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Sample records for municipal abattoir southern

  1. Bovine Hydatidosis in Ambo Municipality Abattoir, West Shoa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study on bovine hydatidosis was conducted in Ambo municipality abattoir from November 2007 to March 2008 with the aim of investigating the prevalence, intensity, fertility and economic losses in cattle slaughtered for human consumption. Stray dogs killed with strychnine baited meat piece were also ...

  2. Bovine Hydatidosis in Ambo Municipality Abattoir, West Shoa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Average annual slaughter rate of cattle in Ambo municipality abattoir was es- timated based on .... the exchange rate of ETB 8.8 to USD. Discussion. Hydatidosis is .... The fertility of hydatid cyst in food animals in Greece. Helminth zoonosis ...

  3. Economic Significance of Fasciolosis at Mettu Municipal Abattoir, Southwest Ethiopia

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    Manyazewal Anberber Zeleke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and economic significance of fasciolosis in cattle slaughtered at Mettu town municipal abattoir, Southwest Ethiopia. A total of 663 animals were randomly selected from the indigenous zebu cattle brought to the abattoir during October 2008-May 2009. Retrospective assessment, Ante-mortem examinations, body condition scoring and Post-mortem inspections were performed to collect data. Out of the total examined animals 47.1% (312/663 were found positive for Fasciola parasites. Two species of Fasciola: Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were detected with prevalences of 26.9% (178/663 and 11.8% (78/663, respectively, mixed infections by both species were 4.8% (32/663 and immature (unidentified flukes were 3.5% (24/663 of the total infections. The difference in prevalence of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica was found to be significant (P=0.000. Prevalence of the disease was also determined in relation to body condition score of the sample animals whereby 319 and 344 animals were categorized under Good and Medium body condition score sub-groups, respectively. It was found that 41.7% (133/319 of the Good score animals and 52% (179/344 of the medium score animals were positive for Fasciola parasites, and the difference in prevalence between the two sub-groups was statistically significant (P=0.008. The annual direct economic loss due to liver condemnation and the annual indirect economic loss due to carcass weight reduction were estimated to be 4,757.00 USD (47,570.00 birr and 46,615.00 USD (466,150.00 birr, respectively; hence, the total economic loss due to fasciolosis in cattle slaughtered at Mettu municipal abattoir was estimated to be 51,372.00 USD (513,720.00 birr. In conclusion, bovine fasciolosis due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica was observed to be an economically important disease in Mettu and its surrounding districts. Further studies on small ruminant species and

  4. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among cattle slaughtered in three municipal abattoirs of Gombe state, Northeastern Nigeria

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    Saleh Mohammed Jajere

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis among cattle slaughtered at three municipal abattoirs of Gombe State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 blood samples collected from slaughtered cattle of different breeds (Sokoto Gudali - 50, White Fulani - 102, Red bororo – 34, and Crossbreeds - 14, sex (males - 19 and females - 181, and from different locations (Billiri - 30, Yamaltu Deba – 50, and Gombe - 120 were screened for brucellosis using rose bengal plate test (RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT, and microtiter agglutination test (MAT. Results: Of the 200 serum samples analyzed, 7 (3.5%, 10 (5.0% and 18 (9.0% were positive by RBPT, SAT and MAT, respectively. The results showed no statistically significant association between sex and seropositivity to bovine brucellosis. However, seropositivity of bovine brucellosis was higher in females than in males. Similarly, no statistically significant association was observed between breed and occurrence of bovine brucellosis. Moreover, the prevalence of brucellosis was higher in Sokoto Gudali as compared with the other breeds. Based on the study locations, higher seroprevalence was observed in animals screened from Billiri as compared with those from other locations (p<0.05. Conclusion: The presence of Brucella abortus antigen in the sera of slaughtered cattle in Gombe state poses a significant public health risk. Therefore, it is important to carry out further epidemiological studies on fulani herdsmen and cattle herds in the study area, in order to explore the risk factors associated with the occurrence and perpetuation of brucellosis among cattle herds, ascertain the prevalence and status of the disease among both farms and nomadic herds.

  5. Prevalence of fascioliasis (liver flukes) infection in cattle and buffaloes slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshraway, Nagwa T.; Mahmoud, Wafaa G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of fascioliasis infections in cattle and buffaloes, slaughtered in El-Kharga city slaughterhouse at New Valley Governorate. Materials and Methods: The slaughtered animals were daily inspected for liver fascioliasis allover 2016. Macroscopic fascioliasis was detected from a total of 2251 basing on animals specie, sex, season, and Fasciola spp. in addition to microscopic examination of blood, fecal samples which collected from female cattle and buffalo (50 each). Results: The total prevalence rate of Fasciola sp. infection occurs in the study area were about 695/2251 (30.88%) from the total cattle and bovine slaughtered carcasses. The incidence of fascioliasis was 4/12 (33.33%) and 678/2200 (30.82%) for females and males cattle carcasses, respectively, while the infection rate in buffalo carcasses was 1/4 (25.00%) and 12/35 (34.29%) for females and males buffalo carcasses, respectively. Conclusion: The moderate fasciolosis infection in cattle and buffaloes slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt. The highest fascioliasis infection was recorded during winter and autumn. It constitutes a major cause of economic losses at El-Kharga abattoir and threat public health. PMID:28919682

  6. Prevalence and Antibiogram Assessment of Staphylococcus aureus in Beef at Municipal Abattoir and Butcher Shops in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, Feben; Pal, Mahendra; Girmay, Gebrerufael

    2018-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2013 to April 2014 to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from beef of Addis Ababa Abattoir and butcher shops in Addis Ababa. Seven hundred sixty-eight swab samples were taken from the abattoir and butcher carcasses using a systematic random sampling. One hundred twenty swab samples were also taken from hooks, cutting tables, and knives from the abattoir. Staphylococcus aureus positive isolates were taken for antibiotic susceptibility test. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the abattoir and butcher workers to assess the hygienic practice and possible risk factors regarding the contamination of meat. The prevalence of S. aureus in the abattoir, butcher, cutting table, hook, and knife was 9.4%, 19.8%, 15%, 15%, and 22.5%, respectively. The prevalence of S. aureus in the knife and butcher was found to be 2.8 (OR = 2.8, CI = 1.2-6.4) and 2.4 (OR = 2.4, CI = 1.6-3.6) times that of the abattoir results ( p < 0.01). The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was also conducted on 133 isolates of S. aureus using the disc diffusion susceptibility method. Bacitracin, neomycin, and methicillin were found to be 100% resistant to S. aureus . To avoid the presence of pathogenic Staphylococcus isolates, preventive measures using good hygienic practices during slaughtering and handling of the beef carcasses are recommended.

  7. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njisane, Yonela Z; Muchenje, Voster

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality.

  8. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonela Z. Njisane

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*, pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s. Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04% values than castrates (35.1±0.95%. Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N. There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality.

  9. Cyst Viability, Organ Distribution and Financial Losses due to Hydatidosis in Cattle Slaughtered At Dessie Municipal Abattoir, North-eastern Ethiopia

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    A Melaku

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011 to assess the prevalence, cyst viability, organ distribution and financial losses of bovine hydatidosis in cattle slaughtered at Dessie municipal abattoir. Postmortem inspection, cyst characterization and financial loss estimations were conducted. Out of 610 inspected cattle, 83 (13.61% were harbouring a single or multiple hydatid cysts. Significantly (P<0.05 higher infection rate was observed in poor (22.89% than medium (12.99% and good (10.40% body condition scorings but significant variation (P>0.05 was not observed in different age groups. Anatomically, the cysts were distributed 68.67% in the lung, 14.46% in the liver, 6.02% in the kidneys, 1.2% in the heart and 9.64% were found both in the lung and liver. Of the total examined cysts (195 for fertility and viability, 27 (13.85% were fertile, 44 (22.56% were calcified, 124 (63.59% were sterile. The rate of cyst calcification was higher in the liver (78.14% than other organs whilst the fertility percentage was higher in the lung (14.65%. Of the total 27 fertile cysts subjected to viability test, 13 (6.67% were viable. Size assessment made on 195 cysts indicated that 153 (78.46% were small, 41 (21.03% were medium and one (0.51% were large sized cysts. In the present study, the total annual economic loss from organ condemnation and carcass weight loss due to hydatidosis was estimated as 681,333.87 Ethiopian birr which is about 39157.12 United States dollar per annum based on the local market prices in the study period. The result of this study revealed that hydatidosis is an economically important disease of cattle which necessitates designing of appropriate strategies for its control. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 213-218

  10. Geographical and Temporal Variations in Female Breast Cancer Mortality in the Municipalities of Andalusia (Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña-Riola, Ricardo; Montaño-Remacha, Carmen; Mayoral-Cortés, José María

    2016-01-01

    The last published figures have shown geographical variations in mortality with respect to female breast cancer in European countries. However, national health policies need a dynamic image of the geographical variations within the country. The aim of this paper was to describe the spatial distribution of age-specific mortality rates from female breast cancer in the municipalities of Andalusia (southern Spain) and to analyze its evolution over time from 1981 to 2012. An ecological study was devised. Two spatio-temporal hierarchical Bayesian models were estimated. One of these was used to estimate the age-specific mortality rate for each municipality, together with its time trends, and the other was used to estimate the age-specific rate ratio compared with Spain as a whole. The results showed that 98% of the municipalities exhibited a decreasing or a flat mortality trend for all the age groups. In 2012, the geographical variability of the age-specific mortality rates was small, especially for population groups below 65. In addition, more than 96.6% of the municipalities showed an age-specific mortality rate similar to the corresponding rate for Spain, and there were no identified significant clusters. This information will contribute towards a reflection on the past, present and future of breast cancer outcomes in Andalusia. PMID:27879690

  11. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of women farmers concerning tobacco agriculture in a municipality in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Marcelo Moreno Dos; Oliveira, Ana Paula Natividade de; Turci, Silvana Rubano Barretto; Dantas, Renato Maciel; Silva, Valéria Dos Santos Pinto da; Gross, Cátia; Jensen, Teresinha; Silva, Vera Luiza da Costa E

    2017-09-21

    The study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of women farmers working in tobacco production concerning the social, environmental, and health impacts of this economic activity. Focus groups were used in this qualitative study, and themes were explored until reaching saturation. The study was conducted in a municipality (county) in southern Brazil in 2013 and included 64 women farmers. The discussions revealed participants' familiarity with health problems associated with workloads in tobacco production: green tobacco sickness, pesticide poisoning, musculoskeletal disorders, and others. The discussions also revealed a concern with the negative impacts of tobacco agriculture on the environment. They also revealed apprehension concerning decisions on switching to alternatives for sustainable agricultural production, emphasizing that on-going and systematic government support would be necessary for such a transition. Women farmers identified various factors that contribute to the persistence of tobacco farming: small holdings for cultivation, lack of guarantees for marketing crops, and indebtedness to tobacco companies. The study showed that an integrated approach is needed to deal with tobacco farmers' problems, considering a balance between farmers' beliefs and government decisions. This approach, in keeping with the recommendations of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, may help strengthen policies and measures to promote health and sustainable local development.

  12. Physical inactivity and associated factors among women from a municipality in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellino, Cristiano; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa; Bressan, Ana Weigert; Paniz, Vera Maria; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal

    2014-05-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important modifiable risk factors that is raising the global burden of chronic diseases. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study of 790 women aged 20 years or older living in the urban area of a municipality in Southern Brazil. The level of physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, short form. Inactivity was defined as fewer than 150 min/wk-1 spent in moderate or vigorous physical activities. Prevalence ratios were calculated by robust Poisson regression. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 48.7% (95% CI, 43.3%-54.1%). After adjusting for confounders, we found a linear trend for increasing prevalence of physical inactivity with increasing body mass index (P = .008). Women who were married or in a domestic partnership were 29% less physically active than single women (P = .044). A borderline association was detected between the presence of minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) and physical inactivity (P = .058). There was a high prevalence of inactivity. Obese women, those married or in domestic partnerships and those with MPD were more likely to lead an inactive lifestyle. These results suggest that strategies are required for breaking down barriers to physical activity in this demographic group.

  13. Abattoir operations and waste management in Nigeria: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abattoir operations and waste management in Nigeria: A review of challenges ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... militating against the establishment, operations and management of abattoirs are not given attention.

  14. Brucella serology in abattoir workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, F.; Kokab, F.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is an occupational hazard with those particularly at risk either living in close proximity with animals or handling them. It is a public health problem in developing countries with adverse health implications both for animals and human beings as well as economic implications for individuals and communities. The Objectives were to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among abattoir workers of Lahore District and to determine the association of brucellosis with nature of job of the workers. Data was collected in April 2008. It was a cross-sectional study in which four main slaughterhouses in Lahore were included. The slaughterhouse workers were divided into seven strata based on their nature of job: meat sellers, slaughterers, animal keepers, drivers, cleaners, loaders and vets/paravets. A total of 360 such workers were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Sampling frames for different strata were prepared and from each frame, proportionate numbers, were selected through simple random method using random number tables. Data was obtained using a questionnaire. Additionally blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-Brucella Immunoglobulin G (IgG) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The seroprevalence of anti-Brucella IgG was found to be 21.7%. A statistically significant difference was observed between the immune status of the respondents and their nature of job (p=0.005), age groups (p=0.013), and duration of job (p=0.003). The disease is an important public health problem in Pakistan. The disease can be prevented in the slaughterhouse workers through the use of personal protective devices. Public health authorities should educate the general public regarding prevention of the disease with specific emphasis on people working in slaughterhouses. (author)

  15. The Effects of Abattoir Waste on Water Quality in Gwagwalada ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the impact of abattoir wastes on water quality around an abattoir site in Gwagwalada. The work was premised on the fact that untreated wastes from the abattoir are discharged directly into open drainage which flows into a nearby stream. Leachates from dumped and decomposed wastes have also ...

  16. Effect of thermal and physicochemical treatment on abattoir waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evacuation of abattoir waste waters into water bodies results in excessive proliferation of decomposers, thus causing oxygen depletion and eutrophication. This study is designed to find means of effectively treating the abattoir waste water before they are reused or discharged into water bodies. The waste water was taken ...

  17. Awareness and utilization of abattoir safety measures in Katsina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed utilization of abattoir safety measures in Katsina South and Central senatorial districts, Nigeria. Information was obtained from a total of 80 abattoir workers in each district, while frequency counts, percentages and independent sample t-test were used to analyze data. The majority, in the respective ...

  18. Microbial content of abattoir wastewater and its contaminated soil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial content of wastewater in two abattoirs and the impact on microbial population of receiving soil was studied in Agege and Ojo Local Government Areas in Lagos State, Nigeria. Wastewater samples were collected from each of the abattoirs over three months period and examined for microbial content. Soil samples ...

  19. Municipal solid waste management in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka: Problems, issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidanaarachchi, Chandana K.; Yuen, Samuel T.S.; Pilapitiya, Sumith

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the problems, issues and challenges faced by Sri Lanka based on the outcome of a recent study conducted in the country's Southern Province. The study consists of a public survey, discussions with local authority staff involved in waste management, discussions with Provincial Council and Government officials, dialogue with local politicians, review of documents and field observations. The study revealed that only 24% of the households have access to waste collection and that in rural areas it was less than 2%. A substantial number of households in areas without waste collection expect local authorities to collect their waste. The study also showed that most sites in the province are under capacity to handle any increased demand. Urgent and immediate improvement of the waste disposal sites is necessary to meet the current demand for improved waste collection. The study also revealed that there is a high willingness of people for home composting

  20. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E in swine abattoir workers.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disease poses economic ... III and IV infect both swine and humans; and are re- ... associated with transmission in swine abattoir workers in ..... tal evidence for cross-species infection by swine hepatitis ... A novel virus in swine is closely.

  1. Seasonal Distribution of Nitrate and Nitrite Levels in Eleme Abattoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    Abattoir environment. Samples of soil, surface water and groundwater were collected from areas unaffected and those ... preservation and storage of meat products for human consumption ... animal faeces, blood, fat, animal trimming and urine.

  2. Factors influencing Salmonella carcass prevalence in Danish pig abattoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas de Matos Baptista, Filipa; Dahl, J.; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    The Danish Salmonella Surveillance-and-Control Programme in finisher pigs includes both herd and carcass surveillance. Herd surveillance consists of serological testing of meat-juice samples and classification of herds into three Salmonella seroprevalence levels. At the abattoirs, carcass swabs...... from five pigs are collected daily and analysed as a pooled sample to evaluate the Salmonella carcass prevalence. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with Salmonella carcass prevalence in Denmark. A total of 20,196 pooled carcass swabs collected in 23 Danish abattoirs were included...... in the analysis. A multilevel logistic regression model was used taking into account the two-level data structure (abattoir, carcass pool) and adjusting the parameter estimates to the random variation at the abattoir level. Study results indicated that carcass contamination was mainly influenced...

  3. effect of abattoir waste on the physicochemical and bacteriological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    EFFECT OF ABATTOIR WASTE ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND ... were investigated. The study involved the collection of water samples at the designated points from the New Artisan ..... of water temperature, the quantity of sediment in the.

  4. Bacterial and parasitic zoonoses encountered at slaughter in Maiduguri abattoir, Northeastern Nigeria

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    Ali Emmanuel Garba

    Full Text Available An abattoir survey to determine the prevalence of zoonotic diseases encountered at postmortem examination of organs and carcasses was conducted in Maiduguri municipality, Nigeria, between 2000 and 2009. A total of 1,378,066 animals were examined and slaughtered from which 403,560 were cattle, 381,601 goats, 373,567 sheep and 219,308 camels. Out of these numbers, a total of 14,944 bacterial and parasitic zoonotic diseases were diagnosed which included tuberculosis (67.6%, dermatophilosis (15.8%, mange (16.7%, fascioliasis (1.5% and hydatidosis (4.3%. Occurrence of the diseases based on sex, species of animals and season of the year did not show any significant difference (P>0.05. It was not possible to get the exact records on breed and age for each slaughtered animal due to poor recording systems at the abattoir. With regards to the type of animals brought for slaughter, almost all animals come from the traditional sector and it was difficult to precisely trace back the geographical origins of all animals slaughtered due to lack of reliable animal identification method and so relating the finding of the study to a particular locality becomes difficult. Species-specific prevalence of tuberculosis was 1.6%, 0.4%, 0.3%, 0.3% for cattle, sheep, goats and camels respectively with a 0.7% crude prevalence. Analysis of the tuberculosis cases showed a high rate of occurrence in cattle (P<0.05 and the most affected organs were the lungs (55.1% and associated lymph nodes (27.7% (P<0.05. It was concluded that zoonotic diseases such as tuberculosis, dermatophilosis and mange are endemic in the study area. Abattoir records are invaluable in epidemiological surveillance and other aspects of disease control and prevention strategies. [Vet. World 2011; 4(10.000: 437-443

  5. Designing a Municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Ulrik; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

    2014-01-01

    Can a municipality be designed? The municipality Kolding in the southern part of Denmark asked this question. The idea emerged as a response to a recognized need for new ways of branding and developing the municipality. It is an ongoing process that was kicked off in 2012 and this paper is theref......Can a municipality be designed? The municipality Kolding in the southern part of Denmark asked this question. The idea emerged as a response to a recognized need for new ways of branding and developing the municipality. It is an ongoing process that was kicked off in 2012 and this paper...... is therefore focusing primarily on the process of changing the perception of how to organize development in a municipality. The most important elements in transforming the whole development setup are described. Finally, a short case describing one of the significant results is included....

  6. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the abattoir workers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Saleh, Ahmadu; Baraya, Yusha’u Shu’aibu; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Foodborne diseases are common in the developing countries due to the predominant poor food handling and sanitation practices, particularly as a result of inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory structures, and inadequate funding as well as a lack of appropriate education for food-handlers. The most frequently involved foods in disease outbreaks are of animal origin. However, in spite of the adequate legislation and laws governing the abattoir operation in Malaysia, compliance with food safety requirements during meat processing and waste disposal is inadequate. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers in Terengganu, Malaysia. Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using simple random sampling technique in the six districts of Terengganu: two districts were used for the pilot study and the remaining four were used for the main study. One hundred sixty-five abattoir workers from the selected districts were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results The mean and standard deviation of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores of the workers were 6.02 and 1.954, 45.16 and 4.496, and 18.03 and 3.186, respectively. The majority of the workers (38.8%) had a low level of knowledge and 91.7% had a positive attitude, while 77.7% had a good practice of compliance. Sex had a significant association with the level of knowledge (Plevel of knowledge than the males, while the males had a better practice of compliance than females. Similarly, knowledge also had a significant (P=0.009) association with the level of practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers. Conclusion The abattoir workers had a positive attitude and good practice, but a low level of knowledge toward compliance with the abattoir laws. Therefore, public awareness, workshops, and seminars relevant to the abattoir operations should be

  7. Seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in abattoir workers at Debre Zeit and Modjo export abattoir, Central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsegay, Amanuel; Tuli, Getachew; Kassa, Tesfu; Kebede, Nigatu

    2017-01-26

    Brucellosis is one of the major zoonoses globally with great veterinary and public health importance, particularly in developing countries where people are having frequent contact with livestock and animal products. This cross sectional study was carried out from November 2013 to May 2014 to determine the seroprevalence and assess the potential risk factors of brucellosis in abattoir workers of five export abattoirs at Debre Ziet and Modjo, Central Ethiopia. Serology and structured questionnaire were the methods used. In this study, 156 abattoir workers participated in the questionnaire survey and among them, 149 agreed for blood sample collection. Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test were conducted using sera samples at serology laboratory of the National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center. Data collection sheets were used to gather information on possible risk factors believed to influence the spread of Brucella infection in abattoir workers such as sex, age, marital status, duration on job, types of work, educational level, etc. and further information obtained include knowledge of brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases infection, symptoms of the disease, milk and meat consumption habits and work related risk factors. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for data analysis. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in abattoir workers was found to be 4.7 and 1.3% using Rose Bengal plate test and Compliment fixation test, respectively. Based on the questionnaire survey, 66 (44.2%) and 85 (53.21%) of abattoir workers were aware of brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases, and 29 (18.6%) and 21 (13.5%) were using gloves and cover their mouth while slaughtering, respectively. Brucellosis in abattoir workers could be prevented by using protective closing and measures. Concerned body should educate occupationally exposed groups and the general public regarding e prevention and control of brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases.

  8. Vehicle-Routing Optimization for Municipal Solid Waste Collection Using Genetic Algorithm: The Case of Southern Nablus City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Ramiz; Saleh, Yahya

    2017-09-01

    Municipalities are responsible for solid waste collectiont for environmental, social and economic purposes. Practices of municipalities should be effective and efficient, with the objectives of reducing the total incurred costs in the solid waste collection network concurrently achieving the highest service level. This study aims at finding the best routes of solid waste collection network in Nablus city-Palestine. More specifically, the study seeks the optimal route that minimizes the total travelled distance by the trucks and hence the resulted costs. The current situation is evaluated and the problem is modelled as a Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). The VRP is then optimized via a genetic algorithm. Specifically, compared to the current situation, the trucks total travelled distance was reduced by 66%, whereas the collection time was reduced from 7 hours per truck-trip to 2.3 hours. The findings of this study is useful for all municipality policy makers that are responsible for solid waste collection.

  9. Effects of soil treatment with abattoir effluent on morphological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of abattoir wastewater treated soil on morphological and biochemical profiles of cowpea seedlings (Vigna unguiculata) grown in gasoline polluted soil was studied. Percentage germination, shoot length, root length and leaf area of cowpea seedlings grown in gasoline treated soil decreased significantly (P ...

  10. Knowledge and practice of sewage disposal in Abattoir community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and practice of sewage disposal in Abattoir community of Jos South LGA, Plateau State, Nigeria. ... Conclusion: Despite the commendable findings in this community, the community is still at risk due to the poor practices of a few that were persisting in the community. Both government and community efforts are ...

  11. Geographic and socioeconomic distribution of food vendors: a case study of a municipality in the Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Nappi Correa

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this study was to identify the food vendor distribution profile of the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, and investigate its association with the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of different municipal regions. This descriptive, cross-sectional study obtained the location of food vendors from secondary data from different institutional sources. The density of different types of food vendors per 1,000 inhabitants in each municipal weighted area was calculated. The Kruskal-Wallis test compared the mean density of food vendors and the weighted income areas. The lowest-income regions had the lowest density of butchers, snack bars, supermarkets, bakeries/pastry shops, natural product stores, juice bars, and convenience stores. The identification of these areas may encourage the creation of public policies that facilitate healthy food startups and/or maintenance of healthy food vendors, especially in the lowest-income regions.

  12. Local deforestation patterns and their driving forces of tropical dry forest in two municipalities in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico (1985-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Galicia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The tropical dry forest is an ecosystem that is undergoing rapid changes. Although global driving forces behind these changes have been addressed at a local scale, spatio-temporal dynamics are still largely unknown. The main objective of this study was to identify the causes governing the dynamics of changes in land use and land cover in the tropical dry forest in two municipalities in Southern México. Satellite imagery and air photographs were used in a GIS context to produce maps of land use and land cover for 1985, 1995 and 2006. A number of statistical methods (Markov chains, general lineal models and regression tree analysis were applied to identify the proximate and the underlying causes of deforestation, agriculture being the most important one. When agriculture is mainly for self consumption, topographic factors determine its location. Increasing job opportunities in the tourism sector has resulted in the abandonment of agricultural land; consequently, the forest has recovered. Different studies have examined the dynamics of local deforestation and its driving forces in México; however, this study considered both spatial and temporal elements in order to identify the most important underlying driving forces of deforestation and its dynamics at local scale, and also compared two neighboring municipalities.

  13. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the abattoir workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Saleh, Ahmadu; Baraya, Yusha'u Shu'aibu; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are common in the developing countries due to the predominant poor food handling and sanitation practices, particularly as a result of inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory structures, and inadequate funding as well as a lack of appropriate education for food-handlers. The most frequently involved foods in disease outbreaks are of animal origin. However, in spite of the adequate legislation and laws governing the abattoir operation in Malaysia, compliance with food safety requirements during meat processing and waste disposal is inadequate. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers in Terengganu, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using simple random sampling technique in the six districts of Terengganu: two districts were used for the pilot study and the remaining four were used for the main study. One hundred sixty-five abattoir workers from the selected districts were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The mean and standard deviation of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores of the workers were 6.02 and 1.954, 45.16 and 4.496, and 18.03 and 3.186, respectively. The majority of the workers (38.8%) had a low level of knowledge and 91.7% had a positive attitude, while 77.7% had a good practice of compliance. Sex had a significant association with the level of knowledge (P<0.001) and practice (P=0.044) among the workers. The females had a higher level of knowledge than the males, while the males had a better practice of compliance than females. Similarly, knowledge also had a significant (P=0.009) association with the level of practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers. The abattoir workers had a positive attitude and good practice, but a low level of knowledge toward compliance with the abattoir laws. Therefore, public awareness, workshops, and seminars relevant to the abattoir

  14. The effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater on fish communities of a small river tributary in Southern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Carolyn J.M.; Knight, Brendan W.; McMaster, Mark E.; Munkittrick, Kelly R.; Oakes, Ken D.; Tetreault, Grald R.; Servos, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Fish community changes associated with a tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent outfall in the Speed River, Ontario, Canada, were evaluated at nine sites over two seasons (2008) using standardized electrofishing. Habitat evaluations were conducted to ensure that the riffle sites selected were physically similar. The fish community was dominated by several species of darters that differed in their response to the effluent outfall. There was a significant decrease in Greenside Darter (Etheostoma blennioides) but an increase in Rainbow Darter (E. caeruleum) abundance directly downstream of the outfall. Stable isotope signatures (δ 13 C and δ 15 N), which indicate shifts in energy utilization and flow, increased in Rainbow Darter downstream, but showed no change in Greenside Darter. Rainbow Darter may be exploiting a food source that is not as available at upstream sites giving them a competitive advantage over the Greenside Darter immediately downstream of the outfall. - Highlights: → Fish communities are altered by tertiary treated municipal wastewater exposure. → Relative abundance of the two dominant fish (darter) species changed downstream. → Differing stable isotope signatures in fish suggests shifting energy flow and diet. → The altered environment may allow resilient species a competitive advantage. → The system recovers quickly downstream. - Tertiary treated effluent altered fish community composition in a small receiving stream possibly as a result of altered availability of resources (diet) as indicated by stable isotopes.

  15. Abattoirs et industrialisation de la production de la viande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Elène Delavigne

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Une nouvelle ethnographie des abattoirsSaluons l'initiative de la collection « Natures sociales », dirigée par François Sigaut et Raphaël Larrère (édition MSH / Quae qui permet une nouvelle publication sur la thématique des abattoirs, vingt et un ans après l'ouvrage de Noélie Vialles, Le Sang et la Chair. Cet ouvrage qui a fait autorité en sciences sociales sur le sujet était d'ailleurs également publié par la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme. Depuis cette publication en 1987, le champ est tou...

  16. Microbiological Studies of Abattoir wastes in Ipata Market, Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological and Physicochemical studies of abattoir waste was conducted within a period of 12 weeks. Total viable bacterial counts ranged from 4.0x108 to 5.6x108 cfu/ml with cow dung yielding the highest count. Total coliform counts ranged from 1.0x108 to 9.0x108 while total faecal coliform counts ranged from ...

  17. Notes on abattoir operations at Afor Ajala Mbaise, Imo State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afor Ajala abattoir in Imo State is an important economic centre in Nigeria. It is funded by Afor Ajala Meat Butchers Association (AMBA) and serves meat sellers and consumers within and outside Imo State. The safety and health of these consumers could be endangered if the meat processed in the abattoir is unwholesome.

  18. Health Implications of Sanitation in a Public Abattoir in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Meat, a universal staple food item is gotten primarily from farm animals after slaughtering and preparation in abattoirs or slaughter houses. The slaughtering of animals in abattoirs or slaughter houses ensures the production of supervised, wholesome and healthy meat and meat products. There are pointers that ...

  19. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in Pigs Slaughtered in Chinese Abattoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junrong; Wang, Xin; Xiao, Yuchun; Cui, Zhigang; Xia, Shengli; Hao, Qiong; Yang, Jinchuan; Luo, Longze; Wang, Shukun; Li, Kewei; Yang, Haoshu; Gu, Wenpeng; Xu, Jianguo; Kan, Biao

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughtered pigs in China was studied. A total of 8,773 samples were collected and examined from different pig abattoirs in 11 provinces from 2009 to 2011. Of these, 4,495 were oral-pharyngeal swab (tonsils) samples from pigs, 1,239 were from intestinal contents, and 3,039 were feces samples from abattoirs or local pigpens. The data showed that 1,132 strains were obtained, from which the isolation rate for Yersinia enterocolitica was 19.53% (878/4,495) from the tonsil samples, 7.51% (93/1,239) from intestinal contents, and 5.30% (161/3,039) from feces. Of the 850 pathogenic Yersinia strains, except for three of bioserotype 2/O:9 and three of bioserotype 4/O:3, most (844/850) were of bioserotype 3/O:3. Interestingly, pathogenic Y. enterocolitica accounted for the majority of the isolated strains from most provinces (85.17% to 100%), whereas from Heilongjiang, 96.52% (111/115) were classified as nonpathogenic biotype 1A with various serotypes, and only 3.48% of the strains (4/115) were pathogenic 3/O:3. All of the pathogenic strains were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and 49 patterns were obtained for the O:3 pathogenic strains; most of them were K6GN11C30021 (53.13%: 450/847) and K6GN11C30012 (21.37%: 181/847). Several strains from diarrhea patient samples revealed PFGE patterns identical to that from samples of local pigs, suggesting a possible link between porcine isolates and human infection. The results above suggested that Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughtered pigs from Chinese abattoirs was characterized by region-specific PFGE patterns and confirmed that strains isolated from pigs are closely related to those from human infections. PMID:22327599

  20. Prevalence of Listeria spp. and Molecular Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Broilers at the Abattoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouayad, Leila; Hamdi, Taha M; Naim, Malek; Leclercq, Alexandre; Lecuit, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Products from three broiler abattoirs were sampled for Listeria species to evaluate the changes in the prevalence and contamination rates at two stages of processing. Sampling was performed at the evisceration stage and at the end of processing after packaging and refrigerating at 4°C for 24 h. A total of 212 samples were collected; 52 were from abattoir A, and 80 samples each were collected from abattoirs B and C. Among all samples, 99 (46.7%) tested positive for Listeria, including L. monocytogenes 19 (8.9%), L. innocua 69 (32.5%), L. grayi 10 (4.7%), and L. welshimeri 1 (0.5%). The L. monocytogenes contamination rate varied from 5% to 11.5% in the 3 abattoirs. L. innocua was the most common species identified and was found in 8.8% of the samples from abattoir A and 33.7% of the samples from both abattoirs B and C. Twenty-six of the L. monocytogenes isolates obtained from positive samples were subjected to serotyping by multiplex polymerase chain reaction and characterization by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method using two cutting enzymes, ApaI and AscI. Three molecular serogroups were identified: IIa, IIb, and IVb. Serogroup IIa was common to all abattoirs, and serogroups IIb and IVb were found only in abattoir C. The 10 different obtained PFGE profiles were grouped into 7 clusters; some of these clusters were common to the 3 abattoirs, and others were specific to the abattoirs in which they were identified. This study revealed a high prevalence of Listeria spp., particularly L. monocytogenes, in raw broilers. This high incidence presents a risk to consumers due to the potential occurrence of cross-contamination with other foods in domestic refrigerators and the ability of these microorganisms to survive in undercooked products.

  1. An abattoir survey of equine dental abnormalities in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinkangsadarn, T; Wilson, G J; Greer, R M; Pollitt, C C; Bird, P S

    2015-06-01

    A cadaver study to estimate the prevalence of dental disorders in horses presented at an abattoir in Queensland, Australia. Cadaver heads at a Queensland abattoir were examined for the presence of dental abnormalities and categorised into age groups. The prevalence of abnormalities was analysed by binomial observation of observed proportion, Pearson's Chi-square test or Fisher's exact correlation test. Strength of association was evaluated using Cramer's V test. Heads from horses (n=400) estimated to be between 1 and 30 years of age were placed into four age groups. The most common abnormalities were sharp enamel points (55.3%) and hooks (43%). The highest frequency of dental diseases and abnormalities were in horses 11-15 years old (97.5%). Common abnormalities were found in all groups and the prevalence increased with age. This study suggests that all horses should have regular complete dental examinations to detect and treat dental disorders in order to limit more severe dental pathologies later in life. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Jabari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens, and msbl6 (candidate division were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published.

  3. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, Linda; Gannoun, Hana; Khelifi, Eltaief; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens), and msbl6 (candidate division) were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Generation of Electricity from Abattoir Waste Water with the Aid of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Generation of Electricity from Abattoir Waste Water with the Aid of a Relatively Cheap. Source of Catholyte ... in recent times is the microbial fuel cell technology. This technology ..... fuel cell in the presence and absence of a proton exchange.

  5. Water quality changes due to abattoir effluent: A case on Mchesa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    impact of effluent from Shire Valley Abattoir on the physico-chemical parameters of Mchesa Stream in. Blantyre. Water ... Sampling point located 10m downstream from effluent discharge. S50 ..... Similar studies done in Mudi River (Masamba.

  6. Listeria monocytogenes in poultry and poultry products: Epidemiological investigations in seven Danish abattoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojeniyi, B.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Jensen, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 11/236 (4 . 7%) caecal samples from parent flocks, providing broilers to the abattoirs investigated. Caecal samples from 2078 broilers representing 90 randomly selected broiler flocks were negative for L. monocytogenes. A total of 3080 samples from seven...... abattoirs including poultry processing line samples, and final products were also examined for L. monocytogenes. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated in 0 . 3% to 18 . 7% of the samples collected in the different abattoirs. Epidemiological typing of 247 L. monocytogenes isolates, including serotyping, phage...... isolates of L. monocytogenes since only 120/247 (48 . 6%) isolates were typable by phage typing and 230/247 (93 . 1%) L. monocytogenes belonged to serotype 01 while 6/247 (2 . 4%) belonged to 04. The discovery of a few dominating clones in each abattoir might indicate an endemic occurrence of L...

  7. The Impact of Physical and Ergonomic Hazards on Poultry Abattoir Processing Workers: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmse, Johannes L.; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C.; Bekker, Johan L.

    2016-01-01

    The poultry abattoir industry continues to grow and contribute significantly to the gross domestic product in many countries. The industry expects working shifts of eight to eleven hours, during which workers are exposed to occupational hazards which include physical hazards ranging from noise, vibration, exposure to cold and ergonomic stress from manual, repetitive tasks that require force. A PubMed, Medline and Science Direct online database search, using specific keywords was conducted and the results confirmed that physical and ergonomic hazards impact on abattoir processing workers health, with harm not only to workers’ health but also as an economic burden due to the loss of their livelihoods and the need for treatment and compensation in the industry. This review endeavours to highlight the contribution poultry processing plays in the development of physical agents and ergonomic stress related occupational diseases in poultry abattoir processing workers. The impact includes noise-induced hearing loss, increased blood pressure, menstrual and work related upper limb disorders. These are summarised as a quick reference guide for poultry abattoir owners, abattoir workers, poultry associations, occupational hygienists and medical practitioners to assist in the safer management of occupational health in poultry abattoirs. PMID:26861374

  8. Prevalence of antibiotic prescription in southern Italian outpatients: real-world data analysis of socioeconomic and sociodemographic variables at a municipality level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Veronica; Monetti, Valeria Marina; Guerriero, Francesca; Trama, Ugo; Guida, Antonella; Menditto, Enrica; Orlando, Valentina

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the geographic variation in systemic antibiotic prescription at a regional level and to explore the influence of socioeconomic and sociodemographic variables. This study was a retrospective analysis of reimbursement pharmacy records in the outpatient settings of Italy's Campania Region in 2016. Standardized antibiotic prescription rates were calculated at municipality and Local Health Unit (LHU) level. Antibiotic consumption was analyzed as defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 inhabitants per day (DID). Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between antibiotic prescription and sociodemographic and socioeconomic determinants at a municipality level. The average antibiotic prevalence rate was 46.8%. At LHU level, the age-adjusted prevalence rates ranged from 41.1% in Benevento to 51.0% in Naples2. Significant differences were found among municipalities, from 15.2% in Omignano (Salerno LHU [Sa-LHU]) to 61.9% in Moschiano (Avellino [Av-LHU]). The geographic distribution also showed significant differences in terms of antibiotic consumption, from 6.7 DID in Omignano to 41.6 in San Marcelino (Caserta [Ce-LHU]). Logistic regression showed that both municipality type and average annual income level were the main determinants of antibiotic prescription. Urban municipalities were more than eight times as likely to have antibiotic high prevalence rates compared to rural municipalities (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 8.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.06-18.30, P <0.001). Low average annual income level municipalities were more than eight times as likely to have antibiotic high prevalence rates compared to high average annual income level municipalities (adjusted OR: 8.48; 95% CI: 3.45-20.81, P <0.001). We provide a snapshot of Campania's antibiotic consumption, evidencing the impact of both socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors on the prevalence of antibiotic prescription. The observed intraregional variability

  9. Abattoir survey on extra-cerebral coenurosis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuster R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of 19,046 goats aged between 5 and 6 month and slaughtered at an abattoir in Dubai between September 2012 and March 2014, 57 carcasses were objected at meat inspection due to the presence of bladder worms of the coenurus type. The majority showed single cysts that were cut out but 10 carcasses had to be discharged due to the presence of multiple cysts and with a maximum number of 41 coenuri. In the majority of carcasses, cysts were located in the legs (n=45 followed by abdominal muscles (n=16, diaphragm (n=14 and shoulder (n=13. Loin, rack, renal fat, heart, neck, masseter were other cyst locations. The size of the detected parasitic cysts ranged from 0.7 ml to 90 ml. The maximum number of 1,102 scolices was counted in an 86 ml coenurus found in the leg of a goat. Cysticercus tenuicollis was another cestode larval stage found in livers of 302 goats. A mixed infection with both parasites was detected in 35 carcasses.

  10. The dynamics of acetic acid in the anaerobic treatment of abattoir sewage; Dinamica del acido acetico en la depuracion anaerobia de aguas residuales de mataderos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Borges, E.; Acosta Viana, K. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan. Mexico (Mexico)

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to examine the production and consumption of acetic acid during the anaerobic treatment of sewage from a municipal abattoir. The experiment studied a 20-litre UASB reactor under three hydraulic retention time (HRT) conditions-4 days, 2.5 days and 1.6 days-measuring the acetic acid concentration in the reactor in fluent and effluent. The results obtained during the experiment with the three different HRTs are reported. The highest percentages of acetic acid removed ( an average of 44%) were obtained with an HRT of 4 days. The amount of acetic acid removed with and HRT of 2.5 days was 27%. (Author) 18 refs.

  11. Health Implications of Sanitation in a Public Abattoir in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    Meat, a universal staple food item is gotten primarily from farm .... City is a fast growing multi-ethnic, multi- racial metropolis with ... abattoir since it had recently had some bad publicity in the ... have far reaching effects in the number of persons ...

  12. Epidemiological Investigations Utilizing Industry Abattoir Data - a Study in Finishing Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Vazquez, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Routine post-mortem inspections are enforced by governments worldwide to maintain meat hygiene standards. Through these systems, several pathologies and abnormalities are detected. In parallel, the industries of a number of countries have developed their own abattoir-based health schemes. These

  13. Effect of abattoir wastes on the water quality of Aleto River in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of abattoir effluent on the water quality parameters, pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrate (NO3), phosphate (PO4), sulphate (SO4), hardness, conductivity, faecal coliform and the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), of the receiving surface water of Aleto River in River State (Niger Delta, Nigeria) was monitored monthly ...

  14. Identification of Brucella spp. in feral swine (Sus scrofa) at abattoirs in Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various tissues, nasal swabs, urine, and blood samples were collected from 376 feral swine at two federally-inspected abattoirs in Texas during six separate sampling periods in 2015. Samples were tested for Brucella spp. by culture and serology. Brucella spp. were cultured from 13.0% of feral swin...

  15. the occurrence of escherichia coli o157:h7 in market and abattoir

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a newly emerging pathogen frequently associated with the consumption of foods of ... KEY WORDS: E. coli O157:H7, Pathogen, Abattoir, Market, and Infections ..... pathogen. Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model of.

  16. Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Taddele, Habtamu; Adhana, Kelali; Kalayou, Shewit

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assessed by serial dilution method and the major bacterial pathogens were isolated by using standard procedures. Results 15.4% of the abattoir workers had no health certificate and there was no hot water, sterilizer and cooling facility in the abattoir. 11.3% of the butchers didn't use protective clothes. There was a food safety knowledge gap within the abattoir and butcher shop workers. The mean values of bacterial load of abattoir meat, butcher shops and street meat sale was found to be 1.1×105, 5.6×105 and 4.3×106 cfu/g, respectively. The major bacterial pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions The study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge by abattoir and butcher shop workers. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve the food safety knowledge and the quality standard of meat sold in the city. PMID:23646306

  17. Pathogenic potentials of Aeromonas species isolated from aquaculture and abattoir environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Beshiru, Abeni; Odjadjare, Emmanuel E; Ateba, Collins N; Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2017-06-01

    The present study elucidated the presence of antibiotics resistance, virulence genes and biofilm potentials among Aeromonas species isolated from abattoir and aquaculture environments in Benin City, Nigeria. A total of 144 wastewater samples were obtained from two independent aquaculture and abattoir environments between May and October 2016. Aeromonas species were isolated on Glutamate Starch Phenol Red (GSP) agar and confirmed using API 20NE kits. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates was carried out using standard disc diffusion assay while biofilm potentials were detected by the microtitre plate method and PCR technique was used to detect antibiotics resistance and virulence gene markers. Overall, 32 and 26 Aeromonas species were isolated from the abattoir and aquaculture environments respectively. Isolates from both environments were completely resistant (100%) to penicillin G, ertapenem and tetracycline; whereas aquaculture isolates exhibited absolute sensitivity (100%) towards cefepime. All the virulence gene markers (aerA, hlyA, alt, ast, laf, ascF-G, fla, lip, stx1, and stx2) investigated in this study (except laf) were detected in isolates from both environments. The laf genes were only detected in isolates from abattoir environments. Antibiotics resistant genes including pse, bla TEM and class 1 integron were detected in isolates from both environments. Majority of the isolates (53/58 91.4%) from both environments; demonstrated capacity for biofilm potential. The detection of antibiotic resistance and virulence gene markers as well as biofilm forming ability in Aeromonas species isolated from aquaculture and abattoir environments raise serious public health concern worthy of further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Q fever cluster among workers at an abattoir in south-western Sydney, Australia, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Lord

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In September 2015, the Public Health Unit of the South Western Sydney Local Health District was notified of two possible Q fever cases. Case investigation identified that both cases were employed at an abattoir, and both cases advised that co-workers had experienced similar symptoms. Public Health Unit staff also recalled interviewing in late 2014 at least one other Q fever case who worked at the same abattoir. This prompted an outbreak investigation. Methods: The investigation incorporated active case finding, microbiological analysis, field investigation and a risk factor survey. Included cases were laboratory definitive or suspected cases occurring from October 2014 to October 2015, residing or working in south-western Sydney. A suspected case had clinically compatible illness, high-risk exposure and was epidemiologically linked to another confirmed case. A confirmed case included laboratory detection of C. burnetii. Results: Eight cases met the case definition with seven confirmed (including a deceased case and one suspected. The eight cases were all males who had been employed at an abattoir in south-western Sydney during their incubation period; symptom onset dates ranged from November 2014 to September 2015. Field investigation identified multiple potential risk factors at the abattoir, and the majority (75% of employees were not vaccinated against Q fever despite this high-risk setting. Conclusion: This cluster of Q fever in a single abattoir confirms the significance of this zoonotic disease as an occupational hazard among persons working in high-risk environments. Implementation of Q fever vaccination programmes should eliminate Q fever in high-risk occupational settings.

  19. Antibiotic resistance profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from aquaculture and abattoir environments in urban communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoken Henrietta Igbinosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize multiple antibiotic resistance profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from aquaculture and abattoir environments. Methods: Wastewater samples were obtained from the abattoir and aquaculture environments between May 2016 and July 2016 and analysed using standard phenotypic, biochemical and PCR-based methods. Results: The mean pseudomonads count ranged from (4 × 102 ± 1.01 to (2 × 104 ± 0.10 colony-forming unit/mL in the aquaculture environment and (3 × 103 ± 0.00 to (1 × 105 ± 1.00 colony-forming unit/mL in the abattoir environment. A total of 96 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa confirmed by PCR were thereafter selected from both aquaculture and abattoir environments and further characterized for their antimicrobial susceptibility profile by adopting the disc diffusion method. High level of resistance was observed against the aminoglycosides [gentamycin 64/96 (66.67% and kanamycin 52/96 (54.17%], monobactams [aztreonam 76/96 (79.17%], carbapenems [meropenem 52/96 (54.17%], tetracyclines [tetracycline 72/96 (75.00%] and cephems [ceftazidime 72/96 (75.00% and cefuroxime 48/96 (50.00%]. Multiple antibiotic resistant index of the respective isolates ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 while multidrug resistant profile of the isolates revealed that 28 of the respective isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, cefuroxime, gentamycin, kanamycin, aztreonam which belongs to cephems, aminoglycosides and monobactam class of antimicrobials. Conclusions: Findings from the present study therefore underscores the need for effective monitoring of the abattoir and aquaculture environments as they could be the significant source for spreading antibiotic resistant bacteria within the environment.

  20. An abattoir-based study on the prevalence and economic losses due to cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered herbivores in Ahwaz, south-western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, N A; Meshkehkar, M

    2011-03-01

    A 10-year (1998-2008) retrospective study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and long-term trend of hydatid disease in slaughtered herbivores in the large complex abattoir of Ahwaz (the capital of Khuzestan province, south-western Iran). A total of 3,583,417 animals including 2,815,982 sheep, 427,790 goats and 339,645 cattle were inspected macroscopically for hydatid cysts in the 10-year period, and overall 155,555 (4.24%) livers and 228,172 (6.37%) lungs were condemned. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) was responsible for 36.08% and 48.04% of total liver and lung condemnations, respectively. The prevalence of pulmonary hydatid disease in sheep, goats and cattle was 2.22, 5.43 and 6.99%, respectively; on the other hand, the prevalence of hepatic hydatid disease for those animals was 1.26, 2.57 and 2.80%, respectively. Data showed an overall downward long-term trend for CE in all livestock slaughtered during the study period (P trend was still observed. The total annual economic loss incurred due to hydatidosis in all ruminants slaughtered at Ahwaz municipal abattoir was estimated to be US$459,659.6, based on the market prices in the year 2008. This number corresponds to a loss of US$300,620.4 for cattle, US$123,490.0 for sheep and US$35,549.2 for goats. The current results provide baseline data for the future monitoring of this potentially important disease in the region, and also suggest that a thorough investigation leading to a disease control strategy is required to reduce the economic and public health consequences of CE.

  1. Municipal opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousens, D.; Chuddy, B.; Gleeson, A.; Leckie, D.; Wahl, K.; McGarry, D.

    1997-01-01

    The panel discussing market opportunities for municipal electric companies was moderated by Markham Mayor Don Cousens. He expressed himself in favour of deregulation and was optimistic about the benefits it will bring to municipal electric utilities and their customers. Barry Chuddy, General Manager of Business Development for TransAlta Energy discussed the advantages of recent cogeneration and district energy for municipal utilities in Ontario and Quebec, and expressed his support for incentive-based regulation based on a level playing field, competitive generation, and a reasonable charge for stranded assets. Toronto City Councillor Dan Leckie described cogeneration and district energy as a tremendous opportunity to reduce the cost of doing business in the city core through local job creation and by keeping money in the local economy. Karl Wahl, General Manager of Hydro Mississauga expressed optimism that the government will move expeditiously toward competition, choice and lower-cost supply. David McGarry, President of Elecsar Engineering of Sarnia spoke about the significant job creating potential that deregulation will bring to the electrical industry. He cited several examples from Ontario and British Columbia

  2. Study of some characteristic Mediterranean vegetation species best suited for renaturalization of terminal-phase municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in Puglia (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mei, Massimiliano; Di Mauro, Mariaida

    2006-07-01

    Natural recovery of worked-out or closed municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills is a current topic, but knowledge about the adaptability of Mediterranean vegetation species to such stressful conditions is still quite poor. Autochthonous plants were selected to withstand the stresses such as hot climate and drought typical of Mediterranean areas; this characteristic potentially allows the plants an easier, efficient adaptation. Our aim was to provide information in order to obtain an adequate quality of environmental renewal of a landfill and a reduced management cost while ensuring rehabilitation to an acceptable naturalistic state. The investigation lasted 3 years; some Mediterranean scrub native plant species were selected and monitored in their morphological (total and relative height, basal diameter, number of inter-nodes) and physiological (photosynthetic rate and water potential) activity. In order to test dependence on CO 2 concentration, different meteorological parameters were also monitored. Ceratonia siliqua, Phillyrea latifolia, Olea europaea and Quercus ilex showed considerable adaptability, reacting positively to every improvement in environmental conditions, particularly those of a meteorological nature. Survival and growth was satisfactory in Hedysarum coronarium, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Myrtus communis and Viburnum tinus. Fraxinus ornus and Acer campestre suffered stress during the summer dry period and recovered quickly when atmospheric conditions improved. A drop irrigation system to ensure a satisfactory soil moisture during summer dry periods was the fundamental element for survival.

  3. Parasitas intestinais em centros de educação infantil municipal de Lages, SC, Brasil Intestinal parasites in nursey schools of Lages, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiléia Marinho de Quadros

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Infecção por enteroparasitas foi avaliada em 200 crianças em idade escolar, residentes em Lages. A prevalência geral entre helmintos e protozoários foi de 70,5% com 61,4% no sexo masculino e 74,5% no feminino. Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lamblia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.Two hundred chinldren from nursery schools in Lages, southern Brazil, were associated as to parasitic ibfections. The overall prevalence of helminths and protozoa was 70.5%, affecting 61.4% of male and 74.5% of female children. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lambia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.

  4. Associations among gait score, production data, abattoir registrations, and postmortem tibia measurements in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kittelsen, K.E.; David, B.; Moe, R.O.

    2017-01-01

    Lameness and impaired walking ability in rapidly growing meat-type broiler chickens are major welfare issues that cause economic losses. This study analyzed the prevalence of impaired walking and its associations with production data, abattoir registrations, and postmortem tibia measurements...... in Norwegian broiler chickens. Gait score (GS) was used to assess walking ability in 59 different commercial broiler flocks (Ross 308) close to the slaughter d, 5,900 broilers in total, in 3 different geographical regions. In each flock, 100 arbitrary broilers were gait scored and 10 random broilers were...... culled to harvest tibias. Abattoir registrations on flock level were collected after slaughter. A total of 24.6% of the broilers had moderate to severe gait impairment. The broilers were sampled in 2 stages, first slaughterhouse/region, and then owner/flock. The final models showed that impaired gait...

  5. Serological prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle slaughtered in the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O. Ngbede

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an occupational zoonosis caused by pathogenic leptospires. In this study, the presence and prevalence of antibodies specific to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo in 142 cattle slaughtered between June and July 2011 was investigated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Five (3.50% of the 142 cattle sampled were seropositive for antibodies to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo. Despite the fact that there was no significant difference (p>0.05 in seropositivity between sexes and between breeds sampled, there was a significant difference (p<0.05 in sero-positivity between the different age groups examined. Leptospirosis is present in cattle slaughtered in the Zango abattoir; butchers and abattoir workers are exposed to infected animals and are at risk of being infected by Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo.

  6. Study of microbial contamination of broilers in modern abattoirs in Khartoum state

    OpenAIRE

    S.E. Mohamed-Noor; Y.A. Shuaib; S.E. Suliman; M.A. Abdalla

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the contaminating microorganisms that can be found on the breast, legs and backs of broilers during processing. A total of 81 swab samples from 27 carcasses were collected randomly from chicken carcasses slaughtered at modern poultry abattoir in Khartoum State, the Sudan. The samples were taken from 9 Critical Control Points (CCPs), namely; after bleeding with feathers, after scalding, after defeathering, after evisceration, after spray wash, after ch...

  7. A study of preslaughter pig handling and stunning in selected South African Highveld Region abattoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Spencer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study hypothesis was that pre-slaughter handling is not conducted in such a way that pigs can be considered humanely slaughtered, nor is it conducive to promoting those properties of fresh meat that could enhance pork quality. The 1st phase of the investigation was aimed at confirming the present compliance level within the prescribed norms. To this end the importance of stunning induction requirements for effective electrical stunning, the welfare implications relating to the pre-slaughter handling of pigs and the stunning and sticking techniques were investigated. Pre-slaughter welfare of the pigs at the abattoir was found to be influenced at the outset by the origin and type of pig slaughtered, the daily throughput range of pigs and the type of abattoir involved. A disappointing pre-arrival aspect was that deficiencies in road motor vehicles were observed while off-loading pigs. Through poor design or lack of maintenance, another factor that hampered free movement of pigs was the off-loading facilities. The nature of animal behaviour in the pens, in the passages and when going into the stunning area was directly related to the pig handling efficiency and to the nature and extent of design and maintenance problems with equipment. None of the abattoirs had a well designed in-feed to a well planned stunning area / facility, and a very high level of pig pre-slaughter stress prevailed. The optimum position of the electrodes is virtually impossible to attain under practical conditions and the practice of repeat application of electrical stunning is common. Of the total sample size (n = 1175, 34% were difficult to shackle, 90% of these being from the abattoirs tending to slaughter more routinely a wide range of different sized pigs. In this survey 149 pigs (13 % required more than a single sticking attempt to bleed out properly, considerably higher than in other published reports.

  8. Human and canine echinococcosis infection in informal, unlicensed abattoirs in Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M Reyes

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus infections are a major public health problem in livestock-raising regions around the world. The life cycle of this tapeworm is sustained between dogs (definitive host, canine echinococcosis, and herbivores (intermediary host, cystic hydatid disease. Humans may also develop cystic hydatid disease. Echinococcosis is endemic in rural areas of Peru; nevertheless, its presence or the extension of the problem in urban areas is basically unknown. Migration into Lima, an 8-million habitant's metropolis, creates peripheral areas where animals brought from endemic areas are slaughtered without veterinary supervision. We identified eight informal, unlicensed abattoirs in a peripheral district of Lima and performed a cross-sectional study in to assess the prevalence of canine echinococcosis, evaluated by coproELISA followed by PCR evaluation and arecoline purge. Eight of 22 dogs (36% were positive to coproELISA, and four (18% were confirmed to be infected with E. granulosus tapeworms either by PCR or direct observation (purge. Later evaluation of the human population living in these abattoirs using abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays and serology, found 3 out of 32 (9.3% subjects with echinococcal cysts in the liver (two viable, one calcified, one of whom had also lung involvement and a strongly positive antibody response. Autochthonous transmission of E. granulosus is present in Lima. Informal, unlicensed abattoirs may be sources of infection to neighbouring people in this urban environment.

  9. An Application Of Facility Location Models With Hotspot Analysis For Optimal Location Of Abattoir Bio-Energy Plant In Anambra State Of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Chukwuma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Poor waste management strategy in abattoir in the the study area has needs a major attention considering it negative impacts on man land and water. Sitting of centralized biogas plant in a strategic location in the state would be the major means of combating the environmental challenges of increase in abattoir waste generation as result of population explosion in the state. This study investigates optimal location for sitting central abattoir waste treatment facility in Anambra State of Nigeria using facility location models with hotspot analysis in GIS environment. The result of the study shows that Using centre of gravity model the central location was estimated to be at Xc Yc 6.900953016 6.110157865. Based on inadequacy of the model hotspot analysis operation was done the hotspot analysis delineated clusters of abattoirs significantly higher in bio-wastes production than the overall study area. The hotspot analysis shows that the West regions of the study area has many abattoir that is classified as hotspot abattoirs. Using the hotspot abattoirs as proposed sites for load-distance model three abattoirs were identified as proposed sites- Obosi slaugher house Nkpor Private slaughter house and Oye-olise Ogbunike slaugher house. Their load distance values are 17250.40058 16299.24005 and 18210.14631 respectively. The optimal location for construction of central abattoir bio-waste treatment facility based on the application of these location facility models and hotspot analysis is Nkpor private slaughter house or its environs.

  10. Factors associated with whole carcass condemnation rates in provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario 2001-2007: implications for food animal syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alton Gillian D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ontario provincial abattoirs have the potential to be important sources of syndromic surveillance data for emerging diseases of concern to animal health, public health and food safety. The objectives of this study were to: (1 describe provincially inspected abattoirs processing cattle in Ontario in terms of the number of abattoirs, the number of weeks abattoirs process cattle, geographical distribution, types of whole carcass condemnations reported, and the distance animals are shipped for slaughter; and (2 identify various seasonal, secular, disease and non-disease factors that might bias the results of quantitative methods, such as cluster detection methods, used for food animal syndromic surveillance. Results Data were collected from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs and the Ontario Cattlemen's Association regarding whole carcass condemnation rates for cattle animal classes, abattoir compliance ratings, and the monthly sales-yard price for various cattle classes from 2001-2007. To analyze the association between condemnation rates and potential explanatory variables including abattoir characteristics, season, year and commodity price, as well as animal class, negative binomial regression models were fit using generalized estimating equations (GEE to account for autocorrelation among observations from the same abattoir. Results of the fitted model found animal class, year, season, price, and audit rating are associated with condemnation rates in Ontario abattoirs. In addition, a subset of data was used to estimate the average distance cattle are shipped to Ontario provincial abattoirs. The median distance from the farm to the abattoir was approximately 82 km, and 75% of cattle were shipped less than 100 km. Conclusions The results suggest that secular and seasonal trends, as well as some non-disease factors will need to be corrected for when applying quantitative methods for syndromic surveillance

  11. Pre-slaughter cattle welfare indicators for use in commercial abattoirs with voluntary monitoring systems: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada-Espinosa, Natyieli; Villarroel, Morris; María, Gustavo A; Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C

    2018-04-01

    Animal welfare has become an important subject of public, economic and political concern, leading to the need to validate indicators that are feasible to use at abattoirs. A systematic review was carried out, which identified 72 cattle welfare indicators (CWI) that were classified into four categories (physiological, morphometric, behavioral and meat quality). Their validity and feasibility for use in abattoirs were evaluated as potential measures of cattle welfare during transportation to the abattoir and at the abattoir itself. Several highly valid indicators were identified that are useful to assess welfare at abattoirs, including body condition score, human-animal interactions, vocalizations, falling, carcass bruising, and meat pH. In addition, some intermediate valid indicators are useful and should be investigated further. Information along the food chain could be used systematically to provide a basis for a more-risk-based meat inspection. An integrated system based on the use of key indicators defined for each inspection step with the setting of alarm thresholds could be implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of source herd and abattoir factors on pig carcass Salmonella contamination evaluated by multilevel modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baptista, Filipa Matos; Dahl, Jan; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    In Denmark, a Surveillance-and-Control Programme for Salmonella in pigs has been in place for several years. This study investigated factors associated with Salmonella pig carcass contamination, namely estimated daily number of Salmonella seropositive pigs delivered to slaughter, average Salmonella...... seroprevalence of the source herds that delivered each of five pigs contributing to the pool, weekday, year, season and abattoir size. A total of 20128 pooled carcass swabs collected in 22 Danish abattoirs, from 2002 to 2008, were included in a multilevel logistic regression model. Study results indicate...... that the probability of Salmonella positive carcasses is mainly influenced by the Salmonella herd seroprevalence of the swabbed pigs, the number of seropositive pigs delivered to the abattoir on the same day and weekday. Further reduction in carcass pool Salmonella prevalence may require new or improved methods...

  13. Anaerobic treatment abattoir wastewater; Depuracion anaerobia de aguas residuales de mataderos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Borges, E.; Segovia Castillo, E.

    1998-12-01

    The different operations in the abattoirs generated complex effluents which can be treated by anaerobic digestion. The experiment described here used a 20-litre UASB anaerobic digester fitted with a solids separator. Three hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were tested: 4 days, 2.5 days and 16 days. These HRTs gave average efficiency rates for the removal of chemical oxygen demand of 59%, 45% and 37% respectively. The resulting organic loads under these conditions were 1.5 kg COD/m``3/day, 2.8 kgCOD/m``3/day and 4.3 kgCOD/m``3/day. (Author) 12 refs.

  14. Diagnostic efficiency of abattoir meat inspection service in Ethiopia to detect carcasses infected with Mycobacterium bovis: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffa, Demelash; Bogale, Asseged; Skjerve, Eystein

    2010-08-06

    Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resource. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. We evaluated efficiency of RA inspection for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection and discussed its public health implications in light of a high risk of human exposure. The study was conducted in five abattoirs: Addis Ababa, Adama, Hawassa, Yabello and Melge-Wondo abattoirs. The efficiency of routine abattoir (RA) inspection was validated in comparison to detailed abattoir (DA) inspection, followed by culture and microscopy (CM) and region of difference (RD) deletion analysis. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty) were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity) and likelihood estimations using web-based SISA diagnostic statistics software. Post-test probability of detecting TB infected carcasses was estimated using nomograms. Agreement between RA and DA inspections was measured using kappa statistics. The study was conducted and reported in accordance with standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy (STARD) requirements. Both routine and detailed meat inspection protocols were performed on a subpopulation of 3322 cattle selected randomly from among 78,269 cattle slaughtered during the study period. Three hundred thirty seven carcasses identified through detailed meat inspection protocols were subjected to culture and microscopy; of the 337, a subset of 105 specimens for culture and microscopy were subjected to further molecular testing. There was a substantial agreement between RA and DA inspections in Addis Ababa (Kappa = 0.7) and Melge-Wondo abattoirs (Kappa = 0.67). In Adama, Hawassa and Yabello abattoirs, the agreement was however poor (Kappa

  15. Occupational hazards among the abattoir workers associated with noncompliance to the meat processing and waste disposal laws in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi A

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Auwalu Abdullahi,1–3 Azmi Hassan,1 Norizhar Kadarman,2 Yakubu Muhammad Junaidu,3 Olanike Kudrat Adeyemo,4,5 Pei Lin Lua6 1Institute for Community Development and Quality of Life (i-CODE, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kampus Gong Badak, 2Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kampus Kota, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 3Department of Animal Health and Husbandry, Audu Bako College of Agriculture Dambatta, Kano, Nigeria; 4Center for Human and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 5Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 6Community Health Research Cluster, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kampus Gong Badak, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia Purpose: This study aims to investigate the occupational hazards among the abattoir workers associated with noncompliance to the meat processing and waste disposal laws in Terengganu State, Malaysia. Occupational hazards are the major source of morbidity and mortality among the animal workers due to exposure to many hazardous situations in their daily practices. Occupational infections mostly contracted by abattoir workers could be caused by iatrogenic or transmissible agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites and the toxins produced by these organisms. Materials and methods: The methodology was based on a cross-sectional survey using cluster sampling technique in the four districts of Terengganu State, Malaysia. One hundred and twenty-one abattoir workers from five abattoirs were assessed using a validated structured questionnaire and an observation checklist. Results: The mean and standard deviation of occupational hazards scores of the workers were 2.32 (2.721. Physical, chemical, biological, psychosocial, musculoskeletal, and ergonomics hazards

  16. The slaughter of increased numbers of pregnant cows in Tanga abattoir, Tanzania: A cause for concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel S. Swai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information on the level of foetal wastage in slaughtered cattle in Tanzania is limited. A three-month observational study (April – June 2014 of animals slaughtered at the Tanga abattoir in Tanga region, Tanzania was carried out to determine the number of pregnant cows slaughtered. The total number of cattle slaughtered during the study period was 3643, representing a monthly kill average of 1214 and a daily kill average of 40. Over 98% of the cattle presented to the abattoir for slaughter were local breed (Tanzania shorthorn zebu and most were above 3 years of age. Improved breeds of cattle represented only 1.3% of all slaughters. Of the cattle slaughtered, 2256 (61.9% were female and 1387 (38.1% were male. A total of 655 slaughtered cows were pregnant, representing a foetal wastage of 29.1%. Of the 655 recovered foetuses, 333 (50.8% were male and 322 (49.2% were female. Of the recovered foetuses, 25.8% were recovered in the first, 42.7% in the second and 31.6% in the third trimester. This study indicates cases of significant foetal losses, negatively impacting future replacement stock as a result of the slaughter of pregnant animals. The indiscriminate slaughter of pregnant cows suggests that existing animal welfare legislation is not sufficiently enforced and routine veterinary ante-mortem inspection of trade animals is failing to prevent the high level of foetal wastage.

  17. Study of microbial contamination of broilers in modern abattoirs in Khartoum state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Mohamed-Noor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the contaminating microorganisms that can be found on the breast, legs and backs of broilers during processing. A total of 81 swab samples from 27 carcasses were collected randomly from chicken carcasses slaughtered at modern poultry abattoir in Khartoum State, the Sudan. The samples were taken from 9 Critical Control Points (CCPs, namely; after bleeding with feathers, after scalding, after defeathering, after evisceration, after spray wash, after chilling and packing, workers’ hand, knives and Scalding water. Total Viable Count (TVC was carried for each sample besides isolation and identification of contaminating bacteria. The study revealed a statistically significant difference at P-value (p≤0.05 in the 9 CCPs between the legs, backs and breast respectively. The isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus and Salmonella species. Sudanese abattoirs may reflect the hygienic status of chicken meat production in the developing countries and the implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP in poultry industry is extremely important, because it involves the constant monitoring of all steps of the process.

  18. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouzrout Rachid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Results Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains (89% showed spoligotype patterns that were previously observed in strains from European cattle. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR typing supported a link between M. bovis strains from Algeria and France. One spoligotype pattern has also been shown to be frequent in M. bovis strains from Mali although the VNTR pattern of the Algerian strains differed from the Malian strains. Conclusion M. bovis infections account for a high amount of granulomatous lesions detected in Algerian slaughter cattle during standard meat inspection at Algiers and Blida abattoir. Molecular typing results suggested a link between Algerian and European strains of M. bovis.

  19. Bovine tuberculosis in Rwanda: Prevalence and economic impact evaluation by meat inspection at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo-Nyabugogo Abattoir, Kigali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habarugira, Gervais; Rukelibuga, Joseph; Nanyingi, Mark O; Mushonga, Borden

    2014-11-05

    Despite the significant public health burden of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Rwanda, the prevalence of bTB is poorly documented. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of bTB in cattle using gross examination of granulomatous lesions, to identify mycobacteria species in suspected samples, and to evaluate the economic impact of meat condemnation based on bTB-like lesions in the meat industry in Rwanda. Routine meat inspection was conducted at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo (SABAN)-Nyabugogo Abattoir. Tissue samples including 31 lymph nodes, 3 lungs and 2 livers were obtained from cattle of different ages with gross tuberculous lesions. Mycobacterium bovis was identified using microscopy with Kinyoun staining and isolation of mycobacterial species in culture on Löwenstein-Jensen and Colestos media, further identified using biochemical tests. Our findings, based on culture and postmortem results, show that the prevalence of bTB is 0.5%(0.587*148/16753), with an overall gross tuberculous lesion prevalence of 0.9% (148/16753). The presence of lesions were higher in cattle aged 2 years and older (1.6% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.05) and higher in females than in males (1.4% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.05). Of the 36 samples tested, 26 (72.2%) were positive by microscopic examination with Kinyoun staining while M. bovis was culture-confirmed in 21 (58.7%) cases. Bovine tuberculosis caused condemnation of 1683.5 kg of meat, resulting in an estimated loss of $4810. Our findings indicate that the prevalence of bTB in Rwanda is significant, and that bTB is a major cause of meat condemnation requiring continued implementation of surveillance and control measures. Furthermore, the results from this study also show important variations in sensitivity of the different tests that were used to determine the prevalence of bTB in cattle in Rwanda.

  20. Bovine tuberculosis in Rwanda: Prevalence and economic impact evaluation by meat inspection at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo-Nyabugogo Abattoir, Kigali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervais Habarugira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significant public health burden of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in Rwanda, the prevalence of bTB is poorly documented. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of bTB in cattle using gross examination of granulomatous lesions, to identify mycobacteria species in suspected samples, and to evaluate the economic impact of meat condemnation based on bTB-like lesions in the meat industry in Rwanda. Routine meat inspection was conducted at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo (SABAN-Nyabugogo Abattoir. Tissue samples including 31 lymph nodes, 3 lungs and 2 livers were obtained from cattle of different ages with gross tuberculous lesions. Mycobacterium bovis was identified using microscopy with Kinyoun staining and isolation of mycobacterial species in culture on Löwenstein–Jensen and Colestos media, further identified using biochemical tests. Our findings, based on culture and postmortem results, show that the prevalence of bTB is 0.5%(0.587*148/16753, with an overall gross tuberculous lesion prevalence of 0.9% (148/16753. The presence of lesions were higher in cattle aged 2 years and older (1.6% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.05 and higher in females than in males (1.4% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.05. Of the 36 samples tested, 26 (72.2% were positive by microscopic examination with Kinyoun staining while M. bovis was culture-confirmed in 21 (58.7% cases. Bovine tuberculosis caused condemnation of 1683.5 kg of meat, resulting in an estimated loss of $4810. Our findings indicate that the prevalence of bTB in Rwanda is significant, and that bTB is a major cause of meat condemnation requiring continued implementation of surveillance and control measures. Furthermore, the results from this study also show important variations in sensitivity of the different tests that were used to determine the prevalence of bTB in cattle in Rwanda.

  1. Cities, Towns and Villages, City limit boundaries for all municipalities in Ben Hill, Brooks, Cook, Echols, Lanier, Irwin, Lowndes, Tift and Turner Counties., Published in 2010, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Cities, Towns and Villages dataset current as of 2010. City limit boundaries for all municipalities in Ben Hill, Brooks, Cook, Echols, Lanier, Irwin, Lowndes, Tift...

  2. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  3. Antimicrobial drug resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry abattoir workers at risk and broilers on antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Oguttu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial usage in food animals increases the prevalence of antimicrobial drug resistance among their enteric bacteria. It has been suggested that this resistance can in turn be transferred to people working with such animals, e.g. abattoir workers. Antimicrobial drug resistance was investigated for Escherichia coli from broilers raised on feed supplemented with antimicrobials, and the people who carry out evisceration, washing and packing of intestines in a high-throughput poultry abattoir in Gauteng, South Africa. Broiler carcasses were sampled from 6 farms, on each of which broilers are produced in a separate 'grow-out cycle'. Per farm, 100 caeca were randomly collected 5 minutes after slaughter and the contents of each were selectively cultured for E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of each isolate was determined for the following antimicrobials : doxycycline, trimethoprim, sulphamethoxazole, ampicillin, enrofloxacin, fosfomycin, ceftriaxone and nalidixic acid. The same was determined for the faeces of 29 abattoir workers and 28 persons used as controls. The majority of isolates from broilers were resistant, especially to antimicrobials that were used on the farms in the study. Overall median MICs and the number of resistant isolates from abattoir workers (packers plus eviscerators tended to be higher than for the control group. However, no statistically significant differences were observed when the median MICs of antimicrobials used regularly in poultry and percentage resistance were compared, nor could an association between resistance among the enteric E. coli from packers and those from broilers be demonstrated.

  4. Adaptive municipal electronic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Pieternel; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    Adaptation of electronic forms (e-forms) seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer e-forms online that can be used by citizens to request a municipal product or service or by municipal employees to place a request on behalf of a

  5. Shedding and seroprevalence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in sheep and cattle at a New Zealand Abattoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, F; Collins-Emerson, J M; Cullum, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on sheep and cattle slaughtered at a New Zealand abattoir from September to November 2010 to investigate the supplier-specific shedding rate, renal carriage rate and seroprevalence of leptospires. In the 2008/2009 season, this abattoir experienced three human leptospirosis cases from 20 staff, of which two were hospitalized. Urine, kidney and blood samples were collected from carcasses of 399 sheep (six suppliers, 17 slaughter lines) and 146 cattle (three suppliers, 22 slaughter lines). The urine and kidney samples were tested by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), while serum samples (from coagulated blood samples) were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). In total, 27% (73/274; 95% CI: 18-37) of urine samples tested positive by qPCR. Species-specific shedding rates (prevalence of positive urine qPCR) were 31% (95% CI: 17-48) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 14-30) for cattle. For 545 kidney samples tested, 145 were qPCR positive (27%; 95% CI: 17-39). The average prevalence of kidney qPCR positivity was 29% (95% CI: 17-45) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 15-28) for cattle. Three hundred and thirty of 542 sampled sheep and cattle had antibodies against Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjobovis (Hardjobovis) and/or Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (Pomona), based on reciprocal MAT titre ≥1 : 48 (overall seroprevalence of 61%; 95% CI: 48-73). Seroprevalence was 57% (95% CI: 40-72) for sheep and 73% (95% CI: 59-83) for cattle. Among the seropositive animals, 41% (70/170; 95% CI: 30-54) were shedding (tested positive by urine qPCR) and 42% (137/330; 95% CI: 30-54) had renal carriage (tested positive by kidney qPCR). Some risk management options for abattoirs or farms to prevent human leptospirosis infections include vaccination of maintenance hosts, the use of personal protective equipment, and the application of urine qPCR to detect shedding status of stock as surveillance and as an alert. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag

  6. Abattoir based surveillance of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in the Sultanate of Oman during 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kitani, Fadya Abdullah; Al Riyami, Shumoos; Al Yahyai, Sabra; Al Rawahi, Abdulmajeed Hamood; Al Maawali, Mahir; Al Awahi, Abdulmajeed Hamood; Al Aawali, Mahir; Hussain, Muhammad Hammad

    2015-07-30

    A passive surveillance was conducted in 8 selected abattoirs belonging to 8 governorates of Oman. Routine slaughtering of 282.020 animals was observed during 2010-2013 by duty veterinarians and suspected samples (n=1440) for cystic echinococcosis (CE) from camels (n=292), cattle (n=303), goats (n=682) and sheep (n=163) were collected. In total, 587 (40.8%) samples were found positive for CE and the highest percentage (64.2%) of positive samples belonged to Dhofar (Salalah) as compared to other governorates, pOman and further molecular epidemiological work in different host species is required for the conceptualization of a comprehensive control program. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Soy Expansion and Socioeconomic Development in Municipalities of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Martinelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Soy occupies the largest area of agricultural land in Brazil, spreading from southern states to the Amazon region. Soy is also the most important agricultural commodity among Brazilian exports affecting food security and land use nationally and internationally. Here we pose the question of whether soy expansion affects only economic growth or whether it also boosts socioeconomic development, fostering education and health improvements in Brazilian municipalities where it is planted. To achieve this objective, we divided more than 5000 municipalities into two groups: those with >300 ha of soy (soy municipalities and those with <300 ha of soy (non-soy municipalities. We compared the Human Development Index (HDI and the Gini coefficient for income for these two groups of municipalities in 1991, 2000, and 2010. We made such comparison at the municipality level for the whole country, but we also grouped the municipalities by major geographical regions and states. We found that the HDI was higher in soy municipalities, especially in the agricultural frontier. That effect was not so clear in more consolidated agricultural regions of the country. Soy municipalities also had a higher Gini coefficient for income than non-soy municipalities. We concluded that soy could be considered a precursor of socioeconomic development under certain conditions; however, it also tends to be associated with an increase in income inequality, especially in the agricultural frontier.

  8. Assessment of different methods of bovine oocytes collection, maturation and in vitro fertilization of abattoir specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Saleh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is designed to evaluate the best methods for cow oocytes collection from abattoir specimens which is the cheapest, easily obtained and bulky number. Forty five fresh cow genitalia specimens and testicle were collected directly after slaughter from Al-Shoáalla abattoir north-west of Baghdad the capital early morning, transported in cool box under (4-8 °C to the laboratory of theriogenology in the College of Veterinary Medicine/Baghdad University during the period from November 2016 to February 2017. Ovaries were separated from the surrounding tissues, washed thoroughly with dis. water repeatedly, then with normal saline and finally with MEM medium containing Antibiotics and Nystatin for contaminant elimination. Oocytes were collected with four methods aspiration, slashing, slicing after aspiration and slicing. The result showed that; the collected oocytes were 55, 68, 87 and 106 oocytes respectively; slicing methods yield more oocytes count. Period of time between slaughtering and samples processing significantly affect oocytes collected percentage and quality, periods as 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours yield 75%, 68%, 61% and 55% oocytes counts of good, fair, poor to aged and bad quality oocytes respectively. Two hours period yield an elevated oocytes count with good quality. Maturation index of oocytes according to the type of collected methods showed 44, 37, 39 and 42 with 12, 8, 6 and 6 good oocyte quality for the four methods respectively. In conclusion slicing methods yield more oocytes count with a moderate quality and embryos production while aspiration methods yield a moderate oocytes count with an elevated quality and good embryos production.

  9. Variable abattoir conditions affect Salmonella enterica prevalence and meat quality in swine and pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, H S; Gailey, J K; McKean, J D; Griffith, R W

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that abattoir holding pens pose significant Salmonella enterica risk to swine immediately preharvest. The goal of this study was to evaluate those factors related to holding that increased the prevalence of S. enterica in swine at slaughter. To accomplish this goal, we focused on holding time and flooring. Our objectives were to (1) compare Salmonella enterica prevalence among pigs held for short (15-45 min) versus long (up to 4 h) periods before slaughter; and (2) determine the impact of flooring (slatted vs. concrete) as it relates to the prevalence of S. enterica. The study consisted of seven repetitions at a large volume (11,000 head/day) Midwest abattoir. Each repetition consisted of one truck load of pigs (n = 170) sorted into one of three groups: (1) animals held for a short time (15-45 min) on solid floors (short-hold); (2) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on slatted floors; and (3) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on solid concrete floors. At slaughter, samples were collected from 30 pigs in each group. Cecal contents (20 mL), feces (20 g), and the ileocecal lymph node were cultured for S. enterica. Additionally, the effect of holding time on meat quality parameters (loin pH at 35 min and 6 h, color, drip loss) was evaluated for the first four replicates. The proportion of S. enterica-positive samples was highest (p Meat quality, as measured by multiple parameters, was adversely affected by lack of a rest period. The mean 24-h pH was significantly lower for the short-hold group compared to the other two groups. The mean Minolta L and the drip loss were significantly higher in the short-hold group. From this and other studies, it appears that elimination of the holding process is not feasible S. enterica control option, given current U.S. harvesting systems.

  10. Sampling pig farms at the abattoir in a cross-sectional study − Evaluation of a sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2017-01-01

    slaughter pigs. It was not possible to visit farms within the designated timeframe. Therefore, it was decided to use convenience sampling at the abattoir. Our approach was carried out in three steps: 1) planning: using data from meat inspection to plan at which abattoirs and how many farms to sample; 2......A cross-sectional study design is relatively inexpensive, fast and easy to conduct when compared to other study designs. Careful planning is essential to obtaining a representative sample of the population, and the recommended approach is to use simple random sampling from an exhaustive list...... of units in the target population. This approach is rarely feasible in practice, and other sampling procedures must often be adopted. For example, when slaughter pigs are the target population, sampling the pigs on the slaughter line may be an alternative to on-site sampling at a list of farms. However...

  11. Retrospective diagnosis of Q fever in a country abattoir by the use of specific IgM globulin estimations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, A.M.; Hunt, J.G.

    1981-10-03

    Twenty-two cases of pyrexial illness which occurred amongst workers in a country abattoir were investigated retrospectively for Q fever, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. In 18, the illness was shown to be Q fever. No diagnoses were established for the other four. The demonstration of circulating Q-fever-specific IgM globulin was instrumental in establishing the diagnosis in many of the cases.

  12. Utilização dos sistemas de informação em saúde em municípios gaúchos de pequeno porte Utilización de los sistemas de información en salud en municipios gauchos de pequeño porte Use of health information systems in small municipalities in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Vidor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o uso dos sistemas de informação em saúde em cidades com menos de 10 mil habitantes. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado no estado do Rio de Grande do Sul, entre 2003 e 2004. Foi enviado um questionário auto-aplicável a gestores dos municípios, contendo 11 questões de escolha simples, três de escolha múltipla e três abertas, sobre a estrutura disponível, utilização das informações, indicadores valorizados e satisfação com os sistemas. O questionário foi respondido por gestores de 127 (37,7% dos municípios gaúchos com menos de 10 mil habitantes. As respostas foram tabuladas em planilha eletrônica e a diferença entre municípios respondentes e não-respondentes foi avaliada pelo teste qui-quadrado, considerando-se significativo p OBJETIVO: Describir el uso de los Sistemas de Información en Salud en ciudades con menos de 10 mil habitantes. MÉTODOS: Estudio realizado en estado de Rio Grande do Sul, Sur de Brasil, entre 2003 y 2004. Se envió un cuestionario auto-aplicable a gestores de los municipios, conteniendo 11 preguntas de selección simple, tres de selección múltiple y tres abiertas, sobre la estructura disponible, utilización de las informaciones, indicadores valorizados y satisfacci��n con los sistemas. El cuestionario fue respondido por gestores de 127 (37,7% de los municipios gauchos con menos de 10 mil habitantes. Las respuestas fueron tabuladas en planilla electrónica y la diferencia entre municipios que respondieron y que no respondieron fue evaluada por la prueba chi-cuadrado, considerándose significativo pOBJECTIVE: To describe the use of health information systems in towns with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants. METHODS: Study conducted in the state of Rio de Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, between 2003 and 2004. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to municipal managers, containing 11 single-choice questions, three multiple-choice questions and three open questions on the structure

  13. Modelling lamb carcase pH and temperature decline parameters: relationship to shear force and abattoir variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, David L; Holman, Benjamin W B; van de Ven, Remy J

    2015-02-01

    Carcase pH and temperature decline rates influence lamb tenderness; therefore pH decline parameters are beneficial when modelling tenderness. These include pH at temperature 18 °C (pH@Temp18), temperature when pH is 6 (Temp@pH6), and pH at 24 h post-mortem (pH24). This study aimed to establish a relationship between shear force (SF) as a proxy for tenderness and carcase pH decline parameters estimated using both linear and spline estimation models for the m. longissimus lumborum (LL). The study also compared abattoirs regarding their achievement of ideal pH decline, indicative of optimal tenderness. Based on SF measurements of LL and m. semimembranosus collected as part of the Information Nucleus slaughter programme (CRC for Sheep Industry Innovation) this study found significant relationships between tenderness and pH24LL, consistent across the meat cuts and ageing periods examined. Achievement of ideal pH decline was shown not to have significantly differed across abattoirs, although rates of pH decline varied significantly across years within abattoirs.

  14. Taenia hydatigena in pigs in Burkina Faso: A cross-sectional abattoir study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, Veronique; Ganaba, Rasmané; Cissé, Assana; Ouedraogo, Boubacar; Millogo, Athanase; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Van Hul, Anke; Gabriël, Sarah; Carabin, Hélène; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-10-30

    Taenia hydatigena is a non-zoonotic cestode that has canines as definitive hosts and ruminants and pigs as intermediate hosts. In pigs, its presence causes cross-reactivity in serological testing for Taenia solium cysticercosis. Therefore, knowledge on the occurrence of T. hydatigena is paramount for validly estimating the seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs. In a cross-sectional abattoir study, we estimated the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs slaughtered in Koudougou, Burkina Faso. Carcasses of 452 pigs were examined by investigators for perceived and suspected T. hydatigena cysticercus lesions in the abdominal cavity or on the surface of abdominal organs. Routine meat inspection was performed by local inspectors to identify T. solium cysticerci. All lesions were subjected to PCR-RFLP analysis in order to differentiate Taenia spp. Additionally, individual blood samples were examined for the presence of circulating cysticercus antigens using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. Perceived T. hydatigena cysticerci were found in 13 pigs, whereas meat inspectors found seven carcasses infected with T. solium cysticerci. All were confirmed by molecular analysis. Of pigs with other suspected lesions, mostly located in the liver, 27 and six were found to harbour T. hydatigena and T. solium cysticerci, respectively. Overall, 8.8% of pigs (40/452) were found infected with T. hydatigena and 2.9% (13/452) with T. solium. Of these positive pigs, one was found infected with both Taenia spp. (0.2%, 1/452). Blood samples of 48.5% of pigs (219/452) were positive in the Ag-ELISA. Pigs with confirmed cysts of T. hydatigena and T. solium had a positive Ag-ELISA result in 57.5% (23/40) and 61.5% (8/13) of cases, respectively. The observed T. hydatigena prevalence in this study is relatively high in comparison to other studies in Africa. Estimates of the occurrence of active porcine T. solium infection using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA should therefore be adjusted for the presence of T

  15. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  16. Esco in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to discuss the possible benefits of involving Energy Service Companies (ESCO) in realising energy savings in municipalities, and how ESCO projects can be formulated very differently in the various municipalities, according to building volume, use of technologies......, energy savings, type of collaboration etc. Background: Since 2008, several Danish municipalities have started energy retrofitting of municipal buildings, based on contracts with Energy Service Companies. In spite of the strong growth of ESCOs, there is also widespread scepticism about ESCO, as many...... approaches are being used in Danish municipalities, which we label the basic, the integrated and the strategic ESCO approaches. The three approaches include different ambitions, technologies, economies and innovation potentials. Whereas the basic approach implies a ‘traditional’ guarantee-based model...

  17. Sampling pig farms at the abattoir in a cross-sectional study - Evaluation of a sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2017-09-15

    A cross-sectional study design is relatively inexpensive, fast and easy to conduct when compared to other study designs. Careful planning is essential to obtaining a representative sample of the population, and the recommended approach is to use simple random sampling from an exhaustive list of units in the target population. This approach is rarely feasible in practice, and other sampling procedures must often be adopted. For example, when slaughter pigs are the target population, sampling the pigs on the slaughter line may be an alternative to on-site sampling at a list of farms. However, it is difficult to sample a large number of farms from an exact predefined list, due to the logistics and workflow of an abattoir. Therefore, it is necessary to have a systematic sampling procedure and to evaluate the obtained sample with respect to the study objective. We propose a method for 1) planning, 2) conducting, and 3) evaluating the representativeness and reproducibility of a cross-sectional study when simple random sampling is not possible. We used an example of a cross-sectional study with the aim of quantifying the association of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial consumption in Danish slaughter pigs. It was not possible to visit farms within the designated timeframe. Therefore, it was decided to use convenience sampling at the abattoir. Our approach was carried out in three steps: 1) planning: using data from meat inspection to plan at which abattoirs and how many farms to sample; 2) conducting: sampling was carried out at five abattoirs; 3) evaluation: representativeness was evaluated by comparing sampled and non-sampled farms, and the reproducibility of the study was assessed through simulated sampling based on meat inspection data from the period where the actual data collection was carried out. In the cross-sectional study samples were taken from 681 Danish pig farms, during five weeks from February to March 2015. The evaluation showed that the sampling

  18. Occurrence of bovine tuberculosis at Nyala abattoirs in South Darfur State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Aljameel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of tuberculosis in cattle slaughtered at Nyala abattoirs, South Darfur State, Sudan during the period April 2006 – May 2008. In total 2794 cattle were examined for tuberculous lesions. Tuberculous lesions (n = 163 were found in 40 (1.4% animals, among which seven had generalized tuberculosis and 33 localized tuberculosis, mainly in the lungs, thoracic lymph nodes, and/or in the liver, spleen, kidneys and mesenteric lymph nodes. Tissue samples were collected either in 10% formal saline for routine histopathology or in ice packs for direct microscopy and culturing. Direct microscopy showed that 124 (76.1% tuberculous lesions harbored acid fast bacilli, whereas 17 (10.4% isolates of Mycobacterium spp. were recovered in pure Lowenstein-Jensen medium cultures and identified as M. bovis (n = 11 and M. farcinogenes (n = 6. Granulomatous inflammation was evident in all sections of tuberculous lesions. Further studies are needed to identify mycobacteria species causing tuberculosis in other animal species.

  19. Bacterial populations associated with the dirty area of a South African poultry abattoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geornaras, I; de Jesus, A E; von Holy, A

    1998-06-01

    Bacterial populations associated with three sample types from the neck region of poultry carcasses in the dirty area of an abattoir were characterized. Sample types before and after scalding were skin only, feathers only, and a skin and feather combination. The neck skin of carcasses after the defeathering processing stage was also sampled. Bacterial populations associated with water from the scald tank, rubber fingers at the exit of the defeathering machine, and air in the dirty area were also characterized. Bacterial colonies (751) were randomly isolated from yeast extract-supplemented tryptone soya agar plates exhibiting 30 to 300 colonies. Micrococcus spp. were isolated in the highest proportion from pre-and postscalded carcass samples (63.5 to 86.1% of isolates), regardless of the sample type. Conversely, Enterobacteriaceae (40.3%), Acinetobacter (19.4%), and Aeromonas/Vibrio (12.5%) species predominated on neck skin samples taken from mechanically defeathered carcasses. Isolates from the rubber fingers were, however, predominantly Micrococcus spp. (94.4%). Bacterial groups isolated in the highest proportion from scald tank water samples were Micrococcus spp. (38.3%), species of Enterobacteriaceae (29.1%), and lactic acid bacteria (17.0%). Corynebacterium spp., species of Enterobacteriaceae, and Micrococcus spp. were dominant on air settle plates.

  20. Study onthe prevalence of pulmonary lesions of slaughtered sheep at Urmia abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdollah araghisoureh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In regard to importance of various pathologic factors affecting respiratory system and its role in the selection of specific therapies in the sheep, 626 slaughtered sheep were examined to describe the pathological lesions of lower respiratory tract at Urmia abattoir. A total of 114/626 lungs (18.12% with macroscopic lesions were condemned and macro-microscopically examined. The specimens were processed through routine method for paraffin embedded sectioning (5-7micron and stained by Hematoxillin& Eosin method. Incidence of lesions in order of frequency were interstitial pneumonia (51; 8.14%,verminous pneumonia(23;3.67%, atelectasis (22; 3.51%, granulomatous pneumonia (22;3.51%, chronic bronchitis (21; 3.35%, fibrosis (13;2.07%, adenocarcinomas  (11;1.75%,chronic bronchiolitis  (10;1.59%, hydatic cyst  (8;1.27 %, pulmonary abscesses (7;1.11%, emphysema (6;0.95%, pleuritis (2;0.31% and pulmonary edema (2;0.319%. The result of this study showed that interstitial pneumonia was interestingly predominant among other lesions of condemned lungs which may reflect a seasonal difference.

  1. Pathological findings of condemned bovine liver specimens and associated economic loss at Nyabugogo abattoir, Kigali, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habarugira, Gervais; Mbasinga, Gloria; Mushonga, Borden; Chitura, Teedzai; Kandiwa, Erick; Ojok, Lonzy

    2016-12-01

    There are no published abattoir bovine hepatic lesion prevalence studies in cattle in Rwanda. This study estimated that 12.3% of the livers (n=4751) examined at Nyabugogo slaughterhouse in Kigali were condemned. Condemnation prejudiced the nation of 3492.00kg of meat with attendant economic losses of US$8932.40 during the study period. Risk factors for these lesions were also assessed. Male and female animals from 11 districts were used in this study. Hepatic lesions were higher in females (14.6%; n=1494) than in males (11.1%; n=3257). About 78.7% of the condemnations were due to fascioliasis, followed by abscesses (5.7%), hepatitis (5.3%), cirrhosis (4%) and other lesions (6.3%). Female animal livers showed more fascioliasis and abscesses (82.2% and 9.5%) than male animal livers (73.3% and 3.3%). The highest rate of condemnation was observed from Kayonza (40.2%; n=413) and the least was from Gakenke district (0.9%; n=1031). Cattle from the Eastern Province showed significantly (PRwanda. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of Linguatula serrata Infection in Domestic Bovids Slaughtered in Tabriz Abattoir, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Anaraki-Mohammadi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground:  Linguatulosis is a rare zoonotic parasitic infection, in which human plays the role of both defini­tive and intermediate host and can be occasionally infected. This study determines the status of infection in live­stock and its po­tential risk to men in the northwestern province of Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi, Iran. "nMethods: In a cross-sectional study from June 2007 to June 2008, 800 slaughtered animals including 400 cattle and 400 buffaloes from Tabriz abattoir in Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi Province were randomly selected and examined for L. serrata nymphs. After primary macroscopical inspection, all liver and lung samples were cut to small pieces, treated with a tissue digestion method and checked macroscopically and micro­scopically for free or encapsulated nymphs. "nResults: Out of 800 animals, 3 (0.38% were found to be infected with L. serrata nymphs and the preva­lence of infection in cattle and buffaloes was determined to be 0.25% and 0.5%, respectively. "nConclusion: Linguatula infection occurs as an endemic zoonosis in the study area and has an active transmission life cycle.

  3. Detection of asymptomatic renal Leptospira infection in abattoir slaughtered cattle in southeastern Georgia, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekumari Rajeev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic infectious diseases affecting humans and animals. Several animal species, including cattle, can act as potential asymptomatic carriers facilitating zoonotic transmission of Leptospira. This study was conducted to assess the occurrence of asymptomatic renal Leptospira carriers among cattle slaughtered in southeastern Georgia, United States. Methods: A battery of diagnostic tests, including dark field microscopy, direct fluorescent antibody staining, polymerase chain reaction, and culture, were performed on a set of bovine kidneys (n = 37 collected from an abattoir in southeastern Georgia, United States. Virulence of a field isolate obtained from this study was tested in a hamster experimental model. Results: Motile spirochete-like structures were observed by dark field microscopy in 23 (59% out of 37 kidney samples tested. In all, 29 samples (78% were positive by direct fluorescent antibody staining. Only 11 (29.7% samples by polymerase chain reaction and 3 (8.1% by culture were positive for Leptospira sp. The isolates obtained by culture were confirmed as Leptospira borgpetersenii. Hamsters experimentally infected with one of the Leptospira field isolates obtained from this study did not show clinical signs but developed renal infection with interstitial nephritis and tubular necrosis. Conclusions: This study confirms that asymptomatic Leptospira renal infection is present among cattle in the region. Our findings underscore the need for future studies to assess the potential environmental contamination and transmission to humans in contact with infected cattle.

  4. Detection of asymptomatic renal Leptospira infection in abattoir slaughtered cattle in southeastern Georgia, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilha, Marcia; Woldemeskel, Moges; Berghaus, Roy D; Pence, Mel E

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic infectious diseases affecting humans and animals. Several animal species, including cattle, can act as potential asymptomatic carriers facilitating zoonotic transmission of Leptospira. This study was conducted to assess the occurrence of asymptomatic renal Leptospira carriers among cattle slaughtered in southeastern Georgia, United States. Methods: A battery of diagnostic tests, including dark field microscopy, direct fluorescent antibody staining, polymerase chain reaction, and culture, were performed on a set of bovine kidneys (n = 37) collected from an abattoir in southeastern Georgia, United States. Virulence of a field isolate obtained from this study was tested in a hamster experimental model. Results: Motile spirochete-like structures were observed by dark field microscopy in 23 (59%) out of 37 kidney samples tested. In all, 29 samples (78%) were positive by direct fluorescent antibody staining. Only 11 (29.7%) samples by polymerase chain reaction and 3 (8.1%) by culture were positive for Leptospira sp. The isolates obtained by culture were confirmed as Leptospira borgpetersenii. Hamsters experimentally infected with one of the Leptospira field isolates obtained from this study did not show clinical signs but developed renal infection with interstitial nephritis and tubular necrosis. Conclusions: This study confirms that asymptomatic Leptospira renal infection is present among cattle in the region. Our findings underscore the need for future studies to assess the potential environmental contamination and transmission to humans in contact with infected cattle. PMID:26770734

  5. Evidence of Rickettsia and Orientia Infections Among Abattoir Workers in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Katherine C; Jiang, Ju; Maina, Alice; Dueger, Erica; Zayed, Alia; Ahmed, Ammar Abdo; Pimentel, Guillermo; Richards, Allen L

    2016-08-03

    Of 49 workers at a Djiboutian abattoir, eight (16%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9-29) were seropositive against spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), two (4%, 95% CI: 1-14) against typhus group rickettsiae, and three (6%, 95% CI: 2-17) against orientiae. One worker (9%, 95% CI: 2-38) seroconverted against orientiae during the study period. This is the first evidence of orientiae exposure in the Horn of Africa. SFGR were also identified by polymerase chain reaction in 32 of 189 (11%, 95% CI: 8-15) tick pools from 26 of 72 (36%) cattle. Twenty-five (8%, 95% CI: 6-12) tick pools were positive for Rickettsia africae, the causative agent of African tick-bite fever. Health-care providers in Djibouti should be aware of the possibility of rickettsiae infections among patients, although further research is needed to determine the impact of these infections in the country. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Prevalence of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Enterobacteriaceae on Hands of Workers in Halal Cattle Abattoirs in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsul, Bahri Mohd Tamrin; Adamu, Muhammad Tukur; Mohd Desa, Mohd Nasir; Khairani-Bejo, Siti

    2016-01-01

    Background Several occupational diseases of multiple origins are encountered among abattoir workers. Presence of indicator microorganisms (coliforms) on hands of workers can be used a gauge for hygienic practices. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of E.coli and enterobacteriaceae among Halal abattoir workers in some government halal abattoirs of Malaysia. A total of one hundred and sixty-five hand swab samples were collected from workers of Halal abattoirs in Malaysia. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis for characterisation and serotyping. Results The results have shown that no Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated on the hands of abattoir workers before and after work. However, a total prevalence of 9.7% was recorded for all samples during work. For non-O157:H7, total prevalence of 33.3% during work and 13% after work were obtained. High prevalence was recorded in sample taken during work from Tampin, Jasin and Kemaman (100% each) while low prevalence where observed in Shah Alam, Banting and Ipoh (20% each). Conclusions Based on the findings the hygienic practices of hand washing among the workers in few locations was found to be low especially after work. PMID:27904427

  7. Prevalence of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Enterobacteriaceae on Hands of Workers in Halal Cattle Abattoirs in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsul, Bahri Mohd Tamrin; Adamu, Muhammad Tukur; Mohd Desa, Mohd Nasir; Khairani-Bejo, Siti

    2016-09-01

    Several occupational diseases of multiple origins are encountered among abattoir workers. Presence of indicator microorganisms (coliforms) on hands of workers can be used a gauge for hygienic practices. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of E.coli and enterobacteriaceae among Halal abattoir workers in some government halal abattoirs of Malaysia. A total of one hundred and sixty-five hand swab samples were collected from workers of Halal abattoirs in Malaysia. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis for characterisation and serotyping. The results have shown that no Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated on the hands of abattoir workers before and after work. However, a total prevalence of 9.7% was recorded for all samples during work. For non-O157:H7, total prevalence of 33.3% during work and 13% after work were obtained. High prevalence was recorded in sample taken during work from Tampin, Jasin and Kemaman (100% each) while low prevalence where observed in Shah Alam, Banting and Ipoh (20% each). Based on the findings the hygienic practices of hand washing among the workers in few locations was found to be low especially after work.

  8. Esco in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to discuss the possible benefits of involving Energy Service Companies (ESCO) in realising energy savings in municipalities, and how ESCO projects can be formulated very differently in the various municipalities, according to building volume, use of technologies...... municipalities see an in-house approach as a better alternative. Approach (Theory/Methodology): Our research is based on literature studies and on qualitative interviews with Danish municipalities carrying out ESCO projects, as well as with ESCO providers. Results: Our studies suggest that different ESCO......, with relatively few buildings, energy retrofitting and low investments, the integrative and strategic approach include a higher degree of partnership, a more ambitious building renovation approach, and more innovative understandings of facilities management. We also compare ESCO with energy retrofitting as an in...

  9. Municipal Building Energy Usage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set contains energy use data from 2009-2014 for 139 municipally operated buildings. Metrics include: Site & Source EUI, annual electricity, natural...

  10. Municipal Decision-Making Factors Relative to Cable Television Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Richard E., Ed.

    A study was made to identify and provide information and factors which should be taken into consideration by a municipality in its development of policy regarding the ownership, franchising, and ordinance issues involved in cable television. Since the report discusses Southern California activities, specifically those of the San Gabriel Valley, it…

  11. Study of Zoonotic Tissue Parasites (Hydatid Cyst, Fasciola, Dicrocoelium and Sarcocystis in Hamadan Abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fallah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Zoonotic parasites are large groups of zoonoses among which the most important are hydatid cyst, liver trematodes and sarcocystis.These zoonoses are of considerable importance regarding both human health and economy. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of tissue zoonotic parasites and their epidemiologic status in Hamadan and to estimate the health and medical burden they impose on the society.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study, viscera (including liver, lung, kidney, heart,… and muscles of 2590 sheep, 420 cattle, and 490 goats were macroscopically inspected for hydatid cysts, liver flukes, cysticercus , and microscopically (for Sarcocystis in the Hamadan abattoir. The data were presented by descriptive tables and analyzed by 2 statistical test. Results: The infection rate for hydatid cyst, Fasciola, Dicrocoelium and Sarcocystis were found 12.3%, 4.9%, 6.5%, and 5.5% respectively. The high infection rates for hydatid cyst and Fasciola were found in cattle (16.2% and 9.5% and for Dicrocoelium and Sarcocystis were found in sheep (6.9%. Infection rate of lungs was higher (41.2% than liver (36.6% and liver and lung simultaneously were 22.2% in the infected animals. Infection to Sarcocystis and Cysticercus were not found in the cattle. Conclusion: This study indicated that infection rate of tissue zoonotic parasites are relatively high in the domestic animals of Hamadan , however, the rate is lower in comparison to the previous studies. These parasites had imposed considerable economic burden on the society through reduction in the dairy production and increased the risk of infection in the population as well. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3: 5-12

  12. Heavy metal residues in beef carcasses in Beni-Suef abattoir, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy A. Khalafalla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 300 samples were collected from cattle slaughtered in the Beni-Suef abattoir in Egypt. Samples included muscle, liver and kidney. Animals were randomly selected from the slaughter line. The age of the slaughtered cattle was less than three years (18-30 months. Samples were packed separately in plastic bags, identified and stored at -18°C until analysis which was performed at the Max Rubner Institute in Kulmbach, Germany, for the following heavy metals residues: lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, chromium and nickel in beef muscle, liver and kidney samples. The results revealed that the overall mean residual levels of lead were 8.77 µg/kg, 42.70 µg/kg and 109.42 µg/kg fresh weight in muscle, liver and kidney samples, respectively, while the mean residual levels of cadmium were 1.40 µg/kg, 14.16 µg/kg and 62.56 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively, and the mean arsenic residual levels were 5.06 µg/kg, 4.64 µg/kg and 14.92 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively. The mean residual levels of mercury were 3.91 µg/kg, 5.81 µg/kg and 10.14 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively, and the residual levels of chromium were 11.20 µg/kg, 21.85 µg/kg and 25.49 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively. Finally, the mean residual levels of nickel were 21.17 µg/kg, 14.59 µg/kg and 34.95 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively. The mean values of all heavy metals examined were low and did not exceed the permissible limits adopted by different organisations. Most heavy metals accumulated in higher concentrations in the kidney in comparison to the liver and muscle.

  13. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated abattoir wastewaters in an upflow anaerobic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gannoun, H.; Bouallagui, H.; Okbi, A.; Sayadi, S.; Hamdi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The hydrolysis pretreatment of abattoir wastewaters (AW), rich in organic suspended solids (fats and protein) was studied in static and stirred batch reactors without aeration in the presence of natural microbial population acclimated in a storage tank of AW. Microbial analysis showed that the major populations which contribute to the pretreatment of AW belong to the genera Bacillus. Contrary to the static pretreatment, the stirred conditions favoured the hydrolysis and solubilization of 80% of suspended matter into soluble pollution. The pretreated AW, in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days, was fed to an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) at an HRT of 2 days. The performance of anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated AW was examined under mesophilic (37 deg. C) and thermophilic (55 deg. C) conditions. The shifting from a mesophilic to a thermophilic environment in the UAF was carried out with a short start-up of thermophilic condition. The UAF ran at organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 0.9 to 6 g COD/L d in mesophilic conditions and at OLRs from 0.9 to 9 g COD/L d in thermophilic conditions. COD removal efficiencies of 80-90% were achieved for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/L d in mesophilic conditions, while the highest OLRs i.e. 9 g COD/L d led to efficiencies of 70-72% in thermophilic conditions. The biogas yield in thermophilic conditions was about 0.32-0.45 L biogas/g of COD removed for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/L d. For similar OLR, the UAF in mesophilic conditions showed lower percentage of methanization. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion has been shown to destroy pathogens partially, whereas the thermophilic process was more efficient in the removal of indicator microorganisms and pathogenic bacteria at different organic loading rates.

  14. Prevalence of bovine brucellosis in slaughtered cattle and barriers to better protection of abattoir workers in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoola, Modupe Comfort; Akinseye, Victor Oluwatoyin; Cadmus, Eniola; Awosanya, Emmanuel; Popoola, Olufemi Akinyele; Akinyemi, Oluwaseun Oladapo; Perrett, Lorraine; Taylor, Andrew; Stack, Judy; Moriyon, Ignacio; Cadmus, Simeon Idowu

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is a neglected zoonosis of public health importance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis among slaughtered cattle as well as challenges to the protection of abattoir workers in Nigeria. A slaughterhouse study was conducted in a major abattoir in Ibadan from March to August, 2013. To diagnose brucellosis, serum samples from 1,241 slaughtered cattle were tested using Rose-Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA); again, 57 milk samples were tested with milk ring test (MRT) and indirect ELISA (iELISA). Furthermore, a survey on the usage of personal protective equipment (PPE) and challenges to its use by abattoir workers was done. Data were analysed using Stata 12. Seroprevalence by RBT was 7.8%; 77.3% (75/97) of these were corroborated by cELISA. Prevalence in milk samples by MRT and indirect ELISA were 33.3% and 3.5%, respectively. Sex (OR: 2.5; 95%CI:1.3-4.5) was the factor significantly associated with Brucella seropositivity. None of the abattoir workers used standard protective overalls; while, 99.6% of the meat handlers and 84.1% of the butchers worked barefoot. Most of the workers (75.7%) wore no protective gloves. The respondents agreed that provision of free PPE and sanctions against non-users would encourage its use. Our findings indicate moderate prevalence (7.8%) of bovine brucellosis with sex of cattle being a risk factor. A notable barrier to better protection of abattoir workers against brucellosis is perceived inconvenience arising from use of gloves. Therefore, preventive and control measures against brucellosis must include education and use of PPE among abattoir workers.

  15. Representative of the municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellnou Barcelo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The decommissioning of the Vandellos-I nuclear power plant was a big challenge for the host community of Vandellos i l'Hospitalet de l'Infant and the close-by region. Closing down of the facility resulted in a rise of unemployment and a decrease of municipal income. The public was concerned with three issues: safety, transparency and information about the decommissioning, and economic future. Therefore, from the very beginning, municipal governments entered into negotiations with ENRESA on socio-economic benefits, including local employment in dismantling activities, and other types of financial and non-financial compensation. The ADE business association, i.e. a network of business organisations was created that guided the allotment of work to local firms. To satisfy public demand, local municipalities focused on the triad of safety, dialogue and local development, considered the three 'pillars of trust'. A Municipal Monitoring Commission was created, made up of representatives of affected municipalities, the regional government, the ADE business association, trade unions, the local university, the NPP management and ENRESA to monitor the dismantling process and regularly inform the local public. Items that were handled by this Commission included: - Work process monitoring. - Workers. - Materials Control. - Conventional and radioactive or contaminated waste management. - Emanation waste management (liquid and gas) - Safety (training and accidents). - Surveillance (radiological and environmental: dust, noise). - Effects. - Fulfillment of agreed conditions. A number of communication tools and channels were used, e.g., public information meetings, an information centre, the municipal magazine, the municipal radio station, and meetings with representatives of the local press. Particularly innovative was the idea to ask academics from the University of Tarragona to help with 'translating' technical information into language that could

  16. Prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in a municipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 12 month cross-sectional study was carried out at Lafenwa Abattoir Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria from July, 2011 to June, 2012. This was to determine the prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in this abattoir. A total of 928 cases of bovine tuberculosis out of 52,273 cattle slaughtered during this period ...

  17. ESCO in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2013-01-01

    development with international ESCO experience as well as refer to public innovation literature. Combined with empirical case studies on ESCO contracting, we discuss factors and conditions that influence decisions on ESCO, the flexibility of ESCO contracts and whether it implies an innovative process...... mainly been used in the industry so far, but in recent years more and more municipalities have taken up ESCO initiatives, in order to retrofit existing public buildings, and to make them more energy efficient. ESCO is in many ways a new way of collaboration for Danish municipalities, and therefore...... in municipalities ESCOs have received much attention in different Danish energy-.efficiency policies, where ESCOs are often described as a promising way to achieve energy savings in existing housing and to overcome barriers encountered by other attempts at energy savings. Instead of assessing ESCO only...

  18. Municipal energy managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    On 1 and 2 July, municipal energy managers from all over Europe met in Stuttgart, Germany. On these two days, more the 150 participants form 22 countries listened to presentations, took part in excursions to cutting-edge energy conservation projects in Stuttgart and, above all, participated in a broad array of workshops presented by experts firmly grounded in local practice. 27 experts drawn from 11 European countries showcased their projects and imparted their experience. The event has been accompanied by an exhibition of companies and service providers offering energy-conservation products and planning services. The first workshop dealt with energy management in Europe and examples from different active municipalities; the second one with energy management in Germany and best practice in the leading cities; the third one with non-municipal and European projects. (A.L.B.)

  19. Slaughter of pregnant cattle in German abattoirs--current situation and prevalence: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Patric; Lücker, Ernst; Riehn, Katharina

    2016-06-07

    The slaughter of pregnant cattle and the fate of the foetuses are relatively new subjects in the field of animal welfare. The Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measures relating to Public Health (SCVPH), however, does not believe this topic to be a critical issue because of the hitherto supposed rare occurrence of this practice. Some previous studies though, contradict this assessment, emphasising its relevance to animal welfare. With regard to the heterogeneous study design of previous investigations, the objective of this study is to evaluate the current situation concerning the slaughter of pregnant cattle in different German abattoirs. Additionally, the prevalence was assessed semi-quantitatively on the basis of a cross-sectional, voluntary and anonymous survey that was conducted amongst senior veterinary students of the University of Leipzig from 2010 until 2013. Of 255 evaluable questionnaires, 157 (63.6%) mention the slaughter of pregnant cattle, corresponding to 76.9% of all visited abattoirs. Slaughter of pregnant cattle is reported often (>10% of females) in 6 (3.8%), frequently (1-10% of females) in 56 (35.7%), and rarely (current situation is indispensable to ensure the high standards in animal welfare in Germany and Europe.

  20. Blood Collection from Local Abattoirs for Mass Production of Tsetse Flies to be used in the Sterile Insect Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byamungu, M B; Kiimbisa, B; Matembo, S; Mashenga, G [Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Research Institute, P.O. Box 1026, Tanga (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    The mass production of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires a supply of quality blood. For some years already cattle blood has been used as food for laboratory reared flies. The blood is collected from an abattoir using standard procedures. The collection procedures, handling and storage require aseptic conditions to avoid contamination of the blood, which could be fatal to the flies. Fly mortality caused by low quality blood endangers the success of mass rearing. To rear healthy flies with good survival and production the blood should be of good quality - free of contamination and with a packed cell volume (PCV) above 25%. The present work involved the seasonal collection of blood from abattoirs in the United Republic of Tanzania (Tanga, Arusha, Dodoma, Dar-es-salaam). Dodoma was identified as having the best conditions for blood collection. To assess the quality of the blood as a diet for tsetse, blood was screened for the presence of bacteria, and the pathogens were identified. Protocols were developed for blood quality assurance. (author)

  1. Investigation of antibiotic residues in edible tissues of slaughtered broilers in Maragheh abattoir using FPT method (short comunication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Abasi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic residues in food stuff and their transmission to the consumers have some consequences such as bacterial resistance, allergic reactions, intoxication, carcinogenic effects and disturbing of intestine natural flora. Among microbiologic methods, four plate test (FPT is used to detect antibiotic residues in food stuff, which performs in four culture media with different pH values and test bacteria. The aim of this study was investigation of antibiotic residues in edible tissues of slaughtered broilers in Maragheh abattoir using FPT method. For this reason, 40 slaughtered broilers carcasses in Maragheh abattoir (from 10 different poultry farms were sampled. The sampling was conducted randomly from breast and leg muscles, gizzard as well as liver of each carcass. According to results of current study, 60% of liver samples, 55% of leg samples, 52.5% of breast samples and 52.5% of gizzard samples contained antibiotic residues. Moreover, the amount of antibiotic residues among different samples did not show statistical significance (p>0.05. The highest occurrence of antibiotic residue was found in two flocks (100% and the lowest occurrence was recorded for another two flocks (0%. According to the health hazard of antibiotic residues in foods, continuous monitoring is recommended for edible tissues of broilers.

  2. Farm to abattoir conditions, animal factors and their subsequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and beef quality — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonela Zifikile Njisane

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current review seeks to highlight the concerns that have been raised on pre-slaughter stress, contributing factors and its consequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and the quality of beef; inter-linking the activities involved from birth to slaughter. Such information is crucial in light of the consumer concerns on overall animal welfare, quality of meat and food security. Slaughter animals are exposed to different conditions during production and transportation to abattoirs on a daily basis. However; the majority of studies that have been done previously singled out different environments in the meat production chain, while conclusions have been made that the welfare of slaughter animals and the quality of meat harvested from them is dependent on the whole chain. Behaviour is a critical component used to evaluate the animals’ wellbeing and it has been reported to have an effect on product quality. Apart from the influence of on-farm, transportation and abattoir conditions, the genetic background of the animal also affects how it perceives and responds to certain encounters. Stress activates the animals’ hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, triggering release of various stress hormones such as catecholamines and cortisol, thus glycogen depletion prior slaughter, elevated ultimate pH and poor muscle-meat conversion. Pre-slaughter stress sometimes results to cattle attaining bruises, resulting to the affected parts of the carcass being trimmed and condemned for human consumption, downgrading of the carcass and thus profit losses.

  3. Prevalence of Linguatula Serrata Nymphs in Mesenteric Lymph Nodes of Cattle and Buffaloes Slaughtered in Ahvaz Abattoir, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Haddad Molayan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Linguatula serrata, one of the parasitic zoonoses, inhabits the canine respiratory system (final hosts. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of L. serrata nymphs in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs of cattle and buffaloes (intermediate hosts that were processed in the Ahvaz, Iran abattoir.Methods: During November 2010 to March 2011, 223 animals (119 cattle and 104 buffaloes, in differ­ent sex and three age groups (3 years old were sampled randomly at Ahvaz abattoir. Up to 35 grams of their mesenteric lymph nodes were examined separately for nymphal stages of L. serrata by digesting the samples with acid- pepsin method, collected the nymphs and counted under stereomicroscope.Results: Overall 37(16.6% of 223 animals were infected with L. serrata nymphs in their mesenteric lymph nodes. Prevalence of the infection in cattle and buffaloes were 16.8% and 16.3% respectively. The number of collected nymphs of MLNs was ranged from 1 to 16. No significant differences were seen in the infection rates between males and females (sexes and age groups in the cattle and buffa­loes (P <0.05.Conclusion: Linguatula serrata has an active life cycle in the studied area and a zoonotic potential for transmission between animal and human. Avoiding use of raw MLNs to dogs can help reduce the infection.

  4. Seasonal evaluation of serumal Ca, P and ALP of slaughtered cattle in Tabriz abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Rezaei-Saber

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing knowledge of metabolic disorders and prevention of any prduction decrease is beneficial in animal breeding. Problems related to calcium and phosphorus deficiency in high producing animals are among the most important metabolic disorders with disease such as osteomalacia, rickets, milk fever, pos parturition hemoglobinuria and reproductive disorders named as the metabolic complications. This study was conducted on non pregnant crossbreed dairy cattle. In the middle of each season with daily referral to the abattoir, blood samples were collected in veneject tubes and after transfer to the laboratory, the serumic levels of Ca, P and ALP were measured by spectrophotometry. One hundred samples for each season and a total of 400 samples were studied. The mean serumic levels of Ca, P and ALP were 8.83±0.02 mg/dl, 3.88±0.07 mg/dl, 163.4±0.8 Iu/lit; 9.05±0.03mg/dl, 4.19±0.01mg/dl, 240.7±1.2 Iu/lit; 9.03±0.07 mg/dl, 5.33±0.02mg/dl, 185.06±2.3 Iu/lit and 9.33±0.09 mg/dl, 5.74±0.08 mg/dl, 230.03±7.4 Iu/lit, in the spring, summer, autumn and winter respectively. Considering the normal Ca, P and ALP values in cattle, 6.3% and 83% of cases had Ca and P deficiency respectively in the spring, 80% of cases had subclinical phosphorus deficiency in the summer, 7.3% of cases had subclinical phosphorus deficiency in the autumn and 9.45% and 7.36% of cases had Ca deficiency and ALP elevation respectively in the winter. The significant decrease in Ca and P levels in the spring and P levels in the summer (p

  5. Measurements for municipalities 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kuhry; J.J.J. Jonker; with participation of M. Ras

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Maten voor gemeenten 2007. Measurements for municipalities 2007 presents a national picture of the performance delivered by local authorities and the costs of doing so. The analyses relate to the period 2000-2005. This is the fifth time this quantitative and integrated picture

  6. Measurements for municipalities 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kuhry; J.J.J. Jonker; with cooperation of Bureau Zenc

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Maten voor gemeenten 2006. Measurements for municipalities 2006 (Maten voor gemeenten 2006) presents a national picture of the performance delivered by local authorities and the costs of doing so. The analyses relate to the period 1999-2004. This is the fourth time

  7. Measurements for municipalities 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert Pommer; Ingrid Ooms; Ab van der Torre; Saskia Jansen

    2012-01-01

    Original title: Maten voor gemeenten 2012 Local authorities in the Netherlands are playing an ever more important role in the delivery of services to citizens, as more and more tasks are transferred from central to local government. Dutch municipalities spent a combined total of 56 billion

  8. Hygienic measures during animal transport to abattoirs - a status quo analysis of the current cleaning and disinfection of animal transporters in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Luisa; Meemken, Diana

    2018-01-01

    The process of cleaning and disinfection of animal transport vehicles after unloading animals at the abattoir is a critical control point regarding proper hygiene. It is an important step regarding the biosecurity. In the present study, a status quo analysis of the currently performed cleaning and disinfection measures of animal transport vehicles was carried out at the vehicle washing facilities of five different industrial abattoirs in Germany. For this purpose, a checklist was developed and validated to assess the washing procedure of transport vehicles in a standardised way. The evaluated phases of cleaning included the evaluation criteria "length of time per used floor", "visual cleaning success" and the "hygienic awareness of the driver". During disinfection, attention was paid to the internal and external surfaces of the transporter and to the methods used to disinfect them. In addition, the technical and structural equipment of the five different washing facilities were recorded using a questionnaire and compared to the legal regulations, respectively. At each location, approximately 150 vehicles of all delivery types (transport vehicles owned by the abattoir, external delivery companies and vehicles owned by the supplying farmers) were inspected so that in total a number of more than 750 vehicles were included in this study. The aim was to develop abattoir specific, as well as generally applicable intervention measures and to generate "standard-operation procedures" (SOP's) for the cleaning and disinfection of animal transporters. At two out of five locations vehicles have left the abattoir without cleaning and disinfection. In 31-97% of all vehicles, only a cleaning of the vehicle was carried out, a subsequent disinfection did not take place. A cleaning followed by disinfecting took place in only 3-59% of all vehicles. The results indicate a considerable need for improvement and standardisation in this relevant field of disease prevention.

  9. Factors responsible for the post-slaughter loss of carcass and offal's in abattoirs in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaja, Ishmael Festus; Mushonga, Borden; Green, Ezekiel; Muchenje, Voster

    2018-02-01

    Global demand for food is surging upward due to the expansion of human population. Hence food production and supply need to double with little or no waste to meet this demand. Food loss at any point in the farm to fork chain inhibits the stability of food security at household and national level. A retrospective (AR) and a post mortem meat inspection (PMMI) study to identify major causes of offal and carcass condemnation was conducted in three abattoirs namely, Adeliade, Queenstown and East London abattoirs represented as AD, QT, and EL respectively. The retrospective study revealed the main causes of tongue condemnation as abscess (0.08%, 0.03% and 0.05%) and actinobacillosis (0.02%, 0% and 0.02%) respectively. The spleen was condemned due to abscess (0.35%, 0.94% and 0.17%) and splenomegaly (0.21%, 0.55% and 0.2%). The heart was condemned due to cyst (0.24%, 0.36% and 0.2%) and inflammation (0.9%, 1.85%, and 0.75%). While the kidney, was condemned due to cyst (0.08%, 0.23% and 0.16%) and nephritis (0.94%, 1.01% and 1.18%). However, a greater percentage of condemnation was recorded during the active abattoir study. During the same period, partial carcass condemnations were mainly due to bruises (63.3%, 50.4% and 41.0%), abscess (7%, 6% and 14%) and improper evisceration (19%, 31% and 27%). The combined monetary loss due to offal's and carcass condemnation during the AR and PMMI study was estimated as ZAR 255194.4 (34191.5 USD) and ZAR 25958.8 (2570.2 USD) respectively. This study identified major causes of offals and carcass condemnation as abscess, bruises, actinobacillosis, cyst, inflammatory conditions and improper evisceration. It can be used as starting point information for early warning on livestock diseases of economic loss in South Africa. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy self-supply of large abattoir by sustainable waste utilization based on anaerobic mono-digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortner, Markus; Wöss, David; Schumergruber, Alexander; Pröll, Tobias; Fuchs, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Successful implementation of a new waste and energy concept to large size abattoir. • 85% of slaughterhouse waste accumulated converted to energy by anaerobic digestion. • Coverage of abattoirs’ electrical and thermal energy demand between 50% and 60%. • Reduction of main energy and disposal cost by 63%. • Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 79%. - Abstract: Abattoirs have a large number of energy intensive processes. Beside energy supply, disposal costs of animal by-products (ABP) are the main relevant cost drivers. In this study, successful implementation of a new waste and energy management system based on anaerobic digestion is described. Several limitations and technical challenges regarding the anaerobic digestion of the protein rich waste material had to be overcome. The most significant problems were process imbalances such as foaming and floatation as well as high accumulation of volatile fatty acids and low biogas yields caused by lack of essential microelements, high ammonia concentrations and fluctuation in operation temperature. Ultimately, 85% of the waste accumulated during the slaughter process is converted into 2700 MW h thermal and 3200 MW h electrical energy in a biogas combined heat and power (CHP) plant. The thermal energy is optimally integrated into the production process by means of a stratified heat buffer. The energy generated by the biogas CHP-plant can cover a significant share of the energy requirement of the abattoir corresponding to 50% of heat and 60% of electric demand, respectively. In terms of annual cost for energy supply and waste disposal a reduction of 63% from 1.4 Mio € to about 0.5 Mio € could be achieved with the new system. The payback period of the whole investment is approximately 9 years. Beside the economic benefits also the positive environmental impact should be highlighted: a 79% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from 4.5 Mio kg CO 2 to 0.9 Mio kg CO 2 annually was achieved

  11. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  12. Mercado municipal Can Vidalet

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Francisco, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    La intención del nuevo mercado municipal de Can Vidalet es crear un escenario en sombra, envuelto por una piel permeable; una "cesta" dentro de la cual se produce una actividad comercial. La topografía del lugar permite establecer un esquema comercial en sección, situando el mercado tradicional en cota superior y el nuevo uso comercial en planta baja, a nivel de plaza pública.

  13. Implementation of a validated HACCP system for the control of microbiological contamination of pig carcasses at a small abattoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jeffrey; Brereton, Donald A.; Gill, Colin O.

    2003-01-01

    To guide the implementation of a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system at a small abattoir, the microbiological conditions of pig carcasses at various stages of processing were assessed by enumerating total aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli in samples collected from randomly selected sites on the carcasses. Those data indicated that carcasses were contaminated with bacteria mainly during dehairing and operations on the head. When carcasses were pasteurized after head removal, the numbers of total aerobes on dressed carcasses were reduced by about 1 order and the numbers of coliforms and E. coli were reduced by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Implementation of an HACCP system on the basis of the microbiological data gave cooled carcasses with mean numbers of total aerobes < 100/cm2, and mean numbers of coliforms and E. coli about 1/1000 cm2. PMID:12619556

  14. Renewable municipal waste barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In the European Union the production of primary energy from the incineration of municipal waste increased by only 0.7% in 2013 and reached 8.7 million tep (tonnes of oil equivalent). Germany ranks first with the production of 2729 ktep followed by France with 1246 ktep. A positive point is that the sale of heat to heat networks has strongly increased in some countries which means that primary energy is better used. 2 tables give the production of electricity and heat from the incineration of municipal waste in the E.U. member states in 2012 and 2013. Germany ranks first in the 2 tables. The total production of electricity and heat from the incineration of municipal waste in E.U. in 2013 reached 18741 GWh and 2361 tep respectively. A list reviews the most significant companies working in Europe in the sector of waste incineration, 8 companies are listed, 2 are German: EEW, Remondis, 3 are French: SITA (Suez Environment, Veolia and TIRU (EDF), Urbaser is spanish, Gruppo Hera is Italian and AEB-Amsterdan is dutch. (A.C.)

  15. Bovine tuberculosis in South Darfur State, Sudan: an abattoir study based on microscopy and molecular detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asil, El Tigani A; El Sanousi, Sulieman M; Gameel, Ahmed; El Beir, Haytham; Fathelrahman, Maha; Terab, Nasir M; Muaz, Magzoub A; Hamid, Mohamed E

    2013-02-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread zoonosis in developing countries but has received little attention in many sub-Saharan African countries including Sudan and particularly in some parts such as Darfur states. This study aimed to detect bovine tuberculosis among caseous materials of cattle slaughtered in abattoirs in South Darfur State, Sudan by using microscopic and PCR-based methods. The study was a cross-sectional abattoir-based study which examined a total of 6,680 bovine carcasses for caseous lesions in South Darfur State between 2007 and 2009. Collected specimens were examined for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by using microscopic and culture techniques. Isolated mycobacteria were identified by selected conventional cultural and biochemical tests in comparison to a single tube multiplex PCR (m-PCR) assay which detect Mycobacterium bovis-specific 168-bp amplicons. Of the total 6,680 slaughtered cattle examined in South Darfur, 400 (6 %) showed caseations restricted to lymph nodes (86.8 %) or generalized (13.2 %). Bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in 12 (0.18 %), bovine farcy in 59 (0.88 %), unidentified mycobacteria in 6 (0.09 %), and missed or contaminated cultures in 7 (0.1 %). Out of 18 cultures with nonbranching acid-fast rods, 12 amplified unique 168-bp sequence specific for M. bovis and subsequently confirmed as M. bovis. With the exception of the reference M. tuberculosis strains, none of the remaining AFB amplified the 337-bp amplicon specific for M. tuberculosis. It could be concluded that bovine tuberculosis is prevalent among cattle in South Darfur representing 4.5 % from all slaughtered cattle with caseous lesions. The study sustains microscopy as a useful and accessible technique for detecting AFB. m-PCR assay proved to be valuable for confirmation of BTB and its differentiation from other related mycobacteriosis, notably bovine farcy.

  16. Risk factors associated with brucellosis among slaughtered cattle: Epidemiological insight from two metropolitan abattoirs in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogugua Akwoba Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate risk factors responsible for the epidemiology of brucellosis among cattle slaughtered in Nigeria in a bid to implement control strategies. Methods: This was a cross-sectional and sero-epidemiological survey of bovine brucellosis in two metropolitan abattoirs in Southwestern Nigeria. Between March and August 2013, cattle were screened for antibodies to Brucella spp. by using Rose Bengal test (RBT, and positive samples were subjected to competitive ELISA (cELISA. Parameters of individual animal were also obtained. Data were analyzed by using STATA version 12 and Chi-square; and logistic regression statistics were used to test association. Results: Overall, 2 480 cattle (1 241 in Oyo; 1 239 in Lagos were screened. Analysis using RBT revealed a total sero-prevalence of 4.9% (121/2 480, with 7.8% and 1.9% from Oyo and Lagos States respectively. The cELISA result supported 77.7% (94/121 (90.7% in Oyo; 25.0% in Lagos of the total RBT positive samples. Logistic regression analysis showed that only sex (P ≤ 0.001 and location (P = 0.001 of animal screened had statistically significant effects on seropositivity to Brucella abortus antibodies. Conclusions: Our findings reveal low sero-prevalence of brucellosis among slaughtered cattle in Southwestern Nigeria. Sex and location of abattoirs where animals are slaughtered are major risk factors to be considered in the epidemiology of the disease. Therefore, to promote public health, trade cattle meant for slaughter in Nigeria and African countries where brucellosis is endemic, should be monitored, and positive animals be excluded from the food chain.

  17. Innovation Management in Swedish Municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Wihlman, Thomas; Hoppe, Magnus; Wihlman, Ulla; Sandmark, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Research on public sector innovation is still limited, and increased knowledge of innovation processes is needed. This article is a based on a study of the implementation of innovation policies in Swedish municipalities, and gives a first-hand, empirical view of some of the complexities of innovation in the public sector. The study took place in four municipalities in central Sweden. The municipalities varied in size and organisational forms. Interviews and policy documents were used for data...

  18. Intersectoriality in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heering Holt, Ditte; Frohlich, Katherine L; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2017-01-01

    healthier practices into various settings, e.g. creating healthy school environments for increased physical activity and healthy eating. While other more overarching interventions on the health impacts of broader welfare policies (e.g. education policy) tend to be neglected. The interventions hereby neglect...... the intersectoral policy process legitimates certain practices in the setting of Danish municipal health promotion and the potential impact this can have for long-term, sustainable healthy public policy. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, we show how the intention of intersectoriality produces a strong concern...

  19. Local democracy in large municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Annette Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Municipal amalgamations in Denmark in 2007 led to concern for local rural democracy, as the number of politicians from rural areas dropped after the reform. To preserve rural democracy, local councils at the village level were established in some municipalities, and they have begun to prepare local...

  20. Adaptive Municipal e-forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, P.M.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Boerma, A.K.; Weibelzahl, S.; Cristea, A.

    2006-01-01

    Adaptation of electronic forms seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer eforms online that can be used to request a municipal product or service. To create adaptive e-forms that satisfy the need of end-users, involvement of

  1. Study on Municipal Energy Companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    This is a summarizing overview of the local, renewable energy initiatives that are grouped under the heading of 'municipal energy company'. A municipal energy company (or sustainable energy company) is a local energy company that initiates, coordinates and/or manages sustainable energy projects with the primary objective of realizing the climate objectives. [nl

  2. Food safety knowledge, attitude and practices of meat handler in abattoir and retail meat shops of Jigjiga Town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, H A; Phyo, H W W

    2017-12-01

    A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 91 meat handlers by using structured questionnaire to determine the food safety knowledge, attitude and practices in abattoir and retail meat shops of Jigjiga Town. The result shows that majority of the meat handlers were illiterate (30.8%) and primary school leaver (52.7%), and no one went through any food safety training except one meat inspector. The food-handlers' knowledge and safety practices were below acceptable level with the mean score of 13.12 ± 2.33 and 7.7 ± 2.1 respectively. Only few respondents knew about Staphylococcus aureus (3.3% correct answer), hepatitis A virus (19.8% correct answer), and E. coli (5.5% correct answer) as food borne pathogens. About 64% of meat handlers have good attitude about safety of food with mean of total score 14.4 ± 2. All respondents answer correctly questions about proper meat handling and hand washing but they did not translate into strict food hygiene practices. Chi2 analysis testing for the association between knowledge, attitude and practices did not show any significant association. It may be due to meat handlers' below acceptable level safety practices regardless of sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and attitude. However, there was strong association between level of education and knowledge, and knowledge and hand washing (p practices through better understanding and positive attitude.

  3. Prevalence and histopathological finding of thin-walled and thick-walled Sarcocysts in slaughtered cattle of Karaj abattoir, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourollahi-Fard, Saeid R; Kheirandish, Reza; Sattari, Saeid

    2015-06-01

    Sarcocystosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Sarcocystis spp. with obligatory two host life cycle generally alternating between an herbivorous intermediate host and a carnivorous definitive host. Some species of this coccidian parasite can cause considerable morbidity and mortality in cattle. The present study was set to investigate the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. and type of cyst wall in slaughtered cattle of Karaj abattoir, Iran. For this purpose 125 cattle (88 males and 37 females) were investigated for the presence of macroscopic and microscopic Sarcocystis cysts in muscular tissues. No macroscopic Sarcocystis cysts were found in any of the samples. In light microscopy, 121 out of 125 cattle (96.8 %) had thin-walled cysts of Sarcocystis cruzi, while 43 out of them (34.4 %) had thick-walled Sarcocystis cyst. In this survey, the most infected tissue was esophagus and heart and the less was diaphragm. Thin-walled cysts (S. cruzi) mostly found in heart and skeletal muscle showed the less. However, thick-walled cyst (S. hominis or S. hirsuta) mostly were detected in diaphragm, heart muscle showed no thick-walled cyst. No significant relation was observed between age and sex and the rate of infection. The results showed that Sarcocystis cyst is prevalent in cattle in the North part of Iran and the evaluation of infection potential can be useful when considering control programs.

  4. An Abattoir-Based Study on Serodiagnosis of Swine Brucellosis in Makurdi, Benue State, North-Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ochefije Ngbede

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An abattoir serological survey of brucellosis in pigs was conducted in Makurdi, Benue State North Central Nigeria between October and November 2011. Blood-sera were collected from a total of 281 slaughtered pigs and their ages and sex were recorded. The sera were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT. A total of 86 of the 281 (30.60% pigs were serologically positive. The prevalence of positive pigs based on sex was 31.20% and 30.13% for male and female pigs, respectively. The age prevalence was 30.10% and 32.00% for young and adult pigs, respectively. There was no statistically significant association (p>0.05 between positivity of reactor pigs and their sex or age. This study concluded that brucellosis is a problem in the swine industry. Consequently, strict sanitary measures and control of swine brucellosis is urgently warranted to avoid spread of infection through pigs’ populations and their contacted persons as well as pork consumers.

  5. Transforming your Municipal Electric Utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, P.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on what municipalities should and can do to prepare for a competitive energy market in Ontario. Particular attention was given to business strategies, restructuring and transformation of the Municipal Electric Utilities (MEU). Issues and questions regarding ownership were also discussed. Each municipality will have to decide what is the most appropriate governance and organizational structure for their MEU. It was noted that one of the most contentious areas is refinancing and rate structures. Issues regarding merger or partnering options were also discussed. 1 tab

  6. Insatisfação com a imagem corporal em escolares do sexto ano da rede municipal de Caxias do Sul, no Rio Grande do Sul Insatisfacción con la imagen corporal en escolares del sexto año de la red municipal de Caxias do Sul (Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Body image insatisfaction in students from the sixth grade of public schools in Caxias do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Finato

    2013-03-01

    prevalencia de insatisfacción con la imagen corporal fue de 71,5%. Las variables sexo (RP 0,77, IC95% 0,60-0,98 y estado nutricional (RP 3,84, IC95% 2,72-5,41 presentaron asociación estadística con insatisfacción de la imagen corporal. La escolaridad de la madre, el nivel socioeconómico y la edad no presentaron asociación significante respecto a la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal. CONCLUSIONES: Las prevalencias de insatisfacción con la imagen corporal de la población estudiada están elevadas y deben ser motivo de preocupación de los profesionales de salud.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of body image insatisfaction among schoolchildren aged 11 to 14 years from the municipality of Caxias do Sul, Southern Brazil, and to determine the possible associations with nutritional status, socioeconomic status, gender, and maternal education. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted and 1,417 children were evaluated regarding total body weight, height, and waist circumference. Obesity was defined based on the body mass index according to sex and age. Body image was evaluated using a nine-silhouette scale. A descriptive and bivariate analysis was carried out between the independent variables and the outcome. RESULTS: The prevalence of body image insatisfaction was 71.5%. Gender (PR 0.77, 95%CI 0.60 - 0.98 and nutritional status (PR 3.84, 95%CI 2.72 - 5.41 were significantly associated with body image insatisfaction. Maternal education, socioeconomic level, and age did not present any association with body image insatisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of body image insatisfaction in this population was high and should be a matter of concern to health professionals.

  7. Climate Ambassador Programmes in Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pedersen, Stine Rahbek

    2016-01-01

    Some Danish municipalities have developed ambassador programmes which generate environmental and climate change mitigation efforts in local public administrations and institutions. This chapter analyses the characteristics and experiences of four ambassador programmes now operating...

  8. Energy management in municipal heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Energie-Cites has organized a week dedicated to the practices of energy consumption management in the municipalities and to network practices for energy efficiency. Practical presentations and site visits provided the participants with many methodological elements on energy policy, electricity demand management, optimising the design of municipal buildings, energy efficiency, integrated logistics for use of biomass energy, methods of energy consumption monitoring, legal framework for energy efficiency. (A.L.B.)

  9. Climate change impacts on municipal, mining, and agricultural water supplies in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Pablo Garcia-Chevesich

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural and municipal water supply interests in Chile rely heavily on streams which flow from the Andes Mountains. The highly productive Copiapo agricultural region, on the southern edge of the Atacama Desert, is a major supplier of fruit and other crops for the Northern American market during winter. This region relies entirely on snow and icemelt streams to...

  10. Municipal sludge disposal economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J L [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA; Bomberger, Jr, D C; Lewis, F M

    1977-10-01

    Costs for disposal of sludges from a municipal wastewater treatment plant normally represents greater than or equal to 25% of the total plant operating cost. The following 5 sludge handling options are considered: chemical conditioning followed by vacuum filtration, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration or filter press prior to incineration; thermal conditioning, vacuum filtraton, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration, with ash to landfill; aerobic or anaerobic digestion, followed by chemical conditioning, vacuum filtration, and disposal on land; and chemical conditioning, followed by a filter press, flash dryer, and sale as fertilizer. The 1st 2 options result in the ultimate disposal of small amounts of ash in a landfill; the digestion options require a significant landfill; the fertilizer option requires a successful marketing and sales effort. To compare the economies of scale for the options, analyses were performed for 3 plant capacities - 10, 100, and 500 mgd; as plant size increases, the economies of scale for incineration system are quite favorable. The anaerobic digestion system has a poorer capital cost-scaling factor. The incinerator options which start with chemical conditioning consume much less electrical power at all treatment plant sizes; incinerator after thermal conditioning uses more electricity but less fuel. Digestion requires no direct external fossil fuel input. The relative use of fuel is constant at all plant sizes for other options. The incinerator options can produce a significant amount of steam which may be used. The anaerobic digestion process can be a significant net producer of fuel gas.

  11. Evaluasi Penerapan Standar Sanitasi dan Higien di Rumah Potong Hewan Kategori II (EVALUATION OF SANITATION AND HYGIENE STANDARD IMPLEMENTATION AT CATEGORY II ABATTOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zikri Maulina Gaznur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Meat is one of livestock industry products from abattoir. The existence of abattoir is necessary to ensure the meat product produced is safe, healthy and halal. This study was conducted to evaluate sanitation and hygiene standard implementation in category II abattoir. Total plate count (TPC, Salmonella sp, Coliform, and Escherichia coli were analized by using Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM method. Analisis of water quality and liquid waste was done according to American Public Health Association (APHA method. Based on laboratory test on TPC, Salmonella sp, Coliform, and Escherichia coli, the test results did not exceed the limit standard of SNI 3932:2008. The result of water quality and liquid waste analysis was around the threshold set by Indonesian Republic’s Regulation of Health Ministry No. 492/Menkes/Per/IV/2010 on the Quality Requirements of Water and Environment Regulation Ministry No. 5/2014 regarding Standard Liquid Waste. ABSTRAK Daging adalah salah satu produk industri peternakan dari usaha pemotongan hewan. Permintaan masyarakat terhadap daging sapi memengaruhi intensitas pemotongan, sehingga keberadaan rumah pemotongan hewan (RPH diharapkan dapat menjamin kualitas daging secara aman, sehat dan halal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi penerapan standar sanitasi dan higien di RPH kategori II. Pengujian total plate count (TPC daging, Colliform, Escherichia coli, dan Salmonella sp berdasarkan metode Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM. Pengujian air bersih dan limbah cair menggunakan metode American Public Health Association (APHA. Hasil analisis mikrobiologi menunjukkan bahwa TPC, Salmonella sp, Coliform dan E. coli berada di bawah persyaratan SNI 3932:2008. Hasil analisis air bersih dan limbah cair sudah memenuhi baku mutu Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia 492/Menkes/Per/IV/2010 tentang Persyaratan Kualitas Air Bersih dan Peraturan Menteri Lingkungan Hidup 5/2014 Tentang Baku Mutu Air Limbah.

  12. Cystic echinococcosis in marketed offal of sheep in Basrah, Iraq: Abattoir-based survey and a probabilistic model estimation of the direct economic losses due to hydatid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhameed, Mohanad F; Habib, Ihab; Al-Azizz, Suzan A; Robertson, Ian

    2018-02-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis in Iraq with substantial impacts on livestock productivity and human health. The objectives of this study were to study the abattoir-based occurrence of CE in marketed offal of sheep in Basrah province, Iraq, and to estimate, using a probabilistic modelling approach, the direct economic losses due to hydatid cysts. Based on detailed visual meat inspection, results from an active abattoir survey in this study revealed detection of hydatid cysts in 7.3% (95% CI: 5.4; 9.6) of 631 examined sheep carcasses. Post-mortem lesions of hydatid cyst were concurrently present in livers and lungs of more than half (54.3% (25/46)) of the positive sheep. Direct economic losses due to hydatid cysts in marketed offal were estimated using data from government reports, the one abattoir survey completed in this study, and expert opinions of local veterinarians and butchers. A Monte-Carlo simulation model was developed in a spreadsheet utilizing Latin Hypercube sampling to account for uncertainty in the input parameters. The model estimated that the average annual economic losses associated with hydatid cysts in the liver and lungs of sheep marketed for human consumption in Basrah to be US$72,470 (90% Confidence Interval (CI); ±11,302). The mean proportion of annual losses in meat products value (carcasses and offal) due to hydatid cysts in the liver and lungs of sheep marketed in Basrah province was estimated as 0.42% (90% CI; ±0.21). These estimates suggest that CE is responsible for considerable livestock-associated monetary losses in the south of Iraq. These findings can be used to inform different regional CE control program options in Iraq.

  13. Privatization of municipal electrical utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges and special issues which arise through the sale of a municipal electric utility were discussed. The recent sales of two utilities, the Kentville Electric Commission in Nova Scotia and Cornwall Electric in Ontario, were used as examples to show how the sale of an electric utility differs from the sale of most business enterprises. Municipal utilities are integral parts of the communities they serve which introduces several complexities into the sale. Factors that require special attention in the sale of the utilities, including electricity rates, local accountability, treatment of employees and local economic development, and the need for a comprehensive communication program to deal with the substantial public interest that sale of a municipal utility will engender, were reviewed

  14. Municipal Development Plan, Acerra (Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Benevolo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Municipal Development Plan (Piano Urbanistico Comunale - PUC of Acerra has been drafted by a group of young professionals and researchers, led by Leonardo Benevolo, in accordance with the guidelines laid out by Regional Law no. 16 of 2004. Its complex drafting process was compressed into a brief, nine-month period in 2008 and 2009, at the end of which its initial adoption (or “predisposizione” – “preparation” or “predisposition” – in Italian legal terms was ratified by the municipal council. This article reconstructs the key moments, illustrating the main elements of the plan and how the debate about it took shape both inside and outside the municipal administration.

  15. Liberalisation of municipal waste handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    2006-01-01

    for improved performance of municipal waste management. The study stresses the need for training and guidance of municipal administrators. Highlighting ‘best practice’ examples the study shows, however, that it is perfectly possible to end up with quality service on contract. It takes a mixture of careful...... of price reductions in stead of quality demands in both environmental and working environmental terms. A recent study showed major deficits in the capacities of the municipalities to administer qualitative requirements in the tender process and to manage the contracts as an integral part of a scheme...... forces and low quality performance. By assuming responsibility, setting and following up on high quality standards the tender instrument presents an additional instrument to legislation and market based means to institutionalize more sustainable practices in waste management...

  16. Teatro Municipal, en Gelsenkirchen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhnau, Werner

    1963-10-01

    Full Text Available Two very up to date principles have been tried at Gelsenkirchen, namely that of «transformable theatre», and the integration of the style of a building with that of the town and the landscape. Following these principles, two municipal theatres have been built, one seating 1,050 and the other 450 spectators. They are situated in the centre of the city, and constitute the nucleus of a new cultural centre in the midst of a highly industrial town; This is a project not aimed at any particular social group, but placed at the service of every man with an intellectual or artistic interest. These two buildings have reinforced concrete structures, metal roofs, and the trusses are protected against Are by means of a special asbestos treatment. Efficient air conditioning ducts are taken inside suspended concrete tubing, which run over the main theatre hall. This air conditioning produces no audible noise. The «transformability» of the theatre presented other difficult accoustical problems, which were overcome by means of plates which osciIate and open out. Aluminium laminas, with a large number of tiny holes to absorb noise, have also been fitted. These two buildings involve a close cooperation between the plastic artist and the architect. A number of works by Paul Dierkes and Yves Klein are placed inside these theatres. Externally. they are adorned with a concrete sculpture by Robert Adams, seeking to express the power of the spirit over matter.Dos principios muy de actualidad —de «teatro transformable» y de integración de la arquitectura en la ciudad y paisaje— han sido intentados en Gelsenkirchen, donde se construyeron dos teatros municipales: uno con 1.050 localidades y otro con 450. Emplazados en el centro de la ciudad, constituyen, como el núcleo de un nuevo foro, una obra al servicio del arte, del espíritu, en medio de una urbe industrial: una obra destinada no a una determinada clase social, sino para cada hombre interesado intelectual

  17. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  18. MUNICIPAL TAX HARMONIZATION; ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belsy Tortolero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work is a desk study to establish the technical and economic criteria that help to minimize double taxation at the municipal level of this tax in Venezuela, specifically for: industrial taxpayer, the taxpayer eventual merchant and / or walking, and to taxpayer service providers and implementers works on Hence the choice of the Tax Harmonisation Law of Municipal Public power in Article 162 of the Code, and the business tax. The methodology is based on the quantitative paradigm, with documentary research design, descriptive level - explanatory. Concluding that the criteria depend on the connecting factors set forth in the Law, and they are the same governing tax under study.

  19. The municipality as a stakeholder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmqvist, Roland

    2006-01-01

    The author explains how local politicians look upon the dialogue regarding nuclear installations in their municipalities. As seen from the map of European reactors there is a lot of local districts affected by nuclear operations. What has a mayor from such a community to say about the shut-down phase of such operations and especially about the need for communication between stakeholders when closing and decommissioning a nuclear power reactor? To answer this question the author has structured his presentation into 4 parts as follows: 1. The European municipalities ? some characteristics; 2. The siting of NPPs (nuclear power plants) in Europe; 3. The shutdown, decommissioning and the dismantling phases; 4. Lessons learnt

  20. Real time detection of farm-level swine mycobacteriosis outbreak using time series modeling of the number of condemned intestines in abattoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yasumoto; Makita, Kohei

    2015-09-01

    Mycobacteriosis in swine is a common zoonosis found in abattoirs during meat inspections, and the veterinary authority is expected to inform the producer for corrective actions when an outbreak is detected. The expected value of the number of condemned carcasses due to mycobacteriosis therefore would be a useful threshold to detect an outbreak, and the present study aims to develop such an expected value through time series modeling. The model was developed using eight years of inspection data (2003 to 2010) obtained at 2 abattoirs of the Higashi-Mokoto Meat Inspection Center, Japan. The resulting model was validated by comparing the predicted time-dependent values for the subsequent 2 years with the actual data for 2 years between 2011 and 2012. For the modeling, at first, periodicities were checked using Fast Fourier Transformation, and the ensemble average profiles for weekly periodicities were calculated. An Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was fitted to the residual of the ensemble average on the basis of minimum Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The sum of the ARIMA model and the weekly ensemble average was regarded as the time-dependent expected value. During 2011 and 2012, the number of whole or partial condemned carcasses exceeded the 95% confidence interval of the predicted values 20 times. All of these events were associated with the slaughtering of pigs from three producers with the highest rate of condemnation due to mycobacteriosis.

  1. Influenza A virus infection of healthy piglets in an abattoir in Brazil: animal-human interface and risk for interspecies transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Ribeiro Amorim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic influenza virus infections in pigs are frequent and the lack of measures for controlling viral spread facilitates the circulation of different virus strains between pigs. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the circulation of influenza A virus strains among asymptomatic piglets in an abattoir in Brazil and discuss the potential public health impacts. Tracheal samples (n = 330 were collected from asymptomatic animals by a veterinarian that also performed visual lung tissue examinations. No slaughtered animals presented with any noticeable macroscopic signs of influenza infection following examination of lung tissues. Samples were then analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that resulted in the identification of 30 (9% influenza A positive samples. The presence of asymptomatic pig infections suggested that these animals could facilitate virus dissemination and act as a source of infection for the herd, thereby enabling the emergence of influenza outbreaks associated with significant economic losses. Furthermore, the continuous exposure of the farm and abattoir workers to the virus increases the risk for interspecies transmission. Monitoring measures of swine influenza virus infections and vaccination and monitoring of employees for influenza infection should also be considered. In addition regulatory agencies should consider the public health ramifications regarding the potential zoonotic viral transmission between humans and pigs.

  2. Allegheny County Municipal Land Use Ordinances

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Many municipalities have their own land use ordinances and establish standards and requirements for land use and development in that municipality. This dataset is...

  3. Integration of the ecosystem services concept in planning documents from six municipalities in southwestern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C. Nordin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem services (ES concept refers to benefits that humanity receives from nature. Investigating how this concept has been embraced within urban planning is important when assessing the awareness of human dependence on natural functions and the potential for the ES concept to increase this awareness. We analyzed planning documents from three small and three large municipalities in southern Sweden to see how explicitly the ES concept was addressed and which individual services were mentioned. We found that five of the municipalities mentioned the ES concept explicitly and the remaining municipality addressed it implicitly. Comprehensive and green plans referred to the ES concept more explicitly than did plans that focused on a single issue. We used 23 individual ES as a reference; each was mentioned in at least one document, but those concerning habitat and recreation were mentioned most frequently. Individual ES were generally described at an elaborate level. No major differences were identified between large and small municipalities except that large ones mentioned more individual ES. Our study demonstrates that municipalities in southern Sweden have started to integrate the ES concept into their planning documents. However, there is great potential to increase and concretize the awareness of ES.

  4. Urban ecology and the municipal utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    Current management of municipal utilities for energy, water and solid waste is often in conflict with the ideas of ecological demonstrationprojects. The writer argue there is a need of transformation within municipal utilities and a need of new planning tools......Current management of municipal utilities for energy, water and solid waste is often in conflict with the ideas of ecological demonstrationprojects. The writer argue there is a need of transformation within municipal utilities and a need of new planning tools...

  5. Analysis of Municipal Pipe Network Franchise Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Sun; Haichuan, Tian; Feng, Xu; Huixia, Zhou

    Franchise institution of municipal pipe network has some particularity due to the characteristic of itself. According to the exposition of Chinese municipal pipe network industry franchise institution, the article investigates the necessity of implementing municipal pipe network franchise institution in China, the role of government in the process and so on. And this offers support for the successful implementation of municipal pipe network franchise institution in China.

  6. Municipal waste - management and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paudel, E.S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Though per capita waste generation in Nepalese urban cities is not so high, the lack of proper waste management is considered one of the severe problems to be faced by urban people in future. With rapid urbanization, life style of people is changing their habits and consuming more materials and producing a large volume of waste in urban areas in Nepal. The nature and amount of waste generated in municipality is dependent of demography and geography. But most common aspect of municipal waste in Nepal is more than 60% of the waste biodegradable. Whatever the nature and amount of waste generated, the most common practice of managing municipal waste is to dispose in the riverside nearby or dumped elsewhere. The involvement of private sector in waste management is a new concept adopted by many municipalities in Nepal. One of the most progress approaches, 4R (reduces, reuse, recycle and refuse) principle is being practiced. The need of awareness progressive like segregation of wastes at collection point also being practiced in Nepal. Finally, Proper formulation of program and legislation and its application is one of the major challenges for local authorities in Nepal. (author)

  7. 76 FR 823 - Registration of Municipal Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... financial products.\\12\\ For example, as derivatives have developed in the municipal securities market, some... public information regarding the size of the municipal securities derivative market. Estimates of the..., Municipal Derivative Securities--Uses and Valuation 21 (1995) (discussion of revenue bonds). See also...

  8. Some remarks on bankrupt municipalities | Stander | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insolvency of municipalities is no longer a rare incident; it is a reality. It is interesting to note that even in the United States of America the insolvency of municipalities is currently an equally serious concern. In South Africa there is much speculation regarding the causes of the insolvency of municipalities, and possible ...

  9. A municipal utility seeks IPP power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), primarily located in Sacramento County, one of the ten highest growth areas in the U.S. today, serves a 900 square mile area with over 450,000 customers and has seen peak loads of about 2200 MW. In June of 1989, the customer-owners of SMUD, voted to shutdown the 913 MW Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station which constituted nearly one-half of the district's power resources. The need to immediately replace the lost capacity was somewhat tempered as a consequence of previously signed contracts with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) for 550 MW and with the Southern California Edison Company (SCE) for 300 MW. Both contracts provide power for only ten years, ending in 1999, and while being competitively priced in the early years, include significant escalation in capacity charges beginning in 1995, and always price energy at local natural gas market prices while including other arduous conditions. When combined with their hydroelectric and other resources these contracts allow SMUD to remain competitive. However, there remains the incentive, and ultimately necessity, of replacing the contracts with alternative resources. This paper describes an aggressive program to obtain replacement resources which will diversify SMUD's resource mix and protect their customer-owners from the uncertainties of the future while retaining the benefits of tax exempt financing and being their own stockholders

  10. Survey of chicken abattoir for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Pesquisa de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L.L. Cortez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Campylobacter is of great importance to public health because it includes several species that may cause diarrhea. These species may be found in water, food and in the intestinal tract of chickens. This study investigated the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in chicken abattoirs in São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 288 samples of feces, feathers, scald water, evisceration water, chiller water, and the rinse water of eviscerated, not eviscerated and chilled carcasses were collected in six chicken abattoirs. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR was performed in Campylobacter spp.-positive isolates using the gene HIP, specific for hippuricase enzyme from Campylobacter jejuni and aspartokinase gene, specific to detect Campylobacter coli. The percentage of positive isolates of Campylobacter jejuni was 4.9% (14/288. Isolation was greater in feces samples (22%, 8/36. One sample was positive for the species C. coli. In conclusion, the results indicate that it is necessary to improve quality control for Campylobacter spp. in chicken abattoirs.O gênero Campylobacter tem grande destaque em saúde pública, principalmente por pertencerem a este gênero várias espécies que podem causar diarréia. Estas espécies podem ser encontradas em amostras de água, alimentos e no trato intestinal das aves. Este estudo investigou a presença de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves no Estado de São Paulo. As 288 amostras foram coletadas em seis estabelecimentos e incluíram: fezes; penas; água de escaldamento, de evisceração e de resfriamento; e água de enxaguadura de carcaça não eviscerada, eviscerada e resfriada. Após o isolamento microbiológico das amostras positivas de Campylobacter spp. foi realizada uma Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR utilizando o gene HIP, da hipuricase, específico para Campylobacter jejuni e o gene da enzima aspartoquinase, específico para Campylobacter coli. A

  11. Danish Municipal Planning in Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jørgen

    Danish municipal planning at the entrance to the 2000 years, where many things in the everyday of planning are changed after pressure from the market, the state, the municipal organisations, the investors, the citizens and the planners themselves. In this situation of change there may be good reasons...... to bear in mind what the basic task of physical planning at a local level has actually been and to discuss both what it is at the moment and what it can turn into in the future. The paper may actually raise more questions than it answers. The reason is that well-known political, administrative structures...... are breaking up, that the fight for the planning competence in the open country is raging and that the protection of the nature-freindly legislation, for which the previous government was responsible, is under quick phasing-out, at the same time as the traditional professional urban planner standards...

  12. Danish Municipal planning in Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    Danish municipal planning at the entrance to the 2000 years, where many things in the everyday of planning are changed after pressure from the market, the state, the municipal organisation, the investors, the citizens and the planners themselves. In this situation of change there may be good reason...... to bear in mind what the basic task of physical planning at a local level has actually been and to discuss both what it is at the moment and what it can turn into in the future. The paper may actually raise more questions than it answers. The reason is that well-known political, administrative structures...... are breaking up, that the fight for planning competence in the open country is raging and that the protection og nature-friendly legislation, for which the previous gouvernment was responsible, is under quick phasing-out, at the same time as the traditional professional urban planner standards are challenged...

  13. Delegation within municipal health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystedt, Maria; Eriksson, Maria; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil

    2011-05-01

    To describe how registered nurses (RNs) perceive delegation to unlicensed personnel (UP) in a municipal healthcare context in Sweden. Within municipal health care RNs often delegate tasks to UP. The latter have practical training, but lack formal competence. Twelve RNs were interviewed and the material was analysed using a phenomenographic approach. Owing to a shortage of RNs, delegation is seen as a prerequisite for a functioning organization. This necessity also involves a number of perceived contradictions in three areas: (1) the work situation of RNs - facilitation and relief vs. lack of control, powerlessness, vagueness regarding responsibility, and resignation; (2) the relationship with unlicensed personnel - stimulation, possibility for mentoring, use of UP competence and the creation of fairness vs. questioning UP competence; and (3) The patients - increase in continuity, quicker treatment, and increased security vs. insecurity (with respect to, for example, the handling of medicine). Registered nurses perceptions of delegation within municipal healthcare involve their own work situation, the UP and the patients. Registered nurses who delegate to UP must be given time for mentoring such that the nursing care is safe care of high quality. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. A case study for biogas generation from covered anaerobic ponds treating abattoir wastewater: Investigation of pond performance and potential biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, Bernadette K.; Hamawand, Ihsan; Harris, Peter; Baillie, Craig; Yusaf, Talal

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report on the performance of a novel covered anaerobic pond system. • Potential biogas production was estimated using BioWin modelling software. • Ponds maintained stable operation; however, accumulation of crust was an issue. • Modelling indicated that biogas yield can be influenced by decomposition efficiency. • Configuration and operation of ponds can also impact potential biogas production. - Abstract: Covered anaerobic ponds offer significant advantages to the red meat processing industry by capturing methane rich gas as a fuel source for bioenergy while reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). This paper presents the results of a novel-designed anaerobic pond system at an Australian abattoir in relation to pond performance and potential biogas production. Key findings in assessing the effectiveness of the system revealed that the covered ponds are capable of efficient wastewater decomposition and biogas production. The primary issue with the covered ponds at the abattoir was the build-up of fat/crust that prevented the accurate measurement of biogas and effective use of the cover. In the absence of field biogas data the novel application of the computer modelling software BioWin® was carried out to simulate chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates and subsequent biogas yield. The unique parameter used to fit field data was the fraction of the inlet COD due to a superficial crust which did not follow anaerobic digestion. Field data effluent COD removal rates were matched to simulated rates predicted by BioWin when measured influent COD was reduced to 30%. Biogas modelling results suggest significant variation in the economic benefit of biogas energy, with the quantity of biogas potentially varying tenfold (from 328 m 3 /d to 3284 m 3 /d) depending on site factors such as pond efficiency, pond configuration and operational practices

  15. First Detection of FOX-1 AmpC -lactamase Gene Expression Among Escherichia coli Isolated from Abattoir Samples in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejikeugwu Chika

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Gram-negative bacteria represent the most relevant reservoir of resistance to antibiotics in the environment. The natural selection of resistant clones of bacteria in the environment by antimicrobial selective pressure is a relevant mechanism for spreading antibiotic resistance traits in both the community and hospital environment. This is in scenarios where antimicrobials are used irrationally, and even in the propagation of livestock, poultry birds, and for other veterinary purposes. This study sought to detect the prevalence of FOX-1 AmpC -lactamase genes from abattoir samples. Methods: The isolation of Escherichia coli, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and -lactamase characterization was carried out using standard microbiology techniques. The production of AmpC -lactamase was phenotypically carried out using the cefoxitin-cloxacillin double-disk synergy test (CC-DDST, and FOX-1 AmpC genes was detected in the E. coli isolates using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Results: Forty-eight E. coli isolates were recovered from the anal swabs of cows and 35 (72.9% isolates were positive for the production of -lactamase. Notably, high percentages of resistance to cefoxitin (91.7%, ceftriaxone (83.3%, imipenem (85.4%, ceftazidime (87.5%, ofloxacin (81.3%, and gentamicin (85.4% were found. FOX-1 genes were detected in three (6.3% of the 48 E. coli isolates phenotypically screened for AmpC enzyme production. Conclusions: Abattoirs could represent a major reservoir of resistance genes especially AmpC -lactamase, and this could serve as a route for the dissemination of multidrug-resistant bacteria in the community. Thus, the molecular identification of drug-resistant genes is vital for a reliable epidemiological investigation and the forestalling of the emergence and spread of these organisms through the food chain in this region.

  16. No differences in post-operative rehabilitation across municipalities in patients with lumbar disc herniation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rune Tendal; Bergholdt, Erik; Carreon, Leah

    2015-01-01

    decompressive surgery for lumbar disc herniation were identified. Changes in Oswestry disability index (ODI), EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and duration of sick leave were compared among the municipalities. RESULTS: Patient-reported outcome measures showed no statistical difference in ODI, EQ-5D or sick leave at the one...... between hospital and rehabilitation unit to ensure the best possible patient treatment. Further studies should focus on the effect of rehabilitation. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant........ This study examined rehabilitation in the 22 municipalities of the Region of Southern Denmark for patients with lumbar disk herniation. METHODS: A total of 22 physiotherapists answered a questionnaire regarding their rehabilitation programmes. The municipalities of 789 patients who had undergone...

  17. Prefeitura Municipal de Amparo - Prefeitura Municipal de Amparo

    Science.gov (United States)

    , educação inclusiva, calendário educação, plano municipal de educação, projetos, notícias entre estagiários Confira as vagas para estagiários Painel de Vagas de Estágio ENSINO MEDIO (2501642 Sebastião 07 de Janeiro de 2017 - 29 de Janeiro de 2017 Carnaval de rua de Amparo 25 de Fevereiro de 2017

  18. Southern blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in

  19. The deficit mechanism of the Hungarian municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Vasvári, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    The management of the Hungarian municipal sector has received special attention since the crisis in 2008 and interest in the sector increased further due to the changes in legislation in 2011. A great number of economy experts and speakers on behalf of the government or the municipalities provided further details on prevailing issues in the municipal sector, however, their assessment of the severity of these issues varied greatly. By describing the logical framework of the deficit mechanism t...

  20. The Main Recreative Areas in Podujeva Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    , F. Isufi; , F. Humolli; , S. Bulliqi

    2016-01-01

    Recreation is time available to human kind, excluding normal working hours that are a time for physiological and physical needs of human kind and time for sleep, which is used for entertainment, sport, hobby, rest etc. Well known fact is that recreation is a need of contemporary man, which is at the same time the reason for elaborating this subject. Podujeva Municipality is one of Republic of Kosova’s municipality, and likewise all other municipalities, offer possibilities and have similar pr...

  1. Information System of Municipal Office

    OpenAIRE

    Surý, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá problematikou návrhu a implementací informačního systému obecního úřadu. Pro práci byly použity tyto programovací jazyky: PHP, JavaScript, HTML, CSS a databáze MySQL. The Bachelor's Thesis is concerned with the dilemma of suggestion and implementation of information system for municipal office. The programming languages: PHP, JavaScript, HTML, CSS and database MySQL were used for this bachelor's thesis. E

  2. Canadian municipal carbon trading primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seskus, A.

    2002-01-01

    The trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is being suggested as an effective economic way to meet Canada's Kyoto target. Emissions trading is a market-based instrument that can help achieve environmental improvements while using the market to absorb the economical and effective measures to achieve emissions reductions. Placing a value on emissions means that in order to minimize costs, companies will be motivated to apply the lowest-cost emission reductions possible for regulatory approval. The two main types of emissions trading that exist in Canada are the trading of emissions that lead to the formation of smog or acid rain, and the trading of greenhouse gas emissions that lead to climate change. Since carbon dioxide is the most prevalent GHG, making up approximately 75 per cent of Canadian GHG emissions, the trading of units of GHGs is often referred to as carbon trading. The impact that emissions trading will have on municipal operations was the focus of this primer. The trading of GHG involves buying and selling of allowances of GHGs between contracting parties, usually between one party that is short of GHG credits and another that has excess credits. The 3 common approaches to emissions trading include allowance trading (cap and trade), credit trading (baseline and credit), and a hybrid system which combines both credit and allowance trading systems. The issues that impact municipalities include the debate regarding who owns the credits from landfills, particularly if power is generated using landfill gas and the power is sold as green power. Other viable questions were also addressed, including who can claim emission reduction credits if a city implements energy efficiency projects, or fuel substitution programs. Also, will municipalities be allowed to trade internationally, for example, with municipalities in the United States, and how should they spend their money earned from selling credits. This report also presents highlights from 3 emissions

  3. New Orleans may go municipal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woehrle, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent moves by the New Orleans City Council to consolidate two investor-owned utilities operating under franchise agreements into a publicly owned utility could make the 179,000-user utility the nation's 12th ranking public power system. Voters have changed their minds on the advantages of local control because of costly blackouts. At the root of the effort are economic concerns and some unpaid IOUs owed by the franchise companies because of nuclear plant construction. A task force recommended a municipal buyout

  4. Public deliberation in municipal planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohøj, Morten; Borchorst, Nikolaj Gandrup; Bødker, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory participatory design process aimed at supporting citizen deliberation in municipal planning. It presents the main outcomes of this process in terms of selected prototypes and an approach to the use setting. We support and discuss different ways for citizens...... to act and reflect on proposed plans: in-situ, while physically close to the planning object, and ex-situ, when citizens are remote from this. The support of in-situ and ex-situ participation allows citizens to engage in continuous reflection-in and on-action as a collaborative activity with other...

  5. Mercado municipal en Sant Quirze

    OpenAIRE

    Redondo Díez, Laura

    2010-01-01

    El proyecto satisface la necesidad de un Mercado Municipal en Sant Quirze. Situado en el actual recinto ferial del pueblo, el parque de la Betzuca, un punto céntrico cerca del casco antiguo y de las nuevas urbanizaciones. Las condiciones del lugar enriquecen el proyecto permitiendo usos múltiples muy adecuados a cada banda del solar: zona de mercado, galerías exteriores, supermercado, guardería, restaurante y bares vinculados a la zona del río, almacenes, zonas de carga y descarga y un gra...

  6. Resource Prospects of Municipal Solid Wastes Generatedin the Ga East Municipal Assembly of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Benedicta Abiti; Susanne Hartard; Heike B. Bradl; Davar Pishva; John Kojo Ahiakpa

    2017-01-01

    Background. Municipal solid wastes management has recently become an important public health concern. Municipal solid wastes are a major source of raw materials that could be used for resource recovery for diverse applications. Objectives. The present study aimed to determine the composition of municipal solid waste and recoverable resources from the waste of the Ga East Municipal Assembly (GEMA) in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Methods. An exploratory approach was used to collect ...

  7. Patterns of prey selection of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) lactitarse Saussure (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Buschini, MLT.; Borba, NA.; Brescovit, AD.

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias, in the municipality of Guarapuava, southern Brazil. A total of 449 T. lactitarse nests were collected using trap-nests of different diameters. Fifty three species of spiders belonging to 7 families were captured by T. lactitarse. Araneidae was the most captured family and has been strongly represented by the genus Eustala. Through Bray-Curtis's coefficient and the unweighted pair group method average (UPGMA), the spiders speci...

  8. Optimization of energy planning strategies in municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    approach, suffers from insufficient information, tools and resources. Municipalities are often unable to take on a steering role in community energy planning. To overcome these barriers and guide municipalities in the pre-project phase, a decision-support methodology, based on community energy profiles...

  9. Utilização de serviços de saúde de atenção básica em municípios da metade sul do Rio Grande do Sul: análise baseada em sistemas de informação Use of primary health care services in municipalities in the southern half of the Rio Grande do Sul State: analysis based on information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Engel Gerhardt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo propõe-se a descrever a oferta e demanda de serviços de saúde de atenção básica em treze municípios da metade sul do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, por meio de dados secundários provenientes do site do Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde (DATASUS. Foram associados dados de consultas, de procedimentos e de estrutura em serviços de saúde na atenção básica a conceitos presentes em políticas públicas e portaria específica. Realizou-se um estudo quantitativo, analisando frequências absolutas de consultas e procedimentos no período de 2000 a 2005. Os resultados mostram uma diversidade de situações na atenção básica em saúde, possibilitando diferentes interpretações para as situações encontradas. Entre elas, pode-se citar a existência de bancos de dados com subnotificações de consultas e procedimentos, ou mesmo a não oferta e/ou demanda por tais atendimentos. Sugere-se o aprimoramento dos mecanismos disponíveis para a análise dos serviços de saúde de atenção básica, o que facilitará o delineamento dos possíveis fluxos, trajetórias e itinerários terapêuticos dos usuários e o desvelamento de possíveis disparidades locais em saúde.This study is proposed to describe the supply and demand of Primary Health Care Service in thirteen municipalities of the southern half of Rio Grande do Sul State. For analysis, secondary data were obtained from the Data Processing Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS. Data from appointments, procedures and structure of Primary Health Care Service were associated with concepts present in public policies and specific legal authorizations. A quantitative study was carried out through the analyses of absolute frequencies of appointments and procedures from 2000 to 2005. Results showed diversified situations requiring primary health care service, which allowed different interpretations for the situations found. Among them, it can be cited the

  10. 75 FR 54465 - Temporary Registration of Municipal Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... derivatives, guaranteed investment contracts, and the recommendation of and brokerage of municipal escrow... concerning guaranteed investment contracts, (4) recommendation and/or brokerage of municipal escrow...

  11. Economic and environmental review of Waste-to-Energy systems for municipal solid waste management in medium and small municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, J M; Grindlay, A L; Serrano-Bernardo, F; Rodríguez-Rojas, M I; Zamorano, M

    2017-09-01

    The application of Directive 2008/98/CE on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) implies the need to introduce technologies to generate energy from waste. Incineration, the most widely used method, is difficult to implement in low populated areas because it requires a large amount of waste to be viable (100,000 tons per year). This paper analyses the economic and environmental costs of different MSW-to-Energy technologies (WtE) in an area comprising of 13 municipalities in southern Spain. We analyse anaerobic digestion (Biomethanization), the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF) and gasification, and compare these approaches to the present Biological Mechanical Treatment (BMT) with elimination of the reject in landfill, and incineration with energy recovery. From an economic standpoint the implementation of WtE systems reduces the cost of running present BMT systems and incineration; gasification presents the lowest value. From the environmental standpoint, Life Cycle Assessment shows that any WtE alternatives, including incineration, present important advantages for the environment when compared to BMT. Finally, in order to select the best alternative, a multi-criteria method is applied, showing that anaerobic digestion is the optimal solution for the area studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Municipal Bonds in Developing Countries. Case Study: Municipality of Stip, Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija GOGOVA SAMONIKOV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The developing countries, especially in the Balkans, barely use the municipal bonds as an alternative way of financing their activities. This paper is part of the project “The municipal bonds as an alternative source of financing municipals activities and the effective management of funds, with a special emphasis to the Municipality of Stip, R. Macedonia”. The paper has an important impact, according to both academic and practical perspective. It combines the experts’ academic analysis with the municipals potential in order to facilitate a successful municipal bond emission that would support the local economic growth. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ability and willingness of the Municipality of Stip to issue municipal bonds. The main hypothesis states that the Municipality of Stip is able to issue a municipal bond as an alternative way of financing its investment activities. The research includes the classical SWOT analysis regarding the Municipality of Stip and continues with a statistical analysis based on correlation and regression relationships within the accounts of the Municipality’s annual reports. The methodological framework is based on quantitative research methods (correlations and regression methods which result in acceptance of the main hypothesis in the paper - the municipal bonds as an alternative source for funding municipal’s activities are justified, especially if the funds are associated with a specific revenue-generating project. The findings would serve as a basis for the municipal bonds prospect, which would be the ultimate goal of combining the academic knowledge with the practical potential of the Municipality of Stip. The conclusions reveal that this would be the first municipal bond emission in the Republic of Macedonia. However, this fact can serve as an advantage in the market in terms of introducing financial instrument innovation. This paper suggests that the usage of municipal bonds is

  13. Municipal Governments and Development in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Victory

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The processes of democratization, State reforms and administrative de-concentration that have marked the last 15 years of Latin American societies have brought about a reevaluation of the role of municipalities. The decentralization of the State has been put forth as basic objective and the economic productive restructuring happening around the world calls for a response from local initiatives: that is to say, initiatives to effect a new strategy of development “from the bottom up” that values territory as a geographic space bounded by a community of interests. One of the important actors in these local initiatives are the municipal governments who, as a first government resort, must respond to the vast demands of the population. These institutions are not consolidated, however. Instead, they are generally weak, with little economic, political and ideological power, and are limited in their autonomy, authority, legitimacy and capacity for management. In the first part of the article, and in an effort to characterize the political autonomy of the region’s municipalities, their distinct elements are analyzed – the system of representative democracy, competencies and resources, etc.. The most notorious deficiencies of Latin American municipalities are also studied. The second section analyzes the roles that these municipalities should take on to overcome these deficiencies, and goes on to offer action proposals towards creating a new model for municipal management, new ways of making policy from the municipality, and an analysis of the different instruments for promoting the local economy.

  14. Determination of beta-carotene and vitamin A contents of serum and liver of sheep slaughtered in Ahvaz abattoir during different seasons of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Hedayat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of the particular role of vitamin A in different tissues and organs, various clinical signs are seen in its deficiency. Additionally, marginal deficiency of vitamin A without the presence of clinical signs leads to performance defects such as infertility. In this study, the seasonal changes of β-carotene and vitamin A of serum and liver of slaughtered sheep in Ahvaz abattoir were investigated. A total of 360 sheep were sampled from October 2013 to June 2014. Spectrophotometry was used for measuring values. The results were analyzed statistically with student t-test. The mean ±SE concentration of β-carotene and vitamin A of serum and liver were 209/9±1/5, 98±0/9 (µg/dl, 19/8±0/4, 32/3±0/8(µg/g, respectively. Although there wasn't significant difference in levels of the measured parameters in two age groups(sheep only with immature teeth and sheep with a minimum mature tooth but there was a significant difference in vitamin A of serum and liver in the two sexes. The serumic levels of vitamin A in male sheep was more than the females while the concentration of vitamin A in the liver of female sheep was more than the males. The difference between seasons in vitamin A of serum was also statistically different with higher concentrations observed in warm seasons in comparison to milder seasons.

  15. European municipalities and the liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Municipalities are directly affected by the liberalization of the energy markets. Because they all consume or even produce energy, whether it be for their own consumption or to resell it, they often distribute gas, electricity or heat, they plan urban areas and organize the energy networks on their territory, while in addition citizens expect municipalities to inform them and even protect them against the possible excesses of energy salesmen. Elected representatives administrations, local agencies, municipal companies, citizens' associations etc., all have to innovate. This supplement to Energie-Cites INFO is intended to provide you with practical information and further analyses of the liberalization process. (authors)

  16. Models of municipal solid waste generation and collection costs applicable to all municipalities in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chira Bureecam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify and measure the variables which influence municipal solid waste (MSW generation and collection costs in Thai municipality. The empirical analysis is based on the information derived from a survey conducted in a sample size of 570 municipalities across the country. The results from the MSW generation model indicate that the population density, the household size and the size of municipality are the significant determinant of waste generation. Meanwhile, with regards to the MSW collection cost model, the results showed some existence of positive in the volume of MSW collected, population density, the distance between the center of municipality to the disposal site the hazardous sorting and the size of municipality whereas, there were no evidence of the frequency of collection and the ratio of recycled material to waste generation on cost.

  17. Transparency of the municipal public management: a study from the homepages of the large Brazilian municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Cláudia Ferreira; Ferreira, Aracéli Cristina de Sousa; Silva, Lino Martins da; Macedo, Marcelo Álvaro da Silva

    2012-01-01

    This study attempts to check the transparency level of information in public administration published in the homepages of 96 municipalities included among the 100 most populous in Brazil and what characteristics and socioeconomic indicators of the municipalities can contribute to explain the level of transparency observed. The level of transparency in public administration was established from a research model called Transparency Index Municipal Public Management (ITGP-M) constructed based on...

  18. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a municipal or private water supply system. (b) Possible loss of values: Discharges can affect the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a) Municipal...

  19. evaluation of municipal solid waste management system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: solid waste, household, waste bin, willingness to pay, municipal. 1. INTRODUCTION .... significant differences between WTP and household ... Gender. Income of Household. Education Status. House Type. Household Size. Male.

  20. Municipal Forest Management in Latin America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... Book cover Municipal Forest Management in Latin America ... forest management schemes we could use as models to develop policies? ... Call for proposals: Innovations for the economic inclusion of marginalized youth.

  1. SAFE DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL WASTES IN NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    affairs in the management of municipal solid waste in most parts of Nigeria. ... 1 John G. Rau and David Wooten (eds), Environmental Impact Analysis Handbook (Mc- ..... Up to date efficient “cleaner production technologies” are expected to be.

  2. Do Municipal Mergers Improve Fiscal Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Welling; Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Improved fiscal management is a frequent justification for promoting boundary consolidations. However, whether or not this is actually the case is rarely placed under rigorous empirical scrutiny. Hence, this article investigates if fiscal outcomes are improved when municipalities are merged....... The basic argument is that the conceptualisation of fiscal management in political science is often too narrow as it focuses on the budget and pays hardly any attention to balances in the final accounts and debts – elements of management which are central to policy making. On this background, the causal...... relationship between municipal mergers and fiscal outcomes is analysed. Measured on the balance between revenues and expenses, liquid assets and debts, municipal mergers improve the fiscal outcomes of the municipalities in a five-year perspective, although the pre-reform effects tend to be negative...

  3. A proposed groundwater management framework for municipalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A proposed groundwater management framework for municipalities in South Africa. ... Hence, the Water Research Commission (WRC) has commissioned a project ... and available tools to achieve sustainable groundwater management reflect ...

  4. When municipalities lead co-production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tortzen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    from research in governance and leadership, the paper analyses a critical case of co-production in the Danish Municipality of Holbæk. The main focus is on exploring how leadership interventions are enacted by civil servants and politicians, and how these shape the co-production process. The analysis...... points to the significant role played by municipalities as hands-off leaders of co-production processes, and identifies leadership dynamics which merit further exploration....

  5. Development of Municipal Solid Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Teibe, Inara

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on an empirical work done by author on a series of case studies such us document studies and analyzing the best practices examples. The objective of this research is to find out barriers to reach regional waste management plan demands in three municipalities: Salacgriva, Saulkrasti and Ikskile. Author gives proposal with some recommendations for development of municipal waste management as well. There are several views and attitudes of local stakeholders such us municipali...

  6. Lessons Learned: Community Solar for Municipal Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    This report outlines the work that STAT has completed, discusses the range of approaches utilities are taking, and highlights several challenges municipal utilities face in deciding whether and how to pursue community solar. As this report shows, there is no 'silver bullet' in terms of municipal utility community solar design or implementation - programs vary significantly and are highly dependent on localized contexts.

  7. Safety of Municipal Loan in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetsenko Tetiana V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is justification of the necessity of legal regulation of actions of the bodies of local self-government when detecting signs of insolvency. Each stage of municipal loans management is analysed from the point of view of availability of legal rules, which do not allow making municipal loans by territorial communities of the cities with weak financial state or regulate sequence of actions of municipalities in default times. The following results were obtained: majority of legal restrictions in the sphere of local finance management are directed at prevention of ungrounded loans or have the form of sanctions, applied to local bodies, which perform their debt obligations with delay; the state formally controls the process of making municipal loans, avoiding financial responsibility; the national legislation does not contain the mechanism of regulation of actions of territorial communities, which experience difficulties when performing debt obligations. The article proves expediency of adoption of a uniform regulatory-legal act in Ukraine, which would regulate all economic relations connected with making municipal loans. This legal document shall contain a section about actions of the municipality-debtor when signs of default start to appear, announcement of default and declaration of the debtor insolvent (bankrupt. The article recommends the following structure of this section: regulation of the procedure of default announcement avoidance; announcement of default with the pre-trial restoration of the debtor’s solvency; and announcement of default with declaring the debtor bankrupt juridically.

  8. Social, Environmental, and Health Vulnerability to Climate Change: The Case of the Municipalities of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Quintão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability to climate change is a complex and dynamic phenomenon involving both social and physical/environmental aspects. It is presented as a method for the quantification of the vulnerability of all municipalities of Minas Gerais, a state in southeastern Brazil. It is based on the aggregation of different kinds of environmental, climatic, social, institutional, and epidemiological variables, to form a composite index. This was named “Index of Human Vulnerability” and was calculated using a software (SisVuClima® specifically developed for this purpose. Social, environmental, and health data were combined with the climatic scenarios RCP 4.5 and 8.5, downscaled from ETA-HadGEM2-ES for each municipality. The Index of Human Vulnerability associated with the RCP 8.5 has shown a higher vulnerability for municipalities in the southern and eastern parts of the state of Minas Gerais.

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of S a l m o n e l l a isolates in apparently healthy slaughtered food animals at Maiduguri central abattoir, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mohammed Jajere

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella isolates in the mesenteric lymph nodes of apparently healthy slaughtered food animals at Maiduguri central abattoir, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 154 lymph nodes (cattle-54, camel-22, sheep-12, goats-66 were collected from slaughtered animals and analysed using standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Results: An overall prevalence of 39.0% [95% confidence interval (CI: 31.3–46.7] was obtained. The prevalence rate across studied species ranged from 24.2% (95% CI: 13.9–34.5 in goats to 61.1% (95% CI: 48.1–74.1 in cattle. There was statistically significant association between Salmonella infection and species of food animals (P 0.05. Younger animals had slightly higher prevalence (44.0%; 95% CI: 24.5–63.5 compared with adults (38.0%; 95% CI: 29.6–46.4 (P > 0.05. All isolates showed marked susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole and chloramphenicol. Whereas, high resistance patterns to ampicillin, kanamycin and streptomycin, and moderate resistance patterns to kanamycin and tetracycline were observed from camels. Conclusions: Salmonella is high in the mesenteric lymph nodes of apparently healthy slaughtered food animals in Maiduguri. Therefore, it is recommended that further studies should be carried out to identify the serotypes and phage typing of the isolates, and hazard analysis and critical control point should be applied in handling of meat and meat products to avoid the risk of foodborne salmonellosis as well as appropriate use of antibiotics like ciprofloxacin in food animals.

  10. The Nexus between Bovine Tuberculosis and Fasciolosis Infections in Cattle of the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia: Implications on Abattoir Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso Munyeme

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB and fasciolosis are important but neglected diseases that result in chronic infections in cattle. However, in Zambia, these diseases are mainly diagnosed at abattoirs during routine meat inspection. Albeit the coinfection status, these diseases have been reported as nothing more than normal separate findings without an explanatory phenomena. Forthwith, we formulated this study to assess the possible association of the two diseases in a known high prevalence area on the Kafue basin ecosystem. Of the 1,680 animals screened, 600 (35.7%; 95% CI 33.4%–38% and 124 (7.4%; 95% CI 6.1%–8.6% had fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions; respectively, whilst 72 had both fasciola and tuberculous lesions representing 12% (95% CI 9.4%–14.6% and 58.1% (95% CI; 49.3%–66.7% of the total positives for fasciola and tuberculosis, respectively. Jaundice was seen in 304 animals, 18.1% (95% CI; 16.3%–19.9% and was significantly correlated to fasciolosis (r=0.59, P<0.0001. A significant association (χ2=76.2, df=1, and P<0.0001 was found between fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions. Simple logistic regression intimated fasciolosis as a strong predictor for tuberculous lesions with animals that had fasciola being five times more likely to have tuberculous lesions (odds ratio = 4.8, 95% CI: 3.3–7.0. This study indicates that transmission and spatial risk factors of communicable and noncommunicable diseases such as bTB and fasciolosis can be correlated in an ecosystem such as the Kafue flats.

  11. The efficacy of different cleaning and disinfection procedures to reduce Salmonella and Enterobacteriaceae in the lairage environment of a pig abattoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Kavita; Argüello, Hector; Lynch, Helen; Grant, Jim; Leonard, Finola C; Lawlor, Peadar G; Gardiner, Gillian E; Duffy, Geraldine

    2017-04-04

    This study investigated several cleaning and disinfection protocols for their ability to eliminate Salmonella and to reduce levels of Enterobacteriaceae, within the lairage pens of a commercial pig abattoir. Eight protocols were evaluated in each of 12 lairage pens at the end of the slaughtering day on 3 occasions (36 pens/protocol): (P1) high-pressure cold water wash (herein referred to as high-pressure wash); (P2) high-pressure wash followed by a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC)-based disinfectant without rinsing; (P3) high-pressure wash followed by a chlorocresol-based disinfectant without rinsing; (P4) high-pressure wash followed by a sodium hydroxide/sodium hypochlorite detergent with rinsing; (P5) P4 followed by P2; (P6) P4 followed by P3; (P7) P5 with drying for 24-48h; and (P8) P6 with drying for 24-48h. Two floor swabs and one wall swab were taken from each lairage pen before and after each protocol was applied, and examined for the presence of Salmonella and enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae. High-pressure washing alone (P1) did not reduce the prevalence of Salmonella in the lairage pens. When high-pressure washing, the probability of detecting Salmonella following application of the chlorocresol-based disinfectant (P3) was lower than with the QAC-based disinfectant, P2 (14.2% versus 34.0%, respectively; pEnterobacteriaceae counts to below the limit of detection (LOD; 10CFU/cm 2 ) was achieved following cleaning with detergent and disinfection with the chlorocresol-based disinfectant, regardless of drying (pEnterobacteriaceae counts to below the LOD. Therefore ensuring that lairage pens are allowed to dry after intensive cleaning with detergent and a chlorocresol-based disinfectant is recommended as the most effective hygiene routine to eliminate Salmonella and reduce Enterobacteriaceae counts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  13. Municipal consultation key to understanding haul road maintenance agreements for Saskatchewan rural municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibel, R.E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Current municipal perspectives regarding the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were described. Municipal jurisdiction and authority regarding road development and heavy haul road maintenance agreements were defined. Based on actual work experience, collaborative working relationships between the oil and gas industry and the municipal sector is well worth some industry time and effort since it will result in cost savings for the industry. In general, rural municipalities receive very limited tax benefits to recapture the costs of road reconstruction and maintenance caused by heavy industry traffic. Road servicing costs can be recaptured only if companies respect the weight limits, hauling regulations and road bans. On the whole, municipalities in Saskatchewan are favourably disposed towards the oil and gas industry, and have done well in the past to accommodate industry's needs. It is not unreasonable therefore to expect that industry show sensitivity to the impact of its activities on the local municipality, and does its level best to be on good terms with the municipalities through early two-way communication. Text of some relevant acts of the Legislature respecting the powers and authorities of rural municipalities are appended

  14. Mapping human vulnerability to climate change in the Brazilian Amazon: The construction of a municipal vulnerability index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Alves Menezes

    Full Text Available Vulnerability, understood as the propensity to be adversely affected, has attained importance in the context of climate change by helping to understand what makes populations and territories predisposed to its impacts. Conditions of vulnerability may vary depending on the characteristics of each territory studied-social, environmental, infrastructural, public policies, among others. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate what makes the municipalities of the state of Amazonas, Brazil, vulnerable to climate change in the context of the largest tropical forest in the world, and which regions of the State are the most susceptible. A Municipal Vulnerability Index was developed, which was used to associate current socio-environmental characteristics of municipalities with climate change scenarios in order to identify those that may be most affected by climate change. The results showed that poor adaptive capacity and poverty had the most influence on current vulnerability of the municipalities of Amazonas with the most vulnerable areas being the southern, northern, and eastern regions of the state. When current vulnerability was related to future climate change projections, the most vulnerable areas were the northern, northeastern, extreme southern, and southwestern regions. From a socio-environmental and climatic point of view, these regions should be a priority for public policy efforts to reduce their vulnerability and prepare them to cope with the adverse aspects of climate change.

  15. Mapping human vulnerability to climate change in the Brazilian Amazon: The construction of a municipal vulnerability index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Júlia Alves; Confalonieri, Ulisses; Madureira, Ana Paula; Duval, Isabela de Brito; Santos, Rhavena Barbosa Dos; Margonari, Carina

    2018-01-01

    Vulnerability, understood as the propensity to be adversely affected, has attained importance in the context of climate change by helping to understand what makes populations and territories predisposed to its impacts. Conditions of vulnerability may vary depending on the characteristics of each territory studied-social, environmental, infrastructural, public policies, among others. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate what makes the municipalities of the state of Amazonas, Brazil, vulnerable to climate change in the context of the largest tropical forest in the world, and which regions of the State are the most susceptible. A Municipal Vulnerability Index was developed, which was used to associate current socio-environmental characteristics of municipalities with climate change scenarios in order to identify those that may be most affected by climate change. The results showed that poor adaptive capacity and poverty had the most influence on current vulnerability of the municipalities of Amazonas with the most vulnerable areas being the southern, northern, and eastern regions of the state. When current vulnerability was related to future climate change projections, the most vulnerable areas were the northern, northeastern, extreme southern, and southwestern regions. From a socio-environmental and climatic point of view, these regions should be a priority for public policy efforts to reduce their vulnerability and prepare them to cope with the adverse aspects of climate change.

  16. Consolidation of municipalities in the newest time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Blagov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article is devoted to the analysis of the causes, the process, the consequencesof the enlargement of municipalities in the Russian Federation.The purpose of this paper is to show that with the initial increase in the number of municipalities,many of them turned out to be incapable of effectively addressing local issues andproviding quality services to the population. In this regard, the reverse process began – theconsolidation of municipalities. As a result, the number of municipalities, especially the rurallevel, has dramatically decreased. The enlargement of municipal formations went arbitrarily,without taking into account the infrastructural and historical unity of the unified urbansettlements.The methodology. The author uses a dialectical method, a method of analysis and synthesis,a formal legal method, a comparative legal method.Results, scope of application. 03.04.2017 Federal Law No. 62-FZ is adopted, which providesfor the transformation of municipal raions and constituent urban and rural settlements intourban districts according to a "simplified procedure", that is, with the consent of the populationexpressed by the representative body of the municipality. In parallel, under considerationin the legal department of the State Duma of the Russian Federation there is a billintroduced by deputy A.P. Markov, offering to introduce a new type of municipal formation– the rural district. In rural districts it is proposed to unite settlements in rural municipalareas. The implementation of this bill will lead to the mass elimination of rural settlements.Actually there are no accurate and exhaustive legislative provisions regulating the territorialboundaries of urban districts, forms of the transformation and abolition of municipalities;moreover, local political and economic elites persistently seek to preserve the single tiermanagement system developed over the decades. As a result of these blemishes, within administrative areas

  17. Municipal energy managers; Responsables energie municipaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    On 1 and 2 July, municipal energy managers from all over Europe met in Stuttgart, Germany. On these two days, more the 150 participants form 22 countries listened to presentations, took part in excursions to cutting-edge energy conservation projects in Stuttgart and, above all, participated in a broad array of workshops presented by experts firmly grounded in local practice. 27 experts drawn from 11 European countries showcased their projects and imparted their experience. The event has been accompanied by an exhibition of companies and service providers offering energy-conservation products and planning services. The first workshop dealt with energy management in Europe and examples from different active municipalities; the second one with energy management in Germany and best practice in the leading cities; the third one with non-municipal and European projects. (A.L.B.)

  18. Composition of municipal solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Data for the composition of municipal solid waste is a critical basis for any assessment of waste technologies and waste management systems. The detailed quantification of waste fractions is absolutely needed for a better technological development of waste treatment. The current waste composition...... comparability to characterize municipal solid waste. This methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1,442 households in three municipalities in Denmark. The main fractions contributing to the residual household waste were food waste and miscellaneous waste. Statistical analysis suggested...... of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterization methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. The purpose of this study was to introduce a consistent methodology that reduces uncertainties and ensures data...

  19. Municipal service provision in rural communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    EU policies for rural development stress the importance of investments rather than subsidies and aim at integrating different sectoral policies in order to improve the coherence and effectiveness of public expenditure. Policies also emphasize a place-based approach for rural development and thereby...... hierarchies and considering local resources and place bound potentials.  This paper draws on a study of rural municipalities in Denmark examining how service adjustments e.g. closing of local schools are managed by rural municipalities and local communities. The paper further discusses whether rural...... municipalities can plan strategically, manage service provision and support place bound potential in rural communities in light of a competitive framework for local development....

  20. Selection of technologies for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In water environmental planning in watersheds should contain aspects for the decontamination of receiving water body, therefore the selection of the treatment plants municipal wastewater in developing countries, you should consider aspects of the typical composition raw wastewater pollutant removal efficiency by technology, performance indicators for technology, environmental aspects of localization and spatial localization strategy. This methodology is built on the basis of technical, economic and environmental attributes, such as a tool for decision making future investments in treatment plants municipal wastewater with multidisciplinary elements.

  1. Municipalities as facilitators, regulators and energy consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Kjær, Tyge

    2015-01-01

    Biogas provides many potential benefits as far as renewable energy production, environmental protection and job creation etc. Insufficient initiatives from government/municipalities however hamper more biogas plants to be established, and hence that the large manure potential, and other types...... of digestible organic waste materials, are being utilized for energy purposes. By looking at municipalities as energy consumer’s, that constitutes a local market for biogas, as regulator’s, enforcing new requirements and regulations on the biogas sector, and finally as facilitator’s, assisting and helping...

  2. Evolução da mortalidade por causas evitáveis e expansão dos recursos municipais de saúde em Maringá, Paraná Evolution of mortality from avoidable causes and expansion of municipal health resources in a Southern Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Scochi

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução do perfil da mortalidade por doenças evitáveis, em Maringá, PR, relacionando-o à qualidade de assistência á saúde. MÉTODOS: A partir da proposição de estudos de resultado da assistência foram selecionadas 11 causas de mortes. À evolução dos óbitos foi associada a evolução dos recursos disponíveis, bem como ao grau de escolarização e saneamento básico, no período de 1983-1993. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Os dados revelaram que as taxas de mortalidade da maioria das causas evitáveis tenderam ao declínio, com uma redução de 39%, em contraposição a 16% das demais. Observou-se uma melhora das condições de escolarização e de saneamento. A evolução positiva das condições gerais da população dificulta atribuir imediatamente aos serviços a responsabilidade sobre o declínio das mortes evitáveis, mas a diferença entre estas mortes e as demais permite inferir que, se diante de condições satisfatórias de vida ocorresse um recrudescimento desses indicadores, poder-se-ia constatar uma falta de efetividade dos serviços. A constatação do arrefecimento dos indicadores pode fazer supor que a expansão dos serviços auxiliou no declínio.OBJECTIVE: An assessment of the evolution of the profile of mortality from avoidable diseases, in the municipality of Maringá, PR (Brazil, 1980 through 1993, as related to the quality of health attendance. METHODS: Based on the proposal to study caregiving results, eleven causes of avoidable deaths were selected. The evolution of resources available, level of schooling and sanitation were associated with the evolution of mortality. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The data revealed that the mortality rates for most of the avoidable causes tended to decline faster than those for other causes (a reduction of 39% as against 16%. A significant improvement in schooling and sanitary conditions was also observed over the same period. The positive evolution of the general

  3. Implementation of a bridge management system in the municipal environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of a bridge management system (BMS) in the municipal environment, with specific reference to the City of Cape Town, the Johannesburg Roads Agency and the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality...

  4. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Zanzibar Municipality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Saltwater intrusion problems are widespread where there are over pumping of groundwater from coastal aquifers. Water samples were .... urbanized area. Although more than 70% of the municipality residents are connected to public water system, it does not meet the demand (Table 1) and as such there are many private ...

  5. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  6. TOURISM AS A FACTOR OF MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefka Timareva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world, which has extremely diverse impact on the lifestyle of the local population on the one hand and on the other for the modern traveler. At the same time, this modern "phenomenon" plays an important role in the socio-economic and political development of the host country, region or municipality, offering new employment opportunities for the local population and improving the way of life by providing additional income. The development of tourism in a municipality is based on a certain resource base, which consists of a variety of natural and anthropogenic resources, a prerequisite for the development of various alternative types of tourism. Its importance as a form of recreation consists mainly of its potential to be a leading factor in the development of municipalities and in diversifying their economic structure. Tourism has significant effects manifested by positive migratory balance, especially where the tourism industry is leading and is a driver of positive development. For the successful realization of tourism as a leading economic and social factor, it is important to make a real and precise system for its planning and management, adequate human resources competence as well as close cooperation between the public and private sector, legal tourist base, development and the implementation of tourism projects and last but not least, a real development strategy in the relevant municipality.

  7. 40 CFR 40.115-4 - Municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 208 of the act. (b) Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, a city, town, borough, county... subdivision thereof. (c) In all other cases, a city, town, borough, county, parish, district, or other public... DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.115-4 Municipality. (a) Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, a city, town...

  8. Types, risks and market of municipal bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal bonds are issued by cities, municipalities or other local communities in order to quickly raise funds to cover current budget deficits, finish infrastructure projects for production and distribution of thermal energy, improve water supply, road construction, sports and recreation centers, schools or to fund such projects on more favorable terms than to borrow from banks. In this manner, necessary conditions are created for faster development of the real sector. The aim of this study is to evaluate the importance, possibilities and effects of the bond issue in the Republika Srpska aimed at securing funding for and development of local communities. Good examples that local government bonds enhance community development include capital markets in countries that have made the transition from the socialist system design, similar to the market of the Republika Srpska, like the Polish, Slovakian, Hungarian and Croatian markets. Issues of municipal bonds in the Republika Srpska succeeded mostly due to the workings of Investment-Development Bank of RS. However, it certainly shows that further high-quality municipal bonds could attract more interest from various institutional investors, especially mutual funds and insurance companies, and investors who are more risk-averse will be able to familiarize and inform themselves with the functioning of capital markets. In this manner, our capital market would confirm its essential role and thus become a generator of overall economic development of the Republika Srpska because it would enable more efficient collection and allocation of capital resources.

  9. Municipalities as promoters of energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten

    Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since the author......Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since...... with practitioners in the building sector at the local level. The aim of this report is to look into municipal efforts to promote energy efficient buildings to learn from their experiences: What types of challenges are municipalities facing, when attempting to disseminate energy efficient technologies in local...... building projects through municipal planning practices, and how do they cope with these challenges? The report is based on an in-depth study of proactive planning practices performed by municipal partners in the Class 1 project and a series of experiences, strategies and instru-ments are identified...

  10. MUNICIPAL FOREST MANAGEMENT IN LATIN AMERICA

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    National Library of Indonesia Cataloging – in-Publication Data: ..... with both the threat of specific population sectors or elites monopolizing local power and the .... These units have been quite active in delimiting municipal forest areas; many .... in the health and education sectors than those in other Latin American countries.

  11. Preliminary study for a micro-scale hydro power plant on the main drinking-water supply line connecting the municipal reservoir to the springs in Caviano, southern Switzerland; Realizzazione di una microcentrale idroelettrica sulla condotta di adduzione tra le captazioni delle sorgenti e il serbatoio di Caviano. Studio preliminare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutti, M.

    2008-01-15

    This report presents the comparative evaluation of two variants for the replacement/refurbishment work of the main drinking-water supply line from the location of the water collection to the water reservoirs of the community of Caviano, southern Switzerland. The question arising is whether this retrofitting work could be financed by the benefit from the sale of electricity that could be produced by a new micro-scale power plant foreseen on the supply line, to take advantage of the elevation difference of 445 m between water collection and water reservoir. From the technical point of view the project is feasible. The available water flow rate is nearly constant: about 5 l/s. The corresponding power of the electric generator would be 15 kW and the yearly power production 130,000 kWh. However, in the second variant, the power would be 9 kW and the production 80,000 kWh, as only 265 m elevation difference would be used for power generation. In this case, the upper part of the water supply line, which connects the water collection to an intermediate water reservoir supplying the upper hamlet of the community, would neither be used for power generation nor be retrofitted. According to Swiss regulations the generated electricity could be sold at CHF 0.30/kWh and CHF 0.34/kWh, respectively. In the first variant it is concluded that 76% of the total annual capital and maintenance cost for retrofitting work and power plant, CHF 52,000/y for 50 years, could be covered by electricity sales. The community would still have to finance CHF 13,000/y, compared to CHF 30,000/y if the power plant is not built. In the second variant the corresponding figures are 49% of the total of CHF 33,700/y, and CHF 6,400/y to additionally finance compared to CHF 15,400/y if the power plant is not built. However, in the second variant the community would anyway have to finance later on the retrofitting of the upper part of the water supply line.

  12. Effect of municipal liquid waste on corrosion susceptibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation studied the effect of municipal liquid waste discharged into the environment within Kano municipal area on the corrosion susceptibility of galvanized steel pipe burial underground. Six stagnant and six moving municipal liquid waste samples were used for the investigation. The corrosion rate of the ...

  13. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  14. Southern Gothic Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2017-01-01

    Provides an outline of Southern Gothic Literature, offers an argument about its history and shape, and discusses the scholarly literature surrounding Southern Gothic. Oxford Research Encyclopedia is an online peer-reviewed encyclopedia for researchers, teachers, and students interested in all...... facets of the study of literature...

  15. Modeling of municipal greenhouse gas emissions. Calculation of greenhouse gas emissions and the reduction possibilities of Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries de, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Summary Municipalities represent an active governmental layer in the Netherlands. They often have ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this way the municipalities take responsibility to reduce the threat of global warming. To implement effect

  16. Energy management in municipal heritage; Management de l'energie dans le patrimoine municipal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Energie-Cites has organized a week dedicated to the practices of energy consumption management in the municipalities and to network practices for energy efficiency. Practical presentations and site visits provided the participants with many methodological elements on energy policy, electricity demand management, optimising the design of municipal buildings, energy efficiency, integrated logistics for use of biomass energy, methods of energy consumption monitoring, legal framework for energy efficiency. (A.L.B.)

  17. Energy management in municipal heritage; Management de l'energie dans le patrimoine municipal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Energie-Cites has organized a week dedicated to the practices of energy consumption management in the municipalities and to network practices for energy efficiency. Practical presentations and site visits provided the participants with many methodological elements on energy policy, electricity demand management, optimising the design of municipal buildings, energy efficiency, integrated logistics for use of biomass energy, methods of energy consumption monitoring, legal framework for energy efficiency. (A.L.B.)

  18. Should large Spanish municipalities be financially compensated? Costs and benefits of being a capital/central municipality [WP-IEB

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch Roca, Núria; Espasa Queralt, Marta; Montolio, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyse the costs and benefits of being a capital or central municipality, where central costs are understood to be incurred specifically as a result of the problems large municipalities located at the centre of an urban agglomeration face and capital costs are understood to result from the presence of regional and/or central government institutions in the municipality. However, these two qualities might also be beneficial to municipalities, resulting in a direct increase in their ...

  19. Weight Constrained DEA Measurement of the Quality of Life in Spanish Municipalities in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; Cárcaba, Ana; Ventura, Juan

    2018-01-01

    This paper measures quality of life (QoL) in the 393 largest Spanish municipalities in 2011. We follow recent descriptions of QoL dimensions to propose an integrated framework composed of eight dimensions: material living conditions, health, education, environment, economic and physical safety, governance and political voice, social interaction, and personal activities. Using different sources of information we construct 16 indicators, two per each of the QoL dimensions considered. Weight constrained data envelopment analysis (DEA) is then used to estimate a composite indicator of the QoL of each municipality. Robustness is checked by altering the weight ranges introduced within the DEA specification. Results show that the Northern and Central regions in Spain attain the highest levels of QoL, while the Southern and Mediterranean regions report lower scores. These figures are consistent with those obtained by González et al. ( Soc Ind Res 82:111-145 2011) for the Spanish municipalities in 2001, although both the sample and the indicators used are different. The analysis also shows that, while it is important to restrict weights in DEA, the specific restrictions used are less important, since all the composite indicators computed are highly correlated. The results also show important differences between per capita gross domestic product and QoL at the provincial level.

  20. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  1. 78 FR 32278 - Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to Information in Tier 1, Table... Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., and Georgia Power Company, Oglethorpe Power Corporation, Municipal... Table 3.3-1, ``Definition of Wall Thicknesses for Nuclear Island Buildings, Turbine Buildings, and Annex...

  2. How to encourage road noise abatement in Nordic municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    Road noise nuisance is a huge problem in the Nordic countries, and it seems diffi cult for Nordic countries to meet national targets for its reduction. One reason for this is the lack of municipal activities in the fi eld. Th us the research question that this article seeks to answer in relation...... to already existing residential areas and roads is: which conditions in the municipal organisation and its institutional environment contribute to making municipalities provide and implement noise abatement measures? Th e assumption is that three factors infl uence how the municipalities prioritize among...... political issues: the municipal organisation itself, the local institutional environment (citizens, business and NGOs), and the state and trans-municipal networks. A study of the anatomy of municipal road noise abatement policy shows that conditions for implementing road noise abatement in existing...

  3. Vulnerability to poverty in Brazilian municipalities in 2000 and 2010: A multidimensional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ottoni Teixeira Costa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the temporal component into poverty analysis takes us to the study of the poverty dynamic, which focuses on investigating events of entering, remaining in and getting out of deprivation. As an effort to consider the diverse aspects unrelated to income in the study of vulnerability to poverty, the monetary approach is put aside and the multidimensional approach is used to elaborate the well-being index. The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI is constructed with data from Brazil’s 2000 and 2010 Demographic Census. First, this article intends to quantify and describe the results of the MPI in Brazilian territory, using municipalities as unit of analysis. Second, it intends to analyze the factors associated to the poverty dynamics, which can be understood through the transition probability from a non-vulnerable state to a vulnerable state, in a distribution of the MPI in deciles. Finally, it intends to identify the municipalities that went through this transition in a regional level during the intercensal period. Results show that, despite the improvement observed in its whole national territory, Brazil’s North and Northeast remain with deeper deprivations while the Southern and Southeastern regions present the lowest incidence of multidimensional poverty. Dropout Rate of Grades 3–4 of High School, HDI-M Education, HDI-M Longevity, Logarithm of the Population, Gross Value Added per capita of Industry, Service Concentration Index and Entrepreneur Rate contribute positively to the reduction of municipal vulnerability to poverty. Compared to Northern municipalities, Southeastern Brazil has reduced more significantly the likelihood of position loss and has had a greater effect of increasing the probability of its upward movement. JEL classifications: I32, R13, Keywords: Multidimensional poverty, Vulnerability, Brazil

  4. Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBeck, M.F.

    1981-03-27

    An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

  5. Organic school meals in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    In order to prevent children and young people from becoming obese, healthier eating patterns are urgent. Organic school meals may be an effective strategy to provide healthy food to children. The purpose of this study was to take a closer look into the current status of organic school meal systems...... in Denmark, by conducting a case study of three municipalities in the Zealand region that have the most developed models for school meals service in this country. These municipalities have for some years introduced organic food for sale in their primary schools, with three quite different approaches....... Copenhagen has established a large central kitchen, producing partly organic food that is heated and sold in tuck shops at the schools. Roskilde cooperates with an organic catering company, delivering food to be sold in school canteens. Gladsaxe has part-time employed staff preparing and selling food at each...

  6. Application of accrual accounting in Iran municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Eamaeilzade Maghariee; Zahra Houshmand Neghabi; Rahele Abdi

    2015-01-01

    Accrual accounting is a technique for recognizing expenses when incurred and revenue when earned rather than when payment is made or received. In the cash method of accounting, on the other hand, cash receipts and disbursements technique of accounting or cash accounting records revenue when cash is earned, and expenses when they are paid in cash. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to study the effect of implementing accrual accounting in municipality of Amol, Iran. The surve...

  7. Corruption, Political Connections, and Municipal Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander W. Butler; Larry Fauver; Sandra Mortal

    2009-01-01

    We show that state corruption and political connections have strong effects on municipal bond sales and underwriting. Higher state corruption is associated with greater credit risk and higher bond yields. Corrupt states can eliminate the corruption yield penalty by purchasing credit enhancements. Underwriting fees were significantly higher during an era when underwriters made political contributions to win underwriting business. This pay-to-play underwriting fee premium exists only for negoti...

  8. Application of accrual accounting in Iran municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eamaeilzade Maghariee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Accrual accounting is a technique for recognizing expenses when incurred and revenue when earned rather than when payment is made or received. In the cash method of accounting, on the other hand, cash receipts and disbursements technique of accounting or cash accounting records revenue when cash is earned, and expenses when they are paid in cash. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to study the effect of implementing accrual accounting in municipality of Amol, Iran. The survey investigates whether or not financial reporting based on accrual accounting compared with a cash basis could provide a better method for promoting accountability. Using, regression analysis, the study compares the performance of accrual accounting versus cash accounting and the results have indicated that accrual accounting could improve the performance of accounting in municipality system. In addition, the study has examined whether or not converting cash to accrual accounting basis in municipalities could improve qualitative characteristics of accounting information. To examine this hypothesis, the study has designed a questionnaire in Likert scale to measure the quality of information and, using some statistical tests, the survey has concluded accrual accounting indeed provided better quality characteristics information.

  9. Municipal recycling support program. Guide to applicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Municipal Recycling Support Program stems from the Ontario Ministry of the Environment's policies and programs begun in 1980 aimed at encouraging the development of source separation projects in Ontario. To qualify for financial assistance, municipalities must play a central role in the implementation and ongoing development of recycling; applications will be supported only if there is adequate and reasonable commitment from markets for recovered materials; recycling systems must operate within the framework of a complete waste management system in which cost effectiveness is an important factor; multi-material projects are encouraged as much as possible; and the Ministry will share the costs of projects with the municipalities. The Ministry provides grants for up to 5 years per project to cover the net operating cost of a project up to a specified maximum percentage of eligible gross operating expenses. This manual provides guidelines for applying for such funding, including definitions of eligibility for operating and capital costs, the use of household bins, and guidelines for promotion and advertising, education, demonstration, and feasibility studies.

  10. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  11. University of Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The focus of the University of Southern California (USC) Children''s Environmental Health Center is to develop a better understanding of how host susceptibility and...

  12. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Business Review is a refereed and accredited scientific journal of the College of Economic and Management Sciences of the .... The effects of extended water supply disruptions on the operations of SMEs · EMAIL FREE ...

  13. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Digital Governance (in Romanian Municipalities. A Longitudinal Assessment of Municipal Web Sites in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparative cross-country study in order to know the level of web services implementation at the municipality level (what are the public services that municipalities offer to their citizens using the electronic platforms. We’ve accessed each municipality web portal from Romania (103 in total and using a defined scale; and rated every one very strictly. Most of the elements used in this research are taken from previous studies, adapted afterwards to take in relevant values for my country. Although there are numerous Romanian initiatives of connecting to the Internet even smaller communities, like small towns or even communes, we have chosen the municipalities due to the positive relation between the number of inhabitants and the capacity to e-Government of the local public administration. All of the 103 Romanian municipalities have been analysed and the results obtained will be presented on each class (there are 5 different classes – e-doc, transparency, etc., but also by the final results.

  15. Implementing the Green City Policy in Municipal Spatial Planning: The Case of Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abongile Dlani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “eco-city,” and similar concepts such as “green” and “sustainable” cities, has evolved overtime concurrent to the development of the understanding of social change and mankind’s impact on environmental and economic health. With the advent of climate change impacts, modern economies developed the green city policy to create sustainable urban development, low emission, and environmentally friendly cities. In South Africa municipalities, including Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM have been tasked to and implement the green city policy. However, BCMM is yet to develop the green city policy that clearly articulate how the municipality will combat climate change and reduce its Green House Gases (GHG emissions in its spatial planning designs. Against this background, this article reviews and analyses green policy landscape in Metropolitan Municipalities. It is envisaged that the research will provide the basis for the development of a comprehensive green policy strategies and programmes for the local transition to action in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, in the Eastern Cape Province.

  16. The Port Hope area initiative municipal involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, Rick; Stevenson, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Port Hope (Canada) contains one of the world's oldest nuclear facility sites. From the 1930's through to the 1970's, processing residues from radium refining facilities located at the Port Hope Harbour were being stored and/or deposited on numerous sites throughout the municipality. For a variety of reasons, including spillage of material during transportation and un-monitored or unauthorized diversion of materials, many private and public properties in the municipality were contaminated with low level radioactive waste. Over the past 30 years, the community has demanded that the nuclear industry and the federal government clean up the mess left in Port Hope. In the 1980's and 1990's, the federal government sought to fulfill its commitment to clean up over one million cubic metres of contaminated material remaining in Port Hope but was unable to find a solution. The Low Level Radioactive Waste Management Siting Task Force worked in trying to find a home for historic LLRW in the 1980's and 1990's. It is only within the past 6 years that Port Hope's community began to see the 'light at the end of the tunnel'. And, the light began to shine when the communities took the issue of long term management of the waste into their own hands and proposed possible solutions to the federal government. So the Port Hope Area Initiative is a community-based initiative. In this paper the author presents some of the reasons for success (so far) and some opportunities and challenges that his municipality, and specifically municipal Council, faces as a partner in this Environmental Assessment and project development process. He addresses some of the key elements of the Project that he believes have led to the success of the Project to this point, including: the Legal Agreement and Agreement Monitoring process; the Property Value Protection Program; the Hosting Fee; the Municipal veto on some decisions; the end Use as an asset to the Community; the Value of Peer Review. He also touches

  17. The treatment of waste waters from pig abattoirs using Sequencing Batch Reactor technology; Depuracion de las aguas residuales generadas en los mataderos de porcino mediante tecnologia Sequencing Batch Reactor, SBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer Guiteras, J.

    2008-07-01

    A description is provided of a pig abattoir with a provision of 200-250 l/pig, a COD load of between 10,000 and 6,000 mg/l and a BOD of between 4,000 and 2,500 mg/l and 750-500 mg-NKT/l. The pretreatment line includes a system for separating coarse and fine components, flotation and a homogenisation tank/lung. the treatment line consists of a an SBR in which the organic matter is metabolised sequentially, the nitrogen eliminated and the remainder decanted. The clarified water with 98% less organic content and 99% less nitrogen is then disposed of. The sludge is thickened and dehydrated. (Author)

  18. The relationship between the oil industry and municipalities in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerecke, D.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between oil companies and rural municipalities in Saskatchewan and the recent changes to Saskatchewan's property tax assessment scheme were discussed. There are approximately 300 rural municipalities in Saskatchewan, each having its own bylaws and policies. The bylaws and policies dealing with roads and fees are the ones which affect the oil companies the most. From the industry's point of view, the biggest problem is that there is no consistency from one rural municipality to another regarding the rules that oil companies must follow. The Rural Municipalities Act and the Planning and Development Act are the sources of jurisdiction for rural municipalities. These acts allow municipalities to pass zoning bylaws for land use and development restrictions that could prevent or restrict the drilling of wells, the installation of road approaches, the crossing of roads with a pipeline or gas line, and waste disposal, among others. Examples of how the rural municipalities in Saskatchewan are dealing with the oil industry are presented. One factor that rural municipalities sometimes overlook is that trying to coexist peacefully with the oil industry frequently encourages development and keeps taxes down. The property tax reassessment based on the 1989 Rural Municipality Act, the impact of reassessment on rural municipalities, appeals against assessment, 1997 changes to the appeal rules, and major appeal issues in 1997 were also reviewed

  19. Management and Employee Sati sfaction in a Municipal Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Kambič

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Do knowledge and skills of the director of municipal administration have an influence on employee satisfaction? Purpose: To research the knowledge and skills, a leader needs to guide employees towards reaching a work place satisfaction and consequently towards higher effectiveness of the organization. Method: A case study on a smaller municipal administration based on an interview with the director of municipal administration on development of knowledge and skills; a questionnaire for determining leadership abilities and a questionnaire for measuring work satisfaction of employees in municipal administration. Results: The influence of knowledge and skills of the director of municipal administration on employee satisfaction. Organization: Organization that strives for success needs to devote special attention to people management. Satisfied employees are successful in their work assignments and consequently contribute to effectiveness of the organization. Society: The purpose of municipal administration is to fulfill the needs of its citizens as much as possible. A quality service for citizens as service users can only be provided by satisfied employees in the municipal administration. Originality: In the municipal administration of the studied municipality a research study on the influence of knowledge and skills of the leader on employee satisfaction has not been carried out yet, so this will serve as grounds for improvement of organizational climate in the organization. Limitations/further research: The director of municipal administration is the author’s subordinate. The municipal administration has only eight employees, which is a limited sample size even though all employees participated in the research study. In the future it would be wise to conduct a study with all three municipal administrations of the Bela krajina region, as this would provide a clearer picture of employee satisfaction in the municipalities of

  20. The Economics of Bulk Water Transport in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hodges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipalities often face increasing demand for limited water supplies with few available alternative sources. Under some circumstances, bulk water transport may offer a viable alternative. This case study documents a hypothetical transfer between a water utility district in northern California and urban communities located on the coast of central and southern California. We compare bulk water transport costs to those of constructing a new desalination facility, which is the current plan of many communities for increasing supplies. We find that using water bags to transport fresh water between northern and southern California is in some instances a low-cost alternative to desalination. The choice is constrained, however, by concerns about reliability and, thus, risk. Case-study results demonstrate the challenges of water supply augmentation in water-constrained regions.

  1. Sampling, characterisation and processing of solid recovered fuel production from municipal solid waste: An Italian plant case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Ionescu, Gabriela; Fedele, Arcangela; Palmieri, Eleonora; Ranieri, Ada Cristina; Campanaro, Vincenzo

    2017-08-01

    This article presents the classification of solid recovered fuel from the Massafra municipal solid waste treatment plant in Southern Italy in compliancy with the EN 15359 standard. In order to ensure the reproducibility of this study, the characterisation methods of waste input and output flow, the mechanical biological treatment line scheme and its main parameters for each stage of the processing chain are presented in details, together with the research results in terms of mass balance and derived fuel properties. Under this study, only 31% of refused municipal solid waste input stream from mechanical biological line was recovered as solid recovered fuel with a net heating value (NC=HV) average of 15.77 MJ kg -1 ; chlorine content average of 0.06% on a dry basis; median of mercury solid recovered fuel produced meets the European Union standard requirements and can be classified with the class code: Net heating value (3); chlorine (1); mercury (1).

  2. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 2. Roedbyhavn, Lolland Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area at Roedbyhavn in the Municipality of Lolland, southern Denmark. (LN)

  3. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Does municipal co-financing reduce hospitalisation rates in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbæk, Karsten; Lærke Sørensen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To provide a preliminary answer to the question of whether the economic incentives introduced by the municipal co-financing of hospital services work as intended in the reform. Methods: This study is based on 30 statistical cross-section linear regressions, OLS, using data from Statistics...... Denmark (Statistikbanken) and the Municipal Financial Accounts. Supplemented by data from a survey study from municipal health managers in all municipalities of the country. Results: Despite the favourable conditions presented by the design of our analysis, it is not possible to demonstrate a clear link...... between local efforts and number of admissions from the municipalities. Conclusions: The study does not support one of the fundamental theoretical assumptions behind the municipal co-financing introduced in the 2007 structural reform in Denmark. While the study failed to establish systematic links between...

  5. Study on Construction Technology of Municipal Road and Bridge Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fuyong

    2018-03-01

    With the continuous development of social economy and the accelerating process of urbanization, municipal road and bridge projects have also shown a trend of rapid development. Municipal road and bridge work can fully reflect the economic and cultural development level of cities and is also an important symbol of urban development. As a basic material of construction, concrete is widely used in engineering construction. This article will analyze the municipal road and bridge concrete construction technology, put forward corresponding measures.

  6. Perceived tourism impacts in municipalities with different tourism concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Nemec Rudež, Helena; Vodeb, Ksenija

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates residents’ perceptions of tourism impacts in Koper and Piran municipality which are located on the Slovenian coast. The two municipalities have different tourism concentration defined as the ratio between the number of tourists and the number of residents. Specifically, the study attempts to explore differences between tourism impacts in the two municipalities. For the purpose of this study, tourism impacts are divided into economic, socio-cultural and environmental. Pr...

  7. A Business Case Method for IT Investments in Danish Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2012-01-01

    Effective management of information technology (IT) investments is increasingly important for Danish municipalities. This is why they along with other both public and private sector organizations increasingly are using IT business cases. The business case is a document specifying the main rationale...... behind the expected value and cost of an IT investment for the adopting organization. However, experiences from Danish municipalities reveal difficulties in developing effective IT business cases for purposes beyond simple cost savings. Based on collaborative action research with Danish municipalities...

  8. Simulation of the plume emitted by a municipal waste incinerator located in the Madeira island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, M.; Ribeiro, C.; Pereira, M.; Borrego, C. [Campus Univ., AVEIRO (Portugal). IDAD - Inst. of Environment and Development

    2004-07-01

    The study of meteorological circulations in small islands has been quite limited with the majority of the research published concerning the analysis of the eolic potential for energy production. Other researchers focused on the description of the dispersion of gases emitted by volcanic activity. In this paper, a mesoscale meteorological and dispersion model was applied to simulate the behaviour of the plume of a municipal waste incinerator (MSW) that was constructed in the southern slope of the Madeira island at an altitude of 1380 m. Madeira is a Portuguese island located in the Atlantic Ocean at approximately 32 40'N and 16 52'W with a clear east-west development. The island is relatively small (60 x 20 km{sup 2}) but is characterized by very complex orography with maximum peaks reaching 1800 m. The fact that the orography has the same east-west development creates a very strong distinction between the northern and the southern slopes. The northern slope is strongly exposed to the prevalent synoptic flows and the southern slope is much warmer, quiet and where the majority of the population lives. The climate is very mild with small thermal amplitudes and maximum temperatures between 18 to 28 C. Sea temperature during summer rises to 22-23 C. (orig.)

  9. Municipal solid waste generation in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Mohan B; Pretz, Christopher R; Urynowicz, Michael A; Gerow, Kenneth G; Reddy, J M

    2011-01-01

    Waste stream characteristics must be understood to tackle waste management problems in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC), Nepal. Three-stage stratified cluster sampling was used to evaluate solid waste data collected from 336 households in KMC. This information was combined with data collected regarding waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets. The study found that 497.3 g capita(-1) day(-1) of solid waste was generated from households and 48.5, 113.3 and 26.1 kg facility(-1) day(-1) of waste was generated from restaurants, hotels and schools, respectively. Street litter measured 69.3 metric tons day(-1). The average municipal solid waste generation rate was 523.8 metric tons day(-1) or 0.66 kg capita(-1) day(-1) as compared to the 320 metric tons day(-1) reported by the city. The coefficient of correlation between the number of people and the amount of waste produced was 0.94. Key household waste constituents included 71% organic wastes, 12% plastics, 7.5% paper and paper products, 5% dirt and construction debris and 1% hazardous wastes. Although the waste composition varied depending on the source, the composition analysis of waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets showed a high percentage of organic wastes. These numbers suggest a greater potential for recovery of organic wastes via composting and there is an opportunity for recycling. Because there is no previous inquiry of this scale in reporting comprehensive municipal solid waste generation in Nepal, this study can be treated as a baseline for other Nepalese municipalities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. AL(0) in municipal waste incinerator ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipp, S. L.; Ronsbo, J. G.; Zunic, T. B.; Christensen, T. H.

    2003-04-01

    Disposal of municipal waste is a challenge to society. Waste volume is substantially decreased by incineration but residual ash usually contains a number of toxic components which must be immobilised to insure environmental protection. One element, chromium, is mobile and toxic in its oxidised state as Cr(VI) but it can be reduced to Cr(III) and immobilised. Reduction can be promoted by ash treatment with Fe(0) or Fe(II), but recent evidence shows that at least some Cr(VI) is reduced spontaneously in the ash. Aspects of ash behaviour suggest metallic aluminium as the reducing agent, but no direct evidence of Al(0) has been found until now. We examined filter ash from an energy-producing, municipal-waste incinerator (Vest-forbrænding) near Copenhagen. X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified expected salts of Na, K and Ca such as halite, sylvite, calcite, anhydrite and gypsum as well as quartz, feldspar and some hematite. Wave-dispersive electron microprobe produced elemen-tal maps of the ash; Al-rich areas were analysed quantitatively by comparison with standards. We identified metallic Al particles, averaging 50 to 100 micrometers in di-ameter, often with a fractured, glassy border of aluminum oxide. The particles were porous, explaining fast Cr(VI) reduction and they contained thin exsolution lamellae of Al-alloys of Pb and Cu or Mn, Fe and Ag, which provide clues of the Al(0) origin in the waste. Sometimes Al(0) occurred inside glassy globes of Al2O3. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that surface Al concentrations on ash particles were below detection, confirming reactivity of the Al(0) bulk. The persistence of reduced Al through the highly oxidising combustion procedure comes as a surprise and is a benefit in the immobilisation of Cr(VI) from municipal-waste incineration residues.

  11. Tourist valorization of the municipality of Negotin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čučulović Rodoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to its physical-geographical and socio-economical characteristics, the municipality of Negotin belongs to the territories with favorable tourist potentials. In order to scientifically validate this fact, in this paper tourist valorization has been performed using quantitative-qualitative method, giving attractiveness ranking values, based on which conclusions have been made on the direction and forms of tourist potential. The results obtained from tourist valorization have shown that the hydrographic potential and fauna are rated as good (3, and have the highest general tourist value among natural resources. General values are graded as satisfactory (1.8 and the climate is graded as unsatisfactory (1.2. Valorization of anthropogenic characteristics gave the maximal general value (4 to cultural-historical objects including sacral objects - monasteries and churches and the Rajac pimnice. The Rajac pimnice have an especially high value, as they represent, for us, a unique value that can be considered in diverse ways and adjusted to tourist utilization. Based on the performed tourist valorization it can be noted that the general tourist value of the municipality of Negotin is of regional ranking, though anthropogenic potentials are of national ranking and part of them, as emphasized, are objects that are internationally important. The basic shortcoming is the low road quality leading to places of important tourist value, even though the road network is favorable, and there are also many weaknesses in the receptive tourist base. Improvement of these shortcomings would create a good image of the municipality of Negotin in continental tourism of the Republic of Serbia.

  12. CITIZENSHIP, DEMOCRACY Y DEMANDA OF NEW MUNICIPALITIES IN SINALOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús López-Estrada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the construction of citizenship and democracy in the cities of Eldorado in Culiacán municipality and Juan José Ríos in the Guasave municipality. In the processes, the following elements are present: the different social culture identities that it has built the citizens of rural communities and citizens who reside in main town of the municipality, feeling of injustice generated in largely of citizens by deficient municipality public service; and struggle for the extension and political rights. Analyzing the information provided by the social actors who have participated in these lawsuits is complemented.

  13. The characteristics to consider in municipal shared spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkoe, Rikke; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is through collaboration with practitioners to identify key characteristics of municipal shared spaces and, based on these, developing a guide for establishing a shared space in a municipal real-estate portfolio. Design/methodology/approach This paper builds...... to establishing a shared space in a municipal real-estate portfolio, created in collaboration between researchers and practitioners. It provides an introduction to the topic and outlines a number of tasks that must be completed in different parts of a project, thereby providing a tool which practitioners can use...... in a municipal real-estate portfolio....

  14. Early mathematics intervention in a Danish municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenskov, Lena; Weng, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We describe a pilot project 2009 – 2010 about early intervention in second grade mathematics (about 8 years old) in Frederiksberg, a Danish urban municipality. We shortly describe the background of the pilot project, aims and organisation in four design cycles. We explore the pilot teachers......' feedback during the pilot process, how pilot teacher feedback was applied in material production, and the relations between the feedback and the project’s theoretical basis. The project is based on original theory (Math Holes theory), but international frameworks, like Mathematics Recovery, serve...

  15. Environmental sustainability of ozonating municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e....... In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the WWTTs, i.e. ozonation....

  16. Organic school meals in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    In order to prevent children and young people from becoming overweight or obese, it is imperative to promote healthier eating patterns. So it is necessary to develop and implement effective strategies that can influence the eating and lifestyle habits of young people. Healthy school meal programme...... is considered to be an effective strategy to promote such changes and increasingly such strategies become embedded organic supply polices and strategies that pursue environmental goals. The purpose of this paper is to take a closer look into the current status of the organic school meal programme in Denmark....... Three municipalities which are involved in the organic school meal programme are chosen as the study subjects....

  17. Escuela náutica municipal

    OpenAIRE

    Mejón Vandrell, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Qualificació obtinguda: 9 El proyecto se sitúa en la ciudad de Lisboa, en una zona de borde marítimo, frente al estuario del rio Tajo, la propuesta trata de desarrollar un club municipal náutico, el programa intenta dar respuesta y contenido a la función para la cual se dirige, pero también ser un revulsivo en la zona elegida, que sirva de impronta para un futuro crecimiento y disfrute. El lugar, nos da la oportunidad, de pensar en aquellas arquitecturas industriales que han albergad...

  18. SK policies the view of nuclear municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'abadal, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear policies of the most important countries in Western Europe, already influenced by the evolution of the public opinion, have experimented strong changes together with political evolution. The future of NNP in some important countries is doubtful, as for the case of Sweden, Germany, Spain, Holland, Belgium, The large democratic discussions that affect permanently our society, as well as the new society of information that is being implanted, have turned the decision making processes into what is referred to as public participation and transparency, especially when these affect the environment or the immediate future of the citizens. The installation policies of nuclear plants are very similar in all the countries. Most of them are located in low density population areas, with low activity rate, high rate of elder people. These territories have many water resources, low communication infrastructure level, etc. So the typographic aspects of the European municipalities are alike (in eastern countries as well). Nuclear energy whose existence is sometimes called in question by press media, citizens and inhabitants, needs full agreement within the territory in order to work at its best. Moreover, the territory on which the plant is installed must have the necessary means of infrastructure ( development from a social and economic point of view) as well as the dues for its future and for a new positive reality as far as the citizens are concerned in order to face the corresponding challenges. Having got to this point, a territorial debate should be focused on the balance between the state's general interest and the local one as normalised operation of nuclear facilities is and will be possible only in a context of mutual respect. The new European political map and the last governmental decisions in energetic strategies grant more value to the opinion of the local authorities on the territories affected by these facilities. So, in order to express their opinion

  19. Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: a shared input DEA-model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Nicky; De Jaeger, Simon

    2012-10-01

    This paper proposed an adjusted "shared-input" version of the popular efficiency measurement technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that enables evaluating municipality waste collection and processing performances in settings in which one input (waste costs) is shared among treatment efforts of multiple municipal solid waste fractions. The main advantage of this version of DEA is that it not only provides an estimate of the municipalities overall cost efficiency but also estimates of the municipalities' cost efficiency in the treatment of the different fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). To illustrate the practical usefulness of the shared input DEA-model, we apply the model to data on 293 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2008. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: A shared input DEA-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, Nicky; De Jaeger, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Complexity in local waste management calls for more in depth efficiency analysis. ► Shared-input Data Envelopment Analysis can provide solution. ► Considerable room for the Flemish municipalities to improve their cost efficiency. - Abstract: This paper proposed an adjusted “shared-input” version of the popular efficiency measurement technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that enables evaluating municipality waste collection and processing performances in settings in which one input (waste costs) is shared among treatment efforts of multiple municipal solid waste fractions. The main advantage of this version of DEA is that it not only provides an estimate of the municipalities overall cost efficiency but also estimates of the municipalities’ cost efficiency in the treatment of the different fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). To illustrate the practical usefulness of the shared input DEA-model, we apply the model to data on 293 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2008.

  1. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, S; Beigl, P

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Municipal hydraulic planning for energy saving; Planeacion hidraulica municipal para el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Garcia, Enrique [PTF S.C. Consultores, Leon, Gto. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The efficient handling of the economic and natural resources of the municipalities, is nowadays so much complex, that it requires a formal planning. In the public service of potable water supply, two fundamental approaches are conjugated to consider: the rational use of the water resource and the efficient use of the electrical energy, for its extraction from the underground deep reservoirs. In the paper that is presented, the individual features of the previous matters are described and the positive results in a municipality of the Guanajuato's Low Lands (Bajio ), where already the dual objectives are obtained and that with a more professional municipal hydraulic planning, these will be permanent, with the inherent benefit towards the population. [Spanish] El manejo eficiente de los recursos economicos y naturales de los municipios, es hoy en dia cada vez mas complejo, que requiere una planeacion formal. En el servicio publico de abastecimiento de agua potable, se conjugan dos enfoques primordiales a considerar: el uso racional del recurso agua y la utilizacion eficiente de la energia electrica, para su extraccion de los acuiferos subterraneos profundos. En el trabajo que se presenta, se describen las particularidades de lo anterior y los resultados positivos en un municipio del Bajio guanajuatense, donde ya se logran los objetivos duales y que con una planeacion hidraulica municipal mas profesional, estos seran permanentes, con el beneficio inherente hacia la poblacion.

  3. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  4. Should large Spanish municipalities be financially compensated? Costs and benefits of being a capital/central municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch Roca, Núria; Espasa Queralt, Marta; Montolio, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We determine the costs and benefits of being a capital or central municipality, where central costs are understood to be incurred specifically as a result of the problems large municipalities located at the centre of an urban agglomeration face (including costs associated with social issues, immigration, commuting and diseconomies of scale) and capital costs result from the presence of regional and/or central government institutions in the municipality (loss of revenue or increase in expendit...

  5. Do Municipal Governments Need More Tax Powers? A Background Paper on Municipal Finance in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melville McMillan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Local governments in Alberta have faced considerable and variable challenges over the past 60 years. For example, the rapid population and economic growth during the 1950s, ’60s and ’70s created exceptional demands for schools, schooling and municipal infrastructure; demands exceeding those of the last 30 years. Local and especially municipal financing has relied heavily on the property tax throughout. Questions are being asked today about whether the property tax is sufficient for municipal government. Our historical analysis provides insights into the fiscal situation of Alberta’s municipalities that can assist in addressing those questions. The main findings are highlighted here. We conclude that current demands, though considerable, are not creating stress on the property tax as a source of municipal revenue. • The property tax burden in Alberta during the past decade is the lowest that it has been over the past 60 years. Presently, property taxes are about 3.5 per cent of personal income. They were as high as seven per cent during much of the 1960s and averaged in the four to five per cent range from 1950 to 2000. Local and provincial school taxes were responsible for most of the fluctuations in the property tax burden. Municipal property taxes ranged from two to three per cent of personal incomes and recently amounted to about 2.5 per cent, a level typical of that over the past 20 years. • Investment in local infrastructure has over the past 30 years been at half the rate of that of the previous 30 years. Only since 2006, with the assistance of provincial capital grants, has infrastructure spending shown upward movement. Capital spending lagged population growth for many years and probably contributed to a deterioration of infrastructure. • Municipal current or operating expenditures (about three-quarters of the total have been a declining share of personal incomes since the late 1980s and, since 2000, are a smaller share than

  6. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato

    2006-01-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day

  7. Using radioactive tracer technique in municipal hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurasova, O.I.

    1974-01-01

    Work of the A. N. Syrsin Institute of General and Municiapl Hygiene using raidoactive tracers is reviewed. The studies include research on protein metabolism in the living organism following action of unfavorable factors of the environment; determination of the paths of introduction into the organism of substances with an alien composition; and study of the rate of resorption of subcutaneous papuli. Results are shown of radioactive-tracer studies on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the living organism and of migration of alien chemical compounds in the organism and in objects in the environment. It is concluded that the radioactive tracer method has wide application in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology. The absence of laborious operations, economy of time, precision of the experiments, and the possibility of obtaining additional information on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the organism and the low cost of such studies compared with other methods makes the radioactive tracer method economically attractive. The studies made show the various types of use of the method in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology

  8. Ultraviolet disinfection of treated municipal wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vander Laan, H; Cairns, B

    1993-12-31

    A wastewater disinfection system developed by a Canadian company, Trojan Technologies Inc., was discussed. Disinfection for pathogen reduction prior to discharge of treated municipal wastewater back into rivers and lakes has been either ignored or treated by the use of chemicals. In 1979 the first pilot ultraviolet (UV) wastewater disinfection system was established. Since then, over 500 municipal UV installations have been commissioned. The largest installation can process 212 million gallons of water per day. The advantages of UV as a disinfectant are: (1) It is more effective than chlorine. (2) There are no mutagenic/carcinogenic byproducts formed with UV. (3) No toxic chemical residuals are discharged. (4) UV is safe to both the operators and the public. (5) It is cost effective. Europe has not been as active in wastewater disinfection as has North America. One result of the absence of wastewater disinfection in Europe is that the Rhine River, for example, carries 50 million salmonella per second. Disinfection of wastewater effluents is, of course, indispensable in protecting our drinking water supply. 2 figs.

  9. Capilla del Hospital Municipal de Mannheim, Alemania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutschler, C.

    1969-07-01

    Full Text Available This building was completed when the Municipal Hospital of Mannheim was enlarged and became a Faculty of Medicine. It serves equally well for catholic and protestant religious services. The visitor reaches the church after traversing a gently inclined path: the main feature that holds his attention on entering is the altar and sacristy zone. Advancing up a ramp a gallery is reached, which enables sick people on wheelchairs, or in beds, to participate in the liturgical acts. The main materials utilised have been untreated brick and concrete.Construida a raíz de la ampliación del Hospital Municipal de Mannheim y su conversión en Facultad de Medicina, sirve indistintamente para la celebración de los actos litúrgicos de ambas confesiones. El visitante, por un camino suavemente inclinado, ingresa en el interior del edificio, cuyo núcleo focal está constituido por la zona del altar y las sacristías. Subiendo por una rampa se accede a una galería que permite el que los enfermos, en sillones con ruedas, o en Ja cama, etc., puedan participar desde allí en los actos litúrgicos. Los materiales fundamentales empleados son: ladrillo a cara vista y hormigón, igualmente visto.

  10. Environmental factors and elements of Ljig municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljanović Dragana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some of the basic natural and social-geographic factors are analyzed, with the aim to identify their influence on the environmental status. Qualitative assessment are attempted about the various elements of the environment, and attention directed to the problems of noise, and problems of communal waste disposal. A synthetic presentation of the environmental status in the municipality of Ljig is given. The territory of Ljig has been spatially differentiated, namely, it has been categorized according to the degree of pollution. High concentration of the population, and activities, in the town Ljig itself has produced a degradation worse than in the other settlements. On the other hand, the settlements in which is situated the locationally non-flexible industry (quarrying and processing of stone are facing problems of other sort. In the villages, however, which are slowly becoming depopulated, the quality of the environment is satisfactory. In accordance with such facts, revealed about the environmental status, basic aims have been defined as to how to protect the environment in the future. For the realization of environmental aims, various measures and activities are being proposed, with the purpose to improve the situation in the threatened zones, and to safeguard the quality of the environment on the entire municipal territory of Ljig.

  11. CHALLENGES OF MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOLTÁN OROSZ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims, tasks and priorities of medium term development plans of national waste management were defined in the National Waste Management Plan, which was made for the period of 2003–2008 in Hungary. Supporting of the European Union is indispensable for carrying out of plan. The most important areas are related to the developing projects of municipal solid waste treatment (increasingthe capacity of landfills, accomplishment of the infrastructure of selective waste collection, building of new composting plants. The national environmental policy does not focus sufficiently on the prevention of waste production. Due to the high expenses of investment and operation the energetic recovery and the incineration of municipal solid waste do not compete with the deposition. We inclined to think that the waste management of Hungary will be deposition-orientated until 2015. The main problems to the next years will be the lack of reprocessing industry of plastic and glass packaging waste. The high number of to-be-recultivated landfills and the attainability of necessary financial sources are also serious problems. There are many questions. What is the future in national waste management? How can we reduce the quantity of dumped waste? What are challenges of national waste management on the short and long term?

  12. Using radioactive tracer technique in municipal hygiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurasova, O I [Institut Obshchej i Kommunal' noj Gigieny, Moscow (USSR)

    1974-01-01

    Work of the A. N. Syrsin Institute of General and Municiapl Hygiene using raidoactive tracers is reviewed. The studies include research on protein metabolism in the living organism following action of unfavorable factors of the environment; determination of the paths of introduction into the organism of substances with an alien composition; and study of the rate of resorption of subcutaneous papuli. Results are shown of radioactive-tracer studies on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the living organism and of migration of alien chemical compounds in the organism and in objects in the environment. It is concluded that the radioactive tracer method has wide application in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology. The absence of laborious operations, economy of time, precision of the experiments, and the possibility of obtaining additional information on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the organism and the low cost of such studies compared with other methods makes the radioactive tracer method economically attractive. The studies made show the various types of use of the method in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology.

  13. Synchronous municipal sewerage-sludge stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukuru, Godefroid; Jian, Yang

    2005-01-01

    A study on a pilot plant accomplishing synchronous municipal sewerage-sludge stabilization was conducted at a municipal sewerage treatment plant. Stabilization of sewerage and sludge is achieved in three-step process: anaerobic reactor, roughing filter and a microbial-earthworm-ecofilter. The integrated ecofilter utilizes an artificial ecosystem to degrade and stabilize the sewerage and sludge. When the hydraulic retention time(HRT) of the anaerobic reactor is 6 h, the hydraulic load(HL) of the bio-filter is 16 m3/(m2 x d), the HL of the eco-filter is 5 m3/(m2 x d), the recycle ratio of nitrified liquor is 1.5, the removal efficiency is 83%-89% for COD(Cr), 94%-96% for BOD5, 96%-98% for SS, and 76%-95% for NH3-N. The whole system realizes the zero emission of sludge, and has the characteristics of saving energy consumption and operational costs.

  14. Southern pulpwood production, 1962

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe F. Christopher; Martha E. Nelson

    1963-01-01

    Pulpwood production in the south rose to an all-time high of 25,586,300 cords in 1962-58 percent of the Nation's total. At the year's end, 80 southern pulpmills were operating; their combined daily pulping capacity was more than 52,000 tons. Nine mills outside the region were using wood grown in the South.

  15. Multilingualism in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…

  16. NREL + Southern California Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    NREL and Southern California Gas Company are evaluating a new 'power-to-gas' approach - one that produces methane through a biological pathway and uses the expansive natural gas infrastructure to store it. This approach has the potential to change how the power industry approaches renewable generation and energy storage.

  17. The development of a municipal water conservation and demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Municipalities often fail to realise that most WC/WDM activities will pay for themselves and that financial institutions will fund these projects if a proper business case could be compiled. Ironically municipalities have complained that they are unable to obtain funding while most financial institutions complain that they cannot ...

  18. Moss as Indicator of Heavy Metals Pollution in Kano Municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-09-23

    Sep 23, 2015 ... Metals accumulation was determined in moss specie funaria hygrometrica collected from industrial and neighbouring residential .... of Lead in street dust to index its pollution in. Kano municipality. Spectrum journal, 1: 94-. 97. Sharada. Bompai. City campus Kano municipal. Zoo Road. 0. 5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 30.

  19. Probabilistic assessment of wildfire hazard and municipal watershed exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe Scott; Don Helmbrecht; Matthew P. Thompson; David E. Calkin; Kate Marcille

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of wildfires within municipal watersheds can result in significant impacts to water quality and ultimately human health and safety. In this paper, we illustrate the application of geospatial analysis and burn probability modeling to assess the exposure of municipal watersheds to wildfire. Our assessment of wildfire exposure consists of two primary...

  20. Monograph of Keçiören Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Zafer Şahin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, urban administration can be defined from a judicial perspective as the bundle of powers vested in municipalities. It is known that throughout republican history, municipalities, using these powers, have differentiated themselves via their own internal dynamics in parallel to the evolution of public policy and changes in legislation. Yet, it is obvious that there are important gaps in understanding this differentiation taking into consideration the structural conditions of individual municipalities. In particular, in order to thoroughly understand municipalities, it is important to consider periodical pictures of how each municipality has been affected by waves of decentralization and centralization experienced over the last thirty years. In this respect, this monograph, using the same monographic approach developed for the Çankaya Municipality, provides a picture of the existing situation of Ankara’s Keçiören Municipality and presents related problems and potential. This monograph, based on qualitative and quantitative research, presents a holistic evaluation of Keçiören Municipality in terms of its external environment, provision of services, decision-making processes, use of technology and communications.

  1. Municipal Household Solid Waste Compost: Effects on Carrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of municipal household solid waste compost on N, P and K uptake and yield of carrot (Daucus carrota), using a coastal savanna Haplic Acrisol. Bulked samples of fresh solid waste from 45 households within the Cape Coast Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana ...

  2. ESCO in Danish municipalities: Basic, integrative or strategic approaches?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Balslev Nielsen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    , energy savings, type of collaboration etc. Background: Since 2008, several Danish municipalities have started energy retrofitting of municipal buildings, based on contracts with Energy Service Companies. In spite of the strong growth of ESCOs, there is also widespread scepticism about ESCO, as many...

  3. The incorporation of public international law into municipal law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monism and dualism represent two different approaches towards the relationship between public international law and municipal law. While the former views public international law and municipal law as a single legal system, the latter regards these two areas of law as separate and distinct legal systems that exist ...

  4. Implementation of health impact assessment in Danish municipal context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Stella Rebecca Johnsdatter; Nikolajsen, Louise Theilgaard; Gulis, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    Implementation of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Danish municipalities has been analyzed using the Roger's Diffusion of Innovation Theory. Municipalities were chosen from among those who presented their health policies on websites according to the status of inclusion of HIA into health policy. Qualitative interviews were conducted in 6 municipalities (3 with HIA inducted in their health policy and 3 without it) gathering information on knowledge and attitudes to HIA, barriers to its implementation, social system and communication channels used or expected to be used for implementation of HIA. No significant differences were found among analyzed municipalities by status of HIA inclusion into health policy. Among barriers; a lack of tools with general validity, a lack of intersectoral working culture, balance between centralized versus participatory way of working and organizational structure of a municipality, and a lack of capacities were enlisted as most relevant. The last one is a crucial factor of an internal social system of a municipality. With regards to communication channels, reporting and presentation skills of implementers and doers are of key importance. Systematic and sustainable capacity building is needed to achieve high level implementation of HIA in Danish municipalities. Development of validated tools, most importantly screening tools with focus on priorities of national public health policy would enhance implementation on municipal level.

  5. Factors affecting the job satisfaction of municipal sport officers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To prevent the voluntary turnover of their employees, municipalities have the obligation to ensure that the needs and expectations of these employees are satisfied. The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing the job satisfaction of municipal sport officers. Using a quantitative approach, a questionnaire was ...

  6. Utilizing Municipal Trees: Ideas From Across the Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen M. Bratkovich

    2001-01-01

    To show how municipal tree removals can be utilized for traditional wood products, this publication highlights 16 successful projects from around the country. These case studies are organized by the different types of participants: State and regional partnerships, municipalities, tree service firms, entrepreneurs, and sawmills. Contact information is provided for each...

  7. Evaluation of the environmental noise levels in Abuja Municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the equivalent noise level (Leq) in Abuja municipality and promote a simple method for regular assessment of Leq within our environment. Methods: This is a cross-sectional community based study of the environmental Leq of Abuja municipality conducted between January 2014 and January 2016.

  8. A mathematical model of combustion kinetics of municipal solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Municipal Solid Waste has become a serious environmental problem troubling many cities. In this paper, a mathematical model of combustion kinetics of municipal solid waste with focus on plastic waste was studied. An analytical solution is obtained for the model. From the numerical simulation, it is observed that the ...

  9. Compaction and packaging of dry active municipal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zongming; Xi Xinmin

    1994-01-01

    The authors present the feature of a compaction system for active municipal wastes and the radiological monitoring results of workplace and environment. A variety of dry active municipal wastes could be compacted by this system. Volume reduction factor attained to 5 to 7 for soft wastes and 8 to 13 for hard wastes. No evident radiological impact was found on workplace and environment

  10. Implementation of health impact assessment in Danish municipal context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraemer, Stella R. J.; Nikolajsen, Louise Theilgaard; Gulis, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    . Conclusions: Systematic and sustainable capacity building is needed to achieve high level implementation of HIA in Danish municipalities. Development of validated tools, most importantly screening tools with focus on priorities of national public health policy would enhance implementation on municipal level.......Aims: Implementation of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Danish municipalities has been analyzed using the Roger's Diffusion of Innovation Theory. Municipalities were chosen from among those who presented their health policies on websites according to the status of inclusion of HIA into health...... policy. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted in 6 municipalities (3 with HIA inducted in their health policy and 3 without it) gathering information on knowledge and attitudes to HIA, barriers to its implementation, social system and communication channels used or expected to be used...

  11. Homestay and Tourism in a Philippine Municipality: A Conceptual Framework for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley V. Guevarra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The alternative definition of tourism as an act of “gathering, building, dwelling, and learning” (Phipps, 2007 was enacted in a homestay program of Sariaya, a municipality in southern Luzon in the Philippines. The hosts, the student butlers or guides, and the tourism council contributed to the visitors’ being able to “gather” sensory perceptions of Sariaya; “build,” make sense, and understand these sensory perceptions enough to “dwell” and be part of the “ visited” community from where “learning” and sweet memories of the municipality have become part of their personhood. More than photographs, these shared memories will probably be part of the discourse of tourism students. For a homestay program to be sustainable, however, the following must be done: change the paradigm among homestay participants by arriving at competitive pricing strategies, establish standardized pricing and more efficient homestay services, discover the potential of storytelling as a feature of homestay, address the issue of privacy among homeowners, and establish an acceptable return for participating in the homestay program. The last point is important because sustainability of the project is dependent not only on the fulf illment of sociocultural objectives but also on economic and f inancial objectives. Likewise, sustainability can be realized if there is a close coordination among the stakeholders, namely, the Sariaya Tourism Council, the local government, the academe, local businessmen, nongovernmental organizations, and national tourism off ices.

  12. Factors associated with lack of prenatal care in a large municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Quadrado da Rosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with a lack of prenatal care in a large municipality in southern Brazil. METHODS In this case-control age-matched study, 716 women were evaluated; of these, 179 did not receive prenatal care and 537 received prenatal care (controls. These women were identified using the Sistema Nacional de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos (Live Birth Information System of Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, between 2009 and 2010. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (OR. RESULTS In the final model, the variables associated with a lack of prenatal care were the level of education, particularly when it was lesser than four years [OR 4.46; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.92;10.36], being single (OR 3.61; 95%CI 1.85;7.04, and multiparity (OR 2.89; 95%CI 1.72;4.85. The prevalence of a lack of prenatal care among administrative regions varied between 0.7% and 3.9%. CONCLUSIONS The risk factors identified must be considered when planning actions for the inclusion of women in prenatal care by both the central management and healthcare teams. These indicated the municipal areas with greater deficits in prenatal care. The reorganization of the actions to identify women with risk factors in the community can be considered to be a starting point of this process. In addition, the integration of the activities of local programs that target the mother and child is essential to constantly identify pregnant women without prenatal care.

  13. Policy recommendations for Canadian municipal greenhouse gas trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seskus, A.

    2002-01-01

    The municipal policies regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading from municipalities in developed countries outside of Canada were examined in an effort to help establish a position on municipal carbon trading in Canada. The main uncertainty regarding this new concept of GHG emissions trading is the fate of the Kyoto Protocol, when or if it will be ratified. It is premature for municipalities to have well-established polices about emissions trading because the country in which a municipality is located determines the position towards GHG emissions trading. For this study, an extensive literature search of municipal policies was conducted for both GHG trading and domestic national GHG trading. This was followed by a survey on emissions trading which was distributed to more than 350 member cities (including the United States, Europe and Australia) of the International Council for Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) Campaign. The literature search revealed that municipalities outside of Canada have not yet formulated policies to address the issue of emissions trading. Only 7 per cent of the cities felt that they were informed about emissions trading, even in Europe and Australia where domestic emissions trading is closer to becoming a reality. This paper demonstrated that it is evident that more training is needed for municipalities regarding this issue. For the very few cities that had developed a GHG trading policy, each municipal policy supported municipal participation in emissions trading under conditions that included an environmental retirement, a do-no-harm clause, or an obligation to meet voluntary commitments before excess emissions can be traded. refs., tabs., figs

  14. The Port Hope area initiative from municipal perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, R.

    2006-01-01

    'Full text:' This paper explores the Municipal perspective of the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI). The PHAI is unique in that it emerged from proposals to the Federal Government and subsequently a tri-partite agreement between the Federal Government and the Municipalities of Port Hope and Clarington for the cleanup and management of historic low-level radioactive wastes in long-term waste management facilities in their Municipalities. A key feature of the Port Hope Project is the remediation of many major and small scale sites in the urban area. As part of this Legal Agreement, each Municipality is required to give consent at key milestones for the project to proceed to the next stage. In addition, the Municipality also has veto authority if the preferred option is changed by the federal government during its final review. The Agreement also ensures that the Municipalities have the resources to conduct an independent assessment of the work completed by the federal proponent and to advise the Municipality on related matters. While this Legal Agreement provides the Municipalities with influence over the outcome of the EA and the project description, especially when compared with the typical role of municipalities in other Federal EAs, there are many challenges that Port Hope faces as partner in this process. These include: Balancing Port Hope's interests with those of the Federal Government; Reaching agreement on how clean the remediation sites should be; Considering the interests of future generations while meeting the needs of existing residents; Ensuring that the Project will have a positive legacy for Port Hope; Ensuring that institutional controls are in place and that Port Hope has a partnership role in monitoring the Project performance during the Construction Phase and the long term Maintenance and Monitoring Phase. In this context, this paper presents the unique aspects of the Municipal involvement in the process to finally achieve a safe, environmentally

  15. Centralisation and decentralisation in strategic municipal energy planning in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling, Karl; Hvelplund, Frede; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    Denmark's future energy system is to be entirely based on renewable energy sources. Municipalities will play an important role as local energy planning authorities in terms of adopting and refining this vision in different local contexts. Based on a review of 11 municipal energy plans, this paper examines to what extent municipal energy planning matches national 100% renewable energy strategies. The results indicate a willingness among Danish municipalities to actively carry out energy planning, and the plans reveal a large diversity of (new) activities. At the same time, however, there is a strong need for better coordination of municipal energy planning activities at the central level. It is suggested that the role of municipalities as energy planning authorities needs to be outlined more clearly in, e.g., strategic energy planning which integrates savings, efficiency and renewable energy in all (energy) sectors. This requires the state to provide municipalities with the necessary planning instruments and establish a corresponding planning framework. Consequently, there is a need for a simultaneous centralisation and decentralisation during the implementation of the 100% renewable energy vision. The paper outlines a basic division of tasks between the central and the local level within such a strategic energy planning system. - Research highlights: → There is a large variety of energy-related activities in the 11 municipal energy and climate plans. → Only few plans contain all relevant sectors and activities in relation to a 100% RES. → Neglected areas are private transport, system regulation/integration and private buildings. → There is an acute need for coordination of municipal energy planning at the central level. → Strategic energy planning should integrate national policy with municipal energy planning.

  16. Partnerships between Dutch municipalities and municipalities in countries of migration to the Netherlands; knowledge exchange and mutuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, E.; Baud, I.S.A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years a growing number of Dutch municipalities have established relations with local governments in the countries of migration to the Netherlands (e.g. Turkey, Suriname and Morocco). In addition to strengthening local governance and improving service delivery in the partner municipalities,

  17. Fiscal Instruments for the Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSW in the Mexican Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Mendezcarlo Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Waste generation (municipal waste in the cities is, as we all know, one of the main current environmental issues. Responsibility for this kind of pollution is not only the companies’ but also the homeowners’ and the general public’s, who must redirect their behavior towards a responsible consumption, not only regarding the choices of environmentally friendly products and services but should also strive to influence the reduction of environmental damage caused by the waste itself.  The goal of this research work is to make clear that the local government (in Mexico’s case, the municipalities has the unavoidable duty of raising awareness of this issue by using tools to encourage responsible waste management, such as fiscal instruments, which in addition results in the extra benefit of raising public funds to neutralize the problem. 

  18. Adsorption of Phthalates on Municipal Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates (PAEs are commonly detected in discharge of municipal wastewater treatment plants. This study investigated the removal of six typical PAEs with activated sludge and the results revealed that concentrations of aqueous PAEs decreased rapidly during the beginning 15 min and reached equilibrium within 2 hours due to the adsorption of activated sludge. The process followed first-order kinetic equation, except for dioctyl phthalate (DOP. The factors influencing the adsorption were also evaluated and it was found that higher initial concentrations of PAEs enhanced the removal but affected little the adsorption equilibrium time. The adsorption of PAEs favored lower operating temperature (the optimum temperature was approximately 25°C in this research, which could be an exothermic process. Additionally, lower aqueous pH could also benefit the adsorption.

  19. Mercury emission monitoring on municipal waste combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.; Gerig, A.

    1991-01-01

    In waste incineration, mercury is the only heavy metal to be released as a gas, mostly as mercury(II) chloride, because of its high volatility. Continuous emission monitoring is possible only when mercury occurs in its elemental form. This paper reports on various possibilities of converting Hg(II) into Hg(0) that has been studied and tested on a laboratory scale and in the TAMARA refuse incineration pilot facility. Continuous mercury emission measurement appears to be possible, provided mercury is converted in the flue gas condensate precipitated. The measuring results obtained on two municipal solid waste and on one sewage treatment sludge incineration plants show that the mercury monitor is a highly sensitive and selective continuously working instrument for mercury emission monitoring

  20. Thermophilic composting of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elango, D.; Thinakaran, N.; Panneerselvam, P.; Sivanesan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Process of composting has been developed for recycling of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW). The bioreactor design was modified to reduce the composting process time. The main goal of this investigation was to find the optimal value of time period for composting of MSW in thermophilic bioreactor under aerobic condition. The temperature profiles correlated well with experimental data obtained during the maturation process. During this period biological degraders are introduced in to the reactor to accelerate the composting process. The compost materials were analyzed at various stages and the environmental parameters were considered. The final composting materials contained large organic content with in a short duration of 40 days. The quantity of volume reduction of raw MSW was 78%. The test result shows that the final compost material from the thermophilic reactor provides good humus to build up soil characteristics and some basic plant nutrients

  1. Drinking water quality of Sukkur municipal corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhar, I.A.; Ansari, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    SMC (Sukkur Municipal Corporation) supply the (filtered/settled) water for domestic purpose to the consumers, through intermittent water supply, from Phases I to IV. The water supply distribution network is underground and at most places pass parallel to sewerage lines. The grab sampling technique was followed for collecting representative samples. The official US-EPA and standard methods of water analysis have been used for drinking water quality analysis. DR/2000 spectrophotometer has been used for monitoring: Nitrates, Fluorides, Sulfates, Copper, Chromium, Iron and manganese. The trace metals Cr/sup 6/, Fe/sup 2+/ and other contaminants like; Turbidity and TSS (Total Suspended Solids) have been found higher than World Health Organization (WHO-1993) guideline values. (author)

  2. Governing health equity in Scandinavian municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Christian Elling; Little, Ingvild; Diderichsen, Finn

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Local governments in the Scandinavian countries are increasingly committed to reduce health inequity through 'health equity in all policies' (HEiAP) governance. There exists, however, only very sporadic implementation evidence concerning municipal HEiAP governance, which is the focus...... of this study. METHODS: Data are based on qualitative thematic network analysis of 20 interviews conducted from 2014 to 2015 with Scandinavian political and administrative practitioners. RESULTS: We identify 24 factors located within three categories; political processes, where insufficient political commitment...... to health equity goals outside of the health sector and inadequate economic prioritization budget curbs implementation. Concerning evidence, there is a lack of epidemiological data, detailed evidence of health equity interventions as well as indicators relevant for monitoring implementation. Concerted...

  3. Sustainable treatment of municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Augusto; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    The main goal of the EU FP6 NEPTUNE program is to develop new and improve existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling technologies for municipal waste water, in accordance with the concepts behind the EU Water Framework Directive. As part of this work, the project.......e. heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors) in the waste water. As a novel approach, the potential ecotoxicity and human toxicity impacts from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impacts from pathogens will be included. In total, more that 20 different waste water and sludge...... treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the first LCA results from running existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology on some of the waste water treatment technologies. Keywords: Sustainability, LCA, micropollutants, waste water treatment technologies....

  4. Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant sewage sludge as a source of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) contamination in the environment The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  5. Radiometric monitoring outdoor municipality Pocinhos-PB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinalli Araujo Costa, Michelle; Araujo dos Santos Junior, Jose; Dos Santos Amaral, Romilton

    2015-01-01

    Studies on human exposure to terrestrial radionuclides are important for human health. Therefore, this investigation presents aimed at making radiometric dosimetry Pocinhos municipality in the state of Paraiba. Monitoring was performed in 50 points in urban and rural areas Pocinhos. The estimated external effective dose rate in outdoor environments was obtained in triplicate using a portable gamma spectrometer, to 1.0 m away from the Earth's surface and time set acquisition in terms of environmental radiation levels. The values of these dose rates outdoor environments ranging from 0.53 to 3.94 mSv.y -1 . the arithmetic mean was 0.79 mSv.y -1 , which exceeds the value 0.07 mSv.y -1 corresponding to the global average in outdoor environments. In the city, found a higher radioactivity in rural areas that were uninhabited at the time of the survey. (Author)

  6. Evaluating municipal energy efficiency in biorefinery integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haikonen, Turo; Tuomaala, Mari; Holmberg, Henrik; Ahtila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    In this study biomass-based energy production was introduced to an urban city area of Helsinki, Finland. The study compared two cases in integration with a municipality: (1) biomass fuelled small-scale CHP (combined heat and power)-plant and (2) a biorefinery. The comparison was made according to primary energy consumption, primary energy factors, CO 2 (carbon dioxide) emissions and the price of produced biowax. It was also studied how results are influenced by different assumptions. The results showed that the primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions were higher in the biorefinery case in absolute amounts as more products i.e. biowax was produced. The results indicated the primary energy factors were almost the same for both cases. Additionally, the primary energy use was very low for district heat and electricity produced in the biorefinery, when the primary energy use of the biorefinery was allocated only to the biowax. The sensitivity analysis of biowax pricing showed that a biorefinery is a competitive alternative for a CHP-plant if the prices of biomass and market electricity are low and the price of CO 2 allowance is high. In terms of overall energy efficiency comparison, the comparison cannot be properly completed, because of the different end-products of the plants. - Highlights: • Primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in a municipality are studied. • Energy production in a biorefinery is compared to a conventional CHP-plant. • In the biorefinery CO 2 emission per produced energy unit (CO 2 /MWh) is the lowest. • The CHP-case benefits from low primary energy consumption and electricity demand. • More than one energy efficiency figure needs to be considered in analyses

  7. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, P.

    1997-12-01

    Extensive use of heavy metals in modern society influences routes followed by fluxes on the surface of the Earth. The changed flow paths may be harmful for the balance of biological systems at different levels, micro-organisms, human beings and whole ecosystems, since the toxicity of heavy metals is determined by their concentrations and chemical forms. Despite the low mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in municipal landfills, it was found that extensive transformations of the binding forms of heavy metal take place within the waste mass during the degradation of the waste. These changes appear to be closely related to the development of early diagenetic solid phases, i.e. new secondary solid phases formed in the waste. The heavy metals often constitute a minor part of these phases and the bindings include several forms such as adsorption, complexation, coprecipitation, precipitation, etc. It was also found that the associations between heavy metals and solid phases are dominated by several binding forms to one specific substrate rather than bindings to various solid phases. The mobility of iron and manganese seems to increase during the processes involved in waste degradation due to the solution of oxide/hydroxide phases, while the heavy metals appear to become less mobile due to their binding to organic compounds and sulphides. However, one exception in this case may be nickel. Another aspect of the transformation of heavy metals is the accumulation of pools of heavy metals which can become susceptible to environmental changes, such as oxidation or acidification. However, the risk of increased mobilization caused by lower pH values seem to be limited since municipal solid waste has a large buffer capacity. 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Characterization and treatment of municipal landfill leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welander, Ulrika

    1998-03-01

    The efficiency of different leachate treatment methods for the removal of refractory organic compounds and ammonium-nitrogen was investigated. The methods evaluated were nitrification, denitrification, adsorption onto activated carbon, precipitation by ferric chloride or aluminum sulphate and oxidation by ozone or Fenton`s reagent. Furthermore, analyses were performed on leachates from municipal landfills of different kinds (a biocell deposit, a conventional mixed landfill containing household and industrial waste, and an ash deposit) in order to study the leachate composition in regard to various hydrophobic organic compounds as a function of the type of waste deposited. The results suggested that, in order to achieve a satisfactory removal of both ammonium-nitrogen and organic substances, the treatment of methanogenic leachates should be performed through a process combining biological and physical or chemical stages. When the biological treatment was not combined with a physical or a chemical process a COD removal of only 20-30% was achieved, whereas the toxicity of the leachate was significantly reduced. In contrast, a combination of nitrification and either adsorption onto activated carbon or oxidation using Fenton`s reagent resulted in a COD removal of about 80%, although certain specific organic compounds, such as phthalates, were unaffected by the treatment. A combination of nitrification, precipitation by ferric chloride and adsorption onto activated carbon removed 96% of the TOC. The analyses of leachates from municipal landfills of different types showed the leachate from the ash deposit to contain more C4-substituted phenols than the other leachates and to likewise contain alkanes, which the others did not 154 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  9. Social Capital, Well-Being and Municipality: Salaspils Municipality (Latvia Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jēkabsone Inga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades, social capital has gained prominence throughout the social sciences. The concepts has been analysed in various manners (from perspectives of economics, political sciences, sociology, anthropology etc. providing wide range of theoretical conceptualizations. The aim of paper is to analyse the relation of social capital and possibility to improve the well-being of the municipality’s citizens using co-responsibility approach. In order to achieve the aim, the tasks are formulated as follows: 1 to review theoretical background for concept of social capital and subjective well-being, 2 to analyse the factors of social capital at local level, and 3 to use the results of conducted empirical research at Salaspils municipality in analysing the correlation of level of social capital and possibility to improve well-being implementing inclusive local management. Research methods used: Scientific literature studies, several stages of focus group discussions, statistical data analysis, SPIRAL methodology, scenario method. The main findings of the paper - there are evidences on relation of social capital and possibility to improve the well-being of the municipality’s citizens. In municipalities with sufficient level of social capital are good opportunities to use participatory techniques for achieving higher level of overall well-being. The paper consists of practical value how to mobilise the social capital of the municipality in order to ensure the inclusive management of the territory.

  10. Using life cycle assessment for municipal solid waste management in Tehran Municipality Region 20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salar Omid

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the lack of a proper waste management system, Tehran Municipality Region 20 is facing economic and environmental problems such as the high costs of a disposal system and source pollution. Life cycle assessment (LCA is a method for collecting and evaluating the inputs, outputs, and potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle. The current study purposed to provide a stable and optimized system of solid waste management in Tehran Municipality Region 20. Methods: The LCA method was used to evaluate various scenarios and compare the effects on environmental aspects of management systems. Four scenarios were defined based on existing and possible future waste management systems for this region. These scenarios were considered with different percentages for source separation, composting, recycling, and energy recovery. Results: Based on the results of this study, Scenario 4 (source separation [14%] + composting [30%] + municipal recycling facility [MRF] [20%] + energy recovery [10%] + landfilling [26%] was found to be the option with the minimum environmental impact. In the absence of government support and sufficient funds for establishing energy recovery facilities, the third scenario (source separation [14%] + composting [30%] +MRF [20%] + landfilling [36%] is recommended. Conclusion: The results acquired from this investigation will confirm the belief that LCA as an environmental device may be successfully used in an integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS as a support tool for decision-making.

  11. An Exploration into the Municipal Capacity to Finance Capital Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almos T. Tassony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Municipal governments own and maintain two-thirds of Canada’s stock of public infrastructure. This burden is met by municipalities within the parameters afforded to them by their respective provinces. As a result, municipalities throughout the country rely on three primary revenue streams: issuing debt, financing from dedicated revenue and transfers from higher levels of government. At the same time, strict rules on borrowing, sometimes self-imposed, have left municipalities with considerable unrealized borrowing capacity. Importantly, a shift towards increased borrowing, away from a reliance on intergovernmental grants, would reinforce the linkage between local government spending and accountability and keep spending priorities in order. This paper focuses on infrastructure spending in Alberta and Ontario to illuminate how municipalities in both provinces cope with demands to provide capital- and labour-intensive programs and services. In both provinces, transportation, environmental services and recreation and culture comprise the bulk of infrastructure expenditure. In Ontario, as of 2013, 18 of the largest municipalities held assets valued at $111.8 billion. After accumulated depreciation, those assets are now estimated to be worth $73.8 billion, having lost $38 billion in value since their acquisition — although municipalities’ diligence varies. Mississauga has preserved 82.6 per cent of its assets’ original cost; Thunder Bay has only managed 45.6 per cent. In Alberta, 21 of the largest municipalities held assets valued at $51.7 billion in 2013, although thanks to depreciation, their value is now estimated at $37.8 billion. Again, there is significant variability between municipalities, with Wood Buffalo having preserved 98.6 per cent of its assets’ original value, and Crowsnest Pass with 43.9 per cent. In both provinces, the older the municipality and the weaker its fiscal capacity, the lower the net book value of its capital

  12. Southern Universities Nuclear Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Southern Universities Nuclear Institute was created in 1961 to provide postgraduate research and teaching facilities for the universities of Cape Town and Stellenbosch. The main research tool is the 6,0 MV Van de Graaff accelerator installed in 1964. Developments and improvements over the years have maintained the Institute's research effectiveness. The work of local research groups has led to a large number of M Sc and doctorate degrees and numerous publications in international journals. Research at the Institute includes front-line studies of basic nuclear and atomic physics, the development and application of nuclear analytical techniques and the application of radioisotope tracers to problems in science, industry and medicine. The Institute receives financial support from the two southern universities, the Department of National Education, the CSIR and the Atomic Energy Board

  13. Genotoxicity biomonitoring of sewage in two municipal wastewater treatment plants using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewes, Márcia Regina; Junior, Delio Endres; Droste, Annette

    2011-10-01

    The genotoxicity of untreated and treated sewage from two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WTP BN and WTP SJN) in the municipality of Porto Alegre, in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, was evaluated over a one-year period using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea (Trad-MCN) bioassay. Inflorescences of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed to sewage samples in February (summer), April (autumn), July (winter) and October (spring) 2009, and the micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were estimated in each period. The high genotoxicity of untreated sewage from WTP BN in February and April was not observed in treated sewage, indicating the efficiency of treatment at this WTP. However, untreated and treated sewage samples from WTP SJN had high MCN frequencies, except in October, when rainfall may have been responsible for reducing these frequencies at both WTPs. Physicochemical analyses of sewage from both WTPs indicated elevated concentrations of organic matter that were higher at WTP SJN than at WTP BN. Chromium was detected in untreated and treated sewage from WTP SJN, but not in treated sewage from WTP BN. Lead was found in all untreated sewage samples from WTP SJN, but only in the summer and autumn at WTP BN. These results indicate that the short-term Trad-MCN genotoxicity assay may be useful for regular monitoring of municipal WTPs.

  14. Southern Alberta system reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, A. [Alberta Electric System Operator, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    System planning for the Alberta Electric System Operator's (AESO) southern system was discussed in view of the growing interest in developing wind energy resources in the province. While Alberta currently has a total of 11,500 MW of installed wind power, southern Alberta has a very small capability for interconnecting additional wind resources. There are 3 main agencies involved in system planning for the southern region: (1) the Alberta Utilities Commission (AUC), (2) the AESO, and (3) the transmission facility owners. Transmission needs are studied by the AESO, who then applies to the AUC for approval. Transmission facility owners also apply to the AUC for approval to construct facilities. The AESO's roles are to operate the wholesale electricity market; plan the transmission system; arrange access for loads and generation; and oversee transmission system operation. The AESO is an independent agency with a public interest mandate. The AESO's queue management process has been designed to facilitate non-discriminatory system access. Development options currently being considered by the AESO include a 240 kV AC transmission line; a 500 kV AC transmission line; a 765 kV AC transmission line; a high voltage direct current (HVDC) system; and a voltage source converter (VSC) HVDC system. Radial and looped configurations are also being considered. The AESO is currently conducting a participant involvement program that involves open houses with the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) and other provincial stakeholders. tabs., figs.

  15. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities' preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities' capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change.

  16. The effects of Smoke Free Work Hours in Danish municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Termansen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2011, 15 Danish municipalities have implemented smoke free work hours, meaning that an employee working for the municipality may not smoke in his or her work time (about 7,5 hours a day. This is a much stricter prevention method, than former strategies preventing smoking mostly at locations and not during working hours. Research concerning the effects of smoke free work hours is non-existing. We therefore wish to look into the specific outcomes of smoke free work hours related to smoking prevalence, sickness leave and work place culture through a semi-experimental study. As the decision to implement smoke free work hours is administrative and/or political, we will not be able to randomize the intervention. Instead, we use one or more Danish municipality who are planning to implement smoke free work hours as an intervention-group and similar municipalities as control group. Data will be collected both through questionnaires about employees smoking prevalence, sickness leave and work place community, and through register data about the citizens employed in the municipalities in question. This will primarily be data on socio-economic status and health. In this way we can compare the municipalities implementing smoke free work hours with each other and find similar control municipalities. We hope, that this study can contribute to understanding the specific outcomes of implementing smoke free work hours, focusing both on health outcomes and work place culture.

  17. LEAP: local environmental action plan. Municipality of Sopishte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The establishment of the Municipality of Sopishte was preceded by the development of a kind of suburban settlement of Skopje, basically composed of illegally constructed individual houses for living. As a result from economic activities in the Municipality and the impacts from human factor, there are problems related to the disturbance of the quality of the basic environmental quality factors (water, air and soil), as well as threat to biological diversity and natural values and rarities. The Municipality of Sopishte is situated in hilly-mountain area. Significant sources of air pollution have not been recorded (in terms of industrial facilities) caused by the household neglectible air pollution caused by traffic. The Municipality is very poor in water resources. Almost 90% of the Municipality's territory are without river or stream. A potential source of water supply in this area is the river of Patishka, which is currently not used for water supply purposes. The solid waste, generated basically by the households, is not properly disposed (most frequently dumped on illegal dumping sites on the territory of the Municipality) and represents a serious problem making impacts on the quality of the environment. On the basis of the evaluation of identified environmental problems, priority activities required to be undertaken in short and medium term have been set up. Financial constrains have been taken into account in this regard. The proposed Action Plan reflects the observed needs of the population of the Municipality of Sopishte and the perception of the key problems

  18. STATE RESOURCES AS AN AXIS OF MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT IN MISIONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José, Garzón Maceda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present a proposal from which one seeks to promote economic and human development in the municipalities of Misiones by means of the creation of a municipal internet by implementing more efficient application criteria for the resources.The paper provides a short outline of the theoretical framework where the proposal is set out, which has three pillars: the theory of decentralization, the municipal and the association theory.Having established this, one examines the legal framework of the municipalities in the National Constitution, the Misiones Constitution and specific laws which regulate the municipal performance, and then move towards the study of the current situation of the municipalities, focusing on financial resources of 17 municipalities in the province of Misiones.After this brief diagnosis we enter fully into the proposal to be developed in depth: detailing the players involved, their funding sources, their objectives, the executive body through which they will implement the program and the assignation criteria of allocation of resources recommended so that the implementation of the proposal be efficient.

  19. SOCIAL AUDIT OF THE MUNICIPAL SYSTEM OF GENERAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Zerchaninova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the theory and practice of social audit of the municipal system of general education. The authors have developed a conceptual model of social audit to accurately identify both the short- and long-term development prospects of the given system. The paper describes the social audit procedures in Berezovsky municipal district of Sverdlovsk region including four stages: the content analysis of municipal documents concerning the development strategy of the general education system, diagnosis of the current conditions and problems, effectiveness evaluation of the municipal system of general education, and practical  recommendations for improving the education quality. The above mentioned audit demonstrates that the indices of education development are unsystematically tracked, obstructing therefore the adjustment process. To solve the given problems the following measures are recommended: personnel policy development, creating the regional managerial reserve and organizing management workshops, informing the teachers about the modern educational tools, and updating the municipal program of the «Educational System Development of Berezovsky Municipal District for 20011–20015». However, the above suggestions target only the current problems disregarding the challenges of tomorrow which require the advancing strategy. In authors’ opinion, the main emphasis should be re-placed on the quality improvement of the municipal educational services instead of the infrastructure reinforcement. 

  20. SOCIAL AUDIT OF THE MUNICIPAL SYSTEM OF GENERAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Zerchaninova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the theory and practice of social audit of the municipal system of general education. The authors have developed a conceptual model of social audit to accurately identify both the short- and long-term development prospects of the given system. The paper describes the social audit procedures in Berezovsky municipal district of Sverdlovsk region including four stages: the content analysis of municipal documents concerning the development strategy of the general education system, diagnosis of the current conditions and problems, effectiveness evaluation of the municipal system of general education, and practical  recommendations for improving the education quality. The above mentioned audit demonstrates that the indices of education development are unsystematically tracked, obstructing therefore the adjustment process. To solve the given problems the following measures are recommended: personnel policy development, creating the regional managerial reserve and organizing management workshops, informing the teachers about the modern educational tools, and updating the municipal program of the «Educational System Development of Berezovsky Municipal District for 20011–20015». However, the above suggestions target only the current problems disregarding the challenges of tomorrow which require the advancing strategy. In authors’ opinion, the main emphasis should be re-placed on the quality improvement of the municipal educational services instead of the infrastructure reinforcement. 

  1. The Development of Brazilian Municipalities Flooded by Hydropower Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, N.; Moretto, E. M.; Roquetti, D. R.; Beduschi, L. C.; Praia, A.; Pulice, S.; Albiach, E.; Athayde, S.

    2016-12-01

    Hydropower plants cause negative environmental impacts during the phases of construction and operation. On the other hand, there is a general assumption that these projects also induce local development of the affected places, since there is a great influx of social and financial capital brought locally, especially during the construction phase the relationship between hydropower plant implementation s and local development has been controversial in the Environmental Impact Assessment field, and there is no empirical evidence showing how hydroelectric dam construction affects local development. Considering municipal development as a kind of local development and operationalizing the concept of human development by adopting income, longevity and education dimensions defined by Amartya Sen, this study aimed to verify empirical evidences regarding the role of hydropower plants in human development of their flooded municipalities in Brazil. For this, we considered 134 hydroelectric plants and correspondent 641 flooded municipalities, for which 155 human development indicators were obtained for the period of 2000 to 2010. Results obtained from statistical correlation analysis and their assumption tests showed that increases in the municipal flooded area and increases in the period of flooding - to which a given municipality is submitted - were associated with lower performances of human development indicators. Specifically, increases in social inequality, poverty and lower performances of longevity and education were detected for the flooded municipalities. We also found that the financial compensation was associated with better performance of municipal income and lower performances of education and longevity. Finally, approaching the growth poles theory of François Perroux and the productive linkages theory of Albert Hirschman, we suggest that the size of the flooded areas, the flooding period and the financial compensation may lead to an enclave situation in

  2. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangolells, Marta; Casals, Miquel; Forcada, Núria; Macarulla, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling municipal engineering projects. In order to ensure the objectivity of the assessment process, direct and indirect indicators were always based on quantitative data from the municipal engineering project documents. Finally, two case studies were analysed and found to illustrate the practical use of the proposed model. The model highlights the significant environmental impacts of a particular municipal engineering project prior to the construction stage. Consequently, preventive actions can be planned and implemented during on-site activities. The results of the model also allow a comparison of proposed municipal engineering projects and alternatives with respect to the overall on-site environmental impact and the absolute importance of a particular environmental aspect. These findings are useful within the framework of the environmental impact assessment process, as they help to improve the identification and evaluation of on-site environmental aspects of municipal engineering works. The findings may also be of use to construction companies that are willing to implement an environmental management system or simply wish to improve on-site environmental performance in municipal engineering projects. -- Highlights: • We present a model to predict the environmental impacts of municipal engineering works. • It highlights significant on-site environmental impacts prior to the construction stage. • Findings are useful within the environmental impact assessment process. • They also

  3. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangolells, Marta, E-mail: marta.gangolells@upc.edu; Casals, Miquel, E-mail: miquel.casals@upc.edu; Forcada, Núria, E-mail: nuria.forcada@upc.edu; Macarulla, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.macarulla@upc.edu

    2014-01-15

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling municipal engineering projects. In order to ensure the objectivity of the assessment process, direct and indirect indicators were always based on quantitative data from the municipal engineering project documents. Finally, two case studies were analysed and found to illustrate the practical use of the proposed model. The model highlights the significant environmental impacts of a particular municipal engineering project prior to the construction stage. Consequently, preventive actions can be planned and implemented during on-site activities. The results of the model also allow a comparison of proposed municipal engineering projects and alternatives with respect to the overall on-site environmental impact and the absolute importance of a particular environmental aspect. These findings are useful within the framework of the environmental impact assessment process, as they help to improve the identification and evaluation of on-site environmental aspects of municipal engineering works. The findings may also be of use to construction companies that are willing to implement an environmental management system or simply wish to improve on-site environmental performance in municipal engineering projects. -- Highlights: • We present a model to predict the environmental impacts of municipal engineering works. • It highlights significant on-site environmental impacts prior to the construction stage. • Findings are useful within the environmental impact assessment process. • They also

  4. Review of Aquifer Storage and Recovery Performance in the Upper Floridan Aquifer in Southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Interest and activity in aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in southern Florida has increased greatly during the past 10 to 15 years. ASR wells have been drilled to the carbonate Floridan aquifer system at 30 sites in southern Florida, mostly by local municipalities or counties located in coastal areas. The primary storage zone at these sites is contained within the brackish to saline Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system. The strategy for use of ASR in southern Florida is to store excess freshwater available during the wet season in an aquifer and recover it during the dry season when needed for supplemental water supply. Each ASR cycle is defined by three periods: recharge, storage, and recovery. This fact sheet summarizes some of the findings of a second phase retrospective assessment of existing ASR facilities and sites.

  5. THE IMPORTANCE OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN FUNDRAISING FOR MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Coriolano Barros Durand Junior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is the constant growth of the public administration challenges in meeting the huge demand generated by the needs in education, health, housing, infrastructure and social assistance,which can rarely be met only by the usual collection of fees of the municipalities. Hence, and in order to properly document the uses of public resources, the Federal Government adopted a new instance on the release of public funds to meet the demands of the municipalities by requiring the production of projects. Thus, mechanisms have been developed in order to receive and review projects developed in municipal levels.

  6. Open government and municipalities: Beyond e-governement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Cruz Meléndez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article’s purpose is to analyze egovernment and open government as tolos to strengthen the role of municipal government. It reviews the evolution of both tolos in Mexico and contains a conceptual analysis of both terms to gain an understanding of their meaning and of the reason why they are promoted for the benefit of local governments. Finally, it explores the availability of these tools in the municipalities, and how they contribute to each municipality in the fulfillment of its responsibilities.

  7. Strengthening Performance Management System Implementation in South African Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malefetsane Mofolo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of a performance management system in municipalities presented a serious challenge for its implementation. This scenario is implicitly manifesting itself in the reports of the Auditor-General on the financial statements and performance of municipalities, as well as in the state of local government in South Africa overview report (2009. These reports called for the conceptualisation of a model that to strengthen the implementation in municipalities of a performance management system that is efficient and effective. And most importantly, this model could be beneficial for growth, development and effective service delivery.

  8. Descentralização e endividamento municipal: formas, limites e possibilidades Decentralization and municipal indebtedness: modes, constraints, and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury Patrick Gremaud

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss alternatives to finance investments by municipalities. In general, current revenues are insufficient to finance large investments, what brings about the necessity of municipal indebtedness. These could assume different manners, according to the nature of the investment: if it is typically public or if it offers private return. For the first case, we discuss the possibilities of a municipal bond market and, for the second, we discuss project finance and the participation of the private sector.

  9. 76 FR 53678 - Calleguas Municipal Water District Notice of Surrender of Exemption (Conduit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Municipal Water District Notice of Surrender of Exemption (Conduit) Pursuant to section 4.95(a) of the Commission's regulations,\\1\\ Calleguas Municipal Water District filed with the Commission a petition to... Municipal Water District, 87 FERC ] 62,256 (1999). \\3\\ See filing of July 11, 2011 by Calleguas Municipal...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1015 - What is a new municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combustion unit? 60.1015 Section 60.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30, 1999... What is a new municipal waste combustion unit? (a) A new municipal waste combustion unit is a municipal...

  11. characterization and composition analysis of municipal solid waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is produced through human activities and in the last two ... Solid waste samples were collected and analysed from the four major dumpsites in ..... Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133,. Switzerland.

  12. Research challenges in municipal solid waste logistics management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Xiaoyun; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M; Ramos, Tania Rodrigues Pereira; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana Paula; Wong, Chee Yew; van der Vorst, Jack G A J

    2016-02-01

    During the last two decades, EU legislation has put increasing pressure on member countries to achieve specified recycling targets for municipal household waste. These targets can be obtained in various ways choosing collection methods, separation methods, decentral or central logistic systems, etc. This paper compares municipal solid waste (MSW) management practices in various EU countries to identify the characteristics and key issues from a waste management and reverse logistics point of view. Further, we investigate literature on modelling municipal solid waste logistics in general. Comparing issues addressed in literature with the identified issues in practice result in a research agenda for modelling municipal solid waste logistics in Europe. We conclude that waste recycling is a multi-disciplinary problem that needs to be considered at different decision levels simultaneously. A holistic view and taking into account the characteristics of different waste types are necessary when modelling a reverse supply chain for MSW recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Remediation System Evaluation, Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site (PDF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site, located on the western edge of Milford, New Hampshire, consists of a source area and an extended plume that is approximately 6,000 feet long and 2,500 feet wide.

  14. NHDOT : process for municipally managed state aid highway program projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-23

    The design and construction of Municipally Managed State Aid Highway Program projects must comply with the requirements in this guideline in order to receive State Aid under the applicable provisions of RSA 235. Under this process, State Aid Construc...

  15. studies on municipal solid wastes dumping on soil anions, cations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    and selected soil enzymes activities of Njoku solid waste dumpsite Owerri municipal, Nigeria were investigated. ... wastes) and sometimes commercial wastes collected by a ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol.

  16. Constraints to private sector operation: maintenance of municipal infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential of the private sector to take medium- or longterm responsibility for the operation and/or maintenance of elements of infrastructure owned by municipalities....

  17. Electricity generation in Nigeria from municipal solid waste using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electricity generation in Nigeria from municipal solid waste using the Swedish Wasteto-Energy Model. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology in Nigeria is still at the infancy stage ...

  18. Better Regulation and Public Procurement in Slovenian Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja KLUN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of administrative burdens is a measure to improve regulatory quality. Most measures are directed towards reducing barriers for business while the issue of regulation inside government is not often posed. The research carried out in 2010 was intended to investigate how Slovenian municipalities and others in the public sector perceive measures to reduce administrative burdens and the areas in which they consider regulations to present the greatest burden. Results have shown that public procurement regulations are the greatest burden for municipalities and the public sector as a whole. Further research indicates which public procurement procedures municipalities used most often and what benefits they perceive in the amended legislation. Results indicate that most municipalities use open procedures most often, which procedurally is the most complex.

  19. Tuberculosis risk factors in Lephalale local municipality of Limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T.M. Ramaliba

    study aimed to describe the risk factors for TB in Lephalale local municipality. A quantitative .... (3) to describe environmental factors that contribute to the spread of TB in ... sample was reached, two sampling methods were utilised. First.

  20. 77 FR 61595 - Northern Illinois Municipal Power; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Illinois Municipal Power filed its Revised and Superseding Proposed Revenue Requirement for reactive supply... Reference Room in Washington, DC. There is an ``eSubscription'' link on the web site that enables...

  1. Tax effort and oil royalties in the Brazilian municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Slaibe Postali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates a stochastic production frontier, to investigate whether municipalities covered by oil royalties in the last decade have reduced their tax effort in Brazil. The issue is relevant to the prospect of a substantial increase in these revenues and the new rules for distribution of the funds, established by Law No. 12.734/2012. The inputs were provided by personnel and capital expenditures, whereas the product was defined as the municipal tax collection. With the purpose of overcoming the endogeneity problems due to reverse causality of output on inputs, we used the lagged independent variable as instruments in the inefficiency equation. The data set is composed of a panel of Brazilian municipalities from 2002 to 2011. The results indicate that oil revenues have a negative impact on the estimated efficiencies, signaling reduced fiscal effort by the benefiting municipalities.

  2. Centralisation and decentralisation in strategic municipal energy planning in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Karl; Hvelplund, Frede; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    need for better coordination of municipal energy planning activities at the central level. It is suggested that the role of municipalities as energy planning authorities needs to be outlined more clearly in, e.g., strategic energy planning which integrates savings, efficiency and renewable energy...... vision. The paper outlines a basic division of tasks between the central and the local level within such a strategic energy planning system.......Denmark’s future energy system is to be entirely based on renewable energy sources. Municipalities will play an important role as local energy planning authorities in terms of adopting and refining this vision in different local contexts. Based on a review of 11 municipal energy plans, this paper...

  3. Catalyzing municipal stakeholder engagement for stormwater funding solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormwater runoff contributes to a range of water quality issues in coastal systems, including eutrophication, contamination of water resources, and reduced value to coastal residents. However, managing runoff sources and meeting permit requirements can be costly. Municipalities ...

  4. The economic cost of air pollution in Mangaung metro municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic cost of air pollution in Mangaung metro municipality: A case study in South Africa. ... the significance of air quality, to value the benefits of air pollution control ... Key words: Air pollution, air quality, workdays lost, mitigating cost.

  5. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za; Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  6. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO 2 e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO 2 e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO 2 e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard

  7. Subotica municipality as a learning region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some differences in territorial organization between Serbian and EU countries are obvious. The level of centralization and tradition in systems for implementation of ideas are differently back- grounded. However, these are the most important facts for the opportunity to realize Learning Region as a concept of the European future. There is no part of space that should be considered as unchangeable and the way to a better position and Learning Region concept implementation of each region in Serbia in practice should lead towards few necessary steps and further. The starting point is awareness of the facts on the creation of Subotica region as it is at present. The healthy future of each region is provided by looking back in the past and learning from the history. The other important thing is bench marking- learning on the positive and successful experiences of other regions, and finally, making its own concept of Learning Region adapted to local surrounding and true need of local people. Some experiences, suggestions and comparisons will be made in this case study, in relation to one of the Serbian municipalities nearest t to EU neighboring countries in a territorial way. .

  8. Electric Energy production through Municipal solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agorio Comas, M.; Chediak Nunez, M.; Galan Prado, A.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective in this investment Project is to improve the integral management of urban solid waste in the city of Salto, Uruguay, obtaining favorable results for the environment and society, contributing moreover in Sustainable Development.First of all, it is recommended the remediation of the current Open air Municipal dumping site. Simultaneously with the Remediation process, a controlled dumping site with daily covers of the compacted solid waste has been designed, as a transition methodology with a lifetime of 3 years approximately.In addition to this, two sanitary landfills are designed wits29h a total lifetime of 7 years, for the operation after the controlled dumping site is closed. There is also a leachate treatment system to process the effluents of the landfills. In order to optimize the use of the landfills, is proposed the simultaneous implementation of a Separated Urban Solid Waste Collection System (SisRReVa). This consist in separating the Valuable Waste (VW) from wet or organic solid waste in origin (home, stores,etc)and collecting it separately.The VW are separated by type (paper, board, glass, plastic and metal) in a Valuable Waste Classification Plant. This plant is designed to process the VW generated in Salto and collected by the SisRReVa for about ten years from now on. (Author)

  9. Municipal solid waste management in Beijing City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenshan; Yang Lei; Qu XiaoYan; Sui Yumei

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Beijing City. Beijing, the capital of China, has a land area of approximately 1368.32 km 2 with an urban population of about 13.33 million in 2006. Over the past three decades, MSW generation in Beijing City has increased tremendously from 1.04 million tons in 1978 to 4.134 million tons in 2006. The average generation rate of MSW in 2006 was 0.85 kg/capita/day. Food waste comprised 63.39%, followed by paper (11.07%), plastics (12.7%) and dust (5.78%). While all other wastes including tiles, textiles, glass, metals and wood accounted for less than 3%. Currently, 90% of MSW generated in Beijing is landfilled, 8% is incinerated and 2% is composted. Source separation collection, as a waste reduction method, has been carried out in a total of 2255 demonstration residential and commercial areas (covering about 4.7 million people) up to the end of 2007. Demonstration districts should be promoted over a wider range instead of demonstration communities. The capacity of transfer stations and treatment plants is an urgent problem as these sites are seriously overloaded. These problems should first be solved by constructing more sites and converting to new treatment technologies. Improvements in legislation, public education and the management of waste pickers are problematic issues which need to be addressed.

  10. Hepatitis A behaviour in Yaguajay Municipality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Iluminada Hernández Pérez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective-descriptive study was made to characterize the behavior of “Hepatitis A” in Yaguajay Municipality in the period between 2006 and 2007, in which were included all the patients that were notified by Declaration Card (EDO. For collecting data, EDO cards were analized; as well as the endemic accumulative and the annual chronological series. The prevalence of this disease was determined in health areas and small population, so as to establish a geographic stratification. The disease was characterized by social-demographic variables (sex, age, home and also the seasonally of Hepatitis A. As a result all the disease prognosis in both years were over the expectation and are regarded as “Normal”, this disease behavior was higher in Meneses and Mayajigua areas representing the majority of the community population The most affected ages were under 10, from 11 to 20 and from 21 to 29. Females and the urban area registered the highest amount of cases. The seasonally was different in both years. As a conclusion we can say that the Epidemic was characterized by a wide geographical distribution where Jarahueca and Perea were the most affected communities; causing injuries in male sex, affected ages were babies, teenagers and young adults, the seasonally behaved differently in both years.

  11. Municipal solid waste effective stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariatmadari, Nader; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Noorzad, Ali; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) has attracted the attention of many researchers in the field of geo-environmental engineering in recent years and several aspects of waste mechanical response under loading have been elucidated. However, the mechanical response of MSW materials under undrained conditions has not been described in detail to date. The knowledge of this aspect of the MSW mechanical response is very important in cases involving MSW with high water contents, seismic ground motion and in regions where landfills are built with poor operation conditions. This paper presents the results obtained from 26 large triaxial tests performed both in drained and undrained conditions. The results were analyzed taking into account the waste particles compressibility and the deformation anisotropy of the waste samples. The waste particles compressibility was used to modify the Terzaghi effective stress equation, using the Skempton (1961) proposition. It is shown that the use of the modified effective stress equation led to much more compatible shear strength values when comparing Consolidated-Drained (CD) and Consolidated-Undrained (CU), results, explaining the high shear strength values obtained in CU triaxial tests, even when the pore pressure is almost equal to the confining stress.

  12. The Southern Ocean Observing System

    OpenAIRE

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  13. Waste Management Policy in Tourism Area of Saensuk Municipality, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya, Andy Fefta; Kaewmanee, Pongsathon

    2014-01-01

    Saensuk Municipality is a famous tourism city in Thailand, especially Bangsaen beach. In supporting the tourism activity, it has waste managing method by using new generation administrator and technologies. However, the waste problem happened in Saensuk Municipality is included the human resource ability, technical facility, and the amount of waste. By using the qualitative descriptive method and doing a series of interview to selected informants, the researcher studied and analyzed the probl...

  14. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    OpenAIRE

    Gangolells Solanellas, Marta; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Forcada Matheu, Núria; Macarulla Martí, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling mun...

  15. Medicine management in municipal home care : delegating, administrating and receiving

    OpenAIRE

    Gransjön Craftman, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to investigate how delegation of medication is handled in municipal home care. Specific aims were to 1) explore the prevalence of medication use in older adults over time; 2) describe district nurses’ experiences of the delegation of medication management to municipal home care personnel; 3) explore and describe how home care assistants experience receiving the actual delegation of the responsibility of medication administration; and 4) to describe how older...

  16. Economic evaluation of municipal solid waste recycling in Yazd:

    OpenAIRE

    Eslami H; Mokhtari M; Eslami Dost Z; Barzegar Khanghah MR; Ranjbar Ezzatabadi M

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: In every urban waste management plan, recycling and reuse is considered as an economic pattern. This study aimed to economic evaluation of municipal solid waste recycling in Yazd by cost-benefit analysis in 2015. Methods: This research is a descriptive–analytic study which in the data about quality and quantity of municipal solid waste in Yazd city were collected through the sampling and physical analysis and the data about total income and costs from the implementatio...

  17. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodar J. R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  18. Determinants of municipal solid waste management in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Mota Freitas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste management has been a topic of interest of several authors over time, in particular the implementation and maintenance of waste collection programmes. Initially, pioneering studies focused on the economic aspects of the provided services. However, many authors later argued the costs of providing solid waste collection services should also be influenced by socio-economic and behavioural factors, exogenous to the municipalities. The present study will be developed in this context, looking, more broadly, to explain the factors influencing the decision-making of the Portuguese municipalities in implementing and maintaining programs of selective collection of solid waste, considering the economic, financial, technological and sociodemographic factors. The results show that, indeed as presented by several authors before, economic factors aren’t the only determinants that influence municipal costs concerning these services, as demographic, geographic and technological factors must be taken into account. Moreover, the enforced legislation also impacts the municipal costs due to municipalities being obliged to contribute to the success of these collection programs in order to fulfil the waste recovery targets. This implies that the costs of these services and the inherent infrastructures are usually financed by its citizens in the form of utilization taxes and also the state.

  19. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, J. R.; Ramos, N.; Carreira, J. A.; Pacheco, R.; Fernández-Hernández, A.

    2017-11-01

    One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample) with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  20. Greening Public Buildings: ESCO-Contracting in Danish Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Rohr Hansen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents current research on Danish municipalities’ use of Energy Service Companies (ESCO as a way to improve the standard of public buildings and to increase energy efficiency. In recent years more and more municipalities have used ESCO-contracts to retrofit existing public buildings, and to make them more energy efficient. At the moment 30 municipalities (of the 98 municipalities in Denmark are involved in, or preparing, ESCO contracts. Nevertheless, ESCO-contracting still faces many challenges on the Danish market, as there is a widespread skepticism towards the concept amongst many stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various experience gained so far by municipalities use of ESCO-contracting, the different approached to ESCO-contracting being used in practice, as well as the different viewpoints drivers and barriers behind the development. The strong growth in ESCO-contracts reflects that the ESCO-concept fits well with a number of present problems that municipalities are facing, as well as a flexible adaptation to the local context in different municipalities.

  1. Community work – the missing link of municipal social policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moors M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Municipal social policy has an important role in dealing with social problems of citizens. On micro level, municipalities spend a substantial amount of their budget solving such problems. However, increasing the amount of money spent on solving problems of each individual at micro level does not provide efficient fulfilment of the tasks defined for municipal social policy making. Thus new, complementary solutions should be looked into, as new ways of development of social work in municipalities should be designed with the aim to increase the level of citizen participation and joint responsibility, especially of socially vulnerable groups. Research results let the author conclude that social activity of socially vulnerable groups should be promoted by creating a series of prerequisites, among which citizen participation, need for organisational support, activities that would foster politician and municipality officials’ attitude towards citizen participation and their social capital increase, two-way relationship between citizens and officials, and the worker that would promote citizen participation, among which is social policy making, are considered to be very important. All of this can be successfully reached by developing community work in local municipalities. This is the missing link to combine macro and micro levels, or political determination and practical implementation of citizen participation.

  2. The Impact of Amalgamations on Services in Icelandic Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grétar Thór Eythórsson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with answering the question whether municipal amalgamations can meet the wishes at the root of the most common motives behind them: to gain cost-efficiency and more quality in the municipal services. The analysis is partly based on a survey among Icelandic local leaders in 2015 and partly on survey among citizens in 8 recently amalgamated municipalities collected with a snowball method through Facebook in the spring and summer 2013. The main results are that the impact of amalgamations on municipal services seems to depend on whether we look at the central or peripheral parts of the municipality. Both leaders and citizens seem to perceive developments of services differently depending on the position in the municipality. In the peripheries, they have significantly more negative view than in the service centres. This has to do with both their evaluation of specific services and their general evaluation of service development. However, in the general evaluation the difference is significantly larger.

  3. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  4. Carbon footprint estimation of municipal water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Ali A.

    2009-11-01

    This research investigates the embodied energy associated with water use. A geographic information system (GIS) was tested using data from Loudoun County, Virginia. The objective of this study is to estimate the embodied energy and carbon emission levels associated with water service at a geographical location and to improve for sustainability planning. Factors that affect the carbon footprint were investigated and the use of a GIS based model as a sustainability planning framework was evaluated. The carbon footprint metric is a useful tool for prediction and measurement of a system's sustainable performance over its expected life cycle. Two metrics were calculated: tons of carbon dioxide per year to represent the contribution to global warming and watt-hrs per gallon to show the embodied energy associated with water consumption. The water delivery to the building, removal of wastewater from the building and associated treatment of water and wastewater create a sizable carbon footprint; often the energy attributed to this water service is the greatest end use of electrical energy. The embodied energy in water depends on topographical characteristics of the area's local water supply, the efficiency of the treatment systems, and the efficiency of the pumping stations. The questions answered by this research are: What is the impact of demand side sustainable water practices on the embodied energy as represented by a comprehensive carbon footprint? What are the major energy consuming elements attributed to the system? What is a viable and visually identifiable tool to estimate the carbon footprint attributed to those Greenhouse Gas (GHG) producing elements? What is the embodied energy and emission associated with water use delivered to a building? Benefits to be derived from a standardized GIS applied carbon footprint estimation approach include: (1) Improved environmental and economic information for the developers, water and wastewater processing and municipal

  5. Economic growth and inflation rate: implications for municipal revenue and health expenditure of the municipalities of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Marciana; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola Benjamin; Santo, Antônio Carlos Gomes do Espírito

    2017-06-01

    This paper analyzes the implications of municipal budget revenue growth and the monetary policy's inflation rates goals in the availability of public health resources of municipalities. This is a descriptive, exploratory, quantitative, retrospective and longitudinal cross-sectional study covering the period 2002-2011. We analyzed health financing and expenditure variables in the municipalities of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, describing the trend and the relationship between them. Data showed the growth of the variables and trend towards homogeneity. The exception was for the participation of Intergovernmental Transfers in the Total Health Expenditure of the Municipality. We found a significant correlation between Budget Revenue per capita and Health Expenditure per capita and a strong significant negative correlation between Inflation Rate, Budget Revenue per capita and Health Expenditure per capita. We concluded that increased health expenditure is due more to higher municipal tax revenue than to increased transfers that, in relative terms, did not increase. The strong inverse relationship between inflation rate and the Financing and Expenditure variables show that the monetary policy's inflation goals have restricted health financing to municipalities.

  6. Municipal solid waste in Brazil: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaia, Raquel Greice de Souza Marotta; Costa, Alyne Moraes; Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli

    2017-12-01

    The production of municipal solid waste (MSW) represents one of the greatest challenges currently faced by waste managers all around the world. In Brazil, the situation with regard to solid waste management is still deficient in many aspects. In 2015, only 58.7% of the MSW collected in Brazilian cities received appropriate final disposal. It was only as late as 2010 that Brazil established the National Policy on Solid Waste (NPSW) based on the legislation and programmes established in the 1970s in more developed countries. However, the situation with regard to MSW management has changed little since the implementation of the NPSW. Recent data show that, in Brazil, disposal in sanitary landfills is practically the only management approach to MSW. Contrary to expectations, despite the economic recession in 2015 the total annual amount of MSW generated nationwide increased by 1.7%, while in the same period the Brazilian population grew by 0.8% and economic activity decreased by 3.8%. The article describes the panorama with regard to MSW in Brazil from generation to final disposal and discusses the issues related to the delay in implementing the NPSW. The collection of recyclable material, the recycling process, the application of reverse logistics and the determination of the gravimetric composition of MSW in Brazil are also addressed in this article. Finally, a brief comparison is made between MSW management in Brazil and in other countries, the barriers to developing effective waste disposal systems are discussed and some recommendations for future MSW management development in Brazil are given.

  7. Obtaining cementitious material from municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macías, A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the viability of using incinerator ash and slag from municipal solid waste as a secondary source of cementitious materials. The combustion products used were taken from two types of Spanish MSW incinerators, one located at Valdemingómez, in Madrid, and the other in Melilla, with different incineration systems: one with fluidised bed combustion and other with mass burn waterwall. The effect of temperature (from 800 to 1,200 ºC on washed and unwashed incinerator residue was studied, in particular with regard to phase formation in washed products with a high NaCl and KCl content. The solid phases obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and BET-N2 specific surface procedures.El principal objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar la viabilidad del uso de las cenizas y escorias procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos, como materia prima secundaria para la obtención de fases cementantes. Para ello se han empleado los residuos generados en dos tipos de incineradoras españolas de residuos sólidos urbanos: la incineradora de Valdemingómez y la incineradora de Melilla. Se ha estudiado la transformación de los residuos, sin tratamiento previo, en función de la temperatura de calentamiento (desde 800 ºC hasta 1.200 ºC, así como la influencia del lavado de los residuos con alto contenido en NaCl y KCl en la formación de fases obtenidas a las diferentes temperaturas de calcinación. Las fases obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por difracción de rayos X y área superficial por el método BET-N2.

  8. Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B. [and others

    1996-06-28

    We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

  9. Internal audit risk management in metropolitan municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Ackermann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Internal audit functions (IAFs of organisations are regarded as crucial components of the combined assurance model, alongside the audit committee, management and external auditors. The combined assurance model aims at having integrated and aligned assurance in organisations with the overall aim of maximising risk and governance oversight and control efficiencies. In this regard, internal audit plays a crucial role, insofar as it consists of experts in risk, governance and control consultancy who provide assurance to senior management and the audit committee. Audit committees are dependent on internal audit for information and their effectiveness revolves around a strong and well-resourced internal audit function which is able to aid audit committees to meet their oversight responsibilities. There is thus a growing demand for managing risk through the process of risk management and internal audit is in a perfect position to assist with the improvement of such processes. If internal auditors wish to continue being an important aspect of the combined assurance model, they need to address the critical area, amongst others, of risk management as part of their work. If not, it follows that the board, audit committees and other levels of management will remain uninformed on the status of these matters which, in turn, will negatively impact the ability of these stakeholders to discharge their responsibilities. This study therefore focuses on analysing the functioning of IAFs, with specific reference to their risk management mandate. The study followed a mixed method approach to describe internal audits risk management functioning in the big eight metropolitan municipalities in South Africa. The results show that internal audit provide a broad scope of risk management work which assist senior management in the discharge of their responsibilities. However, in the public eye, internal audits risk management functioning is scant

  10. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  11. Case-control study on infant mortality in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Karina Giane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with infant mortality and, more specifically, with neonatal mortality. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out in the municipality of Caxias do Sul, Southern Brazil. Characteristics of prenatal care and causes of mortality were assessed for all live births in the 2001-2002 period with a completed live-birth certificate and whose mothers lived in the municipality. Cases were defined as all deaths within the first year of life. As controls, there were selected the two children born immediately after each case in the same hospital, who were of the same sex, and did not die within their first year of life. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: There was a reduction in infant mortality, the greatest reduction was observed in the post-neonatal period. The variables gestational age (<36 weeks, birth weight (<2,500 g, and 5-minute Apgar (<6 remained in the final model of the multivariate analysis, after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal conditions comprise almost the totality of neonatal deaths, and the majority of deaths occur at delivery. The challenge for reducing infant mortality rate in the city is to reduce the mortality by perinatal conditions in the neonatal period.

  12. Fusiform Rust of Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. R. Phelps; F. L. Czabator

    1978-01-01

    Fusiform rust, caused by the fungus Cronartium fusiforme Hedg. & Hunt ex Cumm., is distributed in the Southern United States from Maryland to Florida and west to Texas and southern Arkansas. Infections by the fungus, which develops at or near the point of infection, result in tapered, spindle-shaped swells, called galls, on branches and stems of pines. (see photo...

  13. Shakespeare in Southern Africa: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shakespeare in Southern Africa publishes articles, commentary and reviews on all aspects of Shakespearean studies and performance, with a particular emphasis on responses to Shakespeare in southern Africa. Submissions are reviewed by at least two referees. The practice of 'blind' reviewing is adhered to. The Journal ...

  14. Tornado Strikes Southern Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Evening light catches the tops of towering thunderheads over the Mid-Atlantic states on April 28, 2002. The powerful storms spawned several tornados, one of which was classified as an F4 tornado. The powerful tornado touched down in the southern Maryland town of La Plata, destroying most of the historic downtown. The twister-one of the strongest ever to hit the state-beat a 24-mile swath running west to east through the state and claimed at least three lives. The image above was taken by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 7:15 PM Eastern Daylight Savings Time. A large version of the animation shows more detail. (5.9 MB Quicktime) Image courtesy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the GOES Project Science Office. Animation by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

  15. Nesting biology of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) lactitarse Saussure (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae) in trap-nests in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Buschini,M. L. T.; Niesing,F.; Wolff,L. L.

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias in the municipality of Guarapuava, state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Three hundred and sixty five nests of T. lactitarse were obtained using trap-nests of 0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 cm in diameter. All of them had similar architecture, regardless of the diameter of the trap-nest. Completed nests consisted of a linear series of brood cells whose average number per nest was of 3.3, 4.0 and 3.6 for the nests with 0.7 cm, 1.0 cm and 1.3 cm in d...

  16. WEB-GIS FOR ASSESSING SCENARIOS OF USING NATURAL RESOURCE POTENTIAL OF SOUTHERN MACROREGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Аrkhipova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the use of geoinformation technologies, including “cloud” services, for assessing the natural resource potential of the southern macroregion. The toolkit has been proposed to evaluate various scenarios of social and economic development of the regions and the associated use of the natural resource potential of the southern region. The geoinformation system for the regions of the South of Russia and a web application have been created.The methodology for assessing scenarios for usind the natural resource potential of the southern macroregion have been developed using ArcGis Online cloud technology. This technology allows you to run and maintain software and store data on the server by creating a private or combined cloud. Web-GIS are created on the basis of the interactive designer Story Map Journal℠.The relations in the nature-society system are evaluated on the example of two subjects of the Russian Federation that are part of the Southern and North-Caucasian federal districts – Rostov region and the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic. Investigation of the natural resource potential of the southern regions of Russia involves comparing the available reserves of a particular type of resources and the degree of their use. A comparison of the potential resource reserve and the real intensity of its consumption in the municipalities of these regions formed the basis for interpreting the obtained estimates of the efficiency of using of the natural resource potential. Quantitative estimates are obtained at the level of municipal regions using developed software tools that combine GIS, databases and mathematical modeling.

  17. Graft and Corruption Practices Among Selected Public Officials in Mindanao, Southern Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Husain L. Laut

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the graft and corruption practices among selected public officials in southern Philippines. The study is qualitative in nature making use of case study method in which an in-depth analysis of primary data obtained from eight informants, four of whom are town mayors and their four incumbent municipal treasurers, is employed. The findings revealed that the mayor informants got elected through vote buying and bribery. Politics and family matters intersect as informants are supported by their families during election who used guns, gold and goons to ensure election victory. The clannish nature of the community finds expression also in the selection of relatives in municipal employment and in accessing municipal resources. The most prevalent corruption practice disclosed by the informants is amassing the internal revenue allotment (IRA for personal purposes in order to recover the huge amount of money spent during election. Other types of corruption practices also include falsification of documents, nepotism, bribery, kickbacks, and evasion of public bidding. These public officials also do not seem to perform official duties in their towns as they live outside of their municipalities. Inter-agency involvement of corruption among different government agencies in the areas studied are also uncovered. Moreover, the perceived negative effects of corruption are manifested in the poor delivery of the community’s basic social services in health, water supply, education, and security protection. Corruption also adversely affects the construction of community infrastructure facilities and the establishment of an equitable and solid economic base. The study has implications to the strict policy implementation of the provisions of the 1991 Local Government Code of the Philippines, The Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act, and other pertinent laws in order to improve the transparency, integrity and accountability of public officials

  18. DEPENDENCE OF THE MUNICIPALITIES OF MINAS GERAIS IN RELATION TO FPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington de Oliveira Massardi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research sought to demonstrate the level of dependence of Minas Gerais municipalities on the Municipalities Participation Fund (FPM. To achieve this goal we demonstrated the representativeness of FPM in the financing structure of municipalities, measured by dividing the revenue from FPM and the municipal current revenue. It was found that the level of dependence of the vast majority of municipalities is higher than 50%, ie, the FPM resources represent the main source of municipal funding, especially for those with less than 20,000 inhabitants. Regarding geographical location, it was found that the regions of Zona da Mata and Vale do Rio Doce have the highest concentration of municipalities that have high dependence on FPM. The average population in these municipalities is 3,202 inhabitants, which leads to the conclusion that the dependence of FPM is directly related to the size of the municipality.

  19. Alfred pilot wetland to treat municipal lagoon effluent - case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crolla, A.; Kinsley, C.

    2002-01-01

    A constructed wetland demonstration system has been built to polish the municipal lagoon effluent from the village of Alfred. The treatment lagoons have an annual discharge in the spring and have currently reached maximum capacity; inhibiting further population growth or expansion of the local agri-food industries. The demonstration wetland system is designed to treat 15% of the municipal lagoon influent, that is, 155 m 3 /day or 23,250 m 3 /year. A three year monitoring program (2000-2002) was put in place to evaluate the wetland as a cost effective means to treat municipal lagoon wastewater for the village of Alfred. The 2000 and 2001 monitoring seasons have been completed, and the 2002 monitoring season will operate between June and October 2002. At the completion of the three year monitoring program the Alfred wetland system will be evaluated for its ability to polish the municipal lagoon effluent to meet the Spring/Summer/Fall discharge criteria, set by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE), for the receiving water body (Azatica Brook). As phosphorus is the most difficult element to remove down to MOE guidelines, the Alfred research wetland includes slag phosphorus adsorption filters and a vegetated filter as phosphorus polishing systems. Once the wetland system is approved by the MOE, the village of Alfred will be able to increase its capacity for municipal wastewater treatment. Constructed wetlands are still considered innovative systems in Ontario and government ministries (MOE, OMAFRA) are insisting upon 3-4 years of monitoring data for each constructed wetland system established. There is a clear need for monitoring data to be gathered on established systems, and for this data to be evaluated with the goal of developing reliable design guidelines. Ultimately this should result in having constructed wetlands recognised as viable wastewater treatment options in Ontario. With fewer grant programs for rural municipalities, cost effective systems such

  20. Slope Instability Risk Analysys of the Municipality of Comala, Colima , Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Ruiz, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Every year during the rainy season occur the problem of mass landslide in some areas of the community of Comala, Colima Mexico. Slope instability is studied in this volcanic region which is located in the southern part of the Volcan de Fuego de Colima. It occurs due to the combination of different factors existing in this area as: Precipitation, topography contrast, type and mechanical properties of deposits that constitute the rocks and soils of the region and the erosion due to the elimination of vegetation deck to develop and grow urban areas. To these geological factors we can extend the tectonic activity of the Western part of Mexico that originate high seismicity by the interaction of Cocos plate and North America plate forming the region of Graben de Colima, were is located this area. Here we will present a Zonification and determination of Slope Instability Risk Maps due to the rain and seismicity accelerators factors. This Study is parto of a proyect to reduce the risk of this phenomenon, it was carried out as part of the National Risk Map of Mexico analized using the CENAPRED methodology to zonificate the risk areas. The instability of slopes is determined both in its origin and in its development, by different mechanisms. In such a way that this process of instability can be grouped into four main categories: Falls or landslides, Flows, Slips and expansions or lateral landslides. Here it is presented the Risk analisis to this volcanic area that cover the municipality of Comala in the State of Colima, Mexico using the Susceptibility map, Risk Map and Risk analisis of the Municipality.

  1. Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.

    2008-02-15

    Leaching of pollutants from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) residues has been investigated combining a range of laboratory leaching experiments with geochemical modeling. Special attention was paid to assessing the applicability of laboratory data for subsequent modeling with respect to presumed full-scale conditions; both sample pretreatment and actual influence of leaching conditions on the results of laboratory experiments were considered. It was shown that sample pretreatment may have large impact on leaching test data. In particular, a significant fraction of Pb was shown mobile during the washing of residues with water. In addition, drying of residues (i.e. slow oxidation) prior to leaching experiments increased the leaching of Cr significantly. Significant differences regarding the leaching behavior of individual elements with respect to (non)equilibrium conditions in column percolation experiments were observed in the study. As a result, three groups of elements were identified based on the predominant leaching control and the influence of (non)equilibrium on the results of the laboratory column experiments: I. Predominantly availability-controlled elements (e.g. Na, K, Cl) II. Solubility-controlled elements (e.g. Ca, S, Si, Al, Ba, and Zn) III. Complexation-controlled elements (e.g. Cu and Ni) With respect to the above groups it was suggested that results of laboratory column experiments can, with consideration, be used to estimate full-scale leaching of elements from Group I and II. However, in order to avoid large underestimations in the assessment of leaching from Group III, it is imperative to describe the time-dependent transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the tested system or to minimize the physical non-equilibrium during laboratory experiments (e.g. bigger column, slower flow velocity). Forward geochemical modeling was applied to simulate long-term release of elements from a MSWI air-pollution-control residue. Leaching of a

  2. Advanced characterisation of municipal solid waste ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte Pedersen, Randi

    2002-12-15

    This report deals with characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ashes from the Danish power plant Maebjergvaerket, Holstebro. MSW has been used as a fuel since the mid 1960's and since then, the MSW incineration plants have experienced operational problems due to deposit formation and corrosion. Inorganic elements tightly or loosely bound in the waste are the main cause of these problems. The tightly bound elements will mainly stay on the grate during combustion, whereas the loosely bound elements are volatilised and recondensed elsewhere in the furnace. Many of the heavy metals form volatile chlorides during the incineration, and the fly ash fraction thus show enrichment in these elements. Presence of chlorides and heavy metals in deposits may cause severe corrosion due to formation of low-melting eutectics. Chlorine gas in the flue gas is also of major concern with respect to corrosion, due to formation of volatile chlorides when chlorine comes in contact with the tube material. Four different ash fractions (bottom ash, super heater ash, economiser ash and fly ash) taken from Maebjergvaerket have been analysed with respect to particle sizes, structures, shapes and composition. The applied methods were scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDX) and mapping, which were used in order to determine sizes, chemical composition and structure of the particles. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to provide information about crystallography and mineral phases. Chemical analysis was also performed along with a particle size distribution for the fine-grained fractions (economiser and fly ash). The amount of silicates consisting of Ca, Al and Si, were found to decrease through the furnace, whereas the amount of alkali (Na, K) chlorides and heavy metals (Pb, Zn) increased. The bonding in the waste before incineration is the direct cause of this, since silicates are tightly bound and chlorides are loosely bound. There was a

  3. Electricity production from municipal solid waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordi, Guilherme Henrique; Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2017-07-01

    Brazil has an increasing production of municipal solid waste that, allied to the current waste management system, makes the search for alternatives of energy recovery essential. Thus, this work aims to study the incineration of municipal solid waste and the electricity production through steam cycles evaluating the influence of municipal solid waste composition. Several scenarios were studied, in which it was assumed that some fractions of municipal solid waste were removed previously. The municipal solid waste generated in Santo André city, São Paulo State, Brazil, was adopted for this study. Simulation results showed that the removal of organic matter and inert components impacts advantageously on the cycle performance, improving their parameters in some cases; in addition, there is the possibility of reusing the separated fractions. The separation of some recyclables, as plastic material, showed disadvantages by the reduction in the electricity generation potential owing to the high calorific value of plastics. Despite the high energy content of them, there are other possible considerations on this subject, because some plastics have a better recovery potential by recycling.

  4. Analysis of Japanese Municipalities With Geopark, MAB, and GIAHS Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Kohsaka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the discussions of Japanese municipalities in their process for obtaining certifications for the Geoparks by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO, the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB by the UNESCO, and the Globally Important Agricultural Heritage systems (GIAHS by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO of the United Nations. The official records at the municipality diet were analyzed in a quantitative manner from 2011 to 2013. As the first step, we analyzed the eight municipalities of Noto and Sado for the GIAHS, the cities Itoigawa and Hakusan for the Geopark, and Katsuyama Yamanouchi village from Nagano for the MAB. As individual examples, we analyzed City of Suzu with GIAHS, Itoigawa (Geopark, and Yamanouchi town (MAB with the text-mining approach. For the GIAHS, it was clear that the larger municipalities with city status tended to discuss certification issues more frequently than the smaller towns and villages. Terms such as conservation and certification tended to be used with GIAHS at the Suzu City. The term brand was used with GIAHS and MAB but not for the Geopark. The findings using quantitative methods are at initial stage for analysis of municipality strategies and require further future research.

  5. Removal of Alkylphenols from Industrial and Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Derco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of removal of nonylphenol, octylphenol and their ethoxylates from real industrial and municipal wastewater are presented. Industrial wastewater was pre-treated by coagulation with FeCl3 and adsorption on zeolite, before discharging into municipal sewer system. Their removal efficiencies in primary sedimentation tank of municipal WWTP were very low. From the practical point of view, the highest and the most significant removal efficiencies within the whole WWTP were observed for nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates. Dominancy of abiotic mechanisms of alkylphenols removal follows from adsorption measurements. Activated sludge cultivated in lab-scale extended aeration tank accounted for relatively high adsorption affinity to these substances. Activated sludge sampled from municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP receiving industrial wastewater containing alkylphenols accounted for very low adsorption affinity to these pollutants. Significantly higher removal efficiency of octylphenol ethoxylates was observed with the O3/granular active carbon (GAC process compared to the ozonation process alone. Lower toxicity impact of intermediates and products of ozonation treatment on Vibrio fischeri was measured in comparison to the O3/GAC process. Actually, the municipal WWTP effluent discharge concentration values complies with EQS values, including nonylphenols.

  6. Neural Networks Modelling of Municipal Real Estate Market Rent Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muczyński Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research on the application of neural networks modelling of municipal real estate market rent rates. The test procedure was based on selected networks trained on the local real estate market data and transformation of the detected dependencies – through established models – to estimate the potential market rent rates of municipal premises. On this basis, the assessment of the adequacy of the actual market rent rates of municipal properties was made. Empirical research was conducted on the local real estate market of the city of Olsztyn in Poland. In order to describe the phenomenon of market rent rates formation an unidirectional three-layer network and a network of radial base was selected. Analyses showed a relatively low degree of convergence of the actual municipal rent rents with potential market rent rates. This degree was strongly varied depending on the type of business ran on the property and its’ social and economic impact. The applied research methodology and the obtained results can be used in order to rationalize municipal property management, including the activation of rental policy.

  7. Partnerships for development: municipal solid waste management in Kasese, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, David; Drysdale, David; Hansen, Kenneth; Vanhille, Josefine; Wolf, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management systems of many developing countries are commonly constrained by factors such as limited financial resources and poor governance, making it a difficult proposition to break with complex, entrenched and unsustainable technologies and systems. This article highlights strategic partnerships as a way to affect a distributed agency among several sets of stakeholders to break so-called path dependencies, which occur when such unsustainable pathways arise, stabilize and become self-reinforcing over time. Experiences from a North-South collaborative effort provide some lessons in such partnership building: In Uganda and Denmark, respectively, the World Wildlife Fund and the network organization access2innovation have mobilized stakeholders around improving the municipal solid waste management system in Kasese District. Through a municipal solid waste management system characterization and mapping exercise, some emergent lessons and guiding principles in partnership building point to both pitfalls and opportunities for designing sustainable pathways. First, socio-technical lock-in effects in the municipal solid waste management system can stand in the way of partnerships based on introducing biogas or incineration technologies. However, opportunities in the municipal solid waste management system can exist within other areas, and synergies can be sought with interlinking systems, such as those represented with sanitation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Planning future care services: Analyses of investments in Norwegian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Terje P; Tingvold, Laila

    2018-06-01

    To analyse whether the Norwegian Central Government's goal of subsidizing 12,000 places in nursing homes or sheltered housing using an earmarked grant was reached and to determine towards which group of users the planned investments were targeted. Data from the investment plans at municipal level were provided by the Norwegian Housing Bank and linked to variables describing the municipalities' financial situation as well as variables describing the local needs for services provided by Statistics Norway. Using regression analyses we estimated the associations between municipal characteristics and planned investments in total and by type of care place. The Norwegian Central Government reached its goal of giving subsidies to 12,000 new or rebuilt places in nursing homes and sheltered housing. A total of 54% of the subsidies (6878 places) were given to places in nursing homes. About 7500 places were available by the end of the planning period and the rest were under construction. About 50% of the places were planned for user groups aged Investments in nursing homes were correlated with the share of the population older than 80 years and investments in sheltered houses were correlated with the share of users with intellectual disabilities. Earmarked grants to municipalities can be adequate measures to affect local resource allocation and thereby stimulate investments in future care. With the current institutional setup the municipalities adapt investments to local needs.

  9. Characteristics of Southern California coastal aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B.D.; Hanson, R.T.; Reichard, E.G.; Johnson, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Most groundwater produced within coastal Southern California occurs within three main types of siliciclastic basins: (1) deep (>600 m), elongate basins of the Transverse Ranges Physiographic Province, where basin axes and related fluvial systems strike parallel to tectonic structure, (2) deep (>6000 m), broad basins of the Los Angeles and Orange County coastal plains in the northern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province, where fluvial systems cut across tectonic structure at high angles, and (3) shallow (75-350 m), relatively narrow fluvial valleys of the generally mountainous southern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province in San Diego County. Groundwater pumped for agricultural, industrial, municipal, and private use from coastal aquifers within these basins increased with population growth since the mid-1850s. Despite a significant influx of imported water into the region in recent times, groundwater, although reduced as a component of total consumption, still constitutes a significant component of water supply. Historically, overdraft from the aquifers has caused land surface subsidence, flow between water basins with related migration of groundwater contaminants, as well as seawater intrusion into many shallow coastal aquifers. Although these effects have impacted water quality, most basins, particularly those with deeper aquifer systems, meet or exceed state and national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Municipalities, academicians, and local water and governmental agencies have studied the stratigraphy of these basins intensely since the early 1900s with the goals of understanding and better managing the important groundwater resource. Lack of a coordinated effort, due in part to jurisdictional issues, combined with the application of lithostratigraphic correlation techniques (based primarily on well cuttings coupled with limited borehole geophysics) have produced an often confusing, and occasionally conflicting

  10. Municipal responses to the energy challenge: Nysted, Denmark. Innovation and retreat in a rural municipality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, A E

    1985-01-01

    This case study is one of a series describing the social and organizational processes behind municipal innovation in energy planning, conservation and supply. Nysted in Denmark provides an example of both the potential and the limitations on innovation in energy in a small-town environment. The community sponsored an innovative planning project which has since become a model for Danish community energy inventory studies and planning. Further, many individuals in Nysted adapted their heating or electrical supply systems for the use of renewable fuels, especially wind and straw. The community relied on outside expertise and was confronted with the classic problem of transition and implementation when the consultants left. Nysted amply illustrates the dilemma of small communities faced with modern technological problems and limited technological resources.

  11. Exploring social networks of municipal science education stakeholders in Danish Science Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von der Fehr, Ane

    development in the science and technology industry. Therefore, much effort has been invested to improve science education. The importance of school external stakeholders in development of education has been an increasingly emphasised, also in the field of science education. This has led to a growing focus......Science education development is a field of many interests and a key interest is recruitment of students who wish to pursue an education in science. This is an urgent societal demand in Denmark as well as internationally, since highly skilled science graduates are needed for the continuous...... involved in science education development. These municipal science education networks (MSE networks) were identified as important for development of science education in the SM project. Therefore, it was a key interest to explore these networks in order to investigate how the central stakeholders affected...

  12. The Mysterious Southern Torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. S.

    2004-05-01

    Something weird happened to twist the southern hemisphere out of alignment with the northern, as evidenced by the positions of the mountain ranges of North and South America, the Atlantic MAR, and the closure of West Africa to North America - all smooth were the torque reversed. What happened, and when, and why? We identify a number of global "cracks" of almost exactly the same length and direction, with some, even more peculiarly, turning the same angle, and proceeding an equal distance in the new direction. The Emperor-Hawaiian chain, the Louisville chain and the west coast of North America, as examples, are essentially parallel. Their northerly legs follow the angle of the axis of orbital ellipse. But then they all make equal 45 degree easterly bends, to 17.5 NW, and continue on, still parallel, for very similar distances. It is the same at the north coast of South America, and the mid-section of the MAR from 46W to 12W. It is the distance from the Cameroons to Kenya, from the south end of the Red Sea to the SE Indian Ridge at the Nema Fracture zone, from west to east of the Nazca plate.What is all this? Coincidence? Seeing things? Researchers have attributed plate motion or hot spot motion or both or absolutely none, to all of the above. Geophysicists have dated the surfaces from Archean to Pleistocene by all possible scientific means, certainly no possible correlation can be made. Yet we postulate the physical reality can be demonstrated. It is so global a phenomenon that it is well beyond what a hot spot or a plate could do. Even a really tremendous impact would have trouble making such precise geometric arrangements. So what is it - perhaps the angle of rotation, or the inertia of northern hemisphere mass above the geoid? And if so, then, what changed it? It would seem that some huge imbalance occurred. Suppose the whole bottom blew out of the southern hemisphere, and the center of mass drastically altered. Suppose some unknown universal force changed our

  13. Maximizing your ability to compete as a municipal electrical utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacOdrum, B.

    1996-01-01

    The implications of the MacDonald Committee's recommendations on introducing competition to Ontario's electricity industry were reviewed from the point of view of Toronto Hydro, the largest municipal utility and Ontario Hydro's largest customer. Issues examined included (1) the consequences of unbundling Ontario Hydro's generating, transmission and distribution functions, (2) the structural change option of phasing-in competition among Ontario Hydro and municipal and other private generators, (3) enhancing the efficiency of the distribution sector, and (4) the relative benefits and consequences of private equity as a means of enhancing competition through the sale of Ontario Hydro's generating assets, or the sale of non-essential business operations. Recommendations to the Committee included the need for the transmission grid to remain under public control, for electricity pricing to take into account the variable environmental impact of different generating types, and the need for transferring regulatory authority over municipal electric utilities from Ontario Hydro to the Ontario Energy Board

  14. Inter-municipal communities as semi-regional (quasi governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golić Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author discusses specific forms of integrated inter-municipal cooperation in some European countries which have certain characteristics of regional governments. Relying on the analysis of different forms of this inter-municipal cooperation, the author elaborates on some common features underlying these communities, with specific reference to their functional aspects. Bearing in mind that the imminent needs for regional planning, coordination of local policies and operation of regional offices are exercised through different institutional solutions, we point out that it is possible to provide an appropriate institutional and decentralized framework for accomplishing these goals even without changing the existing territorial organization system. Although the entities that are created through these specific forms of inter-municipal cooperation cannot be designated as territorial-political units in institutional terms, this is what they are from a functional point of view.

  15. Municipality and Neighborhood Influences on Volunteering in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury, Sarah; Willems, Jurgen; De Witte, Nico; De Donder, Liesbeth; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    This article explores the relationships between municipality features and volunteering by older adults. In the literature, strong evidence exists of the influence of place on older people's health. However, the question how neighborhoods and municipalities promote or hinder volunteer participation remains under-explored. Data for the research are derived from the Belgian Aging Studies. We estimate logistic multilevel models for older individuals' engagement in volunteering across 141 municipalities in Belgium (N = 67,144). Analysis shows that neighborhood connectedness, neighborhood satisfaction, home ownership, and presence of services predict voluntary engagement at older ages. The findings support that perceptions and quality of social resources that relate to neighborhoods may be important factors to explain volunteering among older adults. Moreover, the findings suggest that volunteering in later life must be considered within a broader framework. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. A Comprehensive Model of Municipal Housing Stock Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muczyński Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In many European countries there are still substantial housing needs which social landlords have to fulfill. Especially in countries with a shortage of affordable housing for underprivileged households, the effective and efficient management of the existing social housing stock, which includes technical, social, financial and tenure management activities on the strategic, tactical and operational level, is very important. The paper presents a comprehensive model of municipal housing stock management in the context of Polish conditions. This model was built by adapting the multidimensional concept of real estate management originally developed for commercial real estate portfolio management. It shows an integrative view of municipal housing stock management in Poland and contributes to the better organization and coordination of management activities and tasks in this area. The prepared model may be of interest to other countries where the functions of social landlords are mostly carried out directly by municipalities and their organizational units.

  17. FINANCIAL CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR COLLECTING BODY OF A MUNICIPAL TAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article's main purpose is to propose fiscal control strategies for tax collection in a Hall of Carabobo state, taking into account the responsibility of municipal governments within its governance process to provide optimal services to citizens the municipality, in order to improve their quality of life. This research focused on the modality of feasible project and descriptive. The population under study consisted of 10 staff of the institution, applying a survey as a tool for information gathering, allowing coding, tabulating and analyzing the results. The findings established that the institution is presenting negatives in tax revenue of the municipality, which generates large arrears and tax evasion by citizens, hence leading to the importance of design strategies that lead to minimize this situation.

  18. [Municipalities as places for social work for the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüßler, Harald; Heite, Elisabeth

    2017-07-01

    Against the background of social and demographic changes, this article addresses the design and organization of processes of aging within municipal contexts. It is assumed that the renaissance of the local communal situation corresponds to processes of individualization and subjectivation, which are characteristic for (post)industrial western societies, and that this development is one of the reasons that community-based social work is regaining importance. A case study of social work for the elderly in a municipality of the Ruhr area, which is imbedded in a municipal senior citizens policy concept, illustrates this assumption. The conclusion identifies the scope of actions for social work for the elderly as well as their limitations.

  19. Classification of sources of municipal solid wastes in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenrostro, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones sobre los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Apartado Postal 2-105, 58400, Michoacan, Morelia (Mexico); Bocco, G. [Departamento de Ecologia de los Recursos Naturales, Instituto de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Morelia, Apartado Postal 27-3 Xangari, 58089, Michoacan, Morelia (Mexico); Cram, S. [Departamento de Geografia Fisica, Instituto de Geografia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, C.P. 04510 Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2001-05-01

    The existence of different classifications of municipal solid waste (MSW) creates confusion and makes it difficult to interpret and compare the results of generation analyses. In this paper, MSW is conceptualized as the solid waste generated within the territorial limits of a municipality, independently of its source of generation. Grounded on this assumption, and based on the economic activity that generates a solid waste with determinate physical and chemical characteristics, a hierarchical source classification of MSW is suggested. Thus, a connection between the source and the type of waste is established. The classification categorizes the sources into three divisions and seven classes of sources: residential, commercial, institutional, construction/demolition, agricultural-animal husbandry, industrial, and special. When applied at different geographical scales, this classification enables the assessment of the volume of MSW generated, and provides an overview of the types of residues expected to be generated in a municipality, region or state.

  20. Engaged Problem Formulation of IT Management in Danish Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Persson, John Stouby

    2012-01-01

    Municipalities’ effectiveness in managing information technology (IT) is increasingly important in adhering to their responsibilities for providing services to citizens. While the municipalities’ difficulty in managing IT has been well documented, it is more elusive what specific problems are most...... relevant in contemporary municipal IT management practice. On this basis, we present an engaged scholarship approach to formulate IT management problems together with municipalities - not for municipalities. We have come to understand such engaged problem formulation as joint researching and defining...... of a contemporary and complex problem by researchers and those who experience and know the problem. We present the formulated IT management problems and discuss the engaged problem formulation process in relation to engaged scholarship. Furthermore, we discuss how engaged problem formulation may contribute...

  1. Need for strengthened focus on cancer rehabilitation in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Adamsen, Lis; Kjær Brinkmann, Fie

    2015-01-01

    by “stop smoking” courses, dietary advice, physical training guidance, patient education and individual physical training. Inequality in referral by ethnicity, age and gender was reported.Challenges encountered included low patient numbers, inadequate collaboration within and across sectors and lack......Introduction: Danish municipalities have recently been given a mandate to organise cancer rehabilitation services.Knowledge is therefore needed about the services providedand their utilisation. The aim of this national Danish baseline survey was to explore the availability, utilisation, content...... and organisation of municipal cancer rehabilitation services. Methods: Electronic questionnaires were sent to all 98 Danish municipalities in January 2013. The questionnaire consisted of closed-ended and open-ended questions. Descriptive statistics and contents analysis were used. Results: A total of 91...

  2. Need for strengthened focus on cancer rehabilitation in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Adamsen, Lis; Brinkmann, Fie Kjær

    2015-01-01

    by "stop smoking" courses, dietary advice, physical training guidance, patient education and individual physical training. Inequality in referral by ethnicity, age and gender was reported. Challenges encountered included low patient numbers, inadequate collaboration within and across sectors and lack......INTRODUCTION: Danish municipalities have recently been given a mandate to organise cancer rehabilitation services. Knowledge is therefore needed about the services provided and their utilisation. The aim of this national Danish baseline survey was to explore the availability, utilisation, content...... and organisation of municipal cancer rehabilitation services. METHODS: Electronic questionnaires were sent to all 98 Danish municipalities in January 2013. The questionnaire consisted of closed-ended and open-ended questions. Descriptive statistics and contents analysis were used. RESULTS: A total of 91...

  3. Electric energy management - basis for a municipal public politics; Gestao da energia eletrica - bases para uma politica publica municipal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurahassi, Luiz Fernando

    2006-07-01

    Electricity is an input whose impact on the costs of the municipal public services varies according to the manner it is used and to the way it is obtained from the supplying company. The management of its use results in savings and in greater efficiency and quality of the delivered services - including the public lighting - besides, it softens environmental impacts and develops actions to orientate society towards energy-efficient consumption habits. The public sector has a significant share in the electricity final consumption in Brazil, trending to increase, but a room for consumption reduction and increase in energy efficiency can be seen in the municipalities. The purpose of this thesis is to identify concepts and set parameters that can be the basis of a public policy on electrical power management at the ambit of municipality. This paper reports a series of theoretical studies and empirical researches concerning the efficient use of electrical power in public services in cities of different countries and analyses the results reached from the application of models that successively work in the reality of cities from the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. It concludes that the municipality must play a role much more relevant than being a simple institutional electricity consumer, by proposing the basis for an intervention in the municipal reality. (author)

  4. The evaluation of the state of the Sopot Municipality environment as a condition for sustainable development of the municipality area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sopot Municipality can be conditionally characterized as 'an ecological municipality' considering it is known for its preserved and quality environment, which is the result of the absence of greater sources of degradation and environmental pollution. The structure and usage of the Sopot municipality space was influenced by its specific position and historic development, the resources, the fact it is in the vicinity of Belgrade, as well as the processes taking places in the last few decades. Besides natural, anthropogenic factors substantially influenced the way of spatial development, often violating natural conditions and possibilities. In that sense, the current environmental condition analysis represents the important integral planning base for further spatial development of the Municipality. In this paper the environmental condition is shown according to single elements (air, water, soil, the attention is drawn to the problem of waste on the Sopot Municipality area, and in the end the valorization of the environment was performed from the aspect of pollution level.

  5. Marking behavior of the giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Mammalia: Myrmecophagidae) in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, Fernanda G.; Santos, Raphael E. F.; Batista, Antonio C.

    2010-01-01

    This research presents novel data on tree marking by the giant anteater, a large Neotropical mammal threatened in the state of Paraná and other areas of Brazil, and nearly threatened worldwide. Field work was carried out in the municipality of Jaguariaíva, Paraná (Southern Brazil) with the goal of evaluating the pine marking behavior of the giant anteater and ascertaining whether wildfires interfere with it. Anteater marks were searched for on the trunks of pine trees in stands as well as pin...

  6. Military Governorship as a Solution to the Insurgency Problem in Southern Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Governor Al Rasheed Sakalahul would go on further in quipping that “only goats report to the Municipal Hall” in Basilan.67 To curb this problem, the...comprehensive discussion of the MOA-AD see Fr. Eliseo Mercado OMI, “MOA-AD: Quo Vadis,” Autonomy and Peace Review 4, no. 3 (2008): 9 – 20, accessed...documents/ADRRN_ChallengesTo HumanSecurityInComplexSituations_TheCaseOfConflictInTheSouthernPhilippin es.pdf Mercado OMI, Fr. Eliseo. “MOA-AD: Quo

  7. THE SOUTHERN AEGEAN SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Berg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although world-systems theory was originally formulated with our modern economic system in mind (Wallerstein 1974, it was not long before archaeologists began to apply it to ancient societies. Archaeologists and world-system theorists alike both argued that Wallerstein had disregarded evidence of interconnected, hierarchical systems in prehistoric times (Schneider 1977; Chase-Dunn & Hall 1991, 1997; Kardulias 1999a. Pailes and Whitecotton (1979 were among the first to modify world-systems theory for use in pre-capitalist settings. Since then many archaeologists have looked at data and regions with a world-systems perspective in mind (e.g. Champion 1989; Bilde et al. 1993; Rowlands & Larsen 1987; Kardulias 1999a. Some have attempted to map Wallerstein's theory directly onto prehistory (Kohl 1979; Whitecotton & Pailes 1986; Ekholm & Friedman 1982. Others have found the world systems model heuristically useful but lacking the analytical power needed for their prehistoric cases (Blanton et al. 1981; Upham 1982; Plog 1983; Alcock 1993. Building on the assumption that ancient societies were not qualitatively, but only quantitatively, different from modern capitalist ones (Schneider 1977; Sherratt & Sherratt 1991, this study applies world systems theory to the Southern Aegean during the Middle and Late Bronze Age (ca. 2000-1550 BC.

  8. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, K K; Macedo, J C; Meneguzzi, A; Silva, L B; Quevedo, D M; Rodrigues, M A S

    2010-12-01

    The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º 20' to 30º 10' S and 50º 15' to 51º20'W), Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km², encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD₅), turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA) regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI) used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS). Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin.

  9. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KK. Blume

    Full Text Available The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º 20' to 30º 10' S and 50º 15' to 51º20'W, Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km², encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS. Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin.

  10. Cogeneration and District Heating. Best Practices for Municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuorkivi, A.; Constantinescu, T.

    2005-01-01

    District heating (DH) and cogeneration of heat power (CHP) are well known technologies in the energy business and are often included in municipal policies as well. Some of the major benefits of DH and CHP are less known and the barriers faced by further development of DH and CHP are substantial. The main barriers are institutional. Municipalities can play a powerful role in facilitating local DH and CHP development in order to achieve the economic and environmental benefits of DH and CHP. This report is produced to assist municipalities in promoting efficient and environmental beneficial DH and CHP. The focus of the report is on the economies in transition, where the institutional barriers are acute. The report addresses the issues of organisational framework, price regulation and financing, energy demand, rehabilitation of DH systems and benchmarking of DH and CHP. The municipality may influence the DH development by a number of means. The most important means, discussed in the various chapters of the report, are: (1) City planning impacts on the heat load density. A high density is an important factor for the economics of DH and city planning may promote DH in areas with high density and individual heating modes in the areas with low density; (2) Managing the building stock owned by the municipality to join the DH system and paying for the heating services; (3) Setting strategic goals for the District Heating Enterprise (DHE), which they usually own, regarding the quality and the costs of heating. The DHE shall be given sufficient resources to work towards such goals; (4) Providing guarantees for financing DH rehabilitation and development. The DHE may not have access to commercial credits without municipal guarantees; and, (5) Supporting the DHE management by giving operational independence, supervising the management performance regularly and encouraging the co-operation with other DHEs and equipment manufacturers. Examples provided in the report of

  11. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The anaerobic biogasification of organic wastes generates two useful products: a medium-Btu fuel gas and a compost-quality organic residue. Although commercial-scale digestion systems are used to treat municipal sewage wastes, the disposal of solid organic wastes, including municipal solid wastes (MSW), requires a more cost-efficient process. Modern biogasification systems employ high-rate, high-solids fermentation methods to improve process efficiency and reduce capital costs. The design criteria and development stages are discussed. These systems are also compared with conventional low-solids fermentation technology.

  12. Treatment and disposal techniques of dangerous municipal solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beone, G.; Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the qualitative and quantitative features of the different types of dangerous municipal solid wastes, according to Italian law. In the second part the impact on environment and man health is presented. This impact should be minimized by suitable controlled disposal techniques, which differ from other municipal waste treatments. Finally, the paper deals with the most appropriate systems for treatment and disposal of such kind of waste. Particularly, some research activities in the field of metal recovery from used batteries, sponsored by ENEA, and carrying out by private companies, are described. (author)

  13. Municipal services as a means of increasing the citizens’ activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valeryevna Yakhina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to propose ways of increasing the activity of Russian citizens through the institution of municipal services. Methods the methodological basis of the study was a systematic and integrated approach to the analysis of the institution of municipal services. The general philosophical method was used as well as general scientific methods of cognition dialectical systemic analysis and synthesis induction and deduction and specific scientific methods comparativelegal formallegal historicallegal sociological systemicfunctional theoreticalprognostic linguolegal methods. In particular the formallegal method was used to study the problem of the legal fixation of administrative regulations statuses the theoreticalprognostic method was used in preparing recommendations to increase the activity of citizens. Results the municipal services are regarded by the author as a way to meet the needs of the population of a particular territory and as a way of interaction between local public authorities and the citizens. The issue of the functioning of emunicipalities is studied as well as the shortcomings in the legal regulation in this field. The problem is discussed of insufficient use of the Internet in the local authoritiesrsquo interaction with citizens. The author suggests ways to improve the Federal Law quotOn the organization of state and municipal servicesquot N 210FZ of July 2 2010 regarding the use of the Internet as a means of feedback between the public authorities and the population of a territory. Special attention is paid to normative legal acts regulating the procedure of municipal services provision i.e. the administrative regulations of local authorities. The emerging challenges in the legal regulation of the specified institution are identified the solutions to the identified problems are proposed. Scientific novelty in 2010 the institution of municipal services has undergone significant modernization thus the necessity to its research

  14. The effects of Smoke Free Work Hours in Danish municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Termansen; Simon Rask

    2017-01-01

    Since 2011, 15 Danish municipalities have implemented smoke free work hours, meaning that an employee working for the municipality may not smoke in his or her work time (about 7,5 hours a day). This is a much stricter prevention method, than former strategies preventing smoking mostly at locations and not during working hours. Research concerning the effects of smoke free work hours is non-existing. We therefore wish to look into the specific outcomes of smoke free work hours related to smoki...

  15. HACIA LA EFICIENCIA EN LA GESTIÓN MUNICIPAL

    OpenAIRE

    ÁLVAREZ SÁNCHEZ, SEALTIEL

    2012-01-01

    La Contraloría General de la República (CGR) diseñó en 2002 una metodología para evaluar la gestión financiera de los gobiernos locales. Más recientemente, en 2012, publicó un modelo actualizado que incluye cinco ejes de la gestión municipal. Esta investigación, de tipo mixto, propone un nuevo modelo de gestión municipal, que permite evaluar la eficiencia de los gobiernos locales con el propósito de promover el desarrollo de la comunidad en nueves áreas: servicios municipales, innovación orga...

  16. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  17. Southern African Business Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Business Review is a refereed and accredited journal of the College of Economic and Management Sciences of the University of South Africa. ... the right to make minor editorial adjustments without consulting the author.

  18. Utilization of the southern pines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, P

    1972-01-01

    After several years out of print, this book is again available. The two-volume reference characterizes the southern pine tree as raw material and describes the process by which it is converted to use. All 10 species are considered. The book is addressed primarily to the incoming generation of researchers and industrial managers in the southern pine industry. Foremen, superintendents, quality control personnel, wood procurement men, forest managers, extension workers, professors, and students of wood technology should find the handbook of value.

  19. Energy Trade in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, W F.

    1996-01-01

    This document deals with possible energy growth in Southern African countries. This region possesses substantial energy resources (including fossil fuels), but because of political instability, government intervention, financial paralysis and lack of adequate transportation infrastructure, this region faces problems in satisfying energy needs. Two key international actions, namely the South African Development Community (SADC) Energy Protocol and the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) are expected to enhance energy trade and promote economic development. (TEC)

  20. Trends in deliberate interpersonal violence in the Odense Municipality, Denmark 1991-2002. The Odense study on deliberate interpersonal violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergemann, Christian; Lauritsen, Jens; Brink, Ole

    2007-01-01

    A 12-year study was carried out to investigate the development of interpersonal violence based on A and E department and/or forensic data from a Danish urban population. Included in the study were all victims of violence from the Odense municipality treated at the Odense University Hospital...... or subjected to medicolegal autopsy at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark 1991-2002. Overall 14,316 victims of violence were included in the study. The incidence rates of violence were 9.9 and 3.4 per 1000 population/year for males and females. For males the incidence rate...... decreased in the study period whereas the incidence rate was unchanged among females. Less serious lesions and wounds were the most common type of lesions. The percentage of less serious lesions increased in the study period. The percentage of potential severe lesions such as bone fractures and deep lesions...

  1. Boreal forests can have a remarkable role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions locally: Land use-related and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks at the municipal level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhala, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.vanhala@ymparisto.fi [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Bergström, Irina [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Haaspuro, Tiina [University of Helsinki, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, Viikinkaari 1, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kortelainen, Pirkko; Holmberg, Maria; Forsius, Martin [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem services have become an important concept in policy-making. Carbon (C) sequestration into ecosystems is a significant ecosystem service, whereas C losses can be considered as an ecosystem disservice. Municipalities are in a position to make decisions that affect local emissions and therefore are important when considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Integrated estimations of fluxes at a regional level help local authorities to develop land use policies for minimising GHG emissions and maximising C sinks. In this study, the Finnish national GHG accounting system is modified and applied at the municipal level by combining emissions and sinks from agricultural land, forest areas, water bodies and mires (land use-related GHG emissions) with emissions from activities such as energy production and traffic (anthropogenic GHG emissions) into the LUONNIKAS calculation tool. The study area consists of 14 municipalities within the Vanajavesi catchment area located in Southern Finland. In these municipalities, croplands, peat extraction sites, water bodies and undrained mires are emission sources, whereas forests are large carbon sinks that turn the land use-related GHG budget negative, resulting in C sequestration into the ecosystem. The annual land use-related sink in the study area was 78 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 2.8 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Annual anthropogenic GHG emissions from the area amounted to 250 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 9.2 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Since forests are a significant carbon sink and the efficiency of this sink is heavily affected by forest management practices, forest management policy is a key contributing factor for mitigating municipal GHG emissions. - Highlights: • The significance of natural landscapes in the regional C budgets is shown. • Boreal forests can be remarkable C sinks enabling net C sequestration in ecosystems. • The large area of forest may compensate for all C emissions in the municipality.

  2. Arsenic in groundwater of the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC), India: Critical review and modes of mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Das, Bhaskar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Nayak, Bishwajit; Pal, Arup; Sengupta, Mrinal K; Ahamed, Sad; Hossain, Md Amir; Chowdhury, Uttam K; Biswas, Bhajan Kumar; Saha, Khitish Chandra; Dutta, R N

    2017-08-01

    This study represents the first comprehensive report of groundwater arsenic contamination status in the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC). During the past 23 years, 4210 groundwater samples were analysed from all 141 wards in the KMC: 14.2% and 5.2% samples had arsenic >10 μg/l and >50 μg/l, respectively, representing 77 and 37 wards. The study shows that the number of arsenic contaminated samples (and wards) in the southern part of the KMC exceeds that of other parts of the city. The daily intake of arsenic from drinking water was estimated as 0.95 μg per kg bw and the cancer risk was estimated as 1425/10 6 . Analyses of biological samples (hair, nail and urine) showed elevated concentrations of arsenic indicating the presence of subclinical arsenic poisoning, predicting an enhanced lifetime cancer risk for the population in southern part of the KMC. In the KMC, groundwater is not a sustainable source of freshwater due to arsenic, high iron, hardness and total dissolved solids. Its continued use is impelled by the lack of an adequate infrastructure to treat and supply surface water and in some wards the unaccounted for water (UFW) is even >45% incurred during distribution. The rare imposition of a water tax makes the water supply systems unsustainable and fosters indifference to water conservation. To mitigate the arsenic problem, continuous groundwater monitoring for pollutants, a treated surface water supply with strict policy implications, rainwater harvesting in the urban areas and introduction of water taxes seem to be long-term visible solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy potential of municipal solid waste incineration in urban areas of China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Ling

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the energy potential of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in Chinese cities from 1996 to 2020. In China, with improving the standard of living recently, the extreme increase of the municipal solid waste generation (MSWG)

  4. The role of municipal councils in social expenditure : How does politics determine social expenditure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Zambrana Cruz (Gilmar)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn 1994, Bolivia, one of the poorest countries in Latin America with an important percentage of indigenous people, started a decentralisation process that transferred responsibilities and resources to local governments: the municipalities. Nowadays, municipalities constitute important

  5. Physical-chemical pretreatment as an option for increased sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : municipal wastewater treatment, physical-chemical pretreatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment, organic polymers, environmental sustainability

    Most of the currently applied municipal wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands are

  6. Regional Development and Sustainability: Cultural Tourism in the Southern Region of Jalisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the potential of cultural tourism in the municipalities that comprise region 6 of the State of Jalisco, territorially delimited in the South of Jalisco. (Subject is missing Are tested first to identify the demand for cultural tourism to determine the profile of the cultural tourist under the assumptions that tourists especially motivated by culture tend to travel longer distances than most tourists. It discusses the motivations and satisfactions of cultural tourists in order to establish the potential market in accordance with the characteristics of the target market in the southern region of Jalisco. Any operation of cultural tourism companies should make the strategic diagnosis, which explains the use of SWOT analysis as a tool for strategic planning of cultural tourism enterprises. Finally, we propose some development strategies of cultural tourism in this region of Southern Jalisco.

  7. Hydrologic modeling for monitoring water availability in Eastern and Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, A.; Harrison, L.; Shukla, S.; Pricope, N. G.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    Severe droughts in 2015, 2016 and 2017 in Ethiopia, Southern Africa, and Somalia have negatively impacted agriculture and municipal water supplies resulting in food and water insecurity. Information from remotely sensed data and field reports indicated that the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation (FLDAS) accurately tracked both the anomalously low soil moisture, evapotranspiration and runoff conditions. This work presents efforts to more precisely monitor how the water balance responds to water availability deficits (i.e. drought) as estimated by the FLDAS with CHIRPS precipitation, MERRA-2 meteorological forcing and the Noah33 land surface model.Preliminary results indicate that FLDAS streamflow estimates are well correlated with observed streamflow where irrigation and other channel modifications are not present; FLDAS evapotranspiration (ET) is well correlated with ET from the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance model (SSEBop) in Eastern and Southern Africa. We then use these results to monitor availability, and explore trends in water supply and demand.

  8. The relationship between job satisfaction and job loyalty among municipal sports officers

    OpenAIRE

    C. Mafini; J. Surujlal; M. Dhurup

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and job loyalty among municipal sports officers in South Africa. With the rise in the popularity of sport in South Africa, municipalities throughout the country face the challenge of providing improved sports services. To meet this challenge, municipalities employ a variety of sports professionals, among whom are municipal sport officers. In order for them to function effectively, it is necessary for municipali...

  9. Modern technologies of processing municipal solid waste: investing in the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantseva, A.; Berezyuk, M.; Savchenko, N.; Rumyantseva, E.

    2017-06-01

    The problem of effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management is known to all the municipal entities of the Russian Federation. The problem is multifaceted and complex. The article analyzes the dynamics of municipal solid waste formation and its utilization within the territory of the EU and Russia. The authors of the paper suggest a project of a plant for processing municipal solid waste into a combustible gas with the help of high temperature pyrolysis. The main indicators of economic efficiency are calculated.

  10. Municipal Level of Strategic Planning: Economic and Legal Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Moiseevich Bukhvald

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the need of integration of municipal government into a unified hierarchy of strategic planning in the country. The basic positions of the acting version of the Federal law no.131 “On general principles of organization of local self-government” and the Federal law no. 172 “On strategic planning” don’t provide clear legal framework for the solution of this problem. Besides, the practical integration of municipal management into a unified hierarchy of strategic planning meets serious economic obstacles, the main of which consist in the negative situation within the system of local finance, characterized by trends of deficiency, high dependence on subsidies and, as a consequence, volatility and lack of predictability in relation to any plans and programs of long-term nature. The main idea of the article is to prove the need for a systemic approach to solving tasks, related to the integration of municipal management in a unified vertical of strategic planning in the country. The essence of this approach is the combination of a number of legal innovations in the legislation on strategic planning and local government with a set of measures, aimed to strengthen the fiscal basis of Russian local self-government together with institutional ensuring of municipal planning and its interaction with the practice of strategic planning at the level of subjects of the Russian Federation.

  11. The 2010 FIFA World Cup and the Eden District Municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on sport tourism, mega sport events and the impacts thereof, especially in developing countries, have, in the past, tended to have been overlooked. This article investigates 2010 FIFA World Cup initiatives conducted in the Eden District Municipality (EDM), Western Cape, South Africa, which is situated between the ...

  12. Performance of municipal waste stabilization ponds in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragush, Colin M.; Schmidt, Jordan J.; Krkosek, Wendy H.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of small remote communities in the Canadian arctic territory of Nunavut utilize waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) for municipal wastewater treatment because of their relatively low capital and operational costs, and minimal complexity. New national effluent quality regulations have be...

  13. Effect of municipal solid waste ash on comprehensive strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blocks were moulded in a CINVA-Ram machine by replacing 0%, 2%, 5% and 10% of municipal solid waste ash (MSW ash) as a stabilizing agent. The compressive strengths of individual blocks were obtained after curing for 7, 14 and 28 days. The 2%MSW ash replacement gave the highest compressive strength and ...

  14. Size and Local Democracy: the Case of Czech Municipal Representatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ryšavý, D.; Bernard, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2013), s. 833-852 ISSN 0300-3930 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/09/1779 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : local councillors * size of municipality * incumbents Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.620, year: 2013 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/03003930.2012.675329

  15. A municipal forest report card: Results for California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.Gregory McPherson; Louren Kotow

    2013-01-01

    This study integrates two existing computer programs, the Pest Vulnerability Matrix and i-Tree Streets, into a decision-support tool for assessing municipal forest stability and recommending strategies to mitigate risk of loss. A report card concept was developed to communicate levels of performance in terms that managers and the public easily understand. Grades were...

  16. Phycoremediation of municipal wastewater by microalgae to produce biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Sharma, Nikunj; Farooqi, Humaira; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Mock, Thomas; Kumar, Shashi

    2017-09-02

    Municipal wastewater (WW), if not properly remediated, poses a threat to the environment and human health by carrying significant loads of nutrients and pathogens. These contaminants pollute rivers, lakes, and natural reservoirs where they cause eutrophication and pathogen-mediated diseases. However, the high nutrient content of WW makes it an ideal environment for remediation with microalgae that require high nutrient concentrations for growth and are not susceptible to toxins and pathogens. Given that an appropriate algal strain is used for remediation, the incurred biomass can be refined for the production of biofuel. Four microalgal species (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella sp., Parachlorella kessleri-I, and Nannochloropsis gaditana) were screened for efficient phycoremediation of municipal WW and potential use for biodiesel production. Among the four strains tested, P. kessleri-I showed the highest growth rate and biomass production in 100% WW. It efficiently removed all major nutrients with a removal rate of up to 98% for phosphate after 10 days of growth in 100% municipal WW collected from Delhi. The growth of P. kessleri-I in WW resulted in a 50% increase of biomass and a 115% increase of lipid yield in comparison to growth in control media. The Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), and fuel properties of lipids isolated from cells grown in WW complied with international standards. The present study provides evidence that the green alga P. kessleri-I effectively remediates municipal WW and can be used to produce biodiesel.

  17. Greening Public Buildings: ESCO-Contracting in Danish Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Rohr Hansen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents current research on Danish municipalities’ use of Energy Service Companies (ESCO) as a way to improve the standard of public buildings and to increase energy efficiency. In recent years more and more municipalities have used ESCO-contracts to retrofit existing public buildings...

  18. Keynote address: Federal overview of municipal sludge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    The proper disposal of sewage sludge is becoming an increasing problem on solid waste management systems throughout the country. Currently 18,000 municipal wastewater treatment plants are generating about 5 million tons of sludge a year. This is expected to double in the next 8 to 10 years. The environmental aspects of sludge disposal are discussed

  19. Municipal Real Estate deployed as a capital asset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel - Meulenbroek, H.A.J.A.; Maussen, S.J.E.; de Bis, N.; Verkerk, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to introduce the principles of Corporate Real Estate Management (CREM) within the municipal organization. It is presumed that, looking at the private sector’s accomplishments in this field, these principles will allow a city council to deploy their real estate in a

  20. Municipal Tender Awards and Internal Appeals by unsuccessful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Regulations,2 enacted under the Local Government: Municipal Finance Management Act.3 It is argued that at present, internal appeal and dispute resolution processes do not afford unsuccessful bidders adequate protection. Keywords: Appeals; bid committee system; competitive bidding; Constitution; dispute resolution; ...

  1. Cost efficiency of waste management in Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Hans; van Heezik, A.; Hollanders, D.; Felsö, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the cost efficiency of waste management of Dutch municipalities. For the first time stochastic frontier analysis is applied to Dutch data, employing recent multi-year data (2005-2008). The preliminary findings confirm earlier results on the importance for cost efficiency of

  2. The development of a municipal water conservation and demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implementation of water conservation and water demand management ... and the municipalities do not have the necessary financial, technical and institutional capacity to support such a ... The methodology for this study was developed as part of the ... Study' for the Vaal River system (DWAF, 2006; DWAF, 2009).

  3. Prerequisites for Setting Up Management System in Municipal Retail Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraeva, Maria O.; Grigoryants, Igor A.; Karpova, Galina A.; Khoreva, Lyubov V.; Schreyer, Alexander V.; Sirotkin, Victor A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem Urban district, management, trade, sales network is determined by the number of complex problems that exist in present Samara municipal retail trade system, which is manifested in the lack of regulation, a glut of sales area, and poorly developed infrastructure. The purpose of this article is to form a…

  4. Research challenges in municipal solid waste logistics management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, Xiaoyun; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline; Ramos, Tania Rodrigues Pereira; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana Paula; Wong, Chee Yew; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    During the last two decades, EU legislation has put increasing pressure on member countries to achieve specified recycling targets for municipal household waste. These targets can be obtained in various ways choosing collection methods, separation methods, decentral or central logistic systems,

  5. Global warming factor of municipal solid waste management in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Clavreul, Julie; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    The global warming factor (GWF; CO2-eq. tonne—1 waste) performance of municipal waste management has been investigated for six representative European Member States: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Poland and the United Kingdom. The study integrated European waste statistical data for 2007...

  6. Evaluation of a Stimulation Plan for municipalities in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Selm, J. van & Herweijer, M.

    1990-01-01

    The topic of this paper is the evaluation of the Stimulation Plan "Actie -25%" for municipalities in The Netherlands. The SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research was assigned to conduct the evaluation study. Two central questions were at issue: (1) Did "Actie -25%, for instance, did the extra

  7. Fooling the Market? Municipal Yields and Unfunded State Pension Liabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekniute, Z.; Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Ponds, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Existing empirical evidence at the country level exhibits a positive relationship between public indebtedness and the yield on the public debt. Using panel data over the period 2001 – 2014, we show that this relationship holds also for municipal bond yields and the indebtedness of U.S. states.

  8. Optimizing Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant reductions of carbon emissions and air quality impacts can be achieved by optimizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a resource. Materials and discards management were found to contribute ~40% of overall U.S. GHG emissions as a result of materials extraction, transpo...

  9. A municipal guide to least cost utility planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The recent track record of ''traditional'' electricity planning, which entails selection of supply side resources to meet forecasted demand, has not been good. There are numerous examples of utilities incorrectly forecasting demand and over-building generating capacity while others underestimated growth and have had to cut demand and find alternate power sources to avoid outages. A potential solution to this problem is the continuing development of Least Cost Utility Plannning (LCUP). Regulatory commissions, consumer advocates and utilities are increasingly relying an LCUP as the most responsible way to avoid construction of new capacity and alleviate anticipated shortages caused by cancellation of construction projects, load growth, or natural replacement of aging capacity. The purpose of this report is to provide municipalities a starting point for evaluating their servicing utilities or states' least cost plan. This was accomplished by: Identifying key issues in LCUP; reviewing examples of the collaborative and classic approaches to LCUP in Illinois, California, New York State and Michigan; cataloging municipal authorities and strategies which can influence or support LCUP activities. Results of the project indicate that through a basic understanding of LCUP processes and issues, municipalities will be in a better position to influence plans or, if necessary, intervene in regulatory proceedings where plans are adopted. Constraints to municipal involvement in LCUP include statutory limitations, resource constraints, and a lack of knowledge of indirect authorities that support the LCUP process

  10. Adolescent malnutrition: Prevalence and pattern in Abuja Municipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of malnutrition among adolescents in senior secondary schools in The Abuja Municipal area council. Methods: Study design: this is a cross-sectional study conducted among adolescents (10-19 years) in secondary schools. A multistage sampling technique was employed ...

  11. The Tshwane metropolitan municipality and strategic partnerships in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality commissioned research to investigate the potential of strategic partnerships for the optimal facilitation and co-operative governance of sport and recreation. The aim of this project was to identify the possible structure and nature of partnerships in order to facilitate effective management, ...

  12. Enhanced stabilisation of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valencia Vázquez, R.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing development and urbanization of the society has led to an increase per-capita production of municipal solid waste (MSW) materials. These MSW materials are of organic and inorganic nature that can be of rapidly, moderately and slowly biodegradable or inert characteristics. With regard

  13. Individual and Contextual Variables in Municipal Officers' Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Valéria Vieira; Borges-Andrade, Jairo Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate workplace learning among municipal officers in the high-learning-demanding organizational context of their work practice in the first year of mandate. Design/methodology/approach: A before-and-after quasi-experimental design was used to assess the effect of time of work practice on learning work…

  14. Investigating the feasibility of municipal risk pooling as an ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Investigating the feasibility of municipal risk pooling as an adaptation finance measure. Climate change-related insurance products have been commonly used to manage the risks from climate hazards over the last few years. However, traditional insurance has not been effective for low-frequency, high-severity events.

  15. Sequential Analysis of Metals in Municipal Dumpsite Composts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ni) in Municipal dumpsite compost were determined by the sequential extraction method. Chemical parameters such as pH, conductivity, and organic carbon contents of the samples were also determined. Analysis of the extracts was carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometer machine (Buck Scientific VPG 210).

  16. Chloride leaching from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, Q.; Schollbach, K.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Vlastimil, Bilek; Kersner, Zbynek; Simonova, Hana

    2017-01-01

    The presence of chlorides in the Municipal Solid Waste Incineration bottom ashes (BA) hinders their potential for recycling in building materials. The contaminant content in the incineration residues is strictly regulated by the Dutch legislation Soil Quality Decree (2013). The fine fraction

  17. Perceptions about Municipal Governance in the post-1996 Era: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the perceptions of stakeholders on effective municipal governance. In an attempt to gauge effectiveness, the following variables were used as measures: Decision making, transparency, public participation and consultation, among others. The article confirmed that the necessary structures and ...

  18. Integrating climate change into governance at the municipal scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejs, Anja

    2014-01-01

    traditions and perceptions. This article examines dif- ferent approaches to CC governance and the institutional dynamics that occur in the integration process within eight Danish municipalities in the initial phase of integrating CC. The results show three different governance approaches related to climate...

  19. Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors For Cost-Effective Municipal Water Reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgün, H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology has been increasingly researched for municipal wastewater treatment as a means to produce nutrient-rich, solids free effluents with low levels of pathogens, while occupying a small footprint. An AnMBR can be used not only for on-site

  20. HOLISTIC APPROACH TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents results from the application of a new municipal solid waste (MSW) management planning aid to EPA's new facility in the Research Triangle Park, NC. This planning aid, or decision support tool, is computer software that analyzes the cost and environmental impact ...

  1. Municipal Boundary Demarcation in South Africa: Processes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The causes of disputes are investigated and the processes of municipal demarcation and boundary dispute resolution are analysed using the goals of good governance in land administration, rights, restrictions and responsibilities, Kotter's eight stages of change management and the 7Es performance measurement ...

  2. Medicinal plants on the territory of the Municipality of Dospat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Dimitrova-Dyulgerova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the species diversity of medicinal plants on the territory of the Municipality of Dospat (Western Rhodopes. 332 species were described, grouped in 75 families. The Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae families were represented by the largest species diversity, perennial herbaceous plants being predominant. There were 72 medicinal plant species of conservation significance, including endemic, rare and protectedspecies.

  3. Economic and demographic trends of municipalities in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D.J. du Plessis, Centre for Regional and Urban Innovation and Statistical ... Studies, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South Africa. ... long-term development and resulting in the ..... France. 0.88-0.89. Company sales. France. 0.89-0.91. Company employees ... municipalities, and 1.04 in the case of.

  4. A municipal guide to least cost utility planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The recent track record of ``traditional`` electricity planning, which entails selection of supply side resources to meet forecasted demand, has not been good. There are numerous examples of utilities incorrectly forecasting demand and over-building generating capacity while others underestimated growth and have had to cut demand and find alternate power sources to avoid outages. A potential solution to this problem is the continuing development of Least Cost Utility Plannning (LCUP). Regulatory commissions, consumer advocates and utilities are increasingly relying an LCUP as the most responsible way to avoid construction of new capacity and alleviate anticipated shortages caused by cancellation of construction projects, load growth, or natural replacement of aging capacity. The purpose of this report is to provide municipalities a starting point for evaluating their servicing utilities or states` least cost plan. This was accomplished by: Identifying key issues in LCUP; reviewing examples of the collaborative and classic approaches to LCUP in Illinois, California, New York State and Michigan; cataloging municipal authorities and strategies which can influence or support LCUP activities. Results of the project indicate that through a basic understanding of LCUP processes and issues, municipalities will be in a better position to influence plans or, if necessary, intervene in regulatory proceedings where plans are adopted. Constraints to municipal involvement in LCUP include statutory limitations, resource constraints, and a lack of knowledge of indirect authorities that support the LCUP process.

  5. A municipal guide to least cost utility planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The recent track record of traditional'' electricity planning, which entails selection of supply side resources to meet forecasted demand, has not been good. There are numerous examples of utilities incorrectly forecasting demand and over-building generating capacity while others underestimated growth and have had to cut demand and find alternate power sources to avoid outages. A potential solution to this problem is the continuing development of Least Cost Utility Plannning (LCUP). Regulatory commissions, consumer advocates and utilities are increasingly relying an LCUP as the most responsible way to avoid construction of new capacity and alleviate anticipated shortages caused by cancellation of construction projects, load growth, or natural replacement of aging capacity. The purpose of this report is to provide municipalities a starting point for evaluating their servicing utilities or states' least cost plan. This was accomplished by: Identifying key issues in LCUP; reviewing examples of the collaborative and classic approaches to LCUP in Illinois, California, New York State and Michigan; cataloging municipal authorities and strategies which can influence or support LCUP activities. Results of the project indicate that through a basic understanding of LCUP processes and issues, municipalities will be in a better position to influence plans or, if necessary, intervene in regulatory proceedings where plans are adopted. Constraints to municipal involvement in LCUP include statutory limitations, resource constraints, and a lack of knowledge of indirect authorities that support the LCUP process.

  6. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  7. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  8. Women Aspiring to Administrative Positions in Kenya Municipal Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combat, Victor F. O.

    2014-01-01

    Even though female teachers in Kenya municipal primary schools are majority and highly qualified, they fill fewer administrative positions than men. This study assesses the extent of women's participation in leadership positions, society's perception of female leaders, selection criteria of educational administrators, and barriers that affect or…

  9. Actual problems of municipal cleaner’s waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konko¾ová Patrícia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In paper are evaluated social and economical changes in water economy with emphasis on complex evaluation of municipal cleaner’s waste waters with respect of legislative, position of ownerskip relationskips and financial security of public experiences of water economy.

  10. Regional and municipal energetic statistics - Sao Paulo State - 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The main Brazilian energetic information for subsidizing planning studies in regional and municipal level are presented, including data for the year 1987 that represent the sale of the main petroleum by-product and hydrated alcohol and the electricity consumption. (C.G.C.)

  11. Parental Expectations of the Swedish Municipal School of Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilliedahl, Jonathan; Georgii-Hemming, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on a study designed to analyse parental expectations of the Swedish municipal school of arts (hereafter MSA) (in Swedish: kommunal musik- och kulturskola). The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted and informed by grounded theory. Although parental expectations are scarcely uniform, the study reveals a hope that the…

  12. Empowering the Legitimacy of Municipal Decision-Making - Three Swedish Municipalities Facing the Nuclear Waste Management Issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederberg, Olof

    2001-01-01

    This paper is focussed on how municipal elected leaders in three Swedish feasibility study municipalities - Nykoeping, Oskarshamn and Tierp - have tried to ensure that future decisions by their respective municipalities will be based both on factual knowledge and on existing opinions held by the general public. These efforts have contributed to an empowerment of the legitimacy of municipal decision-making within the nuclear waste management field and, probably, also served as a factor contributing to trust building with regard to these issues. The three cases show three ways to handle the problem, although there are also common features. The municipalities of Nykoeping and Oskarshamn have been facing these issues since 1995. In the case of Tierp, the municipality was confronted in late 1998 with the task to choose a strategy for its involvement in the site selection process and then, immediately, implement that strategy. A decision to construct a final repository for spent nuclear fuel has an obvious local dimension. It is not enough that an implementer is capable of developing a method that is considered to be safe enough by the regulatory authorities and by the Government. Nor is it enough that the implementer has succeeded to choose a site that these institutions consider to be suitable. A vital condition for a successful result is also that the general public, especially people living close to the site, have trust in the process leading up to the decision - and of course also that the general public is confident that the implementer and the regulator have agreed on a sound technical solution of the disposal problem. In other words, decisions in this area by Government and regulatory authorities do not only have to comply with existing legislation (obviously decisions by such bodies have to be 'legal'); they also should have a democratic legitimacy. In a representative democracy like Sweden, with high voting participation, it may seem self-evident that the

  13. Empowering the Legitimacy of Municipal Decision-Making - Three Swedish Municipalities Facing the Nuclear Waste Management Issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, Olof [Ministry of the Environment, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    This paper is focussed on how municipal elected leaders in three Swedish feasibility study municipalities - Nykoeping, Oskarshamn and Tierp - have tried to ensure that future decisions by their respective municipalities will be based both on factual knowledge and on existing opinions held by the general public. These efforts have contributed to an empowerment of the legitimacy of municipal decision-making within the nuclear waste management field and, probably, also served as a factor contributing to trust building with regard to these issues. The three cases show three ways to handle the problem, although there are also common features. The municipalities of Nykoeping and Oskarshamn have been facing these issues since 1995. In the case of Tierp, the municipality was confronted in late 1998 with the task to choose a strategy for its involvement in the site selection process and then, immediately, implement that strategy. A decision to construct a final repository for spent nuclear fuel has an obvious local dimension. It is not enough that an implementer is capable of developing a method that is considered to be safe enough by the regulatory authorities and by the Government. Nor is it enough that the implementer has succeeded to choose a site that these institutions consider to be suitable. A vital condition for a successful result is also that the general public, especially people living close to the site, have trust in the process leading up to the decision - and of course also that the general public is confident that the implementer and the regulator have agreed on a sound technical solution of the disposal problem. In other words, decisions in this area by Government and regulatory authorities do not only have to comply with existing legislation (obviously decisions by such bodies have to be 'legal'); they also should have a democratic legitimacy. In a representative democracy like Sweden, with high voting participation, it may seem self-evident that

  14. Evolution of municipal law in 2014-2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Blagov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342The subject. This article is devoted the municipal reform 2014-2016. The reform of state are institutes of territorial organization, organizational principles, competency bases of local self-government.The purpose of this paper is to show that the municipal reform 2014-2016 is directed on limiting local self-government and the subordination of local self-government to state authorities of the subjects of Russia.Methodology. The author uses a dialectical method, a method of analysis and synthesis, a formal legal method, a comparative legal method.Results, scope. Urban districts with intracity and intercity division areas – two new municipalities have been legally introduced. In science municipal law formed two points of view on the admissibility and feasibility of separating the urban district in the inner city areas. According to the first point of view, the separation of large urban districts in the inner city areas is acceptable and appropriate. According to the second point of view, the separation of large urban districts in the inner city areas is unacceptable and inappropriate. The author adheres to the second point of view, since the introduction of a two-tier model of local government organization would violate the principle of unity of municipal economy, will lead to the rupture of a single urban space on the organizational and financial sustainability areas dependent city district, will lead to a sharp increase in the number of deputies and municipal employees, unnecessary increase financial expenses.Municipal and regulatory policy in the sphere of organizational principles of local self-government is aimed at the maximum limit of direct elections of the population of the local self-government, which leads to their further alienation from the local authorities (the direct election of saved only 11 urban districts (13 %, which are the administrative centers of the subject of the Russian Federation. In addition, the actual

  15. Sarcocystis spp. in llamas (Lama glama) in Southern Bolivia: a cross sectional study of the prevalence, risk factors and loss in income caused by carcass downgrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, A L; Limon, G; Vides, H; Cortez, A; Guitian, J

    2014-10-01

    Llamas (Lama glama) are intermediate hosts of the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis spp. This parasite is described as causing economic losses in the production of llama meat in South America. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence, identify risk factors and explore spatial patterns of Sarcocystis in llamas in an area of the Bolivian High Plateau including estimating financial losses due to carcass downgrades as a result of the presence of Sarcocystis cysts. Information was collected from a local abattoir between 2006 and 2011 on 1196 llamas. Sarcocystis status was determined at meat inspection where any carcasses with one or more visible cysts were deemed Sarcocystis positive. A high prevalence was found, estimated to vary between 23.4% (95% CI 16.6-30.1) in 2007 and 50.3% (95% CI 44.4-56.3) in 2011. Period prevalence between 2006 and 2011 was estimated at 34.1% (95% CI 31.4-36.8). Age, sex and type (analogous to breed) were identified as risk factors for Sarcocystis using a mixed-effects logistic regression model adjusting for clustering by community and owner. Llamas over 4.5 years of age had an increased odds of being Sarcocystis positive (OR 19.31, 95% CI 9.10-40.98) as well as females (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.13-2.68) and long haired type llamas (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.26-2.87). An interaction between age and sex was detected indicating that the increased odds of disease from the youngest age group to the 2.5-4.5 years group was much more pronounced in females than in males. Spatial patterns of Sarcocystis were explored at district level by means of Standardised Morbidity Ratios and some spatial heterogeneity was revealed. Estimates of financial loss due to the disease were calculated using the difference in price paid for Sarcocystis positive and negative meat. Loss due to Sarcocystis varied per year but could be up to 20% of the annual income generated through the abattoir by sale of meat. Overall this study shows a high prevalence of Sarcocystis in the study

  16. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity less...

  17. 77 FR 65875 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... modification to Arizona's municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to allow the State to issue... amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria at 40 CFR 258.4 to allow for Research, Development...

  18. 75 FR 54673 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... financial journal soliciting nominations for municipal advisor candidates, with the Nominating Committee... must be associated with a municipal advisor. For the first time, the MSRB has been authorized to promulgate rules governing the conduct of municipal advisors who must be fairly represented on the Board...

  19. 27 CFR 31.4 - Relation to State and municipal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... business contrary to the laws of such State or in places prohibited by municipal law; nor shall such... municipal law. 31.4 Section 31.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... State and municipal law. Compliance with the requirements of this part shall not be held to exempt any...

  20. 7 CFR 1714.5 - Determination of interest rates on municipal rate loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of interest rates on municipal rate... General § 1714.5 Determination of interest rates on municipal rate loans. (a) RUS will post on the RUS website, Electric Program HomePage, a schedule of interest rates for municipal rate loans at the beginning...