filtration could reduce the amount of TrOCs significantly (>99%) but is cost-intensive for full-scale applications. Filtration techniques mainly depending on biodegradation mechanisms (TF and SSF) are found to be inefficient for TrOCs removal as a stand alone technique. Ozonation resulted in 90% removal of the total amount of quantified TrOCs, but a post-ozonation step is needed to cope with an increased unselective toxicity. SSF following ozonation showed to be the only technique able to reduce the unselective toxicity to the same level as before ozonation. In view of process control, innovative correlation models developed for the monitoring and control of TrOC removal during ozonation, are verified for their applicability during ozonation in combination with TF, SSF or BAC. Particularly for the poorly ozone reactive TrOCs, statistically significant models were obtained that correlate TrOC removal and reduction in UVA 254 as an online measured surrogate parameter.

  1. Biochemical oxygen demand and nutrient processing in a novel multi-stage raw municipal wastewater and acid mine drainage passive co-treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosnider, W H; Winfrey, B K; Nairn, R W

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory-scale, four-stage continuous flow reactor system was constructed to test the viability of high-strength acid mine drainage (AMD) and municipal wastewater (MWW) passive co-treatment. The synthetic AMD had pH 2.60 and 1860 mg/L acidity as CaCO(3) equivalent with 46, 0.25, 2, 290, 55, 1.2 and 390 mg/L of Al, As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn, respectively. The AMD was introduced to the system at a 1:2 ratio with raw MWW from the City of Norman, Oklahoma USA containing 265 ± 94 mg/L BOD(5), 11.5 ± 5.3 mg/L PO(4)(-3), and 20.8 ± 1.8 mg/L NH(4)(+)-N. During the 135 d experiment, PO(4)(-3) and NH(4)(+)-N were decreased to treatment is a viable ecological engineering approach for the developed and developing world that can be optimized and applied to improve water quality with minimal use of fossil fuels and refined materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  3. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  4. Removal Efficiency and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Typical Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facility in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhineng Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The loading and removal efficiency of 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were examined in an inverted A2/O wastewater treatment plant (WWTP located in an urban area in China. The total PAH concentrations were 554.3 to 723.2 ng/L in the influent and 189.6 to 262.7 ng/L in the effluent. The removal efficiencies of ∑PAHs in the dissolved phase ranged from 63 to 69%, with the highest observed in naphthalene (80% removal. Concentration and distribution of PAHs revealed that the higher molecular weight PAHs became more concentrated with treatment in both the dissolved phase and the dewatered sludge. The sharpest reduction was observed during the pretreatment and the biological phase. Noncarcinogenic risk, carcinogenic risk, and total health risk of PAHs found in the effluent and sewage sludge were also assessed. The effluent BaP toxic equivalent quantities (TEQBaP were above, or far above, standards in countries. The potential toxicities of PAHs in sewage effluent were approximately 10 to 15 times higher than the acceptable risk level in China. The health risk associated with the sewage sludge also exceeded international recommended levels and was mainly contributed from seven carcinogenic PAHs. Given that WWTP effluent is a major PAH contributor to surface water bodies in China and better reduction efficiencies are achievable, the present study highlights the possibility of utilizing WWTPs for restoring water quality in riverine and coastal regions heavily impacted by PAHs contamination.

  5. Peat as Substrate for Small-Scale Constructed Wetlands Polishing Secondary Effluents from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Jin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the recent development of constructed wetland technology, it has become a mainstream treatment technology for the mitigation of a variety of wastewaters. This study reports on the treatment performance and pH attenuation capacity of three different configurations of small-scale on-site surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW: T1 (Peat + Typha latifolia, T2 (T. latifolia alone, and T3 (Peat alone treating secondary effluent from the Amherstview Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP for two treatment periods (start-up period and operational period. The aim of this study was to compare the nutrients removal efficiencies between the different treatments, as well as to evaluate the effects of substrate and vegetation on the wetland system. For a hydraulic retention time of 2.5 days, the results showed that all treatment systems could attenuate the pH level during both the start-up and operational periods, while significant nutrient removal performance could only be observed during the operational period. Peat was noted to be a better SFCW substrate in promoting the removal of nitrate (NO3-N, total nitrogen (TN, and phosphorus. The addition of T. latifolia further enhanced NO3-N and TN removal efficiencies, but employing T. latifolia alone did not yield effluents that could meet the regulatory discharge limit (1.0 mg/L for phosphorus.

  6. Multiple response optimization of the coagulation process for upgrading the quality of effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Hu, Yi; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J.; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-05-01

    To meet the high quality standard of receiving water, the coagulation process using polyferric chloride (PFC) was used to further improve the water quality of effluent from wastewater treatment plants. Uniform design (UD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to assess the effects of the main influence factors: coagulant dosage, pH and basicity, on the removal of total organic carbon (TOC), NH4+-N and PO43--P. A desirability function approach was used to effectively optimize the coagulation process for the comprehensive removal of TOC, NH4+-N and PO43--P to upgrade the effluent quality in practical application. The optimized operating conditions were: dosage 28 mg/L, pH 8.5 and basicity 0.001. The corresponding removal efficiencies for TOC, NH4+-N and PO43--P were 77.2%, 94.6% and 20.8%, respectively. More importantly, the effluent quality could upgrade to surface water Class V of China through coagulation under optimal region. In addition, grey relational analysis (GRA) prioritized these three factors as: pH > basicity > dosage (for TOC), basicity > dosage > pH (for NH4+-N), pH > dosage > basicity (for PO43--P), which would help identify the most important factor to control the treatment efficiency of various effluent quality indexes by PFC coagulation.

  7. Disinfection efficiency of peracetic acid (PAA): inactivation of coliphages and bacterial indicators in a municipal wastewater plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, F; De Luca, G; Sacchetti, R; Stampi, S

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficiency of low doses of peracetic acid against viral and bacterial indicators in wastewater and to evaluate if the treatment allows regulatory requirements to be satisfied. A total of 31 samplings were carried out, each involving the collection of secondary effluent and of effluent disinfected with 1.2 or 1.5 mg l(-1) of peracetic acid (contact time 20 minutes). In each sample were measured: somatic coliphages, F-specific RNA bacteriophages, Escherichia coli, total and faecal coliforms, enterococci. Peracetic acid disinfection showed significant differences between the reductions of the microorganisms tested: E. coli showed the highest reduction (1.78 and 2.43 Log respectively with 1.2 and 1.5 mg l(-1) of peracetic acid) and phages the lowest (ranging between 0.52 and 0.60 Log). Only a concentration of 1.5 mg l(-1) of peracetic acid would enable the effluent to be discharged into surface waters in compliance with Italian regulations. The variability of microbial resistance against the peracetic acid disinfection treatment, underlines the importance of assessing disinfection efficiency by using more than one indicator microorganism. The detection of E. coli could be usefully accompanied by tests for more resistant microorganisms such as enterococci or coliphages. In conclusion, peracetic acid can be used for the disinfection of effluents even at low doses, with the advantage of reducing costs and preventing the formation of significant amounts of genotoxic by-products.

  8. Sorption and release of organics by primary, anaerobic, and aerobic activated sludge mixed with raw municipal wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Modin

    Full Text Available New activated sludge processes that utilize sorption as a major mechanism for organics removal are being developed to maximize energy recovery from wastewater organics, or as enhanced primary treatment technologies. To model and optimize sorption-based activated sludge processes, further knowledge about sorption of organics onto sludge is needed. This study compared primary-, anaerobic-, and aerobic activated sludge as sorbents, determined sorption capacity and kinetics, and investigated some characteristics of the organics being sorbed. Batch sorption assays were carried out without aeration at a mixing velocity of 200 rpm. Only aerobic activated sludge showed net sorption of organics. Sorption of dissolved organics occurred by a near-instantaneous sorption event followed by a slower process that obeyed 1st order kinetics. Sorption of particulates also followed 1st order kinetics but there was no instantaneous sorption event; instead there was a release of particles upon mixing. The 5-min sorption capacity of activated sludge was 6.5±10.8 mg total organic carbon (TOC per g volatile suspend solids (VSS for particulate organics and 5.0±4.7 mgTOC/gVSS for dissolved organics. The observed instantaneous sorption appeared to be mainly due to organics larger than 20 kDa in size being sorbed, although molecules with a size of about 200 Da with strong UV absorbance at 215-230 nm were also rapidly removed.

  9. Removal Efficiency and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Typical Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facility in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhineng; Li, Qing; Wu, Qihang; Kuo, Dave T F; Chen, Shejun; Hu, Xiaodong; Deng, Mingjun; Zhang, Haozhi; Luo, Min

    2017-08-01

    The loading and removal efficiency of 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in an inverted A²/O wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in an urban area in China. The total PAH concentrations were 554.3 to 723.2 ng/L in the influent and 189.6 to 262.7 ng/L in the effluent. The removal efficiencies of ∑PAHs in the dissolved phase ranged from 63 to 69%, with the highest observed in naphthalene (80% removal). Concentration and distribution of PAHs revealed that the higher molecular weight PAHs became more concentrated with treatment in both the dissolved phase and the dewatered sludge. The sharpest reduction was observed during the pretreatment and the biological phase. Noncarcinogenic risk, carcinogenic risk, and total health risk of PAHs found in the effluent and sewage sludge were also assessed. The effluent BaP toxic equivalent quantities ( TEQ BaP ) were above, or far above, standards in countries. The potential toxicities of PAHs in sewage effluent were approximately 10 to 15 times higher than the acceptable risk level in China. The health risk associated with the sewage sludge also exceeded international recommended levels and was mainly contributed from seven carcinogenic PAHs. Given that WWTP effluent is a major PAH contributor to surface water bodies in China and better reduction efficiencies are achievable, the present study highlights the possibility of utilizing WWTPs for restoring water quality in riverine and coastal regions heavily impacted by PAHs contamination.

  10. Some Hydraulic and Environmental Aspects of Sea Outfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    The present work summarises the activities carried out by the author over a number of years in the area of environmental hydraulics in relation to sea outfalls for the discharge of sewage into the sea from urban areas through pipelines provided with diffusers. The substance of this monograph...

  11. Alternatives/action plan report for outfall 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This Document contains information pertaining to alternatives/action associated with controlling ammonia entering through outfall 17. This document identifies the location of contaminate source, the ammonia concentration levels entering East Fork Poplar Creek, and the action taken to reduce/eliminate the toxicity problem

  12. Alternatives/action plan report for outfall 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    This Document contains information pertaining to alternatives/action associated with controlling ammonia entering through outfall 17. This document identifies the location of contaminate source, the ammonia concentration levels entering East Fork Poplar Creek, and the action taken to reduce/eliminate the toxicity problem.

  13. ANALYSIS OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND ACID MINE DRAINAGE PASSIVE CO-TREATMENT AT CERRO RICO DE POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H.J. Strosnider

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide environmental problem. The passive co-treatment of AMD with municipal waste water (MWW is a cost effective approach that uses nutrients in MWW in order to treat high concentrations of metals and sulfate found in AMD. Cerro Rico de Potosí in Bolivia is one of the biggest mining cities in the world, and it is constantly facing problems with AMD. The goal of this study was to determine the reaction rates of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and other metals found in an AMD discharge from Cerro Rico by a three-stage reactor system. The AMD had a pH of 3.58 and acidity of 1080 mg/L as CaCO3 equivalent containing 12, 68, 17 and 550 mg/L of dissolved Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn respectively. The reaction rates of Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn were 1.43, 2.09, 0.01, and 0.10 d-1, respectively.

  14. QAC modified PVDF membranes: Antibiofouling performance, mechanisms, and effects on microbial communities in an MBR treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Zhang, Xingran; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Liang; Wu, Zhichao

    2017-09-01

    Biofouling remains as a critical issue limiting the widespread applications of membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The use of antibiofouling membranes is an emerging method to tackle this issue. In this study, a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane was modified using a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) to create an antibiofouling membrane. The membrane was used in an MBR and the performance, mechanisms, and effects on microbial communities of this membrane were compared to a control operated in parallel. Results showed that the membrane exhibited a significantly reduced transmembrane pressure increase rate of 0.29 kPa/d compared with 0.91 kPa/d of the control. Analysis using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) revealed almost complete lack of living microbes on the antibiofouling membrane in contrast to the control. However, specific oxygen uptake rate and dehydrogenase activity analyses demonstrated no adverse impacts on microbial viability of the bulk activated sludge. Bacterial population analysis using the Illumina Miseq platform added further evidence that the use of antibiofouling membrane did not exert negative influences on richness, diversity and structure of the bacterial community. Effluent quality of the test MBR also exhibited minimal difference from that of the control reactor. The amount of polysaccharides and proteins in the biofouling layer was also significantly reduced. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring suggested that the antibiofouling membrane only allowed organic matter with strong adhesion properties to attach onto the membrane surfaces. These findings highlight the potential of the antibiofouling membrane to be used in MBRs for wastewater treatment and reclamation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduction of Human Norovirus GI, GII, and Surrogates by Peracetic Acid and Monochloramine in Municipal Secondary Wastewater Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkin, Nathan; Weng, ShihChi; Coulter, Caroline G; Jacangelo, Joseph G; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2017-10-17

    The objective of this study was to characterize human norovirus (hNoV) GI and GII reductions during disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) and monochloramine in secondary wastewater (WW) and phosphate buffer (PB) as assessed by reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR). Infectivity and RT-qPCR reductions are also presented for surrogate viruses murine norovirus (MNV) and bacteriophage MS2 under identical experimental conditions to aid in interpretation of hNoV molecular data. In WW, RT-qPCR reductions were less than 0.5 log 10 for all viruses at concentration-time (CT) values up to 450 mg-min/L except for hNoV GI, where 1 log 10 reduction was observed at CT values of less than 50 mg-min/L for monochloramine and 200 mg-min/L for PAA. In PB, hNoV GI and MNV exhibited comparable resistance to PAA and monochloramine with CT values for 2 log 10 RT-qPCR reduction between 300 and 360 mg-min/L. Less than 1 log 10 reduction was observed for MS2 and hNoV GII in PB at CT values for both disinfectants up to 450 mg-min/L. Our results indicate that hNoVs exhibit genogroup dependent resistance and that disinfection practices targeting hNoV GII will result in equivalent or greater reductions for hNoV GI. These data provide valuable comparisons between hNoV and surrogate molecular signals that can begin the process of informing regulators and engineers on WW treatment plant design and operational practices necessary to inactivate hNoVs.

  16. Feasibility study of green wastes composting with digested and dewatering sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamat Jaafarzadeh Haghighi Fard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composting as a waste management technology is becoming more widespread. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and to find the most effective composting process for the ratio of green waste, digested and dewatered sludge from Chonibieh wastewater treatment plant in the west region of Ahvaz. Methods: The composting time was 23 days and the evaluated parameters in this period of the study were organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N, moisture content and pH. The C/N ratio was maintained at 30 with weight:weight ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 (digested and dewatered sludge to green waste. Results: It was observed that vessel R3 produced higher quality of compost with final total nitrogen (1.28%, final total phosphorus (0.71%, final total organic carbon (TOC (25.78% and C/N (20.65% within the 23 days of composting. While vessel R1 produced higher final total nitrogen and total phosphorus with lower amount of total coliform indicating suitable quality of composting. Therefore, the results showed that the characteristics of dewatered sludge mixed with green waste proportion of green waste significantly influenced the compost quality and process dynamics. The results also showed that the quality of final products in all the conditions was in agreement with Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS and World Health Organization (WHO guidelines. However, the moisture content ratios were lower than the mentioned guidelines. With regards to microbial quality, all three ratios were in agreement with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and Iranian guidelines. Conclusion: It is suggested that the final product of composting can be safely used in farmland and green space.

  17. Control of membrane fouling during hyperhaline municipal wastewater treatment using a pilot-scale anoxic/aerobic-membrane bioreactor system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingmei Sun; Jiangxiu Rong; Lifeng Dai; Baoshan Liu; Wenting Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Membrane fouling limits the effects of long-term stable operation of membrane bioreactor (MBR).Control of membrane foulin can extend the membrane life and reduce water treatment cost effectively.A pilot scale anoxic/aerobic-membrane bioreactor (A/O MBR,40 L/hr) was used to treat the hyperhaline municipal sewage from a processing zone of Tianjin,China.Impact factors including mixed liquid sludge suspension (MLSS),sludge viscosity (μ),microorganisms,extracellular polymeric substances (EPS),aeration intensity and suction/suspended time on membrane fouling and pollution control were studied.The relationships among various factors associated with membrane fouling were analyzed.Results showed that there was a positive correlation among MLSS,sludge viscosity and trans-membrane pressure (TMP).Considering water treatment efficiency and stable operation of the membrane module,MLSS of 5 g/L was suggested for the process.There was a same trend among EPS,sludge viscosity and TMP.Numbers and species of microorganisms affected membrane fouling.Either too high or too low aeration intensity was not conducive to membrane fouling control.Aeration intensity of 1.0 m3/hr (gas/water ratio of 25:1) is suggested for the process.A long suction time caused a rapid increase in membrane resistance.However,long suspended time cannot prevent the increase of membrane resistance effectively even though a suspended time was necessary for scale off particles from the membrane surface.The suction/suspended time of 12 min/3 min was selected for the process.The interaction of various environmental factors and operation conditions must be considered synthetically.

  18. Two novel real time cell-based assays quantify beta-blocker and NSAID specific effects in effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Kevin; Stahl, Cordula; Martens, Regina; Köhler, Heinz-R; Triebskorn, Rita; Scheurer, Marco; Frey, Manfred

    2017-05-15

    Pharmaceuticals, such as beta-blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as well as their metabolites are introduced into the water cycle via municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents in all industrialized countries. As the amino acid sequences of the biological target molecules of these pharmaceuticals - the beta-1 adrenergic receptor for beta-blockers and the cyclooxygenase for NSAIDs - are phylogenetically conserved among vertebrates it is reasonable that wildlife vertebrates including fish physiologically respond in a similar way to them as documented in humans. Consequently, beta-blockers and NSAIDs both exhibit their effects according to their mode of action on one hand, but on the other hand that may lead to unwanted side effects in non-target species. To determine whether residuals of beta-1 adrenergic receptor antagonists and cyclooxygenase inhibitors may pose a risk to aquatic organisms, one has to know the extent to which such organisms respond to the total of active compounds, their metabolites and transformation products with the same modes of action. To cope with this demand, two cell-based assays were developed, by which the total beta-blocker and cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity can be assessed in a given wastewater or surface water extract in real time. The measured activity is quantified as metoprolol equivalents (MetEQ) of the lead substance metoprolol in the beta-blocker assay, and diclofenac equivalents (DicEQ) in the NSAID assay. Even though MetEQs and DicEQs were found to surpass the concentration of the respective lead substances (metoprolol, diclofenac), as determined by chemical analysis by a factor of two to three, this difference was shown to be reasonably explained by the presence and action of additional active compounds with the same mode of action in the test samples. Thus, both in vitro assays were proven to integrate effectively over beta-blocker and NSAID activities in WWTP effluents in a very sensitive

  19. Intestinal bacteria in bioaerosols and factors affecting their survival in two oxidation ditch process municipal wastewater treatment plants located in different regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjie; Li, Lin; Han, Yunping; Liu, Junxin; Yang, Kaixiong

    2018-06-15

    Samples from two oxidation ditch process municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs) (HJK and GXQ) in two regions of China were analysed for bacteria, particles, total organic carbon, and water-soluble ions in bioaerosols. Diversity and potential pathogen populations were evaluated by high-throughput sequencing. Bioaerosol sources, factors affecting intestinal bacterial survival, and the relationship between bioaerosols and water were analysed by Source tracker and partial least squares-discriminant, principal component, and canonical correspondence analyses. Culturable bacteria concentrations were 110-846 and 27-579 CFU/m 3 at HJK and GXQ, respectively. Intestinal bacteria constituted 6-33% of bacteria. Biochemical reaction tank, sludge dewatering house (SDH), and fine screen samples showed the greatest contribution to bioaerosol contamination. Enterobacter aerogenes was the main intestinal bacteria (> 99.5%) in HJK and detected at each sampling site. Enterobacter aerogenes (98.67% in SDH), Aeromonas sp. (76.3% in biochemical reaction tank), and Acinetobacter baumannii (99.89% in fine screens) were the main intestinal bacteria in GXQ. Total suspended particulate masses in SDH were 229.46 and 141.6 μg/m 3 in HJK and GXQ, respectively. Percentages of insoluble compounds in total suspended particulates decreased as height increased. The main soluble ions in bioaerosols were Ca 2+ , Na + , Cl - , and SO 4 2- , which ranged from 3.8 to 27.55 μg/m 3 in the MWTPs. Water was a main source of intestinal bacteria in bioaerosols from the MWTPs. Bioaerosols in HJK but not in GXQ were closely related. Relative humidity and some ions positively influenced intestinal bacteria in bioaerosols, while wind speed and solar illumination had a negative influence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Niche specificity of ammonia-oxidizing archaeal and bacterial communities in a freshwater wetland receiving municipal wastewater in Daqing, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwok-Ho; Wang, Yong-Feng; Li, Hui; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Ecophysiological differences between ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) enable them to adapt to different niches in complex freshwater wetland ecosystems. The community characters of AOA and AOB in the different niches in a freshwater wetland receiving municipal wastewater, as well as the physicochemical parameters of sediment/soil samples, were investigated in this study. AOA community structures varied and separated from each other among four different niches. Wetland vegetation including aquatic macrophytes and terrestrial plants affected the AOA community composition but less for AOB, whereas sediment depths might contribute to the AOB community shift. The diversity of AOA communities was higher than that of AOB across all four niches. Archaeal and bacterial amoA genes (encoding for the alpha-subunit of ammonia monooxygenases) were most diverse in the dry-land niche, indicating O2 availability might favor ammonia oxidation. The majority of AOA amoA sequences belonged to the Soil/sediment Cluster B in the freshwater wetland ecosystems, while the dominant AOB amoA sequences were affiliated with Nitrosospira-like cluster. In the Nitrosospira-like cluster, AOB amoA gene sequences affiliated with the uncultured ammonia-oxidizing beta-proteobacteria constituted the largest portion (99%). Moreover, independent methods for phylogenetic tree analysis supported high parsimony bootstrap values. As a consequence, it is proposed that Nitrosospira-like amoA gene sequences recovered in this study represent a potentially novel cluster, grouping with the sequences from Gulf of Mexico deposited in the public databases.

  1. Distribution of antibiotic resistance in the effluents of ten municipal wastewater treatment plants in China and the effect of treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Weiwei; Wang, Jian; Cao, Rukun; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yu; Qiang, Zhimin

    2017-04-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents represent an important contamination source of antibiotic resistance, threatening the ecological safety of receiving environments. In this study, the release of antibiotic resistance to sulfonamides and tetracyclines in the effluents of ten WWTPs in China was investigated. Results indicate that the concentrations of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) ranged from 1.1 × 10 1 to 8.9 × 10 3  CFU mL -1 and 3.6 × 10 1 (tetW) to 5.4 × 10 6 (tetX) copies mL -1 , respectively. There were insignificant correlations of the concentrations of ARB and ARGs with those of corresponding antibiotics. Strong correlations were observed between the total concentrations of tetracycline resistance genes and sulfonamide resistance genes, and both of which were significantly correlated with intI1 concentrations. Statistical analysis of the effluent ARG concentrations in different WWTPs revealed an important role of disinfection in eliminating antibiotic resistance. The release rates of ARB and ARGs through the effluents of ten WWTPs ranged from 5.9 × 10 12 to 4.8 × 10 15  CFU d -1 and 6.4 × 10 12 (tetW) to 1.7 × 10 18 (sul1) copies d -1 , respectively. This study helps the effective assessment and scientific management of ecological risks induced by antibiotic resistance discharged from WWTPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Critical flux and chemical cleaning-in-place during the long-term operation of a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2011-01-01

    The critical flux and chemical cleaning-in-place (CIP) in a long-term operation of a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment were investigated. Steady filtration under high flux (30 L/(m2 h)) was successfully achieved due to effective membrane fouling control by sub-critical flux operation and chemical CIP with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) in both trans-membrane pressure (TMP) controlling mode (cleaning with high concentration NaClO of 2000-3000 mg/L in terms of effective chorine was performed when TMP rose to 15 kPa) and time controlling mode (cleanings were performed weekly and monthly respectively with low concentration NaClO (500-1000 mg/L) and high concentration NaClO (3000 mg/L)). Microscopic analysis on membrane fibers before and after high concentration NaClO was also conducted. Images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that NaClO CIP could effectively remove gel layer, the dominant fouling under sub-critical flux operation. Porosity measurements indicated that NaClO CIP could partially remove pore blockage fouling. The analyses from fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) with attenuated total reflectance accessory (ATR) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) demonstrated that protein-like macromolecular organics and inorganics were the important components of the fouling layer. The analysis of effluent quality before and after NaClO CIP showed no obvious effect on effluent quality. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Study of efficiency of particles removal by different filtration systems in a municipal wastewater tertiary treatment; Eficacia en la eliminacion de particulas por diferentes sistemas de filtracion aplicados al tratamiento terciario de las aguas residuales urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreu, P. S.; Lardin Mifsut, C.; Farinas Iglesias, M.; Sanchez-Arevalo Serrano, J.; Perez Sanchez, P.; Rancano Perez, A.

    2009-07-01

    The disinfection of municipal wastewater using ultraviolet radiation depends greatly on the presence within the water of particles in suspension. This work determines how the level of elimination of particles varies depending on the technique of filtration used (open, closed sand filters, with continuous washing of the sand, cloth, disk and ring filters). all systems are very effective in the removal of particles more than 25 microns and for removing helminth eggs. The membrane bio-reactors with ultrafiltration membranes were superior in terms of particle removal when compared to conventional filters. (Author) 11 refs.

  4. Occurrence of human-associated Bacteroidetes genetic source tracking markers in raw and treated wastewater of municipal and domestic origin and comparison to standard and alternative indicators of faecal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, R.E.; Bofill-Mas, S.; Egle, L.; Reischer, G.H.; Schade, M.; Fernandez-Cassi, X.; Fuchs, W.; Mach, R.L.; Lindner, G.; Kirschner, A.; Gaisbauer, M.; Piringer, H.; Blaschke, A.P.; Girones, R.; Zessner, M.; Sommer, R.; Farnleitner, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    This was a detailed investigation of the seasonal occurrence, dynamics, removal and resistance of human-associated genetic Bacteroidetes faecal markers (GeBaM) compared with ISO-based standard faecal indicator bacteria (SFIB), human-specific viral faecal markers and one human-associated Bacteroidetes phage in raw and treated wastewater of municipal and domestic origin. Characteristics of the selected activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) from Austria and Germany were studied in detail (WWTPs, n = 13, connected populations from 3 to 49000 individuals), supported by volume-proportional automated 24-h sampling and chemical water quality analysis. GeBaM were consistently detected in high concentrations in raw (median log10 8.6 marker equivalents (ME) 100 ml−1) and biologically treated wastewater samples (median log10 6.2–6.5 ME 100 ml−1), irrespective of plant size, type and time of the season (n = 53–65). GeBaM, Escherichia coli, and enterococci concentrations revealed the same range of statistical variability for raw (multiplicative standard deviations s* = 2.3–3.0) and treated wastewater (s* = 3.7–4.5), with increased variability after treatment. Clostridium perfringens spores revealed the lowest variability for raw wastewater (s* = 1.5). In raw wastewater correlations among microbiological parameters were only detectable between GeBaM, C. perfringens and JC polyomaviruses. Statistical associations amongst microbial parameters increased during wastewater treatment. Two plants with advanced treatment were also investigated, revealing a minimum log10 5.0 (10th percentile) reduction of GeBaM in the activated sludge membrane bioreactor, but no reduction of the genetic markers during UV irradiation (254 nm). This study highlights the potential of human-associated GeBaM to complement wastewater impact monitoring based on the determination of SFIB. In addition, human-specific JC polyomaviruses and adenoviruses seem to be a valuable support if

  5. An optimization based framework for design and retrofit of municipal wastewater treatment plants: Case study on side-stream nitrogen removal technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist

    2014-01-01

    Existing WWTPs need retrofitting due to several d iffe rent reasons such as: change in the wastewater flow and co mposition, change in the effluent limitat ions , as well as changes in the wastewater treatment trends. Specifically, increased nitrogen limitations in the regulations for the WWTP ef...

  6. Polishing ponds as tertiary treatment of municipal wastewater. Part one: Full scale experimental evaluation of effects on effluent characteristic; Stagni biologici nel trattamento terziario dei liquami urbani. Parte I: Valutazione sperimentale a scala reale degli effetti sulle caratteristiche all`effluente finale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatano, Fabio

    1997-04-01

    The application of polishing ponds as tertiary treatment of municipal wastewater, is quite common in Germany. Nowadays, the wastewater treatment plants in the most industrialized Countries achieve high treatment efficiencies in the biological phase; then, it seems necessary to study - in these plants - the treatment efficiencies and the improvements achievable with polishing ponds inserted as tertiary treatment. This Part One of the paper describes the results of a full scale experimental evaluation of the treatment efficiency of the polishing ponds in a wastewater treatment plant situated in the Ruhr River Region (Germany).

  7. Evaluating the effect of river restoration techniques on reducing the impacts of outfall on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mant, Jenny; Janes, Victoria; Terrell, Robert; Allen, Deonie; Arthur, Scott; Yeakley, Alan; Morse, Jennifer; Holman, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Outfalls represent points of discharge to a river and often contain pollutants from urban runoff, such as heavy metals. Additionally, erosion around the outfall site results in increased sediment generation and the release of associated pollutants. Water quality impacts from heavy metals pose risks to the river ecosystem (e.g. toxicity to aquatic habitats). Restoration techniques including establishment of swales, and the re-vegetation and reinforcement of channel banks aim to decrease outfall flow velocities resulting in deposition of pollutants and removal through plant uptake. Within this study the benefits of river restoration techniques for the removal of contaminants associated with outfalls have been quantified within Johnson Creek, Portland, USA as part of the EPSRC funded Blue-Green Cities project. The project aims to develop new strategies for protecting hydrological and ecological values of urban landscapes. A range of outfalls have been selected which span restored and un-restored channel reaches, a variety of upstream land-uses, and both direct and set-back outfalls. River Habitat Surveys were conducted at each of the sites to assess the level of channel modification within the reach. Sediment samples were taken at the outfall location, upstream, and downstream of outfalls for analysis of metals including Nickel, Lead, Zinc, Copper, Iron and Magnesium. These were used to assess the impact of the level of modification at individual sites, and to compare the influence of direct and set-back outfalls. Concentrations of all metals in the sediments found at outfalls generally increased with the level of modification at the site. Sediment in restored sites had lower metal concentrations both at the outfall and downstream compared to unrestored sites, indicating the benefit of these techniques to facilitate the effective removal of pollutants by trapping of sediment and uptake of contaminants by vegetation. However, the impact of restoration measures varied

  8. Occurrence of the mcr-1 Colistin Resistance Gene and other Clinically Relevant Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Microbial Populations at Different Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Hembach

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs with different population equivalents and catchment areas were screened for the prevalence of the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 mediating resistance against last resort antibiotic polymyxin E. The abundance of the plasmid-associated mcr-1 gene in total microbial populations during water treatment processes was quantitatively analyzed by qPCR analyses. The presence of the colistin resistance gene was documented for all of the influent wastewater samples of the seven WWTPs. In some cases the mcr-1 resistance gene was also detected in effluent samples of the WWTPs after conventional treatment reaching the aquatic environment. In addition to the occurrence of mcr-1 gene, CTX-M-32, blaTEM, CTX-M, tetM, CMY-2, and ermB genes coding for clinically relevant antibiotic resistances were quantified in higher abundances in all WWTPs effluents. In parallel, the abundances of Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli were quantified via qPCR using specific taxonomic gene markers which were detected in all influent and effluent wastewaters in significant densities. Hence, opportunistic pathogens and clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes in wastewaters of the analyzed WWTPs bear a risk of dissemination to the aquatic environment. Since many of the antibiotic resistance gene are associated with mobile genetic elements horizontal gene transfer during wastewater treatment can't be excluded.

  9. Water quality, seasonality, and trajectory of an aquaculture-wastewater plume in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Hozumi, Aya; Hong, Pei-Ying; Kaartvedt, S; Rø stad, Anders; Jones, Burton

    2017-01-01

    As aquaculture activity increases globally, understanding water mass characteristics of the aquaculture-wastewater plume, its nutrients, and its organic matter load and spatial distribution in the coastal recipient, is critical to develop a more sustainable aquaculture operation and to improve coastal management. We examined wastewater (estimated 42-48 m3 s-1) discharged from the largest aquaculture facility in the Red Sea and surveyed the area around the aquaculture outfall to characterize the biogeochemical properties of the wastewater plume and its spatial distribution. In addition, we assessed its associated microbial community structure. The plume was characterized by elevated levels of salinity, density, and turbidity, and traveled along paths determined by the bathymetry to form a dense, 1-3 m thick layer above the seafloor. The effluent was observed at least 3.8 km from the outfall throughout the year, but up to 8 km in early autumn. The total nitrogen concentration in the plume was more than 4 times higher than in surface waters 1.4 km from the outfall. High-throughput sequencing data revealed that bacterial and cyanobacterial communities significantly differed, and flow cytometry results showed that total cell counts were significantly higher at the outfall. Arcobacter, a genus associated with opportunistic pathogenic species (e.g. A. butzleri), was more abundant, while Prochlorococcus sp. was significantly less abundant at the outfall. This dense, bottom-flowing plume may have a detrimental impact on benthic and demersal communities.

  10. Water quality, seasonality, and trajectory of an aquaculture-wastewater plume in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Hozumi, Aya

    2017-12-28

    As aquaculture activity increases globally, understanding water mass characteristics of the aquaculture-wastewater plume, its nutrients, and its organic matter load and spatial distribution in the coastal recipient, is critical to develop a more sustainable aquaculture operation and to improve coastal management. We examined wastewater (estimated 42-48 m3 s-1) discharged from the largest aquaculture facility in the Red Sea and surveyed the area around the aquaculture outfall to characterize the biogeochemical properties of the wastewater plume and its spatial distribution. In addition, we assessed its associated microbial community structure. The plume was characterized by elevated levels of salinity, density, and turbidity, and traveled along paths determined by the bathymetry to form a dense, 1-3 m thick layer above the seafloor. The effluent was observed at least 3.8 km from the outfall throughout the year, but up to 8 km in early autumn. The total nitrogen concentration in the plume was more than 4 times higher than in surface waters 1.4 km from the outfall. High-throughput sequencing data revealed that bacterial and cyanobacterial communities significantly differed, and flow cytometry results showed that total cell counts were significantly higher at the outfall. Arcobacter, a genus associated with opportunistic pathogenic species (e.g. A. butzleri), was more abundant, while Prochlorococcus sp. was significantly less abundant at the outfall. This dense, bottom-flowing plume may have a detrimental impact on benthic and demersal communities.

  11. Monitoring and control of UV and UV-TiO{sub 2} disinfections for municipal wastewater reclamation using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chuang-Hung [Department of Architecture, National United University, Miao-Li 360, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yu, Ruey-Fang, E-mail: rfyu@nuu.edu.tw [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National United University, Miao-Li 360, Taiwan, ROC (China); Cheng, Wen-Po; Liu, Chun-Ru [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National United University, Miao-Li 360, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANN models can effectively control both UV and UV-TiO{sub 2} disinfections for wastewater reuse. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparing to UV disinfection, UV-TiO{sub 2} disinfection can save 13.2-15.7% of UV dosage and capacity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SS decreases disinfection efficiency when UV doses were <10,000 {mu}W s/cm{sup 2}. - Abstract: The use of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as a physical wastewater disinfection has increased in recent years, especially for wastewater reuse. The UV-TiO{sub 2} can generate OH radicals, which is highly effective to inactivate microorganisms in wastewater disinfection. However, both UV and UV-TiO{sub 2} disinfections create multiple physical, chemical, and bio-chemical phenomena that affect their germicidal efficiency. It is difficult to build a precise control model using existing mathematic models. This study applies artificial neural network (ANN) models to control UV and UV-TiO{sub 2} disinfections. Experimental results indicate that the ANN models, which precisely generate relationships among multiple monitored parameters, total coliform counts in influent and effluent, and UV doses, can be used as control models for UV and UV-TiO{sub 2} disinfections. A novel ANN control strategy is applied to control UV and UV-TiO{sub 2} disinfection processes to meet three total coliform count limits for three wastewater reuse purposes. The proposed controlled strategy effectively controls UV and UV-TiO{sub 2} disinfection, resulting in acceptable total coliform counts in effluent for the three wastewater reuse purposes. The required UV doses for UV-TiO{sub 2} disinfection were lower than those for UV disinfection, resulting in energy saving and capacity reduction of 13.2-15.7%.

  12. Energy in the focus. Potentials and challenges of the municipal water management and wastewater management; Energie im Fokus. Potenziale und Herausforderungen der kommunalen Wasser- und Abwasserwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Philipp [EWE Wasser GmbH, Oldenburg (Germany); Blotenberg, Ute [Muenchner Stadtentwaesserung, Muenchen (Germany); Eimer, Bernhard [Berliner Wasserbetriebe AoeR, Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    2012-11-15

    The supply of water and the sewage disposal are energy-intensive tasks of the municipal general interest. The brochure under consideration is the result of the VKU working group ''Energy efficiency in the water management''. Municipal companies exploit the present potentials of energy efficiency by means of a purely technical maintenance continuously and target-oriented. With this, the water suppliers and sewerage providers document their intention to optimise the plant operation continuously and to increase the yield of the internal energy without legal target values. An implementation in superordinated municipal energy concepts may be useful as long as the core task drinking water supply and sewage disposal have priority.

  13. Transfer of pollution from municipal wastewater to bio solids: their chemical characterization; Transferencia de contaminacion desde el agua residual urbana a los lodos de depuracion: caracterizacion de biosolidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Galvin, R.

    2007-07-01

    Production of bio solids depends on the amount of wastewater treated according the expression y=ax''2,5575, being y the log of TM/year of bio solids produced, and X the log then m''3/year of wastewater treated. Quality of bio solids generated by three WWTP does not seem function either of the amount of treated water and neither of the treatment process applied (active sludges or bio discs). The bio solids exhibited values of 20-25% in dehidradation, and those of organic matter, nitrogen and phosp hour being equal to 60-75%, 7% and 4%, respectively. Moreover, the total of metals there present were 11-19 g/kg over dried matter, supposing Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn the 97% of all metals, and being Hg the minority metal. Bio solids can be used in agricultural practices (they agree with the Spanish normative here applied) and they concentrated the organic matter and metals found in wastewater up to 417 and 869 times, respectively. At the same time, we have estimated that each 4841 of wastewater produced 1 kg of bio solid. (Author)

  14. Effect of temperature on the fate of genes encoding tetracycline resistance and the integrase of class 1 integrons within anaerobic and aerobic digesters treating municipal wastewater solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, David L; LaPara, Timothy M

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the ability of anaerobic and aerobic digesters to reduce the quantity of antibiotic resistant bacteria in wastewater solids. Lab-scale digesters were operated at different temperatures (22 °C, 37 °C, 46 °C, and 55 °C) under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions and fed wastewater solids collected from a full-scale treatment facility. Quantitative PCR was used to track five genes encoding tetracycline resistance (tet(A), tet(L), tet(O), tet(W), and tet(X)) and the gene encoding the integrase (intI1) of class 1 integrons. Statistically significant reductions in the quantities of these genes occurred in the anaerobic reactors at 37 °C, 46 °C, and 55 °C, with the removal rates and removal efficiencies increasing as a function of temperature. The aerobic digesters, in contrast, were generally incapable of significantly decreasing gene quantities, although these digesters were operated at much shorter mean hydraulic residence times. This research suggests that high temperature anaerobic digestion of wastewater solids would be a suitable technology for eliminating various antibiotic resistance genes, an emerging pollutant of concern.

  15. Efficiency of SBR Process with a Six Sequence Aerobic-Anaerobic Cycle for Phosphorus and Organic Material Removal from Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiya Shahandeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various chemical, physical and biologic treatment methods are being used to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater. Sequencing batch reactor (SBR is a modified activated sludge process that removes phosphorus and organic material from sanitary wastewater, biologically. Methods: This study was conducted in 2016.The performance of an aerobic-anaerobic SBR pilot device, located at Ahwaz West Wastewater Treatment Plant, Ahwaz, southern Iran in phosphorus and organic material removal was evaluated to determine the effect of the aerobic-anaerobic step time on the efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus removal, the effect of changing the sequence of steps and the effect of time ratio on phosphorus removal efficiency. A reactor of 8 L was used. Influent contained 397 and 10.7 mg/l COD and phosphorus, respectively. The pilot plant started with a 24 h cycle including four cycles of 6 h, as follows: 1- Loading (15 min, 2-Anaerobic (2 h-Aerobic (2 h, 3- Settling (1 h, Idleness (30 min and 5- decant (15 min. Results: After reaching steady conditions (6 months, Removal percentages of phosphorus, BOD5, COD, and TSS in The SBR over a period of 6 months was 79%, 86%, 89% and 83%, respectively. Conclusion: Result of this study can be used for designing and optimum operation of sequencing batch reactors.

  16. Municipal Wastewater Effluents as a Source of Listerial Pathogens in the Aquatic Milieu of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: A Concern of Public Health Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel E.O. Odjadjare

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effluent quality of an urban wastewater treatment facility in South Africa and its impact on the receiving watershed for a period of 12 months. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of potential Listeria pathogens (L. ivanovii and L. innocua and the physicochemical quality of the treated wastewater effluent was assessed, with a view to ascertain the potential health and environmental hazards of the discharged effluent. Total listerial density varied between 2.9 × 100 and 1.2 × 105 cfu/mL; free living Listeria species were more prevalent (84%, compared to Listeria species attached to planktons (59–75%. The treated effluent quality fell short of recommended standards for turbidity, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, nitrite, phosphate and Listeria density; while pH, temperature, total dissolved solids and nitrate contents were compliant with target quality limits after treatment. The Listeria isolates (23 were sensitive to three (15% of the 20 test antibiotics, and showed varying (4.5–91% levels of resistance to 17 antibiotics. Of seven resistance gene markers assayed, only sulII genes were detected in five (22% Listeria strains. The study demonstrates a potential negative impact of the wastewater effluent on the receiving environment and suggests a serious public health implication for those who depend on the receiving watershed for drinking and other purposes.

  17. Environmental assessment for the A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River site (SRS), located near aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include the construction and operation of an artificial wetland to treat effluent from the A-01 outfall located in A Area at SRS. The proposed action would reduce the outfall effluent concentrations in order to meet future outfall limits before these go into effect on October 1, 1999. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500--1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR Part 1021)

  18. Coral reef community, Mokapu Ocean Outfall, Oahu, HI 1998, (NODC Accession 0000173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report provides the results of the first quantitative survey of the coral reef communities in the vicinity of the Mokapu Ocean Outfall in Kailua Bay, Oahu,...

  19. Aqueous mercury treatment technology review for NPDES Outfall 49 Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanning, J.M.

    1993-04-01

    During 1950 to 1955, Building 9201-2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was used to house development facilities for processes that employed elemental mercury to separate lithium isotopes as part of the thermonuclear weapons production operations. As a result of several spills, this building area and several other areas associated with the separation process were contaminated with mercury and became a source of continuing contamination of the Y-12 Plant discharge water to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Mercury concentrations in the outfalls south of Building 9201-2 have ranged up to 80 ppb, with the highest concentrations being experienced at Outfall 49. As a result, this outfall was chosen as a test site for future mercury treatment technology evaluation and development at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. A literature review and vendor survey has identified several promising materials and technologies that may be applicable to mercury removal at the Outfall 49 site. This document summarizes those findings.

  20. Studies on waste field dilution in the vicinity of a marine outfall off Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Sarma, R.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    Results are obtained using dimensional analysis to describe the characteristics of waste field at the marine outfall site off Bombay with a thrust on intermediate scale dispersion processes, which are of relevance to the assessment...

  1. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Outfall Points, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for facilities which generally represent the site of the discharge. NPDES (National...

  2. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Outfall Points, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for facilities which generally represent the site of the discharge. NPDES (National...

  3. Bonneville Second Powerhouse Tailrace and High Flow Outfall: ADCP and drogue release field study; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Chris B; Richmond, Marshall C; Guensch, Greg

    2001-01-01

    The Bonneville Project is one of four US Army Corps of Engineers operated dams along the Lower Columbia River. Each year thousands of smelt pass through this Project on their way to the Pacific Ocean. High flow outfalls, if specifically designed for fish passage, are thought to have as good or better smelt survival rates as spillways. To better understand the hydrodynamic flow field around an operating outfall, the Corps of Engineers commissioned measurement of water velocities in the tailrace of the Second Powerhouse. These data also are necessary for proper calibration and verification of three-dimensional numerical models currently under development at PNNL. Hydrodynamic characterization of the tailrace with and without the outfall operating was accomplished through use of a surface drogue and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). Both the ADCP and drogue were linked to a GPS (global positioning system); locating the data in both space and time. Measurements focused on the area nearest to the high flow outfall, however several ADCP transects and drogue releases were performed away from the outfall to document ambient flow field conditions when the outfall was not operating

  4. Direct evidence of histopathological impacts of wastewater discharge on resident Antarctic fish (Trematomus bernacchii) at Davis Station, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Patricia A; King, Catherine K; Stark, Jonathan S; Mondon, Julie A

    2014-10-15

    During the 2009/2010 summer, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the wastewater discharge at Davis Station, East Antarctica was completed. As part of this, histological alteration of gill and liver tissue in Antarctic Rock-cod (Trematomus bernacchii) from four sites along a spatial gradient from the wastewater outfall were assessed. All fish within 800 m of the outfall exhibited significant histological changes in both tissues. Common pathologies observed in fish closest to the outfall include proliferation of epithelial cells with associated secondary lamellar fusion in the gills and multifocal granulomata with inflammation and necrosis as well as cysts in the liver. Fish from sites >800 m from the outfall also exhibited alterations but to a lesser degree, with prevalence and severity decreasing with increasing distance from the outfall. This study highlights the value of histopathological investigations as part of EIAs and provides the first evidence of sub-lethal alteration associated with wastewater discharge in East Antarctica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceutically active compounds in the largest municipal wastewater treatment plant in Southwest China: mass balance analysis and consumption back-calculated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing; Gao, Xu; Huang, Lei; Gan, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Yi-Xin; Chen, You-Peng; Peng, Xu-Ya; Guo, Jin-Song

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence and fate of twenty-one pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) were investigated in different steps of the largest wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Southwest China. Concentrations of these PhACs were determined in both wastewater and sludge phases by a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that 21 target PhACs were present in wastewater and 18 in sludge. The calculated total mass load of PhACs per capita to the influent, the receiving water and sludge were 4.95mgd(-1)person(-1), 889.94μgd(-1)person(-1) and 78.57μgd(-1)person(-1), respectively. The overall removal efficiency of the individual PhACs ranged from "negative removal" to almost complete removal. Mass balance analysis revealed that biodegradation is believed to be the predominant removal mechanism, and sorption onto sludge was a relevant removal pathway for quinolone antibiotics, azithromycin and simvastatin, accounting for 9.35-26.96% of the initial loadings. However, the sorption of the other selected PhACs was negligible. The overall pharmaceutical consumption in Chongqing, China, was back-calculated based on influent concentration by considering the pharmacokinetics of PhACs in humans. The back-estimated usage was in good agreement with usage of ofloxacin (agreement ratio: 72.5%). However, the back-estimated usage of PhACs requires further verification. Generally, the average influent mass loads and back-calculated annual per capita consumption of the selected antibiotics were comparable to or higher than those reported in developed countries, while the case of other target PhACs was opposite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporal changes in the benthos along a pollution gradient: Discriminating the effects of natural phenomena from sewage-industrial wastewater effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, S.P.; Swartz, R.C.; Cole, F.A.; Shults, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    As pollution from the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) outfalls decreased between 1980 and 1983, the macrobenthic community partially recovered and surficial (0-2 cm deep) sediment contamination and toxicity decreased at 60 m water depth along a pollution gradient from the outfalls. Pollution from the LACSD outfalls continued to decrease but macrobenthic conditions and surficial sediment quality deteriorated 1 km, was unchanged 3 km, and improved 5-15 km from the LACSD outfalls between 1983 and 1986. The net effect of natural phenomena is indicated when ecosystem changes occur in the opposite direction from that expected under prevailing pollution conditions. The authors data suggest that the net effect of natural phenomena (e.g. winter storms, El Nino) on the benthos was greater than LACSD wastewater effects 1 km, about equal to LACSD wastewater effects 3 km, and less than the LACSD wastewater effects 5-15 km from the outfalls at the LACSD 1983-86 mass emission rate. Since natural phenomena may have an effect on the benthos = or > 3 years of LACSD wastewater effects, short-term benthic changes must be interpreted cautiously at the study site

  7. Computer modelling for a new west coast sewage outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, G.

    1975-06-01

    In order to assess the impact on coastal waters of a planned sewage outfall, tracer surveys have been carried out at selected sites. Both dye and radioactive tracers were used. Each survey consisted of a single instantaneous injection of tracer into the sea, followed by monitoring of the dispersion cloud of tracer from a boat. Measurements were later subject to computer analysis to enable coefficients of eddy diffusion and currents to be estimated. The area is subject to tidal influence, and currents suffer reversal in direction with the tides. Currents had previously been extensively evaluated by the use of in situ meters. In order to evaluate sewage fields, a numerical model was developed in which a continuous discharge was treated as a regular series of injections. The quantity of pollutant at a particular location was found by simply summing the amounts contributed by each dispersed injection which occurred during a fixed interval prior to the evaluation time in the tidal cycle. In this way, a dynamic picture of the sewage field for a planned discharge could be obtained. By including frequency of weather conditions, worst and average levels of pollution were estimated. (auth.)

  8. A new strategy to maximize organic matter valorization in municipalities: Combination of urban wastewater with kitchen food waste and its treatment with AnMBR technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moñino, P; Aguado, D; Barat, R; Jiménez, E; Giménez, J B; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of treating the kitchen food waste (FW) jointly with urban wastewater (WW) in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) by anaerobic membrane technology (AnMBR). The experience was carried out in six different periods in an AnMBR pilot-plant for a total of 536days, varying the SRT, HRT and the food waste penetration factor (PF) of food waste disposers. The results showed increased methane production of up to 190% at 70days SRT, 24h HRT and 80% PF, compared with WW treatment only. FW COD and biodegradability were higher than in WW, so that the incorporation of FW into the treatment increases the organic load and the methane production and reduces sludge production (0.142 vs 0.614kgVSSkgremovedCOD -1 , at 70days SRT, 24h HRT and 80% PF, as compared to WW treatment only). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L− 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L− 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L− 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L− 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L− 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L− 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  10. Review of the wastewater situation in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandi, L

    2000-01-01

    Recent estimations of the wastewater production of Morocco amounted to 370 million m3 per year, and this is expected to increase to 900 million m3 by the year 2020. In most cases wastewater is discharged directly into the environment, either to the sea via short outfalls or onto farmland for irrigation or infiltration. Major improvements in the quality of wastewater are needed urgently because of the strong migration of the rural population towards the towns and the very rapid demographic expansion. Studies for Sanitation Master Plans for the main towns are currently in progress and are a first step towards meeting these requirements. Development of a national master plan for liquid sewage is a way of extending this procedure over the whole territory.

  11. Nitrate-N movement in groundwater from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources in the Wakulla Springs springshed, Leon and Wakulla Counties, Florida, 1966-2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. Hal; Katz, Brian G.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2010-01-01

    The City of Tallahassee began a pilot study in 1966 at the Southwest Farm sprayfield to determine whether disposal of treated municipal wastewater using center pivot irrigation techniques to uptake nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate-N) is feasible. Based on the early success of this project, a new, larger Southeast Farm sprayfield was opened in November 1980. However, a recent 2002 study indicated that nitrate-N from these operations may be moving through the Upper Floridan aquifer to Wakulla Springs, thus causing nitrate-N concentrations to increase in the spring water. The increase in nitrate-N combined with the generally clear spring water and abundant sunshine may be encouraging invasive plant species growth. Determining the link between the nitrate-N application at the sprayfields and increased nitrate-N levels is complicated because there are other sources of nitrate-N in the Wakulla Springs springshed, including atmospheric deposition, onsite sewage disposal systems, disposal of biosolids by land spreading, creeks discharging into sinks, domestic fertilizer application, and livestock wastes.

  12. Nutrients removal and bacterial community structure for low C/N municipal wastewater using a modified anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (mA2/O) process in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shihua; Huang, Zhijia; Lu, Shujian; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Xinxi

    2017-11-01

    A modified anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (mA2/O) process based on utilizing the internal carbon source and adding polypropylene carriers was operated for 90d to investigate the nutrients removal performance and bacterial community. This system exhibited a stable and efficient performance, particularly, in removing the NH 4 + -N and total phosphorus. The results of high-throughput sequencing showed that the 13 dominant genera containing Pseudomonas, Comamonas, Arcobacter, Nitrobacteria, Nitrosospira, Nitrosomonas, Bacteroides, Flavobacterium, Rhizobium, Acinetobacter, Zoogloea, Rhodocyclus and Moraxella were shared by five zones, inferring that they were the essential players in treating low C/N (below 5.0) municipal wastewater around 10°C. The average abundance of Nitrosospira (4.21%) was higher than that of Nitrosomonas (2.93%), suggested that Nitrosospira performed well under low temperature for nitrification. Additionally, both known Rhodocyclus-related PAOs and GAOs Competibacter were not detected possibly due to low temperature. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that DO played more important roles in regulating bacterial community composition than HRT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of pollution removal from wastewater by Ceratophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... The treatments included raw municipal wastewater (RMW) and treated ... municipal wastewater (from 1.34 to 0.95 ds/m) and the EC of raw ... wastes are generated daily from highly populated cities ... plants is an integral part of the biogeochemical cycle of .... Waste Management and Treatment, 2nd ed.

  14. Operation, Maintenance and Management of Wastewater Treatment Facilities: A Bibliography of Technical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Dottie

    This is an annotated bibliography of wastewater treatment manuals. Fourteen manuals are abstracted including: (1) A Planned Maintenance Management System for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants; (2) Anaerobic Sludge Digestion, Operations Manual; (3) Emergency Planning for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities; (4) Estimating Laboratory Needs…

  15. Estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    According to the Florida Department of Environ- mental Protection, 5,100 wastewater treatment systems were in operation during 1990. Of this total, 72 percent were domestic wastewater facilities and 28 percent were industrial waste- water facilities. The number of wastewater systems inventoried for 1990 was 1,062 (systems that treated and discharged more than 0.01 Mgal/d or had a plant capacity of greater than 0.04 Mgal/d. Based on this inventory, the estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,638 million gallons per day. Approxi- mately 65 percent of this water was discharged to surface water during 1990 and the remaining 35 percent was discharged to ground water. Discharge to surface water includes effluent outfalls into the Atlantic Ocean (32 percent), while the re- maining (68 percent) is discharged into the Gulf of Mexico, bays, rivers, wetlands, and other surface water bodies throughout Florida. Discharge to ground-water includes treated effluent outfalls to land application systems (reuse systems and spray fields), drain fields, percolation ponds (51 percent), and to injection wells (49 percent). An estimated 322 million gallons per day of the treated domestic and industrial wastewater was reused during 1990. Discharge of treated domestic wastewater from the 994 systems inventoried in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,353 million gallons per day and served an estimated 8.58 million people (66 percent of the population of Florida in 1990). The remaining 34 percent of the popu- lation (4.36 million) are served by the 2,700 smaller domestic wastewater systems or have individual septic tanks. In 1990, there were 1.56 million septic tanks in Florida. Discharge of industrial wastewater was inventoried for 68 systems in 1990 and totaled 285 million gallons per day. Discharge of domestic wastewater in- creased more than 20 percent and industrial wastewater discharge increased 5 percent from 1985 to 1990. (USGS)

  16. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke; Idica, Eileen Y.; McWilliams, James C.; Stolzenbach, Keith D.

    2014-01-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotics Resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas Species in the Final Effluents of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Mordi, Raphael; Igere, Bright; Igeleke, Clara L.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    The final effluents of three (Alice, Dimbaza, and East London) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were evaluated to determine their physicochemical quality and prevalence of multiple antibiotics resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas species, between August 2007 and July 2008. The annual mean total Pseudomonas count (TPC) was 1.20 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), 1.08 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), and 2.66 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), for the Alice, Dimbaza, and East London WWTPs respectively. The effluents were generally compliant with recommended limits for pH, temperature, TDS, DO, nitrite and nitrate; but fell short of target standards for turbidity, COD, and phosphate. The tested isolates were highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%), ofloxacin (100%), clindamycin (90%), erythromycin (90%) and nitrofurantoin (80%); whereas high resistance was observed against the penicillins (90–100%), rifampin (90%), sulphamethoxazole (90%) and the cephems (70%). MAR index ranged between 0.26 and 0.58. The study demonstrated that MAR Pseudomonas species were quite prevalent in the final effluents of WWTPs in South Africa; and this can lead to serious health risk for communities that depend on the effluent-receiving waters for sundry purposes. PMID:22829792

  19. Ecological surveys of the proposed high explosives wastewater treatment facility region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haarmann, T.

    1995-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) proposes to improve its treatment of wastewater from high explosives (HE) research and development activities. The proposed project would focus on a concerted waste minimization effort to greatly reduce the amount of wastewater needing treatment. The result would be a 99% decrease in the HE wastewater volume, from the current level of 6,760,000 L/mo (1,786,000 gal./mo) to 41,200 L/mo (11,000 gal./mo). This reduction would entail closure of HE wastewater outfalls, affecting some wetland areas that depend on HE wastewater effluents. The outfalls also provide drinking water for many wildlife species. Terminating the flow of effluents at outfalls would represent an improvement in water quality in the LANL region but locally could have a negative effect on some wetlands and wildlife species. None of the affected species are protected by any state or federal endangered species laws. The purpose of this report is to briefly discuss the different biological studies that have been done in the region of the project area. This report is written to give biological information and baseline data and the biota of the project area

  20. Ecological surveys of the proposed high explosives wastewater treatment facility region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarmann, T.

    1995-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) proposes to improve its treatment of wastewater from high explosives (HE) research and development activities. The proposed project would focus on a concerted waste minimization effort to greatly reduce the amount of wastewater needing treatment. The result would be a 99% decrease in the HE wastewater volume, from the current level of 6,760,000 L/mo (1,786,000 gal./mo) to 41,200 L/mo (11,000 gal./mo). This reduction would entail closure of HE wastewater outfalls, affecting some wetland areas that depend on HE wastewater effluents. The outfalls also provide drinking water for many wildlife species. Terminating the flow of effluents at outfalls would represent an improvement in water quality in the LANL region but locally could have a negative effect on some wetlands and wildlife species. None of the affected species are protected by any state or federal endangered species laws. The purpose of this report is to briefly discuss the different biological studies that have been done in the region of the project area. This report is written to give biological information and baseline data and the biota of the project area.

  1. How far are we from closing the loop of sewage resource recovery? A real picture of municipal wastewater treatment plants in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Matteo; Foladori, Paola; Guglielmi, Lorena; Bertanza, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a broad-scale survey of resource recovery implementation in Italian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first survey comprising a large number of WWTPs done in Europe: more than 600 plants were investigated, representing a treated load of around 20 million population equivalent (≈25% of the total in Italy). Conventional and innovative options for both material and energy recovery along the water and sludge line were surveyed, in order to i) offer a real and complete picture of the current state of resource recovery in WWTPs, and ii) underline key aspects and potential areas for improvements, as a baseline for future developments in the direction of more sustainable plants. Survey outcomes showed that resource recovery is just in its infancy in sewage treatment: only 40% of plants perform at least one option for material/energy recovery. The action most often implemented is recovery of material from surplus sludge for agricultural purposes and the internal reuse of treated effluent as water for various types of plant maintenance. The production of energy from biogas also occurs frequently but only in large plants. On the other hand, some well-known options, such as external reuse of treated effluent or nutrients recovery, were implemented only in a minority of plants: this is likely due to limitations resulting either from strict regulation or difficulty placing recovered products on the market. In conclusion, an overall explanation of these driving forces within the system is explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aquatic invertebrate sampling at selected outfalls in Operable Unit 1082; Technical areas 9, 11, 16 and 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.

    1995-09-01

    The Ecological Studies Team (EST) of ESH-20 at Los Alamos National Laboratory conducted preliminary aquatic sampling at outfalls within Operable Unit 1082 and nearby natural waterways. Eleven outfalls were sampled a total of eighteen times. Three natural waterways (upper Pajarito Canyon, Starmer`s Gulch, and Bulldog Spring) in the vicinity were sampled a total of six times. At most sites, EST recorded hydrological condition, physico-chemical parameters, wildlife uses, and vegetation. At each outfall with water and each natural waterway, EST collected an aquatic invertebrate sample which was analyzed by taxa composition, Wilhm`s biodiversity index, the community tolerance quotient (CTQ), and density. The physico-chemical parameters at most outfalls and natural waterways fell within the normal range of natural waters in the area. However, the outfalls are characterized by low biodiversity and severely stressed communities composed of a restricted number of taxa. The habitat at the other outfalls could probably support well-developed aquatic communities if sufficient water was available. At present, the hydrology at these outfalls is too slight and/or sporadic to support such a community in the foreseeable future. In contrast to the outfalls, the natural waterways of the area had greater densities of aquatic invertebrates, higher biodiversities, and lower CTQs.

  3. Diffuser Design for Marine Outfalls in Areas with Strong Currents, High waves and Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    The design of marine outfalls is often based on environmental criteria for a minimum initial dilution. Accordingly advanced diffuser arrangement are designed to fulfil these requirements. A large number of examples of malfunction and blocking in sea outfalls have occurred around the world...... as a result of this uncompromising consent to environmental demands. Two examples of unconventional design are given in this paper. Both cases involved risk of blockage of the diffuser section because of wave and current induced sediment transport The paper also discusses how acceptable far field dilution...

  4. Modeling of Sediment Transport and Self-Cleansing in Sea Outfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Ibro, I.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes an on-going project on modeling of sediment transport in outfalls with special focus on the self-cleansing problem occurring due to the daily flow variations seen in outfalls. The two central elements of the project is the development of the numerical model and a matching...... physical model in the laboratory. The numerical model covers both sediment transport over bed accumulations as well as transport over clean bottom. The physical modeling emphasizes on measurement of the non-steady removal and transport of welldefined and limited accumulations along the pipe. The paper...

  5. New Combined Electron-Beam Methods of Wastewater Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.; Kartasheva, L.I.; Podzorova, E.A.; Chulkov, V.N.; Han, B.; Kim, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    The paper is a brief review of the results obtained with the participation of the authors from the study on combined electron-beam methods for purification of some wastewaters. The data on purification of wastewaters containing dyes or hydrogen peroxide and municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow are considered

  6. Pollution from urban development and setback outfalls as a catchment management measure for river water quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Deonie; Haynes, Heather; Arthur, Scott

    2016-04-01

    Urban development causes an increase in fine sediment and heavy metal stormwater pollution. Pollution load estimation theorises that stormwater pollutant load and type are strongly, directly influenced by contributing catchment land use. The research presented investigates the validity of these assumptions using an extensive novel field data set of 53 catchments. This research has investigated the relationships between land use and pollutant concentrations (Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Ca, Ba, Sn, Mn) in urban stormwater outfall sediments. Cartographic and aerial photography data have been utilised to delineate the surface and subsurface contributing catchment land use. A zoned sub-catchment approach to catchment characterisation of stormwater pollutant concentration has been defined and tested. This method effectively describes the specific land use influence on pollutant concentrations at the stormwater outfall, showing strong dependency with road length, brake points, impervious area and open space. Road networks and open space are found to influence land use, and thus stormwater pollution, closer to stormwater outfall/receiving waterbody suggesting storage, treatment, assimilation, loss or dilution of the land use influence further away from stormwater outfall. An empirical description has been proposed with which to predict outfall pollutant contributions to the receiving urban waterbody based on catchment land use information. With the definition and quantification of contributing catchment specific fine sediment and urban heavy metal pollutants, the influence of urban stormwater outfall management on the receiving watercourse has been considered. The locations of stormwater outfalls, and their proximity to the receiving waterway, are known as key water quality and river health influences. Water quality benefits from the implementation of stormwater outfalls set back from the receiving waterway banks have been investigated using the catchment case study. Setback outfalls

  7. Disposal Situation of Sewage Sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) and Assessment of the Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals for Its Land Use in Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Baoling; Zhang, Wuping; Zheng, Haixia; Wu, Chunyan; Zhang, Qiang; Bu, Yushan

    2017-07-21

    Land use of sewage sludge is the primary disposal method in Shanxi, accounting for 42.66% of all. To determine the ecological risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge, contents of seven heavy metals in sewage sludge from 9 municipal waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) that had the highest application for land use were determined. The order of the measured concentrations was: Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb > As > Cd, and all heavy metals contents were within the threshold limit values of the Chinese Control Standards for Pollutants in Sludge from Agriculture Use (GB4284-84). Four indices were used to assess the pollution and the ecological risk of heavy metals. By the mean values of the geoaccumulation index (I geo ), heavy metals were ranked in the following order: Cd > Zn > Cu > As > Cr > Ni > Pb. The values showed that the pollution of Zn in station 3 and Cd in station 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 and 9 were heavily; Cu in station 8 and 9, Zn in station 1, 2, 4, 8 and 9 and Cd in station 5 and 7 were moderately to heavily, and the accumulation of other heavy metals were not significant. The single-factor pollution index (PI) suggested that none of the stations had heavy metals contamination, except for Cu in station 9, Zn in station 3 and 8, and Cd in station 1 and 9, which were at a moderate level. According to the results of the Nemerow's synthetic pollution index (PN), sewage sludge from all stations was safe for land use with respect to heavy metals contamination, except for stations 3, 8 and 9, which were at the warning line. The monomial potential ecological risk coefficient (Eri) revealed that heavy metals ecological risks in most stations were low. However, station 9 had a moderate risk for Cu; station 6 had a moderate risk, stations 5 and 7 had high risk, other stations had very high risk for Cd. According to the results of the potential ecological risk index (RI), station 1, 8 and 9 had high risk; station 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 had a moderate risk, and station 6 had a low risk. The

  8. Disposal Situation of Sewage Sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs and Assessment of the Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals for Its Land Use in Shanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoling Duan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Land use of sewage sludge is the primary disposal method in Shanxi, accounting for 42.66% of all. To determine the ecological risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge, contents of seven heavy metals in sewage sludge from 9 municipal waste water treatment plants (WWTPs that had the highest application for land use were determined. The order of the measured concentrations was: Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb > As > Cd, and all heavy metals contents were within the threshold limit values of the Chinese Control Standards for Pollutants in Sludge from Agriculture Use (GB4284-84. Four indices were used to assess the pollution and the ecological risk of heavy metals. By the mean values of the geoaccumulation index (Igeo, heavy metals were ranked in the following order: Cd > Zn > Cu > As > Cr > Ni > Pb. The values showed that the pollution of Zn in station 3 and Cd in station 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 and 9 were heavily; Cu in station 8 and 9, Zn in station 1, 2, 4, 8 and 9 and Cd in station 5 and 7 were moderately to heavily, and the accumulation of other heavy metals were not significant. The single-factor pollution index (PI suggested that none of the stations had heavy metals contamination, except for Cu in station 9, Zn in station 3 and 8, and Cd in station 1 and 9, which were at a moderate level. According to the results of the Nemerow’s synthetic pollution index (PN, sewage sludge from all stations was safe for land use with respect to heavy metals contamination, except for stations 3, 8 and 9, which were at the warning line. The monomial potential ecological risk coefficient (Eri revealed that heavy metals ecological risks in most stations were low. However, station 9 had a moderate risk for Cu; station 6 had a moderate risk, stations 5 and 7 had high risk, other stations had very high risk for Cd. According to the results of the potential ecological risk index (RI, station 1, 8 and 9 had high risk; station 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 had a moderate risk, and station 6 had a

  9. Metagenomic analysis of bacterial community composition and antibiotic resistance genes in a wastewater treatment plant and its receiving surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Junying; Bu, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Huang, Kailong; He, Xiwei; Ye, Lin; Shan, Zhengjun; Ren, Hongqiang

    2016-10-01

    The presence of pathogenic bacteria and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) may pose big risks to the rivers that receive the effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, we investigated the changes of bacterial community and ARGs along treatment processes of one WWTP, and examined the effects of the effluent discharge on the bacterial community and ARGs in the receiving river. Pyrosequencing was applied to reveal bacterial community composition including potential bacterial pathogen, and Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used for profiling ARGs. The results showed that the WWTP had good removal efficiency on potential pathogenic bacteria (especially Arcobacter butzleri) and ARGs. Moreover, the bacterial communities of downstream and upstream of the river showed no significant difference. However, the increase in the abundance of potential pathogens and ARGs at effluent outfall was observed, indicating that WWTP effluent might contribute to the dissemination of potential pathogenic bacteria and ARGs in the receiving river. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy and nutrient recovery for munipal wastewater treatment : how to design a feasible plant layout?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khiewwijit, R.; Temmink, B.G.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Keesman, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge systems are commonly used for robust and efficient treatment of municipal wastewater. However, these systems cannot achieve their maximum potential to recover valuable resources from wastewater. This study demonstrates a procedure to design a feasible novel configuration for

  11. A multi-level biological approach to evaluate impacts of a major municipal effluent in wild St. Lawrence River yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houde, Magali, E-mail: magali.houde@ec.gc.ca [Centre Saint-Laurent, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, QC H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Giraudo, Maeva, E-mail: maeva.giraudo@ec.gc.ca [Centre Saint-Laurent, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, QC H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Douville, Mélanie, E-mail: melanie.douville@ec.gc.ca [Centre Saint-Laurent, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, QC H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Bougas, Bérénice, E-mail: berenice.bougas.1@ulaval.ca [Institut de biologie intégrative et des systèmes, Université Laval, 1030, avenue de la Médecine, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada); Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Couture, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.couture@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); De Silva, Amila O., E-mail: amila.desilva@ec.gc.ca [Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Spencer, Christine, E-mail: christine.spencer@ec.gc.ca [Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Lair, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.lair@umontreal.ca [Centre québécois sur la santé des animaux sauvages, Université de Montréal, C.P. 5000, St-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 7C6 (Canada); and others

    2014-11-01

    The development of integrated ecotoxicological approaches is of great interest in the investigation of global concerns such as impacts of municipal wastewater effluents on aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a major wastewater municipal effluent on fish using a multi-level biological approach, from gene transcription and enzyme activities to histological changes. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were selected based on their wide distribution, their commercial and recreational importance, and the availability of a customized microarray. Yellow perch were sampled upstream of a major municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and 4 km and 10 km downstream from its point of discharge in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metals/trace elements in whole body homogenates were comparable to those from other industrialized regions of the world. Genomic results indicated that the transcription level of 177 genes was significantly different (p < 0.024) between exposed and non-exposed fish. Among these genes, 38 were found to be differentially transcribed at both downstream sites. Impacted genes were associated with biological processes and molecular functions such as immunity, detoxification, lipid metabolism/energy homeostasis (e.g., peroxisome proliferation), and retinol metabolism suggesting impact of WWTP on these systems. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were more elevated in perch collected at the 4 km site. Biomarkers of lipid metabolism, biosynthetic activity, and aerobic capacities were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in fish residing near the outfall of the effluent. Histological examination of the liver indicated no differences between sites. Correlations between PFAS, PBDE, and metal/trace element tissue concentrations and markers of peroxisomal proliferation, oxidative stress, and retinoid metabolism were found

  12. Acceptability of sewerage outfalls in accordance with the new water laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czychowski, M

    1980-01-01

    In more than one respect, sewerage outfalls must be seen in a different light since the fourth amendment to the water resources policy act was passed on April 24th 1976, which incorporated the sewerage taxation law of September 13th 1976 and its administrative by-laws. A review on the situation to date is given.

  13. Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Joseph R.; Becker, C.; Hensley, S.; Stark, R.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of organic wastewater compounds in surface waters of the United States has been reported in a number of recent studies. In karstic areas, surface contaminants might be transported to groundwater and, ultimately, cave ecosystems, where they might impact resident biota. In this study, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in six caves and two surface-water sites located within the Ozark Plateau of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas in order to detect potential chemical contaminants in these systems. All caves sampled were known to contain populations of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). The surface-water site in Oklahoma was downstream from the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a previous study indicated a hydrologic link between this stream and one of the caves. A total of 83 chemicals were detected in the POCIS and SPMD extracts from the surface-water and cave sites. Of these, 55 chemicals were detected in the caves. Regardless of the sampler used, more compounds were detected in the Oklahoma surface-water site than in the Arkansas site or the caves. The organic wastewater chemicals with the greatest mass measured in the sampler extracts included sterols (cholesterol and ??-sitosterol), plasticizers [diethylhexylphthalate and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate], the herbicide bromacil, and the fragrance indole. Sampler extracts from most of the cave sites did not contain many wastewater contaminants, although extracts from samplers in the Oklahoma surfacewater site and the cave hydrologically linked to it had similar levels of diethylhexyphthalate and common detections of carbamazapine, sulfamethoxazole, benzophenone, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and octophenol monoethoxylate. Further evaluation of this system is warranted due to potential ongoing transport of wastewaterassociated chemicals into the cave. Halogenated organics

  14. Wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  15. Summary report of bioassays for the city of Hollywood water plant membrane reject water as it mixed with WWTP effluent in an ocean outfall environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergen, R.E.; Vinci, P.; Bloetscher, F.

    1999-07-01

    A special bioassay study was conducted to review the impact of the City of Hollywood's Membrane Softening Water Treatment Plant (WRP) reject water as it mixes with the City's Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent. Three sampling periods occurred during 1997. The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxicity of the WTP reject water, pre-chlorinated effluent, and combined effluent, and to demonstrate if the combined effluent was acceptable for ocean discharge on the basis of no potential toxicity. Effluent was acceptable for ocean discharge on the basis of no potential toxicity. Effluent samples were collected at six sampling points; three were in the plant, while the other three were along the outfall pipeline. Definitive, static renewal bioassay tests were performed using Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina as indicators of potential toxicity. The bioassay tests at 30% effluent concentration indicate that there is not potential toxicity for the pre-chlorinated WTP effluent, WTP reject water, dechlorinate combined effluent at the plant, and chlorinated combined effluent at Holland Park, the riser, and the terminus. The results indicate that the WTP reject water (100%) is not toxic to Menidia beryllina but was toxic to Mysidopsis bahia. When combined with the WWRP effluent, the reject water's impact on the potential toxicity of the commingled effluent was insignificant. All of the tests indicate the combined effluents are not toxic to the species tested at the 30% effluent level. Therefore, potential toxicity concerns were not demonstrated for this outfall discharge and did not prevent FDEP from issuing a permit to the City of Hollywood for the disposal of the combined effluent. Furthermore, these results, in combination with the previous results, indicated that individual bioassay testing for the reject water for regulatory compliance is not required.

  16. Water quality monitoring of river Ravi from Mehmood buti bund road to downstream Sanda main outfall, Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, S.; Ayub, M.; Tabinda, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Water quality of River Ravi was monitored at six different sites on a stretch from Mehmood Buti Bund Road to Sanda Main Outfall Lahore for different physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals. Different water quality parameters at different sites ranged as under. Temperature ranged between 19.5 to 22.3 deg. C. pH was between 7.8 to 8.1, and maximum at Mehmood Buti Bund. Dissolved oxygen ranged between 1.71 and 9.52 mg/L, minimum at main out fall and total dissolved solids were between 40 and 213 mg/L, conductivity was between 298 to 1146 Mmhos/Cm, total alkalinity was between 111 and 463 mg/L, minimum at Mehmood Buti Bund and maximum at main out fall, total hardness was between 116 and 287 mg/L minimum at Mehmood Buti Bund and maximum at old bridge, chloride values were between 51.5 to 174 mg/L minimum near Baradari and maximum at Mehmood Buti Bund. Concentrations of Chromium, Cadmium, Nickel and Zinc ranged between 0.01 and 2.78 mg/L, 0.4 and 1.72 mg/L, 0.97 and 1.38 mg/L, 0.09 and 2.89 mg/L respectively. Minimum metal concentrations were at Mehmood Buti Bund while maximum values were at down stream of main out fall indicating more deterioration of water quality of River Ravi down streams main out fall by addition of different types of untreated industrial effluents and domestic wastewater from different operations by inhabitants of Lahore City. (author)

  17. Benthic faunal sampling adjacent to the Barbers Point ocean outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1986-2010 (NODC Accession 9900098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic fauna in the vicinity of the Barbers Point (Honouliuli) ocean outfall were sampled from 1986-2010. To assess the environmental quality, sediment grain size...

  18. Benthic faunal sampling adjacent to the Sand Island ocean outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1986-2010 (NODC Accession 9900088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic fauna in the vicinity of the Sand Island ocean outfall were sampled from 1986-2010. To assess the environmental quality, sediment grain size and sediment...

  19. Results of Toxicity Studies Conducted on Outfall X-08 and Its Contributing Waste Streams, November 1999 - June 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    This interim report summarizes the results of toxicity tests, Toxicity Identification Evaluations, and chemical analyses that have been conducted on SRS's NPDES Outfall X-08 and its contributing waste streams between November 1999 and June 2000

  20. BOD-DO modeling and water quality analysis of a waste water outfall off Kochi, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Das, V.K.; Vethamony, P.

    Water quality scenarios around an offshore outfall off Kochi were simulated using MIKE21 water quality model, assuming a high Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD=50 mgl sup(-1)) effluent discharge. The discharge is introduced into the model through...

  1. CHRONIC ZINC SCREENING WATER EFFECT RATIO FOR THE H-12 OUTFALL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, D.; Looney, B.; Millings, M.

    2009-01-13

    In response to proposed Zn limits for the NPDES outfall H-12, a Zn screening Water Effects Ratio (WER) study was conducted to determine if a full site-specific WER is warranted. Using standard assumptions for relating the lab results to the stream, the screening WER data were consistent with the proposed Zn limit and suggest that a full WER would result in a similar limit. Addition of a humate amendment to the outfall water reduced Zn toxicity, but the toxicity reduction was relatively small and unlikely to impact proposed Zn limits. The screening WER data indicated that the time and expense required to perform a full WER for Zn is not warranted.

  2. Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day before releasing it back to the environment. Treatment plants reduce pollutants in wastewater to a level nature can handle. Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food ...

  3. Temperature optimum of algae living in the outfall of a power plant on Lake Monona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, T.D.; Hoffmann, J.

    1974-01-01

    Temperature optima for photosynthesis were measured for algal populations living in the outfall of a fossil-fuel electric power plant on Lake Monona and were compared with the temperature optima of algae living in a control area in the nearby Yahara River. The temperature of the power plant outfall averaged about 8 0 C higher than that of the Yahara River. In the winter, no differences in species composition between the two study areas could be detected, Cladophora and Ulothrix being the dominant algae. The temperature optima of the populations from the two locations were the same, around 27 0 C, although the habitat temperatures at both locations were considerably lower. The only difference in response to temperature seen between the two populations was that the population at the outfall was able to photosynthesize at higher temperature, still showing high photosynthesis at 35 0 C and detectable photosynthesis at 46 0 C, a temperature at which the population from the Yahara River showed no detectable photosynthesis. In the summer, the dominant algae at the power plant outfall were Stigeoclonium and filamentous blue-green algae (family Oscillatoriaceae), whereas at the Yahara River the algal population was almost exclusively Cladophora. The temperature optima of both summer populations were the same, 31.5 0 C, only slightly higher than the mid-winter optima. Again, the population from the power plant was able to photosynthesize at higher temperature than the control population, showing quite active photosynthesis at 42.5 0 C, a temperature at which the population from the Yahara River was completely inactive. (U.S.)

  4. A participatory modelling approach to define farm-scale effects of reclaimed wastewater irrigation in the Lockyer Valley, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opstal, van J.D.; Huibers, F.P.; Cresswell, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    The Lockyer Valley is an important agricultural area experiencing water insecurity, which causes a decrease in agricultural production. Regional authorities are initiating a wastewater reclamation project conveying treated municipal wastewater to water users, including potentially the Lockyer

  5. Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the

  6. Liquid manna? Treating urban wastewater for local gardening ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... “Before, we had no proper sewage system and people were forced to empty ... Conventional sewage treatment is beyond the means of the municipality, ... Researchers found that some vegetables irrigated with wastewater ...

  7. Innovative wastewater treatment process with reduced energy consumption and regeneration of nutrients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Fitsios, E.; Angelidaki, Irini

    Treatment of municipal wastewater by anaerobic digestion was investigated. A new process is described here, where anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater is the main step for removal of organic matter, resulting in much lower sludge production. Steps for removal nutrients are also included. T...

  8. Technical-economical, agronomical, pedological, hygienic and normative aspects of municipal wastewater sludges; Aspetti tecnico-economici, agronomici, pedologici, igienico-sanitari e normativi dei fanghi di depurazione civile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottavi, C [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Ottaviani, M [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale; Figliolia, A [Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante, Rome (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    This review is intended to give an overview on the technical, economical, agronomical, pedological and hygienic aspects of sludges from treatment plants of civil wastewater, Both Italian and European regulations on the sludge disposal are considered.

  9. Municipal opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousens, D.; Chuddy, B.; Gleeson, A.; Leckie, D.; Wahl, K.; McGarry, D.

    1997-01-01

    The panel discussing market opportunities for municipal electric companies was moderated by Markham Mayor Don Cousens. He expressed himself in favour of deregulation and was optimistic about the benefits it will bring to municipal electric utilities and their customers. Barry Chuddy, General Manager of Business Development for TransAlta Energy discussed the advantages of recent cogeneration and district energy for municipal utilities in Ontario and Quebec, and expressed his support for incentive-based regulation based on a level playing field, competitive generation, and a reasonable charge for stranded assets. Toronto City Councillor Dan Leckie described cogeneration and district energy as a tremendous opportunity to reduce the cost of doing business in the city core through local job creation and by keeping money in the local economy. Karl Wahl, General Manager of Hydro Mississauga expressed optimism that the government will move expeditiously toward competition, choice and lower-cost supply. David McGarry, President of Elecsar Engineering of Sarnia spoke about the significant job creating potential that deregulation will bring to the electrical industry. He cited several examples from Ontario and British Columbia

  10. Enhancing anaerobic treatment of wastewaters containing oleic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwu, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTION

    Lipids are one of the major organic pollutants in municipal and industrial wastewaters. Although domestic sewage typically contains about 40-100 mg/I lipids (Forster, 1992; Quéméneur and Marty, 1994), it is industrial wastewaters that are of greater

  11. Vulnerability of wastewater infrastructure of coastal cities to sea level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the vulnerability of the wastewater collection and disposal infrastructure (i.e. pipelines and manholes, pumping stations and wastewater treatment plants) to sea-level rise in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa. By using geographical information systems (GIS) and a multi-criteria analysis considering ...

  12. Public and Private Management of Wastewater Treatment: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Laurence J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The costs and performance of contract management of municipal wastewater treatment facilities are considered, using information from a nationwide empirical examination of evidence from individual plants, municipalities, and regulatory agencies. The broad issues arising in the evaluation are outlined as the specifics are discussed. (SLD)

  13. Determination of diffusion parameters using radioactive tracers, aiming at a project of a submarine sewage outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.L. dos.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive tracers technology is applied to pollutant dispersion studies in water bodies, for the project of submarine sewage outfall. The models proposed by Hansen/Harremoes and Okubo, respectively, for the prediction of physical dilution rates and determination of turbulent diffusion laws, are discussed. The methodology for field work as well as data processing is described. The results from field investigations carried out in Brazilian litoral waters for submarine release of sewage in Santos - Sao Vicente, Guaruja and Maceio, are presented and commented. (Author) [pt

  14. Radioactive and dye tracer studies for the NWNT sewerage outfall, Hong Kong, and comparison to near-field modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, P.R.; Wilson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A monitoring programme for the North West New Territories (NWNT) sewage outfall, located in the Urmston Road channel in Hong Kong, was completed in 1996. This included three surveys measuring effluent behaviour and oceanographic conditions near the outfall. Radioisotopes gold-198 (γ energy 0.42 MeV, half-life 2.7 days) and tritium (as tritiated water, HTO, β energy 0.018 MeV, half-life 12.3 years) were used to trace the effluent discharging from the outfall during both a wet season and dry season survey. The effluent was also simultaneously tagged with Rhodamine dye which was detected with fluorometers. The gold-198 was generally traced in real time using submersible detectors, while the tritium was measured in the laboratory from sea water samples using liquid scintillation techniques. The Radioisotopes and dye measurement techniques were progressively refined over the surveys and a reliable equipment arrangement and sampling procedure was established

  15. Fate and behavior of ZnO- and Ag-engineered nanoparticles and a bacterial viability assessment in a simulated wastewater treatment plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fate and behaviour assessment of ZnO- and Ag-engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) and bacterial viability in a simulated wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) fed with municipal wastewater was investigated through determination of ENPs stability...

  16. Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica from 1991 to 1993: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    Analyses of ocean currents in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica, are relevant to the transport and dispersal of wastewater from the McMurdo Station sewage outfall pipe. Observations of ocean currents during the initial phases of this study have been presented by Howington and McFeters. These studies, using coliform bacterial counts as an indicator of dispersion of the wastewater plume and current meters to measure flow patterns, indicated that dispersal of the plume by local currents does not effectively remove the plume from the vicinity of McMurdo Sound, under the present outfall pipe location. Moreover, these studies suggest that, although the flow pattern is generally consistent with transport of the plume away from McMurdo Station, episodes of current reversal are sufficient to transport the wastewater plume along the shore toward the southeast, eventually overlapping the seawater intake area near the McMurdo jetty. Several concerns included (a) impacts of wastewater inputs to nearshore benthic and pelagic habitats adjacent to McMurdo Station, (b) effects of wastewater input to the McMurdo Station fresh water intake source, and (c) reduction in human impacts on the McMurdo Sound ecosystem. These concerns motivated studies to characterize nearshore currents more extensively in relation to dispersal of the wastewater plume. This report discusses analysis results of current observations from November 1992 to November 1993

  17. Tracking spatial distribution of human-derived wastewater from Davis Station, East Antarctica, using δ15N and δ13C stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, Patricia A.; King, Catherine K.; Mondon, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Elevated δ15N and δ13C observed in fish tissue up to 4 km from the Davis Station wastewater outfall. • δ15N decreased stepwise with concentrations decreasing with distance from the discharge point. • The trend observed for δ13C almost mirrored δ15N. • Current wastewater treatment practices are insufficient to avoid uptake of contaminants in fish. - Abstract: Stable isotope ratios, δ15N and δ13C were effectively used to determine the geographical dispersion of human derived sewage from Davis Station, East Antarctica, using Antarctic rock cod (Trematomus bernacchii). Fish within 0–4 km downstream of the outfall exhibited higher δ15N and δ13C values relative to reference sites. Nitrogen in particular showed a stepped decrease in δ15N with increasing distance from the discharge point by 1–2‰. Stable isotopes were better able to detect the extent of wastewater contamination than other techniques including faecal coliform and sterol measures. Uptake and assimilation of δ15N and δ13C up to 4 km from the outfall adds to growing evidence indicating the current level of wastewater treatment at Davis Station is not sufficient to avoid impact to the surrounding environment. Isotopic assimilation in T. bernacchii is a viable biomarker for investigation of initial sewage exposure and longer term monitoring in the future

  18. Synthetic organic chemicals in earthworms from agriculture soil amended with municipal biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Biosolids resulting from municipal wastewater treatment are known to contain residues of pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) and other synthetic organic compounds. Many of these are contaminants of emerging concern for their potential endocrine disruption of fish and wildli...

  19. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Detected at Four U.S. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Rachel E. Rosenberg; Micallef, Shirley A.; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Davis, Johnnie A.; He, Xin; George, Ashish; Kleinfelter, Lara M.; Schreiber, Nicole A.; Mukherjee, Sampa; Sapkota, Amir; Joseph, Sam W.; Sapkota, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections is increasing in the United States, and it is possible that municipal wastewater could be a reservoir of this microorganism. To date, no U.S. studies have evaluated the occurrence of MRSA in wastewater. Objective: We examined the occurrence of MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) at U.S. wastewater treatment plants. Methods: We collected wastewater samples from two Mid...

  20. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  1. In-situ Kd values and geochemical behavior for inorganic and organic constituents of concern at the TNX Outfall Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2000-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to provide site-specific Kd values for constituents of concern at the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit. These Kd values can be used to calculate contaminant migration within the operable unit and are, at this time considered to be the most defensible values

  2. Results of toxicity tests and chemical analyses conducted on sediments collected from the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit, July 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    In order to provide unit specific toxicity data that will be used to address critical uncertainty in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit (TNXOD OU), sediments were collected from eight locations in the Inner Swamp portion of the operable unit and two unit specific background locations. These samples were analyzed for total mercury, total uranium, and sediment toxicity

  3. Wastewater reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Milan R. Radosavljević; Vanja M. Šušteršič

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food s...

  4. Seawater quality and microbial communities at a desalination plant marine outfall. A field study at the Israeli Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drami, Dror; Yacobi, Yosef Z; Stambler, Noga; Kress, Nurit

    2011-11-01

    Global desalination quadrupled in the last 15 years and the relative importance of seawater desalination by reverse osmosis (SWRO) increased as well. While the technological aspects of SWRO plants are extensively described, studies on the environmental impact of brine discharge are lacking, in particular in situ marine environmental studies. The Ashqelon SWRO plant (333,000 m(3) d(-1) freshwater) discharges brine and backwash of the pre-treatment filters (containing ferric hydroxide coagulant) at the seashore, next to the cooling waters of a power plant. At the time of this study brine and cooling waters were discharged continuously and the backwash discharge was pulsed, with a frequency dependent on water quality at the intake. The effects of the discharges on water quality and neritic microbial community were identified, quantified and attributed to the different discharges. The mixed brine-cooling waters discharge increased salinity and temperature at the outfall, were positively buoyant, and dispersed at the surface up to 1340 m south of the outfall. Nutrient concentrations were higher at the outfall while phytoplankton densities were lower. Chlorophyll-a and picophytoplankton cell numbers were negatively correlated with salinity, but more significantly with temperature probably as a result of thermal pollution. The discharge of the pulsed backwash increased turbidity, suspended particulate matter and particulate iron and decreased phytoplankton growth efficiency at the outfall, effects that declined with distance from the outfall. The discharges clearly reduced primary production but we could not attribute the effect to a specific component of the discharge. Bacterial production was also affected but differently in the three surveys. The combined and possible synergistic effects of SWRO desalination along the Israeli shoreline should be taken into account when the three existing plants and additional ones are expected to produce 2 Mm(3) d(-1) freshwater by

  5. Measurement and evaluation of thermal effects in the intermixing zone at low power nuclear station outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, P.R.; Gurg, R.P.; Bhat, I.S.; Vyas, P.V.

    1978-01-01

    Observations and evaluations of thermal effects in the lake near the RAPS-1 REACTOR, are reported. The coolant waters are drawn from the lake at a depth of 8-10 m below the surface and discharged through an open channel with a temperature rise of 10deg C. Temperature profiles and spread in the velocity of the outfall are mapped using in situ monitors. These studies show evidence of thermal stratification in the period following winter and the existence of a well established thermocline. Parasitism and eutrophication are also observed. The thermal effects are found to be accentuated by photosynthetic effects. Proposal to utilise waste heat for algal culture in the Kalpakkam nuclear site in South and mariculture (lobsters, prawns) in the heated effluents canal at the Tarapur Atomic Power Station near Bombay are discussed. (K.B.)

  6. Development in cooling water intake and outfall systems for atomic or steam power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Akira

    1987-01-01

    The condenser cooling water channel, in its functional aspects, is an important structure for securing a stable supply of cooling water. In its design it is necessary to give a thorough-going study to a reduction of ranges affected by discharged warm water and minimizing the effect of discharged water on navigating ships, and in its functional aspects as a structure for power generation, avoiding the recirculation of discharged warm water as well as to maintaining the operation of power stations in case of abnormalities (concentration of dirts owing to typhoons and floods, outbreak of a large amount of jellyfishes, etc.), and all these aspects must be reflected in the design of cooling water channel systems. In this paper, the present situation relating to the design of cooling water intake and outfall systems in Japan is discussed. (author). 10 figs

  7. Influence of a Brazilian sewage outfall on the toxicity and contamination of adjacent sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abessa, D.M.S.; Carr, R.S.; Rachid, B.R.F.; Sousa, E.C.P.M.; Hortelani, M.A.; Sarkis, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The submarine sewage outfall of Santos (SSOS) is situated in the Santos Bay (São Paulo, Brazil) and is potentially a significant source of contaminants to the adjacent marine ecosystem. The present study aimed to assess the influence of SSOS on the sediment toxicity and contamination at Santos Bay. At the disposal site, sediments tended to be finer, organically richer and exhibited higher levels of surfactants and metals, sometimes exceeding the “Threshold Effect Level” values. The SSOS influence was more evident toward the East, where the sediments exhibited higher levels of TOC, total S and metals during the summer 2000 sampling campaign. Sediment toxicity to amphipods was consistently detected in four of the five stations studied. Amphipod survival tended to correlate negatively to Hg, total N and % mud. This work provides evidence that the SSOS discharge affects the quality of sediments from Santos Bay, and that control procedures are warranted.

  8. Proof-of-Concept of the Phytoimmobilization Technology for TNX Outfall Delta: Final Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2001-01-01

    A series of proof-of-principle studies was initiated to evaluate the soil remediation technology, phytoimmobilization, for application at the TNX Outfall Delta (TNX OD) operable unit. Phytoimmobilization involves two steps. The first step is entitled phytoextraction, and it takes place mostly during the spring and summer. During this step the plants extract contaminants from the sediment into the roots and then translocate the contaminants to the aboveground plant parts. The second step is referred to as sequestration and it takes place largely during the autumn and winter when annual plants senesce or deciduous trees drop their leaves. This step involves the immobilization of the contaminant once it leaches form the fallen leaves into a ''geomat,'' a geotextile embedded with mineral sequestering agents. This final report describes the results to date, including those reported in the status report (Kaplan et al. 2000a), those completed since the report was issued, and the preliminary calculations of the phytoimmobilization effectiveness

  9. Intakes and outfalls for seawater reverse-osmosis desalination facilities innovations and environmental impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Burton; Maliva, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The book assembles the latest research on new design techniques in water supplies using desalinated seawater. The authors examine the diverse issues related to the intakes and outfalls of these facilities. They clarify how and why these key components of the facilities impact the cost of operation and subsequently the cost of water supplied to the consumers. The book consists of contributed articles from a number of experts in the field who presented their findings at the “Desalination Intakes and Outfalls” workshop held at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia in October, 2013. The book integrates coverage relevant to a wide variety of researchers and professionals in the general fields of environmental engineering and sustainable development.

  10. Evaluation of physicochemical parameters influencing bulking episodes in a municipal WWTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, J.; Angosto, J. M.; Serrano-Aniorte, J.; Lopez-Castellanos, J.; Puerta, J.

    2009-01-01

    A study of physicochemical parameters in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was undertaken over 12-month period, to consider the presence of bulking phenomena by means of statistical and logistic regression analyses. the WWTP is situated in Cartagena, Southeast of Spain, with domestic and industrial wastewater contributions, and a mean flow rate of 27,000 m 3 /day. (Author) 28 refs

  11. Recovery of ammonia and production of high-grade phosphates from digester effluents (municipal and livestock)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus (P) recovery of anaerobically digested swine wastewater and side-stream municipal wastewater via magnesium precipitation was enhanced by combining it with the recovery of ammonia (NH3) through gas-permeable membranes and low-rate aeration. The low-rate aeration stripped the natural carbon...

  12. Woody biomass production in a spray irrigation wastewater treatment facility in North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, D.; Lea, R.; Milosh, R.

    1993-01-01

    Application of municipal wastewater to deciduous tree plantations offers a viable opportunity to dispose of nutrients and pollutants, while protecting water quality. Production of woody biomass for energy or pulp mill furnish, using wastewater if feasible and markets exist in may parts of the world for this biomass. Plantations of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), have been established in Edenton, North Carolina for application of municipal wastewater. Research describing the dry weight biomass following the fifth year of seedling growth is presented along with future estimates for seedling and coppice yields. Ongoing and future work for estimating nutrient assimilation and wastewater renovation are described and discussed

  13. Glider and remote sensing observations of the upper ocean response to an extended shallow coastal diversion of wastewater effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Seegers, Bridget N.; Teel, Elizabeth N.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Caron, David A.; Jones, Burton

    2016-01-01

    The Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD) diverted wastewater discharge (5.3 × 108 l d−1) from its primary deep (56 m) outfall 8 km offshore, to a secondary shallower (16 m) outfall 1.6 km offshore for a period of three weeks. It was anticipated that the low salinity and density of the effluent would cause it to rise to the surface with limited dilution, elevating nutrient concentrations in near-surface waters and stimulating phytoplankton blooms in the region. Three Teledyne Webb Slocum gliders and a Liquid Robotics surface wave glider were deployed on transects near the outfalls to acquire high spatial and temporal coverage of physical and chemical parameters before, during, and after the wastewater diversion. Combined autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and MODIS-Aqua satellite ocean color data indicated that phytoplankton biomass increased in the upper water column in response to the diversion, but that the magnitude of the response was spatially patchy and significantly less than expected. Little evidence of the plume or its effects was detectable 72 h following the diversion. The effluent plume exhibited high rates of dilution and mixed throughout the upper 20 m and occasionally throughout the upper 40 m during the diversion. Rapid plume advection and dilution appeared to contribute to the muted impact of the nutrient-rich effluent on the phytoplankton community in this coastal ecosystem.

  14. Glider and remote sensing observations of the upper ocean response to an extended shallow coastal diversion of wastewater effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Seegers, Bridget N.

    2016-06-21

    The Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD) diverted wastewater discharge (5.3 × 108 l d−1) from its primary deep (56 m) outfall 8 km offshore, to a secondary shallower (16 m) outfall 1.6 km offshore for a period of three weeks. It was anticipated that the low salinity and density of the effluent would cause it to rise to the surface with limited dilution, elevating nutrient concentrations in near-surface waters and stimulating phytoplankton blooms in the region. Three Teledyne Webb Slocum gliders and a Liquid Robotics surface wave glider were deployed on transects near the outfalls to acquire high spatial and temporal coverage of physical and chemical parameters before, during, and after the wastewater diversion. Combined autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and MODIS-Aqua satellite ocean color data indicated that phytoplankton biomass increased in the upper water column in response to the diversion, but that the magnitude of the response was spatially patchy and significantly less than expected. Little evidence of the plume or its effects was detectable 72 h following the diversion. The effluent plume exhibited high rates of dilution and mixed throughout the upper 20 m and occasionally throughout the upper 40 m during the diversion. Rapid plume advection and dilution appeared to contribute to the muted impact of the nutrient-rich effluent on the phytoplankton community in this coastal ecosystem.

  15. Glider and remote sensing observations of the upper ocean response to an extended shallow coastal diversion of wastewater effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegers, Bridget N.; Teel, Elizabeth N.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Caron, David A.; Jones, Burton H.

    2017-02-01

    The Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD) diverted wastewater discharge (5.3 × 108 l d-1) from its primary deep (56 m) outfall 8 km offshore, to a secondary shallower (16 m) outfall 1.6 km offshore for a period of three weeks. It was anticipated that the low salinity and density of the effluent would cause it to rise to the surface with limited dilution, elevating nutrient concentrations in near-surface waters and stimulating phytoplankton blooms in the region. Three Teledyne Webb Slocum gliders and a Liquid Robotics surface wave glider were deployed on transects near the outfalls to acquire high spatial and temporal coverage of physical and chemical parameters before, during, and after the wastewater diversion. Combined autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and MODIS-Aqua satellite ocean color data indicated that phytoplankton biomass increased in the upper water column in response to the diversion, but that the magnitude of the response was spatially patchy and significantly less than expected. Little evidence of the plume or its effects was detectable 72 h following the diversion. The effluent plume exhibited high rates of dilution and mixed throughout the upper 20 m and occasionally throughout the upper 40 m during the diversion. Rapid plume advection and dilution appeared to contribute to the muted impact of the nutrient-rich effluent on the phytoplankton community in this coastal ecosystem.

  16. Performance of municipal waste stabilization ponds in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragush, Colin M.; Schmidt, Jordan J.; Krkosek, Wendy H.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of small remote communities in the Canadian arctic territory of Nunavut utilize waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) for municipal wastewater treatment because of their relatively low capital and operational costs, and minimal complexity. New national effluent quality regulations have be...

  17. Keynote address: Federal overview of municipal sludge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    The proper disposal of sewage sludge is becoming an increasing problem on solid waste management systems throughout the country. Currently 18,000 municipal wastewater treatment plants are generating about 5 million tons of sludge a year. This is expected to double in the next 8 to 10 years. The environmental aspects of sludge disposal are discussed

  18. Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors For Cost-Effective Municipal Water Reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgün, H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology has been increasingly researched for municipal wastewater treatment as a means to produce nutrient-rich, solids free effluents with low levels of pathogens, while occupying a small footprint. An AnMBR can be used not only for on-site

  19. Environmental impact assessment of disposal of liquid waste through marine outfall - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.

    Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of wastewaters and nature of anthropogenic pollutants entering coastal waters are discussed. Site spcific information and field data acquisition through planned studies for selection of location...

  20. Barbers Point Sewage Outfall Fish Census from Annual Surveys 1991-2010 (NODC Accession 0073346)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Honouliuli Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) located in Ewa, Oahu, Hawaii, near Barbers Point (Kalaeloa) has been in operation since 1982. It releases...

  1. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis of Bath Wastewater Treatment Plant Upgrades - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many municipalities are facing the call to increase nutrient removal performance of their wastewater treatment plants in order to limit the impacts of eutrophication on the receiving waterbodies. The associated upgrades often demand investment in new technologies and increases in...

  2. Principles of Design And Operations Of Wastewater Treatment Pond Systems For Plant Operators, Engineers, And Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater pond systems provide reliable, low cost, and relatively low maintenance treatment for municipal and industrial discharges. However, they do have certain design, operations, and maintenance requirements. While the basic models have not changed in the 30-odd years sinc...

  3. Municipal sludge disposal economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J L [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA; Bomberger, Jr, D C; Lewis, F M

    1977-10-01

    Costs for disposal of sludges from a municipal wastewater treatment plant normally represents greater than or equal to 25% of the total plant operating cost. The following 5 sludge handling options are considered: chemical conditioning followed by vacuum filtration, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration or filter press prior to incineration; thermal conditioning, vacuum filtraton, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration, with ash to landfill; aerobic or anaerobic digestion, followed by chemical conditioning, vacuum filtration, and disposal on land; and chemical conditioning, followed by a filter press, flash dryer, and sale as fertilizer. The 1st 2 options result in the ultimate disposal of small amounts of ash in a landfill; the digestion options require a significant landfill; the fertilizer option requires a successful marketing and sales effort. To compare the economies of scale for the options, analyses were performed for 3 plant capacities - 10, 100, and 500 mgd; as plant size increases, the economies of scale for incineration system are quite favorable. The anaerobic digestion system has a poorer capital cost-scaling factor. The incinerator options which start with chemical conditioning consume much less electrical power at all treatment plant sizes; incinerator after thermal conditioning uses more electricity but less fuel. Digestion requires no direct external fossil fuel input. The relative use of fuel is constant at all plant sizes for other options. The incinerator options can produce a significant amount of steam which may be used. The anaerobic digestion process can be a significant net producer of fuel gas.

  4. Wastewater reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan R. Radosavljević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food safety and the influence of the countries which import food are influencing policy makers and agriculturists to improve the standards of wastewater reuse in agriculture. The environmental awareness of consumers has been putting pressure on the producers (industries to opt for environmentally sound technologies including those which conserve water and reduce the level of pollution. It may be observed that we have to move forwards to implement strategies and plans for wastewater reuse. However, their success and sustainability will depend on political will, public awareness and active support from national and international agencies to create favorable    environment for the promotion of environmentally sustainable technologies. Wastewater treatment has a long history, especially in agriculture, but also in industry and households. Poor quality of wastewater can pose a significant risk to the health of farmers and users of agricultural products. The World Health Organization (WHO is working on a project for the reuse of wastewater in agriculture. To reduce effects of human activities to the minimum, it is necessary to provide such technical and technological solutions that would on the one hand ensure complying with  the existing regulations and legislation, and on the other hand provide economically viable systems as seen through investments and operating costs. The use of wastewater The practice of using wastewater varies from country to country. Its

  5. A review on wastewater disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in regulations and development of new technologies have affected the selection of alternative for treated wastewater disinfection. Disinfection is the last barrier of wastewater reclamation process to protect ecosystem safety and human health. Driving forces include water scarcity and drinking water supply, irrigation, rapid industrialization, using reclaimed water, source protection, overpopulation, and environmental protection. The safe operation of water reuse depends on effluent disinfection. Understanding the differences in inactivation mechanisms is critical to identify rate-limiting steps involved in the inactivation process as well as to develop more effective disinfection strategies. Disinfection byproducts discharged from wastewater treatment plants may impair aquatic ecosystems and downstream drinking-water quality. Numerous inorganic and organic micropollutants can undergo reactions with disinfectants. Therefore, to mitigate the adverse effects and also to enhance that efficiency, the use of alternative oxidation/disinfection systems should be evaluated as possible alternative to chlorine. This review gives a summary of the traditional, innovative, and combined disinfection alternatives and also disinfection byproducts for effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants.