WorldWideScience

Sample records for multiwavelength spitzer observations

  1. Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer Observed Near-Earth Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, C. A.; Emery, J. P.; Trilling, D. E.; Delbo, M.; Hora, J. L.; Mueller, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have undertaken a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program. The combination of Spitzer derived albedos and diameters with spectroscopic data will enhance our understanding of the NEO population.

  2. Swift Multi-wavelength Observing Campaigns: Strategies and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, Hans A.

    2007-01-01

    The Swift gamma-ray burst explorer has been operating since December 2004 as both a gamma-ray burst (GRB) monitor and telescope and a multi-wavelength observatory, covering the energy range from V band and near UV to hard X rays above 150 keV. It is designed to rapidly repoint to observe newly discovered GRBs, and this maneuverability, combined with an easily changed observing program, allows Swift to also be an effective multiwavelength observatory for non-GRB targets, both as targets of opportunity and pre-planned multi-wavelength observing campaigns. Blazars are particularly attractive targets for coordinated campaigns with TeV experiments since many blazars are bright in both the hard X-ray and TeV energy ranges. Successful coordinated campaigns have included observations of 3C454.3 during its 2005 outburst. The latest Swift funding cycles allow for non- GRB related observations to be proposed. The Burst Alert Telescope on Swift also serves as a hard X-ray monitor with a public web page that includes light curves for over 400 X-ray sources and is used to alert the astronomical community about increased activity from both known and newly discovered sources. This presentation mill include Swift capabilities, strategies and policies for coordinated multi-wavelength observations as well as discussion of the potential outcomes of such campaigns.

  3. Early 2017 observations of TRAPPIST-1 with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Demory, B.-O.; de Wit, J.; Ingalls, J. G.; Agol, E.; Bolmont, E.; Burdanov, A.; Burgasser, A. J.; Carey, S. J.; Jehin, E.; Leconte, J.; Lederer, S.; Queloz, D.; Selsis, F.; Van Grootel, V.

    2018-04-01

    The recently detected TRAPPIST-1 planetary system, with its seven planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star, offers the first opportunity to perform comparative exoplanetology of temperate Earth-sized worlds. To further advance our understanding of these planets' compositions, energy budgets, and dynamics, we are carrying out an intensive photometric monitoring campaign of their transits with the Spitzer Space Telescope. In this context, we present 60 new transits of the TRAPPIST-1 planets observed with Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) in 2017 February and March. We combine these observations with previously published Spitzer transit photometry and perform a global analysis of the resulting extensive data set. This analysis refines the transit parameters and provides revised values for the planets' physical parameters, notably their radii, using updated properties for the star. As part of our study, we also measure precise transit timings that will be used in a companion paper to refine the planets' masses and compositions using the transit timing variations method. TRAPPIST-1 shows a very low level of low-frequency variability in the IRAC 4.5-μm band, with a photometric RMS of only 0.11 per cent at a 123-s cadence. We do not detect any evidence of a (quasi-)periodic signal related to stellar rotation. We also analyse the transit light curves individually, to search for possible variations in the transit parameters of each planet due to stellar variability, and find that the Spitzer transits of the planets are mostly immune to the effects of stellar variations. These results are encouraging for forthcoming transmission spectroscopy observations of the TRAPPIST-1 planets with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  4. Spitzer Observations of GRB Hosts: A Legacy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Daniel; Tanvir, Nial; Hjorth, Jens; Berger, Edo; Laskar, Tanmoy; Michalowski, Michal; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Fynbo, Johan; Levan, Andrew

    2012-09-01

    The host galaxies of long-duration GRBs are drawn from uniquely broad range of luminosities and redshifts. Thus they offer the possibility of studying the evolution of star-forming galaxies without the limitations of other luminosity-selected samples, which typically are increasingly biased towards the most massive systems at higher redshift. However, reaping the full benefits of this potential requires careful attention to the selection biases affecting host identification. To this end, we propose observations of a Legacy sample of 70 GRB host galaxies (an additional 70 have already been observed by Spitzer), in order to constrain the mass and luminosity function in GRB-selected galaxies at high redshift, including its dependence on redshift and on properties of the afterglow. Crucially, and unlike previous Spitzer surveys, this sample is carefully designed to be uniform and free of optical selection biases that have caused previous surveys to systematically under-represent the role of luminous, massive hosts. We also propose to extend to larger, more powerfully constraining samples the study of two science areas where Spitzer observations have recently shown spectacular success: the hosts of dust-obscured GRBs (which promise to further our understanding of the connection between GRBs and star-formation in the most luminous galaxies), and the evolution of the mass-metallicity relation at z>2 (for which GRB host observations provide particularly powerful constraints on high-z chemical evolution).

  5. SPLASH-SXDF Multi-wavelength Photometric Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vihang; Scarlata, Claudia; Capak, Peter; Davidzon, Iary; Faisst, Andreas; Hsieh, Bau Ching; Ilbert, Olivier; Jarvis, Matt; Laigle, Clotilde; Phillips, John; Silverman, John; Strauss, Michael A.; Tanaka, Masayuki; Bowler, Rebecca; Coupon, Jean; Foucaud, Sébastien; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Masters, Daniel; McCracken, Henry Joy; Mobasher, Bahram; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Wang, Wei-Hao

    2018-04-01

    We present a multi-wavelength catalog in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field (SXDF) as part of the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam (SPLASH). We include the newly acquired optical data from the Hyper-Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program, accompanied by IRAC coverage from the SPLASH survey. All available optical and near-infrared data is homogenized and resampled on a common astrometric reference frame. Source detection is done using a multi-wavelength detection image including the u-band to recover the bluest objects. We measure multi-wavelength photometry and compute photometric redshifts as well as physical properties for ∼1.17 million objects over ∼4.2 deg2, with ∼800,000 objects in the 2.4 deg2 HSC-Ultra-Deep coverage. Using the available spectroscopic redshifts from various surveys over the range of 0 fraction of 3.2%. The SPLASH-SXDF catalog is a valuable, publicly available resource, perfectly suited for studying galaxies in the early universe and tracing their evolution through cosmic time.

  6. The faint radio source population at 15.7 GHz - II. Multi-wavelength properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittam, I. H.; Riley, J. M.; Green, D. A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Vaccari, M.

    2015-11-01

    A complete, flux density limited sample of 96 faint (>0.5 mJy) radio sources is selected from the 10C survey at 15.7 GHz in the Lockman Hole. We have matched this sample to a range of multi-wavelength catalogues, including Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey, Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic survey, United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey and optical data; multi-wavelength counterparts are found for 80 of the 96 sources and spectroscopic redshifts are available for 24 sources. Photometric redshifts are estimated for the sources with multi-wavelength data available; the median redshift of the sample is 0.91 with an interquartile range of 0.84. Radio-to-optical ratios show that at least 94 per cent of the sample are radio loud, indicating that the 10C sample is dominated by radio galaxies. This is in contrast to samples selected at lower frequencies, where radio-quiet AGN and star-forming galaxies are present in significant numbers at these flux density levels. All six radio-quiet sources have rising radio spectra, suggesting that they are dominated by AGN emission. These results confirm the conclusions of Paper I that the faint, flat-spectrum sources which are found to dominate the 10C sample below ˜1 mJy are the cores of radio galaxies. The properties of the 10C sample are compared to the Square Kilometre Array Design Studies Simulated Skies; a population of low-redshift star-forming galaxies predicted by the simulation is not found in the observed sample.

  7. Spitzer Mid-to-Far-Infrared Flux Densities of Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papovich, Casey J.; Rudnick, G.; Le Floc'h, E.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Rieke, G. H.; Taylor, E. N.; Armus, L.; Gawiser, E.; Marcillac, D.; Huang, J.; Franx, M.

    2007-05-01

    We study the 24, 70, and 160 μm properties of high-redshift galaxies. Our primary interest is to improve the constraints on the total infrared (IR) luminosities, L(IR), of these galaxies. We combine Spitzer data in the southern Extended Chandra Deep Field with a Ks-band-selected galaxy sample with photometric redshifts from the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile. We used a stacking analysis to measure the average 70 and 160 μm flux densities of 1.5 250 μJy and 1.5 250 μJy have S(70)/S(24) flux ratios comparable to sources with X-ray detections or red rest-frame IR colors, suggesting that warm dust possibly heated by AGN produces high 24 μm emission. Based on the average 24-160 μm flux densities, 24 μm-selected galaxies at 1.5 rate observed in low redshift galaxies, suggesting that high redshift galaxies have star formation efficiencies and feedback processes comparable to lower redshift analogs. Support for this work was provided by NASA through the Spitzer Space Telescope Fellowship Program, through a contract issued by JPL, Caltech under a contract with NASA.

  8. Size and Albedo of Irregular Saturnian Satellites from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Grav, T.; Trilling, D.; Stansberry, J.; Sykes, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using MIPS onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed the thermal emission (24 and, for some targets, 70 um) of eight irregular satellites of Saturn: Albiorix, Siarnaq, Paaliaq, Kiviuq, Ijiraq, Tarvos, Erriapus, and Ymir. We determined the size and albedo of all targets. An analysis of

  9. EXTRASOLAR STORMS: PRESSURE-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN LIGHT-CURVE PHASE IN BROWN DWARFS FROM SIMULTANEOUS HST AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Apai, Dániel; Karalidi, Theodora [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Marley, Mark S. [NASA Ames Research Center, Naval Air Station, Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States); Flateau, Davin [Department of Planetary Sciences, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, 1629 University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Metchev, Stanimir [The University of Western Ontario, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration, 1151 Richmond St., London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Buenzli, Esther [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Radigan, Jacqueline [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Artigau, Étienne [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Lowrance, Patrick J. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J., E-mail: haoyang@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: apai@arizona.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We present Spitzer /Infrared Array Camera Ch1 and Ch2 monitoring of six brown dwarfs during eight different epochs over the course of 20 months. For four brown dwarfs, we also obtained simulataneous Hubble Space Telescope ( HST )/WFC3 G141 grism spectra during two epochs and derived light curves in five narrowband filters. Probing different pressure levels in the atmospheres, the multiwavelength light curves of our six targets all exhibit variations, and the shape of the light curves evolves over the timescale of a rotation period, ranging from 1.4 to 13 hr. We compare the shapes of the light curves and estimate the phase shifts between the light curves observed at different wavelengths by comparing the phase of the primary Fourier components. We use state-of-the-art atmosphere models to determine the flux contribution of different pressure layers to the observed flux in each filter. We find that the light curves that probe higher pressures are similar and in phase, but are offset and often different from the light curves that probe lower pressures. The phase differences between the two groups of light curves suggest that the modulations seen at lower and higher pressures may be introduced by different cloud layers.

  10. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF HOTSPOTS IN RADIO LOBES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Michael W.; Murphy, David W.; Livingston, John H.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Jones, Dayton L.; Meier, David L.; Lawrence, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out a systematic search with Spitzer Warm Mission and archival data for infrared emission from the hotspots in radio lobes that have been described by Hardcastle et al. These hotspots have been detected with both radio and X-ray observations, but an observation at an intermediate frequency in the infrared can be critical to distinguish between competing models for particle acceleration and radiation processes in these objects. Between the archival and warm mission data, we report detections of 18 hotspots; the archival data generally include detections at all four IRAC bands, the Warm Mission data only at 3.6 μm. Using a theoretical formalism adopted from Godfrey et al., we fit both archival and warm mission spectral energy distributions (SEDs)—including radio, X-ray, and optical data from Hardcastle as well as the Spitzer data—with a synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, in which the X-rays are produced by Compton scattering of the radio frequency photons by the energetic electrons which radiate them. With one exception, an SSC model requires that the magnetic field be less or much less than the equipartition value which minimizes total energy and has comparable amounts of energy in the magnetic field and in the energetic particles. This conclusion agrees with those of comparable recent studies of hotspots, and with the analysis presented by Hardcastle et al. We also show that the infrared data rule out the simplest synchrotron-only models for the SEDs. We briefly discuss the implications of these results and of alternate interpretations of the data.

  11. Serendipitous discovery of an infrared bow shock near PSR J1549–4848 with Spitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhongxiang [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Kaplan, David L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Slane, Patrick [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Morrell, Nidia [Las Campanas Observatory, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, La Serena (Chile); Kaspi, Victoria M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2013-06-01

    We report on the discovery of an infrared cometary nebula around PSR J1549–4848 in our Spitzer survey of a few middle-aged radio pulsars. Following the discovery, multi-wavelength imaging and spectroscopic observations of the nebula were carried out. We detected the nebula in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera 8.0, Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 and 70 μm imaging, and in Spitzer IRS 7.5-14.4 μm spectroscopic observations, and also in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer all-sky survey at 12 and 22 μm. These data were analyzed in detail, and we find that the nebula can be described with a standard bow shock shape, and that its spectrum contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and H{sub 2} emission features. However, it is not certain which object drives the nebula. We analyze the field stars and conclude that none of them can be the associated object because stars with a strong wind or mass ejection that usually produce bow shocks are much brighter than the field stars. The pulsar is approximately 15'' away from the region in which the associated object is expected to be located. In order to resolve the discrepancy, we suggest that a highly collimated wind could be emitted from the pulsar and produce the bow shock. X-ray imaging to detect the interaction of the wind with the ambient medium- and high-spatial resolution radio imaging to determine the proper motion of the pulsar should be carried out, which will help verify the association of the pulsar with the bow shock nebula.

  12. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. III. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH VIEW OF CORONA AUSTRALIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Dawn E.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Forbrich, Jan; Patten, Brian M.; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Allen, Lori E.; Dunham, Michael M.; Harvey, Paul M.; Evans, Neal J.; MerIn, Bruno; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Cieza, Lucas A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Knez, Claudia; Prager, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS observations of a 0.85 deg 2 field including the Corona Australis (CrA) star-forming region. At a distance of 130 pc, CrA is one of the closest regions known to be actively forming stars, particularly within its embedded association, the Coronet. Using the Spitzer data, we identify 51 young stellar objects (YSOs) in CrA which include sources in the well-studied Coronet cluster as well as sources distributed throughout the molecular cloud. Twelve of the YSOs discussed are new candidates, one of which is located in the Coronet. Known YSOs retrieved from the literature are also added to the list, and a total of 116 candidate YSOs in CrA are compiled. Based on these YSO candidates, the star formation rate is computed to be 12 M sun Myr -1 , similar to that of the Lupus clouds. A clustering analysis was also performed, finding that the main cluster core, consisting of 68 members, is elongated (having an aspect ratio of 2.36), with a circular radius of 0.59 pc and mean surface density of 150 pc -2 . In addition, we analyze outflows and jets in CrA by means of new CO and H 2 data. We present 1.3 mm interferometric continuum observations made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) covering R CrA, IRS 5, IRS 7, and IRAS 18595-3712 (IRAS 32). We also present multi-epoch H 2 maps and detect jets and outflows, study their proper motions, and identify exciting sources. The Spitzer and ISAAC/VLT observations of IRAS 32 show a bipolar precessing jet, which drives a CO(2-1) outflow detected in the SMA observations. There is also clear evidence for a parsec-scale precessing outflow, which is east-west oriented and originates in the SMA 2 region and likely driven by SMA 2 or IRS 7A.

  13. Emergent Exoplanet Flux: Review of the Spitzer Results

    OpenAIRE

    Deming, Drake

    2008-01-01

    Observations using the Spitzer Space Telescope provided the first detections of photons from extrasolar planets. Spitzer observations are allowing us to infer the temperature structure, composition, and dynamics of exoplanet atmospheres. The Spitzer studies extend from many hot Jupiters, to the hot Neptune orbiting GJ436. Here I review the current status of Spitzer secondary eclipse observations, and summarize the results from the viewpoint of what is robust, what needs more work, and what th...

  14. Physical Properties of Asteroid (10302) 1989 ML, a Potential Spacecraft Target, from Spitzer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael; Harris, A. W.

    2006-09-01

    We report on results from recent Spitzer observations of near-Earth asteroid (10302) 1989 ML, which is among the lowest-ranking objects in terms of the specific momentum Δv required to reach it from Earth. It was originally considered as a target for Hayabusa and is now under consideration as a target of the planned ESA mission Don Quijote. Unfortunately, little is known about the physical properties of 1989 ML, in particular its size and albedo are unknown. Its exhibits an X type reflection spectrum, so depending on its albedo, 1989 ML may be an E, M, or P type asteroid. Provisional results from thermal-infrared observations carried out with Spitzer indicate that the albedo of 1989 ML is compatible with an M- or E-type classification. We will discuss our results and their implications for the physical properties and the rotation period of 1989 ML, and its importance as a potential spacecraft target. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA.

  15. Characterizing Gaint Exoplanets through Multiwavelength Transit Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, David; Cole, Jackson L.; Gardner, Cristilyn N.; Garver, Bethany R.; Jarka, Kyla L.; Kar, Aman; McGough, Aylin M.; PeQueen, David J.; Rivera, Daniel Ivan; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Dale, Daniel A.

    2018-01-01

    Observing the characteristics of giant exoplanets is possible with ground-based telescopes and modern observational methods. We are performing characterizations of multiple giant exoplanets based on 85 allotted nights of transit observations with the 2.3 m Wyoming Infrared Observatory using Sloan filters. In particular, constraints can be made on the atmospheres of our targets from the wavelength (in)dependence in the depth of the transit observations. We present early multiwavelength photometric results on the exoplanet HD 189733 b with comparison to literature sources to exemplify the methodology employed. In total, 15 exoplanets were observed across multiple wavelengths. The majority of the observing allotted to the project was completed as part of the 2017 Summer REU at the University of Wyoming. This work will significantly contribute to the growing number of observed atmospheres and influence interpretation of future WFIRST, JWST, and TESS targets. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under REU grant AST 1560461.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer observations of Taurus members (Luhman+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Espaillat, C.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.

    2016-03-01

    For our census of the disk population in Taurus, we use images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0um obtained with Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and images at 24um obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). The cameras produced images with FWHM=1.6"-1.9" from 3.6 to 8.0um and FWHM=5.9" at 24um. The available data were obtained through Guaranteed Time Observations for PID = 6, 36, 37 (G. Fazio), 53 (G. Rieke), 94 (C. Lawrence), 30540 (G. Fazio, J. Houck), and 40302 (J. Houck), Director's Discretionary Time for PID = 462 (L. Rebull), Legacy programs for PID = 139, 173 (N. Evans), and 30816 (D. Padgett), and General Observer programs for PID = 3584 (D. Padgett), 20302 (P. Andre), 20386 (P. Myers), 20762 (J. Swift), 30384 (T. Bourke), 40844 (C. McCabe), and 50584 (D. Padgett). The IRAC and MIPS observations were performed through 180 and 137 Astronomical Observation Requests (AORs), respectively. The characteristics of the resulting images are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. (6 data files).

  17. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF BOW SHOCKS AND OUTFLOWS IN RCW 38

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, E. [ESA-ESTEC (SRE-SA), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk ZH (Netherlands); Wolk, S. J.; Bourke, T. L.; Spitzbart, B. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Megeath, S. T. [Ritter Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft Ave., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gutermuth, R., E-mail: ewinston@rssd.esa.int [Five Colleges Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01027 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We report Spitzer observations of five newly identified bow shocks in the massive star-forming region RCW 38. Four are visible at Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) wavelengths, the fifth is only visible at 24 {mu}m. Chandra X-ray emission indicates that winds from the central O5.5 binary, IRS 2, have caused an outflow to the northeast and southwest of the central subcluster. The southern lobe of hot ionized gas is detected in X-rays; shocked gas and heated dust from the shock front are detected with Spitzer at 4.5 and 24 {mu}m. The northern outflow may have initiated the present generation of star formation, based on the filamentary distribution of the protostars in the central subcluster. Further, the bow-shock driving star, YSO 129, is photo-evaporating a pillar of gas and dust. No point sources are identified within this pillar at near- to mid-IR wavelengths. We also report on IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 {mu}m observations of the cluster DBS2003-124, northeast of RCW 38, where 33 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) are identified. One star associated with the cluster drives a parsec-scale jet. Two Herbig-Haro objects associated with the jet are visible at IRAC and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) wavelengths. The jet extends over a distance of {approx}3 pc. Assuming a velocity of 100 km s{sup -1} for the jet material gives an age of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} yr, indicating that the star (and cluster) are likely to be very young, with a similar or possibly younger age than RCW 38, and that star formation is ongoing in the extended RCW 38 region.

  18. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF BOW SHOCKS AND OUTFLOWS IN RCW 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winston, E.; Wolk, S. J.; Bourke, T. L.; Spitzbart, B.; Megeath, S. T.; Gutermuth, R.

    2012-01-01

    We report Spitzer observations of five newly identified bow shocks in the massive star-forming region RCW 38. Four are visible at Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) wavelengths, the fifth is only visible at 24 μm. Chandra X-ray emission indicates that winds from the central O5.5 binary, IRS 2, have caused an outflow to the northeast and southwest of the central subcluster. The southern lobe of hot ionized gas is detected in X-rays; shocked gas and heated dust from the shock front are detected with Spitzer at 4.5 and 24 μm. The northern outflow may have initiated the present generation of star formation, based on the filamentary distribution of the protostars in the central subcluster. Further, the bow-shock driving star, YSO 129, is photo-evaporating a pillar of gas and dust. No point sources are identified within this pillar at near- to mid-IR wavelengths. We also report on IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 μm observations of the cluster DBS2003-124, northeast of RCW 38, where 33 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) are identified. One star associated with the cluster drives a parsec-scale jet. Two Herbig-Haro objects associated with the jet are visible at IRAC and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) wavelengths. The jet extends over a distance of ∼3 pc. Assuming a velocity of 100 km s –1 for the jet material gives an age of 3 × 10 4 yr, indicating that the star (and cluster) are likely to be very young, with a similar or possibly younger age than RCW 38, and that star formation is ongoing in the extended RCW 38 region.

  19. The Spitzer survey of interstellar clouds in the Gould Belt. III. A multi-wavelength view of Corona Australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Dawn E.; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Bourke, Tyler L.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS observations of a 0.85 deg2 field including the Corona Australis (CrA) star-forming region. At a distance of 130 pc, CrA is one of the closest regions known to be actively forming stars, particularly within its embedded association, the Coronet. Us...

  20. Size and Albedo of Irregular Saturnian Satellites from Spitzer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael; Grav, T.; Trilling, D.; Stansberry, J.; Sykes, M.

    2008-09-01

    Using MIPS onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed the thermal emission (24 and, for some targets, 70 um) of eight irregular satellites of Saturn: Albiorix, Siarnaq, Paaliaq, Kiviuq, Ijiraq, Tarvos, Erriapus, and Ymir. We determined the size and albedo of all targets. An analysis of archived MIPS observations of Phoebe reproduces Cassini results very accurately, thereby validating our method. For all targets, the geometric albedo is found to be low, probably below 10% and clearly below 15%. Irregular satellites are much darker than the large regular satellites. Their albedo is, however, quite similar to that of small bodies in the outer Solar System (such as cometary nuclei, Jupiter Trojans, or TNOs). This is consistent with color measurements as well as dynamical considerations which suggest a common origin of the said populations. There appear to be significant object-to-object albedo differences. Similar albedos found for some members of dynamical clusters support the idea that they may have originated in the breakup of a parent body. For three satellites, thermal data at two wavelengths are available, enabling us to constrain their thermal properties. Sub-solar temperatures are similar to that found from Cassini's Phoebe fly-by. This suggests a rather low thermal inertia, as expected for regolith-covered objects. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by JPL under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA.

  1. DustPedia: Multiwavelength photometry and imagery of 875 nearby galaxies in 42 ultraviolet-microwave bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C. J. R.; Verstocken, S.; Bianchi, S.; Fritz, J.; Viaene, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Baes, M.; Casasola, V.; Cassara, L. P.; Davies, J. I.; De Looze, I.; De Vis, P.; Evans, R.; Galametz, M.; Jones, A. P.; Lianou, S.; Madden, S.; Mosenkov, A. V.; Xilouris, M.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: The DustPedia project is capitalising on the legacy of the Herschel Space Observatory, using cutting-edge modelling techniques to study dust in the 875 DustPedia galaxies - representing the vast majority of extended galaxies within 3000 km s-1 that were observed by Herschel. This work requires a database of multiwavelength imagery and photometry that greatly exceeds the scope (in terms of wavelength coverage and number of galaxies) of any previous local-Universe survey. Methods: We constructed a database containing our own custom Herschel reductions, along with standardised archival observations from GALEX, SDSS, DSS, 2MASS, WISE, Spitzer, and Planck. Using these data, we performed consistent aperture-matched photometry, which we combined with external supplementary photometry from IRAS and Planck. Results: We present our multiwavelength imagery and photometry across 42 UV-microwave bands for the 875 DustPedia galaxies. Our aperture-matched photometry, combined with the external supplementary photometry, represents a total of 21 857 photometric measurements. A typical DustPedia galaxy has multiwavelength photometry spanning 25 bands. We also present the Comprehensive & Adaptable Aperture Photometry Routine (CAAPR), the pipeline we developed to carry out our aperture-matched photometry. CAAPR is designed to produce consistent photometry for the enormous range of galaxy and observation types in our data. In particular, CAAPR is able to determine robust cross-compatible uncertainties, thanks to a novel method for reliably extrapolating the aperture noise for observations that cover a very limited amount of background. Our rich database of imagery and photometry is being made available to the community. Photometry data tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/609/A37

  2. A Multiwavelength Study of a Sample of 70 μm Selected Galaxies in the COSMOS Field : I. Spectral Energy Distributions and Luminosities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Sanders, D. B.; Le Floc'h, E.; Frayer, D. T.; Aussel, H.; Arnouts, S.; Ilbert, O.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Surace, J.; Yan, L.; Brusa, M.; Capak, P.; Caputi, K.; Carollo, C. M.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Faure, C.; Hasinger, G.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lee, N.; Lilly, S.; Liu, C. T.; McCracken, H. J.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolčić, V.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D. J.; Trump, J.

    We present a large robust sample of 1503 reliable and unconfused 70 μm selected sources from the multiwavelength data set of the Cosmic Evolution Survey. Using the Spitzer IRAC and MIPS photometry, we estimate the total infrared (IR) luminosity, L IR (8-1000 μm), by finding the best-fit template

  3. Multiwavelength search and studies of active galaxies and quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2017-12-01

    The Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has always been one of the centres for surveys and studies of active galaxies. Here we review our search and studies of active galaxies during last 30 years using various wavelength ranges, as well as some recent related works. These projects since late 1980s were focused on multiwavelength search and studies of AGN and Starbursts (SB). 1103 blue stellar objects (BSOs) on the basis of their UV-excess were selected using Markarian Survey (First Byurakan Survey, FBS) plates and Markarian's criteria used for the galaxies. Among many blue stars, QSOs and Seyfert galaxies were found by follow-up observations. 1577 IRAS point sources were optically identified using FBS low-dispersion spectra and many AGN, SB and high-luminosity IR galaxies (LIRG/ULIRG) were discovered. 32 extremely high IR/opt flux ratio galaxies were studies with Spitzer. 2791 ROSAT FSC sources were optically identified using Hamburg Quasar Survey (HQS) low-dispersion spectra and many AGN were discovered by follow-up observations. Fine analysis of emission line spectra was carried out using spectral line decomposition software to establish true profiles and calculate physical parameters for the emitting regions, as well as to study the spectral variability of these objects. X-ray and radio selection criteria were used to find new AGN and variable objects for further studies. We have estimated AGN content of X-ray sources as 52.9%. We have also combined IRAS PSC and FSC catalogs and compiled its extragalactic sample, which allowed us to estimate AGN content among IR sources as 23.7%. Multiwavelength approach allowed revealing many new AGN and SB and obtaining a number of interesting relations using their observational characteristics and physical properties.

  4. LOW FALSE POSITIVE RATE OF KEPLER CANDIDATES ESTIMATED FROM A COMBINATION OF SPITZER AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Désert, Jean-Michel; Brown, Timothy M.; Charbonneau, David; Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, François; Ballard, Sarah; Latham, David W.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Borucki, William J.; Knutson, Heather A.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Deming, Drake; Ford, Eric B.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Seager, Sara

    2015-01-01

    NASA’s Kepler mission has provided several thousand transiting planet candidates during the 4 yr of its nominal mission, yet only a small subset of these candidates have been confirmed as true planets. Therefore, the most fundamental question about these candidates is the fraction of bona fide planets. Estimating the rate of false positives of the overall Kepler sample is necessary to derive the planet occurrence rate. We present the results from two large observational campaigns that were conducted with the Spitzer Space Telescope during the the Kepler mission. These observations are dedicated to estimating the false positive rate (FPR) among the Kepler candidates. We select a sub-sample of 51 candidates, spanning wide ranges in stellar, orbital, and planetary parameter space, and we observe their transits with Spitzer at 4.5 μm. We use these observations to measures the candidate’s transit depths and infrared magnitudes. An authentic planet produces an achromatic transit depth (neglecting the modest effect of limb darkening). Conversely a bandpass-dependent depth alerts us to the potential presence of a blending star that could be the source of the observed eclipse: a false positive scenario. For most of the candidates (85%), the transit depths measured with Kepler are consistent with the transit depths measured with Spitzer as expected for planetary objects, while we find that the most discrepant measurements are due to the presence of unresolved stars that dilute the photometry. The Spitzer constraints on their own yield FPRs between 5% and depending on the Kepler Objects of Interest. By considering the population of the Kepler field stars, and by combining follow-up observations (imaging) when available, we find that the overall FPR of our sample is low. The measured upper limit on the FPR of our sample is 8.8% at a confidence level of 3σ. This observational result, which uses the achromatic property of planetary transit signals that is not investigated

  5. LOW FALSE POSITIVE RATE OF KEPLER CANDIDATES ESTIMATED FROM A COMBINATION OF SPITZER AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Désert, Jean-Michel; Brown, Timothy M. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Charbonneau, David; Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, François; Ballard, Sarah; Latham, David W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bryson, Stephen T.; Borucki, William J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Batalha, Natalie M. [San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Ford, Eric B. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Gilliland, Ronald L. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Seager, Sara, E-mail: desert@colorado.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02159 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    NASA’s Kepler mission has provided several thousand transiting planet candidates during the 4 yr of its nominal mission, yet only a small subset of these candidates have been confirmed as true planets. Therefore, the most fundamental question about these candidates is the fraction of bona fide planets. Estimating the rate of false positives of the overall Kepler sample is necessary to derive the planet occurrence rate. We present the results from two large observational campaigns that were conducted with the Spitzer Space Telescope during the the Kepler mission. These observations are dedicated to estimating the false positive rate (FPR) among the Kepler candidates. We select a sub-sample of 51 candidates, spanning wide ranges in stellar, orbital, and planetary parameter space, and we observe their transits with Spitzer at 4.5 μm. We use these observations to measures the candidate’s transit depths and infrared magnitudes. An authentic planet produces an achromatic transit depth (neglecting the modest effect of limb darkening). Conversely a bandpass-dependent depth alerts us to the potential presence of a blending star that could be the source of the observed eclipse: a false positive scenario. For most of the candidates (85%), the transit depths measured with Kepler are consistent with the transit depths measured with Spitzer as expected for planetary objects, while we find that the most discrepant measurements are due to the presence of unresolved stars that dilute the photometry. The Spitzer constraints on their own yield FPRs between 5% and depending on the Kepler Objects of Interest. By considering the population of the Kepler field stars, and by combining follow-up observations (imaging) when available, we find that the overall FPR of our sample is low. The measured upper limit on the FPR of our sample is 8.8% at a confidence level of 3σ. This observational result, which uses the achromatic property of planetary transit signals that is not investigated

  6. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF BOK GLOBULE CB 17: A CANDIDATE FIRST HYDROSTATIC CORE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuepeng; Arce, Hector G.; Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Zhang Qizhou; Bourke, Tyler L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Launhardt, Ralf; Schmalzl, Markus; Henning, Thomas, E-mail: xuepeng.chen@yale.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-06-01

    We present high angular resolution Submillimeter Array (SMA) and Spitzer observations toward the Bok globule CB 17. SMA 1.3 mm dust continuum images reveal within CB 17 two sources with an angular separation of {approx}21'' ({approx}5250 AU at a distance of {approx}250 pc). The northwestern continuum source, referred to as CB 17 IRS, dominates the infrared emission in the Spitzer images, drives a bipolar outflow extending in the northwest-southeast direction, and is classified as a low-luminosity Class 0/I transition object (L{sub bol} {approx} 0.5 L{sub Sun }). The southeastern continuum source, referred to as CB 17 MMS, has faint dust continuum emission in the SMA 1.3 mm observations ({approx}6{sigma} detection; {approx}3.8 mJy), but is not detected in the deep Spitzer infrared images at wavelengths from 3.6 to 70 {mu}m. Its bolometric luminosity and temperature, estimated from its spectral energy distribution, are {<=}0.04 L{sub Sun} and {<=}16 K, respectively. The SMA CO (2-1) observations suggest that CB 17 MMS may drive a low-velocity molecular outflow ({approx}2.5 km s{sup -1}), extending in the east-west direction. Comparisons with prestellar cores and Class 0 protostars suggest that CB 17 MMS is more evolved than prestellar cores but less evolved than Class 0 protostars. The observed characteristics of CB 17 MMS are consistent with the theoretical predictions from radiative/magnetohydrodynamical simulations of a first hydrostatic core, but there is also the possibility that CB 17 MMS is an extremely low luminosity protostar deeply embedded in an edge-on circumstellar disk. Further observations are needed to study the properties of CB 17 MMS and to address more precisely its evolutionary stage.

  7. Physical Properties of Asteroid (10302) 1989 ML, a Potential Spacecraft Target, from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Harris, A. W.

    2006-01-01

    We report on results from recent Spitzer observations of near-Earth asteroid (10302) 1989 ML, which is among the lowest-ranking objects in terms of the specific momentum Δv required to reach it from Earth. It was originally considered as a target for Hayabusa and is now under consideration as a

  8. Spitzer observations of dust emission from H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Ian W. [Now at Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA. (United States); Evans, Jessica Marie; Xue, Rui; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M., E-mail: ianws@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Massive stars can alter physical conditions and properties of their ambient interstellar dust grains via radiative heating and shocks. The H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) offer ideal sites to study the stellar energy feedback effects on dust because stars can be resolved, and the galaxy's nearly face-on orientation allows us to unambiguously associate H II regions with their ionizing massive stars. The Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the LMC provides multi-wavelength (3.6-160 μm) photometric data of all H II regions. To investigate the evolution of dust properties around massive stars, we have analyzed spatially resolved IR dust emission from two classical H II regions (N63 and N180) and two simple superbubbles (N70 and N144) in the LMC. We produce photometric spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of numerous small subregions for each region based on its stellar distributions and nebular morphologies. We use DustEM dust emission model fits to characterize the dust properties. Color-color diagrams and model fits are compared with the radiation field (estimated from photometric and spectroscopic surveys). Strong radial variations of SEDs can be seen throughout the regions, reflecting the available radiative heating. Emission from very small grains drastically increases at locations where the radiation field is the highest, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) appear to be destroyed. PAH emission is the strongest in the presence of molecular clouds, provided that the radiation field is low.

  9. Multi-wavelength observations of novae in outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.; Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ

    1989-01-01

    This review serves as the introduction to the observational studies of novae and I will mention a number of results that will be emphasized by other reviewers. Therefore, I will try to provide the physical framework for multi-wavelength observations as applied to studies of novae. I divide the outburst into phases based on the physical effects that are occurring at that time. The first phase is the rise to bolometric maximum and occurs on a convective time scale. The second phase is the rise to visual maximum and occurs on the time scale for the envelope to expand to ∼10 12 cm. The third phase is the time when the nova is emitting at constant bolometric luminosity, but declining optical magnitude, and it lasts until most of the accreted material has been either exhausted or eroded from the surface of the white dwarf. The fourth and final phase is the return is the return to quiescence (turn-off phase) and it occurs at the time that nuclear burning is ending. I will discuss each of these phases in turn and end with a discussion. 36 refs

  10. Revisiting the Phase Curves of WASP-43b: Confronting Re-analyzed Spitzer Data with Cloudy Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, João M.; Malik, Matej; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Heng, Kevin

    2018-04-01

    Recently acquired Hubble and Spitzer phase curves of the short-period hot Jupiter WASP-43b make it an ideal target for confronting theory with data. On the observational front, we re-analyze the 3.6 and 4.5 μm Spitzer phase curves and demonstrate that our improved analysis better removes residual red noise due to intra-pixel sensitivity, which leads to greater fluxes emanating from the nightside of WASP-43b, thus reducing the tension between theory and data. On the theoretical front, we construct cloud-free and cloudy atmospheres of WASP-43b using our Global Circulation Model (GCM), THOR, which solves the non-hydrostatic Euler equations (compared to GCMs that typically solve the hydrostatic primitive equations). The cloud-free atmosphere produces a reasonable fit to the dayside emission spectrum. The multi-phase emission spectra constrain the cloud deck to be confined to the nightside and have a finite cloud-top pressure. The multi-wavelength phase curves are naturally consistent with our cloudy atmospheres, except for the 4.5 μm phase curve, which requires the presence of enhanced carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of WASP-43b. Multi-phase emission spectra at higher spectral resolution, as may be obtained using the James Webb Space Telescope, and a reflected-light phase curve at visible wavelengths would further constrain the properties of clouds in WASP-43b.

  11. Spitzer Observations of the X-ray Sources of NGC 4485/90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Gerardo A.; Colbert, E.; Hornschemeier, A.; Malhotra, S.; Roberts, T.; Ward, M.

    2006-06-01

    The mechanism for forming (or igniting) so-called Ultra-Luminous X- ray sources (ULXs) is very poorly understood. In order to investigate the stellar and gaseous environment of ULXs, we have observed the nearby starburst galaxy system NGC 4485/90 with Spitzer's IRAC and IRS instruments. High-quality mid-infrared images and spectra are used to characterize the stellar history of stars near the ULXs, and the ionization state of the surrounding gas. NGC 4485/90 fortuitively hosts six ULXs, and we have analyzed IRAC images and IRS spectra of all six regions. We also observed two "comparison" regions with no X-ray sources. Here we present our preliminary findings on the similarities and differences between the stellar and gaseous components near the ULXs.

  12. Spitzer/JWST Cross Calibration: IRAC Observations of Potential Calibrators for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sean J.; Gordon, Karl D.; Lowrance, Patrick; Ingalls, James G.; Glaccum, William J.; Grillmair, Carl J.; E Krick, Jessica; Laine, Seppo J.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hora, Joseph L.; Bohlin, Ralph

    2017-06-01

    We present observations at 3.6 and 4.5 microns using IRAC on the Spitzer Space Telescope of a set of main sequence A stars and white dwarfs that are potential calibrators across the JWST instrument suite. The stars range from brightnesses of 4.4 to 15 mag in K band. The calibration observations use a similar redundancy to the observing strategy for the IRAC primary calibrators (Reach et al. 2005) and the photometry is obtained using identical methods and instrumental photometric corrections as those applied to the IRAC primary calibrators (Carey et al. 2009). The resulting photometry is then compared to the predictions based on spectra from the CALSPEC Calibration Database (http://www.stsci.edu/hst/observatory/crds/calspec.html) and the IRAC bandpasses. These observations are part of an ongoing collaboration between IPAC and STScI investigating absolute calibration in the infrared.

  13. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 REVEAL A NEW PATH TOWARD BREAKING STRONG MICROLENS DEGENERACIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozza, V.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Udalski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Spitzer microlensing parallax observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 decisively break a degeneracy between planetary and binary solutions that is somewhat ambiguous when only ground-based data are considered. Only eight viable models survive out of an initial set of 32 local minima in the parameter s...

  14. MultiWaveLink: An interactive data base for the coordination of multiwavelength and multifacility observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    MultiWaveLink is an interactive, computerized data base that was developed to facilitate a multi-wavelength approach to studying astrophysical sources. It can be used to access information about multiwavelenth resources (observers, telescopes, data bases and analysis facilities) or to organize observing campaigns that require either many telescopes operating in different spectral regimes or a network of similar telescopes circumspanning the Earth.

  15. Observations of Hot-Jupiter occultations combining Spitzer and Kepler photometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knutson H.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the status of an ongoing program which aim at measuring occultations by their parent stars of transiting hot giant exoplanets discovered recently by Kepler. The observations are obtained in the near infrared with WarmSpitzer Space Telescope and at optical wavelengths by combining more than a year of Kepler photometry. The investigation consists of measuring the mid-occultation times and the relative occultation depths in each band-passes. Our measurements of occultations depths in the Kepler bandpass is turned into the determination of the optical geometric albedo Ag in this wavelength domain. The brightness temperatures of these planets are deduced from the infrared observations. We combine the optical and near infrared planetary emergent fluxes to obtain broad band emergent spectra of individual planet. We finally compare these spectra to hot Jupiter atmospheric models in order broadly distinguishing these atmospheres between different classes of models.

  16. Spitzer Observations of a 24 μm Shadow: Bok Globule CB 190

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Amelia M.; Bieging, John H.; Rieke, George H.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Balog, Zoltan; Gordon, Karl D.; Green, Elizabeth M.; Keene, Jocelyn; Kelly, Brandon C.; Rubin, Mark; Werner, Michael W.

    2007-08-01

    We present Spitzer observations of the dark globule CB 190 (LDN 771). We observe a roughly circular 24 μm shadow with a 70" radius. The extinction profile of this shadow matches the profile derived from 2MASS photometry at the outer edges of the globule and reaches a maximum of ~32 visual magnitudes at the center. The corresponding mass of CB 190 is ~10 Msolar. Our 12CO and 13CO J=2-1 data over a 10'×10' region centered on the shadow show a temperature ~10 K. The thermal continuum indicates a similar temperature for the dust. The molecular data also show evidence of freezeout onto dust grains. We estimate a distance to CB 190 of 400 pc using the spectroscopic parallax of a star associated with the globule. Bonnor-Ebert fits to the density profile, in conjunction with this distance, yield ξmax=7.2, indicating that CB 190 may be unstable. The high temperature (56 K) of the best-fit Bonnor-Ebert model is in contradiction with the CO and thermal continuum data, leading to the conclusion that the thermal pressure is not enough to prevent free-fall collapse. We also find that the turbulence in the cloud is inadequate to support it. However, the cloud may be supported by the magnetic field, if this field is at the average level for dark globules. Since the magnetic field will eventually leak out through ambipolar diffusion, it is likely that CB 190 is collapsing or in a late precollapse stage. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under NASA contract 1407.

  17. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF A PARTIALLY ERUPTIVE FILAMENT ON 2011 SEPTEMBER 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q. M.; Ning, Z. J.; Zhou, T. H.; Ji, H. S.; Feng, L. [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Guo, Y.; Cheng, X. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wiegelmann, T., E-mail: zhangqm@pmo.ac.cn [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg-3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2015-05-20

    In this paper, we report our multiwavelength observations of a partial filament eruption event in NOAA active region (AR) 11283 on 8 September 2011. A magnetic null point and the corresponding spine and separatrix surface are found in the AR. Beneath the null point, a sheared arcade supports the filament along the highly complex and fragmented polarity inversion line. After being activated, the sigmoidal filament erupted and split into two parts. The major part rose at speeds of 90–150 km s{sup −1} before reaching the maximum apparent height of ∼115 Mm. Afterward, it returned to the solar surface in a bumpy way at speeds of 20–80 km s{sup −1}. The rising and falling motions were clearly observed in the extreme-ultraviolet, UV, and Hα wavelengths. The failed eruption of the main part was associated with an M6.7 flare with a single hard X-ray source. The runaway part of the filament, however, separated from and rotated around the major part for ∼1 turn at the eastern leg before escaping from the corona, probably along large-scale open magnetic field lines. The ejection of the runaway part resulted in a very faint coronal mass ejection that propagated at an apparent speed of 214 km s{sup −1} in the outer corona. The filament eruption also triggered a transverse kink-mode oscillation of the adjacent coronal loops in the same AR. The amplitude and period of the oscillation were 1.6 Mm and 225 s. Our results are important for understanding the mechanisms of partial filament eruptions, and provide new constraints to theoretical models. The multiwavelength observations also shed light on space weather prediction.

  18. Physical characterization of Near Earth Objects with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilling, David; Hora, Joseph; Mommert, Michael; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Migo; Smith, Howard

    2018-05-01

    We propose here an efficient, flux-limited survey of 426 optically discovered NEOs in order to measure their diameters and albedos. We include only targets not previously detected by Spitzer or NEOWISE and includes all NEOs available to Spitzer in Cycle 14. This program will maintain the fraction of all known NEOs with measured diameters and albedos at around 20% even in the face of increasingly successful NEO discovery surveys. By the conclusion of this program nearly 3500 NEOs will have measured diameters and albedos, with nearly 3000 of those observations being made by Spitzer and our team. We will determine an independent size distribution of NEOs at 100 meters that is free from albedo assumptions, addressing a current controversy. We will also derive, through our albedo measurements, the compositional distribution of NEOs as a function of size. We will measure or constrain lightcurves for more than 400 NEOs, thus constraining their shapes in addition to sizes and compositions. This catalog will enable a number of other science cases to be pursued by us and other researchers. Our team has unmatched experience observing NEOs with Spitzer.

  19. Multiwavelength Observations of Relativistic Jets from General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Anantua

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes a program intended to unify three burgeoning branches of the high-energy astrophysics of relativistic jets: general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD simulations of ever-increasing dynamical range, the microphysical theory of particle acceleration under relativistic conditions, and multiwavelength observations resolving ever-decreasing spatiotemporal scales. The process, which involves converting simulation output into time series of images and polarization maps that can be directly compared to observations, is performed by (1 self-consistently prescribing models for emission, absorption, and particle acceleration and (2 performing time-dependent polarized radiative transfer. M87 serves as an exemplary prototype for this investigation due to its prominent and well-studied jet and the imminent prospect of learning much more from Event Horizon Telescope (EHT observations this year. Synthetic observations can be directly compared with real observations for observational signatures such as jet instabilities, collimation, relativistic beaming, and polarization. The simplest models described adopt the standard equipartition hypothesis; other models calculate emission by relating it to current density or shear. These models are intended for application to the radio jet instead of the higher frequency emission, the disk and the wind, which will be subjects of future investigations.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CANDELS multiwavelength catalog (Galametz+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galametz, A.; Grazian, A.; Fontana, A.; Ferguson, H. C.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Barro, G.; Castellano, M.; Dahlen, T.; Donley, J. L.; Faber, S. M.; Grogin, N.; Guo, Y.; Huang, K.-H.; Kocevski, D. D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lee, K.-S.; McGrath, E. J.; Peth, M.; Willner, S. P.; Almaini, O.; Cooper, M.; Cooray, A.; Conselice, C. J.; Dickinson, M.; Dunlop, J. S.; Fazio, G. G.; Foucaud, S.; Gardner, J. P.; Giavalisco, M.; Hathi, N. P.; Hartley, W. G.; Koo, D. C.; Lai, K.; de Mello, D. F.; McLure, R. J.; Lucas, R. A.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.; Santini, P.; Simpson, C.; Sommariva, V.; Targett, T.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; CANDELS Team

    2013-06-01

    The present multiwavelength catalog is based on public data in the CANDELS UDS field (J2000 position: 02:17:37.5-05:12:00) located within the original UDS field. It includes: * CANDELS HST/ACS (F606W, F814W) and HST/WFC3 (F125W, F160W); Grogin et al. 2011ApJS..197...35G, Koekemoer et al. 2011ApJS..197...36K. * CFHT U-band (UKIDSS; Almaini et al. in prep.), * SUBARU B, V, Rc, i', z' (SXDS; Furusawa et al. 2008, Cat. J/ApJS/176/1) * VLT/HAWK-I Y and Ks bands (HUGS; Fontana et al. in prep.) * UKIRT/WFCam J, H, K (UKIDSS DR8; Almaini et al. in prep.) * Spitzer/IRAC SEDS 3.6 and 4.5um (SEDS; Ashby et al. 2013ApJ...769...80A) * Spitzer/IRAC SpUDS 5.8, 8.0um (PI: J. Dunlop). The catalog is F160W-selected and contains 35932 sources over an area of 201.7 square arcmin and includes radio and X-ray detected sources and spectroscopic redshifts available for 210 sources. The full official CANDELS UDS catalog (which contains some extra columns including additional SExtractor parameters derived from the F160W image) can be found on the CANDELS website at: http://candels.ucolick.org/data_access/UDS.html (1 data file).

  1. Multiwavelength Observations of the Dwarf Seyfert 1 Galaxy POX 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Carol E.; Barth, A. J.; Ho, L. C.; Rutledge, R. E.; Greene, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    POX 52 is an unusual narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy, having an estimated black hole mass of order 105 solar masses and a dwarf host galaxy with an absolute magnitude of only MV = -17.6, which gives us a unique opportunity to study black hole-bulge relations in the low-mass regime. We present new observations from a multiwavelength campaign to study its active nucleus and host galaxy. The data include observations from the Chandra and XMM-Newton Observatories, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Very Large Array. Chandra data show a highly variable point source with a 2.0 10.0 keV luminosity of 0.7 * 1042 ergs/s. We will also describe the X-ray spectral shape, the structure of the host galaxy as determined from GALFIT modeling of the HST ACS/HRC images, and the spectral energy distribution of the active nucleus.

  2. THE SPITZER-WISE SURVEY OF THE ECLIPTIC POLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Cutri, R. M.; Marsh, K.; Padgett, D.; Tsai, C. W.; Cohen, M.; Wright, E.; Petty, S.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P.; Mainzer, A.; Ressler, M.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Carey, S.; Surace, J.; Lonsdale, C.; Skrutskie, M.; Stanford, S.

    2011-01-01

    We have carried out a survey of the north and south ecliptic poles, EP-N and EP-S, respectively, with the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The primary objective was to cross-calibrate WISE with the Spitzer and Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) photometric systems by developing a set of calibration stars that are common to these infrared missions. The ecliptic poles were continuous viewing zones for WISE due to its polar-crossing orbit, making these areas ideal for both absolute and internal calibrations. The Spitzer IRAC and MIPS imaging survey covers a complete area of 0.40 deg 2 for the EP-N and 1.28 deg 2 for the EP-S. WISE observed the whole sky in four mid-infrared bands, 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm, during its eight-month cryogenic mission, including several hundred ecliptic polar passages; here we report on the highest coverage depths achieved by WISE, an area of ∼1.5 deg 2 for both poles. Located close to the center of the EP-N, the Sy-2 galaxy NGC 6552 conveniently functions as a standard calibrator to measure the red response of the 22 μm channel of WISE. Observations from Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS/IRS-LL and WISE show that the galaxy has a strong red color in the mid-infrared due to star-formation and the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN), while over a baseline >1 year the mid-IR photometry of NGC 6552 is shown to vary at a level less than 2%. Combining NGC 6552 with the standard calibrator stars, the achieved photometric accuracy of the WISE calibration, relative to the Spitzer and MSX systems, is 2.4%, 2.8%, 4.5%, and 5.7% for W1 (3.4 μm), W2 (4.6 μm), W3 (12 μm), and W4 (22 μm), respectively. The WISE photometry is internally stable to better than 0.1% over the cryogenic lifetime of the mission. The secondary objective of the Spitzer-WISE Survey was to explore the poles at greater flux-level depths, exploiting the higher angular resolution Spitzer observations and the exceptionally deep (in total

  3. Bright galaxies at z=9-11 from pure-parallel HST observations: Building a unique sample for JWST with Spitzer/IRAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, Rychard; Morashita, Takahiro; Stefanon, Mauro; Magee, Dan

    2018-05-01

    The combination of observations taken by Hubble and Spitzer revealed the unexpected presence of sources as bright as our own Milky Way as early as 400 Myr after the Big Bang, potentially highlighting a new highly efficient regime for star formation in L>L* galaxies at very early times. Yet, the sample of high-quality z>8 galaxies with both HST and Spitzer/IRAC imaging is still small, particularly at the highest luminosities. We propose here to remedy this situation and use Spitzer/IRAC to efficiently follow up the most promising z>8 sources from our Hubble Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) survey, which covers a footprint on the sky similar to CANDELS, provides a deeper search than ground-based surveys like UltraVISTA, and is robust against cosmic variance because of its 210 independent lines of sight. The proposed new 3.6 micron observations will continue our Spitzer cycle 12 and 13 BORG911 programs, targeting 15 additional fields, leveraging over 200 new HST orbits to identify a final sample of about 8 bright galaxies at z >= 8.5. For optimal time use (just 20 hours), our goal is to readily discriminate between z>8 sources (undetected or marginally detected in IRAC) and z 2 interlopers (strongly detected in IRAC) with just 1-2 hours per pointing. The high-quality candidates that we will identify with IRAC will be ideal targets for further studies investigating the ionization state of the distant universe through near-IR Keck/VLT spectroscopy. They will also be uniquely suited to measurement of the redshift and stellar population properties through JWST/NIRSPEC observations, with the potential to elucidate how the first generations of stars are assembled in the earliest stages of the epoch of reionization.

  4. A Statistical Approach to Exoplanetary Molecular Spectroscopy Using Spitzer Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Garhart, Emily; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan; Knutson, Heather; Todorov, Kamen

    2018-01-01

    Secondary eclipses of exoplanets observed using the Spitzer Space Telescope measure the total emission emergent from exoplanetary atmospheres integrated over broad photometric bands. Spitzer photometry is excellent for measuring day side temperatures, but is less well suited to the detection of molecular absorption or emission features. Even for very hot exoplanets, it can be difficult to attain the accuracy on eclipse depth that is needed to unambiguously interpret the Spitzer results in terms of molecular absorption or emission. However, a statistical approach, wherein we seek deviations from a simple blackbody planet as a function of the planet's equilibrium temperature, shows promise for defining the nature and strength of molecular absorption in ensembles of planets. In this paper, we explore such an approach using secondary eclipses observed for tens of hot exoplanets during Spitzer's Cycles 10, 12, and 13. We focus on the possibility that the hottest planets exhibit molecular features in emission, due to temperature inversions.

  5. PLANETARY NEBULAE DETECTED IN THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE GLIMPSE II LEGACY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Sun Kwok

    2009-01-01

    We report the result of a search for the infrared counterparts of 37 planetary nebulae (PNs) and PN candidates in the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire II (GLIMPSE II) survey. The photometry and images of these PNs at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm, taken through the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS), are presented. Most of these nebulae are very red and compact in the IRAC bands, and are found to be bright and extended in the 24 μm band. The infrared morphology of these objects are compared with Hα images of the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbourg (MASH) and MASH II PNs. The implications for morphological difference in different wavelengths are discussed. The IRAC data allow us to differentiate between PNs and H II regions and be able to reject non-PNs from the optical catalog (e.g., PNG 352.1 - 00.0). Spectral energy distributions are constructed by combing the IRAC and MIPS data with existing near-, mid-, and far-IR photometry measurements. The anomalous colors of some objects allow us to infer the presence of aromatic emission bands. These multi-wavelength data provide useful insights into the nature of different nebular components contributing to the infrared emission of PNs.

  6. A Comparison of BLISS and PLD on Low-SNR WASP-29b Spitzer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, Ryan; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Blecic, Jasmina; Deming, Drake; Hellier, Coel

    2018-01-01

    We present an analysis of Spitzer secondary eclipse observations of exoplanet WASP-29b. WASP-29b is a Saturn-sized, short-period exoplanet with mass 0.24 ± 0.02 Jupiter masses and radius 0.84 ± 0.06 Jupiter radii (Hellier et al., 2010). We measure eclipse depths and midpoints using our Photometry for Orbits, Eclipses, and Transits (POET) code, which does photometry and light-curve modeling with a BiLinearly Interpolated Subpixel Sensitivity (BLISS) map, and our Zen Eliminates Noise (ZEN) code, which takes POET photometry and applies Pixel-Level Decorrelation (PLD). BLISS creates a physical map of pixel gain variations, and is thereby independent of any astrophysical effects. PLD takes a mathematical approach, using relative variations in pixel values near the target to eliminate position-correlated noise. The results are consistent between the methods, except in one outlier observation where neither model could effectively remove correlated noise in the light curve. Using the eclipse timings, along with previous transit observations and radial velocity data, we further refine the orbit of WASP-29b, and, when excluding the outlier, determine an eccentricity between 0.037 and 0.056. We performed atmospheric retrieval with our Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code but find that, when the outlier is discarded, the planet is consistent with a blackbody, and molecular abundances cannot be constrained. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G.

  7. The Multiwavelength Milky Way Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B. A.; Leisawitz, D.; Boyd, P. T.; Digel, S. W.; Friedlander, J.; Kessel, R. L.; Smale, A. P.

    2000-12-01

    We describe an ongoing effort to communicate what is known about the Milky Way, and how our understanding of the Galaxy has advanced in recent decades with observations across the electromagnetic spectrum. Our aim is to help students, educators, and the general public understand the structure of the Milky Way, and our location within it. Inspired by the warm reception to our Multiwavelength Milky Way poster (26,000 copies distributed; requested by people in over 50 countries) we created several related products and a new version of the poster. The updated poster contains ten Galactic plane maps and a legend that points out prominent features and objects. The Multiwavelength Milky Way web site at http://adc.gsfc.nasa.gov/mw provides an image browsing capability, links to data files and journal articles, lesson plans and suggested activities for teachers, and a poster order form. We created a slide set comprised of multiwavelength all-sky maps and a ``Multiwavelength Milky Way'' image corresponding to the poster. The Galactic plane maps featured on the poster raise questions in the minds of many non-astronomers: ``Where are we in this picture?'' and ``How do we know what we know?'' To help answer these questions we developed a realistic three-dimensional model of the Milky Way and used state-of-the-art animation techniques to create a 28-minute video called The Milky Way's Invisible Light. The viewer is taken on a tour of the Galaxy that ends at the Sun's location, from which the 3-D model is shown to resemble the Galactic plane surveys depicted on the Multiwavelength Milky Way poster. The video can be ordered on the web at http://space.gsfc.nasa.gov/astro/education/mw_film or from the ASP catalog. The Multiwavelength Milky Way project is sponsored by the Astrophysics Data Facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.

  8. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/.

  9. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG RED QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrutia, Tanya; Lacy, Mark; Spoon, Henrik; Glikman, Eilat; Petric, Andreea; Schulz, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    We present mid-infrared spectra and photometry of 13 redshift 0.4 < z < 1 dust reddened quasars obtained with Spitzer IRS and MIPS. We compare properties derived from their infrared spectral energy distributions (intrinsic active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity and far-infrared luminosity from star formation) to the host luminosities and morphologies from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, and black hole masses estimated from optical and/or near-infrared spectroscopy. Our results are broadly consistent with models in which most dust reddened quasars are an intermediate phase between a merger-driven starburst triggering a completely obscured AGN, and a normal, unreddened quasar. We find that many of our objects have high accretion rates, close to the Eddington limit. These objects tend to fall below the black hole mass-bulge luminosity relation as defined by local galaxies, whereas most of our low accretion rate objects are slightly above the local relation, as typical for normal quasars at these redshifts. Our observations are therefore most readily interpreted in a scenario in which galaxy stellar mass growth occurs first by about a factor of three in each merger/starburst event, followed sometime later by black hole growth by a similar amount. We do not, however, see any direct evidence for quasar feedback affecting star formation in our objects, for example, in the form of a relationship between accretion rate and star formation. Five of our objects, however, do show evidence for outflows in the [O III]5007 Å emission line profile, suggesting that the quasar activity is driving thermal winds in at least some members of our sample.

  10. Spitzer secondary eclipses of Qatar-1b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garhart, Emily; Deming, Drake; Mandell, Avi; Knutson, Heather; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2018-02-01

    Aims: Previous secondary eclipse observations of the hot Jupiter Qatar-1b in the Ks band suggest that it may have an unusually high day side temperature, indicative of minimal heat redistribution. There have also been indications that the orbit may be slightly eccentric, possibly forced by another planet in the system. We investigate the day side temperature and orbital eccentricity using secondary eclipse observations with Spitzer. Methods: We observed the secondary eclipse with Spitzer/IRAC in subarray mode, in both 3.6 and 4.5 μm wavelengths. We used pixel-level decorrelation to correct for Spitzer's intra-pixel sensitivity variations and thereby obtain accurate eclipse depths and central phases. Results: Our 3.6 μm eclipse depth is 0.149 ± 0.051% and the 4.5 μm depth is 0.273 ± 0.049%. Fitting a blackbody planet to our data and two recent Ks band eclipse depths indicates a brightness temperature of 1506 ± 71 K. Comparison to model atmospheres for the planet indicates that its degree of longitudinal heat redistribution is intermediate between fully uniform and day-side only. The day side temperature of the planet is unlikely to be as high (1885 K) as indicated by the ground-based eclipses in the Ks band, unless the planet's emergent spectrum deviates strongly from model atmosphere predictions. The average central phase for our Spitzer eclipses is 0.4984 ± 0.0017, yielding e cos ω = -0.0028 ± 0.0027. Our results are consistent with a circular orbit, and we constrain e cos ω much more strongly than has been possible with previous observations. Tables of the lightcurve data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A55

  11. Massive Young Stellar Objects in the Galactic Center. 1; Spectroscopic Identification from Spitzer/IRS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Deokkeun; Ramirez, Solange V.; Sellgren, Kris; Arendt, Richard G.; Boogert, A. C. Adwin; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Schultheis, Mathias; Cotera, Angela S.; Smith, Howard A.; Stolovy, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from our spectroscopic study, using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, designed to identify massive young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Galactic Center (GC). Our sample of 107 YSO candidates was selected based on IRAC colors from the high spatial resolution, high sensitivity Spitzer/IRAC images in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), which spans the central approximately 300 pc region of the Milky Way Galaxy. We obtained IRS spectra over 5 micron to 35 micron using both high- and low-resolution IRS modules. We spectroscopically identify massive YSOs by the presence of a 15.4 micron shoulder on the absorption profile of 15 micron CO2 ice, suggestive of CO2 ice mixed with CH30H ice on grains. This 15.4 micron shoulder is clearly observed in 16 sources and possibly observed in an additional 19 sources. We show that 9 massive YSOs also reveal molecular gas-phase absorption from C02, C2H2, and/or HCN, which traces warm and dense gas in YSOs. Our results provide the first spectroscopic census of the massive YSO population in the GC. We fit YSO models to the observed spectral energy distributions and find YSO masses of 8 - 23 solar Mass, which generally agree with the masses derived from observed radio continuum emission. We find that about 50% of photometrically identified YSOs are confirmed with our spectroscopic study. This implies a preliminary star formation rate of approximately 0.07 solar mass/yr at the GC.

  12. THE ATMOSPHERES OF THE HOT-JUPITERS KEPLER-5b AND KEPLER-6b OBSERVED DURING OCCULTATIONS WITH WARM-SPITZER AND KEPLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desert, Jean-Michel; Charbonneau, David; Fressin, Francois; Latham, David W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Knutson, Heather A. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Deming, Drake [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Borucki, William J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Brown, Timothy M. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Caldwell, Douglas [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Ford, Eric B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Gilliland, Ronald L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Marcy, Geoffrey W. [Berkeley Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Seager, Sara, E-mail: jdesert@cfa.harvard.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02159 (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports the detection and the measurements of occultations of the two transiting hot giant exoplanets Kepler-5b and Kepler-6b by their parent stars. The observations are obtained in the near-infrared with Warm-Spitzer Space Telescope and at optical wavelengths by combining more than a year of Kepler photometry. The investigation consists of constraining the eccentricities of these systems and of obtaining broadband emergent photometric data for individual planets. For both targets, the occultations are detected at the 3{sigma} level at each wavelength with mid-occultation times consistent with circular orbits. The brightness temperatures of these planets are deduced from the infrared observations and reach T{sub Spitzer} = 1930 {+-} 100 K and T{sub Spitzer} = 1660 {+-} 120 K for Kepler-5b and Kepler-6b, respectively. We measure optical geometric albedos A{sub g} in the Kepler bandpass and find A{sub g} = 0.12 {+-} 0.04 for Kepler-5b and A{sub g} = 0.11 {+-} 0.04 for Kepler-6b, leading to upper an limit for the Bond albedo of A{sub B} {<=} 0.17 in both cases. The observations for both planets are best described by models for which most of the incident energy is redistributed on the dayside, with only less than 10% of the absorbed stellar flux redistributed to the nightside of these planets.

  13. Multiwavelength follow-up observations of the tidal disruption event candidate 2XMMi J184725.1-631724

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dacheng; Strader, Jay; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Godet, Olivier; Grupe, Dirk; Webb, Natalie A.; Barret, Didier; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2018-03-01

    The ultrasoft X-ray flare 2XMMi J184725.1-631724 was serendipitously detected in two XMM-Newton observations in 2006 and 2007, with a peak luminosity of 6 × 1043 erg s-1. It was suggested to be a tidal disruption event (TDE) because its position is consistent with the centre of an inactive galaxy. It is the only known X-ray TDE candidate whose X-ray spectra showed evidence of a weak steep power-law component besides a dominant supersoft thermal disc. We have carried out multiwavelength follow-up observations of the event. Multiple X-ray monitorings show that the X-ray luminosity has decayed significantly after 2011. Especially, in our deep Chandra observation in 2013, we detected a very faint counterpart that supports the nuclear origin of 2XMMi J184725.1-631724 but had an X-ray flux a factor of ˜1000 lower than in the peak of the event. Compared with follow-up ultraviolet (UV) observations, we found that there might be some enhanced UV emission associated with the TDE in the first XMM-Newton observation. We also obtained a high-quality UV-optical spectrum with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope and put a very tight constraint on the persistent nuclear activity, with a persistent X-ray luminosity expected to be lower than the peak of the flare by a factor of >2700. Therefore, our multiwavelength follow-up observations strongly support the TDE explanation of the event.

  14. THE SPITZER DEEP, WIDE-FIELD SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Brodwin, M.; Stern, D.; Griffith, R.; Eisenhardt, P.; Gorjian, V.; Kozlowski, S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Bock, J. J.; Borys, C.; Brand, K.; Grogin, N. A.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cool, R.; Cooray, A.; Croft, S.; Dey, A.; Eisenstein, D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Ivison, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) is a four-epoch infrared survey of 10 deg. 2 in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey using the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope. SDWFS, a Spitzer Cycle 4 Legacy project, occupies a unique position in the area-depth survey space defined by other Spitzer surveys. The four epochs that make up SDWFS permit-for the first time-the selection of infrared-variable and high proper motion objects over a wide field on timescales of years. Because of its large survey volume, SDWFS is sensitive to galaxies out to z ∼ 3 with relatively little impact from cosmic variance for all but the richest systems. The SDWFS data sets will thus be especially useful for characterizing galaxy evolution beyond z ∼ 1.5. This paper explains the SDWFS observing strategy and data processing, presents the SDWFS mosaics and source catalogs, and discusses some early scientific findings. The publicly released, full-depth catalogs contain 6.78, 5.23, 1.20, and 0.96 x 10 5 distinct sources detected to the average 5σ, 4''-diameter, aperture-corrected limits of 19.77, 18.83, 16.50, and 15.82 Vega mag at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm, respectively. The SDWFS number counts and color-color distribution are consistent with other, earlier Spitzer surveys. At the 6 minute integration time of the SDWFS IRAC imaging, >50% of isolated Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm radio sources and >80% of on-axis XBooetes sources are detected out to 8.0 μm. Finally, we present the four highest proper motion IRAC-selected sources identified from the multi-epoch imaging, two of which are likely field brown dwarfs of mid-T spectral class.

  15. First Results from the AKARI FU-HYU Mission Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, C.; Serjeant, S.; Takagi, T.; Jeong, W.-S.; Negrello, M.; Matsuhara, H.; Wada, T.; Oyabu, S.; Lee, H. M.; Im, M.

    2009-12-01

    The AKARI FU-HYU mission program has carried out mid-infrared imaging of several well studied Spitzer fields. This imaging fills in the wavelength coverage lacking from the Spitzer surveys and gives an extremely high scientific return for minimal input for AKARI. We select fields already rich in multi-wavelength data from radio to X-ray wavelengths and present the results from our initial analysis in the GOODS-N field. We utilize the comprehansive multiwavelength coverage in the GOODS-N field to produce a multiwavelength catalogue from infrared to ultraviolet wavelengths including photometric redshifts. Using the FU-HYU catalogue we present colour-colour diagrams that map the passage of PAH features through our observation bands. These colour-colours diagrams are used as tools to extract anomalous colour populations, in particular a population of Silicate Break galaxies from the GOODS-N field.

  16. Multiwavelength mock observations of the WHIM in a simulated galaxy cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planelles, Susana; Mimica, Petar; Quilis, Vicent; Cuesta-Martínez, Carlos

    2018-06-01

    About half of the expected total baryon budget in the local Universe is `missing'. Hydrodynamical simulations suggest that most of the missing baryons are located in a mildly overdense, warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), which is difficult to be detected at most wavelengths. In this paper, we explore multiwavelength synthetic observations of a massive galaxy cluster developed in a full Eulerian-adaptive mesh refinement cosmological simulation. A novel numerical procedure is applied on the outputs of the simulation, which are post-processed with a full-radiative transfer code that can compute the change of the intensity at any frequency along the null geodesic of photons. We compare the emission from the whole intergalactic medium and from the WHIM component (defined as the gas with a temperature in the range 105-107 K) at three observational bands associated with thermal X-rays, thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, and radio emission. The synthetic maps produced by this procedure could be directly compared with existing observational maps and could be used as a guide for future observations with forthcoming instruments. The analysis of the different emissions associated with a high-resolution galaxy cluster is in broad agreement with previous simulated and observational estimates of both gas components.

  17. MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF COMET C/2011 L4 (PAN-STARRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin; Keane, Jacqueline; Meech, Karen [NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Owen, Tobias; Wainscoat, Richard, E-mail: yangbin@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The dynamically new comet C/2011 L4 (Pan-STARRS) is one of the brightest comets observed since the great comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). Here, we present our multi-wavelength observations of C/2011 L4 during its in-bound passage to the inner solar system. A strong absorption band of water ice at 2.0 μm was detected in the near-infrared spectra, obtained with the 8 m Gemini-North and 3 m Infrared Telescope Facility Telescopes. The companion 1.5 μm band of water ice, however, was not observed. Spectral modeling shows that the absence of the 1.5 μm feature can be explained by the presence of sub-micron-sized fine ice grains. No gas lines (i.e., CN, HCN, or CO) were observed pre-perihelion in either the optical or the submillimeter. We derived 3σ upper limits for the CN and CO production rates. The comet exhibited a very strong continuum in the optical and its slope seemed to become redder as the comet approached the Sun. Our observations suggest that C/2011 L4 is an unusually dust-rich comet with a dust-to-gas mass ratio >4.

  18. Spitzer/IRS Observations Of Multiple Main-Belt And Binary Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, J. Emilio; Marchis, F.; Emery, J. P.; Im, S.

    2010-10-01

    Since the discovery of Ida's companion in 1993, 195 companions of asteroids have been discovered. To understand the formation process of these interesting bodies, their physical properties such as their bulk density, size, shape, and surface roughness need to be determined. During the Spitzer Cycle-4, we obtained IRS thermal emission spectra (5-42 um) of 23 known binary systems. The majority of asteroids are from the main-belt (16), while the rest are NEOs (7). After extracting the thermal spectra, we used a modified Standard Thermal Model (STM) to calculate their equivalent diameter (from 0.8 km to 237 km), their albedo (from 0.04 for C-type to 0.394 for a V-type) and their beaming factor related to the surface roughness and thermal inertia. We derive their emissivity spectra, which is useful to detect silicate features. Combining these measurements with 3D-models of these multiple asteroid systems obtained by lightcurve inversion, we should be able to derive an accurate estimate of their bulk-density and contrast them with their taxonomic classes. Preliminary studies by Marchis et al. (2008)1, suggested a relationship between bulk density and the taxonomic class of asteroids, which varies from 0.9 g/cc for C-complex to 2.4 g/cc for S-complex asteroids. The National Science Foundation supported this research under award number AAG-0807468. It was conducted with the Spitzer space telescope, which is operated by JPL under a contract with NASA. 1 Marchis et al. , 2008, "Mid-infrared Spectra of Binary Asteroids With Spitzer/IRS", 40th DPS Meeting, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 40, 508

  19. Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph Observations of the Galactic Center: Quantifying the Extreme Ultraviolet/Soft X-ray Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Janet P.

    2018-04-01

    It has long been shown that the extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the ionizing stars of H II regions can be estimated by comparing the observed line emission to detailed models. In the Galactic Center (GC), however, previous observations have shown that the ionizing spectral energy distribution (SED) of the local photon field is strange, producing both very low excitation ionized gas (indicative of ionization by late O stars) and also widespread diffuse emission from atoms too highly ionized to be found in normal H II regions. This paper describes the analysis of all GC spectra taken by Spitzer's Infrared Spectrograph and downloaded from the Spitzer Heritage Archive. In it, H II region densities and abundances are described, and serendipitously discovered candidate planetary nebulae, compact shocks, and candidate young stellar objects are tabulated. Models were computed with Cloudy, using SEDs from Starburst99 plus additional X-rays, and compared to the observed mid-infrared forbidden and recombination lines. The ages inferred from the model fits do not agree with recent proposed star formation sequences (star formation in the GC occurring along streams of gas with density enhancements caused by close encounters with the black hole, Sgr A*), with Sgr B1, Sgr C, and the Arches Cluster being all about the same age, around 4.5 Myr old, with similar X-ray requirements. The fits for the Quintuplet Cluster appear to give a younger age, but that could be caused by higher-energy photons from shocks from stellar winds or from a supernova.

  20. Central Stars of Mid-Infrared Nebulae Discovered with Spitzer and WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.

    2017-02-01

    Searches for compact mid-IR nebulae with the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), accompanied by spectroscopic observations of central stars of these nebulae led to the discovery of many dozens of massive stars at different evolutionary stages, of which the most numerous are candidate luminous blue variables (LBVs). In this paper, we give a census of candidate and confirmed Galactic LBVs revealed with Spitzer and WISE, and present some new results of spectroscopic observations of central stars of mid-IR nebulae.

  1. OBSERVATIONAL 5-20 μm INTERSTELLAR EXTINCTION CURVES TOWARD STAR-FORMING REGIONS DERIVED FROM SPITZER IRS SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, M.

    2009-01-01

    Using Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph observations of G0-M4 III stars behind dark clouds, I construct 5-20 μm empirical extinction curves for 0.3 ≤ A K V between ∼3 and 50. For A K K > 1, the curve exhibits lower contrast between the silicate and absorption continuum, develops ice absorption, and lies closer to the Weingartner and Draine R V = 5.5 Case B curve, a result which is consistent with that of Flaherty et al. and Chiar et al. Recently, work using Spitzer Infrared Array Camera data by Chapman et al. independently reaches a similar conclusion that the shape of the extinction curve changes as a function of increasing A K . By calculating the optical depths of the 9.7 μm silicate and 6.0, 6.8, and 15.2 μm ice features, I determine that a process involving ice is responsible for the changing shape of the extinction curve and speculate that this process is a coagulation of ice-mantled grains rather than ice-mantled grains alone.

  2. The ASTRODEEP Frontier Fields catalogues. I. Multiwavelength photometry of Abell-2744 and MACS-J0416

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, E.; Amorín, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Buitrago, F.; Dunlop, J. S.; Elbaz, D.; Boucaud, A.; Bourne, N.; Boutsia, K.; Brammer, G.; Bruce, V. A.; Capak, P.; Cappelluti, N.; Ciesla, L.; Comastri, A.; Cullen, F.; Derriere, S.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Giallongo, E.; Grazian, A.; Lotz, J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.; Pilo, S.; Santini, P.; Schreiber, C.; Shu, X.; Wang, T.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The Frontier Fields survey is a pioneering observational program aimed at collecting photometric data, both from space (Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope) and from ground-based facilities (VLT Hawk-I), for six deep fields pointing at clusters of galaxies and six nearby deep parallel fields, in a wide range of passbands. The analysis of these data is a natural outcome of the Astrodeep project, an EU collaboration aimed at developing methods and tools for extragalactic photometry and creating valuable public photometric catalogues. Aims: We produce multiwavelength photometric catalogues (from B to 4.5 μm) for the first two of the Frontier Fields, Abell-2744 and MACS-J0416 (plus their parallel fields). Methods: To detect faint sources even in the central regions of the clusters, we develop a robust and repeatable procedure that uses the public codes Galapagos and Galfit to model and remove most of the light contribution from both the brightest cluster members, and the intra-cluster light. We perform the detection on the processed HST H160 image to obtain a pure H-selected sample, which is the primary catalogue that we publish. We also add a sample of sources which are undetected in the H160 image but appear on a stacked infrared image. Photometry on the other HST bands is obtained using SExtractor, again on processed images after the procedure for foreground light removal. Photometry on the Hawk-I and IRAC bands is obtained using our PSF-matching deconfusion code t-phot. A similar procedure, but without the need for the foreground light removal, is adopted for the Parallel fields. Results: The procedure of foreground light subtraction allows for the detection and the photometric measurements of ~2500 sources per field. We deliver and release complete photometric H-detected catalogues, with the addition of the complementary sample of infrared-detected sources. All objects have multiwavelength coverage including B to H HST bands, plus K

  3. Spitzer - Hot & Colorful Student Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, D.; Rebull, L. M.; DeWolf, C.; Guastella, P.; Johnson, C. H.; Schaefers, J.; Spuck, T.; McDonald, J. G., III; DeWolf, T.; Brock, S.; Boerma, J.; Bemis, G.; Paulsen, K.; Yueh, N.; Peter, A.; Wassmer, W.; Haber, R.; Scaramucci, A.; Butchart, J.; Holcomb, A.; Karns, B.; Kennedy, S.; Siegel, R.; Weiser, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this poster, we present the results of several activities developed for the general science student to explore infrared light. The first activity involved measuring infrared radiation using an updated version of Newton's experiment of splitting white light and finding IR radiation. The second used Leslie's cube to allow students to observe different radiators, while the third used a modern infrared thermometer to measure and identify IR sources in an enclosed box. The last activity involved students making false-color images from narrow-band filter images from data sets from Spitzer Space Telescope, STScI Digitized Sky Survey and other sources. Using computer programs like Adobe Photoshop and free software such as ds9, Spot and Leopard, poster-like images were created by the students. This research is funded by the Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Please see our companion poster, Johnson et al., on the science aspect of this program, and another poster on the educational aspects, Guastella et al.

  4. Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbo, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling et al., 2010). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (approx. 0.7-2.5 microns) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of Explore-NEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with band area ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a positive BAR correlation with phase angle for Ganymed.The results of our

  5. Multiwavelength Observations of Markarian 421 During a TeV/X-Ray Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, D. L.; Bruhweiler, F.; Macomb, D. J.; Cheng, K.-P.; Carter-Lewis, D. A.; Akerlof, C. W.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Buckley, J. H.; Cawley, M. F.

    1995-01-01

    A TeV flare from the BL Lac object Mrk 421 was detected in May of 1994 by the Whipple Observatory air Cherenkov experiment during which the flux above 250 GeV increased by nearly an order of magnitude over a 2-day period. Contemporaneous observations by ASCA showed the X-ray flux to be in a very high state. We present these results, combined with the first ever simultaneous or nearly simultaneous observations at GeV gamma-ray, UV, IR, mm, and radio energies for this nearest BL Lac object. While the GeV gamma-ray flux increased slightly, there is little evidence for variability comparable to that seen at TeV and X-ray energies. Other wavelengths show even less variability. This provides important constraints on the emission mechanisms at work. We present the multiwavelength spectrum of this gamma-ray blazar for both quiescent and flaring states and discuss the data in terms of current models of blazar emission.

  6. Multi-Wavelength Observations of Asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom: Visible, Infrared, and Thermal Spectroscopy Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Beth Ellen; Shepard, M.; Bus, S. J.; Vilas, F.; Rivkin, A. S.; Lim, L.; Lederer, S.; Jarvis, K.; Shah, S.; McConnochie, T.

    2004-01-01

    The August 2003 apparition of asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom brought together a collaboration of observers with the goal of obtaining rotationally resolved multiwavelength spectra at each of 5 facilities: infrared spectra at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (Clark and Shepard), radar images at Arecibo (Shepard and Clark), thermal infrared spectra at Palomar (Lim, McConnochie and Bell), visible spectra at McDonald Observatory (Vilas, Lederer and Jarvis), and visible lightcurves at Ondrojev Observatory (Pravec). The radar data was to be used to develop a high spatial resolution physical model to be used in conjunction with spectral data to investigate compositional and textural properties on the near surface of Ra Shalom as a function of rotation phase. This was the first coordinated multi-wavelength investigation of any Aten asteroid. There are many reasons to study near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 2100 Ra-Shalom: 1) It has a controversial classification (is it a C- or K-type object)? 2) There would be interesting dynamical ramifications if Ra-Shalom is a K-type because most K-types come from the Eos family and there are no known dynamical pathways from Eos to the Aten population. 3) The best available spectra obtained previously may indicate a heterogeneous surface (most asteroids appear to be fairly homogeneous). 4) Ra-Shalom thermal observations obtained previously indicated a lack of regolith, minimizing the worry of space weathering effects in the spectra. 5) Radar observations obtained previously hinted at interesting surface structures. 6) Ra-Shalom is one of the largest Aten objects. And 7) Ra-Shalom is on a short list of proposed NEAs for spacecraft encounters and possible sample returns. Preliminary results from the visible, infrared, and thermal spectroscopy measurements will be presented here.

  7. Exoplanet Characterization With Spitzer Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Joseph

    We will analyze our existing Spitzer eclipse data for 11 exoplanets (GJ 436b, WASP-8b, WASP-29b, WASP-11b, TrES-1, WASP-34b, WASP-43b, HD 209458b, HAT-P-30b, HAT-P-13b, and WASP-12b) along with all other Spitzer eclipse and transit data for these systems (723 hours of total data). In combination with transit results, these measurements reveal the surface fluxes emitted by the planets' atmospheres in the six Spitzer bandpasses (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 16, and 24 1-4m), as well as orbital eccentricity and in a few cases possibly even precession rate. The fluxes, in turn, can constrain atmospheric composition and thermal profiles. We propose here to analyze data for these planets using Monte Carlo-driven, radiative-transfer, model-fitting codes; to conduct aggregate analyses; and to develop and share statistical modeling tools. Secondary eclipses provide us with a unique way to characterize exoplanetary atmospheres. Since other techniques like spectroscopy divide the planetary signal into many channels, they require very high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and are only possible for a few planets. Broadband eclipse photometry is thus the only technique that can measure dozens of atmospheres and identify the mechanisms that cause planets at a given irradiation level to behave so differently from one another. Until JWST becomes available, the broad variety of Spitzer data that we already have in hand, along with observations from the Hubble Space Telescope and possibly SOFIA, are our best way to understand the wide diversity of exoplanetary atmospheres. Since 2010, the team has produced six papers from a new, highly modular pipeline that implements optimal methods for analysis of Spitzer photometric time series, and our efficiency is increasing. The sensitivity needed for these measurements is up to 100 times better than Spitzer's design criteria, so careful treatment of systematic error is critically important and first-order approximations rarely work. The new pipeline

  8. SPRITE: the Spitzer proposal review website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Megan K.; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.; Silbermann, Nancy A.; Rebull, Luisa M.

    2008-07-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC), located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology, supports the science operations of NASA's infrared Spitzer Space Telescope. The SSC issues an annual Call for Proposals inviting investigators worldwide to submit Spitzer Space Telescope proposals. The Spitzer Proposal Review Website (SPRITE) is a MySQL/PHP web database application designed to support the SSC proposal review process. Review panel members use the software to view, grade, and write comments about the proposals, and SSC support team members monitor the grading and ranking process and ultimately generate a ranked list of all the proposals. The software is also used to generate, edit, and email award letters to the proposers. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  9. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF WHITE DWARFS: THE MISSING PLANETARY DEBRIS AROUND DZ STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.; Jura, M.

    2012-01-01

    We report a Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera search for infrared excesses around white dwarfs, including 14 newly observed targets and 16 unpublished archived stars. We find a substantial infrared excess around two warm white dwarfs—J220934.84+122336.5 and WD 0843+516, the latter apparently being the hottest white dwarf known to display a close-in dust disk. Extending previous studies, we find that the fraction of white dwarfs with dust disks increases as the star's temperature increases; for stars cooler than 10,000 K, even the most heavily polluted ones do not have ∼1000 K dust. There is tentative evidence that the dust disk occurrence is correlated with the volatility of the accreted material. In the Appendix, we modify a previous analysis to clarify how Poynting-Robertson drag might play an important role in transferring materials from a dust disk into a white dwarf's atmosphere.

  10. Visible photometry of NEOs in support of a Warm Spitzer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilling, David E.; Jones, Sarah; Penprase, Bryan; Emery, Josh; Harris, Alan; Spahr, Tim; Delbo, Marco

    2009-08-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) may act as dynamical and compositional tracers of the history of near-Earth space. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population -- such as the size distribution, mix of albedos and mineralogies, and contributions from so-called dead or dormant comets -- remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. We have been awarded 500 hours of Warm Spitzer time to study some 700 NEOs. The Spitzer data will allow us to measure thermal fluxes and, in combination with optical data, derive albedos and diameters for a large fraction of all known NEOs. Remarkably, the primary uncertainty in our Spitzer results will derive from a lack of good optical photometry for our targets. Fortunately, our targets are generally bright, and obtaining good V band measurements of them requires only a modest amount of time on modest aperture telescopes. We propose here for 36 hours of SMARTS 1.3-m time or 54 hours of SMARTS 0.9-m time to obtain visible photometry of the 72 southern moderately bright ``B'' semester targets in our Warm Spitzer program. These program is ideal for queue/service observing because each observation requires only ~30 minutes and our targets are all over the sky.

  11. Multi-wavelength Observations of Solar Acoustic Waves Near Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsue, Teresa; Pesnell, Dean; Hill, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Active region areas on the Sun are abundant with a variety of waves that are both acoustically helioseismic and magnetohydrodynamic in nature. The occurrence of a solar flare can disrupt these waves, through MHD mode-mixing or scattering by the excitation of these waves. We take a multi-wavelength observational approach to understand the source of theses waves by studying active regions where flaring activity occurs. Our approach is to search for signals within a time series of images using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm, by producing multi-frequency power map movies. We study active regions both spatially and temporally and correlate this method over multiple wavelengths using data from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory. By surveying the active regions on multiple wavelengths we are able to observe the behavior of these waves within the Solar atmosphere, from the photosphere up through the corona. We are able to detect enhancements of power around active regions, which could be acoustic power halos and of an MHD-wave propagating outward by the flaring event. We are in the initial stages of this study understanding the behaviors of these waves and could one day contribute to understanding the mechanism responsible for their formation; that has not yet been explained.

  12. Simultaneous, multi-wavelength flare observations of nearby low-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Beverly; Barclay, Thomas; Quintana, Elisa; Villadsen, Jacqueline; Wofford, Alia; Schlieder, Joshua; Boyd, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Low-mass stars are the most common stars in the Galaxy and have been targeted in the tens-of-thousands by K2, the re-purposed Kepler mission, as they are prime targets to search for and characterize small, Earth-like planets. Understanding how these fully convective stars drive magnetic activity that manifests as stochastic, short-term brightenings, or flares, provides insight into the prospects of planetary habitability. High energy radiation and energetic particle emission associated with these stars can erode atmospheres, and impact habitability. An innovative campaign to study low mass stars through simultaneous multi-wavelength observations is currently underway with observations ongoing in the X-ray, UV, optical, and radio. I will present early results of our pilot study of the nearby M-Dwarf star Wolf 359 (CN Leo) using K2, SWIFT, and ground based radio observatories, forming a comprehensive picture of flare activity from an M-Dwarf, and discuss the potential impact of these results on exoplanets. "This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE1322106. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation."

  13. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF THE λ ORIONIS CLUSTER. II. DISKS AROUND SOLAR-TYPE AND LOW-MASS STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Jesus; Morales-Calderon, Maria; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, L.; Muzerolle, J.; Gutermuth, R.; Luhman, K. L.; Stauffer, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present IRAC/MIPS Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the solar-type and the low-mass stellar population of the young (∼5 Myr) λ Orionis cluster. Combining optical and Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry, we identify 436 stars as probable members of the cluster. Given the distance (450 pc) and the age of the cluster, our sample ranges in mass from 2 M sun to objects below the substellar limit. With the addition of the Spitzer mid-infrared data, we have identified 49 stars bearing disks in the stellar cluster. Using spectral energy distribution slopes, we place objects in several classes: non-excess stars (diskless), stars with optically thick disks, stars with 'evolved disks' (with smaller excesses than optically thick disk systems), and 'transitional disk' candidates (in which the inner disk is partially or fully cleared). The disk fraction depends on the stellar mass, ranging from ∼6% for K-type stars (R C - J C - J>4). We confirm the dependence of disk fraction on stellar mass in this age range found in other studies. Regarding clustering levels, the overall fraction of disks in the λ Orionis cluster is similar to those reported in other stellar groups with ages normally quoted as ∼5 Myr.

  14. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE REDBACK MILLISECOND PULSAR J1048+2339

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deneva, J. S. [National Research Council, resident at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ray, P. S.; Wood, K.; Wolff, M. T. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Camilo, F.; Halpern, J. P. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Cromartie, H. T. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Ferrara, E. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kerr, M. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield NSW 2122 (Australia); Ransom, S. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Chambers, K. C.; Magnier, E. A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    We report on radio timing and multiwavelength observations of the 4.66 ms redback pulsar J1048+2339, which was discovered in an Arecibo search targeting the Fermi -Large Area Telescope source 3FGL J1048.6+2338. Two years of timing allowed us to derive precise astrometric and orbital parameters for the pulsar. PSR J1048+2339 is in a 6 hr binary and exhibits radio eclipses over half the orbital period and rapid orbital period variations. The companion has a minimum mass of 0.3 M {sub ⊙}, and we have identified a V ∼ 20 variable optical counterpart in data from several surveys. The phasing of its ∼1 mag modulation at the orbital period suggests highly efficient and asymmetric heating by the pulsar wind, which may be due to an intrabinary shock that is distorted near the companion, or to the companion’s magnetic field channeling the pulsar wind to specific locations on its surface. We also present gamma-ray spectral analysis of the source and preliminary results from searches for gamma-ray pulsations using the radio ephemeris.

  15. Spitzer Digs Up Galactic Fossil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 This false-color image taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows a globular cluster previously hidden in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy. Globular clusters are compact bundles of old stars that date back to the birth of our galaxy, 13 or so billion years ago. Astronomers use these galactic 'fossils' as tools for studying the age and formation of the Milky Way. Most clusters orbit around the center of the galaxy well above its dust-enshrouded disc, or plane, while making brief, repeated passes through the plane that each last about a million years. Spitzer, with infrared eyes that can see into the dusty galactic plane, first spotted the newfound cluster during its current pass. A visible-light image (inset of Figure 1) shows only a dark patch of sky. The red streak behind the core of the cluster is a dust cloud, which may indicate the cluster's interaction with the Milky Way. Alternatively, this cloud may lie coincidentally along Spitzer's line of sight. Follow-up observations with the University of Wyoming Infrared Observatory helped set the distance of the new cluster at about 9,000 light-years from Earth - closer than most clusters - and set the mass at the equivalent of 300,000 Suns. The cluster's apparent size, as viewed from Earth, is comparable to a grain of rice held at arm's length. It is located in the constellation Aquila. Astronomers believe that this cluster may be one of the last in our galaxy to be uncovered. This image composite was taken on April 21, 2004, by Spitzer's infrared array camera. It is composed of images obtained at four wavelengths: 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red). Galactic Fossil Found Behind Curtain of Dust In Figure 2, the image mosaic shows the same patch of sky in various wavelengths of light. While the visible-light image (left) shows a dark sky speckled

  16. DEEP SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF INFRARED-FAINT RADIO SOURCES: HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Mao, Minnie; Afonso, Jose; Cava, Antonio; Farrah, Duncan; Oliver, Seb; Huynh, Minh T.; Mauduit, Jean-Christophe; Surace, Jason; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, Matt; Lacy, Mark; Maraston, Claudia; Middelberg, Enno; Seymour, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRSs) are a rare class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelengths but very faint at infrared and optical wavelengths. Here we present sensitive near-infrared observations of a sample of these sources taken as part of the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey. Nearly all the IFRSs are undetected at a level of ∼1 μJy in these new deep observations, and even the detections are consistent with confusion with unrelated galaxies. A stacked image implies that the median flux density is S 3.6μm ∼ 0.2 μJy or less, giving extreme values of the radio-infrared flux density ratio. Comparison of these objects with known classes of object suggests that the majority are probably high-redshift radio-loud galaxies, possibly suffering from significant dust extinction.

  17. Spitzer Observations of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 During Deep Impact : Water and Dust Production and Spatial Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Adeline; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Kelley, M. S.; Woodward, C. E.

    2009-09-01

    The Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft encountered comet 9P/Tempel 1 on July 4th, 2005 (rh = 1.506 AU). Spectral maps covering 20'' x 67'' (1.85''/pixel) were acquired with the IRS instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope (ΔSpitzer = 0.72 AU) at different times around the Deep Impact event: twice before impact (TI-41.3hrs and TI-22.9hrs) and twelve times after impact (between TI+0.67hrs and TI+1027hrs). These IRS observations (Lisse et al 2006, Sciences 313, 635) were taken from the Spitzer data archive. We present the interpretation of 5.2-7.6 µm spectra obtained in the second order of the short-wavelength module (SL2). To reduce the contribution of artifacts in the spectra, 5x5 pixel extraction apertures (9.25''x9.25'') were used. On the first stage we studied the water ν2 vibrational band emission at 6.4µm, which is present in most spectra. The water production rate before impact is deduced ( 4.25e27 molecules/sec). In order to study both the amount and origin of the water molecules released after impact, we used extractions centered on the nucleus and along the length of the slit. We analyzed the spatial distribution of water and its time evolution with a time-dependent model which describes the evolution of the water cloud after impact. The underlying continuum in the spectra provides information on the evolution and color temperature of the dust ejecta. The dust mass and dust/gas ratio in the ejecta cloud are derived and compared with other values published in the literature.

  18. SPIRITS: SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Mansi; Jencson, Jacob; Lau, Ryan; Masci, Frank; Helou, George; Williams, Robert; Bally, John; Bond, Howard; Whitelock, Patricia; Cody, Ann Marie; Gehrz, Robert; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Smith, Nathan; Surace, Jason; Armus, Lee; Cantiello, Matteo; Langer, Norbert; Levesque, Emily; Mohamed, Shazrene; Ofek, Eran; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; van Dyk, Schuyler; Boyer, Martha; Phillips, Mark; Hsiao, Eric; Morrell, Nidia; Perley, Dan; Gonzalez, Consuelo; Contreras, Carlos; Jones, Olivia; Ressler, Michael; Adams, Scott; Moore, Anna; Cook, David; Fox, Ori; Johansson, Joel; Khan, Rubab; Monson, Andrew; Hankins, Matthew; Goldman, Steven; Jacob, Jencson

    2018-05-01

    Spitzer is pioneering a systematic exploration of the dynamic infrared sky. Our SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) has already discovered 78 explosive transients and 2457 eruptive variables. Of these 78 infrared transients, 60 are so red that they are devoid of optical counterparts and we call them SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). The nature of SPRITEs is unknown and progress on deciphering the explosion physics depends on mid-IR spectroscopy. Multiple physical origins have been proposed including stellar merger, birth of a massive binary, electron capture supernova and stellar black hole formation. Hence, we propose a modest continuation of SPIRITS, focusing on discovering and monitoring SPRITEs, in preparation for follow-up with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). As the SPRITEs evolve and cool, the bulk of the emission shifts to longer wavelengths. MIRI aboard JWST will be the only available platform in the near future capable of characterizing SPRITEs out to 28 um. Specifically, the low resolution spectrometer would determine dust mass, grain chemistry, ice abundance and energetics to disentangle the proposed origins. The re-focused SPIRITS program consists of continued Spitzer monitoring of those 106 luminous galaxies that are known SPRITE hosts or are most likely to host new SPRITEs. Scaling from the SPIRITS discovery rate, we estimate finding 10 new SPRITEs and 2-3 new supernovae in Cycle 14. The SPIRITS team remains committed to extensive ground-based follow-up. The Spitzer observations proposed here are essential for determining the final fates of active SPRITEs as well as bridging the time lag between the current SPIRITS survey and JWST launch.

  19. A MODEL FOR (QUASI-)PERIODIC MULTIWAVELENGTH PHOTOMETRIC VARIABILITY IN YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesseli, Aurora Y. [Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Petkova, Maya A.; Wood, Kenneth; Gregory, Scott G. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9AD (United Kingdom); Whitney, Barbara A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter St, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stauffer, J. R.; Morales-Calderon, M.; Rebull, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, CA 91125 (United States); Alencar, S. H. P., E-mail: aurorak@bu.com [Departamento de Física—ICEx—UFMG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, 30270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-09-01

    We present radiation transfer models of rotating young stellar objects (YSOs) with hot spots in their atmospheres, inner disk warps, and other three-dimensional effects in the nearby circumstellar environment. Our models are based on the geometry expected from magneto-accretion theory, where material moving inward in the disk flows along magnetic field lines to the star and creates stellar hot spots upon impact. Due to rotation of the star and magnetosphere, the disk is variably illuminated. We compare our model light curves to data from the Spitzer YSOVAR project to determine if these processes can explain the variability observed at optical and mid-infrared wavelengths in young stars. We focus on those variables exhibiting “dipper” behavior that may be periodic, quasi-periodic, or aperiodic. We find that the stellar hot-spot size and temperature affects the optical and near-infrared light curves, while the shape and vertical extent of the inner disk warp affects the mid-IR light curve variations. Clumpy disk distributions with non-uniform fractal density structure produce more stochastic light curves. We conclude that magneto-accretion theory is consistent with certain aspects of the multiwavelength photometric variability exhibited by low-mass YSOs. More detailed modeling of individual sources can be used to better determine the stellar hot-spot and inner disk geometries of particular sources.

  20. Multiwavelength Observations of the Candidate Disintegrating Sub-Mercury KIC 12557548b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Bryce; Rappaport, Saul; DeVore, John; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Crepp, Justin R.; Howard, Andrew W.; Star, Kimberly M.; Chiang, Eugene; Levine, Alan M.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Albert, Loic; Bonomo, Aldo S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Isaacson, Howard

    2014-05-01

    We present multiwavelength photometry, high angular resolution imaging, and radial velocities of the unique and confounding disintegrating low-mass planet candidate KIC 12557548b. Our high angular resolution imaging, which includes space-based Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3) observations in the optical (~0.53 μm and ~0.77 μm), and ground-based Keck/NIRC2 observations in K' band (~2.12 μm), allow us to rule out background and foreground candidates at angular separations greater than 0.''2 that are bright enough to be responsible for the transits we associate with KIC 12557548. Our radial velocity limit from Keck/HIRES allows us to rule out bound, low-mass stellar companions (~0.2 M ⊙) to KIC 12557548 on orbits less than 10 yr, as well as placing an upper limit on the mass of the candidate planet of 1.2 Jupiter masses; therefore, the combination of our radial velocities, high angular resolution imaging, and photometry are able to rule out most false positive interpretations of the transits. Our precise multiwavelength photometry includes two simultaneous detections of the transit of KIC 12557548b using Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/Wide-field InfraRed Camera (CFHT/WIRCam) at 2.15 μm and the Kepler space telescope at 0.6 μm, as well as simultaneous null-detections of the transit by Kepler and HST/WFC3 at 1.4 μm. Our simultaneous HST/WFC3 and Kepler null-detections provide no evidence for radically different transit depths at these wavelengths. Our simultaneous CFHT/WIRCam detections in the near-infrared and with Kepler in the optical reveal very similar transit depths (the average ratio of the transit depths at ~2.15 μm compared with ~0.6 μm is: 1.02 ± 0.20). This suggests that if the transits we observe are due to scattering from single-size particles streaming from the planet in a comet-like tail, then the particles must be ~0.5 μm in radius or larger, which would favor that KIC 12557548b is a sub-Mercury rather than super

  1. Spitzer Observations of M33 & M83 and the Hot Star, Hii Region Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, R.; Simpson, J.; Colgan, S.; Dufour, R.; Citron, R.; Ray, K.; Erickson, E.; Haas, M.; Pauldrach, A.

    2007-05-01

    H II regions play a crucial role in the measurement of current interstellar abundances. They also serve as laboratories for atomic physics and provide fundamental data about heavy element abundances that serve to constrain models of galactic chemical evolution. We observed emission lines of [S IV] 10.5, H (7-6) 12.4, [Ne II] 12.8, [Ne III] 15.6, & [S III] 18.7 micron cospatially with the Spitzer Space Telescope using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) in short-high mode (SH). Here we concentrate on the galaxy M33 and compare the results with our earlier similar study of M83. In each of these substantially face-on spirals, we observed ˜25 H II regions, covering a full range of galactocentric radii (RG). For most of the M33 H II regions, we were able to measure the H (7-6) line while none were detectable in M83. This limited our M83 study to a determination of the Ne++/Ne+, /, and S3+/S++ abundance ratios vs. RG. Angular brackets denote fractional ionizations. As well as having the addition of fluxes for the H(7-6) line, the M33 H II regions are generally of much higher ionization than those in M83, resulting in larger Ne++/Ne+ and S3+/ S++ abundance ratios. For M33, in addition to what we derived for those nebulae in M83, we are also able to derive Ne/H, S/H and Ne/S vs. RG. Important advantages compared with prior optical studies are: 1) the IR lines have a weak and similar electron temperature (Te) dependence while optical lines vary exponentially with Te and 2) the IR lines suffer far less from interstellar extinction. Additionally, these data may be used as constraints on the ionizing spectral energy distribution for the stars exciting these nebulae by comparing the above ionic ratios with predictions using stellar atmosphere models from several different non-LTE model sets. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407

  2. SPITZER SECONDARY ECLIPSES OF WASP-18b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nymeyer, Sarah; Harrington, Joseph; Hardy, Ryan A.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Campo, Christopher J.; Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, William C.; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Cubillos, Patricio; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Hellier, Coel; Anderson, David R.; Gillon, Michael; Hebb, Leslie; Wheatley, Peter J.; Pollacco, Don

    2011-01-01

    The transiting exoplanet WASP-18b was discovered in 2008 by the Wide Angle Search for Planets project. The Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity Program observed secondary eclipses of WASP-18b using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera in the 3.6 μm and 5.8 μm bands on 2008 December 20, and in the 4.5 μm and 8.0 μm bands on 2008 December 24. We report eclipse depths of 0.30% ± 0.02%, 0.39% ± 0.02%, 0.37% ± 0.03%, 0.41% ± 0.02%, and brightness temperatures of 3100 ± 90, 3310 ± 130, 3080 ± 140, and 3120 ± 110 K in order of increasing wavelength. WASP-18b is one of the hottest planets yet discovered—as hot as an M-class star. The planet's pressure-temperature profile most likely features a thermal inversion. The observations also require WASP-18b to have near-zero albedo and almost no redistribution of energy from the day side to the night side of the planet.

  3. THE ORIGIN OF THE INFRARED EMISSION IN RADIO GALAXIES. II. ANALYSIS OF MID- TO FAR-INFRARED SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF THE 2JY SAMPLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicken, D.; Tadhunter, C.; Axon, D.; Morganti, R.; Inskip, K. J.; Holt, J.; Delgado, R. Gonzalez; Groves, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of deep mid- to far-infrared (MFIR) Spitzer photometric observations of the southern 2Jy sample of powerful radio sources (0.05

  4. SPITZER PARALLAX of OGLE-2015-BLG-0966

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Street, R. A.; Udalski, A.; Novati, S. Calchi

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of a cold Neptune mplanet = 21 ± 2 M⊕ orbiting a 0.38 M⊙ M dwarf lying 2.5-3.3 kpc toward the Galactic center as part of a campaign combining ground-based and Spitzer observations to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. This is the first time that the complex real...

  5. ExploreNEOs: The Warm Spitzer Near Earth Object survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Hora, J. L.; Harris, A. W.; Benner, L. A. M.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Delbó, M.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G.; Hagen, A. R.; Kistler, J. L.; Mainzer, A.; Mommert, M.; Morbidelli, A.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.; Thomas, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    We are carrying out the ExploreNEOs project in which we observe more than 600 near Earth Objects (NEOs) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns with Warm Spitzer. For each NEO we derive diameter and albedo. We present our results to date, which include studies of individual objects, results for our entire observed

  6. Diogenite-like Features in the Spitzer IRS (5-35 micrometers) Spectrum of 956 ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, Joshua P.; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.

    2009-01-01

    We report preliminary results from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the V-type asteroid 956 Elisa. Elisa was observed as part of a campaign to measure the 5.2-38 micron spectra of small basaltic asteroids with the Spitzer IRS. Targets include members of the dynamical family of the unique large differentiated asteroid 4 Vesta ("Vesroids"), several outer-main-belt basaltic asteroids whose orbits exclude them from originating on 4 Vesta, and the basaltic near-Earth asteroid 4055 Magellan.

  7. Multiwavelength Absolute Phase Retrieval from Noisy Diffractive Patterns: Wavelength Multiplexing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Katkovnik

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of multiwavelength absolute phase retrieval from noisy diffraction patterns. The system is lensless with multiwavelength coherent input light beams and random phase masks applied for wavefront modulation. The light beams are formed by light sources radiating all wavelengths simultaneously. A sensor equipped by a Color Filter Array (CFA is used for spectral measurement registration. The developed algorithm targeted on optimal phase retrieval from noisy observations is based on maximum likelihood technique. The algorithm is specified for Poissonian and Gaussian noise distributions. One of the key elements of the algorithm is an original sparse modeling of the multiwavelength complex-valued wavefronts based on the complex-domain block-matching 3D filtering. Presented numerical experiments are restricted to noisy Poissonian observations. They demonstrate that the developed algorithm leads to effective solutions explicitly using the sparsity for noise suppression and enabling accurate reconstruction of absolute phase of high-dynamic range.

  8. ExploreNEOs: The Warm Spitzer Near Earth Object Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trilling, D. E.; Hora, J. L.; Mueller, M.; Thomas, C. A.; Harris, A. W.; Hagen, A. R.; Mommert, M.; Benner, L.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Delbo, M.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G.; Kistler, J. L.; Mainzer, A.; Morbidelli, A.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We have observed some 600 near Earth objects (NEOs) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns with the Warm Spitzer Space Telescope. We derive the albedo and diameter for each NEO to characterize global properties of the NEO population, among other goals.

  9. A SPITZER SURVEY FOR DUST IN TYPE IIn SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Ori D.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Nathan; Steele, Thea N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) may exhibit late-time (>100 days) infrared (IR) emission from warm dust more than other types of core-collapse SNe. Mid-IR observations, which span the peak of the thermal spectral energy distribution, provide useful constraints on the properties of the dust and, ultimately, the circumstellar environment, explosion mechanism, and progenitor system. Due to the low SN IIn rate (<10% of all core-collapse SNe), few IR observations exist for this subclass. The handful of isolated studies, however, show late-time IR emission from warm dust that, in some cases, extends for five or six years post-discovery. While previous Spitzer/IRAC surveys have searched for dust in SNe, none have targeted the Type IIn subclass. This paper presents results from a warm Spitzer/IRAC survey of the positions of all 68 known SNe IIn within a distance of 250 Mpc between 1999 and 2008 that have remained unobserved by Spitzer more than 100 days post-discovery. The detection of late-time emission from 10 targets (∼15%) nearly doubles the database of existing mid-IR observations of SNe IIn. Although optical spectra show evidence for new dust formation in some cases, the data show that in most cases the likely origin of the mid-IR emission is pre-existing dust, which is continuously heated by optical emission generated by ongoing circumstellar interaction between the forward shock and circumstellar medium. Furthermore, an emerging trend suggests that these SNe decline at ∼1000-2000 days post-discovery once the forward shock overruns the dust shell. The mass-loss rates associated with these dust shells are consistent with luminous blue variable progenitors.

  10. SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE MID-IR LIGHT CURVES OF NEPTUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, John; Rebull, Luisa; Carey, Sean J.; Krick, Jessica; Ingalls, James G.; Lowrance, Patrick; Glaccum, William [Spitzer Science Center (SSC), California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Marley, Mark S. [NASA Ames Research Center, Space Sciences and Astrobiology Division, MS245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Gizis, John E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Simon, Amy A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar System Exploration Division (690.0), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wong, Michael H. [University of California, Department of Astronomy, Berkeley CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2016 February to obtain high cadence, high signal-to-noise, 17 hr duration light curves of Neptune at 3.6 and 4.5 μ m. The light curve duration was chosen to correspond to the rotation period of Neptune. Both light curves are slowly varying with time, with full amplitudes of 1.1 mag at 3.6 μ m and 0.6 mag at 4.5 μ m. We have also extracted sparsely sampled 18 hr light curves of Neptune at W1 (3.4 μ m) and W2 (4.6 μ m) from the Wide-feld Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE )/ NEOWISE archive at six epochs in 2010–2015. These light curves all show similar shapes and amplitudes compared to the Spitzer light curves but with considerable variation from epoch to epoch. These amplitudes are much larger than those observed with Kepler / K 2 in the visible (amplitude ∼0.02 mag) or at 845 nm with the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) in 2015 and at 763 nm in 2016 (amplitude ∼0.2 mag). We interpret the Spitzer and WISE light curves as arising entirely from reflected solar photons, from higher levels in Neptune’s atmosphere than for K 2. Methane gas is the dominant opacity source in Neptune’s atmosphere, and methane absorption bands are present in the HST 763 and 845 nm, WISE W1, and Spitzer 3.6 μ m filters.

  11. LOCAL BENCHMARKS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF MAJOR-MERGER GALAXIES-SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF A K-BAND SELECTED SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, C. Kevin; Cheng Yiwen; Lu Nanyao; Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Cutri, Roc; Domingue, Donovan; Huang Jiasheng; Gao Yu; Sun, W.-H.; Surace, Jason

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer observations for a sample of close major-merger galaxy pairs (KPAIR sample) selected from cross-matches between the Two Micron All Sky Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3. The goals are to study the star formation activity in these galaxies and to set a local bench mark for the cosmic evolution of close major mergers. The Spitzer KPAIR sample (27 pairs, 54 galaxies) includes all spectroscopically confirmed spiral-spiral (S+S) and spiral-elliptical (S+E) pairs in a parent sample that is complete for primaries brighter than K = 12.5 mag, projected separations of 5 h -1 kpc ≤ s ≤ 20 h -1 kpc, and mass ratios ≤2.5. The Spitzer data, consisting of images in seven bands (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8, 24, 70, 160 μm), show very diversified IR emission properties. Compared to single spiral galaxies in a control sample, only spiral galaxies in S+S pairs show significantly enhanced specific star formation rate (sSFR = SFR/M), whereas spiral galaxies in S+E pairs do not. Furthermore, the SFR enhancement of spiral galaxies in S+S pairs is highly mass-dependent. Only those with M ∼> 10 10.5 M sun show significant enhancement. Relatively low-mass (M ∼ 10 10 M sun ) spirals in S+S pairs have about the same SFR/M compared to their counterparts in the control sample, while those with 10 11 M sun have on average a ∼3 times higher SFR/M than single spirals. There is evidence for a correlation between the global star formation activities (but not the nuclear activities) of the component galaxies in massive S+S major-merger pairs (the H olmberg effect ) . There is no significant difference in the SFR/M between the primaries and the secondaries, nor between spirals of SEP KPAIR =2.54 x 10 -4 (M sun yr -1 Mpc -3 ).

  12. Spitzer mid-infrared spectra of cool-core galaxy clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Messières, G.E.; O'Connell, R.W.; McNamara, B.R.; Donahue, M.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Voit, G.M.; Wise, M.W.; Smith, B.; Higdon, J.; Higdon, S.; Bastian, N.

    2010-01-01

    We have obtained mid-infrared spectra of nine cool-core galaxy clusters with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. X-ray, ultraviolet and optical observations have demonstrated that each of these clusters hosts a cooling flow which seems to be fueling vigorous star formation

  13. A Spitzer Survey for Dust in Type IIn Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ori D.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Nathan; Steele, Thea N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) may exhibit late-time (greater than 100 days) infrared (IR) emission from warm dust more than other types of core-collapse SNe. Mid-IR observations, which span the peak of the thermal spectral energy distribution, provide useful constraints on the properties of the dust and, ultimately, the circumstellar environment, explosion mechanism, and progenitor system. Due to the low SN IIn rate (less than 10% of all core-collapse SNe), few IR observations exist for this subclass. The handful of isolated studies, however, show late-time IR emission from warm dust that, in some cases, extends for five or six years post-discovery. While previous Spitzer/IRAC surveys have searched for dust in SNe, none have targeted the Type IIn subclass. This article presents results from a warm Spitzer/IRAC survey of the positions of all 68 known SNe IIn within a distance of 250 Mpc between 1999 and 2008 that have remained unobserved by Spitzer more than 100 days postdiscovery. The detection of late-time emission from ten targets (approximately 15%) nearly doubles the database of existing mid-IR observations of SNe IIn. Although optical spectra show evidence for new dust formation in some cases, the data show that in most cases the likely origin of the mid-IR emission is pre-existing dust, which is continuously heated by optical emission generated by ongoing circumstellar interaction between the forward shock and circumstellar medium. Furthermore, an emerging trend suggests that these SNe decline at approximately 1000-2000 days post-discovery once the forward shock overruns the dust shell. The mass-loss rates associated with these dust shells are consistent with luminous blue variable (LBV) progenitors.

  14. Hunting for treasures among the Fermi unassociated sources: A multiwavelength approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, F.; Ojha, R.; Donato, D.; Ferrara, E.; Stevens, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Blanchard, J.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Thompson, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has been detecting a wealth of sources where the multiwavelength counterpart is either inconclusive or missing altogether. We present a combination of factors that can be used to identify multiwavelength counterparts to these Fermi unassociated sources. This approach was used to select and investigate seven bright, high-latitude unassociated sources with radio, UV, X-ray, and γ-ray observations. As a result, four of these sources are candidates to be active galactic nuclei, and one to be a pulsar, while two do not fit easily into these known categories of sources. The latter pair of extraordinary sources might reveal a new category subclass or a new type of γ-ray emitter. These results altogether demonstrate the power of a multiwavelength approach to illuminate the nature of unassociated Fermi sources.

  15. Dust Processing in Supernova Remnants: Spitzer MIPS SED and IRS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, John W.; Petre, Robert; Katsuda Satoru; Andersen, M.; Rho, J.; Reach, W. T.; Bernard, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer MIPS SED and IRS observations of 14 Galactic Supernova Remnants previously identified in the GLIMPSE survey. We find evidence for SNR/molecular cloud interaction through detection of [OI] emission, ionic lines, and emission from molecular hydrogen. Through black-body fitting of the MIPS SEDs we find the large grains to be warm, 29-66 K. The dust emission is modeled using the DUSTEM code and a three component dust model composed of populations of big grains, very small grains, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We find the dust to be moderately heated, typically by 30-100 times the interstellar radiation field. The source of the radiation is likely hydrogen recombination, where the excitation of hydrogen occurred in the shock front. The ratio of very small grains to big grains is found for most of the molecular interacting SNRs to be higher than that found in the plane of the Milky Way, typically by a factor of 2--3. We suggest that dust shattering is responsible for the relative over-abundance of small grains, in agreement with prediction from dust destruction models. However, two of the SNRs are best fit with a very low abundance of carbon grains to silicate grains and with a very high radiation field. A likely reason for the low abundance of small carbon grains is sputtering. We find evidence for silicate emission at 20 $\\mu$m in their SEDs, indicating that they are young SNRs based on the strong radiation field necessary to reproduce the observed SEDs.

  16. A Cometary Bow Shock and Mid-Infrared Emission Variations Revealed in Spitzer Observations of HD 34078 and IC 405

    OpenAIRE

    France, Kevin; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Lupu, Roxana E.

    2006-01-01

    We present new infrared observations of the emission/reflection nebula IC 405 obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Infrared images in the four IRAC bands (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 um) and two MIPS bands (24 and 70 um) are complemented by IRS spectroscopy (5-30 um) of two nebular filaments. The IRAC (8.0 um) and MIPS imaging shows evidence of a bow shock associated with the runaway O9.5V star, HD 34078, created by the interaction between the star and nebular material. The ratio of emission...

  17. The prompt to late-time multiwavelength analysis of GRB 060210

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, P.A.; van der Horst, A.J.; Beardmore, A.P.; Page, K.L.; Rol, E.; Melandri, A.; Steele, I.A.; Mundell, C.G.; Gomboc, A.; O'Brien, P.T.; Bersier, D.F.; Bode, M.F.; Carter, D.; Guidorzi, C.; Hill, J.E.; Hurkett, C.P.; Kobayashi, S.; Monfardini, A.; Mottram, C.J.; Smith, R.J.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Willingale, R.

    2007-01-01

    Aims.We present our analysis of the multiwavelength photometric & spectroscopic observations of GRB 060210 and discuss the results in the overall context of current GRB models. Methods: All available optical data underwent a simultaneous temporal fit, while X-ray and gamma-ray observations were

  18. DEBRIS DISKS AROUND SOLAR-TYPE STARS: OBSERVATIONS OF THE PLEIADES WITH THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierchio, J. M.; Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L.; Plavchan, P.; Stauffer, J. R.; Gorlova, N. I.

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer MIPS observations at 24 μm of 37 solar-type stars in the Pleiades and combine them with previous observations to obtain a sample of 71 stars. We report that 23 stars, or 32% ± 6.8%, have excesses at 24 μm at least 10% above their photospheric emission. We compare our results with studies of debris disks in other open clusters and with a study of A stars to show that debris disks around solar-type stars at 115 Myr occur at nearly the same rate as around A-type stars. We analyze the effects of binarity and X-ray activity on the excess flux. Stars with warm excesses tend not to be in equal-mass binary systems, possibly due to clearing of planetesimals by binary companions in similar orbits. We find that the apparent anti-correlations in the incidence of excess and both the rate of stellar rotation and also the level of activity as judged by X-ray emission are statistically weak.

  19. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF PASSIVE AND STAR-FORMING EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: AN INFRARED COLOR-COLOR SEQUENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temi, Pasquale; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the infrared properties of a large sample of early-type galaxies, comparing data from the Spitzer archive with Ks-band emission from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. While most representations of this data result in correlations with large scatter, we find a remarkably tight relation among colors formed by ratios of luminosities in Spitzer-Multiband Imaging Photometer bands (24, 70, and 160 μm) and the Ks band. Remarkably, this correlation among E and S0 galaxies follows that of nearby normal galaxies of all morphological types. In particular, the tight infrared color-color correlation for S0 galaxies alone follows that of the entire Hubble sequence of normal galaxies, roughly in order of galaxy type from ellipticals to spirals to irregulars. The specific star formation rate (SFR) of S0 galaxies estimated from the 24 μm luminosity increases with decreasing K-band luminosity (or stellar mass) from essentially zero, as with most massive ellipticals, to rates typical of irregular galaxies. Moreover, the luminosities of the many infrared-luminous S0 galaxies can significantly exceed those of the most luminous (presumably post-merger) E galaxies. SFRs in the most infrared-luminous S0 galaxies approach 1-10 solar masses per year. Consistently, with this picture we find that while most early-type galaxies populate an infrared red sequence, about 24% of the objects (mostly S0s) are in an infrared blue cloud together with late-type galaxies. For those early-type galaxies also observed at radio frequencies, we find that the far-infrared luminosities correlate with the mass of neutral and molecular hydrogen, but the scatter is large. This scatter suggests that the star formation may be intermittent or that similar S0 galaxies with cold gaseous disks of nearly equal mass can have varying radial column density distributions that alter the local and global SFRs.

  20. The climate of HD 189733b from fourteen transits and eclipses measured by Spitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agol, E.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara; Cowan, Nicolas B.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Knutson, Heather A.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept.; Deming, Drake; /NASA, Goddard; Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Henry, Gregory W.; /Tennessee State U.; Charbonneau, David; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2010-07-01

    We present observations of six transits and six eclipses of the transiting planet system HD 189733 taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC camera at 8 microns, as well as a re-analysis of previously published data. We use several novel techniques in our data analysis, the most important of which is a new correction for the detector 'ramp' variation with a double-exponential function which performs better and is a better physical model for this detector variation. Our main scientific findings are: (1) an upper limit on the variability of the day-side planet flux of 2.7% (68% confidence); (2) the most precise set of transit times measured for a transiting planet, with an average accuracy of 3 seconds; (3) a lack of transit-timing variations, excluding the presence of second planets in this system above 20% of the mass of Mars in low-order mean-motion resonance at 95% confidence; (4) a confirmation of the planet's phase variation, finding the night side is 64% as bright as the day side, as well as an upper limit on the night-side variability of 17% (68% confidence); (5) a better correction for stellar variability at 8 micron causing the phase function to peak 3.5 hours before secondary eclipse, confirming that the advection and radiation timescales are comparable at the 8 micron photosphere; (6) variation in the depth of transit, which possibly implies variations in the surface brightness of the portion of the star occulted by the planet, posing a fundamental limit on non-simultaneous multi-wavelength transit absorption measurements of planet atmospheres; (7) a measurement of the infrared limb-darkening of the star, which is in good agreement with stellar atmosphere models; (8) an offset in the times of secondary eclipse of 69 seconds, which is mostly accounted for by a 31 second light travel time delay and 33 second delay due to the shift of ingress and egress by the planet hot spot; this confirms that the phase variation is due to an offset hot

  1. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF GX17+2: CONFIRMATION OF A PERIODIC SYNCHROTRON SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Thomas E.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Bornak, Jillian; Gelino, Dawn M.; Wachter, Stefanie; Rupen, Michael P.; Gelino, Christopher R.

    2011-01-01

    GX17+2 is a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) that is also a member of a small family of LMXBs known as 'Z-sources' that are believed to have persistent X-ray luminosities that are very close to the Eddington limit. GX17+2 is highly variable at both radio and X-ray frequencies, a feature common to Z-sources. What sets GX17+2 apart is its dramatic variability in the near-infrared, where it changes by ΔK ∼ 3 mag. Previous investigations have shown that these brightenings are periodic, recurring every 3.01 days. Given its high extinction (A V ≥ 9 mag), it has not been possible to ascertain the nature of these events with ground-based observations. We report mid-infrared Spitzer observations of GX17+2 which indicate a synchrotron spectrum for the infrared brightenings. In addition, GX17+2 is highly variable in the mid-infrared during these events. The combination of the large-scale outbursts, the presence of a synchrotron spectrum, and the dramatic variability in the mid-infrared suggest that the infrared brightening events are due to the periodic transit of a synchrotron jet across our line of sight. An analysis of both new, and archival, infrared observations has led us to revise the period for these events to 3.0367 days. We also present new Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data for GX17+2 obtained during two predicted infrared brightening events. Analysis of these new data, and data from the RXTE archive, indicates that there is no correlation between the X-ray behavior of this source and the observed infrared brightenings. We examine various scenarios that might produce periodic jet emission.

  2. Hunting Elusive SPRITEs with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, astronomers have developed many wide-field imaging surveys in which the same targets are observed again and again. This new form of observing has allowed us to discover optical and radio transients explosive or irregular events with durations ranging from seconds to years. The dynamic infrared sky, however, has remained largely unexplored until now.Infrared ExplorationExample of a transient: SPIRITS 14ajc was visible when imaged by SPIRITS in 2014 (left) but it wasnt there during previous imaging between 2004 and 2008 (right). The bottom frame shows the difference between the two images. [Adapted from Kasliwal et al. 2017]Why hunt for infrared transients? Optical wavelengths dont allow us to observe events that are obscured, such that their own structure or their surroundings hide them from our view. Both supernovae and luminous red novae (associated with stellar mergers) are discoverable as infrared transients, and there may well be new types of transients in infrared that we havent seen before!To explore this uncharted territory, a team of scientists developed SPIRITS, the Spitzer Infrared Intensive Transients Survey. Begun in 2014, SPIRITS is a five-year long survey that uses the Spitzer Space Telescope to conduct a systematic search for mid-infrared transients in nearby galaxies.In a recent publication led by Mansi Kasliwal (Caltech and the Carnegie Institution for Science), the SPIRITS team has now detailed how their survey works and what theyve discovered in its first year.The light curves of SPRITEs (red stars) lie in the mid-infared luminosity gap between novae (orange) and supernovae (blue). [Kasliwal et al. 2017]Mystery TransientsKasliwal and collaborators used Spitzer to monitor 190 nearby galaxies. In SPIRITS first year, they found over 1958 variable stars and 43 infrared transient sources. Of these 43 transients, 21 were known supernovae, 4 were in the luminosity range of novae, and 4 had optical counterparts. The remaining 14 events

  3. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV-GERASIMENKO AT 5.5-4.3 AU FROM THE SUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, Michael S.; Wooden, Diane H.; Tubiana, Cecilia; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Woodward, Charles E.; Harker, David E.

    2009-01-01

    We report Spitzer Space Telescope observations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at 5.5 and 4.3 AU from the Sun, post-aphelion. Comet 67P is the primary target of the European Space Agency's Rosetta mission. The Rosetta spacecraft will rendezvous with the nucleus at heliocentric distances similar to our observations. Rotationally resolved observations at 8 and 24 μm (at a heliocentric distance, r h , of 4.8 AU) that sample the size and color-temperature of the nucleus are combined with aphelion R-band light curves observed at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and yield a mean effective radius of 2.04 ± 0.11 km, and an R-band geometric albedo of 0.054 ± 0.006. The amplitudes of the R-band and mid-infrared light curves agree, which suggests that the variability is dominated by the shape of the nucleus. We also detect the dust trail of the comet at 4.8 and 5.5 AU, constrain the grain sizes to be ∼ h = 4 AU in 2014.

  4. Spitzer Photometry of WISE-Selected Brown Dwarf and Hyper-Lumninous Infrared Galaxy Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Cushing, Michael C.; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie R.; Cohen, Martin; Cutri, Roc M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 micrometer photometry and positions for a sample of 1510 brown dwarf candidates identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. Of these, 166 have been spectroscopically classified as objects with spectral types M(1), L(7), T(146), and Y(12). Sixteen other objects are non-(sub)stellar in nature. The remainder are most likely distant L and T dwarfs lacking spectroscopic verification, other Y dwarf candidates still awaiting follow-up, and assorted other objects whose Spitzer photometry reveals them to be background sources. We present a catalog of Spitzer photometry for all astrophysical sources identified in these fields and use this catalog to identify seven fainter (4.5 m to approximately 17.0 mag) brown dwarf candidates, which are possibly wide-field companions to the original WISE sources. To test this hypothesis, we use a sample of 919 Spitzer observations around WISE-selected high-redshift hyper-luminous infrared galaxy candidates. For this control sample, we find another six brown dwarf candidates, suggesting that the seven companion candidates are not physically associated. In fact, only one of these seven Spitzer brown dwarf candidates has a photometric distance estimate consistent with being a companion to the WISE brown dwarf candidate. Other than this, there is no evidence for any widely separated (greater than 20 AU) ultra-cool binaries. As an adjunct to this paper, we make available a source catalog of 7.33 x 10(exp 5) objects detected in all of these Spitzer follow-up fields for use by the astronomical community. The complete catalog includes the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 m photometry, along with positionally matched B and R photometry from USNO-B; J, H, and Ks photometry from Two Micron All-Sky Survey; and W1, W2, W3, and W4 photometry from the WISE all-sky catalog.

  5. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF LONG-TERM INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN CHAMAELEON I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Kevin M.; Herbst, William [Van Vleck Observatory, Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); DeMarchi, Lindsay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, 13 Oak Drive, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States); Muzerolle, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Balog, Zoltan [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Megeath, S. Thomas [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Furlan, Elise [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 S. Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    Infrared variability is common among young stellar objects, with surveys finding daily to weekly fluctuations of a few tenths of a magnitude. Space-based observations can produce highly sampled infrared light curves, but are often limited to total baselines of about 1 month due to the orientation of the spacecraft. Here we present observations of the Chameleon I cluster, whose low declination makes it observable by the Spitzer Space Telescope over a 200-day period. We observe 30 young stellar objects with a daily cadence to better sample variability on timescales of months. We find that such variability is common, occurring in ∼80% of the detected cluster members. The change in [3.6]–[4.5] color over 200 days for many of the sources falls between that expected for extinction and fluctuations in disk emission. With our high cadence and long baseline we can derive power spectral density curves covering two orders of magnitude in frequency and find significant power at low frequencies, up to the boundaries of our 200-day survey. Such long timescales are difficult to explain with variations driven by the interaction between the disk and stellar magnetic field, which has a dynamical timescale of days to weeks. The most likely explanation is either structural or temperature fluctuations spread throughout the inner ∼0.5 au of the disk, suggesting that the intrinsic dust structure is highly dynamic.

  6. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. IV. LUPUS V AND VI OBSERVED WITH IRAC AND MIPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spezzi, Loredana; Vernazza, Pierre; Merin, Bruno; Allen, Lori E.; Evans, Neal J. II; Harvey, Paul M.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Peterson, Dawn; Cieza, Lucas A.; Dunham, Michael M.; Huard, Tracy L.; Tothill, Nick F. H.

    2011-01-01

    We present Gould's Belt (GB) Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the Lupus V and VI clouds and discuss them in combination with near-infrared (2MASS) data. Our observations complement those obtained for other Lupus clouds within the frame of the Spitzer C ore to Disk(c2d) Legacy Survey. We found 43 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in Lupus V and 45 in Lupus VI, including two transition disks, using the standard c2d/GB selection method. None of these sources was classified as a pre-main-sequence star from previous optical, near-IR, and X-ray surveys. A large majority of these YSO candidates appear to be surrounded by thin disks (Class III; ∼79% in Lupus V and ∼87% in Lupus VI). These Class III abundances differ significantly from those observed for the other Lupus clouds and c2d/GB surveyed star-forming regions, where objects with optically thick disks (Class II) dominate the young population. We investigate various scenarios that can explain this discrepancy. In particular, we show that disk photoevaporation due to nearby OB stars is not responsible for the high fraction of Class III objects. The gas surface densities measured for Lupus V and VI lie below the star formation threshold (A V ∼ 8.6 mag), while this is not the case for other Lupus clouds. Thus, few Myr older age for the YSOs in Lupus V and VI with respect to other Lupus clouds is the most likely explanation of the high fraction of Class III objects in these clouds, while a higher characteristic stellar mass might be a contributing factor. Better constraints on the age and binary fraction of the Lupus clouds might solve the puzzle but require further observations.

  7. REPEATABILITY OF SPITZER/IRAC EXOPLANETARY ECLIPSES WITH INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morello, G.; Waldmann, I. P.; Tinetti, G., E-mail: giuseppe.morello.11@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    The research of effective and reliable detrending methods for Spitzer data is of paramount importance for the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres. To date, the totality of exoplanetary observations in the mid- and far-infrared, at wavelengths >3 μm, have been taken with Spitzer. In some cases, in past years, repeated observations and multiple reanalyses of the same data sets led to discrepant results, raising questions about the accuracy and reproducibility of such measurements. Morello et al. (2014, 2015) proposed a blind-source separation method based on the Independent Component Analysis of pixel time series (pixel-ICA) to analyze InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) data, obtaining coherent results when applied to repeated transit observations previously debated in the literature. Here we introduce a variant to the pixel-ICA through the use of wavelet transform, wavelet pixel-ICA, which extends its applicability to low-signal-to-noise-ratio cases. We describe the method and discuss the results obtained over 12 eclipses of the exoplanet XO3b observed during the “Warm Spitzer” era in the 4.5 μm band. The final results are reported, in part, also in Ingalls et al. (2016), together with results obtained with other detrending methods, and over 10 synthetic eclipses that were analyzed for the “IRAC Data Challenge 2015.” Our results are consistent within 1σ with the ones reported in Wong et al. (2014) and with most of the results reported in Ingalls et al. (2016), which appeared on arXiv while this paper was under review. Based on many statistical tests discussed in Ingalls et al. (2016), the wavelet pixel-ICA method performs as well as or better than other state-of-art methods recently developed by other teams to analyze Spitzer/IRAC data, and, in particular, it appears to be the most repeatable and the most reliable, while reaching the photon noise limit, at least for the particular data set analyzed. Another strength of the ICA approach is its highest

  8. REPEATABILITY OF SPITZER/IRAC EXOPLANETARY ECLIPSES WITH INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morello, G.; Waldmann, I. P.; Tinetti, G.

    2016-01-01

    The research of effective and reliable detrending methods for Spitzer data is of paramount importance for the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres. To date, the totality of exoplanetary observations in the mid- and far-infrared, at wavelengths >3 μm, have been taken with Spitzer. In some cases, in past years, repeated observations and multiple reanalyses of the same data sets led to discrepant results, raising questions about the accuracy and reproducibility of such measurements. Morello et al. (2014, 2015) proposed a blind-source separation method based on the Independent Component Analysis of pixel time series (pixel-ICA) to analyze InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) data, obtaining coherent results when applied to repeated transit observations previously debated in the literature. Here we introduce a variant to the pixel-ICA through the use of wavelet transform, wavelet pixel-ICA, which extends its applicability to low-signal-to-noise-ratio cases. We describe the method and discuss the results obtained over 12 eclipses of the exoplanet XO3b observed during the “Warm Spitzer” era in the 4.5 μm band. The final results are reported, in part, also in Ingalls et al. (2016), together with results obtained with other detrending methods, and over 10 synthetic eclipses that were analyzed for the “IRAC Data Challenge 2015.” Our results are consistent within 1σ with the ones reported in Wong et al. (2014) and with most of the results reported in Ingalls et al. (2016), which appeared on arXiv while this paper was under review. Based on many statistical tests discussed in Ingalls et al. (2016), the wavelet pixel-ICA method performs as well as or better than other state-of-art methods recently developed by other teams to analyze Spitzer/IRAC data, and, in particular, it appears to be the most repeatable and the most reliable, while reaching the photon noise limit, at least for the particular data set analyzed. Another strength of the ICA approach is its highest

  9. The AKARI FU-HYU galaxy evolution program: first results from the GOODS-N field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, C. P.; Serjeant, S.; Negrello, M.; Takagi, T.; Jeong, W.-S.; Matsuhara, H.; Wada, T.; Oyabu, S.; Lee, H. M.; Im, M. S.

    2010-05-01

    The AKARI FU-HYU mission program carried out mid-infrared imaging of several well studied Spitzer fields preferentially selecting fields already rich in multi-wavelength data from radio to X-ray wavelengths filling in the wavelength desert between the Spitzer IRAC and MIPS bands. We present the initial results for the FU-HYU survey in the GOODS-N field. We utilize the supreme multiwavelength coverage in the GOODS-N field to produce a multiwavelength catalogue from infrared to ultraviolet wavelengths, containing more than 4393 sources, including photometric redshifts. Using the FU-HYU catalogue we present colour-colour diagrams that map the passage of PAH features through our observation bands. We find that the longer mid-infrared bands from AKARI (IRC-L18W 18 micron band) and Spitzer (MIPS24 24 micron band) provide an accurate measure of the total MIR emission of the sources and therefore their probable total mid-infrared luminosity. We also find that colours incorporating the AKARI IRC-S11 11 micron band produce a bimodal distribution where an excess at 11 microns preferentially selects moderate redshift star-forming galaxies. These powerful colour-colour diagnostics are further used as tools to extract anomalous colour populations, in particular a population of Silicate Break galaxies from the GOODS-N field showing that dusty starbursts can be selected of specific redshift ranges (z = 1.2-1.6) by mid-infrared drop-out techniques. The FU-HYU catalogue will be made publically available to the astronomical community.

  10. Bulk Densities of Binary Asteroids from the Warm Spitzer NEO Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistler, John; Trilling, D. E.; Mueller, M.; Hora, J. L.; Harris, A. W.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Emery, J. P.; Fazo, G.; Mainzer, A.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.; Thomas, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    The Warm Spitzer NEO survey, ExploreNEOs, will observe approximately 700 Near Earth Asteroids. Several of these objects are known to be binary asteroid systems. Binary systems are interesting due to the unique opportunity they present for determining the masses and densities of their constituent

  11. Spitzer observations of the thermal emission from WASP-43b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Hardin, Matthew; Bowman, Oliver; Nymeyer, Sarah [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Anderson, David R.; Hellier, Coel; Smith, Alexis M. S. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Cameron, Andrew Collier, E-mail: jasmina@physics.ucf.edu [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    WASP-43b is one of the closest-orbiting hot Jupiters, with a semimajor axis of a = 0.01526 ± 0.00018 AU and a period of only 0.81 days. However, it orbits one of the coolest stars with a hot Jupiter (T {sub *} = 4520 ± 120 K), giving the planet a modest equilibrium temperature of T {sub eq} = 1440 ± 40 K, assuming zero Bond albedo and uniform planetary energy redistribution. The eclipse depths and brightness temperatures from our jointly fit model are 0.347% ± 0.013% and 1670 ± 23 K at 3.6 μm and 0.382% ± 0.015% and 1514 ± 25 K at 4.5 μm. The eclipse timings improved the estimate of the orbital period, P, by a factor of three (P = 0.81347436 ± 1.4 × 10{sup –7} days) and put an upper limit on the eccentricity (e=0.010{sub −0.007}{sup +0.010}). We use our Spitzer eclipse depths along with four previously reported ground-based photometric observations in the near-infrared to constrain the atmospheric properties of WASP-43b. The data rule out a strong thermal inversion in the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b. Model atmospheres with no thermal inversions and fiducial oxygen-rich compositions are able to explain all the available data. However, a wide range of metallicities and C/O ratios can explain the data. The data suggest low day-night energy redistribution in the planet, consistent with previous studies, with a nominal upper limit of about 35% for the fraction of energy incident on the dayside that is redistributed to the nightside.

  12. MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERNOVA 2011ei: TIME-DEPENDENT CLASSIFICATION OF TYPE IIb AND Ib SUPERNOVAE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR PROGENITORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Margutti, Raffaella; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Chomiuk, Laura; Sanders, Nathan E.; Pignata, Giuliano; Bufano, Filomena; Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Parker, Stuart; Mazzali, Paolo; Pian, Elena; Pickering, Timothy; Buckley, David A. H.; Crawford, Steven M.; Gulbis, Amanda A. S.; Hettlage, Christian; Hooper, Eric; Nordsieck, Kenneth H.; O'Donoghue, Darragh

    2013-01-01

    We present X-ray, UV/optical, and radio observations of the stripped-envelope, core-collapse supernova (SN) 2011ei, one of the least luminous SNe IIb or Ib observed to date. Our observations begin with a discovery within ∼1 day of explosion and span several months afterward. Early optical spectra exhibit broad, Type II-like hydrogen Balmer profiles that subside rapidly and are replaced by Type Ib-like He-rich features on a timescale of one week. High-cadence monitoring of this transition suggests absorption attributable to a high-velocity (∼> 12, 000 km s –1 ) H-rich shell, which is likely present in many Type Ib events. Radio observations imply a shock velocity of v ≈ 0.13 c and a progenitor star average mass-loss rate of M-dot ∼1.4×10 -5 M sun yr -1 (assuming wind velocity v w = 10 3 km s –1 ). This is consistent with independent constraints from deep X-ray observations with Swift-XRT and Chandra. Overall, the multi-wavelength properties of SN 2011ei are consistent with the explosion of a lower-mass (3-4 M ☉ ), compact (R * ∼ 11 cm), He-core star. The star retained a thin hydrogen envelope at the time of explosion, and was embedded in an inhomogeneous circumstellar wind suggestive of modest episodic mass loss. We conclude that SN 2011ei's rapid spectral metamorphosis is indicative of time-dependent classifications that bias estimates of the relative explosion rates for Type IIb and Ib objects, and that important information about a progenitor star's evolutionary state and mass loss immediately prior to SN explosion can be inferred from timely multi-wavelength observations.

  13. MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERNOVA 2011ei: TIME-DEPENDENT CLASSIFICATION OF TYPE IIb AND Ib SUPERNOVAE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR PROGENITORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Margutti, Raffaella; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Chomiuk, Laura; Sanders, Nathan E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pignata, Giuliano; Bufano, Filomena [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Lab, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Parker, Stuart [Parkdale Observatory, 225 Warren Road, RDl Oxford, Canterbury 7495 (New Zealand); Mazzali, Paolo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pian, Elena [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); Pickering, Timothy; Buckley, David A. H.; Crawford, Steven M.; Gulbis, Amanda A. S.; Hettlage, Christian [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Hooper, Eric; Nordsieck, Kenneth H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); O' Donoghue, Darragh, E-mail: dmilisav@cfa.harvard.edu [Southern African Large Telescope, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); and others

    2013-04-10

    We present X-ray, UV/optical, and radio observations of the stripped-envelope, core-collapse supernova (SN) 2011ei, one of the least luminous SNe IIb or Ib observed to date. Our observations begin with a discovery within {approx}1 day of explosion and span several months afterward. Early optical spectra exhibit broad, Type II-like hydrogen Balmer profiles that subside rapidly and are replaced by Type Ib-like He-rich features on a timescale of one week. High-cadence monitoring of this transition suggests absorption attributable to a high-velocity ({approx}> 12, 000 km s{sup -1}) H-rich shell, which is likely present in many Type Ib events. Radio observations imply a shock velocity of v Almost-Equal-To 0.13 c and a progenitor star average mass-loss rate of M-dot {approx}1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} (assuming wind velocity v{sub w} = 10{sup 3} km s{sup -1}). This is consistent with independent constraints from deep X-ray observations with Swift-XRT and Chandra. Overall, the multi-wavelength properties of SN 2011ei are consistent with the explosion of a lower-mass (3-4 M{sub Sun }), compact (R{sub *} {approx}< 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm), He-core star. The star retained a thin hydrogen envelope at the time of explosion, and was embedded in an inhomogeneous circumstellar wind suggestive of modest episodic mass loss. We conclude that SN 2011ei's rapid spectral metamorphosis is indicative of time-dependent classifications that bias estimates of the relative explosion rates for Type IIb and Ib objects, and that important information about a progenitor star's evolutionary state and mass loss immediately prior to SN explosion can be inferred from timely multi-wavelength observations.

  14. Observation of Asian dust properties by using multi-wavelength LIDAR system at anmyeon island, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Chul; Ko, Do Kyeoung; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Young Joon; Noh, Young Min

    2004-01-01

    The Asian dust affect climate both directly and indirectly because they act as effective ice nuclei and forms ice cloud. However, little is known about spatial distribution and trajectory because few measurement data are available in the free troposphere over East Asia, where a large amount of Asian dust are transported form desert regions in Asian continent. LIDAR system is an effective tool for remotely measuring the vertical distribution of aerosol optical properties. For measurement of Asian dust optical properties, a multi-wavelength LIDAR system developed by the Advanced Environment Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute Science and Technology (GIST), Korea. This paper presents the results of ground-based multi-wavelength LIDAR measurements of the Asian dust aerosol over Anmyeon Island (36.40N, 126.10E) during the spring of 2004. To discriminate between Asian dust and cloud, depolarization ratio is useful for the detection of these particles and the LIDAR ratio. Also, we discuss the relationship between LIDAR ratio and other optical properties from LIDAR measurement, i.e., the depolarization ratio, aerosol extinction coefficient and LIDAR ratio

  15. The Galactic Distribution of Planets via Spitzer Microlensing Parallax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Andrew; Yee, Jennifer; Carey, Sean; Shvartzvald, Yossi

    2018-05-01

    We will measure the Galactic distribution of planets by obtaining 'microlens parallaxes' of about 200 events, including 3 planetary events, from the comparison of microlens lightcurves observed from Spitzer and Earth, which are separated by >1.5 AU in projection. The proposed observations are part of a campaign that we have conducted with Spitzer since 2014. The planets expected to be identified in this campaign when combined with previous work will yield a first statistically significant measurement of the frequency of planets in the Galactic bulge versus the Galactic disk. As we have demonstrated in three previous programs, the difference in these lightcurves yields both the 'microlens parallax' (ratio of the lens-source relative parallax) to the Einstein radius, and the direction of lens-source relative motion. For planetary events, this measurement directly yields the mass and distance of the planet. This proposal is significantly more sensitive to planets than previous work because it takes advantage of the KMTNet observing strategy that covers >85 sq.deg t >0.4/hr cadence, 24/7 from 3 southern observatories and a alert system KMTNet is implementing for 2019. This same observing program also provides a unique probe of dark objects. It will yield an improved measurement of the isolated-brown-dwarf mass function. Thirteen percent of the observations will specifically target binaries, which will probe systems with dark components (brown dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes) that are difficult or impossible to investigate by other methods. The observations and methods from this work are a test bed for WFIRST microlensing.

  16. Dayside atmospheric structure of HD209458b from Spitzer eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Matthew; Harrington, Joseph; Challener, Ryan; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina

    2017-10-01

    HD209458b is a hot Jupiter with a radius of 1.26 ± 0.08 Jupiter radii (Richardson et al, 2006) and a mass of 0.64 ± 0.09 Jupiter masses (Snellen et al, 2010). The planet orbits a G0 type star with an orbital period of 3.52472 ± 2.81699e-05 days, and a relatively low eccentricity of 0.0082 +0.0078/-0.0082 (Wang and Ford 2013). We report the analysis of observations of HD209458b during eclipse, taken in the 3.6 and 4.5 micron channels by the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera (Program 90186). We produce a photometric light curve of the eclipses in both channels, using our Photometry for Orbits Eclipses and Transits (POET) code, and calculate the brightness temperatures and eclipse depths. We also present best estimates of the atmospheric parameters of HD209458b using our Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code. These are some preliminary results of what will be an analysis of all available Spitzer data for HD209458b. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G.

  17. A Multiwavelength Study of Cygnus X-1: The First Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Detection of Compact Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahoui, Farid; Lee, Julia C.; Heinz, Sebastian; Hines, Dean C.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Joern

    2011-01-01

    We report on a Spitzer/IRS (mid-infrared), RXTE /PCA+HEXTE (X-ray), and Ryle (radio) simultaneous multi-wavelength study of the micro quasar Cygnus X-I, which aimed at an investigation of the origin of its mid-infrared emission. Compact jets were present in two out of three observations, and we show that they strongly contribute to the mid-infrared continuum. During the first observation, we detect the spectral break - where the transition from the optically thick to the optically thin regime takes place - at about 2.9 x 10(exp 13) Hz. We then show that the jet's optically thin synchrotron emission accounts for the Cygnus X-1's emission beyond 400 keY, although it cannot alone explain its 3-200 keV continuum. A compact jet was also present during the second observation, but we do not detect the break, since it has likely shifted to higher frequencies. In contrast, the compact jet was absent during the last observation, and we show that the 5-30 micron mid-infrared continuum of Cygnus X-I stems from the blue supergiant companion star HD 226868. Indeed, the emission can then be understood as the combination of the photospheric Raleigh-Jeans tail and the bremsstrahlung from the expanding stellar wind. Moreover, the stellar wind is found to be clumpy, with a filling factor f(sub infinity) approx.= 0.09-0.10. Its bremsstrahlung emission is likely anti-correlated to the soft X-ray emission, suggesting an anticorrelation between the mass-loss and mass-accretion rates. Nevertheless, we do not detect any mid-infrared spectroscopic evidence of interaction between the jets and the Cygnus X-1's environment and/or companion star's stellar wind.

  18. SPITZER IRS SPECTRA OF DEBRIS DISKS IN THE SCORPIUS–CENTAURUS OB ASSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang-Condell, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Chen, Christine H.; Mittal, Tushar; Lisse, Carey M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Manoj, P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Rd., Mumbai 400005 (India); Watson, Dan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Nesvold, Erika; Kuchner, Marc [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2015-08-01

    We analyze spectra obtained with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) of 110 B-, A-, F-, and G-type stars with optically thin infrared excess in the Scorpius–Centaurus OB association. The ages of these stars range from 11 to 17 Myr. We fit the infrared excesses observed in these sources by Spitzer IRS and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) to simple dust models according to Mie theory. We find that nearly all of the objects in our study can be fit by one or two belts of dust. Dust around lower mass stars appears to be closer in than around higher mass stars, particularly for the warm dust component in the two-belt systems, suggesting a mass-dependent evolution of debris disks around young stars. For those objects with stellar companions, all dust distances are consistent with truncation of the debris disk by the binary companion. The gaps between several of the two-belt systems can place limits on the planets that might lie between the belts, potentially constraining the mass and locations of planets that may be forming around these stars.

  19. SPITZER TRANSITS OF THE SUPER-EARTH GJ1214b AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS ATMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraine, Jonathan D.; Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Gillon, Michaeel; Jehin, Emmanueel [Institute d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Liege (Belgium); Demory, Brice-Olivier; Benneke, Bjoern; Seager, Sara [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Knutson, Heather [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Desert, Jean-Michel, E-mail: jfraine@astro.umd.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We observed the transiting super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b using warm Spitzer at 4.5 {mu}m wavelength during a 20 day quasi-continuous sequence in 2011 May. The goals of our long observation were to accurately define the infrared transit radius of this nearby super-Earth, to search for the secondary eclipse, and to search for other transiting planets in the habitable zone of GJ1214. We here report results from the transit monitoring of GJ1214b, including a reanalysis of previous transit observations by Desert et al. In total, we analyze 14 transits of GJ1214b at 4.5 {mu}m, 3 transits at 3.6 {mu}m, and 7 new ground-based transits in the I+z band. Our new Spitzer data by themselves eliminate cloudless solar composition atmospheres for GJ1214b, and methane-rich models from Howe and Burrows. Using our new Spitzer measurements to anchor the observed transit radii of GJ1214b at long wavelengths, and adding new measurements in I+z, we evaluate models from Benneke and Seager and Howe and Burrows using a {chi}{sup 2} analysis. We find that the best-fit model exhibits an increase in transit radius at short wavelengths due to Rayleigh scattering. Pure water atmospheres are also possible. However, a flat line (no atmosphere detected) remains among the best of the statistically acceptable models, and better than pure water atmospheres. We explore the effect of systematic differences among results from different observational groups, and we find that the Howe and Burrows tholin-haze model remains the best fit, even when systematic differences among observers are considered.

  20. SPITZER IRAC PHOTOMETRY FOR TIME SERIES IN CROWDED FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novati, S. Calchi; Beichman, C. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gould, A.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Pogge, R. W.; Wibking, B.; Zhu, W.; Poleski, R. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Yee, J. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bryden, G.; Henderson, C. B.; Shvartzvald, Y. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Carey, S. [Spitzer, Science Center, MS 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Udalski, A.; Pawlak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Collaboration: Spitzer team; OGLE group; and others

    2015-12-01

    We develop a new photometry algorithm that is optimized for the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Spitzer time series in crowded fields and that is particularly adapted to faint or heavily blended targets. We apply this to the 170 targets from the 2015 Spitzer microlensing campaign and present the results of three variants of this algorithm in an online catalog. We present detailed accounts of the application of this algorithm to two difficult cases, one very faint and the other very crowded. Several of Spitzer's instrumental characteristics that drive the specific features of this algorithm are shared by Kepler and WFIRST, implying that these features may prove to be a useful starting point for algorithms designed for microlensing campaigns by these other missions.

  1. GRB 030227: The first multiwavelength afterglow of an INTEGRAL GRB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Gorosabel, J.; Guziy, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present multiwavelength observations of a gamma-ray burst detected by INTEGRAL (GRB 030227) between 5.3 hours and similar to1.7 days after the event. Here we report the discovery of a dim optical afterglow (OA) that would not have been detected by many previous searches due to its faintess (R ...

  2. Recent SPIRITS discoveries of Infrared Transients and Variables with Spitzer/IRAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jencson, J. E.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Adams, S.; Cook, D.; Tinyanont, S.; Kwan, S.; Prince, T.; Lau, R. M.; Perley, D.; Masci, F.; Helou, G.; Armus, L.; Surace, J.; Dyk, S. D. Van; Cody, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Bond, H. E.; Monson, A.; Bally, J.; Khan, R.; Levesque, E.; Fox, O.; Williams, R.; Whitelock, P. A.; Mohamed, S.; Gehrz, R. D.; Amodeo, S.; Shenoy, D.; Carlon, R.; Cass, A.; Corgan, D.; Dykhoff, D.; Faella, J.; Gburek, T.; Smith, N.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.; Ofek, E.; Johansson, J.; Parthasarathy, M.; Hsiao, E.; Phillips, M.; Morrell, N.; Gonzalez, C.; Contreras, C.

    2018-04-01

    We report the discoveries of mid-infrared transients/strong variables found in the course of the Spitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) using Spitzer Early Release Data (ATel #6644, #7929, #8688, #8940, #9434, #10171, #10172, #10488, #10903).

  3. Spitzer Secondary Eclipses of HAT-P-13b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Ryan A.; Harrington, J.; Hardin, M. R.; Madhusudhan, N.; Cubillos, P.; Blecic, J.; Bakos, G.; Hartman, J. D.

    2013-10-01

    HAT-P-13 b is a transiting hot Jupiter with a slightly eccentric orbit (e = 0.010) inhabiting a two-planet system. The two-planet arrangement provides an opportunity to probe the interior structure of HAT-P-13b. Under equilibrium-tide theory and confirmation that the apsides of planets b and c are in alignment, a measurement of the planet's eccentricity can be related to the planet's tidal Love number k2, which describes the central condensation of the planet's mass and its deformation under tidal effects. A measurement of k2 could constrain interior models of HAT-P-13b. HAT-P-13b's orbit is configured favorably for refinement of the eccentricity by secondary eclipse timing observations, which provide direct measurements of ecosω. In 2010, Spitzer observed two secondary eclipses of HAT-P-13b in the 3.6- and 4.5-μm IRAC bandpasses. We present secondary eclipse times and depths; joint models of the HAT-P-13 system that incorporate transit photometry and radial velocity data; and constraints on the atmospheric chemistry of HAT-P-13b that suggest solar-abundance composition without a thermal inversion. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA, which provided support for this work. This work was supported in part by NASA Planetary Atmospheres Grant NNX13AF38G.

  4. Efficient Mosaicking of Spitzer Space Telescope Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Joseph; Makovoz, David; Eisenhardt, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A parallel version of the MOPEX software, which generates mosaics of infrared astronomical images acquired by the Spitzer Space Telescope, extends the capabilities of the prior serial version. In the parallel version, both the input image space and the output mosaic space are divided among the available parallel processors. This is the only software that performs the point-source detection and the rejection of spurious imaging effects of cosmic rays required by Spitzer scientists. This software includes components that implement outlier-detection algorithms that can be fine-tuned for a particular set of image data by use of a number of adjustable parameters. This software has been used to construct a mosaic of the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera Shallow Survey, which comprises more than 17,000 exposures in four wavelength bands from 3.6 to 8 m and spans a solid angle of about 9 square degrees. When this software was executed on 32 nodes of the 1,024-processor Cosmos cluster computer at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a speedup of 8.3 was achieved over the serial version of MOPEX. The performance is expected to improve dramatically once a true parallel file system is installed on Cosmos.

  5. Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols using Ground-based Multiwavelength Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Thorsen, T. J.; Clayton, M.; Mueller, D.; Chemyakin, E.; Burton, S. P.; Goldsmith, J.; Holz, R.; Kuehn, R.; Eloranta, E. W.; Marais, W.; Newsom, R. K.; Liu, X.; Sawamura, P.; Holben, B. N.; Hostetler, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    Observations of aerosol optical and microphysical properties are critical for developing and evaluating aerosol transport model parameterizations and assessing global aerosol-radiation impacts on climate. During the Combined HSRL And Raman lidar Measurement Study (CHARMS), we investigated the synergistic use of ground-based Raman lidar and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) measurements to retrieve aerosol properties aloft. Continuous (24/7) operation of these co-located lidars during the ten-week CHARMS mission (mid-July through September 2015) allowed the acquisition of a unique, multiwavelength ground-based lidar dataset for studying aerosol properties above the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The ARM Raman lidar measured profiles of aerosol backscatter, extinction and depolarization at 355 nm as well as profiles of water vapor mixing ratio and temperature. The University of Wisconsin HSRL simultaneously measured profiles of aerosol backscatter, extinction and depolarization at 532 nm and aerosol backscatter at 1064 nm. Recent advances in both lidar retrieval theory and algorithm development demonstrate that vertically-resolved retrievals using such multiwavelength lidar measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction can help constrain both the aerosol optical (e.g. complex refractive index, scattering, etc.) and microphysical properties (e.g. effective radius, concentrations) as well as provide qualitative aerosol classification. Based on this work, the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) HSRL group developed automated algorithms for classifying and retrieving aerosol optical and microphysical properties, demonstrated these retrievals using data from the unique NASA/LaRC airborne multiwavelength HSRL-2 system, and validated the results using coincident airborne in situ data. We apply these algorithms to the CHARMS multiwavelength (Raman+HSRL) lidar dataset to retrieve aerosol properties above the SGP site. We present some profiles of aerosol effective

  6. Spitzer ultra faint survey program (surfs up). I. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradač, Maruša; Huang, Kuang-Han; Cain, Benjamin; Hall, Nicholas; Lubin, Lori [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ryan, Russell; Casertano, Stefano [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lemaux, Brian C. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Schrabback, Tim; Hildebrandt, Hendrik [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf Dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Allen, Steve; Von der Linden, Anja [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Gladders, Mike [The University of Chicago, The Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 933 East 56th Street, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hinz, Joannah; Zaritsky, Dennis [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Treu, Tommaso, E-mail: marusa@physics.ucdavis.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    Spitzer UltRa Faint SUrvey Program is a joint Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescope Exploration Science program using 10 galaxy clusters as cosmic telescopes to study z ≳ 7 galaxies at intrinsically lower luminosities, enabled by gravitational lensing, than blank field surveys of the same exposure time. Our main goal is to measure stellar masses and ages of these galaxies, which are the most likely sources of the ionizing photons that drive reionization. Accurate knowledge of the star formation density and star formation history at this epoch is necessary to determine whether these galaxies indeed reionized the universe. Determination of the stellar masses and ages requires measuring rest-frame optical light, which only Spitzer can probe for sources at z ≳ 7, for a large enough sample of typical galaxies. Our program consists of 550 hr of Spitzer/IRAC imaging covering 10 galaxy clusters with very well-known mass distributions, making them extremely precise cosmic telescopes. We combine our data with archival observations to obtain mosaics with ∼30 hr exposure time in both 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm in the central 4' × 4' field and ∼15 hr in the flanking fields. This results in 3σ sensitivity limits of ∼26.6 and ∼26.2 AB magnitudes for the central field in the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands, respectively. To illustrate the survey strategy and characteristics we introduce the sample, present the details of the data reduction and demonstrate that these data are sufficient for in-depth studies of z ≳ 7 sources (using a z = 9.5 galaxy behind MACS J1149.5+2223 as an example). For the first cluster of the survey (the Bullet Cluster) we have released all high-level data mosaics and IRAC empirical point-spread function models. In the future we plan to release these data products for the entire survey.

  7. The Size Distribution of Very Small Near Earth Objects As Measured by Warm Spitzer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trilling, David E.; Hora, J.; Burt, B.; Delbo, M.; Emery, J.; Fazio, G.; Fuentes, C.; Harris, A.; Mueller, M.; Mommert, M.; Smith, H.

    2013-01-01

    We have carried out a pilot search for Near Earth Objects (NEOs) with 84 hours of Warm Spitzer time in April, 2013. Results are obtained through a multi-step process: implanting synthetic objects in the Spitzer data stream; processing the Spitzer data; linking non-sidereal sources to form plausible

  8. State-of-the-art multi-wavelength observations of nearby brightest group/cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron-Marsolais, Marie-Lou; Hlavacek-Larrondo, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Nearby galaxy groups and clusters are crucial to our understanding of the impact of nuclear outbursts on the intracluster medium as their proximity allows us to study in detail the processes of feedback from active galactic nuclei in these systems. In this talk, I will present state-of-the-art multi-wavelength observations signatures of this mechanism.I will first show results on multi-configuration 230-470 MHz observations of the Perseus cluster from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, probing the non-thermal emission from the old particle population of the AGN outflows. These observations reveal a multitude of new structures associated with the “mini-halo” and illustrate the high-quality images that can be obtained with the new JVLA at low radio-frequencies.Second, I will present new observations with the optical imaging Fourier transform spectrometer SITELLE (CFHT) of NGC 1275, the Perseus cluster's brightest galaxy. With its wide field of view, it is the only integral field unit spectroscopy instrument able to cover the large emission-line filamentary nebula in NGC 1275. I will present the first detailed velocity map of this nebula in its entirety and tackle the question of its origin (residual cooling flow or dragged gas).Finally, I will present deep Chandra observations of the nearby early-type massive elliptical galaxy NGC 4472, the most optically luminous galaxy in the local Universe, lying on the outskirts of the Virgo cluster. Enhanced X-ray rims around the radio lobes are detected and interpreted as gas uplifted from the core by the buoyant rise of the radio bubbles. We estimate the energy required to lift the gas to constitute a significant fraction of the total outburst energy.I will thus show how these high-fidelity observations of nearby brightest group/cluster galaxies are improving our understanding of the AGN feedback mechanism taking place in galaxy groups and clusters.

  9. Multi-wavelength lasers using AWGs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Multiwavelength lasers using AWGs can be used as digitally tunable lasers with simple channel selection, and for generating multiple wavelengths simultanously. In this paper a number of different configurations is reviewed.

  10. CRYSTALLINE SILICATES IN EVOLVED STARS. I. SPITZER/INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTROSCOPY OF IRAS 16456-3542, 18354-0638, AND 23239+5754

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, B. W.; Zhang, Ke [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, Aigen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Lisse, C. M., E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: kzhang@caltech.edu, E-mail: lia@missouri.edu, E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu [Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We report the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of three evolved stars: IRAS 16456-3542, 18354-0638, and 23239+5754. The 9.9-37.2 {mu}m Spitzer/IRS high-resolution spectra of these three sources exhibit rich sets of enstatite-dominated crystalline silicate emission features. IRAS 16456-3542 is extremely rich in crystalline silicates, with >90% of its silicate mass in crystalline form, the highest to date ever reported for crystalline silicate sources.

  11. THE TAURUS SPITZER SURVEY: NEW CANDIDATE TAURUS MEMBERS SELECTED USING SENSITIVE MID-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; McCabe, C.-E.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; Brooke, T.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Angione, J. R.; Huard, T.; Terebey, S.; Audard, M.; Baldovin-Saavedra, C.; Monin, J.-L.; Menard, F.; Bouvier, J.; Fukagawa, M.; Guedel, M.; Knapp, G. R.; Allen, L. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the properties of pre-main-sequence objects in the Taurus molecular clouds as observed in seven mid- and far-infrared bands with the Spitzer Space Telescope. There are 215 previously identified members of the Taurus star-forming region in our ∼44 deg 2 map; these members exhibit a range of Spitzer colors that we take to define young stars still surrounded by circumstellar dust (noting that ∼20% of the bona fide Taurus members exhibit no detectable dust excesses). We looked for new objects in the survey field with similar Spitzer properties, aided by extensive optical, X-ray, and ultraviolet imaging, and found 148 new candidate members of Taurus. We have obtained follow-up spectroscopy for about half the candidate sample, thus far confirming 34 new members, three probable new members, and 10 possible new members, an increase of 15%-20% in Taurus members. Of the objects for which we have spectroscopy, seven are now confirmed extragalactic objects, and one is a background Be star. The remaining 93 candidate objects await additional analysis and/or data to be confirmed or rejected as Taurus members. Most of the new members are Class II M stars and are located along the same cloud filaments as the previously identified Taurus members. Among non-members with Spitzer colors similar to young, dusty stars are evolved Be stars, planetary nebulae, carbon stars, galaxies, and active galactic nuclei.

  12. Measuring the Stellar Masses of z ~ 7 Galaxies with the Spitzer UltRaFaint SUrvey Program (SURFS UP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R. E., Jr.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Lemaux, B. C.; Bradač, M.; Casertano, S.; Allen, S.; Cain, B.; Gladders, M.; Hall, N.; Hildebradt, H.; Hinz, J.; Huang, K.-H.; Lubin, L.; Schrabback, T.; Stiavelli, M.; Treu, T.; von der Linden, A.; Zaritsky, D.

    2014-05-01

    We present Spitzer/IRAC observations of nine z'-band dropouts highly magnified (2 ~ 7. By modeling the broadband photometry, we estimate the galaxy has an intrinsic star formation rate (SFR) of SFR ~ 1.3 M ⊙ yr-1 and stellar mass of M ~ 2.0 × 109 M ⊙, which gives a specific star formation rate of sSFR ~ 0.7 Gyr-1. If this galaxy had sustained this SFR since z ~ 20, it could have formed the observed stellar mass (to within a factor of ~2). We also discuss alternate star formation histories and argue that the exponentially increasing model is unlikely. Finally, based on the intrinsic SFR, we estimate that this galaxy has a likely [C II] flux of langf [C II]rang = 1.6 mJy. Observations were carried out using the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. This research is also based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555 and NNX08AD79G. These observations are associated with programs Spitzer 3550, 60034, 90009, HST GO 10200, GO 10863, 11099, and 11591, and ESO Large Program 181.A-0485.

  13. High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Jinping; Cheng Ya; Xu Zhizhan [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zeng Bin; Li Guihua; Chu Wei; Ni Jielei; Zhang Haisu [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xu Huailiang [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Chin, See Leang [Center for Optics, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    We demonstrate a harmonic-seeded switchable multiwavelength laser in air driven by intense midinfrared femtosecond laser pulses, in which population inversion occurs at an ultrafast time scale (i.e., less than {approx}200 fs) owing to direct formation of excited molecular nitrogen ions by strong-field ionization of inner-valence electrons. The bright multiwavelength laser in air opens the perspective for remote detection of multiple pollutants based on nonlinear optical spectroscopy.

  14. THE SPITZER LOCAL VOLUME LEGACY: SURVEY DESCRIPTION AND INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, D. A.; Cohen, S. A.; Johnson, L. C.; Schuster, M. D.; Calzetti, D.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Block, M.; Marble, A. R.; Gil de Paz, A.; Lee, J. C.; Begum, A.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Funes, J. G.; Gordon, K. D.; Johnson, B. D.; Sakai, S.; Skillman, E. D.; Van Zee, L.; Walter, F.

    2009-01-01

    The survey description and the near-, mid-, and far-infrared flux properties are presented for the 258 galaxies in the Local Volume Legacy (LVL). LVL is a Spitzer Space Telescope legacy program that surveys the local universe out to 11 Mpc, built upon a foundation of ultraviolet, Hα, and Hubble Space Telescope imaging from 11HUGS (11 Mpc Hα and Ultraviolet Galaxy Survey) and ANGST (ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury). LVL covers an unbiased, representative, and statistically robust sample of nearby star-forming galaxies, exploiting the highest extragalactic spatial resolution achievable with Spitzer. As a result of its approximately volume-limited nature, LVL augments previous Spitzer observations of present-day galaxies with improved sampling of the low-luminosity galaxy population. The collection of LVL galaxies shows a large spread in mid-infrared colors, likely due to the conspicuous deficiency of 8 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission from low-metallicity, low-luminosity galaxies. Conversely, the far-infrared emission tightly tracks the total infrared emission, with a dispersion in their flux ratio of only 0.1 dex. In terms of the relation between the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio and the ultraviolet spectral slope, the LVL sample shows redder colors and/or lower infrared-to-ultraviolet ratios than starburst galaxies, suggesting that reprocessing by dust is less important in the lower mass systems that dominate the LVL sample. Comparisons with theoretical models suggest that the amplitude of deviations from the relation found for starburst galaxies correlates with the age of the stellar populations that dominate the ultraviolet/optical luminosities.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: YSO candidates in the Magellanic Bridge (Chen+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.-H. R.; Indebetouw, R.; Muller, E.; Kawamura, A.; Gordon, K. D.; Sewilo, M.; Whitney, B. A.; Fukui, Y.; Madden, S. C.; Meade, M. R.; Meixner, M.; Oliveira, J. M.; Robitaille, T. P.; Seale, J. P.; Shiao, B.; van Loon, J. Th.

    2017-06-01

    The Spitzer observations of the Bridge were obtained as part of the Legacy Program "Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally-Stripped, Low-Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud" (SAGE-SMC; Gordon et al. 2011AJ....142..102G). These observations included images taken at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 um bands with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) and at 24, 70, and 160 um bands with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). The details of data processing are given in Gordon et al. (2011AJ....142..102G). To construct multi-wavelength SEDs for sources in the Spitzer catalog, we have expanded it by adding photometry from optical and NIR surveys covering the Bridge, i.e., BRI photometry from the Super COSMOS Sky Surveys (SSS; Hambly et al. 2001MNRAS.326.1279H) and JHKs photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS; Skrutskie et al. 2006AJ....131.1163S, Cat. VII/233). (5 data files).

  16. Thermal crosstalk investigation in an integrated InP multiwavelength laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilardi, G.; Wale, M.J.; Smit, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    We numerically investigate the thermal crosstalk effects in an integrated InP multiwavelength laser. The multiwavelength laser under investigation consists of a number of Distributed Bragg Reflector lasers and an Arrayed Waveguide Grating. Each laser generates a fixed wavelength and the Arrayed

  17. Multi-Wavelength Photomagnetic Imaging for Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michael

    In this study, a multi-wavelength Photomagnetic Imaging (PMI) system is developed and evaluated with experimental studies.. PMI measures temperature increases in samples illuminated by near-infrared light sources using magnetic resonance thermometry. A multiphysics solver combining light and heat transfer models the spatiotemporal distribution of the temperature change. The PMI system develop in this work uses three lasers of varying wavelength (785 nm, 808 nm, 860 nm) to heat the sample. By using multiple wavelengths, we enable the PMI system to quantify the relative concentrations of optical contrast in turbid media and monitor their distribution, at a higher resolution than conventional diffuse optical imaging. The data collected from agarose phantoms with multiple embedded contrast agents designed to simulate the optical properties of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin is presented. The reconstructed images demonstrate that multi-wavelength PMI can resolve this complex inclusion structure with high resolution and recover the concentration of each contrast agent with high quantitative accuracy. The modified multi-wavelength PMI system operates under the maximum skin exposure limits defined by the American National Standards Institute, to enable future clinical applications.

  18. SPITZER, GAIA, AND THE POTENTIAL OF THE MILKY WAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Johnston, Kathryn V.

    2013-01-01

    Near-future data from ESA's Gaia mission will provide precise, full phase-space information for hundreds of millions of stars out to heliocentric distances of ∼10 kpc. This ''horizon'' for full phase-space measurements is imposed by the Gaia parallax errors degrading to worse than 10%, and could be significantly extended by an accurate distance indicator. Recent work has demonstrated how Spitzer observations of RR Lyrae stars can be used to make distance estimates accurate to 2%, effectively extending the Gaia, precise-data horizon by a factor of 10 in distance and a factor of 1000 in volume. This Letter presents one approach to exploit data of such accuracy to measure the Galactic potential using small samples of stars associated with debris from satellite destruction. The method is tested with synthetic observations of 100 stars from the end point of a simulation of satellite destruction: the shape, orientation, and depth of the potential used in the simulation are recovered to within a few percent. The success of this simple test with such a small sample in a single debris stream suggests that constraints from multiple streams could be combined to examine the Galaxy's dark matter halo in even more detail—a truly unique opportunity that is enabled by the combination of Spitzer and Gaia with our intimate perspective on our own Galaxy

  19. Kepler-93b: A terrestrial world measured to within 120 km, and a test case for a new Spitzer observing mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, Sarah [University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Chaplin, William J.; Davies, Guy R.; Campante, Tiago L.; Handberg, Rasmus; Elsworth, Yvonne; Hekker, Saskia [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Charbonneau, David; Fressin, Francois; Zeng, Li [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309 (United States); Werner, Michael W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aguirre, Victor Silva; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Metcalfe, Travis S.; Karoff, Christoffer [Stellar Astrophysics Centre (SAC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney 2006 (Australia); Gilliland, Ronald L., E-mail: sarahba@uw.edu [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2014-07-20

    We present the characterization of the Kepler-93 exoplanetary system, based on three years of photometry gathered by the Kepler spacecraft. The duration and cadence of the Kepler observations, in tandem with the brightness of the star, enable unusually precise constraints on both the planet and its host. We conduct an asteroseismic analysis of the Kepler photometry and conclude that the star has an average density of 1.652 ± 0.006 g cm{sup –3}. Its mass of 0.911 ± 0.033 M{sub ☉} renders it one of the lowest-mass subjects of asteroseismic study. An analysis of the transit signature produced by the planet Kepler-93b, which appears with a period of 4.72673978 ± 9.7 × 10{sup –7} days, returns a consistent but less precise measurement of the stellar density, 1.72{sub −0.28}{sup +0.02} g cm{sup –3}. The agreement of these two values lends credence to the planetary interpretation of the transit signal. The achromatic transit depth, as compared between Kepler and the Spitzer Space Telescope, supports the same conclusion. We observed seven transits of Kepler-93b with Spitzer, three of which we conducted in a new observing mode. The pointing strategy we employed to gather this subset of observations halved our uncertainty on the transit radius ratio R{sub P} /R{sub *}. We find, after folding together the stellar radius measurement of 0.919 ± 0.011 R{sub ☉} with the transit depth, a best-fit value for the planetary radius of 1.481 ± 0.019 R{sub ⊕}. The uncertainty of 120 km on our measurement of the planet's size currently renders it one of the most precisely measured planetary radii outside of the solar system. Together with the radius, the planetary mass of 3.8 ± 1.5 M{sub ⊕} corresponds to a rocky density of 6.3 ± 2.6 g cm{sup –3}. After applying a prior on the plausible maximum densities of similarly sized worlds between 1 and 1.5 R{sub ⊕}, we find that Kepler-93b possesses an average density within this group.

  20. Revealing Fact or Fiction in Spitzer Exoplanet Phase Curve Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jacob; Parmentier, Vivien; Mansfield, Megan; Cowan, Nicolas; Kempton, Eliza; Desert, Jean-Michel; Swain, Mark; Dang, Lisa; Bell, Taylor; Keating, Dylan; Zellem, Robert; Fortney, Jonathan; Line, Michael; Kreidberg, Laura; Stevenson, Kevin

    2018-05-01

    The constraints on energy transport in exoplanet atmospheres from phase curve observations is sure to be one of Spitzer's enduring legacies. However, with phase curves for 17 planets now observed we find that the previously observed trends are not coming into sharper focus. Instead, these trends in hot spot offset and day-night flux contrast vs. the fundamental planetary parameters expected to control the energy transport (e.g., irradiation and rotational period) are becoming more uncertain due to the recent discovery of outliers. At the same time, there is a growing understanding that a number of factors like magnetic fields, aerosols, and molecular chemistry could be confounding the search for these correlations. We propose a final phase curve program to advance our understanding of energy transport in transiting exoplanet atmospheres and to cement Spitzer's legacy on this topic. This program tackles the outstanding questions in this area with a comprehensive, two-pronged approach: (1) a survey of an additional 10 high signal-to-noise planets that span a broad parameter space and (2) a search for magnetic field-induced variability in the planet HAT-P-7b. The expanded survey will bring additional statistical power to the search for trends and will enable us to determine if the recently-detected outliers are indeed oddities or are instead actually representative of the intrinsic sample diversity. The variability search will test the hypothesis that the atmospheric dynamics of the partially ionized atmospheres of close-in planets are influenced by magnetic fields, which could explain the observed scatter around the existing trends. All observations will be performed at 4.5 microns, which is the consensus best channel for these measurements. The dataset from this program will provide vital context for JWST observations and will not be superseded until ARIEL flies more than a decade from now.

  1. THE SPITZER -HETDEX EXPLORATORY LARGE-AREA SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papovich, C.; Shipley, H. V.; Mehrtens, N.; Lanham, C.; DePoy, D. L.; Kawinwanichakij, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843-4242 (United States); Lacy, M. [North American ALMA Science Center, NRAO Headquarters, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ciardullo, R.; Gronwall, C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Finkelstein, S. L.; Drory, N.; Gebhardt, K.; Hill, G. J.; Jogee, S. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Bassett, R. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, University of Western Australia, 7 Fairway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Behroozi, P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Blanc, G. A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Jong, R. S. de [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Gawiser, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hopp, U., E-mail: papovich@physics.tamu.edu, E-mail: papovich@tamu.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741, Garching (Germany); and others

    2016-06-01

    We present post-cryogenic Spitzer imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 μ m with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) of the Spitzer /HETDEX Exploratory Large-Area (SHELA) survey. SHELA covers ≈24 deg{sup 2} of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey “Stripe 82” region, and falls within the footprints of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and the Dark Energy Survey. The HETDEX blind R ∼ 800 spectroscopy will produce ∼200,000 redshifts from the Ly α emission for galaxies in the range 1.9 <  z  < 3.5, and an additional ∼200,000 redshifts from the [O ii] emission for galaxies at z  < 0.5. When combined with deep ugriz images from the Dark Energy Camera, K -band images from NEWFIRM, and other ancillary data, the IRAC photometry from Spitzer will enable a broad range of scientific studies of the relationship between structure formation, galaxy stellar mass, halo mass, the presence of active galactic nuclei, and environment over a co-moving volume of ∼0.5 Gpc{sup 3} at 1.9 <  z  < 3.5. Here, we discuss the properties of the SHELA IRAC data set, including the data acquisition, reduction, validation, and source catalogs. Our tests show that the images and catalogs are 80% (50%) complete to limiting magnitudes of 22.0 (22.6) AB mag in the detection image, which is constructed from the weighted sum of the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μ m images. The catalogs reach limiting sensitivities of 1.1  μ Jy at both 3.6 and 4.5 μ m (1 σ , for R = 2″ circular apertures). As a demonstration of the science, we present IRAC number counts, examples of highly temporally variable sources, and galaxy surface density profiles of rich galaxy clusters. In the spirit of the Spitzer Exploratory programs, we provide all of the images and catalogs as part of the publication.

  2. THE SPITZER -HETDEX EXPLORATORY LARGE-AREA SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papovich, C.; Shipley, H. V.; Mehrtens, N.; Lanham, C.; DePoy, D. L.; Kawinwanichakij, L.; Lacy, M.; Ciardullo, R.; Gronwall, C.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Drory, N.; Gebhardt, K.; Hill, G. J.; Jogee, S.; Bassett, R.; Behroozi, P.; Blanc, G. A.; Jong, R. S. de; Gawiser, E.; Hopp, U.

    2016-01-01

    We present post-cryogenic Spitzer imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 μ m with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) of the Spitzer /HETDEX Exploratory Large-Area (SHELA) survey. SHELA covers ≈24 deg 2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey “Stripe 82” region, and falls within the footprints of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and the Dark Energy Survey. The HETDEX blind R ∼ 800 spectroscopy will produce ∼200,000 redshifts from the Ly α emission for galaxies in the range 1.9 <  z  < 3.5, and an additional ∼200,000 redshifts from the [O ii] emission for galaxies at z  < 0.5. When combined with deep ugriz images from the Dark Energy Camera, K -band images from NEWFIRM, and other ancillary data, the IRAC photometry from Spitzer will enable a broad range of scientific studies of the relationship between structure formation, galaxy stellar mass, halo mass, the presence of active galactic nuclei, and environment over a co-moving volume of ∼0.5 Gpc 3 at 1.9 <  z  < 3.5. Here, we discuss the properties of the SHELA IRAC data set, including the data acquisition, reduction, validation, and source catalogs. Our tests show that the images and catalogs are 80% (50%) complete to limiting magnitudes of 22.0 (22.6) AB mag in the detection image, which is constructed from the weighted sum of the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μ m images. The catalogs reach limiting sensitivities of 1.1  μ Jy at both 3.6 and 4.5 μ m (1 σ , for R = 2″ circular apertures). As a demonstration of the science, we present IRAC number counts, examples of highly temporally variable sources, and galaxy surface density profiles of rich galaxy clusters. In the spirit of the Spitzer Exploratory programs, we provide all of the images and catalogs as part of the publication.

  3. YSOVAR II: Mapping YSO Inner Disk Structure in NGC 2264 with Simultaneous Spitzer and CoRoT Time Series Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, John; Morales-Calderon, Maria; Rebull, Luisa; Affer, Laura; Alencar, Sylvia; Allen, Lori; Barrado, David; Bouvier, Jerome; Calvet, Nuria; Carey, Sean; Carpenter, John; Ciardi, David; Covey, Kevin; D'Alessio, Paola; Espaillat, Catherine; Favata, Fabio; Flaccomio, Ettore; Forbrich, Jan; Furesz, Gabor; Hartman, Lee; Herbst, William; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Holtzman, Jon; Hora, Joe; Marchis, Franck; McCaughrean, Mark; Micela, Giusi; Mundt, Reinhard; Plavchan, Peter; Turner, Neal; Skrutzkie, Mike; Smith, Howard; Song, Inseok; Szentgyorgi, Andy; Terebey, Susan; Vrba, Fred; Wasserman, Lawrence; Watson, Alan; Whitney, Barbara; Winston, Elaine; Wood, Kenny

    2011-05-01

    We propose a simultaneous, continuous 30 day observation of the star forming region NGC2264 with Spitzer and CoRoT. NGC2264 is the only nearby, rich star-forming region which can be observed with CoRoT; it is by definition then the only nearby, rich star-forming region where a simultaneous Spitzer/CoRoT campaign is possible. Fortunately, the visibility windows for the two spacecraft overlap, allowing this program to be done in the Nov. 25, 2011 to Jan. 4, 2012 time period. For 10 days, we propose to map the majority of the cluster (a 35'x35' region) to a depth of 48 seconds per point, with each epoch taking 1.7 hours, allowing of order 12 epochs per day. For the other 20 days, we propose to obtaining staring-mode data for two positions in the cluster having a high density of cluster members. We also plan to propose for a variety of other ground and space-based data, most of which would also be simultaneous with the Spitzer and CoRoT observing. These data will allow us to address many astrophysical questions related to the structure and evolution of the disks of young stars and the interaction of those disks with the forming star. The data may also help inform models of planet formation since planets form and migrate through the pre-main sequence disks during the 0.5-5 Myr age range of stars in NGC2264. The data we collect will also provide an archive of the variability properties of young stars that is unmatched in its accuracy, sensitivity, cadence and duration and which therefore could inspire investigation of phenomena which we cannot now imagine. The CoRoT observations have been approved, contingent on approval of a simultaneous Spitzer observing program (this proposal).

  4. Multiwavelength monitoring of the dwarf nova VW Hydri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerd, H. van der; Heise, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the X-ray observations made as part of the multiwavelength study of the dwarf nova VW Hyi. The X-ray monitoring covered 2 months in 1984. Three normal outbursts, a superoutburst and the quiescent intervals between those outbursts were observed. During quiescence the X-ray flux decreases by a factor of 1.2 to 1.6, which implies that the accretion rate on to the white dwarf decreases by approximately the same factor. The observations during quiescence are consistent with emission from an optically thin, hot (T approx.= 10 8 K) corona. During outburst the X-ray flux increases by two orders of magnitude. The spectrum is characterized as extremely soft, with dominant emission at wavelength above 170 A. (author)

  5. Sensitive Spitzer Photometry of Supermassive Black Holes at the Final Stage of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Netzer, Hagai; Mor, Rivay; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2011-05-01

    We propose to obtain sensitive Spitzer snapshot observations of a unique sample of 35 Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars at redshift 4.8 for which we obtained reliable, Mg II-based determinations of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and normalized accretion rate (L/L_Edd). These quasars appear to mark the final stage of SMBH `adolescence' in the history of the Universe as their SMBHs are significantly less massive and their L/L_Edd values are significantly higher with respect to their counterparts at lower redshifts. Our observations will provide both 1) deep coverage of the fields around these quasars which will be utilized as crucial priors for our approved Herschel/SPIRE observations of these sources, and 2) coverage of the rest-frame optical SEDs of these fast accreting quasars. The results will maximize our ability to measure the star-formation rate in the host galaxies of these quasars using Herschel. We will thus be able to investigate correlations between SMBH growth and star-forming activity in the early Universe. The Spitzer photometry will also provide invaluable information about the shape of the rest-frame optical continuum in these quasars which will be used to search for extreme disk properties that may be signatures of the remarkably high accretion rates in these sources.

  6. Longitudinal variability in Jupiter's zonal winds derived from multi-wavelength HST observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Perianne E.; Morales-Juberías, Raúl; Simon, Amy; Gaulme, Patrick; Wong, Michael H.; Cosentino, Richard G.

    2018-06-01

    Multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of Jupiter from the Outer Planets Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) and Wide Field Coverage for Juno (WFCJ) programs in 2015, 2016, and 2017 are used to derive wind profiles as a function of latitude and longitude. Wind profiles are typically zonally averaged to reduce measurement uncertainties. However, doing this destroys any variations of the zonal-component of winds in the longitudinal direction. Here, we present the results derived from using a "sliding-window" correlation method. This method adds longitudinal specificity, and allows for the detection of spatial variations in the zonal winds. Spatial variations are identified in two jets: 1 at 17 ° N, the location of a prominent westward jet, and the other at 7 ° S, the location of the chevrons. Temporal and spatial variations at the 24°N jet and the 5-μm hot spots are also examined.

  7. SPITZER PARALLAX OF OGLE-2015-BLG-0966: A COLD NEPTUNE IN THE GALACTIC DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, R. A.; Bachelet, E. [LCOGT, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Novati, S. Calchi [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hundertmark, M. P. G.; Jørgensen, U. G. [Niels Bohr Institute and Centre for Star and Planet Formation, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5, DK-1350—Copenhagen K (Denmark); Zhu, W.; Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Yee, J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tsapras, Y. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Dominik, M. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Andersen, M. I. [Niels Bohr Institute and Dark Cosmology Centre, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100—Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Bozza, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica “E.R. Caianiello,” Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, I-84084, Fisciano (Italy); Bramich, D. M. [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Collaboration: RoboNet Project and MiNDSTEp Consortium; OGLE Project; Spitzer Team; MOA Collaboration; KMTNet Modeling Team; and others

    2016-03-10

    We report the detection of a cold Neptune m{sub planet} = 21 ± 2 M{sub ⊕} orbiting a 0.38 M{sub ⊙} M dwarf lying 2.5–3.3 kpc toward the Galactic center as part of a campaign combining ground-based and Spitzer observations to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. This is the first time that the complex real-time protocols described by Yee et al., which aim to maximize planet sensitivity while maintaining sample integrity, have been carried out in practice. Multiple survey and follow up teams successfully combined their efforts within the framework of these protocols to detect this planet. This is the second planet in the Spitzer Galactic distribution sample. Both are in the near to mid-disk and are clearly not in the Galactic bulge.

  8. A multi-wavelength investigation of the radio-loud supernova PTF11qcj and its circumstellar environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsi, A. [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st St, NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Ofek, E. O.; Gal-Yam, A.; Xu, D. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Frail, D. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kulkarni, S. R.; Horesh, A.; Carpenter, J.; Arcavi, I.; Cao, Y.; Mooley, K.; Sesar, B. [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fox, D. B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kasliwal, M. M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Sullivan, M.; Maguire, K.; Pan, Y.-C. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Cenko, S. B. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 685, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sternberg, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astrophysik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Bersier, D., E-mail: corsi@gwu.edu [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-02-10

    We present the discovery, classification, and extensive panchromatic (from radio to X-ray) follow-up observations of PTF11qcj, a supernova (SN) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Our observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array show that this event is radio-loud: PTF11qcj reached a radio peak luminosity comparable to that of the famous gamma-ray-burst-associated SN 1998bw (L {sub 5} {sub GHz} ≈ 10{sup 29} erg s{sup –1} Hz{sup –1}). PTF11qcj is also detected in X-rays with the Chandra Observatory, and in the infrared band with Spitzer. Our multi-wavelength analysis probes the SN interaction with circumstellar material. The radio observations suggest a progenitor mass-loss rate of ∼10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} × (v{sub w} /1000 km s{sup –1}), and a velocity of ≈0.3-0.5 c for the fastest moving ejecta (at ≈10 days after explosion). However, these estimates are derived assuming the simplest model of SN ejecta interacting with a smooth circumstellar wind, and do not account for possible inhomogeneities in the medium and asphericity of the explosion. The radio data show deviations from such a simple model, as well as a late-time re-brightening. The X-ray flux from PTF11qcj is compatible with the high-frequency extrapolation of the radio synchrotron emission (within the large uncertainties). A light echo from pre-existing dust is in agreement with our infrared data. Our pre-explosion data from the PTF suggest that a precursor eruption of absolute magnitude M{sub r} ≈ –13 mag may have occurred ≈2.5 yr prior to the SN explosion. Overall, PTF11qcj fits the expectations from the explosion of a Wolf-Rayet star. Precursor eruptions may be a feature characterizing the final pre-explosion evolution of such stars.

  9. Temporal Evolution of Water and Dust in Comet 9P/Tempel 1 after the Deep Impact Event, as Observed from Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Adeline; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Kelley, M. S.; Woodward, C. E.; Wooden, D. H.

    2010-10-01

    The Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft encountered comet 9P/Tempel 1 on July 4th, 2005. The spacecraft released an impactor that collided with the comet nucleus and excavated (possibly unprocessed) cometary material in a prominent ejecta plume. Spectral maps covering 20'' x 67'' (1.85''/pixel) were acquired with the IRS instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope at different times around the DI event: twice before impact (TI-41.3hrs and TI-22.9hrs) and twelve times after impact (between TI+0.67hrs and TI+1027hrs). These IRS observations are stored in the Spitzer data archive and presented by Lisse et al. (2006, Science 313, 635). We present the interpretation of 5.2-7.6 micrometer spectra obtained in the second order of the short-wavelength module (SL2). To reduce the contribution of artifacts in the spectra, 5x5 pixel extraction apertures (9.25''x9.25'') were used. The underlying continuum in the spectra provides information on the grain size distribution and color temperature of the dust ejecta. In order to determine the grain size distribution, we assumed that ejecta consist of a composition of both amorphous carbon and silicates. The grains are assumed to be spherical with sizes in range from 0.1 to 100 micrometers. We used the Mie theory to calculate the optical properties of each material and the temperature of the grain. We constrained the grain size distribution and velocities from the spectra and the temporal evolution of the dust flux. The dust mass and dust/gas ratio in the ejecta cloud are also derived and compared with other values published in the literature.

  10. Multiwavelength ytterbium-Brillouin random Rayleigh feedback fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Wang, Zinan; Fan, Mengqiu; Li, Jiaqi; Meng, Qingyang; Xu, Dangpeng; Rao, Yunjiang

    2018-03-01

    In this letter, we experimentally demonstrate the multiwavelength ytterbium-Brillouin random fiber laser for the first time, in the half-open cavity formed by a fiber loop mirror and randomly distributed Rayleigh mirrors. With a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber and a long TrueWave fiber, the narrow linewidth Brillouin pump can generate multiple Brillouin Stokes lines with hybrid ytterbium-Brillouin gain. Up to six stable channels with a spacing of about 0.06 nm are obtained. This work extends the operation wavelength of the multiwavelength Brillouin random fiber laser to the 1 µm band, and has potential in various applications.

  11. Multi-wavelength Ocean Profiling and Atmospheric Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build and demonstrate the world's first multi-wavelength ocean-profiling high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL). The lidar will provide profiles of...

  12. The Peculiar Multiwavelength Evolution Of V1535 Sco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, J. D.; Chomiuk, L.; Nelson, T.; Finzell, T.; Walter, F. M.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Mioduszewski, A. J.; van der Horst, A. J.; Weston, J. H. S.; Rupen, M. P.

    2017-06-01

    We present multiwavelength observations of the unusual nova V1535 Sco throughout its outburst in 2015. Early radio observations were consistent with synchrotron emission, and early X-ray observations revealed the presence of high-energy (>1 keV) photons. These indicated that strong shocks were present during the first ∼2 weeks of the nova's evolution. The radio spectral energy distribution was consistent with thermal emission from week 2 to week 6. Starting in week 7, the radio emission again showed evidence of synchrotron emission, and there was an increase in X-ray emission, indicating a second shock event. The optical spectra show evidence of at least two separate outflows, with the faster outflow possibly having a bipolar morphology. The optical and near-infrared light curves and the X-ray {N}{{H}} measurements indicated that the companion star is likely a K giant.

  13. On the Nature of Bright Infrared Sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud: Interpreting MSX through the Lens of Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Sloan, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    We compare infrared observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) and the Spitzer Space Telescope to better understand what components of a metal-poor galaxy dominate radiative processes in the infrared. The SMC, at a distance of ~60 kpc and with a metallicity of ~0.1-0.2 solar, can serve as a nearby proxy for metal-poor galaxies at high redshift. The MSX Point Source Catalog contains 243 objects in the SMC that were detected at 8.3 microns, the most sensitive MSX band. Multi-epoch, multi-band mapping with Spitzer, supplemented with observations from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), provides variability information, and, together with spectra from Spitzer for ~15% of the sample, enables us to determine what these luminous sources are. How many remain simple point sources? What fraction break up into multiple stars? Which are star forming regions, with both bright diffuse emission and point sources? How do evolved stars and stellar remnants contribute at these wavelengths? What role do young stellar objects and HII regions play? Answering these questions sets the stage for understanding what we will see with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

  14. A Search for Faint, Diffuse Halo Emission in Edge-On Galaxies with Spitzer/IRAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Matthew; Arendt, R. G.; Pipher, J. L.; Forrest, W. J.; Marengo, M.; Barmby, P.; Willner, S. P.; Stauffer, J. R.; Fazio, G. G.

    2006-12-01

    We present deep infrared mosaics of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxies NGC 891, 4244, 4565, and 5907. These data were acquired at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 microns using the Infrared Array Camera aboard Spitzer as part of GTO program number 3. This effort is designed to detect the putative faint, diffuse emission from halos and thick disks of spiral galaxies in the near-mid infrared under the thermally stable, low-background conditions of space. These conditions in combination with the advantageous viewing angles presented by these well-known edge-on spirals provide arguably the best opportunity to characterize the halo/thick disk components of such galaxies in the infrared. In this contribution we describe our observations, data reduction techniques, corrections for artifacts in the data, and the modeling approach we applied to analyze this unique dataset. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  15. Multiwavelength Spectral Variability of Mkn 501 in Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempfling, Christina

    2012-10-01

    We propose simultaneous multiwavelength observations of the blazar Mrk501 in flaring state with XMM-Newton, FACT and Swift. Bright TeV gamma-ray flares have been detected repeatedly from Mrk501. Leptonic blazar models predict an simultaneous increase in the gamma-ray and X-ray bands. However, Mrk 501 also showed so-called orphan flares, as well as flares featuring time lags that are hard to explain by current models. Available data lack detailed light curves and hence are not sufficient to make strong statements on the nature of the responsible processes. These observations of a flare of Mrk501 in the gamma-ray and X-ray band with high spectral sensitivity and time resolution will yield a big contribution to the comprehension of blazar emission processes.

  16. Pathway to the Galactic Distribution of Planets: Combined Spitzer and Ground-Based Microlens Parallax Measurements of 21 Single-Lens Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novati, S. Calchi; Gould, A.; Udalski, A.; Menzies, J. W.; Bond, I. A.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Street, R. A.; Hundertmark, M.; Beichman, C. A.; Barry, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    We present microlens parallax measurements for 21 (apparently) isolated lenses observed toward the Galactic bulge that were imaged simultaneously from Earth and Spitzer, which was approximately 1 Astronomical Unit west of Earth in projection. We combine these measurements with a kinematic model of the Galaxy to derive distance estimates for each lens, with error bars that are small compared to the Sun's galactocentric distance. The ensemble therefore yields a well-defined cumulative distribution of lens distances. In principle, it is possible to compare this distribution against a set of planets detected in the same experiment in order to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. Since these Spitzer observations yielded only one planet, this is not yet possible in practice. However, it will become possible as larger samples are accumulated.

  17. Multiwavelength monitoring of the dwarf nova VW Hydri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amerongen, S. van; Damen, E.; Groot, M.; Kraakman, H.; Parakijs, J. van

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented of five-colour photometric observations (Walraven system) of VW Hyi, made between 1984 July and November, as part of a long-term multiwavelength study of this dwarf nova. The average orbital light and colour curves during quiescence are accurately defined. Apart from a slow decay following outburst during the first quarter of a quiescent interval, neither the average brightness nor the maximum and minimum brightness show a significant secular trend between outbursts. The 3σ upper limits to a secular change in average brightness during the last three-quarters of a quiescent interval range between 0.16 and 0.20 mag in the five passbands. (author)

  18. Spitzer Trigonometric Parallaxes of L, T, and Y Dwarfs: Complementing Gaia's Optically-selected Census of Nearby Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Smart, Richard; Marocco, Federico; Martin, Emily; Faherty, Jacqueline; Tinney, Christopher; Cushing, Michael; Beichman, Charles; Gelino, Christopher; Schneider, Adam; Wright, Edward; Lowrance, Patrick; Ingalls, James

    2018-05-01

    We now find ourselves at a moment in history where a parallax-selected census of nearby objects from the hottest A stars to the coldest Y dwarfs is almost a reality. With the release of Gaia DR2 in April of this year, we will be able to extract a volume-limited sample of stars out to 20 pc down to a spectral type of L5. Extending the census to colder types is much more difficult but nonetheless possible and essential. Ground-based astrometric monitoring of some of these colder dwarfs can be done with deep infrared detections on moderate to large (4+ meter) telescopes, but given the amount of time needed, only a portion of the colder objects believed to lie within 20 pc has been monitored. Our prior Spitzer observations have already enabled direct distance measures for T6 through Y dwarfs, but many 20-pc objects with spectral types between L5 and T5.5 have still not been astrometrically monitored, leaving a hole in our knowledge of this important all-sky sample. Spitzer Cycle 14 observations of modest time expenditure can rectify this problem by providing parallaxes for the 150+ objects remaining. Analysis of the brown dwarfs targeted by Spitzer is particularly important because it will provide insight into the low-mass cutoff of star formation, the shape of the mass function as inferred from the observed temperature distribution, the binary fraction of near-equal mass doubles, and the prevalence of extremely young (low-gravity) and extremely old (low metallicity) objects within the sample - all of which can be used to test and further refine model predictions of the underlying mass function.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IR-bright MSX sources in the SMC with Spitzer/IRS (Kraemer+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, K. E.; Sloan, G. C.; Wood, P. R.; Jones, O. C.; Egan, M. P.

    2017-07-01

    Our original set of infrared spectra of MSX SMC sources was obtained in Spitzer Cycle 1 (Program ID 3277, P.I. M. Egan). This program included 35 targets from the MSX SMC catalog. 24 targets were discussed in previous papers; this paper examines the remaining 11 sources in the sample. We also selected 4 objects in the MSX SMC catalog with similar photometric characteristics in an effort to uncover additional sources with crystalline dust. We observed these targets in Spitzer Cycle 3 (Program ID 30355, P.I. J. Houck). See tables 1 and 2 for observation data and basic properties of the targets. Table 3 lists 20 additional MSX SMC sources that were observed by other Spitzer IRS programs. Overall, 59 MSX SMC sources were observed with the IRS. The spectra were observed using the low-resolution modules of the IRS, Short-Low (SL) and Long-Low (LL), which provided spectra in the 5-14 and 14-37um ranges, respectively, at a resolution between ~60 and 120. For 10 evolved stars with oxygen-rich dust in our Cycle 1 program, we obtained spectra from 0.45 to 1.03um with the Double-Beam Spectrograph at the 2.3m telescope of the Australian National University at Siding Spring Observatory. A 0.45-0.89um spectrum for one of the stars in program 30355 was also observed. These spectra have a resolution of 10Å. Tables 5-7: catalog based on the 243 sources detected in the MSX survey of the SMC, updated with positions and photometry from more recent space-based missions and ground-based surveys. See the Appendix section for more details. The SMC catalog from MSX consists of the 243 sources in the main MSX catalog (Egan+ 2003, see V/114) that lie within the region 7°

  20. Multi-Wavelength Monitoring of GRS 1915+105

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, R.; Martini, P.; Gerard, E.; Charles, P. A.; Wagner, R. M.; Shrader, C.; Shahbaz, T.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1997-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1992, the superluminal X-ray transient GRS 1915+105 has been extensively observed in an attempt to understand its behaviour. We present here first results from a multi-wavelength campaign undertaken from July to September 1996. This study includes X-ray data from the RXTE All Sky Monitor and BATSE, two-frequency data from the Nancay radio telescope, and infrared photometry from the 1.8 m Perkins telescope at Lowell Observatory. The first long-term well-sampled IR light curve of GRS 1915+105 is presented herein and is consistent with the interpretation of this source as a long-period binary. We compare the various light curves, searching for correlations in the behaviour of the source at differing wavelengths and for possible periodicities.

  1. Multiwavelength time-resolved detection of fluorescence during the inflow of indocyanine green into the adult's brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerega, Anna; Milej, Daniel; Weigl, Wojciech; Botwicz, Marcin; Zolek, Norbert; Kacprzak, Michal; Wierzejski, Wojciech; Toczylowska, Beata; Mayzner-Zawadzka, Ewa; Maniewski, Roman; Liebert, Adam

    2012-08-01

    Optical technique based on diffuse reflectance measurement combined with indocyanine green (ICG) bolus tracking is extensively tested as a method for clinical assessment of brain perfusion in adults at the bedside. Methodology of multiwavelength and time-resolved detection of fluorescence light excited in the ICG is presented and advantages of measurements at multiple wavelengths are discussed. Measurements were carried out: 1. on a physical homogeneous phantom to study the concentration dependence of the fluorescence signal, 2. on the phantom to simulate the dynamic inflow of ICG at different depths, and 3. in vivo on surface of the human head. Pattern of inflow and washout of ICG in the head of healthy volunteers after intravenous injection of the dye was observed for the first time with time-resolved instrumentation at multiple emission wavelengths. The multiwavelength detection of fluorescence signal confirms that at longer emission wavelengths, probability of reabsorption of the fluorescence light by the dye itself is reduced. Considering different light penetration depths at different wavelengths, and the pronounced reabsorption at longer wavelengths, the time-resolved multiwavelength technique may be useful in signal decomposition, leading to evaluation of extra- and intracerebral components of the measured signals.

  2. WARM SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF THREE HOT EXOPLANETS: XO-4b, HAT-P-6b, AND HAT-P-8b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, Kamen O. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Deming, Drake [Planetary Systems Laboratory, NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 05844 (United States); Sada, Pedro V. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Monterrey, Monterrey (Mexico); Cowan, Nicolas B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Desert, Jean-Michel; Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Langton, Jonathan [Department of Physics, Principia College, Elsah, IL 62028 (United States); Showman, Adam P.; Lewis, Nikole K. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2012-02-10

    We analyze Warm Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera observations of the secondary eclipses of three planets, XO-4b, HAT-P-6b, and HAT-P-8b. We measure secondary eclipse amplitudes at 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m for each target. XO-4b exhibits a stronger eclipse depth at 4.5 {mu}m than at 3.6 {mu}m, which is consistent with the presence of a temperature inversion. HAT-P-8b shows a stronger eclipse amplitude at 3.6 {mu}m and is best described by models without a temperature inversion. The eclipse depths of HAT-P-6b can be fitted with models with a small or no temperature inversion. We consider our results in the context of a postulated relationship between stellar activity and temperature inversion and a relationship between irradiation level and planet dayside temperature, as discussed by Knutson et al. and Cowan and Agol, respectively. Our results are consistent with these hypotheses, but do not significantly strengthen them. To measure accurate secondary eclipse central phases, we require accurate ephemerides. We obtain primary transit observations and supplement them with publicly available observations to update the orbital ephemerides of the three planets. Based on the secondary eclipse timing, we set upper boundaries for ecos ({omega}) for HAT-P-6b, HAT-P-8b, and XO-4b and find that the values are consistent with circular orbits.

  3. THE SIMPLE SURVEY: OBSERVATIONS, REDUCTION, AND CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damen, M.; Franx, M.; Taylor, E. N.; Labbe, I.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Muzzin, A.; Brandt, W. N.; Dickinson, M.; Gawiser, E.; Illingworth, G. D.; Kriek, M.; Marchesini, D.; Papovich, C.; Rix, H.-W.

    2011-01-01

    We present the Spitzer IRAC/MUSYC Public Legacy Survey in the Extended CDF-South (SIMPLE), which consists of deep IRAC observations covering the ∼1600 arcmin 2 area surrounding GOODS-S. The limiting magnitudes of the SIMPLE IRAC mosaics typically are 23.8, 23.6, 21.9, and 21.7, at 3.6 μm, 4.5 μm, 5.8 μm, and 8.0 μm, respectively (5σ total point source magnitudes in AB). The SIMPLE IRAC images are combined with the 10' x 15' GOODS IRAC mosaics in the center. We give detailed descriptions of the observations, data reduction, and properties of the final images, as well as the detection and photometry methods used to build a catalog. Using published optical and near-infrared data from the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC), we construct an IRAC-selected catalog, containing photometry in UBVRIz'JHK, [3.6 μm], [4.5 μm], [5.8 μm], and [8.0 μm]. The catalog contains 43,782 sources with S/N >5 at 3.6 μm, 19,993 of which have 13-band photometry. We compare this catalog to the publicly available MUSYC and FIREWORKS catalogs and discuss the differences. Using a high signal-to-noise sub-sample of 3391 sources with ([3.6] + [4.5])/2 * >10 11 M sun ) are passively evolving, in agreement with earlier results from surveys covering less area.

  4. The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. VI. The Auriga-California Molecular Cloud Observed with IRAC and MIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Harvey, Paul M.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Tothill, Nicholas F. H.; Nutter, David; Bourke, Tyler L.; DiFrancesco, James; Jorgensen, Jes K.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70 and 160 micrometers observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg(exp 2) with IRAC and 10.47 deg2 with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkH(alpha) 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the fraction of YSOs in the region with disks relative to an estimate of the diskless YSO population. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15 - 20 times fewer stars.

  5. Spitzer/MIPS 24 {mu}m OBSERVATIONS OF HD 209458b: THREE ECLIPSES, TWO AND A HALF TRANSITS, AND A PHASE CURVE CORRUPTED BY INSTRUMENTAL SENSITIVITY VARIATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossfield, Ian J. M. [Department of Physics, and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Knutson, Heather [Caltech Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Deming, Drake, E-mail: ianc@astro.ucla.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    We report the results of an analysis of all Spitzer/MIPS 24 {mu}m observations of HD 209458b, one of the touchstone objects in the study of irradiated giant planet atmospheres. Altogether, we analyze two and a half transits, three eclipses, and a 58 hr near-continuous observation designed to detect the planet's thermal phase curve. The results of our analysis are: (1) a mean transit depth of 1.484% {+-} 0.033%, consistent with previous measurements and showing no evidence of variability in transit depth at the 3% level. (2) A mean eclipse depth of 0.338% {+-} 0.026%, somewhat higher than that previously reported for this system; this new value brings observations into better agreement with models. From this eclipse depth we estimate an average dayside brightness temperature of 1320 {+-} 80 K; the dayside flux shows no evidence of variability at the 12% level. (3) Eclipses in the system occur 32 {+-} 129 s earlier than would be expected from a circular orbit, which constrains the orbital quantity ecos {omega} to be 0.00004 {+-} 0.00033. This result is fully consistent with a circular orbit and sets an upper limit of 140 m s{sup -1} (3{sigma}) on any eccentricity-induced velocity offset during transit. The phase curve observations (including one of the transits) exhibit an anomalous trend similar to the detector ramp seen in previous Spitzer/IRAC observations; by modeling this ramp we recover the system parameters for this transit. The long-duration photometry which follows the ramp and transit exhibits a gradual {approx}0.2% decrease in flux over {approx}30 hr. This effect is similar to that seen in pre-launch calibration data taken with the 24 {mu}m array and is better fit by an instrumental model than a model invoking planetary emission. The large uncertainties associated with this poorly understood, likely instrumental effect prevent us from usefully constraining the planet's thermal phase curve. Our observations highlight the need for a thorough

  6. The first multi-wavelength campaign of AXP 4U 0142+61 from radio to hard X-rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, P.R.; Kuiper, L.; Hermsen, W.; Rea, N.; Durant, M.; Stappers, B.; Kaspi, V.M.; Dib, R.

    2007-01-01

    For the first time a quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength campaign has been performed on an Anomalous X-ray Pulsar from the radio to the hard X-ray band. 4U 0142+61 was an INTEGRAL target for 1 Ms in July 2005. During these observations it was also observed in the X-ray band with Swift and RXTE, in

  7. Tunable, multiwavelength-swept fiber laser based on nematic liquid crystal device for fiber-optic electric-field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Kim, Sung-Jo; Ko, Myeong Ock; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jeon, Min Yong

    2018-03-01

    We propose a tunable multiwavelength-swept laser based on a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) Fabry-Perot (FP) etalon, which is embedded in the resonator of a wavelength-swept laser. We achieve the continuous wavelength tuning of the multiwavelength-swept laser by applying the electric field to the NLC FP etalon. The free spectral range of the fabricated NLC FP etalon is approximately 7.9 nm. When the electric field applied to the NLC FP etalon exceeds the threshold value (Fréedericksz threshold voltage), the output of the multiwavelength-swept laser can be tuned continuously. The tuning range of the multiwavelength-swept laser can be achieved at a value greater than 75 nm, which has a considerably wider tunable range than a conventional multiwavelength laser based on an NLC FP etalon. The slope efficiencies in the spectral and temporal domains for the tunable multiwavelength-swept laser are 22.2 nm/(mVrms / μm) and 0.17 ms/(mVrms / μm), respectively in the linear region. Therefore, the developed multiwavelength-swept laser based on the NLC FP etalon can be applied to an electric-field sensor. Because the wavelength measurement and time measurement have a linear relationship, the electric-field sensor can detect a rapid change in the electric-field intensity by measuring the peak change of the pulse in the temporal domain using the NLC FP etalon-based multiwavelength-swept laser.

  8. PROPER MOTIONS OF YOUNG STELLAR OUTFLOWS IN THE MID-INFRARED WITH SPITZER (IRAC). I. THE NGC 1333 REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, A. C.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; Arce, H. G.

    2013-01-01

    We use two 4.5 μm Spitzer (IRAC) maps of the NGC 1333 region taken over a ∼7 yr interval to determine proper motions of its associated outflows. This is a first successful attempt at obtaining proper motions of stellars' outflow from Spitzer observations. For the outflow formed by the Herbig-Haro objects HH7, 8, and 10, we find proper motions of ∼9-13 km s –1 , which are consistent with previously determined optical proper motions of these objects. We determine proper motions for a total of eight outflows, ranging from ∼10 to 100 km s –1 . The derived proper motions show that out of these eight outflows, three have tangential velocities ≤20 km s –1 . This result shows that a large fraction of the observed outflows have low intrinsic velocities and that the low proper motions are not merely a projection effect.

  9. The First Simultaneous Microlensing Observations by Two Space Telescopes: Spitzer and Swift Reveal a Brown Dwarf in Event OGLE-2015-BLG-1319

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartzvald, Y.; Li, Z.; Udalski, A.; Gould, A.; Sumi, T.; Street, R. A.; Calchi Novati, S.; Hundertmark, M.; Bozza, V.; Beichman, C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of microlensing events from multiple locations allow for the breaking of degeneracies between the physical properties of the lensing system, specifically by exploring different regions of the lens plane and by directly measuring the "microlens parallax". We report the discovery of a 30-65M J brown dwarf orbiting a K dwarf in the microlensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-1319. The system is located at a distance of approximately 5 kpc toward the Galactic Bulge. The event was observed by several ground-based groups as well as by Spitzer and Swift, allowing a measurement of the physical properties. However, the event is still subject to an eight-fold degeneracy, in particular the well-known close-wide degeneracy, and thus the projected separation between the two lens components is either approximately 0.25 au or approximately 45 au. This is the first microlensing event observed by Swift, with the UVOT camera. We study the region of microlensing parameter space to which Swift is sensitive, finding that though Swift could not measure the microlens parallax with respect to ground-based observations for this event, it can be important for other events. Specifically, it is important for detecting nearby brown dwarfs and free-floating planets in high magnification events.

  10. Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Depths with Multiple Intrapixel Sensitivity Correction Methods Observations of WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Brian M.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Kataria, Tiffany; Deming, Drake; Ingalls, James G.; Krick, Jessica E.; Tucker, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    We measure the 4.5 μm thermal emission of five transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b using channel 2 of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Significant intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer IRAC data require careful correction in order to achieve precision on the order of several hundred parts per million (ppm) for the measurement of exoplanet secondary eclipses. We determine eclipse depths by first correcting the raw data using three independent data reduction methods. The Pixel Gain Map (PMAP), Nearest Neighbors (NNBR), and Pixel Level Decorrelation (PLD) each correct for the intrapixel sensitivity effect in Spitzer photometric time-series observations. The results from each methodology are compared against each other to establish if they reach a statistically equivalent result in every case and to evaluate their ability to minimize uncertainty in the measurement. We find that all three methods produce reliable results. For every planet examined here NNBR and PLD produce results that are in statistical agreement. However, the PMAP method appears to produce results in slight disagreement in cases where the stellar centroid is not kept consistently on the most well characterized area of the detector. We evaluate the ability of each method to reduce the scatter in the residuals as well as in the correlated noise in the corrected data. The NNBR and PLD methods consistently minimize both white and red noise levels and should be considered reliable and consistent. The planets in this study span equilibrium temperatures from 1100 to 2000 K and have brightness temperatures that require either high albedo or efficient recirculation. However, it is possible that other processes such as clouds or disequilibrium chemistry may also be responsible for producing these brightness temperatures.

  11. SPITZER SECONDARY ECLIPSE DEPTHS WITH MULTIPLE INTRAPIXEL SENSITIVITY CORRECTION METHODS OBSERVATIONS OF WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, AND HAT-P-22b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpatrick, Brian M.; Tucker, Gregory S. [Department of Physics, Box 1843, Brown University, Providence, RI 02904 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kataria, Tiffany [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ingalls, James G.; Krick, Jessica E., E-mail: brian_kilpatrick@brown.edu, E-mail: nlewis@stsci.org, E-mail: tiffany.kataria@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: ddeming@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: krick@ipac.caltech.edu [Spitzer Science Center, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We measure the 4.5 μ m thermal emission of five transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b using channel 2 of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope . Significant intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer IRAC data require careful correction in order to achieve precision on the order of several hundred parts per million (ppm) for the measurement of exoplanet secondary eclipses. We determine eclipse depths by first correcting the raw data using three independent data reduction methods. The Pixel Gain Map (PMAP), Nearest Neighbors (NNBR), and Pixel Level Decorrelation (PLD) each correct for the intrapixel sensitivity effect in Spitzer photometric time-series observations. The results from each methodology are compared against each other to establish if they reach a statistically equivalent result in every case and to evaluate their ability to minimize uncertainty in the measurement. We find that all three methods produce reliable results. For every planet examined here NNBR and PLD produce results that are in statistical agreement. However, the PMAP method appears to produce results in slight disagreement in cases where the stellar centroid is not kept consistently on the most well characterized area of the detector. We evaluate the ability of each method to reduce the scatter in the residuals as well as in the correlated noise in the corrected data. The NNBR and PLD methods consistently minimize both white and red noise levels and should be considered reliable and consistent. The planets in this study span equilibrium temperatures from 1100 to 2000 K and have brightness temperatures that require either high albedo or efficient recirculation. However, it is possible that other processes such as clouds or disequilibrium chemistry may also be responsible for producing these brightness temperatures.

  12. Community-level microalgal toxicity assessment by multiwavelength-excitation PAM fluorometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild; Altenburger, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    In ecotoxicological studies involving community-level investigations, rapid and multiparametric fluorescence-based methods may provide substantial advantages over traditional methods used for structural and functional community analysis. Therefore, multiwavelength-excitation pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was applied in this study to assess long-term changes in periphyton community structure, short-term effects on periphyton functioning (photosynthesis) and pollution induced community tolerance (PICT). For inter-calibration, periphyton structure was evaluated by chemotaxonomic analysis of accessory pigments and a four-wavelength-excitation PAM fluorometer. Short-term effects of herbicides were evaluated by fluorescence quenching analysis and 14 C-incorporation as a proxy of primary production. Subsequently, the method was applied to assess structural and functional changes in periphyton communities after isoproturon exposure for 14 and 26 days, respectively. Results showed good correlation of the PAM fluorescence-based measurements with traditional methods for biofilms in the initial colonisation phase for structural and functional parameters. However, for biofilms older than 9 weeks PAM fluorescence may underestimate biomass. Multiwavelength-excitation PAM fluorometry showed good correlation with marker pigment concentrations indicating that this method provides a reliable estimate of the community structure. PAM fluorometry was able to quantify changes of biomass and follow relative shifts in class composition of biofilms under exposure of isoproturon. Short-term tests based on the quantification of the inhibition of the effective quantum yield revealed a concentration-dependent increase of PICT. The observation of two succession phases of the biofilms after 14 and 26 days of growth, respectively, revealed that sensitivity of biofilms decreased with increasing age and biomass, respectively, but PICT remained a characteristic parameter of exposed

  13. Community-level microalgal toxicity assessment by multiwavelength-excitation PAM fluorometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild [UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: Mechthild.Schmitt@ufz.de; Altenburger, Rolf [UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2008-01-20

    In ecotoxicological studies involving community-level investigations, rapid and multiparametric fluorescence-based methods may provide substantial advantages over traditional methods used for structural and functional community analysis. Therefore, multiwavelength-excitation pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was applied in this study to assess long-term changes in periphyton community structure, short-term effects on periphyton functioning (photosynthesis) and pollution induced community tolerance (PICT). For inter-calibration, periphyton structure was evaluated by chemotaxonomic analysis of accessory pigments and a four-wavelength-excitation PAM fluorometer. Short-term effects of herbicides were evaluated by fluorescence quenching analysis and {sup 14}C-incorporation as a proxy of primary production. Subsequently, the method was applied to assess structural and functional changes in periphyton communities after isoproturon exposure for 14 and 26 days, respectively. Results showed good correlation of the PAM fluorescence-based measurements with traditional methods for biofilms in the initial colonisation phase for structural and functional parameters. However, for biofilms older than 9 weeks PAM fluorescence may underestimate biomass. Multiwavelength-excitation PAM fluorometry showed good correlation with marker pigment concentrations indicating that this method provides a reliable estimate of the community structure. PAM fluorometry was able to quantify changes of biomass and follow relative shifts in class composition of biofilms under exposure of isoproturon. Short-term tests based on the quantification of the inhibition of the effective quantum yield revealed a concentration-dependent increase of PICT. The observation of two succession phases of the biofilms after 14 and 26 days of growth, respectively, revealed that sensitivity of biofilms decreased with increasing age and biomass, respectively, but PICT remained a characteristic parameter of exposed

  14. Multiwavelength Observations of the Powerful Gamma-ray Quasar PKS 1510-089: Clues on the Jet Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, J.; Madejski, G.; Sikora, M.; Roming, P.; Chester, M.M.; Grupe, D.; Tsubuku, Y.; Sato, R.; Kawai, N.; Tosti, G.; Impiombato, D.; Kovalev, Y.Y.; Kovalev, Y.A.; Edwards, Philip G.; Wagner, S.J.; Moderski, R.; Stawarz, L.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, S.

    2007-09-28

    We present the results from a multiwavelength campaign conducted in August 2006 of the powerful {gamma}-ray quasar PKS 1510--089 (z = 0.361). This campaign commenced with a deep Suzaku observation lasting three days for a total exposure time of 120 ks, and continued with Swift monitoring over 18 days. Besides Swift observations, which sampled the optical/UV flux in all 6 UVOT filters as well as the X-ray spectrum in the 0.3--10 keV energy range, the campaign included ground-based optical and radio data, and yielded a quasi-simultaneous broad-band spectral energy distribution from 109 Hz to 1019 Hz. Thanks to its low instrumental background, the Suzaku observation provided a high S/N X-ray spectrum, which is well represented by an extremely hard power-law with photon index {Gamma}{approx_equal}1.2, augmented by a soft component apparent below 1 keV, which is well described by a black-body model with temperature kT {approx_equal}0.2 keV. Monitoring by Suzaku revealed temporal variability which is different between the low and high energy bands, again suggesting the presence of a second, variable component in addition to the primary power-law emission. We model the broadband spectrum of PKS 1510--089 assuming that the high energy spectral component results from Comptonization of infrared radiation produced by hot dust located in the surrounding molecular torus. In the adopted internal shock scenario, the derived model parameters imply that the power of the jet is dominated by protons but with a number of electrons/positrons exceeding a number of protons by a factor {approx} 10. We also find that inhomogeneities responsible for the shock formation, prior to the collision may produce bulk-Compton radiation which can explain the observed soft X-ray excess and possible excess at {approx} 18 keV. We note, however, that the bulk-Compton interpretation is not unique, and the observed soft excess could arise as well via some other processes discussed briefly in the text.

  15. PKS 2005-489 at VHE: four years of monitoring with HESS and simultaneous multi-wavelength observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Becherini, Y.; Behera, B.; Benbow, W.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Borrel, V.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Costamante, L.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fiasson, A.; Förster, A.; Fontaine, G.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Göring, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jung, I.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Keogh, D.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Lamanna, G.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Marandon, V.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-F.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Orford, K. J.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raubenheimer, B. C.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Renaud, M.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Superina, G.; Szostek, A.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Venter, L.; Vialle, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.

    2010-02-01

    Aims: Our aim is to study the very high energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) γ-ray emission from BL Lac objects and the evolution in time of their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Methods: VHE observations of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object PKS 2005-489 were made with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from 2004 through 2007. Three simultaneous multi-wavelength campaigns at lower energies were performed during the HESS data taking, consisting of several individual pointings with the XMM-Newton and RXTE satellites. Results: A strong VHE signal, ~17σ total, from PKS 2005-489 was detected during the four years of HESS observations (90.3 h live time). The integral flux above the average analysis threshold of 400 GeV is ~3% of the flux observed from the Crab Nebula and varies weakly on time scales from days to years. The average VHE spectrum measured from ~300 GeV to ~5 TeV is characterized by a power law with a photon index, Γ = 3.20± 0.16_stat± 0.10_syst. At X-ray energies the flux is observed to vary by more than an order of magnitude between 2004 and 2005. Strong changes in the X-ray spectrum (ΔΓX ≈ 0.7) are also observed, which appear to be mirrored in the VHE band. Conclusions: The SED of PKS 2005-489, constructed for the first time with contemporaneous data on both humps, shows significant evolution. The large flux variations in the X-ray band, coupled with weak or no variations in the VHE band and a similar spectral behavior, suggest the emergence of a new, separate, harder emission component in September 2005. Supported by CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil.Now at Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, USA.Now at W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory & Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, USA.

  16. MULTIWAVELENGTH EVIDENCE FOR QUASI-PERIODIC MODULATION IN THE GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR PG 1553+113

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Caliandro, G. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Becerra Gonzalez, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier (France); Bruel, P., E-mail: David.J.Thompson@nasa.gov, E-mail: sara.cutini@asdc.asi.it, E-mail: stefano.ciprini@asdc.asi.it, E-mail: stefan@astro.su.se, E-mail: stamerra@oato.inaf.it [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); and others

    2015-11-10

    We report for the first time a γ-ray and multiwavelength nearly periodic oscillation in an active galactic nucleus. Using the Fermi Large Area Telescope we have discovered an apparent quasi-periodicity in the γ-ray flux (E > 100 MeV) from the GeV/TeV BL Lac object PG 1553+113. The marginal significance of the 2.18 ± 0.08 year period γ-ray cycle is strengthened by correlated oscillations observed in radio and optical fluxes, through data collected in the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Tuorla, Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope, and Catalina Sky Survey monitoring programs and Swift-UVOT. The optical cycle appearing in ∼10 years of data has a similar period, while the 15 GHz oscillation is less regular than seen in the other bands. Further long-term multiwavelength monitoring of this blazar may discriminate among the possible explanations for this quasi-periodicity.

  17. MULTIWAVELENGTH EVIDENCE FOR QUASI-PERIODIC MODULATION IN THE GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR PG 1553+113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Caliandro, G. A.; Atwood, W. B.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonino, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.

    2015-01-01

    We report for the first time a γ-ray and multiwavelength nearly periodic oscillation in an active galactic nucleus. Using the Fermi Large Area Telescope we have discovered an apparent quasi-periodicity in the γ-ray flux (E > 100 MeV) from the GeV/TeV BL Lac object PG 1553+113. The marginal significance of the 2.18 ± 0.08 year period γ-ray cycle is strengthened by correlated oscillations observed in radio and optical fluxes, through data collected in the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Tuorla, Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope, and Catalina Sky Survey monitoring programs and Swift-UVOT. The optical cycle appearing in ∼10 years of data has a similar period, while the 15 GHz oscillation is less regular than seen in the other bands. Further long-term multiwavelength monitoring of this blazar may discriminate among the possible explanations for this quasi-periodicity

  18. Multiwavelength monitoring of the dwarf nova VW Hydri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polidan, R.S.; Holberg, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Results from Voyager far-ultraviolet (500-1200 A) observations of the dwarf nova VW Hyi are presented as part of a coordinated, multiwavelength programme. Data from one normal outburst and one superoutburst are discussed in detail. Far-ultraviolet (1050 A) light curves are produced showing a significant delay (0.5 day) in the rise to maximum at 1050 A with respect to optical wavelengths, followed by a simultaneous decline. The superoutburst data show a distinct double-peaked light curve with the first rise and decline closely resembling that of a normal outburst. These data suggest that the rise to supermaximum in the far-ultraviolet is also delayed with respect to optical wavelengths. (author)

  19. 2μm all fiber multi-wavelength Tm/Ho co-doped fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhong; Jiang, Qiuxia; Wang, Xiaofa

    2017-10-01

    A 2 μm all fiber multi-wavelength Tm/Ho co-doped fiber laser based on a simple ring cavity is experimentally demonstrated. Compared with other 2 μm multi-wavelength Tm/Ho co-doped fiber lasers, the multi-wavelength fiber laser is obtained by the gain saturation effect and inhomogeneous broadening effect without any frequency selector component, filter component or polarization-dependent component. When the pump power is about 304 mW, the fiber laser enters into single-wavelength working state around 1967.76 nm. Further increasing the pump power to 455 mW, a stable dual-wavelength laser is obtained at room temperature. The bimodal power difference between λ1 and λ2 is 5.528 dB. The fluctuations of wavelength and power are less than 0.03 nm and 0.264 dB in an hour, which demonstrates that the multi-wavelength fiber laser works at a stable state. Furthermore, a research about the relationship between the pump power and the output spectra has been made.

  20. MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE RADIO MAGNETAR PSR J1622–4950 AND DISCOVERY OF ITS POSSIBLY ASSOCIATED SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Gemma E.; Gaensler, B. M.; Slane, Patrick O.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Rea, Nanda; Kaplan, David L.; Posselt, Bettina; Levin, Lina; Bailes, Matthew; Ramesh Bhat, N. D.; Johnston, Simon; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Murray, Stephen S.; Brogan, Crystal L.; Bates, Samuel; Benjamin, Robert A.; Burgay, Marta; D'Amico, Nichi; Esposito, Paolo; Chakrabarty, Deepto

    2012-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of the radio magnetar PSR J1622-4950 and its environment. Observations of PSR J1622-4950 with Chandra (in 2007 and 2009) and XMM (in 2011) show that the X-ray flux of PSR J1622-4950 has decreased by a factor of ∼50 over 3.7 years, decaying exponentially with a characteristic time of τ = 360 ± 11 days. This behavior identifies PSR J1622-4950 as a possible addition to the small class of transient magnetars. The X-ray decay likely indicates that PSR J1622-4950 is recovering from an X-ray outburst that occurred earlier in 2007, before the 2007 Chandra observations. Observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array show strong radio variability, including a possible radio flaring event at least one and a half years after the 2007 X-ray outburst that may be a direct result of this X-ray event. Radio observations with the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope reveal that PSR J1622-4950 is 8' southeast of a diffuse radio arc, G333.9+0.0, which appears non-thermal in nature and which could possibly be a previously undiscovered supernova remnant (SNR). If G333.9+0.0 is an SNR then the estimates of its size and age, combined with the close proximity and reasonable implied velocity of PSR J1622-4950, suggest that these two objects could be physically associated.

  1. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DEBRIS DISK CATALOG. I. CONTINUUM ANALYSIS OF UNRESOLVED TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Christine H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mittal, Tushar [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-4767 (United States); Kuchner, Marc [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Forrest, William J.; Watson, Dan M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Lisse, Carey M. [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Manoj, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Sargent, Benjamin A., E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    During the Spitzer Space Telescope cryogenic mission, Guaranteed Time Observers, Legacy Teams, and General Observers obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of hundreds of debris disk candidates. We calibrated the spectra of 571 candidates, including 64 new IRAS and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) debris disks candidates, modeled their stellar photospheres, and produced a catalog of excess spectra for unresolved debris disks. For 499 targets with IRS excess but without strong spectral features (and a subset of 420 targets with additional MIPS 70 μm observations), we modeled the IRS (and MIPS data) assuming that the dust thermal emission was well-described using either a one- or two-temperature blackbody model. We calculated the probability for each model and computed the average probability to select among models. We found that the spectral energy distributions for the majority of objects (∼66%) were better described using a two-temperature model with warm (T {sub gr} ∼ 100-500 K) and cold (T {sub gr} ∼ 50-150 K) dust populations analogous to zodiacal and Kuiper Belt dust, suggesting that planetary systems are common in debris disks and zodiacal dust is common around host stars with ages up to ∼1 Gyr. We found that younger stars generally have disks with larger fractional infrared luminosities and higher grain temperatures and that higher-mass stars have disks with higher grain temperatures. We show that the increasing distance of dust around debris disks is inconsistent with self-stirred disk models, expected if these systems possess planets at 30-150 AU. Finally, we illustrate how observations of debris disks may be used to constrain the radial dependence of material in the minimum mass solar nebula.

  2. THE MULTIWAVELENGTH SURVEY BY YALE-CHILE (MUSYC): DEEP MEDIUM-BAND OPTICAL IMAGING AND HIGH-QUALITY 32-BAND PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS IN THE ECDF-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardamone, Carolin N.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Urry, C. Megan; Brammer, Gabriel; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Gawiser, Eric; Bond, Nicholas; Taylor, Edward; Damen, Maaike; Treister, Ezequiel; Cobb, Bethany E.; Schawinski, Kevin; Lira, Paulina; Murayama, Takashi; Saito, Tomoki; Sumikawa, Kentaro

    2010-01-01

    We present deep optical 18-medium-band photometry from the Subaru telescope over the ∼30' x 30' Extended Chandra Deep Field-South, as part of the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). This field has a wealth of ground- and space-based ancillary data, and contains the GOODS-South field and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. We combine the Subaru imaging with existing UBVRIzJHK and Spitzer IRAC images to create a uniform catalog. Detecting sources in the MUSYC 'BVR' image we find ∼40,000 galaxies with R AB 3.5. For 0.1 < z < 1.2, we find a 1σ scatter in Δz/(1 + z) of 0.007, similar to results obtained with a similar filter set in the COSMOS field. As a demonstration of the data quality, we show that the red sequence and blue cloud can be cleanly identified in rest-frame color-magnitude diagrams at 0.1 < z < 1.2. We find that ∼20% of the red sequence galaxies show evidence of dust emission at longer rest-frame wavelengths. The reduced images, photometric catalog, and photometric redshifts are provided through the public MUSYC Web site.

  3. SPITZER MICROLENS MEASUREMENT OF A MASSIVE REMNANT IN A WELL-SEPARATED BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvartzvald, Y.; Bryden, G.; Henderson, C. B. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Gould, A.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Pogge, R. W.; Wibking, B.; Zhu, W. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Han, C. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Bozza, V.; Novati, S. Calchi [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. R. Caianiello,” Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Friedmann, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Hundertmark, M. [Niels Bohr Institute and Centre for Star and Planet Formation, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Beichman, C. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Carey, S. [Spitzer, Science Center, MS 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kerr, T.; Varricatt, W. [UKIRT, 660 N. Aohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Yee, J. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Collaboration: and; Spitzer team; OGLE group; KMTNet group; Wise group; RoboNet; MiNDSTEp; and others

    2015-12-01

    We report the detection and mass measurement of a binary lens OGLE-2015-BLG-1285La,b, with the more massive component having M{sub 1} > 1.35 M{sub ⊙} (80% probability). A main-sequence star in this mass range is ruled out by limits on blue light, meaning that a primary in this mass range must be a neutron star (NS) or black hole (BH). The system has a projected separation r{sub ⊥} = 6.1 ± 0.4 AU and lies in the Galactic bulge. These measurements are based on the “microlens parallax” effect, i.e., comparing the microlensing light curve as seen from Spitzer, which lay at 1.25 AU projected from Earth, to the light curves from four ground-based surveys, three in the optical and one in the near-infrared. Future adaptive optics imaging of the companion by 30 m class telescopes will yield a much more accurate measurement of the primary mass. This discovery both opens the path and defines the challenges to detecting and characterizing BHs and NSs in wide binaries, with either dark or luminous companions. In particular, we discuss lessons that can be applied to future Spitzer and Kepler K2 microlensing parallax observations.

  4. Aerosol observation using multi-wavelength Mie-Raman lidars of the Ad-Net and aerosol component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishizawa Tomoaki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We deployed multi-wavelength Mie-Raman lidars (MMRL at three sites of the AD-Net and have conducted continuous measurements using them since 2013. To analyze the MMRL data and better understand the externally mixing state of main aerosol components (e.g., dust, sea-salt, and black carbon in the atmosphere, we developed an integrated package of aerosol component retrieval algorithms, which have already been developed or are being developed, to estimate vertical profiles of the aerosol components. This package applies to the other ground-based lidar network data (e.g., EARLINET and satellite-borne lidar data (e.g., CALIOP/CALIPSO and ATLID/EarthCARE as well as the other lidar data of the AD-Net.

  5. Aerosol observation using multi-wavelength Mie-Raman lidars of the Ad-Net and aerosol component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Shimizu, Atsushi; Uno, Itsushi; Hara, Yukari; Kudo, Rei

    2018-04-01

    We deployed multi-wavelength Mie-Raman lidars (MMRL) at three sites of the AD-Net and have conducted continuous measurements using them since 2013. To analyze the MMRL data and better understand the externally mixing state of main aerosol components (e.g., dust, sea-salt, and black carbon) in the atmosphere, we developed an integrated package of aerosol component retrieval algorithms, which have already been developed or are being developed, to estimate vertical profiles of the aerosol components. This package applies to the other ground-based lidar network data (e.g., EARLINET) and satellite-borne lidar data (e.g., CALIOP/CALIPSO and ATLID/EarthCARE) as well as the other lidar data of the AD-Net.

  6. MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF 3FGL J2039.6–5618: A CANDIDATE REDBACK MILLISECOND PULSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvetti, D.; Mignani, R. P.; Luca, A. De; Belfiore, A.; Marelli, M.; Pizzocaro, D. [INAF—Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Delvaux, C.; Greiner, J.; Becker, W. [Max-Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85741 Garching bei München (Germany); Pallanca, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127, Bologna (Italy); Breeveld, A. A. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of the unassociated γ-ray source 3FGL J2039.6−5618 detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The source γ-ray properties suggest that it is a pulsar, most likely a millisecond pulsar, for which neither radio nor γ-ray pulsations have been detected. We observed 3FGL J2039.6−5618 with XMM-Newton and discovered several candidate X-ray counterparts within/close to the γ-ray error box. The brightest of these X-ray sources is variable with a period of 0.2245 ± 0.0081 days. Its X-ray spectrum can be described by a power law with photon index Γ{sub X} = 1.36 ± 0.09, and hydrogen column density N{sub H} < 4 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −2}, which gives an unabsorbed 0.3–10 keV X-ray flux of 1.02 × 10{sup −13} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Observations with the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector discovered an optical counterpart to this X-ray source, with a time-averaged magnitude g′ ∼ 19.5. The counterpart features a flux modulation with a period of 0.22748 ± 0.00043 days that coincides, within the errors, with that of the X-ray source, confirming the association based on the positional coincidence. We interpret the observed X-ray/optical periodicity as the orbital period of a close binary system where one of the two members is a neutron star. The light curve profile of the companion star, which has two asymmetric peaks, suggests that the optical emission comes from two regions with different temperatures on its tidally distorted surface. Based upon its X-ray and optical properties, we consider this source as the most likely X-ray counterpart to 3FGL J2039.6−5618, which we propose to be a new redback system.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Deconvolved Spitzer images of 89 protostars (Velusamy+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, W. D.; Thompson, T.

    2016-03-01

    The sample of Class 0 protostars, H2 jets, and outflow sour selected for HiRes deconvolution of Spitzer images are listed in Table1. The majority of our target protostellar objects were selected from "The Youngest Protostars" webpage hosted by the University of Kent (http://astro.kent.ac.uk/protostars/old/), which are based on the young Class 0 objects compiled by Froebrich 2005 (cat. J/ApJS/156/169). In addition to these objects, our sample includes some Herbig-Haro (HH) sources and a few well known jet outflow sources. Our sample also includes one high-mass protostar (IRAS20126+4104; cf. Caratti o Garatti et al., 2008A&A...485..137C) to demonstrate the use of HiRes for such sources. Our choice for target selection was primarily based on the availability of Spitzer images in IRAC and MIPS bands in the archives and the feasibility for reprocessing based on the published Spitzer images wherever available. (1 data file).

  8. Research on tunable multiwavelength fiber lasers with two-section birefringence fibers and a nonlinear optical loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiao; Tong, Zhengrong; Zhang, Weihua; Xue, Lifang; Pan, Honggang

    2018-05-01

    Two types of tunable multiwavelength fiber lasers based on two-section polarization maintaining fibers (PMFs) cascaded/in parallel and nonlinear optical loop are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Two-section cascaded PMFs and two polarization controllers (PCs) form the two-stage Lyot filter, which can generate comb spectrum to achieve multiwavelength output. When two sections of PMFs are in parallel, PCs in two paths are adjusted to change the beam’s polarization to suppress the light of one branch, and then the light of the other branch passes through the cavity. Additionally, a nonlinear optical loop acts as an intensity-dependent component, which can suppress the mode competition to maintain a stable output of multiwavelength lasing. The nonlinear optical loop is made by a 3 dB coupler, a PC3, and a 200 m high nonlinear fiber. Two types of tunable multiwavelength fiber lasers can achieve tuning of the channel space and the number of lasing wavelengths by adjusting PC1 and PC2. The channel space of the multiwavelengh laser can be tuned at nearly 0.4, 0.68, and 0.92 nm. Meanwhile, the spectral range of multiwavelength lasing can be controlled by PC3 in the nonlinear optical loop, and the tuning range of two multiwavelength lasers is about 2.28 and 1.45 nm, respectively.

  9. The VLBA-BU-BLAZAR Multi-Wavelength Monitoring Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Jorstad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multiwavelength program of monitoring of a sample of bright γ-ray blazars, which the Boston University (BU group has being carrying out since June 2007. The program includes monthly monitoring with the Very Long Baseline Array at 43 GHz, optical photometric and polarimetric observations, construction and analysis of UV and X-ray light curves obtained with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE and Swift satellites, and construction and analysis of γ-ray light curves based on data provided by the Large Area Telescope of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We present general results about the kinematics of parsec-scale radio jets, as well as the connection between γ-ray outbursts and jet events.

  10. FINDING η CAR ANALOGS IN NEARBY GALAXIES USING SPITZER. I. CANDIDATE SELECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Rubab; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    The late-stage evolution of the most massive stars such as η Carinae is controlled by the effects of mass loss, which may be dominated by poorly understood eruptive mass ejections. Understanding this population is challenging because no true analogs of η Car have been clearly identified in the Milky Way or other galaxies. We utilize Spitzer IRAC images of seven nearby (∼ 10 5 L ☉ in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8.0 μm) and are not known to be background sources. Based on our estimates for the expected number of background sources, we expect that follow-up observations will show that most of these candidates are not dust enshrouded massive stars, with an expectation of only 6 ± 6 surviving candidates. Since we would detect true analogs of η Car for roughly 200 years post-eruption, this implies that the rate of eruptions like η Car is less than the core-collapse supernova rate. It is possible, however, that every M > 40 M ☉ star undergoes such eruptions given our initial results. In Paper II we will characterize the candidates through further analysis and follow-up observations, and there is no barrier to increasing the galaxy sample by an order of magnitude. The primary limitation of the present search is that Spitzer's resolution limits us to the shorter wavelength IRAC bands. With the James Webb Space Telescope, such surveys can be carried out at the far more optimal wavelengths of 10-30 μm, allowing identification of η Car analogs for millennia rather than centuries post-eruption.

  11. A multiwavelength study of SXP 1062, the long-period X-ray pulsar associated with a supernova remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Galán, A.; Oskinova, L. M.; Popov, S. B.; Haberl, F.; Kühnel, M.; Gallagher, J.; Schurch, M. P. E.; Guerrero, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    SXP 1062 is a Be X-ray binary (BeXB) located in the Small Magellanic Cloud. It hosts a long-period X-ray pulsar and is likely associated with the supernova remnant MCSNR J0127-7332. In this work we present a multiwavelength view on SXP 1062 in different luminosity regimes. We consider monitoring campaigns in optical (OGLE survey) and X-ray (Swift telescope). During these campaigns a tight coincidence of X-ray and optical outbursts is observed. We interpret this as typical Type I outbursts as often detected in BeXBs at periastron passage of the neutron star (NS). To study different X-ray luminosity regimes in depth, during the source quiescence we observed it with XMM-Newton while Chandra observations followed an X-ray outburst. Nearly simultaneously with Chandra observations in X-rays, in optical the RSS/SALT telescope obtained spectra of SXP 1062. On the basis of our multiwavelength campaign we propose a simple scenario where the disc of the Be star is observed face-on, while the orbit of the NS is inclined with respect to the disc. According to the model of quasi-spherical settling accretion our estimation of the magnetic field of the pulsar in SXP 1062 does not require an extremely strong magnetic field at the present time.

  12. Multiwavelength Picture of the Blazar S5 0716+714 during Its Brightest Outburst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Manganaro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available S5 0716+714 is a well known BL Lac object, and one of the brightest and most active blazars. The discovery in the Very High Energy band (VHE, E > 100 GeV by MAGIC happened in 2008. In January 2015, the source went through the brightest optical state ever observed, triggering MAGIC follow-up and a VHE detection with ∼ 13 σ significance (ATel ♯ 6999 . Rich multiwavelength coverage of the flare allowed us to construct the broad-band spectral energy distribution of S5 0716+714 during its brightest outburst. In this work, we will present the preliminary analysis of MAGIC and Fermi-LAT data of the flaring activity in January and February 2015 for the HE (0.1 < HE < 300 GeV and VHE band, together with radio (Metsähovi, OVRO, VLBA, Effelsberg, sub-millimeter (SMA, optical (Tuorla, Perkins, Steward, AZT-8+ST7, LX-200, Kanata, X-ray and UV (Swift-XRT and UVOT, in the same time-window and discuss the time variability of the multiwavelength light curves during this impressive outburst.

  13. System and Method for Multi-Wavelength Optical Signal Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, Thomas D. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The system and method for multi-wavelength optical signal detection enables the detection of optical signal levels significantly below those processed at the discrete circuit level by the use of mixed-signal processing methods implemented with integrated circuit technologies. The present invention is configured to detect and process small signals, which enables the reduction of the optical power required to stimulate detection networks, and lowers the required laser power to make specific measurements. The present invention provides an adaptation of active pixel networks combined with mixed-signal processing methods to provide an integer representation of the received signal as an output. The present invention also provides multi-wavelength laser detection circuits for use in various systems, such as a differential absorption light detection and ranging system.

  14. Infrared Colors of Dwarf-Dwarf Galaxy Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Sandra; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Johnson, Kelsey; Patton, Dave; Kallivayalil, Nitya

    2015-10-01

    We request Spitzer Warm Mission IRAC Channel 1 & 2 imaging for a sample of 60 isolated dwarf galaxy pairs as a key component of a larger, multi-wavelength effort to understand the role low-mass mergers play in galaxy evolution. A systematic study of dwarf-dwarf mergers has never been done, and we wish to characterize the impact such interactions have on fueling star formation in the nearby universe. The Spitzer imaging proposed here will allow us to determine the extent to which the 3.6 and 4.5 mum bands are dominated by stellar light and investigate a) the extent to which interacting pairs show IR excess and b) whether the excess is related to the pair separation. Second, we will use this IR photometry to constrain the processes contributing to the observed color excess and scatter in each system. We will take advantage of the wealth of observations available in the Spitzer Heritage Archive for 'normal' non-interacting dwarfs by comparing the stellar populations of those dwarfs with the likely interacting dwarfs in our sample. Ultimately, we can combine the Spitzer imaging proposed here with our current, ongoing efforts to obtain groundbased optical photometry to model the star formation histories of these dwarfs and to help constrain the timescales and impact dwarf-dwarf mergers have on fueling star formation. The sensitivity and resolution offered by Spitzer are necessary to determine the dust properties of these interacting systems, and how these properties vary as a function of pair separation, mass ratio, and gas fraction.

  15. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Cao, Yi; Cook, David; Bally, John; Masci, Frank; Armus, Lee; Cody, Ann Marie; Bond, Howard E.; Contreras, Carlos; Dykhoff, Devin A.; Amodeo, Samuel; Carlon, Robert L.; Cass, Alexander C.; Corgan, David T.; Faella, Joseph; Boyer, Martha; Cantiello, Matteo; Fox, Ori D.

    2017-01-01

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer /IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between −11 and −14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]–[4.5] colors between 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from <0.1 mag yr −1 to >7 mag yr −1 . SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.

  16. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Cao, Yi; Cook, David [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bally, John [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Masci, Frank; Armus, Lee [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Contreras, Carlos [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Dykhoff, Devin A.; Amodeo, Samuel; Carlon, Robert L.; Cass, Alexander C.; Corgan, David T.; Faella, Joseph [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S. E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Boyer, Martha [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MC 665, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cantiello, Matteo [Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute, 162 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Fox, Ori D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-04-20

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer /IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between −11 and −14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]–[4.5] colors between 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from <0.1 mag yr{sup −1} to >7 mag yr{sup −1}. SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.

  17. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DEBRIS DISK CATALOG. II. SILICATE FEATURE ANALYSIS OF UNRESOLVED TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Tushar [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-4767 (United States); Chen, Christine H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jang-Condell, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Manoj, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Sargent, Benjamin A. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Watson, Dan M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Lisse, Carey M., E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    During the Spitzer Space Telescope cryogenic mission, astronomers obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of hundreds of debris disk candidates that have been compiled in the Spitzer IRS Debris Disk Catalog. We have discovered 10 and/or 20 μm silicate emission features toward 120 targets in the catalog and modeled the IRS spectra of these sources, consistent with MIPS 70 μm observations, assuming that the grains are composed of silicates (olivine, pyroxene, forsterite, and enstatite) and are located either in a continuous disk with power-law size and surface density distributions or thin rings that are well-characterized using two separate dust grain temperatures. For systems better fit by the continuous disk model, we find that (1) the dust size distribution power-law index is consistent with that expected from a collisional cascade, q = 3.5-4.0, with a large number of values outside this range, and (2) the minimum grain size, a {sub min}, increases with stellar luminosity, L {sub *}, but the dependence of a {sub min} on L {sub *} is weaker than expected from radiation pressure alone. In addition, we also find that (3) the crystalline fraction of dust in debris disks evolves as a function of time with a large dispersion in crystalline fractions for stars of any particular stellar age or mass, (4) the disk inner edge is correlated with host star mass, and (5) there exists substantial variation in the properties of coeval disks in Sco-Cen, indicating that the observed variation is probably due to stochasticity and diversity in planet formation.

  18. Spitzer/IRAC observations of the variability of Sgr A* and the object G2 at 4.5 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hora, J. L.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G.; Smith, H. A.; Willner, S. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Witzel, G.; Becklin, E. E.; Ghez, A.; Meyer, L.; Morris, M. R. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Carey, S.; Ingalls, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We present the first detection from the Spitzer Space Telescope of 4.5 μm variability from Sgr A*, the emitting source associated with the Milky Way's central black hole. The >23 hr continuous light curve was obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) instrument in 2013 December. The result characterizes the variability of Sgr A* prior to the closest approach of the tidally deformed G2 object, a putative infalling gas cloud that orbits close to Sgr A*. The high stellar density at the location of Sgr A* produces a background of ∼250 mJy at 4.5 μm in each pixel with a large pixel-to-pixel gradient, but the light curve for the highly variable Sgr A* source was successfully measured by modeling and removing the variations due to pointing wobble. The observed flux densities range from the noise level of ∼0.7 mJy rms in a 6.4 s measurement to ≳10 mJy. Emission was seen above the noise level ∼34% of the time. The light-curve characteristics, including the flux density distribution and structure function, are consistent with those previously derived at shorter infrared wavelengths. We see no evidence in the light curve for activity attributable to the G2 interaction at the observing epoch, ∼100 days before the expected G2 periapsis passage. The IRAC light curve is more than a factor of two longer than any previous infrared observation, improving constraints on the timescale of the break in the power spectral distribution of Sgr A* flux densities. The data favor the longer of the two previously published values for the timescale.

  19. DIGGING INTO NGC 6334 I(N): MULTIWAVELENGTH IMAGING OF A MASSIVE PROTOSTELLAR CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogan, C. L.; Hunter, T. R.; Indebetouw, R.; Cyganowski, C. J.; Beuther, H.; Menten, K. M.; Thorwirth, S.

    2009-01-01

    We present a high-resolution, multi-wavelength study of the massive protostellar cluster NGC 6334 I(N) that combines new spectral line data from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and VLA with a re-analysis of archival VLA continuum data, Two Micron All Sky Survey and Spitzer images. As shown previously, the brightest 1.3 mm source SMA1 contains substructure at subarcsecond resolution, and we report the first detection of SMA1b at 3.6 cm along with a new spatial component at 7 mm (SMA1d). We find SMA1 (aggregate of sources a, b, c, and d) and SMA4 to be comprised of free-free and dust components, while SMA6 shows only dust emission. Our 1.''5 resolution 1.3 mm molecular line images reveal substantial hot-core line emission toward SMA1 and to a lesser degree SMA2. We find CH 3 OH rotation temperatures of 165 ± 9 K and 145 ± 12 K for SMA1 and SMA2, respectively. We estimate a diameter of 1400 AU for the SMA1 hot-core emission, encompassing both SMA1b and SMA1d, and speculate that these sources comprise a ∼>800 AU separation binary that may explain the previously suggested precession of the outflow emanating from the SMA1 region. Compact line emission from SMA4 is weak, and none is seen toward SMA6. The LSR velocities of SMA1, SMA2, and SMA4 all differ by 1-2 km s -1 . Outflow activity from SMA1, SMA2, SMA4, and SMA6 is observed in several molecules including SiO(5-4) and IRAC 4.5 μm emission; 24 μm emission from SMA4 is also detected. Eleven water maser groups are detected, eight of which coincide with SMA1, SMA2, SMA4, and SMA6, while two others are associated with the Sandell source SM2. We also detect a total of 83 Class I CH 3 OH 44 GHz maser spots which likely result from the combined activity of many outflows. Our observations paint the portrait of multiple young hot cores in a protocluster prior to the stage where its members become visible in the near-infrared.

  20. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY AND NEBULAR OXYGEN ABUNDANCES OF THE SPITZER/SINGS GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustakas, John; Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr.; Tremonti, Christy A.; Dale, Daniel A.; Smith, John-David T.; Calzetti, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    We present intermediate-resolution optical spectrophotometry of 65 galaxies obtained in support of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). For each galaxy we obtain a nuclear, circumnuclear, and semi-integrated optical spectrum designed to coincide spatially with mid- and far-infrared spectroscopy from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We make the reduced, spectrophotometrically calibrated one-dimensional spectra, as well as measurements of the fluxes and equivalent widths of the strong nebular emission lines, publicly available. We use optical emission-line ratios measured on all three spatial scales to classify the sample into star-forming, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and galaxies with a mixture of star formation and nuclear activity. We find that the relative fraction of the sample classified as star forming versus AGN is a strong function of the integrated light enclosed by the spectroscopic aperture. We supplement our observations with a large database of nebular emission-line measurements of individual H II regions in the SINGS galaxies culled from the literature. We use these ancillary data to conduct a detailed analysis of the radial abundance gradients and average H II-region abundances of a large fraction of the sample. We combine these results with our new integrated spectra to estimate the central and characteristic (globally averaged) gas-phase oxygen abundances of all 75 SINGS galaxies. We conclude with an in-depth discussion of the absolute uncertainty in the nebular oxygen abundance scale.

  1. The CO2 Abundance in Comets C2012 K1 (PanSTARRS), C2012 K5 (LINEAR), and 290P Jager as Measured with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Adam J.; Kelley, Michael S.P.; Cochran, Anita L.; Bodewits, Dennis; DiSanti, Michael A.; Dello Russo, Neil; Lisse, Carey M.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the most abundant ices present in comets and is therefore important for understanding cometary composition and activity. We present analysis of observations of CO2 and [O I] emission in three comets to measure the CO2 abundance and evaluate the possibility of employing observations of [O I] emission in comets as a proxy for CO2. We obtained NIR imaging sensitive to CO2 of comets C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS), C/2012 K5 (LINEAR), and 290P/Jager with the IRAC instrument on Spitzer. We acquired observations of [O I] emission in these comets with the ARCES echelle spectrometer mounted on the 3.5-m telescope at Apache Point Observatory and observations of OH with the Swift observatory (PanSTARRS) and with Keck HIRES (Jager). The CO2/H2O ratios derived from the Spitzer images are 12.6 +/- 1.3% (PanSTARRS), 28.9 +/- 3.6% (LINEAR), and 31.3 +/- 4.2% (Jager). These abundances are derived under the assumption that contamination from CO emission is negligible. The CO2 abundance for PanSTARRS is close to the average abundance measured in comets at similar heliocentric distance to date, while the abundances measured for LINEAR and Jager are significantly larger than the average abundance. From the coma morphology observed in PanSTARRS and the assumed gas expansion velocity, we derive a rotation period for the nucleus of about 9.2 h. Comparison of H2O production rates derived from ARCES and Swift data, as well as other observations, suggest the possibility of sublimation from icy grains in the inner coma. We evaluate the possibility that the [O I] emission can be employed as a proxy for CO2 by comparing CO2/H2O ratios inferred from the [O I] lines to those measured directly by Spitzer. We find that for PanSTARRS we can reproduce the observed CO2 abundance to an accuracy of approximately 20%. For LINEAR and Jager, we were only able to obtain upper limits on the CO2 abundance inferred from the [O I] lines. These upper limits are consistent with the CO2 abundances

  2. A Spitzer Infrared Radius for the Transiting Extrasolar Planet HD 209458 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, L. Jeremy; Harrington, Joseph; Seager, Sara; Deming, Drake

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the infrared transit of the extrasolar planet HD 209458 b using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We observed two primary eclipse events (one partial and one complete transit) using the 24 micrometer array of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). We analyzed a total of 2392 individual images (10-second integrations) of the planetary system, recorded before, during, and after transit. We perform optimal photometry on the images and use the local zodiacal light as a short-term flux reference. At this long wavelength, the transit curve has a simple box-like shape, allowing robust solutions for the stellar and planetary radii independent of stellar limb darkening, which is negligible at 24 micrometers. We derive a stellar radius of R(sub *) = 1.06 plus or minus 0.07 solar radius, a planetary radius of R(sub p) = 1.26 plus or minus 0.08 R(sub J), and a stellar mass of 1.17 solar mass. Within the errors, our results agree with the measurements at visible wavelengths. The 24 micrometer radius of the planet therefore does not differ significantly compared to the visible result. We point out the potential for deriving extrasolar transiting planet radii to high accuracy using transit photometry at slightly shorter IR wavelengths where greater photometric precision is possible.

  3. The Spitzer survey of interstellar clouds in the gould belt. VI. The Auriga-California molecular cloud observed with IRAC and MIPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Harvey, Paul M.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F.; Tothill, Nicholas F. H.; Nutter, David; Bourke, Tyler L.; DiFrancesco, James; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Allen, Lori E.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Dunham, Michael M.; Merín, Bruno; Terebey, Susan; Peterson, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70, and 160 μm observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg 2 with IRAC and 10.47 deg 2 with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors, and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkHα 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the relative fraction of YSOs in earlier (Class I and F) and later (Class II) classes compared to other clouds. We perform simple SED modeling of the YSOs with disks to compare the mid-IR properties to disks in other clouds and identify 14 classical transition disk candidates. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size, and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15-20 times fewer stars.

  4. The Spitzer survey of interstellar clouds in the gould belt. VI. The Auriga-California molecular cloud observed with IRAC and MIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Harvey, Paul M. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Tothill, Nicholas F. H. [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751 (Australia); Nutter, David [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bourke, Tyler L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); DiFrancesco, James [National Research Council Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jørgensen, Jes K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø. (Denmark); Allen, Lori E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Chapman, Nicholas L. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Merín, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC-ESA, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Terebey, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy PS315, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Peterson, Dawn E. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70, and 160 μm observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg{sup 2} with IRAC and 10.47 deg{sup 2} with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors, and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkHα 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the relative fraction of YSOs in earlier (Class I and F) and later (Class II) classes compared to other clouds. We perform simple SED modeling of the YSOs with disks to compare the mid-IR properties to disks in other clouds and identify 14 classical transition disk candidates. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size, and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15-20 times fewer stars.

  5. Updated 34-band Photometry for the SINGS/KINGFISH Samples of Nearby Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, D. A.; Turner, J. A.; Cook, D. O.; Roussel, H.; Armus, L.; Helou, G.; Bolatto, A. D.; Boquien, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Calzetti, D.; Looze, I. De; Galametz, M.; Gordon, K. D.; Groves, B. A.; Jarrett, T. H.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Hinz, J. L.; Hunt, L. K.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Murphy, E. J.

    2017-01-01

    We present an update to the ultraviolet-to-radio database of global broadband photometry for the 79 nearby galaxies that comprise the union of the KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel ) and SINGS ( Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey) samples. The 34-band data set presented here includes contributions from observational work carried out with a variety of facilities including GALEX , SDSS, Pan-STARRS1, NOAO , 2MASS, Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer , Spitzer , Herschel , Planck , JCMT , and the VLA. Improvements of note include recalibrations of previously published SINGS BVR C I C and KINGFISH far-infrared/submillimeter photometry. Similar to previous results in the literature, an excess of submillimeter emission above model predictions is seen primarily for low-metallicity dwarf or irregular galaxies. This 33-band photometric data set for the combined KINGFISH+SINGS sample serves as an important multiwavelength reference for the variety of galaxies observed at low redshift. A thorough analysis of the observed spectral energy distributions is carried out in a companion paper.

  6. Updated 34-band Photometry for the SINGS/KINGFISH Samples of Nearby Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, D. A.; Turner, J. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie WY (United States); Cook, D. O. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA (United States); Roussel, H. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, Sorbonne Universités, Paris (France); Armus, L.; Helou, G. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Bolatto, A. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Boquien, M. [Unidad de Astronomía, Universidad de Antofagasta, Antofagasta (Chile); Brown, M. J. I. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst MA (United States); Looze, I. De [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Gent (Belgium); Galametz, M. [European Southern Observatory, Garching (Germany); Gordon, K. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore MD (United States); Groves, B. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Jarrett, T. H. [Astronomy Department, University of Capetown, Rondebosch (South Africa); Herrera-Camus, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Hinz, J. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ (United States); Hunt, L. K. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze (Italy); Kennicutt, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Murphy, E. J., E-mail: ddale@uwyo.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); and others

    2017-03-01

    We present an update to the ultraviolet-to-radio database of global broadband photometry for the 79 nearby galaxies that comprise the union of the KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel ) and SINGS ( Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey) samples. The 34-band data set presented here includes contributions from observational work carried out with a variety of facilities including GALEX , SDSS, Pan-STARRS1, NOAO , 2MASS, Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer , Spitzer , Herschel , Planck , JCMT , and the VLA. Improvements of note include recalibrations of previously published SINGS BVR {sub C} I {sub C} and KINGFISH far-infrared/submillimeter photometry. Similar to previous results in the literature, an excess of submillimeter emission above model predictions is seen primarily for low-metallicity dwarf or irregular galaxies. This 33-band photometric data set for the combined KINGFISH+SINGS sample serves as an important multiwavelength reference for the variety of galaxies observed at low redshift. A thorough analysis of the observed spectral energy distributions is carried out in a companion paper.

  7. Spitzer/infrared spectrograph investigation of mipsgal 24 μm compact bubbles: low-resolution observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, M. [Département de Physique, École Normale Supérieure de Cachan, 61 Avenue du Président Wilson, F-94235 Cachan (France); Flagey, N. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; Van Dyk, S. D. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Billot, N. [Instituto de Radio Astronomía Milimétrica, Avenida Divina Pastora, 7, Local 20, E-18012 Granada (Spain); Paladini, R., E-mail: mathias.nowak@ens-cachan.fr [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present Spitzer/InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) low-resolution observations of 11 compact circumstellar bubbles from the MIPSGAL 24 μm Galactic plane survey. We find that this set of MIPSGAL bubbles (MBs) is divided into two categories and that this distinction correlates with the morphologies of the MBs in the mid-infrared (IR). The four MBs with central sources in the mid-IR exhibit dust-rich, low-excitation spectra, and their 24 μm emission is accounted for by the dust continuum. The seven MBs without central sources in the mid-IR have spectra dominated by high-excitation gas lines (e.g., [O IV] 26.0 μm, [Ne V] 14.3 and 24.3 μm, and [Ne III] 15.5 μm), and the [O IV] line accounts for 50% to almost 100% of the 24 μm emission in five of them. In the dust-poor MBs, the [Ne V] and [Ne III] line ratios correspond to high-excitation conditions. Based on comparisons with published IRS spectra, we suggest that the dust-poor MBs are highly excited planetary nebulae (PNs) with peculiar white dwarfs (e.g., Wolf-Rayet [WR] and novae) at their centers. The central stars of the four dust-rich MBs are all massive star candidates. Dust temperatures range from 40 to 100 K in the outer shells. We constrain the extinction along the lines of sight from the IRS spectra. We then derive distance, dust masses, and dust production rate estimates for these objects. These estimates are all consistent with the nature of the central stars. We summarize the identifications of MBs made to date and discuss the correlation between their mid-IR morphologies and natures. Candidate Be/B[e]/luminous blue variable and WR stars are mainly 'rings' with mid-IR central sources, whereas PNs are mostly 'disks' without mid-IR central sources. Therefore we expect that most of the 300 remaining unidentified MBs will be classified as PNs.

  8. THE WYOMING SURVEY FOR Hα. III. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH LOOK AT ATTENUATION BY DUST IN GALAXIES OUT TO z ∼ 0.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Carolynn A.; Dale, Daniel A.; Barlow, Rebecca J.; Cohen, Seth A.; Cook, David O.; Johnson, L. C.; Kattner, ShiAnne M.; Staudaher, Shawn M.; Lee, Janice C.

    2010-01-01

    We report results from the Wyoming Survey for Hα (WySH), a comprehensive four-square degree survey to probe the evolution of star-forming galaxies over the latter half of the age of the universe. We have supplemented the Hα data from WySH with infrared data from the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Survey and ultraviolet data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Deep Imaging Survey. This data set provides a multi-wavelength look at the evolution of the attenuation by dust, and here we compare a traditional measure of dust attenuation (L(TIR)/L(FUV)) to a diagnostic based on a recently developed robust star formation rate (SFR) indicator, [Ha obs +24μm]/Ha obs . With such data over multiple epochs, the evolution in the attenuation by dust with redshift can be assessed. We present results from the ELAIS-N1 and Lockman Hole regions at z ∼ 0.16, 0.24, 0.32, and 0.40. While the ensemble averages of both diagnostics are relatively constant from epoch to epoch, each epoch individually exhibits a larger attenuation by dust for higher SFRs. Hence, an epoch-to-epoch comparison at a fixed SFR suggests a mild decrease in dust attenuation with redshift.

  9. Multi-Wavelength Polarimetry of Isolated Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto P. Mignani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Isolated neutron stars are known to be endowed with extreme magnetic fields, whose maximum intensity ranges from 10 12 – 10 15 G, which permeates their magnetospheres. Their surrounding environment is also strongly magnetized, especially in the compact nebulae powered by the relativistic wind from young neutron stars. The radiation from isolated neutron stars and their surrounding nebulae is, thus, supposed to bring a strong polarization signature. Measuring the neutron star polarization brings important information about the properties of their magnetosphere and of their highly magnetized environment. Being the most numerous class of isolated neutron stars, polarization measurements have been traditionally carried out for radio pulsars, hence in the radio band. In this review, I summarize multi-wavelength linear polarization measurements obtained at wavelengths other than radio both for pulsars and other types of isolated neutron stars and outline future perspectives with the upcoming observing facilities.

  10. STELLAR POPULATIONS IN COMPACT GALAXY GROUPS: A MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF HCGs 16, 22, AND 42, THEIR STAR CLUSTERS, AND DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Maybhate, A.; Charlton, J. C.; Gronwall, C.; Fedotov, K.; Desjardins, T. D.; Gallagher, S. C.; Durrell, P. R.; Mulchaey, J. S.; English, J.; Walker, L. M.; Johnson, K. E.; Tzanavaris, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of three compact galaxy groups, Hickson compact groups (HCGs) 16, 22, and 42, which describe a sequence in terms of gas richness, from space- (Swift, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Spitzer) and ground-based (Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) imaging and spectroscopy. We study various signs of past interactions including a faint, dusty tidal feature about HCG 16A, which we tentatively age-date at <1 Gyr. This represents the possible detection of a tidal feature at the end of its phase of optical observability. Our HST images also resolve what were thought to be double nuclei in HCG 16C and D into multiple, distinct sources, likely to be star clusters. Beyond our phenomenological treatment, we focus primarily on contrasting the stellar populations across these three groups. The star clusters show a remarkable intermediate-age population in HCG 22, and identify the time at which star formation was quenched in HCG 42. We also search for dwarf galaxies at accordant redshifts. The inclusion of 33 members and 27 ''associates'' (possible members) radically changes group dynamical masses, which in turn may affect previous evolutionary classifications. The extended membership paints a picture of relative isolation in HCGs 16 and 22, but shows HCG 42 to be part of a larger structure, following a dichotomy expected from recent studies. We conclude that (1) star cluster populations provide an excellent metric of evolutionary state, as they can age-date the past epochs of star formation; and (2) the extended dwarf galaxy population must be considered in assessing the dynamical state of a compact group.

  11. A Spitzer five-band analysis of the Jupiter-sized planet TrES-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubillos, Patricio; Harrington, Joseph; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Lust, Nate B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Bowman, M. Oliver [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku, E-mail: pcubillos@fulbrightmail.org [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    With an equilibrium temperature of 1200 K, TrES-1 is one of the coolest hot Jupiters observed by Spitzer. It was also the first planet discovered by any transit survey and one of the first exoplanets from which thermal emission was directly observed. We analyzed all Spitzer eclipse and transit data for TrES-1 and obtained its eclipse depths and brightness temperatures in the 3.6 μm (0.083% ± 0.024%, 1270 ± 110 K), 4.5 μm (0.094% ± 0.024%, 1126 ± 90 K), 5.8 μm (0.162% ± 0.042%, 1205 ± 130 K), 8.0 μm (0.213% ± 0.042%, 1190 ± 130 K), and 16 μm (0.33% ± 0.12%, 1270 ± 310 K) bands. The eclipse depths can be explained, within 1σ errors, by a standard atmospheric model with solar abundance composition in chemical equilibrium, with or without a thermal inversion. The combined analysis of the transit, eclipse, and radial-velocity ephemerides gives an eccentricity of e=0.033{sub −0.031}{sup +0.015}, consistent with a circular orbit. Since TrES-1's eclipses have low signal-to-noise ratios, we implemented optimal photometry and differential-evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms in our Photometry for Orbits, Eclipses, and Transits pipeline. Benefits include higher photometric precision and ∼10 times faster MCMC convergence, with better exploration of the phase space and no manual parameter tuning.

  12. Solid State Multiwavelength LIDAR for Volcanic Ash Monitoring, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a compact, multiwavelength LIDAR with polarization analysis capability that will be able to identify volcanic ash clouds...

  13. Properties of the Irregular Satellite System around Uranus Inferred from K2, Herschel, and Spitzer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas-Takács, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Pál, A.; Molnár, L.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Hanyecz, O.; Sárneczky, K.; Szabó, R.; Marton, G.; Mommert, M.; Szakáts, R.; Müller, T.; Kiss, L. L.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present visible-range light curves of the irregular Uranian satellites Sycorax, Caliban, Prospero, Ferdinand, and Setebos taken with the Kepler Space Telescope over the course of the K2 mission. Thermal emission measurements obtained with the Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/MIPS instruments of Sycorax and Caliban were also analyzed and used to determine size, albedo, and surface characteristics of these bodies. We compare these properties with the rotational and surface characteristics of irregular satellites in other giant planet systems and also with those of main belt and Trojan asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects. Our results indicate that the Uranian irregular satellite system likely went through a more intense collisional evolution than the irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Surface characteristics of Uranian irregular satellites seem to resemble the Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects more than irregular satellites around other giant planets, suggesting the existence of a compositional discontinuity in the young solar system inside the orbit of Uranus.

  14. Properties of the Irregular Satellite System around Uranus Inferred from K2 , Herschel , and Spitzer Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas-Takács, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Pál, A.; Molnár, L.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Hanyecz, O.; Sárneczky, K.; Szabó, R.; Marton, G.; Szakáts, R.; Kiss, L. L. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Mommert, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 6010, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Müller, T., E-mail: farkas.aniko@csfk.mta.hu [Max-Plank-Institut für extraterrestrsiche Pyhsik, Garching (Germany)

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present visible-range light curves of the irregular Uranian satellites Sycorax, Caliban, Prospero, Ferdinand, and Setebos taken with the Kepler Space Telescope over the course of the K2 mission. Thermal emission measurements obtained with the Herschel /PACS and Spitzer /MIPS instruments of Sycorax and Caliban were also analyzed and used to determine size, albedo, and surface characteristics of these bodies. We compare these properties with the rotational and surface characteristics of irregular satellites in other giant planet systems and also with those of main belt and Trojan asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects. Our results indicate that the Uranian irregular satellite system likely went through a more intense collisional evolution than the irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Surface characteristics of Uranian irregular satellites seem to resemble the Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects more than irregular satellites around other giant planets, suggesting the existence of a compositional discontinuity in the young solar system inside the orbit of Uranus.

  15. Robert Spitzer and psychiatric classification: technical challenges and ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, K S

    2016-01-01

    Dr Robert Leopold Spitzer (May 22, 1932-December 25, 2015), the architect of modern psychiatric diagnostic criteria and classification, died recently at the age of 83 in Seattle. Under his leadership, the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manuals (DSM) became the international standard.

  16. Multiwavelength EDM measurements in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, L.E.; McGarr, A.; Langbein, J.O.; Linker, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    We installed a precise geodetic network along the San Andreas fault near Pearblossom, California in November, 1980. The network is within the region frequently referred to as the "Palmdale Uplift" and consists of 13 lines radiating from a central benchmark. The lines range in length from 3.2 to 8.1 km are generally measured several times each week. The multiwavelength distance measuring (MWDM) instrument is located at the central benchmark and is housed in a small protective shelter. The MWDM instrument has demonstrated a capability to make measurements to a precision of 1 part in 10 million. Using a coordinate system whose x-axis is parallel to the local trace of the San Andreas fault the following strain rates were observed during the first 10 months of this effort: {greater-than with dot}exx = -0.180 ?? 0.025 ??str/yr{greater-than with dot}eyy = -0.031 ?? 0.029 ??str/yr{greater-than with dot}exy = +0.077 ?? 0.024 ??str/yr?? = -0.213 ?? 0.039 ??str/yr. The observed strain rates do not appear to be constant in time, much of the deformation occurs in fairly well defined episodes. These changes in strain rate are particularly obvious in the \\ ??.geyy component. ?? 1983.

  17. Multiwavelength Coverage of a Bright Flare from Sgr A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trap, G.; Goldwurm, A.; Terrier, R.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamical center of our galaxy hosts a supermassive black hole, Sgr A*, which has been the target of an extensive multiwavelength campaign for a week in April 2007. We report here the detection of a bright flare from the vicinity of the horizon, observed simultaneously in X-rays (XMM-Newton) and NIR (VLT/NACO) on April 4 th . For the first time, such an event also benefitted from a soft γ-rays (INTEGRAL/ISGRI) and MIR (VLT/VISIR) coverage, which enabled us to derive upper limits at both ends of Sgr A* spectral energy distribution (SED). We discuss the physical implications of the contemporaneous light curves as well as the SED, in terms of synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton emission processes.

  18. The status of MUSIC: the multiwavelength sub-millimeter inductance camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Jack; Bockstiegel, Clint; Brugger, Spencer; Czakon, Nicole G.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran P.; Gao, Jiansong; Gill, Amandeep K.; Glenn, Jason; Golwala, Sunil R.; Hollister, Matthew I.; Lam, Albert; LeDuc, Henry G.; Maloney, Philip R.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; McHugh, Sean G.; Miller, David A.; Mroczkowski, Anthony K.; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien Trong; Schlaerth, James A.; Siegel, Seth R.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2014-08-01

    The Multiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC) is a four-band photometric imaging camera operating from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). MUSIC is designed to utilize 2304 microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs), with 576 MKIDs for each observing band centered on 150, 230, 290, and 350 GHz. MUSIC's field of view (FOV) is 14' square, and the point-spread functions (PSFs) in the four observing bands have 45'', 31'', 25'', and 22'' full-widths at half maximum (FWHM). The camera was installed in April 2012 with 25% of its nominal detector count in each band, and has subsequently completed three short sets of engineering observations and one longer duration set of early science observations. Recent results from on-sky characterization of the instrument during these observing runs are presented, including achieved map- based sensitivities from deep integrations, along with results from lab-based measurements made during the same period. In addition, recent upgrades to MUSIC, which are expected to significantly improve the sensitivity of the camera, are described.

  19. Spitzer/IRAC view of Sh 2-284. Searching for evidence of triggered star formation in an isolated region in the outer Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puga, E.; Hony, S.; Neiner, C.; Lenorzer, A.; Hubert, A.M.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Cusano, F.; Ripepi, V.

    2009-01-01

    Aims. Using Spitzer/IRAC observations of a region to be observed by the CoRoT satellite, we have unraveled a new complex star-forming region at low metallicity in the outer Galaxy. We perform a study of S284 in order to outline the chain of events in this star-forming region. Methods. We used

  20. MULTI-WAVELENGTH RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION STUDIES OF DUST-FREE RED GIANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Gorman, Eamon; Harper, Graham M.; Brown, Alexander; Drake, Stephen; Richards, Anita M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-wavelength centimeter continuum observations of non-dusty, non-pulsating K spectral-type red giants directly sample their chromospheres and wind acceleration zones. Such stars are feeble emitters at these wavelengths, however, and previous observations have provided only a small number of modest signal-to-noise measurements slowly accumulated over three decades. We present multi-wavelength Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array thermal continuum observations of the wind acceleration zones of two dust-free red giants, Arcturus (α Boo: K2 III) and Aldebaran (α Tau: K5 III). Importantly, most of our observations of each star were carried out over just a few days, so that we obtained a snapshot of the different stellar atmospheric layers sampled at different wavelengths, independent of any long-term variability. We report the first detections at several wavelengths for each star including a detection at 10 cm (3.0 GHz: S band) for both stars and a 20 cm (1.5 GHz: L band) detection for α Boo. This is the first time single (non-binary) luminosity class III red giants have been detected at these continuum wavelengths. Our long-wavelength data sample the outer layers of α Boo's atmosphere where its wind velocity is approaching (or possibly has reached) its terminal value and the ionization balance is becoming frozen-in. For α Tau, however, our long-wavelength data are still sampling its inner atmosphere, where the wind is still accelerating probably due to its lower mass-loss rate. We compare our data with published semi-empirical models based on ultraviolet data, and the marked deviations highlight the need for new atmospheric models to be developed. Spectral indices are used to discuss the possible properties of the stellar atmospheres, and we find evidence for a rapidly cooling wind in the case of α Boo. Finally, we develop a simple analytical wind model for α Boo based on our new long-wavelength flux measurements

  1. Multi-wavelength Radio Continuum Emission Studies of Dust-free Red Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eamon; Harper, Graham M.; Brown, Alexander; Dranke, Stephen; Richards, Anita M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-wavelength centimeter continuum observations of non-dusty, non-pulsating K spectral-type red giants directly sample their chromospheres and wind acceleration zones. Such stars are feeble emitters at these wavelengths, however, and previous observations have provided only a small number of modest signal-to-noise measurements slowly accumulated over three decades. We present multi-wavelength Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array thermal continuum observations of the wind acceleration zones of two dust-free red giants, Arcturus (alpha Boo: K2 III) and Aldebaran (alpha Tau: K5 III). Importantly, most of our observations of each star were carried out over just a few days, so that we obtained a snapshot of the different stellar atmospheric layers sampled at different wavelengths, independent of any long-term variability. We report the first detections at several wavelengths for each star including a detection at 10 cm (3.0 GHz: S band) for both stars and a 20 cm (1.5 GHz: L band) detection for alpha Boo. This is the first time single (non-binary) luminosity class III red giants have been detected at these continuum wavelengths. Our long-wavelength data sample the outer layers of alpha Boo's atmosphere where its wind velocity is approaching (or possibly has reached) its terminal value and the ionization balance is becoming frozen-in. For alpha Tau, however, our long-wavelength data are still sampling its inner atmosphere, where the wind is still accelerating probably due to its lower mass-loss rate. We compare our data with published semi-empirical models based on ultraviolet data, and the marked deviations highlight the need for new atmospheric models to be developed. Spectral indices are used to discuss the possible properties of the stellar atmospheres, and we find evidence for a rapidly cooling wind in the case of alpha Boo. Finally, we develop a simple analytical wind model for alpha Boo based on our new long-wavelength flux measurements.

  2. MULTI-WAVELENGTH RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION STUDIES OF DUST-FREE RED GIANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Gorman, Eamon; Harper, Graham M. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Brown, Alexander [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Drake, Stephen [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Richards, Anita M. S. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01

    Multi-wavelength centimeter continuum observations of non-dusty, non-pulsating K spectral-type red giants directly sample their chromospheres and wind acceleration zones. Such stars are feeble emitters at these wavelengths, however, and previous observations have provided only a small number of modest signal-to-noise measurements slowly accumulated over three decades. We present multi-wavelength Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array thermal continuum observations of the wind acceleration zones of two dust-free red giants, Arcturus (α Boo: K2 III) and Aldebaran (α Tau: K5 III). Importantly, most of our observations of each star were carried out over just a few days, so that we obtained a snapshot of the different stellar atmospheric layers sampled at different wavelengths, independent of any long-term variability. We report the first detections at several wavelengths for each star including a detection at 10 cm (3.0 GHz: S band) for both stars and a 20 cm (1.5 GHz: L band) detection for α Boo. This is the first time single (non-binary) luminosity class III red giants have been detected at these continuum wavelengths. Our long-wavelength data sample the outer layers of α Boo's atmosphere where its wind velocity is approaching (or possibly has reached) its terminal value and the ionization balance is becoming frozen-in. For α Tau, however, our long-wavelength data are still sampling its inner atmosphere, where the wind is still accelerating probably due to its lower mass-loss rate. We compare our data with published semi-empirical models based on ultraviolet data, and the marked deviations highlight the need for new atmospheric models to be developed. Spectral indices are used to discuss the possible properties of the stellar atmospheres, and we find evidence for a rapidly cooling wind in the case of α Boo. Finally, we develop a simple analytical wind model for α Boo based on our new long-wavelength flux measurements.

  3. Multiwavelength Spectroscopy of PSR B0656+14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Martin; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George G.

    2011-12-01

    Using high-quality Hubble Space Telescope observations, we construct the near-infrared (NIR) to far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectral energy distribution (SED) of PSR B0656+14. The SED is non-monotonic. Fitting it with a simple combination of a Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum (UV) and non-thermal power law (PL; optical/NIR) leaves significant residuals, strongly hinting at one or more spectral features. We consider various models (combination of continuum components, and absorption/emission lines) with possible interpretations and place them in the context of the broader SED. Surprisingly, the extrapolation of the best-fit X-ray spectral model roughly matches the NIR-FUV data, and the PL component is also consistent with the γ-ray fluxes. We compare the multiwavelength SED of B0656+14 with those of other optical-, X-ray-, and γ-ray-detected pulsars, and notice that a simple PL spectrum crudely accounts for most of the non-thermal emission.

  4. MULTIWAVELENGTH SPECTROSCOPY OF PSR B0656+14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durant, Martin; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George G.

    2011-01-01

    Using high-quality Hubble Space Telescope observations, we construct the near-infrared (NIR) to far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectral energy distribution (SED) of PSR B0656+14. The SED is non-monotonic. Fitting it with a simple combination of a Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum (UV) and non-thermal power law (PL; optical/NIR) leaves significant residuals, strongly hinting at one or more spectral features. We consider various models (combination of continuum components, and absorption/emission lines) with possible interpretations and place them in the context of the broader SED. Surprisingly, the extrapolation of the best-fit X-ray spectral model roughly matches the NIR-FUV data, and the PL component is also consistent with the γ-ray fluxes. We compare the multiwavelength SED of B0656+14 with those of other optical-, X-ray-, and γ-ray-detected pulsars, and notice that a simple PL spectrum crudely accounts for most of the non-thermal emission.

  5. SPITZER IRAC COLOR DIAGNOSTICS FOR EXTENDED EMISSION IN STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ybarra, Jason E.; Tapia, Mauricio; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.; Lada, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope are an invaluable tool for identifying physical processes in star formation. In this study, we calculate the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) color space of UV fluorescent H 2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in photodissociation regions (PDRs) using the Cloudy code with PAH opacities from Draine and Li. We create a set of color diagnostics that can be applied to study the structure of PDRs and to distinguish between FUV-excited and shock-excited H 2 emission. To test this method, we apply these diagnostics to Spitzer IRAC data of NGC 2316. Our analysis of the structure of the PDR is consistent with previous studies of the region. In addition to UV excited emission, we identify shocked gas that may be part of an outflow originating from the cluster

  6. SPITZER IRAC COLOR DIAGNOSTICS FOR EXTENDED EMISSION IN STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ybarra, Jason E.; Tapia, Mauricio; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexíco, Unidad Académica en Ensenada, Km 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada BC (Mexico); Lada, Elizabeth A., E-mail: jybarra@astro.unam.mx [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    The infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope are an invaluable tool for identifying physical processes in star formation. In this study, we calculate the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) color space of UV fluorescent H{sub 2} and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in photodissociation regions (PDRs) using the Cloudy code with PAH opacities from Draine and Li. We create a set of color diagnostics that can be applied to study the structure of PDRs and to distinguish between FUV-excited and shock-excited H{sub 2} emission. To test this method, we apply these diagnostics to Spitzer IRAC data of NGC 2316. Our analysis of the structure of the PDR is consistent with previous studies of the region. In addition to UV excited emission, we identify shocked gas that may be part of an outflow originating from the cluster.

  7. Temperature Measurement of Ceramic Materials Using a Multiwavelength Pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel; Fralick, Gustave

    1999-01-01

    The surface temperatures of several pure ceramic materials (alumina, beryllia, magnesia, yittria and spinel) in the shape of pellets were measured using a multiwavelength pyrometer. In one of the measurements, radiation signal collection is provided simply by an optical fiber. In the other experiments, a 4.75 inch (12 cm) parabolic mirror collects the signal for the spectrometer. Temperature measurement using the traditional one- and two-color pyrometer for these ceramic materials is difficult because of their complex optical properties, such as low emissivity which varies with both temperature and wavelength. In at least one of the materials, yittria, the detected optical emission increased as the temperature was decreased due to such emissivity variation. The reasons for such changes are not known. The multiwavelength pyrometer has demonstrated its ability to measure surface temperatures under such conditions. Platinum electrodes were embedded in the ceramic pellets for resistance measurements as the temperature changed.

  8. Spitzer spectral line mapping of the HH211 outflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionatos, Odyssefs; Nisini, Brunella; Cabrit, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    of emission line diagnostics and an existing grid of molecular shock models. The physical properties of the warm gas are compared against other molecular jet tracers and to the results of a similar study towards the L1448-C outflow. Results: We have detected and mapped the v=0-0 S(0) - S(7) H2 lines and fine...... compared to solar abundances by a factor ~10-50. Conclusions: Spitzer spectral mapping observations reveal for the first time a cool H$_2$ component towards the CO jet of HH211 consistent with the CO material being fully molecular and warm at ~ 300 K. The maps also reveal for the first time the existence...... uncertainties on jet speed and shock conditions are too large for a definite conclusion....

  9. A Spitzer Search for Activity in Dormant Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Hora, Joseph; Smith, Howard

    2018-05-01

    Dormant comets are inactive cometary nuclei hiding in the asteroid populations. Due to their cometary origin, it is possible that volatiles are still retained in their interiors. This hypothesis is supported by the case of near-Earth asteroid Don Quixote, which had been known as an asteroid for 30 yr before activity was discovered in this team's prior Spitzer observations. Interestingly, Don Quixote showed outgassing of CO or CO2, but no dust activity. This significant observation was repeated in 2017 with the same result, suggesting that Don Quixote is continuously outgassing - and still an active comet. Don Quixote's case suggests that other dormant comets might be outgassing with low dust production rates, concealing their activity to optical surveys. The implication of this scenario is that the volatile inventory of the asteroid populations might be significantly larger than currently assumed. We propose 48.8 hr of deep IRAC observations of eight dormant comets in search of faint activity in them. For each target, we will (1) measure (or provide upper limits on) gas and dust production rates from our IRAC CH1 and CH2 observations, (2) derive the diameters and albedos of five of our targets using asteroid thermal modeling, (3) measure the near-infrared spectral slope between CH1 and CH2 for three of our targets, and (4) obtain lightcurve observations of the nuclei of all of our targets. Our observations, which are combined with ground-based observations as part of a NASA-funded program, will provide important constraints on the volatile content of the asteroid population, as well as the origin, evolution, and physical properties of cometary nuclei.

  10. AGN Populations in Large-volume X-Ray Surveys: Photometric Redshifts and Population Types Found in the Stripe 82X Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananna, Tonima Tasnin; Salvato, Mara; LaMassa, Stephanie; Urry, C. Megan; Cappelluti, Nico; Cardamone, Carolin; Civano, Francesca; Farrah, Duncan; Gilfanov, Marat; Glikman, Eilat; Hamilton, Mark; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Marchesi, Stefano; Merloni, Andrea; Nandra, Kirpal; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Richards, Gordon T.; Timlin, John

    2017-11-01

    Multiwavelength surveys covering large sky volumes are necessary to obtain an accurate census of rare objects such as high-luminosity and/or high-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Stripe 82X is a 31.3 X-ray survey with Chandra and XMM-Newton observations overlapping the legacy Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 field, which has a rich investment of multiwavelength coverage from the ultraviolet to the radio. The wide-area nature of this survey presents new challenges for photometric redshifts for AGNs compared to previous work on narrow-deep fields because it probes different populations of objects that need to be identified and represented in the library of templates. Here we present an updated X-ray plus multiwavelength matched catalog, including Spitzer counterparts, and estimated photometric redshifts for 5961 (96% of a total of 6181) X-ray sources that have a normalized median absolute deviation, σnmad=0.06, and an outlier fraction, η = 13.7%. The populations found in this survey and the template libraries used for photometric redshifts provide important guiding principles for upcoming large-area surveys such as eROSITA and 3XMM (in X-ray) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (optical).

  11. Benchmark Transiting Brown Dwarf LHS 6343 C: Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Observations Yield Brightness Temperature and Mid-T Spectral Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montet, Benjamin T.; Johnson, John Asher; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Desert, Jean-Michel

    2016-05-01

    There are no field brown dwarf analogs with measured masses, radii, and luminosities, precluding our ability to connect the population of transiting brown dwarfs with measurable masses and radii and field brown dwarfs with measurable luminosities and atmospheric properties. LHS 6343 C, a weakly irradiated brown dwarf transiting one member of an M+M binary in the Kepler field, provides the first opportunity to probe the atmosphere of a non-inflated brown dwarf with a measured mass and radius. Here, we analyze four Spitzer observations of secondary eclipses of LHS 6343 C behind LHS 6343 A. Jointly fitting the eclipses with a Gaussian process noise model of the instrumental systematics, we measure eclipse depths of 1.06 ± 0.21 ppt at 3.6 μm and 2.09 ± 0.08 ppt at 4.5 μm, corresponding to brightness temperatures of 1026 ± 57 K and 1249 ± 36 K, respectively. We then apply brown dwarf evolutionary models to infer a bolometric luminosity {log}({L}\\star /{L}⊙ )=-5.16+/- 0.04. Given the known physical properties of the brown dwarf and the two M dwarfs in the LHS 6343 system, these depths are consistent with models of a 1100 K T dwarf at an age of 5 Gyr and empirical observations of field T5-6 dwarfs with temperatures of 1070 ± 130 K. We investigate the possibility that the orbit of LHS 6343 C has been altered by the Kozai-Lidov mechanism and propose additional astrometric or Rossiter-McLaughlin measurements of the system to probe the dynamical history of the system.

  12. Characterization of smoke and dust episode over West Africa: comparison of MERRA-2 modeling with multiwavelength Mie–Raman lidar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Veselovskii

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Observations of multiwavelength Mie–Raman lidar taken during the SHADOW field campaign are used to analyze a smoke–dust episode over West Africa on 24–27 December 2015. For the case considered, the dust layer extended from the ground up to approximately 2000 m while the elevated smoke layer occurred in the 2500–4000 m range. The profiles of lidar measured backscattering, extinction coefficients, and depolarization ratios are compared with the vertical distribution of aerosol parameters provided by the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2. The MERRA-2 model simulated the correct location of the near-surface dust and elevated smoke layers. The values of modeled and observed aerosol extinction coefficients at both 355 and 532 nm are also rather close. In particular, for the episode reported, the mean value of difference between the measured and modeled extinction coefficients at 355 nm is 0.01 km−1 with SD of 0.042 km−1. The model predicts significant concentration of dust particles inside the elevated smoke layer, which is supported by an increased depolarization ratio of 15 % observed in the center of this layer. The modeled at 355 nm the lidar ratio of 65 sr in the near-surface dust layer is close to the observed value (70 ± 10 sr. At 532 nm, however, the simulated lidar ratio (about 40 sr is lower than measurements (55 ± 8 sr. The results presented demonstrate that the lidar and model data are complimentary and the synergy of observations and models is a key to improve the aerosols characterization.

  13. Discovering Massive z > 1 Galaxy Clusters with Spitzer and SPTpol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleem, Lindsey; Brodwin, Mark; Ashby, Matthew; Stalder, Brian; Klein, Matthias; Gladders, Michael; Stanford, Spencer; Canning, Rebecca

    2018-05-01

    We propose to obtain Spitzer/IRAC imaging of 50 high-redshift galaxy cluster candidates derived from two new completed SZ cluster surveys by the South Pole Telescope. Clusters from the deep SPTpol 500-square-deg main survey will extend high-redshift SZ cluster science to lower masses (median M500 2x10^14Msun) while systems drawn from the wider 2500-sq-deg SPTpol Extended Cluster Survey are some of the rarest most massive high-z clusters in the observable universe. The proposed small 10 h program will enable (1) confirmation of these candidates as high-redshift clusters, (2) measurements of the cluster redshifts (sigma_z/(1+z) 0.03), and (3) estimates of the stellar masses of the brightest cluster members. These observations will yield exciting and timely targets for the James Webb Space Telescope--and, combined with lower-z systems--will both extend cluster tests of dark energy to z>1 as well as enable studies of galaxy evolution in the richest environments for a mass-limited cluster sample from 0

  14. A MID-INFRARED IMAGING SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER-SELECTED GALAXIES WITH THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainline, Laura J.; Blain, A. W.; Smail, Ian; Frayer, D. T.; Chapman, S. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Alexander, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    We present Spitzer-IRAC and MIPS mid-IR observations of a sample of 73 radio-detected submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) with spectroscopic redshifts, the largest such sample published to date. From our data, we find that IRAC colors of SMGs are much more uniform as compared with rest-frame UV and optical colors, and z>1.5 SMGs tend to be redder in their mid-IR colors than both field galaxies and lower-z SMGs. However, the IRAC colors of the SMGs overlap those of field galaxies sufficiently that color-magnitude and color-color selection criteria suggested in the literature to identify SMG counterparts produce ambiguous counterparts within an 8'' radius in 20%-35% of cases. We use a rest-frame J-H versus H-K color-color diagram and a S 24 /S 8.0 versus S 8.0 /S 4.5 color-color diagram to determine that 13%-19% of our sample are likely to contain active galactic nuclei which dominate their mid-IR emission. We observe in the rest-frame JHK colors of our sample that the rest-frame near-IR emission of SMGs does not resemble that of the compact nuclear starburst observed in local ultraluminous IR galaxies and is consistent with more widely distributed star formation. We take advantage of the fact that many high-z galaxy populations selected at different wavelengths are detected by Spitzer to carry out a brief comparison of mid-IR properties of SMGs to UV-selected high-z galaxies, 24 μm-selected galaxies, and high-z radio galaxies, and find that SMGs have mid-IR fluxes and colors which are consistent with being more massive and more reddened than UV-selected galaxies, while the IRAC colors of SMGs are most similar to powerful high-z radio galaxies.

  15. The SPT+Herschel+ALMA+Spitzer Legacy Survey: The stellar content of high redshift strongly lensed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joaquin; Ashby, Matt; Carlstrom, John; Chapman, Scott; DeBreuck, Carlos; Fassnacht, Chris; Gonzalez, Anthony; Phadke, Kedar; Marrone, Dan; Malkan, Matt; Reuter, Cassie; Rotermund, Kaja; Spilker, Justin; Weiss, Axel

    2018-05-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has systematically identified 90 high-redshift strongly gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in a 2500 square-degree cosmological survey of the millimeter (mm) sky. These sources are selected by their extreme mm flux, which is largely independent of redshift and lensing configuration. We are undertaking a comprehensive and systematic followup campaign to use these "cosmic magnifying glasses" to study the infrared background in unprecedented detail, inform the condition of the interstellar medium in starburst galaxies at high redshift, and place limits on dark matter substructure. Here we ask for 115.4 hours of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging to complete our survey of 90 systems to a uniform depth of 30min integrations at 3.6um and 60min at 4.5um. In our sample of 90 systems, 16 have already been fully observed, 30 have been partially observed, and 44 have not been observed at all. Our immediate goals are to: 1) constrain the specific star formation rates of the background high-redshift submillimeter galaxies by combining these Spitzer observations with our APEX, Herschel, and ALMA data, 2) robustly determine the stellar masses and mass-to-light ratios of all the foreground lensing galaxies in the sample by combining these observations with our VLT and Gemini data, the Dark Energy Survey, and ALMA; and 3) provide complete, deep, and uniform NIR coverage of our entire sample of lensed systems to characterize the environments of high redshift SMGs, maximize the discovery potential for additional spectacular and rare sources, and prepare for JWST. This program will provide the cornerstone data set for two PhD theses: Kedar Phadke at Illinois will lead the analysis of stellar masses for the background SMGs, and Kaja Rotermund at Dalhousie will lead the analysis of stellar masses for the foreground lenses.

  16. The impact of Spitzer infrared data on stellar mass estimates - and a revised galaxy stellar mass function at 0 < z < 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, F.; Feulner, G.; Hopp, U.

    2008-01-01

    Aims:We estimate stellar masses of galaxies in the high redshift universe with the intention of determining the influence of newly available Spitzer/IRAC infrared data on the analysis. Based on the results, we probe the mass assembly history of the universe. Methods: We use the GOODS-MUSIC catalog, which provides multiband photometry from the U-filter to the 8 μm Spitzer band for almost 15 000 galaxies with either spectroscopic (for ≈7% of the sample) or photometric redshifts, and apply a standard model fitting technique to estimate stellar masses. We than repeat our calculations with fixed photometric redshifts excluding Spitzer photometry and directly compare the outcomes to look for systematic deviations. Finally we use our results to compute stellar mass functions and mass densities up to redshift z = 5. Results: We find that stellar masses tend to be overestimated on average if further constraining Spitzer data are not included into the analysis. Whilst this trend is small up to intermediate redshifts z ⪉ 2.5 and falls within the typical error in mass, the deviation increases strongly for higher redshifts and reaches a maximum of a factor of three at redshift z ≈ 3.5. Thus, up to intermediate redshifts, results for stellar mass density are in good agreement with values taken from literature calculated without additional Spitzer photometry. At higher redshifts, however, we find a systematic trend towards lower mass densities if Spitzer/IRAC data are included.

  17. Probing Large-scale Coherence between Spitzer IR and Chandra X-Ray Source-subtracted Cosmic Backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelluti, N.; Urry, M. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Arendt, R. [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Kashlinsky, A. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Li, Y.; Hasinger, G. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Helgason, K. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Natarajan, P. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Finoguenov, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, D-85741, Garching bei München (Germany)

    2017-09-20

    We present new measurements of the large-scale clustering component of the cross-power spectra of the source-subtracted Spitzer -IRAC cosmic infrared background and Chandra -ACIS cosmic X-ray background surface brightness fluctuations Our investigation uses data from the Chandra Deep Field South, Hubble Deep Field North, Extended Groth Strip/AEGIS field, and UDS/SXDF surveys, comprising 1160 Spitzer hours and ∼12 Ms of Chandra data collected over a total area of 0.3 deg{sup 2}. We report the first (>5 σ ) detection of a cross-power signal on large angular scales >20″ between [0.5–2] keV and the 3.6 and 4.5 μ m bands, at ∼5 σ and 6.3 σ significance, respectively. The correlation with harder X-ray bands is marginally significant. Comparing the new observations with existing models for the contribution of the known unmasked source population at z < 7, we find an excess of about an order of magnitude at 5 σ confidence. We discuss possible interpretations for the origin of this excess in terms of the contribution from accreting early black holes (BHs), including both direct collapse BHs and primordial BHs, as well as from scattering in the interstellar medium and intra-halo light.

  18. Brown dwarf distances and atmospheres: Spitzer Parallaxes and the Keck/NIRSPEC upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily C.

    2018-01-01

    Advances in infrared technology have been essential towards improving our understanding of the solar neighborhood, revealing a large population of brown dwarfs, which span the mass regime between planets and stars. My thesis combines near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic and astrometric analysis of nearby low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with instrumentation work to upgrade the NIRSPEC instrument for the Keck II Telescope. I will present results from a program using Spitzer/IRAC data to measure precise locations and distances to 22 of the coldest and closest brown dwarfs. These distances allow us to constrain absolute physical properties, such as mass, radius, and age, of free-floating planetary-mass objects through comparison to atmospheric and evolutionary models. NIR spectroscopy combined with the Spitzer photometry reveals a detailed look into the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and gaseous extrasolar planets. Additionally, I will discuss the improvements we are making to the NIRSPEC instrument at Keck. NIRSPEC is a NIR echelle spectrograph, capable of R~2000 and R~25,000 observations in the 1-5 μm range. As part of the upgrade, I performed detector characterization, optical design of a new slit-viewing camera, mechanical testing, and electronics design. NIRSPEC’s increased efficiency will allow us to obtain moderate- and high-resolution NIR spectra of objects up to a magnitude fainter than the current NIRSPEC design. Finally, I will demonstrate the utility of a NIR laser frequency comb as a high-resolution calibrator. This new technology will revolutionize precision radial velocity measurements in the coming decade.

  19. Inferring Temperature Inversions in Hot Jupiters Via Spitzer Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garhart, Emily; Deming, Drake; Mandell, Avi

    2016-10-01

    We present a systematic study of 35 hot Jupiter secondary eclipses, including 16 hot Jupiters never before characterized via emission, observed at the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm bandpasses of Warm Spitzer in order to classify their atmospheric structure, namely, the existence of temperature inversions. This is a robust study in that these planets orbit stars with a wide range of compositions, temperatures, and activity levels. This diverse sample allows us to investigate the source of planetary temperature inversions, specifically, its correlation with stellar irradiance and magnetic activity. We correct for systematic and intra-pixel sensitivity effects with a pixel level decorrelation (PLD) method described in Deming et al. (2015). The relationship between eclipse depths and a best-fit blackbody function versus stellar activity, a method described in Knutson et al. (2010), will ultimately enable us to appraise the current hypotheses of temperature inversions.

  20. SPITZER AS A MICROLENS PARALLAX SATELLITE: MASS MEASUREMENT FOR THE OGLE-2014-BLG-0124L PLANET AND ITS HOST STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udalski, A.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzyński, G.; Szymański, M. K.; Mróz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Yee, J. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gould, A.; Zhu, W.; Pogge, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Carey, S. [Spitzer Science Center, MS 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Han, C. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Calchi Novati, S. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We combine Spitzer and ground-based observations to measure the microlens parallax vector π{sub E}, and thus the mass and distance of OGLE-2014-BLG-0124L, making it the first microlensing planetary system with a space-based parallax measurement. The planet and star have masses of m ∼ 0.5 M {sub jup} and M ∼ 0.7 M {sub ☉} and are separated by a ∼ 3.1 AU in projection. The main source of uncertainty in all of these numbers (approximately 30%, 30%, and 20%) is the relatively poor measurement of the Einstein radius θ{sub E}, rather than uncertainty in π{sub E}, which is measured with 2.5% precision. This compares to 22% based on OGLE data alone, implying that the Spitzer data provide not only a substantial improvement in the precision of the π{sub E} measurement, but also the first independent test of a ground-based π{sub E} measurement.

  1. THE TAIWAN ECDFS NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY: ULTRA-DEEP J AND K{sub S} IMAGING IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD-SOUTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Wang, Wei-Hao; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Lin, Lihwai; Lim, Jeremy; Ho, Paul T. P. [Institute of Astrophysics and Astronomy, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Yan Haojing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    We present ultra-deep J and K{sub S} imaging observations covering a 30' Multiplication-Sign 30' area of the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDFS) carried out by our Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey (TENIS). The median 5{sigma} limiting magnitudes for all detected objects in the ECDFS reach 24.5 and 23.9 mag (AB) for J and K{sub S} , respectively. In the inner 400 arcmin{sup 2} region where the sensitivity is more uniform, objects as faint as 25.6 and 25.0 mag are detected at 5{sigma}. Thus, this is by far the deepest J and K{sub S} data sets available for the ECDFS. To combine TENIS with the Spitzer IRAC data for obtaining better spectral energy distributions of high-redshift objects, we developed a novel deconvolution technique (IRACLEAN) to accurately estimate the IRAC fluxes. IRACLEAN can minimize the effect of blending in the IRAC images caused by the large point-spread functions and reduce the confusion noise. We applied IRACLEAN to the images from the Spitzer IRAC/MUSYC Public Legacy in the ECDFS survey (SIMPLE) and generated a J+K{sub S} -selected multi-wavelength catalog including the photometry of both the TENIS near-infrared and the SIMPLE IRAC data. We publicly release the data products derived from this work, including the J and K{sub S} images and the J+K{sub S} -selected multi-wavelength catalog.

  2. Frequency domain phase retrieval of simultaneous multi-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Zhenxing; Zhong, Liyun; Xu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Wangping; Lu, Xiaoxu; Tian, Jindong

    2016-01-01

    In simultaneous multi-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry, we propose a novel frequency domain phase retrieval (FDPR) algorithm. First, using only a one-time phase-shifting operation, a sequence of simultaneous multi-wavelength phase-shifting interferograms (SPSMWIs) are captured by a monochrome charge-coupled device. Second, by performing a Fourier transform for each pixel of SPSMWIs, the wrapped phases of each wavelength can be retrieved from the complex amplitude located in the spectral peak of each wavelength. Finally, the phase of the synthetic wavelength can be obtained by the subtraction between the wrapped phases of a single wavelength. In this study, the principle and the application condition of the proposed approach are discussed. Both the simulation and the experimental result demonstrate the simple and convenient performance of the proposed FDPR approach. (paper)

  3. Laboratory Studies of Solid CO2 Ices at Different Temperatures and Annealing Times in Support of Spitzer Space Telescope Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Douglas; Gerakines, P. A.

    2007-12-01

    The infrared absorption features of solid carbon dioxide have been detected by space observatories in nearly all lines of sight probing the dense interstellar medium (ISM). It has also been shown that the absorption feature of solid CO2 near 658 cm-1 (15.2 μm) should be a sensitive indicator of the physical conditions of the ice (e.g., temperature and composition). However, the profile structure of this feature is not well understood, and previous laboratory studies have concentrated on a limited range of temperatures and compositions for comparisons to observed spectra from both the Infrared Space Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope. In the laboratory study described here, the infrared spectra of ices bearing H2O, CH3OH, and CO2 have been measured with systematically varying compositions and temperatures that span the range of the values expected in the interstellar medium. The mid-infrared spectra (λ = 2.5-25 µm) were measured for 47 different ice compositions at temperatures ranging from 5 K to evaporation (at 5 K intervals). Additionally, annealing experiments of some of these ice compositions have been investigated. These data may be used to determine thermal histories of interstellar ices. This research was supported by NASA award NNG05GE44G under the Astronomy and Physics Research & Analysis Program (APRA).

  4. In vivo detection of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and carboxyhemoglobin saturation with multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongjiang; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2012-08-15

    A method for noninvasively detecting hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) and carboxyhemoglobin saturation (SCO) in subcutaneous microvasculature with multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy is presented. Blood samples mixed with different concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin were used to test the feasibility and accuracy of photoacoustic microscopy compared with the blood-gas analyzer. Moreover, fixed-point detection of SO2 and SCO in mouse ear was obtained, and the changes from normoxia to carbon monoxide hypoxia were dynamically monitored in vivo. Experimental results demonstrate that multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy can detect SO2 and SCO, which has future potential clinical applications.

  5. The multiwavelength spectrum of NGC 3115: hot accretion flow properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ivan; Nemmen, Rodrigo; Wong, Ka-Wah; Wu, Qingwen; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2018-04-01

    NGC 3115 is the nearest galaxy hosting a billion solar mass black hole and is also a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN). X-ray observations of this LLAGN are able to spatially resolve the hot gas within the sphere of gravitational influence of the supermassive black hole. These observations make NGC 3115 an important test bed for black hole accretion theory in galactic nuclei since they constrain the outer boundary conditions of the hot accretion flow. We present a compilation of the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) of the nucleus of NGC 3115 from radio to X-rays. We report the results from modelling the observed SED with radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) models. The radio emission can be well-explained by synchrotron emission from the RIAF without the need for contribution from a relativistic jet. We obtain a tight constraint on the RIAF density profile, ρ (r) ∝ r^{-0.73 _{-0.02} ^{+0.01}}, implying that mass-loss through subrelativistic outflows from the RIAF is significant. The lower frequency radio observation requires the synchrotron emission from a non-thermal electron population in the RIAF, similarly to Sgr A*.

  6. A SPITZER MIPS STUDY OF 2.5-2.0 M{sub Sun} STARS IN SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Christine H.; Bitner, Martin [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pecaut, Mark; Mamajek, Eric E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Su, Kate Y. L., E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    We have obtained Spitzer Space Telescope Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m observations of 215 nearby, Hipparcos B- and A-type common proper-motion single and binary systems in the nearest OB association, Scorpius-Centaurus. Combining our MIPS observations with those of other ScoCen stars in the literature, we estimate 24 {mu}m B+A-type disk fractions of 17/67 (25{sup +6}{sub -5}%), 36/131 (27{sup +4}{sub -4}%), and 23/95 (24{sup +5}{sub -4}%) for Upper Scorpius ({approx}11 Myr), Upper Centaurus Lupus ({approx}15 Myr), and Lower Centaurus Crux ({approx}17 Myr), respectively, somewhat smaller disk fractions than previously obtained for F- and G-type members. We confirm previous IRAS excess detections and present new discoveries of 51 protoplanetary and debris disk systems, with fractional infrared luminosities ranging from L{sub IR}/L{sub *} = 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -2} and grain temperatures ranging from T{sub gr} = 40 to 300 K. In addition, we confirm that the 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m excesses (or fractional infrared luminosities) around B+A-type stars are smaller than those measured toward F+G-type stars and hypothesize that the observed disk property dependence on stellar mass may be the result of a higher stellar companion fraction around B- and A-type stars at 10-200 AU. Finally, we note that the majority of the ScoCen 24 {mu}m excess sources also possess 12 {mu}m excess, indicating that Earth-like planets may be forming via collisions in the terrestrial planet zone at {approx}10-100 Myr.

  7. DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF THE CRAB-LIKE PULSAR WIND NEBULA G54.1+0.3 AND SPITZER SPECTROSCOPY OF THE ASSOCIATED INFRARED SHELL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temim, Tea; Slane, Patrick; Raymond, John C.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.

    2010-01-01

    G54.1+0.3 is a young pulsar wind nebula (PWN), closely resembling the Crab, for which no thermal shell emission has been detected in X-rays. Recent Spitzer observations revealed an infrared (IR) shell containing a dozen point sources arranged in a ring-like structure, previously proposed to be young stellar objects. An extended knot of emission located in the NW part of the shell appears to be aligned with the pulsar's X-ray jet, suggesting a possible interaction with the shell material. Surprisingly, the IR spectrum of the knot resembles the spectrum of freshly formed dust in Cas A, and is dominated by an unidentified dust emission feature at 21 μm. The spectra of the shell also contain various emission lines and show that some are significantly broadened, suggesting that they originate in rapidly expanding supernova (SN) ejecta. We present the first evidence that the PWN is driving shocks into expanding SN ejecta and we propose an alternative explanation for the origin of the IR emission in which the shell is composed entirely of SN ejecta. In this scenario, the freshly formed SN dust is being heated by early-type stars belonging to a cluster in which the SN exploded. Simple dust models show that this interpretation can give rise to the observed shell emission and the IR point sources.

  8. A Multiwavelength Study of the Intracluster Medium and the Characterization of the Multiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Seth Robert

    The first part of this thesis combines Bolocam observations of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect at 140 GHz with X-ray observations from Chandra, strong lensing data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and weak lensing data from HST and Subaru to constrain parametric models for the distribution of dark and baryonic matter in a sample of six massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. For five of the six clusters, the full multiwavelength dataset is well described by a relatively simple model that assumes spherical symmetry, hydrostatic equilibrium, and entirely thermal pressure support. The multiwavelength analysis yields considerably better constraints on the total mass and concentration compared to analysis of any one dataset individually. The subsample of five galaxy clusters is used to place an upper limit on the fraction of pressure support in the intracluster medium (ICM) due to nonthermal processes, such as turbulent and bulk flow of the gas. We constrain the nonthermal pressure fraction at r500c to be less than 0.11 at 95% confidence, where r500c refers to radius at which the average enclosed density is 500 times the critical density of the Universe. This is in tension with state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations, which predict a nonthermal pressure fraction of approximately 0.25 at r500c for the clusters in this sample. The second part of this thesis focuses on the characterization of the Multiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC), a photometric imaging camera that was commissioned at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) in 2012. MUSIC is designed to have a 14 arcminute, diffraction-limited field of view populated with 576 spatial pixels that are simultaneously sensitive to four bands at 150, 220, 290, and 350 GHz. It is well-suited for studies of dusty star forming galaxies, galaxy clusters via the SZ Effect, and galactic star formation. MUSIC employs a number of novel detector technologies: broadband phased

  9. Computation of the Spitzer function in stellarators and tokamaks with finite collisionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kernbichler Winfried

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Spitzer function, which determines the current drive efficiency in toka- maks and stellarators is modelled for finite plasma collisionality with help of the drift kinetic equation solver NEO-2 [1]. The effect of finite collisionality on the global ECCD efficiency in a tokamak is studied using results of the code NEO-2 as input to the ray tracing code TRAVIS [2]. As it is known [3], specific features of the generalized Spitzer function, which are absent in asymptotic (collisionless or highly collisional regimes result in current drive from a symmetric microwave spectrum with respect to parallel wave numbers. Due to this effect the direction of the current may become independent of the microwave beam launch angle in advanced ECCD scenarii (O2 and X3 where due to relatively low optical depth a significant amount of power is absorbed by trapped particles.

  10. Multiwavelength Polarization of Rotation-powered Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, Alice K.; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Polarization measurements provide strong constraints on models for emission from rotation-powered pulsars. We present multiwavelength polarization predictions showing that measurements over a range of frequencies can be particularly important for constraining the emission location, radiation mechanisms, and system geometry. The results assume a generic model for emission from the outer magnetosphere and current sheet in which optical to hard X-ray emission is produced by synchrotron radiation (SR) from electron–positron pairs and γ -ray emission is produced by curvature radiation (CR) or SR from accelerating primary electrons. The magnetic field structure of a force-free magnetosphere is assumed and the phase-resolved and phase-averaged polarization is calculated in the frame of an inertial observer. We find that large position angle (PA) swings and deep depolarization dips occur during the light-curve peaks in all energy bands. For synchrotron emission, the polarization characteristics are strongly dependent on photon emission radius with larger, nearly 180°, PA swings for emission outside the light cylinder (LC) as the line of sight crosses the current sheet. The phase-averaged polarization degree for SR is less that 10% and around 20% for emission starting inside and outside the LC, respectively, while the polarization degree for CR is much larger, up to 40%–60%. Observing a sharp increase in polarization degree and a change in PA at the transition between X-ray and γ -ray spectral components would indicate that CR is the γ -ray emission mechanism.

  11. The Demographics and Properties of Wide-Orbit, Planetary-Mass Companions from PSF Fitting of Spitzer/IRAC Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raquel; Kraus, Adam L.

    2017-06-01

    Over the past decade, a growing population of planetary-mass companions ( 100 AU) from their host stars, challenging existing models of both star and planet formation. It is unclear whether these systems represent the low-mass extreme of stellar binary formation or the high-mass and wide-orbit extreme of planet formation theories, as various proposed formation pathways inadequately explain the physical and orbital aspects of these systems. Even so, determining which scenario best reproduces the observed characteristics of the PMCs will come once a statistically robust sample of directly-imaged PMCs are found and studied.We are developing an automated pipeline to search for wide-orbit PMCs to young stars in Spitzer/IRAC images. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is the backbone of our novel point spread function (PSF) subtraction routine that efficiently creates and subtracts χ2-minimizing instrumental PSFs, simultaneously measuring astrometry and infrared photometry of these systems across the four IRAC channels (3.6 μm, 4.5 μm, 5.8 μm, and 8 μm). In this work, we present the results of a Spitzer/IRAC archival imaging study of 11 young, low-mass (0.044-0.88 M⊙ K3.5-M7.5) stars known to have faint, low-mass companions in 3 nearby star-forming regions (Chameleon, Taurus, and Upper Scorpius). We characterize the systems found to have low-mass companions with non-zero [I1] - [I4] colors, potentially signifying the presence of a circum(sub?)stellar disk. Plans for future pipeline improvements and paths forward will also be discussed. Once this computational foundation is optimized, the stage is set to quickly scour the nearby star-forming regions already imaged by Spitzer, identify potential candidates for further characterization with ground- or space-based telescopes, and increase the number of widely-separated PMCs known.

  12. Mr-Moose: An advanced SED-fitting tool for heterogeneous multi-wavelength datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouart, G.; Falkendal, T.

    2018-04-01

    We present the public release of Mr-Moose, a fitting procedure that is able to perform multi-wavelength and multi-object spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting in a Bayesian framework. This procedure is able to handle a large variety of cases, from an isolated source to blended multi-component sources from an heterogeneous dataset (i.e. a range of observation sensitivities and spectral/spatial resolutions). Furthermore, Mr-Moose handles upper-limits during the fitting process in a continuous way allowing models to be gradually less probable as upper limits are approached. The aim is to propose a simple-to-use, yet highly-versatile fitting tool fro handling increasing source complexity when combining multi-wavelength datasets with fully customisable filter/model databases. The complete control of the user is one advantage, which avoids the traditional problems related to the "black box" effect, where parameter or model tunings are impossible and can lead to overfitting and/or over-interpretation of the results. Also, while a basic knowledge of Python and statistics is required, the code aims to be sufficiently user-friendly for non-experts. We demonstrate the procedure on three cases: two artificially-generated datasets and a previous result from the literature. In particular, the most complex case (inspired by a real source, combining Herschel, ALMA and VLA data) in the context of extragalactic SED fitting, makes Mr-Moose a particularly-attractive SED fitting tool when dealing with partially blended sources, without the need for data deconvolution.

  13. Spitzer and z' secondary eclipse observations of the highly irradiated transiting brown dwarf KELT-1b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Knutson, Heather [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bruns, Jacob M. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, 1629 E. University Blvd., University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Eastman, Jason [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Dr., Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Pepper, Joshua [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Siverd, Robert J.; Stassun, Keivan G., E-mail: tbeatty@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We present secondary eclipse observations of the highly irradiated transiting brown dwarf KELT-1b. These observations represent the first constraints on the atmospheric dynamics of a highly irradiated brown dwarf, the atmospheres of irradiated giant planets at high surface gravity, and the atmospheres of brown dwarfs that are dominated by external, rather than internal, energy. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we measure secondary eclipse depths of 0.195% ± 0.010% at 3.6 μm and 0.200% ± 0.012% at 4.5 μm. We also find tentative evidence for the secondary eclipse in the z' band with a depth of 0.049% ± 0.023%. These measured eclipse depths are most consistent with an atmosphere model in which there is a strong substellar hotspot, implying that heat redistribution in the atmosphere of KELT-1b is low. While models with a more mild hotspot or even with dayside heat redistribution are only marginally disfavored, models with complete heat redistribution are strongly ruled out. The eclipse depths also prefer an atmosphere with no TiO inversion layer, although a model with TiO inversion is permitted in the dayside heat redistribution case, and we consider the possibility of a day-night TiO cold trap in this object. For the first time, we compare the IRAC colors of brown dwarfs and hot Jupiters as a function of effective temperature. Importantly, our measurements reveal that KELT-1b has a [3.6] – [4.5] color of 0.07 ± 0.11, identical to that of isolated brown dwarfs of similarly high temperature. In contrast, hot Jupiters generally show redder [3.6] – [4.5] colors of ∼0.4, with a very large range from ∼0 to ∼1. Evidently, despite being more similar to hot Jupiters than to isolated brown dwarfs in terms of external forcing of the atmosphere by stellar insolation, KELT-1b appears to have an atmosphere most like that of other brown dwarfs. This suggests that surface gravity is very important in controlling the atmospheric systems of substellar mass bodies.

  14. Many faces of compact objects: distance, optical extinction and multi-wavelength behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbel, Stephane

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to a multi-wavelength study of accretion-ejection phenomena around compact stars (black holes and neutron stars). The first part of this manuscript describes problems related to the determination of the distance and the optical extinction to compact objects - fundamental parameters for the evaluation of the energy budget of these systems. To this end, the structure and the dynamics of the Galaxy are studied by observations of the atomic and molecular gas along the line of sight to compact stars. This method leads to the first evaluation of the distance to two Soft Gamma Repeaters: SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1627-41. We then draw some conclusions on the nature of these sources of recurrent gamma-ray bursts. The above method is then applied to two X-ray binaries: Cir X-1 and GX 339-4. In the second part of this thesis, we present a multi-wavelength study of the Galactic black hole candidate GX 339-4. We first discuss the characteristics of the radio emission from GX 339-4. In 1998, GX 339-4 underwent a transition to a soft-high X-ray state and observations in three wavelength regimes (radio, soft and hard X-rays) revealed new patterns of behaviour. This allowed us to constrain the region of origin of the radio emission (a compact jet) in GX 339-4 and allowed a better understanding of the physical coupling between accretion and ejection in GX 339-4. An analogy with the black hole candidate Cyg X-1 is then presented. Finally, these results are discussed in the context of micro-quasars and active galactic nuclei in order to gain a deeper insight into the accretion-ejection coupling around compact objects. (author) [fr

  15. The SAGE-Spec Spitzer Legacy program: the life-cycle of dust and gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Point source classification - III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, O. C.; Woods, P. M.; Kemper, F.; Kraemer, K. E.; Sloan, G. C.; Srinivasan, S.; Oliveira, J. M.; van Loon, J. Th.; Boyer, M. L.; Sargent, B. A.; McDonald, I.; Meixner, M.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Ruffle, P. M. E.; Lagadec, E.; Pauly, T.; Sewiło, M.; Clayton, G. C.; Volk, K.

    2017-09-01

    The Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope observed nearly 800 point sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), taking over 1000 spectra. 197 of these targets were observed as part of the SAGE-Spec Spitzer Legacy program; the remainder are from a variety of different calibration, guaranteed time and open time projects. We classify these point sources into types according to their infrared spectral features, continuum and spectral energy distribution shape, bolometric luminosity, cluster membership and variability information, using a decision-tree classification method. We then refine the classification using supplementary information from the astrophysical literature. We find that our IRS sample is comprised substantially of YSO and H II regions, post-main-sequence low-mass stars: (post-)asymptotic giant branch stars and planetary nebulae and massive stars including several rare evolutionary types. Two supernova remnants, a nova and several background galaxies were also observed. We use these classifications to improve our understanding of the stellar populations in the LMC, study the composition and characteristics of dust species in a variety of LMC objects, and to verify the photometric classification methods used by mid-IR surveys. We discover that some widely used catalogues of objects contain considerable contamination and others are missing sources in our sample.

  16. The impact of endorsing Spitzer's proposed criteria for PTSD in the forthcoming DSM-V on male and female Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lyndsey N; Chard, Kathleen M; Schumm, Jeremiah A; O'Brien, Carol

    2011-06-01

    This study explored differences between Spitzer's proposed model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the current DSM-IV diagnostic classification scheme in 353 Veterans. The majority of Veterans (89%) diagnosed with PTSD as specified in the DSM-IV also met Spitzer's proposed criteria. Veterans who met both DSM-IV and Spitzer's proposed criteria had significantly higher Clinician Administered PTSD Scale severity scores than Veterans only meeting DSM-IV criteria. Logistic regression indicated that being African American and having no comorbid diagnosis of major depressive disorder or history of a substance use disorder were found to predict those Veterans who met current, but not proposed criteria. These findings have important implications regarding proposed changes to the diagnostic classification criteria for PTSD in the forthcoming DSM-V. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. REPEATABILITY AND ACCURACY OF EXOPLANET ECLIPSE DEPTHS MEASURED WITH POST-CRYOGENIC SPITZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingalls, James G.; Krick, J. E.; Carey, S. J.; Stauffer, John R.; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Capak, Peter; Glaccum, William; Laine, Seppo; Surace, Jason; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Boulevard, Mail Code 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Buzasi, Derek [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL 33965 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Diamond-Lowe, Hannah; Stevenson, Kevin B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Morello, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1 E6BT (United Kingdom); Wong, Ian, E-mail: ingalls@ipac.caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We examine the repeatability, reliability, and accuracy of differential exoplanet eclipse depth measurements made using the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope during the post-cryogenic mission. We have re-analyzed an existing 4.5 μ m data set, consisting of 10 observations of the XO-3b system during secondary eclipse, using seven different techniques for removing correlated noise. We find that, on average, for a given technique, the eclipse depth estimate is repeatable from epoch to epoch to within 156 parts per million (ppm). Most techniques derive eclipse depths that do not vary by more than a factor 3 of the photon noise limit. All methods but one accurately assess their own errors: for these methods, the individual measurement uncertainties are comparable to the scatter in eclipse depths over the 10 epoch sample. To assess the accuracy of the techniques as well as to clarify the difference between instrumental and other sources of measurement error, we have also analyzed a simulated data set of 10 visits to XO-3b, for which the eclipse depth is known. We find that three of the methods (BLISS mapping, Pixel Level Decorrelation, and Independent Component Analysis) obtain results that are within three times the photon limit of the true eclipse depth. When averaged over the 10 epoch ensemble,  5 out of 7 techniques come within 60 ppm of the true value. Spitzer exoplanet data, if obtained following current best practices and reduced using methods such as those described here, can measure repeatable and accurate single eclipse depths, with close to photon-limited results.

  18. VLT/SINFONI Observations of Spitzer /MIPSGAL 24 μ m Circumstellar Shells: Revealing the Natures of Their Central Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, K. M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Hawaii Hilo, 200 W Kawili Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Flagey, N. [Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Corporation, 65-1238 Mamalahoa Highway, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Noriega-Crespo, A. [Space Telescope Science Institue, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Carey, S. [Infrared Processing Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ingallinera, A., E-mail: silvakm@hawaii.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2017-03-01

    We present Very Large Telescope/Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared H - and K -band spectra of potential central stars within the inner 8″-by-8″ regions of 55 MIPSGAL “bubbles” (MBs), sub-arcminute circumstellar shells discovered in the mid-IR survey of the Galactic plane with Spitzer /MIPS. At magnitudes brighter than 15, we detect a total of 230 stars in the K band and 179 stars in the H band. We spectrally identify 145 stars in all but three MBs, with average magnitudes of 13.8 and 12.7 respectively, using spectral libraries and previous studies of near-IR stellar spectra. We also use tabulated intrinsic stellar magnitudes and colors to derive distances and extinction values, and to better constrain the classifications of the stars. We reliably identify the central sources for 21 of the 55 MBs, which we classify as follows: one Wolf–Rayet, three luminous blue variable candidates, four early-type (O to F), and 15 late-type (G to M) stars. The 21 central sources are, on average, one magnitude fainter than these in the most recent study of MBs, and we notice a significant drop in the fraction of massive star candidates. For the 34 remaining MBs in our sample, we are unable to identify the central sources due to confusion, low spectroscopic signal-to-noise ratio, and/or lack of detections in the images near the centers of the bubbles. We discuss how our findings compare with previous studies and support the trend, for the most part, between the shells’ morphologies in the mid-IR and central sources spectral types.

  19. Sulfates as chromophores for multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Martina; An, Lu; Beard, Paul; Cox, Ben

    2017-12-01

    As multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging becomes increasingly widely used to obtain quantitative estimates, the need for validation studies conducted on well-characterized experimental phantoms becomes ever more pressing. One challenge that such studies face is the design of stable, well-characterized phantoms and absorbers with properties in a physiologically realistic range. This paper performs a full experimental characterization of aqueous solutions of copper and nickel sulfate, whose properties make them close to ideal as chromophores in multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging phantoms. Their absorption varies linearly with concentration, and they mix linearly. The concentrations needed to yield absorption values within the physiological range are below the saturation limit. The shape of their absorption spectra makes them useful analogs for oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin. They display long-term photostability (no indication of bleaching) as well as resistance to transient effects (no saturable absorption phenomena), and are therefore suitable for exposure to typical pulsed photoacoustic light sources, even when exposed to the high number of pulses required in scanning photoacoustic imaging systems. In addition, solutions with tissue-realistic, predictable, and stable scattering can be prepared by mixing sulfates and Intralipid, as long as an appropriate emulsifier is used. Finally, the Grüneisen parameter of the sulfates was found to be larger than that of water and increased linearly with concentration.

  20. Multiwavelength Study of Powerful New Jet Activity in the Symbiotic System R AQR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita

    2016-10-01

    We propose to carry out coordinated high-spatial resolution Chandra ACIS-S and multiwavelength (UV-Optical) HST/WFC3 observations of R Aqr, a very active symbiotic interacting binary system. Our main goal is to study the physical characteristics of the multi-scale components of the powerful jet; from the vicinity of the central binary (within a few AU) to the jet-circumbinary material interaction region (2500 AU) and beyond, and especially of the recently discovered new component of the inner jet (likely due to recent ejection of material). Our main goal is to gain new insight on early jet formation and propagation, including jet kinematics and precession.

  1. NEW DEBRIS DISKS AROUND YOUNG, LOW-MASS STARS DISCOVERED WITH THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plavchan, Peter; Werner, M. W.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Chen, C. H.; Su, K. Y. L.; Stauffer, J. R.; Song, I.

    2009-01-01

    We present 24 μm and 70 μm Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) observations of 70 A through M-type dwarfs with estimated ages from 8 Myr to 1.1 Gyr, as part of a Spitzer guaranteed time program, including a re-analysis of some previously published source photometry. Our sample is selected from stars with common youth indicators such as lithium abundance, X-ray activity, chromospheric activity, and rapid rotation. We compare our MIPS observations to empirically derived K s -[24] colors as a function of the stellar effective temperature to identify 24 μm and 70 μm excesses. We place constraints or upper limits on dust temperatures and fractional infrared luminosities with a simple blackbody dust model. We confirm the previously published 70 μm excesses for HD 92945, HD 112429, and AU Mic, and provide updated flux density measurements for these sources. We present the discovery of 70 μm excesses for five stars: HD 7590, HD 10008, HD 59967, HD 73350, and HD 135599. HD 135599 is also a known Spitzer IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) excess source, and we confirm the excess at 24 μm. We also present the detection of 24 μm excesses for 10 stars: HD 10008, GJ 3400A, HD 73350, HD 112429, HD 123998, HD 175742, AT Mic, BO Mic, HD 358623 and Gl 907.1. We find that large 70 μm excesses are less common around stars with effective temperatures of less than 5000 K (3.7 +7.6 -1.1 %) than around stars with effective temperatures between 5000 K and 6000 K (21.4 +9.5 -5.7 %), despite the cooler stars having a younger median age in our sample (12 Myr vs. 340 Myr). We find that the previously reported excess for TWA 13A at 70 μm is due to a nearby background galaxy, and the previously reported excess for HD 177724 is due to saturation of the near-infrared photometry used to predict the mid-infrared stellar flux contribution. In the Appendix, we present an updated analysis of dust grain removal timescales due to grain-grain collisions and radiation pressure, Poynting

  2. Neon Abundances from a Spitzer/IRS Survey of Wolf-Rayet Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignace, R.; Cassinelli, J.P.; Tracy, G.; Churchwell, E.B.; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    We report on neon abundances derived from Spitzer high resolution spectral data of eight Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars using the forbidden line of [Ne III] 15.56 μm. Our targets include four WN stars of subtypes 4-7, and four WC stars of subtypes 4-7. We derive ion fraction abundances γ of Ne2+ for the

  3. THE LAST GASP OF GAS GIANT PLANET FORMATION: A SPITZER STUDY OF THE 5 Myr OLD CLUSTER NGC 2362

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, Thayne; Lada, Charles J.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Irwin, Jonathan; Kenyon, Scott J.; Plavchan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Expanding upon the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) survey from Dahm and Hillenbrand, we describe Spitzer IRAC and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer observations of the populous, 5 Myr old open cluster NGC 2362. We analyze the mid-IR colors of cluster members and compared their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to star+circumstellar disk models to constrain the disk morphologies and evolutionary states. Early/intermediate-type confirmed/candidate cluster members either have photospheric mid-IR emission or weak, optically thin IR excess emission at λ ≥ 24 μm consistent with debris disks. Few late-type, solar/subsolar-mass stars have primordial disks. The disk population around late-type stars is dominated by disks with inner holes (canonical 'transition disks') and 'homologously depleted' disks. Both types of disks represent an intermediate stage between primordial disks and debris disks. Thus, in agreement with previous results, we find that multiple paths for the primordial-to-debris disk transition exist. Because these 'evolved primordial disks' greatly outnumber primordial disks, our results undermine standard arguments in favor of a ∼ 5 yr timescale for the transition based on data from Taurus-Auriga. Because the typical transition timescale is far longer than 10 5 yr, these data also appear to rule out standard ultraviolet photoevaporation scenarios as the primary mechanism to explain the transition. Combining our data with other Spitzer surveys, we investigate the evolution of debris disks around high/intermediate-mass stars and investigate timescales for giant planet formation. Consistent with Currie et al., the luminosity of 24 μm emission in debris disks due to planet formation peaks at ∼10-20 Myr. If the gas and dust in disks evolve on similar timescales, the formation timescale for gas giant planets surrounding early-type, high/intermediate-mass (∼>1.4 M sun ) stars is likely 1-5 Myr. Most solar/subsolar-mass stars detected by Spitzer

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-31b:HST/Spitzer transmission spectral survey (Sing+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, D. K.; Wakeford, H. R.; Showman, A. P.; Nikolov, N.; Fortney, J. J.; Burrows, A. S.; Ballester, G. E.; Deming, D.; Aigrain, S.; Desert, J.-M.; Gibson, N. P.; Henry, G. W.; Knutson, H.; Lecavelier Des Etangs, A.; Pont, F.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Williamson, M. W.; Wilson, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    We observed two transits of WASP-31b with the HST STIS G430L grating during 2012 June 13 and 26, as well as one transit with the STIS G750L during 2012 July 10. In addition to the STIS data, observations of WASP-31b were also conducted in the infrared with WFC3 on the HST. Observations began on 2012 May 13 at 12:53 using the IR G141 grism in forward spatial scan mode over five HST orbits. We analyse two transit observations obtained using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) instrument (Programme 90092 with P.I. Desert) on the Spitzer space telescope in the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm channels in subarray mode (32x32 pixel, or 39 centred on the planets host). The 3.6 μm observation was performed on UT 2013 March 9 (between 06:59 and 11:37) and the 4.5 observation was performed on UT 2013 March 19 (between 12:19 and 16:58). (1 data file).

  5. A SPITZER c2d LEGACY SURVEY TO IDENTIFY AND CHARACTERIZE DISKS WITH INNER DUST HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merin, Bruno; Brown, Joanna M.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Oliveira, Isa; Lahuis, Fred; Bottinelli, Sandrine; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Olofsson, Johan; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul M.; Cieza, Lucas; Spezzi, Loredana; Prusti, Timo; Alcala, Juan M.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Bayo, Amelia; Geers, Vincent G.; Walter, Frederick M.; Chiu, Kuenley

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how disks dissipate is essential to studies of planet formation. However, identifying exactly how dust and gas dissipate is complicated due to the difficulty of finding objects that are clearly in the transition phase of losing their surrounding material. We use Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra to examine 35 photometrically selected candidate cold disks (disks with large inner dust holes). The infrared spectra are supplemented with optical spectra to determine stellar and accretion properties and 1.3 mm photometry to measure disk masses. Based on detailed spectral energy distribution modeling, we identify 15 new cold disks. The remaining 20 objects have IRS spectra that are consistent with disks without holes, disks that are observed close to edge-on, or stars with background emission. Based on these results, we determine reliable criteria to identify disks with inner holes from Spitzer photometry, and examine criteria already in the literature. Applying these criteria to the c2d surveyed star-forming regions gives a frequency of such objects of at least 4% and most likely of order 12% of the young stellar object population identified by Spitzer. We also examine the properties of these new cold disks in combination with cold disks from the literature. Hole sizes in this sample are generally smaller than in previously discovered disks and reflect a distribution in better agreement with exoplanet orbit radii. We find correlations between hole size and both disk and stellar masses. Silicate features, including crystalline features, are present in the overwhelming majority of the sample, although the 10 μm feature strength above the continuum declines for holes with radii larger than ∼7 AU. In contrast, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are only detected in 2 out of 15 sources. Only a quarter of the cold disk sample shows no signs of accretion, making it unlikely that photoevaporation is the dominant hole-forming process in most cases.

  6. Galactic Black Holes in the Hard State: A Multi-Wavelength View of Accretion and Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemci; Tomsick, John A.; Migliari; Corbel; Markoff

    2010-01-01

    The canonical hard state is associated with emission from all three fundamental accretion components: the accretion disk, the hot accretion disk corona and the jet. On top of these, the hard state also hosts very rich temporal variability properties (low frequency QPOs in the PDS, time lags, long time scale evolution). Our group has been working on the major questions of the hard state both observationally (with mult i-wavelength campaigns using RXTE, Swift, Suzaku, Spitzer, VLA, ATCA, SMARTS) and theoretically (through jet models that can fit entire SEDs). Through spectral and temporal analysis we seek to determine the geometry of accretion components, and relate the geometry to the formation and emission from a jet. In this presentation I will review the recent contributions of our group to the field, including the Swift results on the disk geometry at low accretion rates, the jet model fits to the hard state SEDs (including Spitzer data) of GRO J1655-40, and the final results on the evolution of spectral (including X-ray, radio and infrared) and temporal properties of elected black holes in the hard states. I will also talk about impact of ASTROSAT to the science objective of our group.

  7. Stellar Populations in Compact Galaxy Groups: a Multi-wavelength Study of HCGs 16, 22, and 42, Their Star Clusters, and Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Maybhate, A.; Charlton, J. C.; Fedotov, K.; Durrell, P. R.; Mulchaey, J. S.; English, J.; Desjardins, T. D.; Gallagher, S. C.; Walker, L. M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of three compact galaxy groups, Hickson compact groups (HCGs) 16, 22, and 42, which describe a sequence in terms of gas richness, from space- (Swift, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Spitzer) and ground-based (Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) imaging and spectroscopy.We study various signs of past interactions including a faint, dusty tidal feature about HCG 16A, which we tentatively age-date at what were thought to be double nuclei in HCG 16C and D into multiple, distinct sources, likely to be star clusters. Beyond our phenomenological treatment, we focus primarily on contrasting the stellar populations across these three groups. The star clusters show a remarkable intermediate-age population in HCG 22, and identify the time at which star formation was quenched in HCG 42. We also search for dwarf galaxies at accordant redshifts. The inclusion of 33 members and 27 "associates" (possible members) radically changes group dynamical masses, which in turn may affect previous evolutionary classifications. The extended membership paints a picture of relative isolation in HCGs 16 and 22, but shows HCG 42 to be part of a larger structure, following a dichotomy expected from recent studies. We conclude that (1) star cluster populations provide an excellent metric of evolutionary state, as they can age-date the past epochs of star formation; and (2) the extended dwarf galaxy population must be considered in assessing the dynamical state of a compact group.

  8. Photonic crystal fibers used in a multi-wavelength source and as transmission fiber in a WDM system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Andreas; Zsigri, Beata; Peucheret, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    We present a WDM system based entirely on photonic crystal fibers. It includes a novel dispersion flattened highly nonlinear PCF to generate supercontinuum used in a multiwavelength pulse source and a 5.6 km transmission PCF.......We present a WDM system based entirely on photonic crystal fibers. It includes a novel dispersion flattened highly nonlinear PCF to generate supercontinuum used in a multiwavelength pulse source and a 5.6 km transmission PCF....

  9. Palomar/triplespec observations of Spitzer/MIPSGAL 24 μm circumstellar shells: Unveiling the natures of their central sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagey, N. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Noriega-Crespo, A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Petric, A. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Geballe, T. R., E-mail: nflagey@jpl.nasa.gov [Gemini North Observatory, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present near-IR spectroscopic observations of the central sources in 17 circumstellar shells from a sample of more than 400 'bubbles' discovered in the Spitzer/MIPSGAL 24 μm survey of the Galactic plane and in the Cygnus-X region. To identify the natures of these shells, we have obtained J, H, and K band spectra with a resolution of ∼2600 of the stars at their centers. We observed 14 MIPSGAL bubbles (MBs), WR149, and 2 objects in the Cygnus-X region (WR138a and BD+43 3710), our sample being about 2.5 mag fainter in the K band than previous studies of the central sources of MBs. We use spectroscopic diagnostics and spectral libraries of late- and early-type stars to constrain the natures of our targets. We find five late-type giants. The equivalent widths of their CO 2.29 μm features allow us to determine the spectral types of the stars and hence derive the extinction along the line of sight, distance, and physical size of the shells. We also find 12 early-type stars: in 9 MBs and the 3 comparison objects. We find that the subtype inferred from the near-IR for WR138a (WN9h) and WR149 (WN5h) agrees with that derived from optical observations. A careful analysis of the literature and the environment of BD+43 3710 allows us to rule out the carbon star interpretation previously suggested. Our near-IR spectrum suggests that it is a B5 supergiant. At the centers of the nine MBs, we find a WC5-6 star possibly of low mass, a candidate O5-6 V star, a B0 supergiant, a B/A-type giant, and five luminous blue variable (LBV) candidates. We also report the detections of emission lines arising from at least two shells with typical extents (∼10''), in agreement with those in the mid-IR. We summarize the findings on the natures of the MBs since their discovery, with 30% of them now known. Most MBs with central sources detected in the near- to mid-IR have been identified and are red and blue giants, supergiants, or stars evolving toward these phases

  10. Cold disks : Spitzer spectroscopy of disks around young stars with large gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blake, G. A.; Dullemond, C. P.; Merin, B.; Augereau, J. C.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Evans, N. J.; Geers, V. C.; Lahuis, F.; Kessler-Silacci, J. E.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Brown, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We have identified four circumstellar disks with a deficit of dust emission from their inner 15-50 AU. All four stars have F-G spectral type and were uncovered as part of the Spitzer Space Telescope "Cores to Disks" Legacy Program Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) first-look survey of similar to 100 pre -

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LMC PNe multiwavelength photometry (Reid, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, W. A.

    2017-07-01

    Using the 2MASS 6x catalogue for the LMC (Cutri et al. 2003, Cat. II/246; 2012, Cat. VII/233), magnitudes were obtained for 274 PNe in J, 269 in H and 263 in Ks. To increase the number of detections available for comparison, magnitudes were also obtained from the InfraRed Survey Facility (IRSF) Magellanic Clouds Point Source Catalogue (Kato et al., 2007, Cat. II/288). The 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8um bands were obtained with the IRAC on board Spitzer. This study used the archival data from the Spitzer legacy programme SAGE (Meixner et al., 2006, Cat. J/AJ/132/2268) which mapped the central 7x7deg2 area of the LMC. The MIPS data were also obtained from both the Hora et al. (2008, Cat. J/AJ/135/726) and Gruendl & Chu (2009, Cat. J/ApJS/184/172) studies. (3 data files).

  12. Modeling Multi-wavelength Stellar Astrometry. III. Determination of the Absolute Masses of Exoplanets and Their Host Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, J. L.; López-Morales, Mercedes

    2012-05-01

    Astrometric measurements of stellar systems are becoming significantly more precise and common, with many ground- and space-based instruments and missions approaching 1 μas precision. We examine the multi-wavelength astrometric orbits of exoplanetary systems via both analytical formulae and numerical modeling. Exoplanets have a combination of reflected and thermally emitted light that causes the photocenter of the system to shift increasingly farther away from the host star with increasing wavelength. We find that, if observed at long enough wavelengths, the planet can dominate the astrometric motion of the system, and thus it is possible to directly measure the orbits of both the planet and star, and thus directly determine the physical masses of the star and planet, using multi-wavelength astrometry. In general, this technique works best for, though is certainly not limited to, systems that have large, high-mass stars and large, low-mass planets, which is a unique parameter space not covered by other exoplanet characterization techniques. Exoplanets that happen to transit their host star present unique cases where the physical radii of the planet and star can be directly determined via astrometry alone. Planetary albedos and day-night contrast ratios may also be probed via this technique due to the unique signature they impart on the observed astrometric orbits. We develop a tool to examine the prospects for near-term detection of this effect, and give examples of some exoplanets that appear to be good targets for detection in the K to N infrared observing bands, if the required precision can be achieved.

  13. MODELING MULTI-WAVELENGTH STELLAR ASTROMETRY. III. DETERMINATION OF THE ABSOLUTE MASSES OF EXOPLANETS AND THEIR HOST STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlin, J. L.; López-Morales, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Astrometric measurements of stellar systems are becoming significantly more precise and common, with many ground- and space-based instruments and missions approaching 1 μas precision. We examine the multi-wavelength astrometric orbits of exoplanetary systems via both analytical formulae and numerical modeling. Exoplanets have a combination of reflected and thermally emitted light that causes the photocenter of the system to shift increasingly farther away from the host star with increasing wavelength. We find that, if observed at long enough wavelengths, the planet can dominate the astrometric motion of the system, and thus it is possible to directly measure the orbits of both the planet and star, and thus directly determine the physical masses of the star and planet, using multi-wavelength astrometry. In general, this technique works best for, though is certainly not limited to, systems that have large, high-mass stars and large, low-mass planets, which is a unique parameter space not covered by other exoplanet characterization techniques. Exoplanets that happen to transit their host star present unique cases where the physical radii of the planet and star can be directly determined via astrometry alone. Planetary albedos and day-night contrast ratios may also be probed via this technique due to the unique signature they impart on the observed astrometric orbits. We develop a tool to examine the prospects for near-term detection of this effect, and give examples of some exoplanets that appear to be good targets for detection in the K to N infrared observing bands, if the required precision can be achieved.

  14. 4.5 YEARS OF MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF MRK 421 DURING THE ARGO-YBJ AND FERMI COMMON OPERATION TIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; Piazzoli, B. D’Ettorre; Girolamo, T. Di [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Napoli “Federico II,” Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P.; D’Amone, A.; Mitri, I. De [Dipartimento Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi,” Università del Salento, via per Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu [Tibet University, 850000 Lhasa, Xizang (China); Cui, S. W. [Hebei Normal University, 050024, Shijiazhuang Hebei (China); Dai, B. Z. [Yunnan University, 2 North Cuihu Road, 650091 Kunming, Yunnan (China); Sciascio, G. Di [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Feng, C. F. [Shandong University, 250100 Jinan, Shandong (China); Feng, Zhenyong, E-mail: chensz@ihep.ac.cn [Southwest Jiaotong University, 610031 Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2016-01-15

    We report on the extensive multi-wavelength observations of the blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) covering radio to γ-rays, during the 4.5 year period of ARGO-YBJ and Fermi common operation time, from 2008 August to 2013 February. These long-term observations, extending over an energy range of 18 orders of magnitude, provide a unique chance to study the variable emission of Mrk 421. In particular, due to the ARGO-YBJ and Fermi data, the entire energy range from 100 MeV to 10 TeV is covered without any gap. In the observation period, Mrk 421 showed both low- and high-activity states at all wavebands. The correlations among flux variations in different wavebands were analyzed. The X-ray flux is clearly correlated with the TeV γ-ray flux, while the GeV γ-rays only show a partial correlation with the TeV γ-rays. Radio and UV fluxes seem to be weakly or not correlated with the X-ray and γ-ray fluxes. Seven large flares, including five X-ray flares and two GeV γ-ray flares with variable durations (3–58 days), and one X-ray outburst phase were identified and used to investigate the variation of the spectral energy distribution with respect to a relative quiescent phase. During the outburst phase and the seven flaring episodes, the peak energy in X-rays is observed to increase from sub-keV to a few keV. The TeV γ-ray flux increases up to 0.9–7.2 times the flux of the Crab Nebula. The behavior of GeV γ-rays is found to vary depending on the flare, a feature that leads us to classify flares into three groups according to the GeV flux variation. Finally, the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model was adopted to describe the emission spectra. Two out of three groups can be satisfactorily described using injected electrons with a power-law spectral index around 2.2, as expected from relativistic diffuse shock acceleration, whereas the remaining group requires a harder injected spectrum. The underlying physical mechanisms responsible for different groups may be

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: High quality Spitzer/MIPS obs. of F4-K2 stars (Sierchio+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierchio, J. M.; Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L.; Gaspar, A.

    2016-11-01

    We used specific criteria to draw samples of stars from the entire Spitzer Debris Disk Database (see section 2.1.1). V magnitudes were taken from Hipparcos and transformed to Johnson V. All stars were also required to have observations on the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) Ks system. Additional measurements were obtained at SAAO on the 0.75m telescope using the MarkII Infrared Photometer (transformed as described by Koen et al. 2007MNRAS.380.1433K), and at the Steward Observatory 61 in telescope using a NICMOS2-based camera with a 2MASS filter set and a neutral density filter to avoid saturation. These measurements will be described in a forthcoming paper (K. Y. L. Su et al., in preparation). The original programs in which our sample stars were measured are identified in Table 1. A large majority (93%) come from seven Spitzer programs: (1) the MIPS Guaranteed Time Observer (GTO) Sun-like star observations (Trilling+ 2008ApJ...674.1086T); (2) Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems (FEPS; Meyer+ 2006, J/PASP/118/1690); (3) Completing the Census of Debris Disks (Koerner+ 2010ApJ...710L..26K); (4) potential Space Interferometry Mission/Terrestrial Planet Finder (SIM/TPF) targets (Beichman+ 2006ApJ...652.1674B); (5) an unbiased sample of F-stars (Trilling+ 2008ApJ...674.1086T); and (6) two coordinated programs selecting stars on the basis of indicators of youth (Low+ 2005ApJ...631.1170L; Plavchan+ 2009ApJ...698.1068P). See section 2.1.2. (1 data file).

  16. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF GJ 3470 b: A VERY LOW-DENSITY NEPTUNE-SIZE PLANET ORBITING A METAL-RICH M DWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara; Torres, Guillermo; Neves, Vasco; Santos, Nuno; Rogers, Leslie; Gillon, Michaël; Horch, Elliott; Sullivan, Peter; Bonfils, Xavier; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Udry, Stephane; Smalley, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We present Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 μm transit photometry of GJ 3470 b, a Neptune-size planet orbiting an M1.5 dwarf star with a 3.3 day period recently discovered in the course of the HARPS M-dwarf survey. We refine the stellar parameters by employing purely empirical mass-luminosity and surface brightness relations constrained by our updated value for the mean stellar density, and additional information from new near-infrared spectroscopic observations. We derive a stellar mass of M * = 0.539 +0.047 -0.043 M sun and a radius of R * = 0.568 +0.037 -0.031 R sun . We determine the host star of GJ 3470 b to be metal-rich, with a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.20 ± 0.10 and an effective temperature of T eff = 3600 ± 100 K. The revised stellar parameters yield a planetary radius R p = 4.83 -0.21 +0.22 R ⊕ that is 13% larger than the value previously reported in the literature. We find a planetary mass M p = 13.9 +1.5 -1.4 M ⊕ that translates to a very low planetary density, ρ p = 0.72 +0.13 -0.12 g cm –3 , which is 33% smaller than the original value. With a mean density half of that of GJ 436 b, GJ 3470 b is an example of a very low-density low-mass planet, similar to Kepler-11 d, Kepler-11 e, and Kepler-18 c, but orbiting a much brighter nearby star that is more conducive to follow-up studies.

  17. Application of quantum-dot multi-wavelength lasers and silicon photonic ring resonators to data-center optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Douglas J. S.; Hickey, Ryan; Logan, Dylan F.; Knights, Andrew P.; Chen, Rong; Cao, Bin; Wheeldon, Jeffery F.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum dot comb sources integrated with silicon photonic ring-resonator filters and modulators enable the realization of optical sub-components and modules for both inter- and intra-data-center applications. Low-noise, multi-wavelength, single-chip, laser sources, PAM4 modulation and direct detection allow a practical, scalable, architecture for applications beyond 400 Gb/s. Multi-wavelength, single-chip light sources are essential for reducing power dissipation, space and cost, while silicon photonic ring resonators offer high-performance with space and power efficiency.

  18. The Peculiar Binary System AE Aquarii from its Characteristic Multi-wavelength Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oruru B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The multi-wavelength properties of the novalike variable system AE Aquarii are discussed in terms of the interaction between the accretion inflow from a late-type main sequence star and the magnetosphere of a fast rotating white dwarf. This results in an efficient magnetospheric propeller process and particle acceleration. The spin-down of the white dwarf at a period rate of 5.64×10−14 s s−1 results in a huge spin-down luminosity of Ls−d ≃ 6 10×33 erg s−1. Hence, the observed non-thermal hard X-ray emission and VHE and TeV gamma-ray emission may suggest that AE Aquarii can be placed in the category of spin-powered pulsars. Besides, observed hard X-ray luminosity of LX,hard ≤ 5 × 1030 erg s−1 constitutes 0.1 % of the total spin-down luminosity of the white dwarf. This paper will discuss some recent theoretical studies and data analysis of the system.

  19. Multi-wavelength HPLC fingerprints from complex substances: An exploratory chemometrics study of the Cassia seed example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni Yongnian, E-mail: ynni@ncu.edu.cn [Stake Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330047 (China); Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330047 (China); Lai Yanhua [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330047 (China); Brandes, Sarina; Kokot, Serge [Applied Chemistry Cluster, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia)

    2009-08-11

    Multi-wavelength fingerprints of Cassia seed, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), were collected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at two wavelengths with the use of diode array detection. The two data sets of chromatograms were combined by the data fusion-based method. This data set of fingerprints was compared separately with the two data sets collected at each of the two wavelengths. It was demonstrated with the use of principal component analysis (PCA), that multi-wavelength fingerprints provided a much improved representation of the differences in the samples. Thereafter, the multi-wavelength fingerprint data set was submitted for classification to a suite of chemometrics methods viz. fuzzy clustering (FC), SIMCA and the rank ordering MCDM PROMETHEE and GAIA. Each method highlighted different properties of the data matrix according to the fingerprints from different types of Cassia seeds. In general, the PROMETHEE and GAIA MCDM methods provided the most comprehensive information for matching and discrimination of the fingerprints, and appeared to be best suited for quality assurance purposes for these and similar types of sample.

  20. Multi-wavelength HPLC fingerprints from complex substances: An exploratory chemometrics study of the Cassia seed example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yongnian; Lai Yanhua; Brandes, Sarina; Kokot, Serge

    2009-01-01

    Multi-wavelength fingerprints of Cassia seed, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), were collected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at two wavelengths with the use of diode array detection. The two data sets of chromatograms were combined by the data fusion-based method. This data set of fingerprints was compared separately with the two data sets collected at each of the two wavelengths. It was demonstrated with the use of principal component analysis (PCA), that multi-wavelength fingerprints provided a much improved representation of the differences in the samples. Thereafter, the multi-wavelength fingerprint data set was submitted for classification to a suite of chemometrics methods viz. fuzzy clustering (FC), SIMCA and the rank ordering MCDM PROMETHEE and GAIA. Each method highlighted different properties of the data matrix according to the fingerprints from different types of Cassia seeds. In general, the PROMETHEE and GAIA MCDM methods provided the most comprehensive information for matching and discrimination of the fingerprints, and appeared to be best suited for quality assurance purposes for these and similar types of sample.

  1. Multi-wavelength HPLC fingerprints from complex substances: An exploratory chemometrics study of the Cassia seed example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yongnian; Lai, Yanhua; Brandes, Sarina; Kokot, Serge

    2009-08-11

    Multi-wavelength fingerprints of Cassia seed, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), were collected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at two wavelengths with the use of diode array detection. The two data sets of chromatograms were combined by the data fusion-based method. This data set of fingerprints was compared separately with the two data sets collected at each of the two wavelengths. It was demonstrated with the use of principal component analysis (PCA), that multi-wavelength fingerprints provided a much improved representation of the differences in the samples. Thereafter, the multi-wavelength fingerprint data set was submitted for classification to a suite of chemometrics methods viz. fuzzy clustering (FC), SIMCA and the rank ordering MCDM PROMETHEE and GAIA. Each method highlighted different properties of the data matrix according to the fingerprints from different types of Cassia seeds. In general, the PROMETHEE and GAIA MCDM methods provided the most comprehensive information for matching and discrimination of the fingerprints, and appeared to be best suited for quality assurance purposes for these and similar types of sample.

  2. Temperature Sensor Using a Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Ring Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Diaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel temperature sensor is presented based on a multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser. The laser is comprised of fiber Bragg grating reflectors as the oscillation wavelength selecting filters. The performance of the temperature sensor in terms of both wavelength and laser output power was investigated, as well as the application of this system for remote temperature measurements.

  3. IR Observations of a Complete Unbiased Sample of Bright Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkan, Matthew; Bendo, George; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Smith, Howard; Spinoglio, Luigi; Tommasin, Silvia

    2008-03-01

    IR spectra will measure the 2 main energy-generating processes by which galactic nuclei shine: black hole accretion and star formation. Both of these play roles in galaxy evolution, and they appear connected. To obtain a complete sample of AGN, covering the range of luminosities and column-densities, we will combine 2 complete all-sky samples with complementary selections, minimally biased by dust obscuration: the 116 IRAS 12um AGN and the 41 Swift/BAT hard Xray AGN. These galaxies have been extensively studied across the entire EM spectrum. Herschel observations have been requested and will be synergistic with the Spitzer database. IRAC and MIPS imaging will allow us to separate the nuclear and galactic continua. We are completing full IR observations of the local AGN population, most of which have already been done. The only remaining observations we request are 10 IRS/HIRES, 57 MIPS-24 and 30 IRAC pointings. These high-quality observations of bright AGN in the bolometric-flux-limited samples should be completed, for the high legacy value of complete uniform datasets. We will measure quantitatively the emission at each wavelength arising from stars and from accretion in each galactic center. Since our complete samples come from flux-limited all-sky surveys in the IR and HX, we will calculate the bi-variate AGN and star formation Luminosity Functions for the local population of active galaxies, for comparison with higher redshifts.Our second aim is to understand the physical differences between AGN classes. This requires statistical comparisons of full multiwavelength observations of complete representative samples. If the difference between Sy1s and Sy2s is caused by orientation, their isotropic properties, including those of the surrounding galactic centers, should be similar. In contrast, if they are different evolutionary stages following a galaxy encounter, then we may find observational evidence that the circumnuclear ISM of Sy2s is relatively younger.

  4. IPHAS A-TYPE STARS WITH MID-INFRARED EXCESSES IN SPITZER SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, Antonio S.; Barlow, Michael J.; Drew, Janet E.; Unruh, Yvonne C.; Greimel, Robert; Irwin, Michael J.; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    We have identified 17 A-type stars in the Galactic Plane that have mid-infrared (mid-IR) excesses at 8 μm. From observed colors in the (r' - Hα) - (r' - i') plane, we first identified 23,050 early A-type main-sequence (MS) star candidates in the Isaac Newton Photometric H-Alpha Survey (IPHAS) point source database that are located in Spitzer Galactic Legacy Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire Galactic plane fields. Imposing the requirement that they be detected in all seven Two Micron All Sky Survey and Infrared Astronomical Satellite bands led to a sample of 2692 candidate A-type stars with fully sampled 0.6 to 8 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Optical classification spectra of 18 of the IPHAS candidate A-type MS stars showed that all but one could be well fitted using MS A-type templates, with the other being an A-type supergiant. Out of the 2692 A-type candidates 17 (0.6%) were found to have 8 μm excesses above the expected photospheric values. Taking into account non-A-Type contamination estimates, the 8 μm excess fraction is adjusted to ∼0.7%. The distances to these sources range from 0.7 to 2.5 kpc. Only 10 out of the 17 excess stars had been covered by Spitzer MIPSGAL survey fields, of which five had detectable excesses at 24 μm. For sources with excesses detected in at least two mid-IR wavelength bands, blackbody fits to the excess SEDs yielded temperatures ranging from 270 to 650 K, and bolometric luminosity ratios L IR /L * from 2.2 x 10 -3 - 1.9 x 10 -2 , with a mean value of 7.9 x 10 -3 (these bolometric luminosities are lower limits as cold dust is not detectable by this survey). Both the presence of mid-IR excesses and the derived bolometric luminosity ratios are consistent with many of these systems being in the planet-building transition phase between the early protoplanetary disk phase and the later debris disk phase.

  5. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF THREE HYBRID BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, E. C.; Lister, M. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Kharb, P. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Marshall, H. L. [Center for Space Research, Room NE80-6031, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); O’Dea, C.; Baum, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    We present multiwavelength imaging observations of PKS 1045−188, 8C 1849+670, and PKS 2216−038, three radio-loud active galactic nuclei from the MOJAVE-Chandra Sample that straddle the Fanaroff-Riley (FR) boundary between low- and high-power jets. These hybrid sources provide an excellent opportunity to study jet emission mechanisms and the influence of the external environment. We used archival VLA observations, and new Hubble and Chandra observations to identify and study the spectral properties of five knots in PKS 1045−188, two knots in 8C 1849+670, and three knots in PKS 2216−038. For the seven X-ray visible knots, we constructed and fit the broadband spectra using synchrotron and inverse Compton/cosmic microwave background (IC/CMB) emission models. In all cases, we found that the lack of detected optical emission ruled out the X-ray emission from the same electron population that produces radio emission. All three sources have high total extended radio power, similar to that of FR II sources. We find this is in good agreement with previously studied hybrid sources, where high-power hybrid sources emit X-rays via IC/CMB and the low-power hybrid sources emit X-rays via synchrotron emission. This supports the idea that it is total radio power rather than FR morphology that determines the X-ray emission mechanism. We found no significant asymmetries in the diffuse X-ray emission surrounding the host galaxies. Sources PKS 1045−188 and 8C 1849+670 show significant differences in their radio and X-ray termination points, which may result from the deceleration of highly relativistic bulk motion.

  6. MoS2-wrapped microfiber-based multi-wavelength soliton fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feifei

    2017-11-01

    The single-, dual- and triple-wavelength passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers are demonstrated with MoS2 and polarization-dependent isolator (PD-ISO). The saturable absorber is fabricated by wrapping an MoS2 around a microfiber. The intracavity PD-ISO acts as a wavelength-tunable filter with a polarization controller (PC) by adjusting the linear birefringence. Single-wavelength mode-locked fiber laser can self-start with suitable pump power. With appropriate PC state, dual- and triple-wavelength operations can be observed when gains at different wavelengths reach a balance. It is noteworthy that dual-wavelength pulses exhibiting peak and dip sidebands, respectively, are demonstrated in the experiment. The proposed simple and multi-wavelength all-fiber conventional soliton lasers could possess potential applications in numerous fields, such as sensors, THz generations and optical communications.

  7. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN THE EJECTA OF OLD CLASSICAL NOVAE FROM LATE-EPOCH SPITZER SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, L. Andrew; Vacca, William D.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Woodward, Charles E.; Shenoy, Dinesh P.; Wagner, R. Mark; Evans, Aneurin; Krautter, Joachim; Schwarz, Greg J.; Starrfield, Sumner

    2012-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared IRS spectra, supplemented by ground-based optical observations, of the classical novae V1974 Cyg, V382 Vel, and V1494 Aql more than 11, 8, and 4 years after outburst, respectively. The spectra are dominated by forbidden emission from neon and oxygen, though in some cases, there are weak signatures of magnesium, sulfur, and argon. We investigate the geometry and distribution of the late time ejecta by examination of the emission line profiles. Using nebular analysis in the low-density regime, we estimate lower limits on the abundances in these novae. In V1974 Cyg and V382 Vel, our observations confirm the abundance estimates presented by other authors and support the claims that these eruptions occurred on ONe white dwarfs (WDs). We report the first detection of neon emission in V1494 Aql and show that the system most likely contains a CO WD.

  8. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN THE EJECTA OF OLD CLASSICAL NOVAE FROM LATE-EPOCH SPITZER SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, L. Andrew; Vacca, William D. [SOFIA Science Center, USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, M.S. N232-11, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Gehrz, Robert D.; Woodward, Charles E.; Shenoy, Dinesh P. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Wagner, R. Mark [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Evans, Aneurin [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Krautter, Joachim [Landessternwarte-Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet, Koenigstuhl, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schwarz, Greg J. [American Astronomical Society, 2000 Florida Avenue, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20009 (United States); Starrfield, Sumner, E-mail: ahelton@sofia.usra.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared IRS spectra, supplemented by ground-based optical observations, of the classical novae V1974 Cyg, V382 Vel, and V1494 Aql more than 11, 8, and 4 years after outburst, respectively. The spectra are dominated by forbidden emission from neon and oxygen, though in some cases, there are weak signatures of magnesium, sulfur, and argon. We investigate the geometry and distribution of the late time ejecta by examination of the emission line profiles. Using nebular analysis in the low-density regime, we estimate lower limits on the abundances in these novae. In V1974 Cyg and V382 Vel, our observations confirm the abundance estimates presented by other authors and support the claims that these eruptions occurred on ONe white dwarfs (WDs). We report the first detection of neon emission in V1494 Aql and show that the system most likely contains a CO WD.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer h and {chi} Persei candidate members (Cloutier+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, R.; Currie, T.; Rieke, G. H.; Kenyon, S. J.; Balog, Z.; Jayawardhana, R.

    2017-08-01

    The IRAC (Fazio et al. 2004ApJS..154...39F) observed h and {chi} Persei on October 30, 2008 (AOR IDs 2182740, 21828608, 21828096, 21828864, 21828352, and 2182912). Solar activity was normal to below average. Zodical emission ranged between ~0.02 and 2 MJy/sr from 3.6 um to 8 um. Image processing and photometry were performed separately for the short-exposure and long-exposure frames. The MIPS (Rieke et al. 2004ApJS..154...25R) imaged h and {chi} Persei on 2008 March 15-16, 2008 October 25-26, and 2009 March 26 and 29 as a part of General Observation Programs 40690 and 50664 (PI: Scott Kenyon). To identify and characterize disks surrounding h and {chi} Persei stars, we combine Spitzer data with optical/near-IR data for likely cluster members, updating the list from Currie et al. (2010, J/ApJS/186/191) with a more accurate one of 13956 stars (Table 1). (3 data files).

  10. The optical spectra of 24 mu m galaxies in the cosmos field. I. Spitzer MIPS bright sources in the zCOSMOS-bright 10k catalog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caputi, K. I.; Lilly, S. J.; Aussel, H.; Sanders, D.; Frayer, D.; Le Fevre, O.; Renzini, A.; Zamorani, G.; Scodeggio, M.; Contini, T.; Scoville, N.; Carollo, C. M.; Hasinger, G.; Iovino, A.; Le Brun, V.; Le Floc'h, E.; Maier, C.; Mainieri, V.; Mignoli, M.; Salvato, M.; Schiminovich, D.; Silverman, J.; Surace, J.; Tasca, L.; Abbas, U.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bottini, D.; Capak, P.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Halliday, C.; Ilbert, O.; Kampczyk, P.; Kartaltepe, J.; Kneib, J. -P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Lamareille, F.; Leauthaud, A.; Le Borgne, J. F.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H.; Meneux, B.; Oesch, P.; Pello, R.; Perez-Montero, E.; Porciani, C.; Ricciardelli, E.; Scaramella, R.; Scarlata, C.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Walcher, J.; Zamojski, M.; Zucca, E.

    2008-01-01

    We study zCOSMOS-bright optical spectra for 609 Spitzer MIPS 24 mu m-selected galaxies with S-24 (mu m) > 0: 30 mJy and I <22.5 (AB mag) over 1.5 deg(2) of the COSMOS field. From emission-line diagnostics we find the following: (1) SFRs derived from the observed H alpha lambda 6563 and H beta lambda

  11. Soliton-based ultrafast multi-wavelength nonlinear switching in dual-core photonic crystal fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajanca, P; Pysz, D; Michalka, M; Bugar, I; Andriukaitis, G; Balciunas, T; Fan, G; Baltuska, A

    2014-01-01

    Systematic experimental study of ultrafast multi-wavelength all-optical switching performance in a dual-core photonic crystal fibre is presented. The focus is on nonlinearly induced switching between the two output ports at non-excitation wavelengths, which are generated during nonlinear propagation of femtosecond pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of a dual-core photonic crystal fibre made of multicomponent glass. Spatial and spectral characteristics of the fibre output radiation were measured separately for both fibre cores under various polarization and intensity conditions upon selective, individual excitation of each fibre core. Polarization-controlled nonlinear switching performance at multiple non-excitation wavelengths was demonstrated in the long-wavelength optical communication bands and beyond. Depending on the input pulse polarization, narrowband switching operation at 1560 nm and 1730 nm takes place with double core extinction ratio contrasts of 9 dB and 14.5 dB, respectively. Moreover, our approach allows switching with simultaneous wavelength shift from 1650 to 1775 nm with extinction ratio contrast larger than 18 dB. In addition, non-reciprocal behaviour of the soliton fission process under different fibre core excitations was observed and its effect on the multi-wavelength nonlinear switching performance was explained, taking into account the slight dual-core structure asymmetry. The obtained results represent ultrafast all-optical switching with an extended dimension of wavelength shift, controllable with both the input radiation intensity and the polarization by simple propagation along a 14 mm long fibre. (paper)

  12. Advanced Fabrication of Single-Mode and Multi-Wavelength MIR-QCLs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Süess

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present our latest work on the optimization of mid-infrared quantum cascade laser fabrication techniques. Our efforts are focused on low dissipation devices, broad-area high-power photonic crystal lasers, as well as multi-wavelength devices realized either as arrays or multi-section distributed feedback (DFB devices. We summarize our latest achievements and update them with our most recent results.

  13. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF GJ 3470 b: A VERY LOW-DENSITY NEPTUNE-SIZE PLANET ORBITING A METAL-RICH M DWARF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Neves, Vasco; Santos, Nuno [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Rogers, Leslie [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gillon, Michaeel [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 17, Bat. B5C, Liege 1 (Belgium); Horch, Elliott [Department of Physics, 501 Crescent Street, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Sullivan, Peter [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bonfils, Xavier; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Udry, Stephane [Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, 51 ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Smalley, Barry, E-mail: demory@mit.edu [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST55BG (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-10

    We present Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 {mu}m transit photometry of GJ 3470 b, a Neptune-size planet orbiting an M1.5 dwarf star with a 3.3 day period recently discovered in the course of the HARPS M-dwarf survey. We refine the stellar parameters by employing purely empirical mass-luminosity and surface brightness relations constrained by our updated value for the mean stellar density, and additional information from new near-infrared spectroscopic observations. We derive a stellar mass of M{sub *}= 0.539{sup +0.047}{sub -0.043} M{sub sun} and a radius of R{sub *}= 0.568{sup +0.037}{sub -0.031} R{sub sun}. We determine the host star of GJ 3470 b to be metal-rich, with a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.20 {+-} 0.10 and an effective temperature of T{sub eff} = 3600 {+-} 100 K. The revised stellar parameters yield a planetary radius R{sub p}= 4.83{sub -0.21}{sup +0.22} R{sub Circled-Plus} that is 13% larger than the value previously reported in the literature. We find a planetary mass M{sub p}= 13.9{sup +1.5}{sub -1.4} M{sub Circled-Plus} that translates to a very low planetary density, {rho}{sub p}= 0.72{sup +0.13}{sub -0.12} g cm{sup -3}, which is 33% smaller than the original value. With a mean density half of that of GJ 436 b, GJ 3470 b is an example of a very low-density low-mass planet, similar to Kepler-11 d, Kepler-11 e, and Kepler-18 c, but orbiting a much brighter nearby star that is more conducive to follow-up studies.

  14. SSGSS: THE SPITZER–SDSS–GALEX SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dowd, Matthew J.; Schiminovich, David; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Treyer, Marie A.; Martin, Christopher D.; Wyder, Ted K.; Charlot, Stéphane; Heckman, Timothy M.; Martins, Lucimara P.; Seibert, Mark; Van der Hulst, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The Spitzer-SDSS-GALEX Spectroscopic Survey (SSGSS) provides a new sample of 101 star-forming galaxies at z < 0.2 with unprecedented multi-wavelength coverage. New mid- to far-infrared spectroscopy from the Spitzer Space Telescope is added to a rich suite of previous imaging and spectroscopy, including ROSAT, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and Spitzer/SWIRE. Sample selection ensures an even coverage of the full range of normal galaxy properties, spanning two orders of magnitude in stellar mass, color, and dust attenuation. In this paper we present the SSGSS data set, describe the science drivers, and detail the sample selection, observations, data reduction, and quality assessment. Also in this paper, we compare the shape of the thermal continuum and the degree of silicate absorption of these typical, star-forming galaxies to those of starburst galaxies. We investigate the link between star formation rate, infrared luminosity, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon luminosity, with a view to calibrating the latter for spectral energy distribution models in photometric samples and at high redshift. Last, we take advantage of the 5-40 μm spectroscopic and far-infrared photometric coverage of this sample to perform detailed fitting of the Draine et al. dust models, and investigate the link between dust mass and star formation history and active galactic nucleus properties.

  15. Notes on the apparent discordance of pulse oximetry and multi-wavelength haemoglobin photometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, R.; Jongsma, H.W.; Nijhuis, J.G.; Oeseburg, Berend; Zijlstra, Willem

    1995-01-01

    Multi-wavelength photometers, blood gas analysers and pulse oximeters are widely used to measure various oxygen-related quantities. The definitions of these quantities are not always correct. This paper gives insight in the various definitions for oxygen quantities. Furthermore, the possible

  16. SPITZER survey of dust grain processing in stable discs around binary post-AGB stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, C.; van Winckel, H.; Min, M.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Lloyd Evans, T.

    2008-01-01

    Aims. We investigate the mineralogy and dust processing in the circumbinary discs of binary post-AGB stars using high-resolution TIMMI2 and SPITZER infrared spectra. Methods: We perform a full spectral fitting to the infrared spectra using the most recent opacities of amorphous and crystalline dust

  17. SPITZER IRS SPECTRA OF LUMINOUS 8 μm SOURCES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: TESTING COLOR-BASED CLASSIFICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, Catherine L.; Kastner, Joel H.; Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2009-01-01

    We present archival Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of 19 luminous 8 μm selected sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The object classes derived from these spectra and from an additional 24 spectra in the literature are compared with classifications based on Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)/MSX (J, H, K, and 8 μm) colors in order to test the 'JHK8' (Kastner et al.) classification scheme. The IRS spectra confirm the classifications of 22 of the 31 sources that can be classified under the JHK8 system. The spectroscopic classification of 12 objects that were unclassifiable in the JHK8 scheme allow us to characterize regions of the color-color diagrams that previously lacked spectroscopic verification, enabling refinements to the JHK8 classification system. The results of these new classifications are consistent with previous results concerning the identification of the most infrared-luminous objects in the LMC. In particular, while the IRS spectra reveal several new examples of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with O-rich envelopes, such objects are still far outnumbered by carbon stars (C-rich AGB stars). We show that Spitzer IRAC/MIPS color-color diagrams provide improved discrimination between red supergiants and oxygen-rich and carbon-rich AGB stars relative to those based on 2MASS/MSX colors. These diagrams will enable the most luminous IR sources in Local Group galaxies to be classified with high confidence based on their Spitzer colors. Such characterizations of stellar populations will continue to be possible during Spitzer's warm mission through the use of IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] and 2MASS colors.

  18. THE SPITZER c2d SURVEY OF NEARBY DENSE CORES. VI. THE PROTOSTARS OF LYNDS DARK NEBULA 1221

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Chadwick H.; Young, Kaisa E.; Popa, Victor; Bourke, Tyler L.; Dunham, Michael M.; Evans, Neal J.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Shirley, Yancy L.; De Vries, Christopher; Claussen, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Observations of Lynds Dark Nebula 1221 from the Spitzer Space Telescope are presented. These data show three candidate protostars toward L1221, only two of which were previously known. The infrared observations also show signatures of outflowing material, an interpretation which is also supported by radio observations with the Very Large Array. In addition, molecular line maps from the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory are shown. One-dimensional dust continuum modeling of two of these protostars, IRS1 and IRS3, is described. These models show two distinctly different protostars forming in very similar environments. IRS1 shows a higher luminosity and a larger inner radius of the envelope than IRS3. The disparity could be caused by a difference in age or mass, orientation of outflow cavities, or the impact of a binary in the IRS1 core.

  19. Simultaneous identification of optical constants and PSD of spherical particles by multi-wavelength scattering-transmittance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-You; Qi, Hong; Ren, Ya-Tao; Ruan, Li-Ming

    2018-04-01

    An accurate and stable identification technique is developed to retrieve the optical constants and particle size distributions (PSDs) of particle system simultaneously from the multi-wavelength scattering-transmittance signals by using the improved quantum particle swarm optimization algorithm. The Mie theory are selected to calculate the directional laser intensity scattered by particles and the spectral collimated transmittance. The sensitivity and objective function distribution analysis were conducted to evaluate the mathematical properties (i.e. ill-posedness and multimodality) of the inverse problems under three different optical signals combinations (i.e. the single-wavelength multi-angle light scattering signal, the single-wavelength multi-angle light scattering and spectral transmittance signal, and the multi-angle light scattering and spectral transmittance signal). It was found the best global convergence performance can be obtained by using the multi-wavelength scattering-transmittance signals. Meanwhile, the present technique have been tested under different Gaussian measurement noise to prove its feasibility in a large solution space. All the results show that the inverse technique by using multi-wavelength scattering-transmittance signals is effective and suitable for retrieving the optical complex refractive indices and PSD of particle system simultaneously.

  20. Measurement and correction of transverse chromatic offsets for multi-wavelength retinal microscopy in the living eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmening, Wolf M; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; Roorda, Austin; Sincich, Lawrence C

    2012-09-01

    A special challenge arises when pursuing multi-wavelength imaging of retinal tissue in vivo, because the eye's optics must be used as the main focusing elements, and they introduce significant chromatic dispersion. Here we present an image-based method to measure and correct for the eye's transverse chromatic aberrations rapidly, non-invasively, and with high precision. We validate the technique against hyperacute psychophysical performance and the standard chromatic human eye model. In vivo correction of chromatic dispersion will enable confocal multi-wavelength images of the living retina to be aligned, and allow targeted chromatic stimulation of the photoreceptor mosaic to be performed accurately with sub-cellular resolution.

  1. Reduction of the general Spitzer-Haerm problem in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, A.

    1988-01-01

    The general Spitzer-Haerm problem is unfolded through a redefinition of the dependent variable into two separate simpler problems. The first takes the form of a second order differential equation, and the second, that of an integration over the solution of the first problem, which provides the distribution function or, directly, the current and the heat flow. It is shown that the current and the heat flow can in general by synthesized from the solutions of the differential equation for two specific forms of the driving term. (author)

  2. Deep Impact as a World Observatory Event: Synergies in Space, Time, and Wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Käufl, H.U; ESO/VUB Conference

    2009-01-01

    In the context of the NASA Deep Impact space mission, comet 9P/Tempel1 has been at the focus of an unprecedented worldwide long-term multi-wavelength observation campaign. The comet was also studied throughout its perihelion passage by various sources including the Deep Impact mission itself, the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer, Rosetta, XMM and all major ground-based observatories in a wavelength band from cm-wave radio astronomy to x-rays. This book includes the proceedings of a meeting that brought together an audience of theoreticians and observers - across the electromagnetic spectrum and from different sites and projects - to make full use of the massive ground-based observing data set. The coherent presentation of all data sets illustrates and examines the various observational constraints on modelling the cometary nucleus, cometary gas, cometary plasma, cometary dust, and the comet's surface and its activity.

  3. Thermal-Infrared Surveys of Near-Earth Object Diameters and Albedos with Spitzer and IRTF/MIRSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Hora, Joseph L.; Chesley, Steven; Emery, Josh; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan W.; Moskovitz, Nick; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2015-08-01

    More than 12000 Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have been discovered over the past few decades and current discovery surveys find on average 4 new NEOs every night. In comparison to asteroid discovery, the physical characterization of NEOs lags far behind: measured diameters and albedos exist only for roughly 10% of all known NEOs. We describe a current and a future observing program that provide diameter and albedo measurements of a large number of NEOs.In our Spitzer Space Telescope Exploration Science program 'NEOSurvey', we are performing a fast and efficient flux-limited survey in which we measure the diameters and albedos of ~600 NEOs in a total of 710 hrs of observing time. We measure the thermal emission of our targets at 4.5 micron and combine these measurements with optical data in a thermal model. Our diameters and albedos come with highly realistic uncertainties that account for a wide range of potential asteroid properties. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties, including diameters, albedos, and flux density data. This catalog is publicly accessible and provides the latest results usually within 2 weeks after the observation.Starting in 2016, we will also make use of the refurbished and recommissioned MIRSI mid-infrared imaging camera on NASA's InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) to derive the diameters and albedos of up to 750 NEOs over a period of 3 yrs. MIRSI will be equipped with an optical camera that will allow for simultaneous optical imaging, which will improve our thermal modeling results. With MIRSI, we will focus on newly discovered NEOs that are close to Earth and hence relatively bright.The results from both programs, together with already exisiting diameter and albedo results from the literature, will form the largest database of NEO physical properties available to date. With this data set, we will be able to refine the size distribution of small NEOs and the corresponding impact frequency, and compare the

  4. MODELING THE EARLY MULTIWAVELENGTH EMISSION IN GRB 130427A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraija, N.; Lee, W.; Veres, P.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most powerful gamma-ray bursts, GRB 130427A was swiftly detected from GeV γ-rays to optical wavelengths. In the GeV band, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope observed the highest-energy photon ever recorded of 95 GeV and a bright peak in the early phase followed by emission temporally extended for more than 20 hr. In the optical band, a bright flash with a magnitude of 7.03 ± 0.03 in the time interval from 9.31 to 19.31 s after the trigger was reported by RAPTOR in r band. We study the origin of the GeV γ-ray emission, using the multiwavelength observation detected in X-ray and optical bands. The origin of the temporally extended LAT, X-ray, and optical flux is naturally interpreted as synchrotron radiation, and the 95 GeV photon and the integral flux upper limits placed by the high-altitude water Cerenkov observatory are consistent with synchrotron self-Compton from an adiabatic forward shock propagating into the stellar wind of its progenitor. The extreme LAT peak and the bright optical flash are explained through synchrotron self-Compton and synchrotron emission from the reverse shock, respectively, when the ejecta evolves in the thick-shell regime and carries a significant magnetic field

  5. First-Light Galaxies or Intrahalo Stars: Multi-Wavelength Measurements of the Infrared Background Anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha

    The research program described in this proposal can be broadly described as data analysis, measurement, and interpretation of the spatial fluctuations of the unresolved cosmic IR background. We will focus primarily on the background at optical and near-IR wavelengths as probed by Hubble and Spitzer. As absolute background intensity measurements are challenging, the focus is on the spatial fluctuations similar to the anisotropiesof the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Measurements of the unresolved Spitzer fluctuations by two independent teams on multiple fields agree within the measurement errors. However, there are now two interpretations on the origin of the unresolved IRAC fluctuations. One involves a population of faint sources at very high redshifts (z > 6) during the epoch of reionization. The second interpretation involves the integrated emission from intrahalo light associated with diffuse stars in the outskirts of z of 1 to 3 dark matter halos of galaxies. We now propose to further test these two interpretations with a new set of measurements at shorter IR and optical wavelengths with HST/ACS and WFC3 overlapping with deep IRAC surveys. A multi-wavelength study from 0.5 to 4.5 micron will allow us to independently determine the relative contribution of intrahalo light and z > 8 faint galaxies to the unresolved IR fluctuations. We will also place strong limits on the surface density of faint sources at z > 8. Such a limit will be useful for planning deep surveys with JWST. Moving to the recent wide IRAC fields with the warm mission, we propose to study fluctuations at tens of degree angular scales. At such large angular scales IRAC fluctuations should trace diffuse Galactic light (DGL), ISM dust-scattered starlight in our Galaxy. We will measure the amplitude and slope of the DGL power spectrum and compare them to measurements of the Galactic dust power spectrum from IRAS and Planck and study if the large degree-scale fluctuations seen in CIBER can be

  6. Studying Galaxy Formation with the Hubble, Spitzer and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts z greater than 6, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z greater than 10, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (less than 50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In addition to JWST's ability to study the formation and evolution of galaxies, I will also briefly review its expected contributions to studies of the formation of stars and planetary systems, and discuss recent progress in constructing the observatory.

  7. A Direct Imaging Survey of Spitzer-detected Debris Disks: Occurrence of Giant Planets in Dusty Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Tiffany; Mawet, Dimitri; Bryan, Marta L.; Hinkley, Sasha; Bowler, Brendan P.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Batygin, Konstantin; Padgett, Deborah; Morales, Farisa Y.; Serabyn, Eugene; Christiaens, Valentin; Brandt, Timothy D.; Wahhaj, Zahed

    2017-12-01

    We describe a joint high-contrast imaging survey for planets at the Keck and Very Large Telescope of the last large sample of debris disks identified by the Spitzer Space Telescope. No new substellar companions were discovered in our survey of 30 Spitzer-selected targets. We combine our observations with data from four published surveys to place constraints on the frequency of planets around 130 debris disk single stars, the largest sample to date. For a control sample, we assembled contrast curves from several published surveys targeting 277 stars that do not show infrared excesses. We assumed a double power-law distribution in mass and semimajor axis (SMA) of the form f(m,a)={{Cm}}α {a}β , where we adopted power-law values and logarithmically flat values for the mass and SMA of planets. We find that the frequency of giant planets with masses 5-20 M Jup and separations 10-1000 au around stars with debris disks is 6.27% (68% confidence interval 3.68%-9.76%), compared to 0.73% (68% confidence interval 0.20%-1.80%) for the control sample of stars without disks. These distributions differ at the 88% confidence level, tentatively suggesting distinctness of these samples. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  8. Spitzer MIPS Limits on Asteroidal Dust in the Pulsar Planetary System PSR B1257+12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, G.; Beichman, C. A.; Rieke, G. H.; Stansberry, J. A.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Trilling, D. E.; Turner, N. J.; Wolszczan, A.

    2006-01-01

    With the MIPS camera on Spitzer, we have searched for far-infrared emission from dust in the planetary system orbiting pulsar PSR B1257+12. With accuracies of 0.05 mJy at 24 microns and 1.5 mJy at 70 microns, photometric measurements find no evidence for emission at these wavelengths. These observations place new upper limits on the luminosity of dust with temperatures between 20 and 1000 K. They are particularly sensitive to dust temperatures of 100-200 K, for which they limit the dust luminosity to below 3 x 10(exp -5) of the pulsar's spin-down luminosity, 3 orders of magnitude better than previous limits. Despite these improved constraints on dust emission, an asteroid belt similar to the solar system's cannot be ruled out.

  9. LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF SPITZER-IDENTIFIED PROTOSTARS IN NINE NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryukova, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Allen, T. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Pipher, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Myers, P. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We identify protostars in Spitzer surveys of nine star-forming (SF) molecular clouds within 1 kpc: Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Chamaeleon, Lupus, Taurus, Orion, Cep OB3, and Mon R2, which combined host over 700 protostar candidates. These clouds encompass a variety of SF environments, including both low-mass and high-mass SF regions, as well as dense clusters and regions of sparsely distributed star formation. Our diverse cloud sample allows us to compare protostar luminosity functions in these varied environments. We combine near- and mid-infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and Spitzer to create 1-24 {mu}m spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Using protostars from the c2d survey with well-determined bolometric luminosities, we derive a relationship between bolometric luminosity, mid-IR luminosity (integrated from 1-24 {mu}m), and SED slope. Estimations of the bolometric luminosities for protostar candidates are combined to create luminosity functions for each cloud. Contamination due to edge-on disks, reddened Class II sources, and galaxies is estimated and removed from the luminosity functions. We find that luminosity functions for high-mass SF clouds (Orion, Mon R2, and Cep OB3) peak near 1 L{sub Sun} and show a tail extending toward luminosities above 100 L{sub Sun }. The luminosity functions of the low-mass SF clouds (Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon) do not exhibit a common peak, however the combined luminosity function of these regions peaks below 1 L{sub Sun }. Finally, we examine the luminosity functions as a function of the local surface density of young stellar objects. In the Orion molecular clouds, we find a significant difference between the luminosity functions of protostars in regions of high and low stellar density, the former of which is biased toward more luminous sources. This may be the result of primordial mass segregation, although this interpretation is not unique. We compare our luminosity

  10. LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF SPITZER-IDENTIFIED PROTOSTARS IN NINE NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryukova, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Allen, T. S.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Pipher, J.; Allen, L. E.; Myers, P. C.; Muzerolle, J.

    2012-01-01

    We identify protostars in Spitzer surveys of nine star-forming (SF) molecular clouds within 1 kpc: Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Chamaeleon, Lupus, Taurus, Orion, Cep OB3, and Mon R2, which combined host over 700 protostar candidates. These clouds encompass a variety of SF environments, including both low-mass and high-mass SF regions, as well as dense clusters and regions of sparsely distributed star formation. Our diverse cloud sample allows us to compare protostar luminosity functions in these varied environments. We combine near- and mid-infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and Spitzer to create 1-24 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Using protostars from the c2d survey with well-determined bolometric luminosities, we derive a relationship between bolometric luminosity, mid-IR luminosity (integrated from 1-24 μm), and SED slope. Estimations of the bolometric luminosities for protostar candidates are combined to create luminosity functions for each cloud. Contamination due to edge-on disks, reddened Class II sources, and galaxies is estimated and removed from the luminosity functions. We find that luminosity functions for high-mass SF clouds (Orion, Mon R2, and Cep OB3) peak near 1 L ☉ and show a tail extending toward luminosities above 100 L ☉ . The luminosity functions of the low-mass SF clouds (Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon) do not exhibit a common peak, however the combined luminosity function of these regions peaks below 1 L ☉ . Finally, we examine the luminosity functions as a function of the local surface density of young stellar objects. In the Orion molecular clouds, we find a significant difference between the luminosity functions of protostars in regions of high and low stellar density, the former of which is biased toward more luminous sources. This may be the result of primordial mass segregation, although this interpretation is not unique. We compare our luminosity functions to those

  11. Revealing evolved massive stars with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Fabrika, S.

    2010-06-01

    Massive evolved stars lose a large fraction of their mass via copious stellar wind or instant outbursts. During certain evolutionary phases, they can be identified by the presence of their circumstellar nebulae. In this paper, we present the results of a search for compact nebulae (reminiscent of circumstellar nebulae around evolved massive stars) using archival 24-μm data obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. We have discovered 115 nebulae, most of which bear a striking resemblance to the circumstellar nebulae associated with luminous blue variables (LBVs) and late WN-type (WNL) Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We interpret this similarity as an indication that the central stars of detected nebulae are either LBVs or related evolved massive stars. Our interpretation is supported by follow-up spectroscopy of two dozen of these central stars, most of which turn out to be either candidate LBVs (cLBVs), blue supergiants or WNL stars. We expect that the forthcoming spectroscopy of the remaining objects from our list, accompanied by the spectrophotometric monitoring of the already discovered cLBVs, will further increase the known population of Galactic LBVs. This, in turn, will have profound consequences for better understanding the LBV phenomenon and its role in the transition between hydrogen-burning O stars and helium-burning WR stars. We also report on the detection of an arc-like structure attached to the cLBV HD 326823 and an arc associated with the LBV R99 (HD 269445) in the LMC. Partially based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). E-mail: vgvaram@mx.iki.rssi.ru (VVG); akniazev@saao.ac.za (AYK); fabrika@sao.ru (SF)

  12. Chemometric analysis of in-line multi-wavelength fluorescence measurements obtained during cultivations with a lipase producing Aspergillus oryzae strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Martin Brian; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Mortensen, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    The filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae, was cultivated in batch and fed-batch cultivations in order to investigate the use of multi-wavelength fluorescence for monitoring course of events during filamentous fungi cultivations. The A. oryzae strain applied expressed a fungal lipase from...... Thermomyces lanuginosus. Spectra of multi-wavelength fluorescence were collected every 5 min with the BioView system (DELTA, Denmark) and both explorative and predictive models, correlating the fluorescence data with cell mass and lipase activity, were built. During the cultivations, A. oryzae displayed...

  13. Spitzer IRAC Confirmation of z850-Dropout Galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Stellar Masses and Ages at z ~ 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Ivo; Bouwens, Rychard; Illingworth, G. D.; Franx, M.

    2006-10-01

    Using Spitzer IRAC mid-infrared imaging from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey, we study z850-dropout sources in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. After carefully removing contaminating flux from foreground sources, we clearly detect two z850 dropouts at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, while two others are marginally detected. The mid-infrared fluxes strongly support their interpretation as galaxies at z~7, seen when the universe was only 750 Myr old. The IRAC observations allow us for the first time to constrain the rest-frame optical colors, stellar masses, and ages of the highest redshift galaxies. Fitting stellar population models to the spectral energy distributions, we find photometric redshifts in the range 6.7-7.4, rest-frame colors U-V=0.2-0.4, V-band luminosities LV=(0.6-3)×1010 Lsolar, stellar masses (1-10)×109 Msolar, stellar ages 50-200 Myr, star formation rates up to ~25 Msolar yr-1, and low reddening AV~8, during the era of cosmic reionization, but the star formation rate density derived from their stellar masses and ages is not nearly sufficient to reionize the universe. The simplest explanation for this deficiency is that lower mass galaxies beyond our detection limit reionized the universe. Based on observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407. Support for this work was provided by NASA through contract 125790 issued by JPL/Caltech. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Based on service mode observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO program 073.A-0764A).

  14. Multi-Wavelength Interferometric Observations of YSO Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, Sam; Akeson, R.; Armandroff, T.; Colavita, M.; Cotton, W.; Danchi, W.; Hillenbrand, L.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Ridgway, S. T.; Traub, W.; Wizinowich, P.

    2010-01-01

    We initiated a multi-color interferometric study of YSO disks in the K, L and N bands using the Keck Interferometer. The initial results on two Herbig Ae/Be stars will be presented. Our observations are sensitive to the radial distribution of temperature in the inner region of the YSO disks. The geometric models show that the apparent size increases linearly with wavelength, suggesting that the disk is extended with a temperature gradient. We will discuss our results in conjunction with the previous measurements of these targets.

  15. Development of the multiwavelength monolithic integrated fiber optics terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, C. R.; Bryan, D. A.; Powers, J. K.; Rice, R. R.; Nettle, V. H.; Dalke, E. A.; Reed, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Multiwavelength Monolithic Integrated Fiber Optic Terminal (MMIFOT) for the NASA Johnson Space Center. The program objective is to utilize guided wave optical technology to develop wavelength-multiplexing and -demultiplexing units, using a single mode optical fiber for transmission between terminals. Intensity modulated injection laser diodes, chirped diffraction gratings and thin film lenses are used to achieve the wavelength-multiplexing and -demultiplexing. The video and audio data transmission test of an integrated optical unit with a Luneburg collimation lens, waveguide diffraction grating and step index condensing lens is described.

  16. SPITZER AND HERSCHEL MULTIWAVELENGTH CHARACTERIZATION OF THE DUST CONTENT OF EVOLVED H II REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladini, R. [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200, East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Umana, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Veneziani, M.; Noriega-Crespo, A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200, East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Piacentini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Pinheiro Goncalves, D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto 50 George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Paradis, D.; Bernard, J.-P. [Centre d' Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Tibbs, C. T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200, East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Natoli, P., E-mail: paladini@ipac.caltech.edu [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione Ferrara, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2012-12-01

    We have analyzed a uniform sample of 16 evolved H II regions located in a 2 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 2 Degree-Sign Galactic field centered at (l,b) = (30 Degree-Sign , 0 Degree-Sign ) and observed as part of the Herschel Hi-GAL survey. The evolutionary stage of these H II regions was established using ancillary radio-continuum data. By combining Hi-GAL PACS (70 {mu}m, 160 {mu}m) and SPIRE (250 {mu}m, 350 {mu}m, and 500 {mu}m) measurements with MIPSGAL 24 {mu}m data, we built spectral energy distributions of the sources and showed that a two-component gray-body model is a good representation of the data. In particular, wavelengths >70 {mu}m appear to trace a cold dust component, for which we estimated an equilibrium temperature of the big grains (BGs) in the range 20-30 K, while for {lambda} < 70 {mu}m, the data indicate the presence of a warm dust component at temperatures of the order of 50-90 K. This analysis also revealed that dust is present in the interior of H II regions, although likely not in a large amount. In addition, the data seem to corroborate the hypothesis that the main mechanism responsible for the (partial) depletion of dust in H II regions is radiation-pressure-driven drift. In this framework, we speculated that the 24 {mu}m emission that spatially correlates with ionized gas might be associated with either very small grain or BG replenishment, as recently proposed for the case of wind-blown bubbles. Finally, we found that evolved H II regions are characterized by distinctive far-IR and submillimeter colors, which can be used as diagnostics for their identification in unresolved Galactic and extragalactic regions.

  17. Measurement of the Transverse Spitzer Resistivity during Collisional Magnetic Reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trintchouk, F.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Carter, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of the transverse resistivity was carried out in a reconnecting current sheet where the mean free path for the Coulomb collision is smaller than the thickness of the sheet. In a collisional neutral sheet without a guide field, the transverse resistivity is directly related to the reconnection rate. A remarkable agreement is found between the measured resistivity and the classical value derived by L. Spitzer. In his calculation the transverse resistivity for the electrons is higher than the parallel resistivity by a factor of 1.96. The measured values have verified this theory to within 30% errors

  18. Topological insulator: Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}/polyvinyl alcohol film-assisted multi-wavelength ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Bo; Yao, Yong, E-mail: yaoyong@hit.edu.cn; Yang, Yan-Fu; Yuan, Yi-Jun; Wang, Rui-Lai [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Wang, Shu-Guang; Ren, Zhong-Hua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Yan, Bo [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2015-02-14

    We experimentally demonstrate a multi-wavelength ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a μm-scale topological insulator: Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}/Polyvinyl Alcohol film as both an excellent saturable absorber for mode-locking and a high-nonlinear medium to induce a giant third order optical nonlinear effect for mitigating the mode competition of erbium-doped fiber laser and stabilizing the multi-wavelength oscillation. By properly adjusting the pump power and the polarization state, the single-, dual-, triple-, four-wavelength mode-locking pulse could be stably initiated. For the four-wavelength operation, we obtain its pulse width of ∼22 ps and a fundamental repetition rate of 8.83 MHz. The fiber laser exhibits the maximum output power of 9.7 mW with the pulse energy of 1.1 nJ and peak power of 50 W at the pump power of 155 mW. Our study shows that the simple, stable, low-cost multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser could be applied in various potential fields, such as optical communication, biomedical research, and radar system.

  19. High-speed photonically assisted analog-to-digital conversion using a continuous wave multiwavelength source and phase modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnik, Bartosz J; Fetterman, Harold R

    2008-10-01

    A more simple photonically assisted analog-to-digital conversion system utilizing a cw multiwavelength source and phase modulation instead of a mode-locked laser is presented. The output of the cw multiwavelength source is launched into a dispersive device (such as a single-mode fiber). This fiber creates a pulse train, where the central wavelength of each pulse corresponds to a spectral line of the optical source. The pulses can then be either dispersed again to perform discrete wavelength time stretching or demultiplexed for continuous time analog-to-digital conversion. We experimentally demonstrate the operation of both time stretched and interleaved systems at 38 GHz. The potential of integrating this type of system on a monolithic chip is discussed.

  20. Olivine Composition of the Mars Trojan 5261 Eureka: Spitzer IRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L. F.; Burt, B. J.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Trilling, D.

    2011-01-01

    The largest Mars trojan, 5261 Eureka, is one of two prototype "Sa" asteroids in the Bus-Demeo taxonomy. Analysis of its visible/near-IR spectrum led to the conclusion that it might represent either an angritic analog or an olivine-rich composition such as an R chondrite. Spitzer IRS data (5-30 micrometers) have enabled us to resolve this ambiguity. The thermal-IR spectrum exhibits strong olivine reststrahlen features consistent with a composition of approximately equals Fo60-70. Laboratory spectra of R chondrites, brachinites, and chassignites are dominated by similar features.

  1. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near infrared spectroscopy, dust shells, and cool envelopes in extreme Large Magellanic Cloud asymptotic giant branch stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R. D. [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, NTU/AS, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Volk, K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ''tip'' of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ''stellar'' cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk.

  2. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near infrared spectroscopy, dust shells, and cool envelopes in extreme Large Magellanic Cloud asymptotic giant branch stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, R. D.; Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B.; Volk, K.

    2014-01-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ''tip'' of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ''stellar'' cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk.

  3. THE 2010 VERY HIGH ENERGY {gamma}-RAY FLARE AND 10 YEARS OF MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF M 87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowski, A. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Acero, F. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, CC 72, Place Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Aharonian, F.; Bernloehr, K.; Bochow, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, P.O. Box 103980, D 69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Akhperjanian, A. G. [National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, 24 Marshall Baghramian Avenue, 0019 Yerevan (Armenia); Anton, G.; Balzer, A. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Barnacka, A. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Barres de Almeida, U. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Becherini, Y. [Astroparticule et Cosmologie (APC), CNRS, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Becker, J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D 44780 Bochum (Germany); Behera, B. [Landessternwarte, Universitaet Heidelberg, Koenigstuhl, D 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Birsin, E. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D 12489 Berlin (Germany); Biteau, J. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Boisson, C. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Bolmont, J. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252, Paris Cedex 5 (France); Bordas, P., E-mail: martin.raue@desy.de [Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Sand 1, D 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: H.E.S.S. Collaboration; MAGIC Collaboration; VERITAS Collaboration; and others

    2012-02-20

    The giant radio galaxy M 87 with its proximity (16 Mpc), famous jet, and very massive black hole ((3 - 6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }) provides a unique opportunity to investigate the origin of very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) {gamma}-ray emission generated in relativistic outflows and the surroundings of supermassive black holes. M 87 has been established as a VHE {gamma}-ray emitter since 2006. The VHE {gamma}-ray emission displays strong variability on timescales as short as a day. In this paper, results from a joint VHE monitoring campaign on M 87 by the MAGIC and VERITAS instruments in 2010 are reported. During the campaign, a flare at VHE was detected triggering further observations at VHE (H.E.S.S.), X-rays (Chandra), and radio (43 GHz Very Long Baseline Array, VLBA). The excellent sampling of the VHE {gamma}-ray light curve enables one to derive a precise temporal characterization of the flare: the single, isolated flare is well described by a two-sided exponential function with significantly different flux rise and decay times of {tau}{sup rise}{sub d} = (1.69 {+-} 0.30) days and {tau}{sup decay}{sub d} = (0.611 {+-} 0.080) days, respectively. While the overall variability pattern of the 2010 flare appears somewhat different from that of previous VHE flares in 2005 and 2008, they share very similar timescales ({approx}day), peak fluxes ({Phi}{sub >0.35TeV} {approx_equal} (1-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}), and VHE spectra. VLBA radio observations of 43 GHz of the inner jet regions indicate no enhanced flux in 2010 in contrast to observations in 2008, where an increase of the radio flux of the innermost core regions coincided with a VHE flare. On the other hand, Chandra X-ray observations taken {approx}3 days after the peak of the VHE {gamma}-ray emission reveal an enhanced flux from the core (flux increased by factor {approx}2; variability timescale <2 days). The long-term (2001-2010) multi-wavelength (MWL

  4. Spitzer Opens New Path to Break Classic Degeneracy for Jupiter-mass Microlensing Planet OGLE-2017-BLG-1140Lb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calchi Novati, S.; Skowron, J.; Jung, Y. K.; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Carey, S.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Yee, J. C.; Zhu, W.; Spitzer Team; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Mróz, P.; Poleski, R.; Soszyński, I.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.; Rybicki, K.; Iwanek, P.; OGLE Collaboration; Albrow, M. D.; Chung, S.-J.; Gould, A.; Han, C.; Hwang, K.-H.; Ryu, Y.-H.; Shin, I.-G.; Zang, W.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, D.-J.; Kim, H.-W.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Lee, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; Park, B.-G.; Pogge, R. W.; KMTNet Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    We analyze the combined Spitzer and ground-based data for OGLE-2017-BLG-1140 and show that the event was generated by a Jupiter-class ({m}p≃ 1.6 {M}{{J}{{u}}{{p}}}) planet orbiting a mid-late M dwarf (M≃ 0.2 {M}ȯ ) that lies {D}LS}≃ 1.0 {kpc} in the foreground of the microlensed Galactic-bar source star. The planet–host projected separation is {a}\\perp ≃ 1.0 {au}, i.e., well beyond the snow line. By measuring the source proper motion {{\\boldsymbol{μ }}}s from ongoing long-term OGLE imaging and combining this with the lens-source relative proper motion {{\\boldsymbol{μ }}}rel} derived from the microlensing solution, we show that the lens proper motion {{\\boldsymbol{μ }}}l={{\\boldsymbol{μ }}}rel}+{{\\boldsymbol{μ }}}s is consistent with the lens lying in the Galactic disk, although a bulge lens is not ruled out. We show that while the Spitzer and ground-based data are comparably well fitted by planetary (i.e., binary-lens (2L1S)) and binary-source (1L2S) models, the combination of Spitzer and ground-based data decisively favors the planetary model. This is a new channel to resolve the 2L1S/1L2S degeneracy, which can be difficult to break in some cases.

  5. Multi-wavelength observations of Asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shepard, M.K.; Clark, B. E.; Nolan, M. C.; Benner, L. A. M.; Ostro, S. J.; Giorgini, J. D.; Vilas, F.; Jarvis, K.; Lederer, S.; Lim, L.F.; McConnochie, T.; Bell, J.; Margot, J. L.; Rivkin, A. S.; Magrik, C.; Scheeres, D.J.; Pravec, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 193, č. 1 (2008), s. 20-38 ISSN 0019-1035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids composition * radar observations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.268, year: 2008

  6. MODELING MULTI-WAVELENGTH PULSE PROFILES OF THE MILLISECOND PULSAR PSR B1821–24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Yuanjie; Shuai, Ping; Bei, Xiaomin; Chen, Shaolong; Fu, Linzhong; Huang, Liangwei; Lin, Qingqing; Meng, Jing; Wu, Yaojun; Zhang, Hengbin; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Xinyuan [Qian Xuesen Laboratory of Space Technology, NO. 104, Youyi Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China); Qiao, Guojun, E-mail: dyj@nao.cas.cn [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-03-10

    PSR B1821–24 is a solitary millisecond pulsar that radiates multi-wavelength pulsed photons. It has complex radio, X-ray, and γ-ray pulse profiles with distinct peak phase separations that challenge the traditional caustic emission models. Using the single-pole annular gap model with a suitable magnetic inclination angle (α = 40°) and viewing angle (ζ = 75°), we managed to reproduce its pulse profiles of three wavebands. It is found that the middle radio peak originated from the core gap region at high altitudes, and the other two radio peaks originated from the annular gap region at relatively low altitudes. Two peaks of both X-ray and γ-ray wavebands basically originated from the annular gap region, while the γ-ray emission generated from the core gap region contributes somewhat to the first γ-ray peak. Precisely reproducing the multi-wavelength pulse profiles of PSR B1821–24 enables us to understand emission regions of distinct wavebands and justify pulsar emission models.

  7. Molecular transport network security using multi-wavelength optical spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunsiri, Surachai; Thammawongsa, Nopparat; Mitatha, Somsak; Yupapin, Preecha P

    2016-01-01

    Multi-wavelength generation system using an optical spin within the modified add-drop optical filter known as a PANDA ring resonator for molecular transport network security is proposed. By using the dark-bright soliton pair control, the optical capsules can be constructed and applied to securely transport the trapped molecules within the network. The advantage is that the dark and bright soliton pair (components) can securely propagate for long distance without electromagnetic interference. In operation, the optical intensity from PANDA ring resonator is fed into gold nano-antenna, where the surface plasmon oscillation between soliton pair and metallic waveguide is established.

  8. Multiwavelength Studies of Dual AGN in the Swift/BAT Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, Ezequiel; Privon, George; Sartori, Lia; Nagar, Neil; Bauer, Franz Erik; Schawinski, Kevin; Ricci, Claudio; U, Vivian; Comerford, Julie; Muller-Sanchez, Francisco; Evans, Aaron; Koss, Michael; Sanders, David B.; Urry, Meg; MODA Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    For the last 30 years there has been growing evidence for a strong connection between major galaxy mergers and simultaneous episodes ofstrong star formation and signicant central supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth. A natural consequence of this scenario is that dual Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), i.e., systems in which the two nuclear SMBHs are growing simultaneously at separations survey aimed to study the multiwavelength properties of the dual AGN in the neary universe, z10 keV, obtained from the Swift-BAT extragalactic survey and complemented by NuSTAR observations. Our work focuses on the study of the physical properties of the ionized, atomic and molecular gas and the dust in confirmed dual AGN by combining observations with ALMA, VLT/MUSE and SINFONI and Keck/OSIRIS among others. In addition to providing general properties of this poulation, we will further focus on two remarkable systems, NGC6240 and Mrk 463. Both systems show evidence of large kpc-scale tidal features, complex gas dynamics and kinematical evidence for both inflows and outflows.These results clearly show the importance of performing high resolution multi wavelength studies covering kpc scales in order to understandthe complex connection between black hole growth and galaxy evolution in this critical phase.Support from this work has been provided by CONICYT FONDECYT 1160999 and PFB-06/2007.

  9. A High-resolution Multi-wavelength Simultaneous Imaging System with Solar Adaptive Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Changhui; Zhu, Lei; Gu, Naiting; Rao, Xuejun; Zhang, Lanqiang; Bao, Hua; Kong, Lin; Guo, Youming; Zhong, Libo; Ma, Xue’an; Li, Mei; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Fan, Xinlong; Chen, Donghong; Feng, Zhongyi; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Zhiyong, E-mail: gunaiting@ioe.ac.cn [The Key Laboratory on Adaptive Optics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 350, Shuangliu, Chengdu 610209, Sichuan (China)

    2017-10-01

    A high-resolution multi-wavelength simultaneous imaging system from visible to near-infrared bands with a solar adaptive optics system, in which seven imaging channels, including the G band (430.5 nm), the Na i line (589 nm), the H α line (656.3 nm), the TiO band (705.7 nm), the Ca ii IR line (854.2 nm), the He i line (1083 nm), and the Fe i line (1565.3 nm), are chosen, is developed to image the solar atmosphere from the photosphere layer to the chromosphere layer. To our knowledge, this is the solar high-resolution imaging system with the widest spectral coverage. This system was demonstrated at the 1 m New Vaccum Solar Telescope and the on-sky high-resolution observational results were acquired. In this paper, we will illustrate the design and performance of the imaging system. The calibration and the data reduction of the system are also presented.

  10. Random walks, Brownian motion, and interacting particle systems: a festschrift in honor of Frank Spitzer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durrett, Richard; Kesten, Harry; Spitzer, Frank

    1991-01-01

    ..., made the transparency used in the printing process. STUDENTS OF FRANK SPITZERSTUDENTS OF FRANK SPITZER 1957 J. W. Lamperti, On the asymptotic behavior of recurrent and almostrecurrent events. 1964 W. W. Whitman, Some strong laws for random walks and Brownian motion. 1965 J. C. Mineka, The existence and uniqueness of positive solutions to the Wien...

  11. Multi-Wavelength Eclipse Observations of a Quiescent Prominence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jejčič, S.; Heinzel, Petr; Zapiór, M.; Druckmüller, M.; Gunár, Stanislav; Kotrč, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 289, č. 7 (2014), s. 2487-2501 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0906 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : eclipse observations * prominences * quiescent Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.039, year: 2014

  12. Chandra Observations of Neutron Stars: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Karovska, M.; Pavlov, G. G.; Zavlin, V. E.; Clarke, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    We present a brief review of Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of neutron stars. The outstanding spatial and spectral resolution of this great observatory have allowed for observations of unprecedented clarity and accuracy. Many of these observations have provided new insights into neutron star physics. We present an admittedly biased and overly brief overview of these observations, highlighting some new discoveries made possible by the Observatory's unique capabilities. We also include our analysis of recent multiwavelength observations of the putative pulsar and its pulsar-wind nebula in the IC 443 SNR.

  13. Multi-Wavelength Variability in PKS 2155-304 Y. G. Zheng1,2, L ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009), we attempt to model the multi-wavelength variability in PKS 2155-304. We assume that the acceleration process is a stochastic process and we describe it as the diffusion of the particle momentum. Throughout the paper, we assume the. Hubble constant H0 = 70 km s−1. Mpc. −1. , the matter energy density M = 0.27,.

  14. The formation of a Spitzer bubble RCW 79 triggered by a cloud-cloud collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohama, Akio; Kohno, Mikito; Hasegawa, Keisuke; Torii, Kazufumi; Nishimura, Atsushi; Hattori, Yusuke; Hayakawa, Takahiro; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Sano, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the mechanism of O-star formation is one of the most important current issues in astrophysics. Also an issue of keen interest is how O stars affect their surroundings and trigger secondary star formation. An H II region RCW 79 is one of the typical Spitzer bubbles alongside RCW 120. New observations of CO J = 1-0 emission with Mopra and NANTEN2 revealed that molecular clouds are associated with RCW 79 in four velocity components over a velocity range of 20 km s-1. We hypothesize that two of the clouds collided with each other and the collision triggered the formation of 12 O stars inside the bubble and the formation of 54 low-mass young stellar objects along the bubble wall. The collision is supported by observational signatures of bridges connecting different velocity components in the colliding clouds. The whole collision process happened over a timescale of ˜3 Myr. RCW 79 has a larger size by a factor of 30 in the projected area than RCW 120 with a single O star, and the large size favored formation of the 12 O stars due to the greater accumulated gas in the collisional shock compression.

  15. The First Atmospheric Characterization of a Habitable-Zone Exoplanet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin; Bean, Jacob; Charbonneau, David; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan; Irwin, Jonathan; Kreidberg, Laura; Line, Michael; Montet, Ben; Morley, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    Exoplanet surveys have recently revealed nearby planets orbiting within stellar habitable zones. This highly-anticipated breakthrough brings us one step closer in our quest to identify cosmic biosignatures, the indicators of extrasolar life. To achieve our goal, we must first study the atmospheres of these temperate worlds to measure their compositions and determine the prevalence of obscuring clouds. Using observations from the K2 mission, Co-I Montet recently announced the discovery of a 2.2 Earth-radii planet within the habitable zone of its relatively bright, nearby M dwarf parent star, K2-18. This temperate world is currently the best habitable-zone target for atmospheric characterization. Congruent with currently planned HST observations, we propose a Spitzer program to measure the transmission spectrum of the first habitable-zone exoplanet. Both telescopes are essential to revealing K2-18b's chemical composition. In a cloud-free, hydrogen-dominated atmosphere, the precision achieved by these measurements will be sufficient to detect methane, ammonia, and water vapor, which are the dominant C, N, and O bearing species at these temperatures. In turn, elemental abundance constraints from a primordial atmosphere can tell us about the composition of a protoplanetary disk in which Earth-like planets could have formed. Conversely, if the atmosphere contains thick clouds then the multi-wavelength observations from K2, HST, and Spitzer will constrain the clouds' properties. Because temperature plays a key role in the formation of clouds, their detection within the atmosphere of this habitable-zone exoplanet would be an important signpost that serves as a guide to future investigations of smaller, rocky exoplanets. As K2 continues discovering more habitable-zone planets, it is imperative that we perform spectral reconnaissance with Spitzer to determine their physical characteristics and begin understanding the prevalence of potentially-obscuring clouds prior to the

  16. Multi-wavelength spectrophotometric analysis for detection of xanthochromia in cerebrospinal fluid and accuracy for the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Wu, Alan H B; Lynch, Kara L; Ko, Nerissa; Grenache, David G

    2013-09-23

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was examined for bilirubin, an important indicator for diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A multi-wavelength (340, 415, and 460 nm) spectrophotometric assay was developed for the quantitative measurement of bilirubin in CSF, enabling the mathematical correction for absorbance of hemoglobin and proteins. Bilirubin and hemoglobin results were correlated to HPLC and a standard colorimetric assay, respectively. A subset of samples was sent for an absorbance reading at 450 nm following baseline correction. The multi-wavelength bilirubin assay was validated on 70 patients with confirmed SAH and 70 patients with neurologic symptoms who ruled out for SAH. The multi-wavelength spectrophometric assay demonstrated no interferences due to proteins (albumin) up to 30 g/l or oxyhemoglobin up to 260 mg/l. The assay limit of detection was 0.2 mg/l, linear to 20 mg/l, and CVs ranged from 1 to 6% at bilirubin concentrations of 0.84 and 2.1mg/l. The spectrophotometric assay correlated to HPLC and the colorimetric assay for bilirubin and hemoglobin, respectively. Results also correlated to the absorbance method (with removal of samples with high hemoglobin and proteins). The area under the ROC curve for diagnosis of SAH was 0.971 and 0.954 for the HPLC and spectrophotometric assay, respectively. At a cutoff of 0.2mg/l, the clinical specificity was 100% for both assays, and the clinical sensitivity was 94.3% and 88.6% for SAH for the HPLC and spectrophotometric asays, respectively. The multi-wavelength spectrophotometric assay is an objective alternative to visual inspection, HPLC, and absorbance for CSF bilirubin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Spitzer search for transits of radial velocity detected super-Earths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammer, J. A.; Knutson, H. A.; Desert, J.-M. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, A. W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Laughlin, G. P.; Fortney, J. J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Deming, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Todorov, K. O. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Agol, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Burrows, A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Showman, A. P. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lewis, N. K., E-mail: jkammer@caltech.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Unlike hot Jupiters or other gas giants, super-Earths are expected to have a wide variety of compositions, ranging from terrestrial bodies like our own to more gaseous planets like Neptune. Observations of transiting systems, which allow us to directly measure planet masses and radii and constrain atmospheric properties, are key to understanding the compositional diversity of the planets in this mass range. Although Kepler has discovered hundreds of transiting super-Earth candidates over the past 4 yr, the majority of these planets orbit stars that are too far away and too faint to allow for detailed atmospheric characterization and reliable mass estimates. Ground-based transit surveys focus on much brighter stars, but most lack the sensitivity to detect planets in this size range. One way to get around the difficulty of finding these smaller planets in transit is to start by choosing targets that are already known to host super-Earth sized bodies detected using the radial velocity (RV) technique. Here we present results from a Spitzer program to observe six of the most favorable RV-detected super-Earth systems, including HD 1461, HD 7924, HD 156668, HIP 57274, and GJ 876. We find no evidence for transits in any of their 4.5 μm flux light curves, and place limits on the allowed transit depths and corresponding planet radii that rule out even the most dense and iron-rich compositions for these objects. We also observed HD 97658, but the observation window was based on a possible ground-based transit detection that was later ruled out; thus the window did not include the predicted time for the transit detection recently made by the Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars space telescope.

  18. Spitzer sage survey of the large magellanic cloud. II. Evolved stars and infrared color-magnitude diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, R. D.; Mould, J. R.; Olsen, K. A.; Frogel, J. A.; Meixner, M.; Markwick-Kemper, F.; Indebetouw, R.; Whitney, B.; Meade, M.; Babler, B.; Churchwell, E. B.; Gordon, K.; Engelbracht, C.; For, B. -Q.; Misselt, K.; Vijh, U.; Leitherer, C.; Volk, K.; Points, S.; Reach, W.; Hora, J. L.; Bernard, J. -P.; Boulanger, F.; Bracker, S.; Cohen, M.; Fukui, Y.; Gallagher, J.; Gorjian, V.; Harris, J.; Kelly, D.; Kawamura, A.; Latter, W. B.; Madden, S.; Mizuno, A.; Mizuno, N.; Oey, M. S.; Onishi, T.; Paladini, R.; Panagia, N.; Perez-Gonzalez, P.; Shibai, H.; Sato, S.; Smith, L.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Tielens, A.G.G.M; Ueta, T.; Van Dyk, S.; Zaritsky, D.; Werner, M.J.

    Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) are presented for the Spitzer SAGE (Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution) survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). IRAC and MIPS 24 mu m epoch 1 data are presented. These data represent the deepest, widest mid-infrared CMDs of their kind ever produced in

  19. INFRARED AND RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF A SMALL GROUP OF PROTOSTELLAR OBJECTS IN THE MOLECULAR CORE, L1251-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungha; Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Bourke, Tyler L. [Square Kilometre Array Organisation, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Lower Withington, Cheshire SK11 9DL (United Kingdom); II, Neal J. Evans [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Francesco, James Di [National Research Council Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria, BC (Canada); Cieza, Lucas A. [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingeniera, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Dunham, Michael M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We present a multi-wavelength observational study of a low-mass star-forming region, L1251-C, with observational results at wavelengths from the near-infrared to the millimeter. Spitzer Space Telescope observations confirmed that IRAS 22343+7501 is a small group of protostellar objects. The extended emission in the east–west direction with its intensity peak at the center of L1251A has been detected at 350 and 850 μm with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory and James Clerk Maxwell telescopes, tracing dense envelope material around L1251A. The single-dish data from the Korean VLBI Network and TRAO telescopes show inconsistencies between the intensity peaks of several molecular emission lines and that of the continuum emission, suggesting complex distributions of molecular abundances around L1251A. The Submillimeter Array interferometer data, however, show intensity peaks of CO 2–1 and {sup 13}CO 2–1 located at the position of IRS 1, which is both the brightest source in the Infrared Array Camera image and the weakest source in the 1.3 mm dust-continuum map. IRS 1 is the strongest candidate for the driving source of the newly detected compact CO 2–1 outflow. Over the entire region (14′ × 14′) of L125l-C, 3 Class I and 16 Class II sources have been detected, including three young stellar objects (YSOs) in L1251A. A comparison between the average projected distance among the 19 YSOs in L1251-C and that among the 3 YSOs in L1251A suggests that L1251-C is an example of low-mass cluster formation where protostellar objects form in a small group.

  20. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF V2775 Ori, AN OUTBURSTING PROTOSTAR IN L 1641: EXPLORING THE EDGE OF THE FU ORIONIS REGIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, William J.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Kounkel, Marina [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Tobin, John J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Stutz, Amelia M.; Henning, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ali, Babar [NHSC/IPAC/Caltech, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Remming, Ian; Manoj, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 500 Wilson Boulevard, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Stanke, Thomas [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Osorio, Mayra [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Camino Bajo de Huetor 50, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Wilson, T. L., E-mail: wfische@utnet.utoledo.edu [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Individual outbursting young stars are important laboratories for studying the physics of episodic accretion and the extent to which this phenomenon can explain the luminosity distribution of protostars. We present new and archival data for V2775 Ori (HOPS 223), a protostar in the L 1641 region of the Orion molecular clouds that was discovered by Caratti o Garatti et al. to have recently undergone an order-of-magnitude increase in luminosity. Our near-infrared spectra of the source have strong blueshifted He I {lambda}10830 absorption, strong H{sub 2}O and CO absorption, and no H I emission, all typical of FU Orionis sources. With data from the Infrared Telescope Facility, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Herschel, and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment that span from 1 to 70 {mu}m pre-outburst and from 1 to 870 {mu}m post-outburst, we estimate that the outburst began between 2005 April and 2007 March. We also model the pre- and post-outburst spectral energy distributions of the source, finding it to be in the late stages of accreting its envelope with a disk-to-star accretion rate that increased from {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} to {approx}10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} during the outburst. The post-outburst luminosity at the epoch of the FU Orionis-like near-IR spectra is 28 L{sub Sun }, making V2775 Ori the least luminous documented FU Orionis outburster with a protostellar envelope. The existence of low-luminosity outbursts supports the notion that a range of episiodic accretion phenomena can partially explain the observed spread in protostellar luminosities.

  1. The Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS redshift survey of galaxy evolution since z = 1.5. I. Description and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelson, Daniel D.; Williams, Rik J.; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Mulchaey, John S.; Villanueva, Edward V.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Quadri, Ryan F. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We describe the Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS (CSI) Survey, a wide-field, near-IR selected spectrophotometric redshift survey with the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph (IMACS) on Magellan-Baade. By defining a flux-limited sample of galaxies in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera 3.6 μm imaging of SWIRE fields, the CSI Survey efficiently traces the stellar mass of average galaxies to z ∼ 1.5. This first paper provides an overview of the survey selection, observations, processing of the photometry and spectrophotometry. We also describe the processing of the data: new methods of fitting synthetic templates of spectral energy distributions are used to derive redshifts, stellar masses, emission line luminosities, and coarse information on recent star formation. Our unique methodology for analyzing low-dispersion spectra taken with multilayer prisms in IMACS, combined with panchromatic photometry from the ultraviolet to the IR, has yielded high-quality redshifts for 43,347 galaxies in our first 5.3 deg{sup 2} of the SWIRE XMM-LSS field. We use three different approaches to estimate our redshift errors and find robust agreement. Over the full range of 3.6 μm fluxes of our selection, we find typical redshift uncertainties of σ {sub z}/(1 + z) ≲ 0.015. In comparisons with previously published spectroscopic redshifts we find scatters of σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.011 for galaxies at 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 0.9, and σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.014 for galaxies at 0.9 ≤ z ≤ 1.2. For galaxies brighter and fainter than i = 23 mag, we find σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.008 and σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.022, respectively. Notably, our low-dispersion spectroscopy and analysis yields comparable redshift uncertainties and success rates for both red and blue galaxies, largely eliminating color-based systematics that can seriously bias observed dependencies of galaxy evolution on environment.

  2. Spitzer Light Curves of the Young, Planetary-mass TW Hya Members 2MASS J11193254–1137466AB and WISEA J114724.10–204021.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K.; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.

    2018-06-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope time-series photometry at 3.6 and 4.5 μm of 2MASS J11193254‑1137466AB and WISEA J114724.10‑204021.3, two planetary-mass, late-type (∼L7) brown dwarf members of the ∼10 Myr old TW Hya Association. These observations were taken in order to investigate whether or not a tentative trend of increasing variability amplitude with decreasing surface gravity seen for L3–L5.5 dwarfs extends to later-L spectral types and to explore the angular momentum evolution of low-mass objects. We examine each light curve for variability and find a rotation period of 19.39+0.33 ‑0.28 hr and semi-amplitudes of 0.798+0.081 ‑0.083% at 3.6 μm and 1.108+0.093 ‑0.094% at 4.5 μm for WISEA J114724.10‑204021.3. For 2MASS J11193254‑1137466AB, we find a single period of 3.02+0.04 ‑0.03 hr with semi-amplitudes of 0.230+0.036 ‑0.035% at 3.6 μm and 0.453 ± 0.037% at 4.5 μm, which we find is possibly due to the rotation of one component of the binary. Combining our results with 12 other late-type L dwarfs observed with Spitzer from the literature, we find no significant differences between the 3.6 μm amplitudes of low surface gravity and field gravity late-type L brown dwarfs at Spitzer wavelengths, and find tentative evidence (75% confidence) of higher amplitude variability at 4.5 μm for young, late-type Ls. We also find a median rotation period of young brown dwarfs (10–300 Myr) of ∼10 hr, more than twice the value of the median rotation period of field-age brown dwarfs (∼4 hr), a clear signature of brown dwarf rotational evolution.

  3. Multi-wavelength imaging of solar plasma. High-beta disruption model of solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibasaki, Kiyoto

    2007-01-01

    Solar atmosphere is filled with plasma and magnetic field. Activities in the atmosphere are due to plasma instabilities in the magnetic field. To understand the physical mechanisms of activities / instabilities, it is necessary to know the physical conditions of magnetized plasma, such as temperature, density, magnetic field, and their spatial structures and temporal developments. Multi-wavelength imaging is essential for this purpose. Imaging observations of the Sun at microwave, X-ray, EUV and optical ranges are routinely going on. Due to free exchange of original data among solar physics and related field communities, we can easily combine images covering wide range of spectrum. Even under such circumstances, we still do not understand the cause of activities in the solar atmosphere well. The current standard model of solar activities is based on magnetic reconnection: release of stored magnetic energy by reconnection is the cause of solar activities on the Sun such as solar flares. However, recent X-ray, EUV and microwave observations with high spatial and temporal resolution show that dense plasma is involved in activities from the beginning. Based on these observations, I propose a high-beta model of solar activities, which is very similar to high-beta disruptions in magnetically confined fusion experiments. (author)

  4. The W40 region in the gould belt: An embedded cluster and H II region at the junction of filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Kumar, M. S. N. [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 s/n Porto (Portugal); Bachiller, Rafael [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (IGN), Alfonso XII 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Samal, M. R. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille), UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Pirogov, L., E-mail: kshitiz@tifr.res.in [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Uljanov str., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-20

    We present a multiwavelength study of the W40 star-forming region using infrared (IR) observations in the UKIRT JHK bands, Spitzer Infrared Array Camera bands, and Herschel PACS bands, 2.12 μm H{sub 2} narrowband imaging, and radio continuum observations from GMRT (610 and 1280 MHz), in a field of view (FoV) of ∼34' × 40'. Archival Spitzer observations in conjunction with near-IR observations are used to identify 1162 Class II/III and 40 Class I sources in the FoV. The nearest-neighbor stellar surface density analysis shows that the majority of these young stellar objects (YSOs) constitute the embedded cluster centered on the high-mass source IRS 1A South. Some YSOs, predominantly the younger population, are distributed along and trace the filamentary structures at lower stellar surface density. The cluster radius is measured to be 0.44 pc—matching well with the extent of radio emission—with a peak density of 650 pc{sup –2}. The JHK data are used to map the extinction in the region, which is subsequently used to compute the cloud mass—126 M {sub ☉} and 71 M {sub ☉} for the central cluster and the northern IRS 5 region, respectively. H{sub 2} narrowband imaging shows significant emission, which prominently resembles fluorescent emission arising at the borders of dense regions. Radio continuum analysis shows that this region has a blister morphology, with the radio peak coinciding with a protostellar source. Free-free emission spectral energy distribution analysis is used to obtain physical parameters of the overall photoionized region and the IRS 5 sub-region. This multiwavelength scenario is suggestive of star formation having resulted from the merging of multiple filaments to form a hub. Star formation seems to have taken place in two successive epochs, with the first epoch traced by the central cluster and the high-mass star(s)—followed by a second epoch that is spreading into the filaments as uncovered by the Class I sources and even

  5. Spitzer DDT observations of the interstellar comet A/2017 U1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilling, David; Hora, Joe; Mommert, Michael; Carey, Sean; Lisse, Carey; Werner, Mike; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Josh; Fazio, Giovanni; Fernandez, Yan; Harris, Alan; Marengo, Massimo; Mueller, Migo; Roegge, Alissa; Smith, Howard; Smith, Nathan; Weaver, Hal

    2017-11-01

    We propose to observe the newly discovered interstellar comet A/2017 U1 to measure its diameter and albedo. Little is known about this object, which presumably formed in another planetary system. This is the only opportunity *ever* to determine the albedo of this object, which will help us understand how planetary system formation in other systems compares to what occurred in our Solar System. The proposed observations -- requiring 32.6 hours in late November -- are the last telescopic observations that will ever be made of this object. The return from these proposed observations would be tremendous -- characterizing the first ever known object from beyond our Solar System. Because the object is faint and fading, these observations must be made as soon as possible.

  6. THE MID-INFRARED PERIOD-LUMINOSITY RELATIONS FOR THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD CEPHEIDS DERIVED FROM SPITZER ARCHIVAL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Kanbur, Shashi M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the Spitzer IRAC band period-luminosity (P-L) relations for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) Cepheids, by matching the Spitzer archival SAGE-SMC data with the OGLE-III SMC Cepheids. We find that the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm band P-L relations can be better described using two P-L relations with a break period at log(P) = 0.4: this is consistent with similar results at optical wavelengths for SMC P-L relations. The 5.8 μm and 8.0 μm band P-L relations do not extend to sufficiently short periods to enable a similar detection of a slope change at log(P) = 0.4. The slopes of the SMC P-L relations, for log(P) > 0.4, are consistent with their Large Magellanic Cloud counterparts that were derived from a similar data set. They are also in agreement with those obtained from a small sample of Galactic Cepheids with parallax measurements.

  7. The case for a modern multiwavelength, polarization-sensitive LIDAR in orbit around Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Adrian J.; Michaels, Timothy I.; Byrne, Shane; Sun, Wenbo; Titus, Timothy N.; Colaprete, Anthony; Wolff, Michael J.; Videen, Gorden; Grund, Christian J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the scientific case to build a multiple-wavelength, active, near-infrared (NIR) instrument to measure the reflected intensity and polarization characteristics of backscattered radiation from planetary surfaces and atmospheres. We focus on the ability of such an instrument to enhance, potentially revolutionize, our understanding of climate, volatiles and astrobiological potential of modern-day Mars. Such an instrument will address the following three major science themes, which we address in this paper: Science Theme 1. Surface. This would include global, night and day mapping of H 2 O and CO 2 surface ice properties. Science Theme 2. Ice Clouds. This would including unambiguous discrimination and seasonal mapping of CO 2 and H 2 O ice clouds. Science Theme 3. Dust Aerosols. This theme would include multiwavelength polarization measurements to infer dust grain shapes and size distributions. - Highlights: • We present the scientific rationale for a multi-wavelength, polarization sensitive lidar to be placed in orbit around Mars. • Scientific questions focus on the Martian climate and modern-day interactions between surface, ice clouds and dust aerosols. • What we would learn about volatile transport and deposition has implications for past, present and future life on Mars

  8. SECONDARY ECLIPSE PHOTOMETRY OF THE EXOPLANET WASP-5b WITH WARM SPITZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskin, Nathaniel J.; Knutson, Heather A.; Desert, Jean-Michel [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 05844 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Langton, Jonathan [Department of Physics, Principia College, Elsah, IL 62028 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We present secondary eclipse photometry of the extrasolar planet WASP-5b taken in the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands with the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera as part of the extended warm mission. By estimating the depth of the secondary eclipse in these two bands we can place constraints on the planet's atmospheric pressure-temperature profile and chemistry. We measure secondary eclipse depths of 0.197% {+-} 0.028% and 0.237% {+-} 0.024% in the 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m bands, respectively. For the case of a solar-composition atmosphere and chemistry in local thermal equilibrium, our observations are best matched by models showing a hot dayside and, depending on our choice of model, a weak thermal inversion or no inversion at all. We measure a mean offset from the predicted center of eclipse of 3.7 {+-} 1.8 minutes, corresponding to ecos {omega} = 0.0025 {+-} 0.0012 and consistent with a circular orbit. We conclude that the planet's orbit is unlikely to have been perturbed by interactions with another body in the system as claimed by Fukui et al.

  9. Properties of SN1978K from multi-wavelength observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Eric M.; Ryder, Stuart; Staveley-Smith, L.; Colbert, E.; Petre, R.; Dopita, M.; Campbell-Wilson, D.

    2000-06-01

    We update the light curves from the X-ray, optical, and radio bandpasses which we have assembled over the past decade, and present two observations in the ultraviolet using the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph. The HRI X-ray light curve is constant within the errors over the entire observation period which is confirmed by ASCA GIS data obtained in 1993 and 1995. In the UV, we detected the Mg II doublet at 2800 Å and a line at ~3190 Å attributed to He I 3187 at SN1978K's position. The optical light curve is formally constant within the errors, although a slight upward trend may be present. The radio light curve continues its steep decline. The longer time span of our radio observations compared to previous studies shows that SN1978K belongs in the class of highly X-ray and radio-luminous supernovae. The Mg II doublet flux ratio implies the quantity of line optical depth times density is ~1014 cm-3. The emission site must lie in the shocked gas. .

  10. THE ORIGIN OF THE INFRARED EMISSION IN RADIO GALAXIES. II. ANALYSIS OF MID- TO FAR-INFRARED SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF THE 2JY SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicken, D.; Tadhunter, C.; Axon, D.; Morganti, R.; Inskip, K. J.; Holt, J.; Groves, B.; Delgado, R. Gonzalez

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of deep mid- to far-infrared (MFIR) Spitzer photometric observations of the southern 2Jy sample of powerful radio sources (0.05 < z < 0.7), conducting a statistical investigation of the links between radio jet, active galactic nucleus (AGN), starburst activity and MFIR properties. This is part of an ongoing extensive study of powerful radio galaxies that benefits from both complete optical emission line information and a uniquely high detection rate in the far-infrared (far-IR). We find tight correlations between the MFIR and [O III]λ5007 emission luminosities, which are significantly better than those between MFIR and extended radio luminosities, or between radio and [O III] luminosities. Since [O III] is a known indicator of intrinsic AGN power, these correlations confirm AGN illumination of the circumnuclear dust as the primary heating mechanism for the dust producing thermal MFIR emission at both 24 and 70 μm. We demonstrate that AGN heating is energetically feasible, and identify the narrow-line region clouds as the most likely location of the cool, far-IR emitting dust. Starbursts make a major contribution to the heating of the cool dust in only 15%-28% of our targets. We also investigate the orientation dependence of the continuum properties, finding that the broad- and narrow-line objects in our sample with strong emission lines have similar distributions of MFIR luminosities and colors. Therefore our results are entirely consistent with the orientation-based unified schemes for powerful radio galaxies. However, the weak line radio galaxies form a separate class of objects with intrinsically low-luminosity AGNs in which both the optical emission lines and the MFIR continuum are weak.

  11. STAR FORMATION AT 4 < z < 6 FROM THE SPITZER LARGE AREA SURVEY WITH HYPER-SUPRIME-CAM (SPLASH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhardt, Charles L.; Capak, Peter; Masters, Dan; Petric, Andreea [Caltech, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Speagle, Josh S.; Silverman, John D. [Kavli IPMU, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Carollo, Marcella [ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Dunlop, James [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Hashimoto, Yasuhiro [National Taiwan Normal University, No. 88, Sec. 4, Tingzhou Rd., Taipei 11677, Taiwan R.O.C. (China); Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Lin, Lihwai; Lin, Yen-Ting [ASIAA Sinica, AS/NTU. No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Ilbert, Olivier; Le Fevre, Olivier [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, 38 rue Frederic Joliot Curie, F-13388 Marseille (France); Le Floc' h, Emeric [Service d' Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, Dave [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); McCracken, Henry J. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Nagao, Tohru [Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Salvato, Mara [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2014-08-20

    Using the first 50% of data collected for the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam observations on the 1.8 deg{sup 2} Cosmological Evolution Survey we estimate the masses and star formation rates of 3398 M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} star-forming galaxies at 4 < z < 6 with a substantial population up to M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 11.5} M {sub ☉}. We find that the strong correlation between stellar mass and star formation rate seen at lower redshift (the ''main sequence'' of star-forming galaxies) extends to z ∼ 6. The observed relation and scatter is consistent with a continued increase in star formation rate at fixed mass in line with extrapolations from lower-redshift observations. It is difficult to explain this continued correlation, especially for the most massive systems, unless the most massive galaxies are forming stars near their Eddington-limited rate from their first collapse. Furthermore, we find no evidence for moderate quenching at higher masses, indicating quenching either has not occurred prior to z ∼ 6 or else occurs rapidly, so that few galaxies are visible in transition between star-forming and quenched.

  12. DISCOVERY OF BROAD MOLECULAR LINES AND OF SHOCKED MOLECULAR HYDROGEN FROM THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT G357.7+0.3: HHSMT, APEX, SPITZER , AND SOFIA OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho, J. [SETI Institute, 189 N. Bernardo Ave., Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Hewitt, J. W. [CRESST/University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bieging, J. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Reach, W. T. [Universities Space Research Association, SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232, Moffett Field, CA 94034 (United States); Andersen, M. [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Güsten, R., E-mail: jrho@seti.org, E-mail: john.w.hewitt@unf.edu, E-mail: jbieging@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: wreach@sofia.usra.edu, E-mail: manderse@gemini.edu, E-mail: guesten@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hugel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    We report a discovery of shocked gas from the supernova remnant (SNR) G357.7+0.3. Our millimeter and submillimeter observations reveal broad molecular lines of CO(2-1), CO(3-2), CO(4-3), {sup 13}CO (2-1), and {sup 13}CO (3-2), HCO{sup +}, and HCN using the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope, the Arizona 12 m Telescope, APEX, and the MOPRA Telescope. The widths of the broad lines are 15–30 km s{sup −1}, and the detection of such broad lines is unambiguous, dynamic evidence showing that the SNR G357.7+0.3 is interacting with molecular clouds. The broad lines appear in extended regions (>4.′5 × 5′). We also present the detection of shocked H{sub 2} emission in the mid-infrared but lacking ionic lines using Spitzer /IRS observations to map a few-arcminute area. The H{sub 2} excitation diagram shows a best fit with a two-temperature local thermal equilibrium model with the temperatures of ∼200 and 660 K. We observed [C ii] at 158 μ m and high- J CO(11-10) with the German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies (GREAT) on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. The GREAT spectrum of [C ii], a 3 σ detection, shows a broad line profile with a width of 15.7 km{sup −1} that is similar to those of broad CO molecular lines. The line width of [C ii] implies that ionic lines can come from a low-velocity C-shock. Comparison of H{sub 2} emission with shock models shows that a combination of two C-shock models is favored over a combination of C- and J-shocks or a single shock. We estimate the CO density, column density, and temperature using a RADEX model. The best-fit model with n (H{sub 2}) = 1.7 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, N(CO) = 5.6 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}, and T  = 75 K can reproduce the observed millimeter CO brightnesses.

  13. Hot electron transport modelling in fast ignition relevant targets with non-Spitzer resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, D A; Hoarty, D J; Swatton, D J R [Plasma Physics Department, AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Hughes, S J, E-mail: david.chapman@awe.co.u [Computational Physics Group, AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    The simple Lee-More model for electrical resistivity is implemented in the hybrid fast electron transport code THOR. The model is shown to reproduce experimental data across a wide range of temperatures using a small number of parameters. The effect of this model on the heating of simple Al targets by a short-pulse laser is studied and compared to the predictions of the classical Spitzer-Haerm resistivity. The model is then used in simulations of hot electron transport experiments using buried layer targets.

  14. Scanning elastic lidar observations of aerosol transport in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Adrian; Dominguez, Victor; Dobryansky, Selma; Wu, Yonghua; Arend, Mark; Vladutescu, Daniela Viviana; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2018-04-01

    In this study, spatial distribution of aerosols in New York City is observed using a scanning eyesafe 532 nm elastic-backscatter micro-pulse lidar system. Observations show dynamics of the boundary layer and inhomogeneous distribution and transport of aerosols. The data acquired are complemented with simultaneous measurements of particulate matter and wind speed and direction. Furthermore, the system observations are validated by comparing them with a colocated multi-wavelength lidar.

  15. Spitzer Observations Of IC 2118

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Micron All-Sky Survey ( 2MASS ; Skrutskie et al. 2006) photometric data in an effort to segregate YSOs from background galaxies. While one previously known T...Spectral Typea Other names IRAS 04591−0856 05 01 30.2 −08 52 14 . . . HHL 17, G13 2MASS 05020630−0850467 05 02 06.3 −08 50 47 M2 IV . . . RXJ 0502.4−0744b...05 02 20.8 −07 44 10 . . . 2MASS 05022084−0744099 2MASS 05060574−0646151c 05 06 05.7 −06 46 15 G8: (May not be a member of IC 2118; see Kun et al

  16. S-COSMOS: The Spitzer Legacy Survey of the Hubble Space Telescope ACS 2 deg2 COSMOS Field I: Survey Strategy and First Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D. B.; Salvato, M.; Aussel, H.; Ilbert, O.; Scoville, N.; Surace, J. A.; Frayer, D. T.; Sheth, K.; Helou, G.; Brooke, T.; Bhattacharya, B.; Yan, L.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Barnes, J. E.; Blain, A. W.; Calzetti, D.; Capak, P.; Carilli, C.; Carollo, C. M.; Comastri, A.; Daddi, E.; Ellis, R. S.; Elvis, M.; Fall, S. M.; Franceschini, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Hasinger, G.; Impey, C.; Koekemoer, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S.; Liu, M. C.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Renzini, A.; Rich, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Shopbell, P. L.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D. J.; Urry, C. M.; Williams, J. P.

    2007-09-01

    The COSMOS Spitzer survey (S-COSMOS) is a Legacy program (Cycles 2+3) designed to carry out a uniform deep survey of the full 2 deg2 COSMOS field in all seven Spitzer bands (3.6, 4.5, 5.6, 8.0, 24.0, 70.0, and 160.0 μm). This paper describes the survey parameters, mapping strategy, data reduction procedures, achieved sensitivities to date, and the complete data set for future reference. We show that the observed infrared backgrounds in the S-COSMOS field are within 10% of the predicted background levels. The fluctuations in the background at 24 μm have been measured and do not show any significant contribution from cirrus, as expected. In addition, we report on the number of asteroid detections in the low Galactic latitude COSMOS field. We use the Cycle 2 S-COSMOS data to determine preliminary number counts, and compare our results with those from previous Spitzer Legacy surveys (e.g., SWIRE, GOODS). The results from this ``first analysis'' confirm that the S-COSMOS survey will have sufficient sensitivity with IRAC to detect ~L* disks and spheroids out to z>~3, and with MIPS to detect ultraluminous starbursts and AGNs out to z~3 at 24 μm and out to z~1.5-2 at 70 and 160 μm. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555 also based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA; the European Southern Observatory under Large Program 175.A-0839, Chile; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which are operated by AURA under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the National Radio Astronomy

  17. Multiwavelength Thermometry at High Temperature: Why It is Advantageous to Work in the Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, F.; Battuello, M.; Florio, M.

    2014-07-01

    In principle, multiwavelength radiation thermometry allows one to correctly measure the temperature of surfaces of unknown and varying surface emissivity. Unfortunately, none of the practical realizations proposed in the past proved to be sufficiently reliable because of a strong influence of the errors arising from incorrect modeling of the emissivity and of the limited number of operating wavelengths. The use of array detectors allows a high degree of flexibility both in terms of number and spectral position of the working wavelength bands. In the case of applications at high temperatures, i.e., near 2000 C or above, an analysis of the theoretical measuring principles of multiwavelength thermometry, suggests the opportunity of investigating the possible advantages in extending the operating wavelengths toward the ultraviolet region. To this purpose, a simulation program was developed which allows investigation of the effect of different influencing parameters. This paper presents a brief theoretical introduction and practical analysis of the method. The best choices are derived in terms of the different influencing parameters and data relative to the simulation of both real materials and fictitious emissivity curves and have been studied and analyzed with different emissivity models to check the robustness of the method.

  18. The c2d Spitzer spectroscopic survey of ices around low-mass young stellar objects. III. CH4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberg, Karin I.; Boogert, A. C. Adwin; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Evans, Neal J.; Lahuis, Fred; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2008-01-01

    CH4 is proposed to be the starting point of a rich organic chemistry. Solid CH4 abundances have previously been determined mostly toward high-mass star-forming regions. Spitzer IRS now provides a unique opportunity to probe solid CH4 toward low-mass star-forming regions as well. Infrared spectra

  19. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRA OF GALACTIC STELLAR CLUSTERS DETECTED ON SPITZER/GLIMPSE IMAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, Maria; Davies, Ben; Figer, Donald F.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Schuller, Frederic; Menten, Karl M.; Habing, Harm J.; Petr-Gotzens, Monika G.

    2009-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopic observations of massive stars in three stellar clusters located in the direction of the inner Galaxy. One of them, the Quartet, is a new discovery while the other two were previously reported as candidate clusters identified on mid-infrared Spitzer images (GLIMPSE20 and GLIMPSE13). Using medium-resolution (R = 900-1320) H and K spectroscopy, we firmly establish the nature of the brightest stars in these clusters, yielding new identifications of an early WC and two Ofpe/WN9 stars in the Quartet and an early WC star in GLIMPSE20. We combine this information with the available photometric measurements from Two Micron All Sky Survey, to estimate cluster masses, ages, and distances. The presence of several massive stars places the Quartet and GLIMPSE20 among the small sample of known Galactic stellar clusters with masses of a few 10 3 M sun , and ages from 3 to 8 Myr. We estimate a distance of about 3.5 kpc for GLIMPSE20 and 6.0 kpc for Quartet. The large number of giant stars identified in GLIMPSE13 indicates that it is another massive (∼6500 M sun ) cluster, but older, with an age between 30 and 100 Myr, at a distance of about 3 kpc.

  20. Updated Spitzer emission spectroscopy of bright transiting hot Jupiter HD 189733b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, Kamen O. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Grillmair, Carl J., E-mail: todorovk@phys.ethz.ch [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We analyze all existing secondary eclipse time series spectroscopy of hot Jupiter HD 189733b acquired with the now defunct Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) instrument. We describe the novel approaches we develop to remove the systematic effects and extract accurate secondary eclipse depths as a function of wavelength in order to construct the emission spectrum of the exoplanet. We compare our results with a previous study by Grillmair et al. that did not examine all data sets available to us. We are able to confirm the detection of a water feature near 6 μm claimed by Grillmair et al. We compare the planetary emission spectrum to three model families—based on isothermal atmosphere, gray atmosphere, and two realizations of the complex radiative transfer model by Burrows et al., adopted in Grillmair et al.'s study. While we are able to reject the simple isothermal and gray models based on the data at the 97% level just from the IRS data, these rejections hinge on eclipses measured within a relatively narrow wavelength range, between 5.5 and 7 μm. This underscores the need for observational studies with broad wavelength coverage and high spectral resolution, in order to obtain robust information on exoplanet atmospheres.

  1. Multi-wavelength imaging observations of plasma depletions over Kavalur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. S. Sinha

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations of ionospheric plasma depletions were made over Kavalur (12.56° N, 78.8° E, Mag. Lat 4.6° N, India during March–pril 1998 using an all sky optical imaging system operating at 630 nm, 777.4 nm and 557.7 nm. Out of 14 nights of observations, plasma depletions were seen only on 9 nights. Except for 21 March 1998, which was a magnetically disturbed period, all other nights belonged to a magnetically quiet period. Some of the important results obtained from these observations are: (a After the onset of the equatorial spread F (ESF, plasma depletions take typically about 2 hrs 40 min to come to a fully developed state, (b There are three distinct types of plasma depletions: type 1 have an east-west (e–w extent of 250–350 km with an inter-depletion distance (IDD of 125–300 km; Type 2 have an e–w extent of 100–150 km and IDD of 50–150 km; Type 3 have smallest the e–w extent (40–100 km and IDD of 20–60 km, (c Most of the observed plasma depletions (> 82% had their eastward velocity in the range of 25–125 ms–1. Almost stationary plasma depletions (0–25 ms–1 were observed on one night, which was magnetically disturbed. These very slow moving depletions appear to be the result of a modification of the F-region dynamo field due to direct penetration of the electric field and/or changes in the neutral winds induced by the magnetic disturbance, (d On the night of 21/22 March 1998, which was a magnetically disturbed period, plasma depletions could be seen simultaneously in all three observing wavelengths, i.e. in 630 nm, 777.4 nm and 557.7 nm. It is believed that this simultaneous occurrence was due to neutral density modifications as a result of enhanced magnetic activity. (e Well developed brightness patterns were observed for the first time in 777.4 nm images. Earlier, such brightness patterns were observed only in 630 nm and 557.7 nm images. These brightness patterns initially appear as very small regions in the

  2. The evolution of the rest-frame J- and H-band luminosity function of galaxies to z=3.5

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanon, Mauro; Marchesini, Danilo

    2011-01-01

    We present the rest-frame J- and H-band luminosity function (LF) of field galaxies, based on a deep multi-wavelength composite sample from the MUSYC, FIRES and FIREWORKS survey public catalogues, covering a total area of 450 arcmin^2. The availability of flux measurements in the Spitzer IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 um channels allows us to compute absolute magnitudes in the rest-frame J and H bands up to z=3.5 minimizing the dependence on the stellar evolution models. We compute the LF in the fo...

  3. Multi-wavelength Observations of Solar Active Region NOAA 7154

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, M. E.; Nitta, N. V.; Frank. Z. A.; Dame, L.; Suematsu, Y.

    2000-01-01

    We report on observations of a solar active region in May 1992 by the Solar Plasma Diagnostic Experiment (SPDE) in coordination with the Yohkoh satellite (producing soft X-ray images) and ground-based observatories (producing photospheric magnetograms and various filtergrams including those at the CN 3883 A line). The main focus is a study of the physical conditions of hot (T is approximately greater than 3 MK) coronal loops at their foot-points. The coronal part of the loops is fuzzy but what appear to be their footpoints in the transition region down to the photosphere are compact. Despite the morphological similarities, the footpoint emission at 10(exp 5) K is not quantitatively correlated with that at approximately 300 km above the tau (sub 5000) = 1 level, suggesting that the heat transport and therefore magnetic field topology in the intermediate layer is complicated. High resolution imaging observations with continuous temperature coverage are crucially needed.

  4. Effect of Rayleigh-scattering distributed feedback on multiwavelength Raman fiber laser generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A E; Harper, P; Babin, S A; Churkin, D V; Podivilov, E V; Ania-Castanon, J D; Turitsyn, S K

    2011-01-15

    We experimentally demonstrate a Raman fiber laser based on multiple point-action fiber Bragg grating reflectors and distributed feedback via Rayleigh scattering in an ~22-km-long optical fiber. Twenty-two lasing lines with spacing of ~100 GHz (close to International Telecommunication Union grid) in the C band are generated at the watt level. In contrast to the normal cavity with competition between laser lines, the random distributed feedback cavity exhibits highly stable multiwavelength generation with a power-equalized uniform distribution, which is almost independent on power.

  5. A highly embedded protostar in SFO 18: IRAS 05417+0907

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Piyali; Gopinathan, Maheswar; Puravankara, Manoj; Sharma, Neha; Soam, Archana

    2018-04-01

    Bright-rimmed clouds, located at the periphery of relatively evolved HIT regions, are considered to be the sites of star formation possibly triggered by the implosion caused due to the ionizing radiation from nearby massive stars. SFO 18 is one such region showing a bright-rim on the side facing the 0-type star, A Ori. A point source, IRAS 05417+0907, is detected towards the high density region of the cloud. A molecular outflow has been found to be associated with the source. The outflow is directed towards a Herbig-Haro object, HH 175. From the Spitzer and WISE observations, we show evidence of a physical connection between the molecular outflow, IRAS 05417+0907 and the HH object. The spectral energy distribution constructed using multi-wavelength data shows that the point source is most likely a highly embedded protostar.

  6. All-optical multi-wavelength conversion with negative power penalty by a commercial SOA-MZI for WDM wavelength multicast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, N.; Jung, H.D.; Tafur Monroy, I.; Waardt, de H.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    WDM wavelength multicast is demonstrated by all-optical multi-wavelength conversion at 10 Gb/s using a commercial SOA-MZI. We report for the first time simultaneous one-to-four conversion with negative power penalty of 1.84 dB.

  7. Tunable multi-wavelength polymer laser based on a triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wenbin; Pu, Donglin; Qiao, Wen; Wan, Wenqiang; Liu, Yanhua; Ye, Yan; Wu, Shaolong; Chen, Linsen

    2016-01-01

    A continuously tunable multi-wavelength polymer laser based on a triangular-lattice photonic crystal cavity is demonstrated. The triangular-lattice resonator was initially fabricated through multiple interference exposure and was then replicated into a low refractive index polymer via UV-nanoimprinting. The blend of a blue-emitting conjugated polymer and a red-emitting one was used as the gain medium. Three periods in the scalene triangular-lattice structure yield stable tri-wavelength laser emission (625.5 nm, 617.4 nm and 614.3 nm) in six different directions. A uniformly aligned liquid crystal (LC) layer was incorporated into the cavity as the top cladding layer. Upon heating, the orientation of LC molecules and thus the effective refractive index of the lasing mode changes which continuously shifts the lasing wavelength. A maximum tuning range of 12.2 nm was observed for the lasing mode at 625.5 nm. This tunable tri-wavelength polymer laser is simple constructed and cost-effective. It may find application in the fields of biosensors and photonic integrated circuits. (paper)

  8. Multiwavelength mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on the interaction of graphene and fiber-taper evanescent field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Z Q; Wang, J Z; Zhou, M; Xu, H Y; Cai, Z P; Ye, C C

    2012-01-01

    We report on the generation of multiwavelength passively mode-locked pulses in an erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) based on the interaction of graphene and fiber-taper evanescent field. Graphene-polymer nanocomposites in aqueous suspension are trapped by the optical evanescent light and deposited on taper region. The graphene-deposited fiber-taper device not only acts as an excellent saturable absorber for mode-locking, but also induces a polarizing effect to form an artificial birefringent filter for multiwavelength selection. By simultaneously exploiting both functions of this device, four-wavelength continuous-wave mode-locking operation of an EDFL is stably initiated with a pulse width of 8.8 ps and a fundamental repetition rate of 8.034 MHz. This is the first time, to our knowledge, the mode-locked EDFL using such a new geometry of graphene-based tapered-fiber saturable absorber has been demonstrated

  9. THE SPITZER c2d SURVEY OF WEAK-LINE T TAURI STARS. III. THE TRANSITION FROM PRIMORDIAL DISKS TO DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Cieza, Lucas; Koerner, David W.; Case, April; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Chapman, Nicholas; Padgett, Deborah L.; Brooke, Tim; Keller, James R.; MerIn, Bruno; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul; Sargent, Anneila; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Allen, Lori; Blake, Geoff; Mundy, Lee; Myers, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    We present 3.6 to 70 μm Spitzer photometry of 154 weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTSs) in the Chamaeleon, Lupus, Ophiuchus, and Taurus star formation regions, all of which are within 200 pc of the Sun. For a comparative study, we also include 33 classical T Tauri stars which are located in the same star-forming regions. Spitzer sensitivities allow us to robustly detect the photosphere in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8 μm) and the 24 μm MIPS band. In the 70 μm MIPS band, we are able to detect dust emission brighter than roughly 40 times the photosphere. These observations represent the most sensitive WTTSs survey in the mid- to far-infrared to date and reveal the frequency of outer disks (r = 3-50 AU) around WTTSs. The 70 μm photometry for half the c2d WTTSs sample (the on-cloud objects), which were not included in the earlier papers in this series, those of Padgett et al. and Cieza et al., are presented here for the first time. We find a disk frequency of 19% for on-cloud WTTSs, but just 5% for off-cloud WTTSs, similar to the value reported in the earlier works. WTTSs exhibit spectral energy distributions that are quite diverse, spanning the range from optically thick to optically thin disks. Most disks become more tenuous than L disk /L * = 2 x 10 -3 in 2 Myr and more tenuous than L disk /L * = 5 x 10 -4 in 4 Myr.

  10. Connections Between Jet Formation and Multiwavelength Spectral Evolution in Black Hole Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakemci, Emrah; Chun, Yoon-Young; Dincer, Tolga; Buxton, Michelle; Tomsick, John A.; Corbel, Stephane; Kaaret, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Multiwavelength observations are the key to understand conditions of jet formation in Galactic black hole transient (GBHT) systems. By studying radio and optical-infrared evolution of such systems during outburst decays, the compact jet formation can be traced. Comparing this with X-ray spectral and timing evolution we can obtain physical and geometrical conditions for jet formation, and study the contribution of jets to X-ray emission. In this work, first X-ray evolution - jet relation for XTE J1752-223 will be discussed. This source had very good coverage in X-rays, optical, infrared and radio. A long exposure with INTEGRAL also allowed us to study gamma-ray behavior after the jet turns on. We will also show results from the analysis of data from GX 339-4 in the hard state with SUZAKU at low flux levels. The fits to iron line fluorescence emission show that the inner disk radius increases by a factor of greater than 27 with respect to radii in bright states. This result, along with other disk radius measurements in the hard state will be discussed within the context of conditions for launching and sustaining jets.

  11. A MULTIWAVELENGTH CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTO-BROWN-DWARF CANDIDATES IN SERPENS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, B.; Caselli, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Vorobyov, E. [Institute of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Vienna 1180 (Austria); Research Institute of Physics, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don 344090 (Russian Federation); Harsono, D. [Universitt Heidelberg, Zentrum fr Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Tikare, K. [IRAP, BP 44346-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Gonzalez-Martin, O., E-mail: briaz@mpe.mpg.de [Instituto de Radioastronoma y Astrofsica (IRyA), UNAM, Antigua Carretera a Pátzcuaro # 8701, Col. Ex Hacienda San José de la Huerta, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58089 (Mexico)

    2016-11-10

    We present results from a deep submillimeter survey in the Serpens Main and Serpens/G3–G6 clusters, conducted with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA-2) at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We have combined near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy, Herschel PACS far-infrared photometry, submillimeter continuum, and molecular gas line observations, with the aim of conducting a detailed multiwavelength characterization of “proto-brown-dwarf” (proto-BD) candidates in Serpens. We have performed continuum and line radiative transfer modeling and have considered various classification schemes to understand the structure and the evolutionary stage of the system. We have identified four proto-BD candidates, of which the lowest-luminosity source has an L {sub bol} ∼ 0.05 L {sub ☉}. Two of these candidates show characteristics consistent with Stage 0/I systems, while the other two are Stage I-T/Class Flat systems with tenuous envelopes. Our work has also revealed a ∼20% fraction of misidentified Class 0/I/Flat sources that show characteristics consistent with Class II edge-on disk systems. We have set constraints on the mass of the central object using the measured bolometric luminosities and numerical simulations of stellar evolution. Considering the available gas+dust mass reservoir and the current mass of the central source, three of these candidates are likely to evolve into BDs.

  12. Galactic Bulge Giants: Probing Stellar and Galactic Evolution. 1. Catalogue of Spitzer IRAC and MIPS Sources (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttenthaler, Stefan; Stute, Matthias; Sahai, Raghvendra; Blommaert, Joris A.; Schultheis, Mathias; Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Groenewegen, Martin A.; Price, Stephan D.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. We aim at measuring mass-loss rates and the luminosities of a statistically large sample of Galactic bulge stars at several galactocentric radii. The sensitivity of previous infrared surveys of the bulge has been rather limited, thus fundamental questions for late stellar evolution, such as the stage at which substantial mass-loss begins on the red giant branch and its dependence on fundamental stellar properties, remain unanswered. We aim at providing evidence and answers to these questions. Methods. To this end, we observed seven 15 15 arcmin2 fields in the nuclear bulge and its vicinity with unprecedented sensitivity using the IRAC and MIPS imaging instruments on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope. In each of the fields, tens of thousands of point sources were detected. Results. In the first paper based on this data set, we present the observations, data reduction, the final catalogue of sources, and a detailed comparison to previous mid-IR surveys of the Galactic bulge, as well as to theoretical isochrones. We find in general good agreement with other surveys and the isochrones, supporting the high quality of our catalogue.

  13. Multi-wavelength laser based on an arrayed waveguide grating and Sagnac loop reflectors monolithically integrated on InP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, P.; García-Olcina, R.; Doménech, J.D.; Rius, M.; Capmany, J.; Chen, L.R.; Habib, C.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Vries, de T.; Heck, M.J.R.; Augustin, L.M.; Nötzel, R.; Robbins, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-wavelength laser monolithically integrated on InP is presented. A linear laser cavity is built between two integrated Sagnac loop reflectors, with an Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) as frequency selective device, and Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOA) as gain sections. The

  14. SPITZER IRAC SECONDARY ECLIPSE PHOTOMETRY OF THE TRANSITING EXTRASOLAR PLANET HAT-P-1b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, Kamen; Deming, Drake; Harrington, Jospeph; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bowman, William C.; Nymeyer, Sarah; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Bakos, Gaspar A.

    2010-01-01

    We report Spitzer/IRAC photometry of the transiting giant exoplanet HAT-P-1b during its secondary eclipse. This planet lies near the postulated boundary between the pM and pL-class of hot Jupiters, and is important as a test of models for temperature inversions in hot Jupiter atmospheres. We derive eclipse depths for HAT-P-1b, in units of the stellar flux, that are: 0.080% ± 0.008% [3.6 μm], 0.135% ± 0.022% [4.5 μm], 0.203% ± 0.031% [5.8 μm], and 0.238% ± 0.040% [8.0 μm]. These values are best fit using an atmosphere with a modest temperature inversion, intermediate between the archetype inverted atmosphere (HD 209458b) and a model without an inversion. The observations also suggest that this planet is radiating a large fraction of the available stellar irradiance on its dayside, with little available for redistribution by circulation. This planet has sometimes been speculated to be inflated by tidal dissipation, based on its large radius in discovery observations, and on a non-zero orbital eccentricity allowed by the radial velocity data. The timing of the secondary eclipse is very sensitive to orbital eccentricity, and we find that the central phase of the eclipse is 0.4999 ± 0.0005. The difference between the expected and observed phase indicates that the orbit is close to circular, with a 3σ limit of |e cos ω| < 0.002.

  15. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH 3D MODEL OF BD+30°3639

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, M. J.; Kastner, Joel H. [Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester NY 14623 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    We present a 3D multi-wavelength reconstruction of BD+30°3639, one of the best-studied planetary nebulae in the solar neighborhood. BD+30°3639, which hosts a [WR]-type central star, has been imaged at wavelength regimes that span the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio to X-rays. We have used the astrophysical modeling software SHAPE to construct a 3D morpho-kinematic model of BD+30°3639. This reconstruction represents the most complete 3D model of a PN to date from the standpoint of the incorporation of multi-wavelength data. Based on previously published kinematic data in optical emission lines and in lines of CO (radio) and H{sub 2} (near-IR), we were able to reconstruct BD+30's basic velocity components assuming a set of homologous velocity expansion laws combined with collimated flows along the major axis of the nebula. We confirm that the CO “bullets” in the PN lie along an axis that is slightly misaligned with respect to the major axis of the optical nebula, and that these bullets are likely responsible for the disrupted structures of the ionized and H{sub 2}-emitting shells within BD+30. Given the relative geometries and thus dynamical ages of BD+30's main structural components, it is furthermore possible that the same jets that ejected the CO bullets are responsible for the generation of the X-ray-emitting hot bubble within the PN. Comparison of alternative viewing geometries for our 3D reconstruction of BD+30°3639 with imagery of NGC 40 and NGC 6720 suggests a common evolutionary path for these nebulae.

  16. Broadband multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers with an operating wavelength range of 1500–1600 nm generated by four-wave mixing in a dual wavelength Brillouin fiber laser cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Jia, Z. X.; Weng, H. Z.; Li, Z. R.; Yang, Y. D.; Xiao, J. L.; Chen, S. W.; Huang, Y. Z.; Qin, W. P.; Qin, G. S.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate broadband multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers with an operating wavelength range of 1500–1600 nm and a frequency separation of ~9.28 GHz generated by four-wave mixing in a dual wavelength Brillouin fiber laser cavity. By using one continuous-wave laser as the pump source, multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers with an operating wavelength range of 1554–1574 nm were generated via cascaded Brillouin scattering and four-wave mixing. Interestingly, when pumped by two continuous-wave lasers with an appropriate frequency separation, the operating wavelength range of the multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers was increased to 1500–1600 nm due to cavity-enhanced cascaded four-wave mixing among the frequency components generated by two pump lasers in the dual wavelength Brillouin laser cavity.

  17. SPITZER IMAGING OF STRONGLY LENSED HERSCHEL-SELECTED DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Brian; Cooray, Asantha; Calanog, J. A.; Nayyeri, H.; Timmons, N.; Casey, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Da Cunha, E. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn VIC 3122 (Australia); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo C/ Calvo Sotelo, s/n, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Magdis, G. [Department of Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Riechers, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Scott, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); and others

    2015-11-20

    We present the rest-frame optical spectral energy distribution (SED) and stellar masses of six Herschel-selected gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 1 < z < 3. These galaxies were first identified with Herschel/SPIRE imaging data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). The targets were observed with Spitzer/IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Due to the spatial resolution of the IRAC observations at the level of 2″, the lensing features of a background DSFG in the near-infrared are blended with the flux from the foreground lensing galaxy in the IRAC imaging data. We make use of higher resolution Hubble/WFC3 or Keck/NIRC2 Adaptive Optics imaging data to fit light profiles of the foreground lensing galaxy (or galaxies) as a way to model the foreground components, in order to successfully disentangle the foreground lens and background source flux densities in the IRAC images. The flux density measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, once combined with Hubble/WFC3 and Keck/NIRC2 data, provide important constraints on the rest-frame optical SED of the Herschel-selected lensed DSFGs. We model the combined UV- to millimeter-wavelength SEDs to establish the stellar mass, dust mass, star formation rate, visual extinction, and other parameters for each of these Herschel-selected DSFGs. These systems have inferred stellar masses in the range 8 × 10{sup 10}–4 × 10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙} and star formation rates of around 100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. This puts these lensed submillimeter systems well above the SFR-M* relation observed for normal star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The high values of SFR inferred for these systems are consistent with a major merger-driven scenario for star formation.

  18. A SPITZER SURVEY OF PROTOPLANETARY DISK DUST IN THE YOUNG SERPENS CLOUD : HOW DO DUST CHARACTERISTICS EVOLVE WITH TIME?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, Isa; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Merin, Bruno; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Lahuis, Fred; Geers, Vincent C.; Jorgensen, Jes K.; Olofsson, Johan; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Brown, Joanna M.

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) mid-infrared (5-35 mu m) spectra of a complete flux-limited sample (>= 3 mJy at 8 mu m) of young stellar object (YSO) candidates selected on the basis of their infrared colors in the Serpens Molecular Cloud. Spectra of 147 sources are presented and

  19. Constraining Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections through Multi-wavelength Analysis of the Active M Dwarf EQ Peg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosley, M. K.; Osten, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Stellar coronal mass ejections remain experimentally unconstrained, unlike their stellar flare counterparts, which are observed ubiquitously across the electromagnetic spectrum. Low-frequency radio bursts in the form of a type II burst offer the best means of identifying and constraining the rate and properties of stellar CMEs. CME properties can be further improved through the use of proposed solar-stellar scaling relations and multi-wavelength observations of CMEs through the use of type II bursts and the associated flares expected to occur alongside them. We report on 20 hr of observation of the nearby, magnetically active, and well-characterized M dwarf star EQ Peg. The observations are simultaneously observed with the Jansky Very Large Array at their P-band (230–470 MHz) and at the Apache Point observatory in the SDSS u‧ filter (λ = 3557 Å). Dynamic spectra of the P-band data, constructed to search for signals in the frequency-time domains, did not reveal evidence of drifting radio bursts that could be ascribed to type II bursts. Given the sensitivity of our observations, we are able to place limits on the brightness temperature and source size of any bursts that may have occurred. Using solar scaling rations on four observed stellar flares, we predict CME parameters. Given the constraints on coronal density and photospheric field strength, our models suggest that the observed flares would have been insufficient to produce detectable type II bursts at our observed frequencies. We consider the implications of these results, and other recent findings, on stellar mass loss.

  20. NEOSURVEY 1: INITIAL RESULTS FROM THE WARM SPITZER EXPLORATION SCIENCE SURVEY OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECT PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO Box 6010, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Hora, Joseph; Fazio, Giovanni; Smith, Howard [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65, Cambridge, MA 02138-1516 (United States); Chesley, Steve [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emery, Joshua [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tennessee, 306 EPS Building, 1412 Circle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Harris, Alan [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin (Germany); Mueller, Michael [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, PO Box 800, 9700AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-12-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are small solar system bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth’s orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey—a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive a diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check of our mutual results. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. We present here the first results from this new program: fluxes and derived diameters and albedos for 80 NEOs, together with a description of the overall program and approach, including several updates to our thermal model. The largest source of error in our diameter and albedo solutions, which derive from our single-band thermal emission measurements, is uncertainty in η , the beaming parameter used in our thermal modeling; for albedos, improvements in solar system absolute magnitudes would also help significantly. All data and derived diameters and albedos from this entire program are being posted on a publicly accessible Web page at nearearthobjects.nau.edu.

  1. NEOSURVEY 1: INITIAL RESULTS FROM THE WARM SPITZER EXPLORATION SCIENCE SURVEY OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECT PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Fazio, Giovanni; Smith, Howard; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are small solar system bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth’s orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey—a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive a diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check of our mutual results. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. We present here the first results from this new program: fluxes and derived diameters and albedos for 80 NEOs, together with a description of the overall program and approach, including several updates to our thermal model. The largest source of error in our diameter and albedo solutions, which derive from our single-band thermal emission measurements, is uncertainty in η , the beaming parameter used in our thermal modeling; for albedos, improvements in solar system absolute magnitudes would also help significantly. All data and derived diameters and albedos from this entire program are being posted on a publicly accessible Web page at nearearthobjects.nau.edu.

  2. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF TADPOLE GALAXIES IN THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straughn, Amber N.; Eufrasio, Rafael T.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Voyer, Elysse N.; Mello, Duilia de; Soto, Emmaris; Petty, Sara; Kassin, Susan; Ravindranath, Swara

    2015-01-01

    Multiwavelength data are essential in order to provide a complete picture of galaxy evolution and to inform studies of galaxies’ morphological properties across cosmic time. Here we present the results of a multiwavelength investigation of the morphologies of “tadpole” galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.314 < z < 3.175) in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. These galaxies were previously selected from deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) F775W data based on their distinct asymmetric knot-plus-tail morphologies. Here we use deep Wide Field Camera 3 near-infrared imaging in addition to the HST optical data in order to study the rest-frame UV/optical morphologies of these galaxies across the redshift range 0.3 < z < 3.2. This study reveals that the majority of these galaxies do retain their general asymmetric morphology in the rest-frame optical over this redshift range, if not the distinct “tadpole” shape. The average stellar mass of tadpole galaxies is lower than that of field galaxies, with the effect being slightly greater at higher redshift within the errors. Estimated from spectral energy distribution fits, the average age of tadpole galaxies is younger than that of field galaxies in the lower-redshift bin, and the average metallicity is lower (whereas the specific star formation rate for tadpoles is roughly the same as field galaxies across the redshift range probed here). These average effects combined support the conclusion that this subset of galaxies is in an active phase of assembly, either late-stage merging or cold gas accretion causing localized clumpy star formation

  3. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF TADPOLE GALAXIES IN THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straughn, Amber N.; Eufrasio, Rafael T.; Gardner, Jonathan P. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Voyer, Elysse N. [Randstad at Google, 1129 San Antonio Road, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Mello, Duilia de; Soto, Emmaris [Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Petty, Sara [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Kassin, Susan; Ravindranath, Swara [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Multiwavelength data are essential in order to provide a complete picture of galaxy evolution and to inform studies of galaxies’ morphological properties across cosmic time. Here we present the results of a multiwavelength investigation of the morphologies of “tadpole” galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.314 < z < 3.175) in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. These galaxies were previously selected from deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) F775W data based on their distinct asymmetric knot-plus-tail morphologies. Here we use deep Wide Field Camera 3 near-infrared imaging in addition to the HST optical data in order to study the rest-frame UV/optical morphologies of these galaxies across the redshift range 0.3 < z < 3.2. This study reveals that the majority of these galaxies do retain their general asymmetric morphology in the rest-frame optical over this redshift range, if not the distinct “tadpole” shape. The average stellar mass of tadpole galaxies is lower than that of field galaxies, with the effect being slightly greater at higher redshift within the errors. Estimated from spectral energy distribution fits, the average age of tadpole galaxies is younger than that of field galaxies in the lower-redshift bin, and the average metallicity is lower (whereas the specific star formation rate for tadpoles is roughly the same as field galaxies across the redshift range probed here). These average effects combined support the conclusion that this subset of galaxies is in an active phase of assembly, either late-stage merging or cold gas accretion causing localized clumpy star formation.

  4. Unusual Slowly Rotating Brown Dwarfs Discovered through Precision Spitzer Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Aren; Metchev, S.

    2014-01-01

    Many brown dwarfs exhibit low-amplitude rotationally modulated variability due to photospheric inhomogeneities caused by condensate clouds in their atmospheres. The Spitzer Space Telescope 'Weather on Other Worlds' (WoW) project has monitored 44 brown dwarfs at unprecedented photometric precision from space. We present one of several important new results from WoW: the discovery of brown dwarfs with unexpectedly slow rotation periods. While most brown dwarfs have periods of 2-12 hours, we have identified two with well-constrained periods of 13±1 and >20 hours, respectively, and 2 others that show more tentative evidence of longer than 20-hour periods. By serving as almost non-rotating standards, these objects will allow more accurate calibration of spectroscopic measurements of brown dwarfs' projected rotational velocities. The existence of such slowly-rotating objects also constrains models of brown dwarf formation and angular momentum evolution.

  5. NuSTAR observations of heavily obscured quasars at z ~ 0.5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z ≈ 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength...

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VLBA observations of the COSMOS field (Herrera Ruiz+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Ruiz, N.; Middelberg, E.; Deller, A.; Norris, R. P.; Best, P. N.; Brisken, W.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolcic, V.; Delvecchio, I.; Momjian, E.; Bomans, D.; Scoville, N. Z.; Carilli, C.

    2017-07-01

    Wide-field Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations were made of all known radio sources in the COSMOS field at 1.4GHz using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). We also collected complementary multiwavelength information from the literature for the VLBA detected sources. (2 data files).

  7. Multiwavelength Imaging Of YSOs With Disk In South Pillars Of Eta Carina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J. A.; Porras, B. A.

    2013-04-01

    We present multiwavelength imaginery and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 15 Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) with disk components lying on the South Pillars region close to Eta Carina (η Car). The SEDs include IR fluxes from 2MASS, IRAC, MSX, AKARI, and MIPS-24 μm, and 1.1 mm flux from AzTEC camera at the ASTE antenna. Millimeter fluxes help to constrain the number of fitted models, which provide the list of physical parameters for the star, the disk and the envelope. We then compare the parameters of the YSOs and their spatial location within the star forming region.

  8. Switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a tapered in-line Mach–Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuxin; Wang, Xin; Tang, Zijuan; Lou, Shuqin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a tapered in-line Mach–Zehnder interferometer is proposed. The in-line Mach–Zehnder interferometer is fabricated by splicing a large-core fiber between two segments of single mode fibers, in which the first splicing point is tapered and the second splicing point is connected directly. By carefully rotating the polarization controller, switchable single-, dual-, triple- and quad-wavelength lasing outputs can be obtained with a side mode suppression ratio higher than 50 dB. The maximal peak power difference of multi-wavelength lasing is 3.67 dB, demonstrating a good power equalization performance. Furthermore, the proposed laser is proven to be very stable at room temperature. The wavelength shifts and peak power fluctuations are less than 0.02 nm and 1.3 dB over half an hour. In addition, stable quintuple-wavelength lasing with a side mode suppression ratio higher than 50 dB can also be realized when the filter length is changed.

  9. The Structure and Emission Model of the Relativistic Jet in the Quasar 3C 279 Inferred From Radio To High-Energy Gamma-Ray Observations in 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We present time-resolved broad-band observations of the quasar 3C 279 obtained from multiwavelength campaigns conducted during the first two years of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission. While investigating the previously reported gamma-ray/optical flare accompanied by a change in optical polarization, we found that the optical emission appears delayed with respect to the gamma-ray emission by about 10 days. X-ray observations reveal a pair of 'isolated' flares separated. by approx. 90 days, with only weak gamma-ray/optical counterparts. The spectral structure measured by Spitzer reveals a synchrotron component peaking in the mid-infrared band with a sharp break at the far-infrared band during the gamma-ray flare, while the peak appears in the mm/sub-mm band in the low state. Selected spectral energy distributions are fitted with leptonic models including Comptonization of external radiation produced in a dusty torus or the broad-line region. Adopting the interpretation of the polarization swing involving propagation of the emitting region along a curved trajectory, we can explain the evolution of the broad-band spectra during the gamma-ray flaring event by a shift of its location from approx. 1 pc to approx. 4 pc from the central black hole. On the other hand, if the gamma-ray flare is generated instead at sub-pc distance from the central black hole, the far-infrared break can be explained by synchrotron self-absorption. We also model the low spectral state, dominated by the mm/sub-mm peaking synchrotron component, and suggest that the corresponding inverse-Compton component explains the steady X-ray emission.

  10. A Multi-Wavelength Opto-Electronic Patch Sensor to Effectively Detect Physiological Changes against Human Skin Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liangwen; Hu, Sijung; Alzahrani, Abdullah; Alharbi, Samah; Blanos, Panagiotis

    2017-06-21

    Different skin pigments among various ethnic group people have an impact on spectrometric illumination on skin surface. To effectively capture photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals, a multi-wavelength opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS) together with a schematic architecture of electronics were developed to overcome the drawback of present PPG sensor. To perform a better in vivo physiological measurement against skin pigments, optimal illuminations in OEPS, whose wavelength is compatible with a specific skin type, were optimized to capture a reliable physiological sign of heart rate (HR). A protocol was designed to investigate an impact of five skin types in compliance with Von Luschan's chromatic scale. Thirty-three healthy male subjects between the ages of 18 and 41 were involved in the protocol implemented by means of the OEPS system. The results show that there is no significant difference ( p: 0.09, F = 3.0) in five group tests with the skin types across various activities throughout a series of consistent measurements. The outcome of the present study demonstrates that the OEPS, with its multi-wavelength illumination characteristics, could open a path in multiple applications of different ethnic groups with cost-effective health monitoring.

  11. A Multi-Wavelength Opto-Electronic Patch Sensor to Effectively Detect Physiological Changes against Human Skin Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangwen Yan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Different skin pigments among various ethnic group people have an impact on spectrometric illumination on skin surface. To effectively capture photoplethysmographic (PPG signals, a multi-wavelength opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS together with a schematic architecture of electronics were developed to overcome the drawback of present PPG sensor. To perform a better in vivo physiological measurement against skin pigments, optimal illuminations in OEPS, whose wavelength is compatible with a specific skin type, were optimized to capture a reliable physiological sign of heart rate (HR. A protocol was designed to investigate an impact of five skin types in compliance with Von Luschan’s chromatic scale. Thirty-three healthy male subjects between the ages of 18 and 41 were involved in the protocol implemented by means of the OEPS system. The results show that there is no significant difference (p: 0.09, F = 3.0 in five group tests with the skin types across various activities throughout a series of consistent measurements. The outcome of the present study demonstrates that the OEPS, with its multi-wavelength illumination characteristics, could open a path in multiple applications of different ethnic groups with cost-effective health monitoring.

  12. [Investigation of multi-wavelength effect during the measurement of UV-enhanced film's emission spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Ni, Zheng-ji; Zhang, Da-wei; Huang, Yuan-shen; Zhuang, Song-lin

    2009-09-01

    The UV-responsive detector is a dual-use device for civilian and military after the laser and IR-responsive sensors. Typical image sensor coated with a layer of down-convert frequency thin film on it's photosurface to enhance UV response is the key technology of enhancing UV-response. The UV-enhanced thin film was made in the experimental laboratory using the Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphor by spin coating method. Two peaks at 520 and 560 nm respectively in the emission spectrum of the UV-enhanced film were found by SP1702 spectrograph when the excitation wavelength was 260 and 280 nm. The peaks were found in the process of experiment of measuring and counting the quantum efficiency of UV-enhanced thin film. But the light peaks at 520 and 560 nm are not the emission light peaks by the exciting light of 260 and 280 nm. The reason why the light at 520 and 560 nm is not the emission light was analyzed based on the measurement principle of grating spectrograph. The reasons for the multi-wavelength of light overlaps during the measurement of emission spectrum were also discussed. And the equipment used to separate the overlapped different wavelengths was designed, which will be used to resolve the problem of the overlap of multi-wavelength.

  13. MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF TRANSITION REGION PENUMBRAL SUBARCSECOND BRIGHT DOTS USING IRIS AND NST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Na; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haimin [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Yurchyshyn, Vasyl [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314-9672 (United States); Tian, Hui [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Kleint, Lucia, E-mail: na.deng@njit.edu [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstr. 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland)

    2016-10-01

    Using high-resolution transition region (TR) observations taken by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) mission, Tian et al. revealed numerous short-lived subarcsecond bright dots (BDs) above sunspots (mostly located in the penumbrae), which indicate yet unexplained small-scale energy releases. Moreover, whether or not these subarcsecond TR brightenings have any signature in the lower atmosphere and how they are formed are still not fully resolved. This paper presents a multi-wavelength study of the TR penumbral BDs using a coordinated observation of a near disk center sunspot with IRIS and the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. NST provides high-resolution chromospheric and photospheric observations with narrowband H α imaging spectroscopy and broadband TiO images, respectively, complementary to IRIS TR observations. A total of 2692 TR penumbral BDs are identified from a 37 minute time series of IRIS 1400 Å slit-jaw images. Their locations tend to be associated more with downflowing and darker fibrils in the chromosphere, and weakly associated with bright penumbral features in the photosphere. However, temporal evolution analyses of the BDs show that there is no consistent and convincing brightening response in the chromosphere. These results are compatible with a formation mechanism of the TR penumbral BDs by falling plasma from coronal heights along more vertical and dense magnetic loops. The BDs may also be produced by small-scale impulsive magnetic reconnection taking place sufficiently high in the atmosphere that has no energy release in the chromosphere.

  14. Detection of Planetary Emission from the Exoplanet TrES-2 Using Spitzer/IRAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Francis T.; Charbonneau, David; Harrington, Joseph; Madhusudhan, N.; Seager, Sara; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    We present here the results of our observations of TrES-2 using the Infrared Array Camera on Spitzer. We monitored this transiting system during two secondary eclipses, when the planetary emission is blocked by the star. The resulting decrease in flux is 0.127% +/- 0.021%, 0.230% +/- 0.024%, 0.199% +/- 0.054%, and 0.359% +/- 0.060% at 3.6 microns, 4.5 microns, 5.8 microns, and 8.0 microns, respectively. We show that three of these flux contrasts are well fit by a blackbody spectrum with T(sub eff) = 1500 K, as well as by a more detailed model spectrum of a planetary atmosphere. The observed planet-to-star flux ratios in all four lRAC channels can be explained by models with and without a thermal inversion in the atmosphere of TrES-2, although with different atmospheric chemistry. Based on the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium, the chemical composition of the inversion model seems more plausible, making it a more favorable scenario. TrES-2 also falls in the category of highly irradiated planets which have been theoretically predicted to exhibit thermal inversions. However, more observations at infrared and visible wavelengths would be needed to confirm a thermal inversion in this system. Furthermore, we find that the times of the secondary eclipses are consistent with previously published times of transit and the expectation from a circular orbit. This implies that TrES-2 most likely has a circular orbit, and thus does not obtain additional thermal energy from tidal dissipation of a non-zero orbital eccentricity, a proposed explanation for the large radius of this planet. Key words: eclipses - infrared: stars - planetary systems - stars: individual (OSC 03549-02811) - techniques: photometric

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optical & Spitzer photometry in IC 1805 (Sung+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, H.; Bessell, M. S.; Chun, M.-Y.; Yi, J.; Naze, Y.; Lim, B.; Karimov, R.; Rauw, G.; Park, B.-G.; Hur, H.

    2017-06-01

    For a study of the IMF and the star-formation history of the young open cluster IC 1805, we obtained deep wide-field VRI and Hα images of IC 1805 using the CFH12K mosaic CCD camera of the CFHT on 2002 January 6 and 7. We also observed several regions in IC 1805, for a study of the reddening and massive star content, using the SITe 2000x800 CCD (Maidanak 2k CCD) and standard UBVRI filters of the AZT-22 1.5m telescope at the Maidanak Astronomical Observatory in Uzbekistan on 2003 August 18 and 2004 december 25,30. Later, we obtained additional images of the central region of IC 1805 with the Fairchild 486 CCD (SNUCam) and UBVI and Hα filters of the AZT-22 telescope on 2007 October 7 and 2009 January 19. The Spitzer mapping observations were performed on 2006 September 20 under program ID 20052 (PI: S. Wolff). For complete photometry of stars in the CFH12K FOV in 3.6 and 4.5um, we also downloaded and reduced the GLIMPSE360 data (AOR: 38753280, 38763264, 38769408, 38799104, 38798592, 38784512, PI: B. A. Whitney). MIPS scans of IC 1805 were obtained on 2005 August 31 and 2005 September 2 (PID 3234, PI: J. S. Greeves). The Chandra X-ray Observatory Observations of IC 1805 (ObsID: 7033, PI: L. Townley) were made on 2006 November 25. The total exposure time was about 79ks. The properties of 647 X-ray sources were published in Townsley+ (2014,J/ApJS/213/1). We searched for the optical and MIR counterparts of these X-ray sources with a matching radius of up to 1.5". (4 data files).

  16. MULTI-WAVELENGTH POLARIMETRY AND SPECTRAL STUDY OF THE M87 JET DURING 2002–2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avachat, Sayali S.; Perlman, Eric S. [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, 150 W. University Boulevard, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Adams, Steven C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30605 (United States); Cara, Mihai; Sparks, William B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Owen, Frazer [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Array Operations Center, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Georganopoulos, Markos [Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    We present a multi-wavelength polarimetric and spectral study of the M87 jet obtained at sub-arcsecond resolution between 2002 and 2008. The observations include multi-band archival VLA polarimetry data sets along with Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) imaging polarimetry. These observations have better angular resolution than previous work by factors of 2–3 and in addition, allow us to explore the time domain. These observations envelop the huge flare in HST-1 located 0.″86 from the nucleus. The increased resolution enables us to view more structure in each knot, showing several resolved sub-components. We also see apparent helical structure in the polarization vectors in several knots, with polarization vectors turning either clockwise or counterclockwise near the flux maxima in various places as well as showing filamentary undulations. Some of these characteristics are correlated with flux and polarization maxima while others are not. We also examine the total flux and fractional polarization and look for changes in both radio and optical since the observations of Perlman et al. (1999) and test them against various models based on shocks and instabilities in the jet. Our results are broadly consistent with previous spine-sheath models and recollimation shock models; however, they require additional combinations of features to explain the observed complexity, e.g., shearing of magnetic field lines near the jet surface and compression of the toroidal component near shocks. In particular, in many regions we find apparently helical features both in total flux and polarization. We discuss the physical interpretation of these features.

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF NEW GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR CANDIDATES WITH MULTIFREQUENCY ARCHIVAL OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowperthwaite, Philip S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Massaro, F. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); D' Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tosti, G., E-mail: pcowpert@umd.edu [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    Blazars are a highly variable, radio-loud subclass of active galactic nuclei. In order to better understand such objects we must be able to easily identify candidate blazars from the growing population of unidentified sources. Working toward this goal, we attempt to identify new gamma-ray blazar candidates from a sample of 102 previously unidentified sources. These sources are selected from The Astronomer's Telegram and the literature on the basis of non-periodic variability and multi-wavelength behavior. We then attempt to associate these objects to an IR counterpart in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer all-sky survey. We are able to identify 16 candidate sources whose IR colors are consistent with those of the blazar population. Of those, 13 sources have IR colors indicative of being gamma-ray emitting blazar candidates. These sources all possess archival multi-wavelength observations that support their blazar-like nature.

  18. Broad Band Observations of Gravitationally Lensed Blazar during a Gamma-Ray Outburst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Sitarek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available QSO B0218+357 is a gravitationally lensed blazar located at a cosmological redshift of 0.944. In July 2014 a GeV flare was observed by Fermi-LAT, triggering follow-up observations with the MAGIC telescopes at energies above 100 GeV. The MAGIC observations at the expected time of arrival of the trailing component resulted in the first detection of QSO B0218+357 in Very-High-Energy (VHE, >100 GeV gamma rays. We report here the observed multiwavelength emission during the 2014 flare.

  19. THE STABILITY OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS DISKS BASED ON MULTI-WAVELENGTH MODELING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLachlan, J. M.; Wood, K.; Matthews, L. D.; Gallagher, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the structure and composition of the dusty interstellar medium (ISM) of low surface brightness (LSB) disk galaxies, we have used multi-wavelength photometry to construct spectral energy distributions for three low-mass, edge-on LSB galaxies (V rot = 88-105 km s -1 ). We use Monte Carlo radiation transfer codes that include the effects of transiently heated small grains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules to model and interpret the data. We find that, unlike the high surface brightness galaxies previously modeled, the dust disks appear to have scale heights equal to or exceeding their stellar scale heights. This result supports the findings of previous studies that low-mass disk galaxies have dust scale heights comparable to their stellar scale heights and suggests that the cold ISM of low-mass, LSB disk galaxies may be stable against fragmentation and gravitational collapse. This may help to explain the lack of observed dust lanes in edge-on LSB galaxies and their low current star formation rates. Dust masses are found in the range (1.16-2.38) x 10 6 M sun , corresponding to face-on (edge-on), V-band, optical depths 0.034 ∼ face ∼ eq ∼< 1.99).

  20. On-line monitoring of fermentation processes using multi-wavelength fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odman, Peter; Petersen, Nanna; Johansen, Claus Lindvald

    2007-01-01

    . The model system considered in this work is the antibiotic production by Streptomyces coelicolor, a filamentous bacterium. In addition to predicting concentrations of biomass in the fermentation broth, the data allowed detection of different physiological states, i.e. growth phase and phosphate limitation......Fermentation processes often suffer from a lack of real-time methods for on-line determination of variables like the concentrations of nutrients and products. This work aims at investigating the possibilities of implementing an on-line fermentation monitoring system based on multi......-wavelength fluorescence (MWF). This type of sensor has previously showed promising accuracy and selectivity for in situ monitoring of cell mass and certain metabolites in bioreactors (Lantz et al., 2006). The sensor generates multivariate data outputs, which necessitate chemometric modeling for signal interpretation...

  1. A multiwavelength study of Swift GRB 060111B constraining the origin of its prompt optical emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratta, G.; Pozanenko, A.; Atteia, J.-L.; Klotz, A.; Basa, S.; Gendre, B.; Verrecchia, F.; Boër, M.; Cutini, S.; Henze, M.; Holland, S.; Ibrahimov, M.; Ienna, F.; Khamitov, I.; Klose, S.; Rumyantsev, V.; Biryukov, V.; Sharapov, D.; Vachier, F.; Arnouts, S.; Perley, D. A.

    2009-09-01

    Context: The detection of bright optical emission measured with good temporal resolution during the prompt phase of GRB 060111Bmakes this GRB a rare event that is especially useful for constraining theories of the prompt emission. Aims: For this reason an extended multi-wavelength campaign was performed to further constrain the physical interpretation of the observations. Methods: In this work, we present the results obtained from our multi-wavelength campaign, as well as from the public Swift/BAT, XRT, and UVOT data. Results: We identified the host galaxy at R˜25 mag from deep R-band exposures taken 5 months after the trigger. Its featureless spectrum and brightness, as well as the non-detection of any associated supernova 16 days after the trigger, enabled us to constrain the distance scale of GRB 060111B11 within 0.4≤ z ≤3 in the most conservative case. The host galaxy spectral continuum is best fit with a redshift of z˜2, and other independent estimates converge to z˜1-2. From the analysis of the early afterglow SED, we find that non-negligible host galaxy dust extinction, in addition to the Galactic one, affects the observed flux in the optical regime. The extinction-corrected optical-to-gamma-ray SED during the prompt emission shows a flux density ratio Fγ/F_opt=10-2-10-4 with spectral index βγ,opt > βγ, strongly suggesting a separate origin of the optical and gamma-ray components. This result is supported by the lack of correlated behavior in the prompt emission light curves observed in the two energy domains. The temporal properties of the prompt optical emission observed during GRB 060111B11 and their similarities to other rapidly-observed events favor interpretation of this optical light as radiation from the reverse shock. Observations are in good agreement with theoretical expectations for a thick shell limit in slow cooling regime. The expected peak flux is consistent with the observed one corrected for the host extinction, likely

  2. Ground-based multiwavelength observations of comet 103P/Hartley 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicquel, A.; Villanueva, G. L.; Cordiner, M. A.; Milam, S. N.; Charnley, S. B.; Remijan, A. J.; Coulson, I. M.; Chuang, Y.-L.; Kuan, Y.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The Jupiter-family comet 103P/Hartley 2 (103P) was the target of the NASA EPOXI mission. In support of this mission, we conducted observations from radio to submillimeter wavelengths of comet 103P in the three weeks preceding the spacecraft rendezvous on UT 2010 November 4.58. This time period included the passage at perihelion and the closest approach of the comet to the Earth. Here, we report detections of HCN, H 2 CO, CS, and OH and upper limits for HNC and DCN toward 103P using the Arizona Radio Observatory Kitt Peak 12 m telescope (ARO 12 m) and submillimeter telescope (SMT), the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), and the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The water production rate, Q H 2 O = (0.67-1.07) × 10 28 s –1 , was determined from the GBT OH data. From the average abundance ratios of HCN and H 2 CO relative to water (0.13 ± 0.03% and 0.14 ± 0.03%, respectively), we conclude that H 2 CO is depleted and HCN is normal with respect to typically observed cometary mixing ratios. However, the abundance ratio of HCN with water shows a large diversity with time. Using the JCMT data, we measured an upper limit for the DCN/HCN ratio <0.01. Consecutive observations of ortho-H 2 CO and para-H 2 CO on November 2 (from data obtained at the JCMT) allowed us to derive an ortho:para ratio (OPR) of ≈2.12 ± 0.59 (1σ), corresponding to T spin > 8 K (2σ).

  3. Ground-based multiwavelength observations of comet 103P/Hartley 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gicquel, A.; Villanueva, G. L.; Cordiner, M. A. [Catholic University of America, Physics Department, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC (United States); Milam, S. N.; Charnley, S. B. [Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Remijan, A. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Coulson, I. M. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North A' ohoku Place University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Chuang, Y.-L.; Kuan, Y.-J., E-mail: adeline.gicquel@nasa.gov, E-mail: stefanie.n.milam@nasa.gov, E-mail: geronimo.l.villanueva@nasa.gov, E-mail: steven.b.charnley@nasa.gov, E-mail: martin.a.cordiner@nasa.gov, E-mail: aremijan@nrao.edu, E-mail: i.coulson@jach.hawaii.edu, E-mail: ylchuang@std.ntnu.edu.tz, E-mail: kuan@ntnu.edu.tw [National Taiwan Normal University, 88 Sec. 4 Ting-Chou Road, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-10

    The Jupiter-family comet 103P/Hartley 2 (103P) was the target of the NASA EPOXI mission. In support of this mission, we conducted observations from radio to submillimeter wavelengths of comet 103P in the three weeks preceding the spacecraft rendezvous on UT 2010 November 4.58. This time period included the passage at perihelion and the closest approach of the comet to the Earth. Here, we report detections of HCN, H{sub 2}CO, CS, and OH and upper limits for HNC and DCN toward 103P using the Arizona Radio Observatory Kitt Peak 12 m telescope (ARO 12 m) and submillimeter telescope (SMT), the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), and the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The water production rate, Q{sub H{sub 2O}} = (0.67-1.07) × 10{sup 28} s{sup –1}, was determined from the GBT OH data. From the average abundance ratios of HCN and H{sub 2}CO relative to water (0.13 ± 0.03% and 0.14 ± 0.03%, respectively), we conclude that H{sub 2}CO is depleted and HCN is normal with respect to typically observed cometary mixing ratios. However, the abundance ratio of HCN with water shows a large diversity with time. Using the JCMT data, we measured an upper limit for the DCN/HCN ratio <0.01. Consecutive observations of ortho-H{sub 2}CO and para-H{sub 2}CO on November 2 (from data obtained at the JCMT) allowed us to derive an ortho:para ratio (OPR) of ≈2.12 ± 0.59 (1σ), corresponding to T {sub spin} > 8 K (2σ).

  4. Multi-wavelength metal-dielectric nonpolarizing beam splitters in the near-infrared range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Shi, Jin; Ping Wang, Zheng; Ying Guan, Chun; Yang, Jun; Shu Fu, Tian

    2011-04-01

    A 21-layer multi-wavelength metal-dielectric nonpolarizing cube beam splitter was designed by use of an optimization method and theoretically investigated in the near-infrared range. The angular dependence of the reflectance and differential phases induced by reflection and transmission were presented. The simulation results revealed that the non-polarizing effect could be achieved for both the amplitude and phase characteristics at 1310 and 1550 nm. The differences between the simulated and the target reflectance of 50% are less than 2% and differential phases are less than 5°in the range 1300-1320 nm and 1540-1550 nm for both p- and s-components.

  5. A multiwavelength and multiscale study of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies in the local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén

    2014-10-01

    This dissertation deals with the multiwavelength study of luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs, respectively) in the local Universe under different spatial scales. The work is focused on the properties of massive starbursts, the contribution of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the interplay between both phenomena. The study of local (U)LIRGs is the best scenario where to understand the properties of these objects at cosmological distances, where their luminosity contribution dominates the cosmic infrared background. Our first approach to the study of (U)LIRGs consisted of a spectral line study in the millimeter range, obtained with the IRAM 30m radio-telescope in Pico Veleta, Granada of a subsample of 56 (U)LIRGs from the GOALS project sample. We observed and analyzed spectra of several molecular features, focusing in the study of carbon monoxide (CO), a well-known tracer of cold molecular gas. We explored the relation between them as well as the properties of molecular gas. Besides of the sample characterization, we confirmed the increase of the isotopic ratio 12CO/13CO with the dust temperature, explained by the 12CO optical depth decreasing with temperature. We have also studied the kinematics and gas distribution using the spectral profiles of several molecular transitions. In a second part of this thesis, we analyzed the central kiloparsec region of a sample of 12 LIRGs, stressing the importance of the multiwavelength approach, aimed at deriving the star formation processes of these galaxies, as well as to study the contribution of the putative AGN to the bolometric luminosity in our sample. For one of these LIRGs, NGC1614, we performed a deep multiwavelength study, including data from radio, infrared, optical and X-rays. These data allowed us to establish that the the IR emission in the circumnuclear region is completely dominated by a powerful starburst and, in case it hosts an AGN, its contribution is irrelevant. We also performed

  6. The Observing Time Distribution in Major Groundbased Observatories - a Complex Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breysacher, J.

    The aim of the present paper is to give, first, a brief description of the different steps related to the general procedure of telescope time allocation at the European Southern Observatory, and then, a detailed review of the various constraints one has to take into account when preparing the final observing schedule on the various telescopes installed at La Silla. A succinct discussion will be given of how, in the future, remote control observing may facilitate the coordination of multiwavelength investigations.

  7. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY ON THE FATE OF IONIZING RADIATION IN LOCAL STARBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanish, D. J.; Oey, M. S.; Rigby, J. R.; Lee, J. C.; De Mello, D. F.

    2010-01-01

    The fate of ionizing radiation is vital for understanding cosmic ionization, energy budgets in the interstellar and intergalactic medium, and star formation rate indicators. The low observed escape fractions of ionizing radiation have not been adequately explained, and there is evidence that some starbursts have high escape fractions. We examine the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a sample of local star-forming galaxies, containing 13 local starburst galaxies and 10 of their ordinary star-forming counterparts, to determine if there exist significant differences in the fate of ionizing radiation in these galaxies. We find that the galaxy-to-galaxy variations in the SEDs are much larger than any systematic differences between starbursts and non-starbursts. For example, we find no significant differences in the total absorption of ionizing radiation by dust, traced by the 24 μm, 70 μm, and 160 μm MIPS bands of the Spitzer Space Telescope, although the dust in starburst galaxies appears to be hotter than that of non-starburst galaxies. We also observe no excess ultraviolet flux in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer bands that could indicate a high escape fraction of ionizing photons in starburst galaxies. The small Hα fractions of the diffuse, warm ionized medium (WIM) in starburst galaxies are apparently due to temporarily boosted Hα luminosity within the star-forming regions themselves, with an independent, constant WIM luminosity. This independence of the WIM and starburst luminosities contrasts with WIM behavior in non-starburst galaxies and underscores our poor understanding of radiation transfer in both ordinary and starburst galaxies.

  8. Multiwavelength interferometry system for the Orion laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, S; Gumbrell, E T; Robinson, T S; Lowe, H F; Giltrap, S; Price, C J; Stuart, N H; Kemshall, P; Fyrth, J; Luis, J; Skidmore, J W; Smith, R A

    2015-12-20

    We report on the design and testing of a multiwavelength interferometry system for the Orion laser facility based upon the use of self-path matching Wollaston prisms. The use of UV corrected achromatic optics allows for both easy alignment with an eye-safe light source and small (∼ millimeter) offsets to the focal lengths between different operational wavelengths. Interferograms are demonstrated at wavelengths corresponding to first, second, and fourth harmonics of a 1054 nm Nd:glass probe beam. Example data confirms the broadband achromatic capability of the imaging system with operation from the UV (263 nm) to visible (527 nm) and demonstrates that features as small as 5 μm can be resolved for object sizes of 15 by 10 mm. Results are also shown for an off-harmonic wavelength that will underpin a future capability. The primary optics package is accommodated inside the footprint of a ten-inch manipulator to allow the system to be deployed from a multitude of viewing angles inside the 4 m diameter Orion target chamber.

  9. X-ray/ultraviolet observing campaign of the Markarian 279 active galactic nucleus outflow: a close look at the absorbing/emitting gas with Chandra-LETGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costantini, E.; Kaastra, J.S.; Arav, N.; Kriss, G.A.; Steenbrugge, K.C.; Gabel, J.R.; Verbunt, F.W.M.; Behar, E.; Gaskell, C. Martin; Korista, K.T.; Proga, D.; Kim Quijano, J.; Scott, J.E.; Klimek, E.S.; Hedrick, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    We present a Chandra-LETGS observation of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 279. This observation was simultaneous with HST-STIS and FUSE observations, in the context of a multiwavelength study of this source. The data also allow for the presence of intermediate ionization components. The distribution of the

  10. Multi-wavelengths digital holography: reconstruction, synthesis and display of holograms using adaptive transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmolo, P; Finizio, A; Paturzo, M; Ferraro, P; Javidi, B

    2012-05-01

    A method based on spatial transformations of multiwavelength digital holograms and the correlation matching of their numerical reconstructions is proposed, with the aim to improve superimposition of different color reconstructed images. This method is based on an adaptive affine transform of the hologram that permits management of the physical parameters of numerical reconstruction. In addition, we present a procedure to synthesize a single digital hologram in which three different colors are multiplexed. The optical reconstruction of the synthetic hologram by a spatial light modulator at one wavelength allows us to display all color features of the object, avoiding loss of details.

  11. Multi-wavelength study of PPDs using an OPO tunable pulse laser microscope system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Koji; Nakamura, Isamu

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a new pulsed laser microscope system whose wavelength is continuously tunable from 410 nm to 2200 nm by using an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser system. The laser spot can be focused to ∼2μm diameter, small enough to measure pixel-by-pixel performance of PPDs (pixelated photon detectors). Using multi-wavelength laser light, we plan to probe PPDs at various depths, thanks to their different penetration lengths in the silicon layer. In this paper, details of the commissioning of the laser microscope system and pilot measurements on a PPD at several wavelengths will be presented.

  12. Multi-wavelength study of PPDs using an OPO tunable pulse laser microscope system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Koji, E-mail: koji.yoshimura@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nakamura, Isamu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2012-12-11

    We have developed a new pulsed laser microscope system whose wavelength is continuously tunable from 410 nm to 2200 nm by using an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser system. The laser spot can be focused to {approx}2{mu}m diameter, small enough to measure pixel-by-pixel performance of PPDs (pixelated photon detectors). Using multi-wavelength laser light, we plan to probe PPDs at various depths, thanks to their different penetration lengths in the silicon layer. In this paper, details of the commissioning of the laser microscope system and pilot measurements on a PPD at several wavelengths will be presented.

  13. ULTRAVIOLET+INFRARED STAR FORMATION RATES: HICKSON COMPACT GROUPS WITH SWIFT AND SPITZER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzanavaris, P.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Immler, S.; Gallagher, S. C.; Johnson, K. E.; Reines, A. E.; Gronwall, C.; Hoversten, E.; Charlton, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    We present Swift UVOT ultraviolet (UV; 1600-3000 A) data with complete three-band UV photometry for a sample of 41 galaxies in 11 nearby ( -1 ) Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) of galaxies. We use UVOT uvw2-band (2000 A) photometry to estimate the dust-unobscured component, SFR UV , of the total star formation rate, SFR TOTAL . We use Spitzer MIPS 24 μm photometry to estimate SFR IR , the component of SFR TOTAL that suffers dust extinction in the UV and is re-emitted in the IR. By combining the two components, we obtain SFR TOTAL estimates for all HCG galaxies. We obtain total stellar mass, M * , estimates by means of Two Micron All Sky Survey K s -band luminosities, and use them to calculate specific star formation rates, SSFR ≡ SFR TOTAL /M * . SSFR values show a clear and significant bimodality, with a gap between low (∼ -11 yr -1 ) and high-SSFR (∼>1.2 x 10 -10 yr -1 ) systems. We compare this bimodality to the previously discovered bimodality in α IRAC , the MIR activity index from a power-law fit to the Spitzer IRAC 4.5-8 μm data for these galaxies. We find that all galaxies with α IRAC ≤ 0 ( >0) are in the high- (low-) SSFR locus, as expected if high levels of star-forming activity power MIR emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and a hot dust continuum. Consistent with this finding, all elliptical/S0 galaxies are in the low-SSFR locus, while 22 out of 24 spirals/irregulars are in the high-SSFR locus, with two borderline cases. We further divide our sample into three subsamples (I, II, and III) according to decreasing H I richness of the parent galaxy group to which a galaxy belongs. Consistent with the SSFR and α IRAC bimodality, 12 out of 15 type I (11 out of 12 type III) galaxies are in the high- (low-) SSFR locus, while type II galaxies span almost the full range of SSFR values. We use the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey (SINGS) to construct a comparison subsample of galaxies that (1) match HCG galaxies in J-band total

  14. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSION IN SPITZER/IRS MAPS. I. CATALOG AND SIMPLE DIAGNOSTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, D. J.; Choi, W. D.-Y.; Moya, L. G. V.; Otaguro, J. N.; Sorkhou, S.; Peeters, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Allamandola, L. J. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Tielens, A. G. G. M., E-mail: dstock4@uwo.ca [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA (Netherlands)

    2016-03-01

    We present a sample of resolved galactic H ii regions and photodissociation regions (PDRs) observed with the Spitzer infrared spectrograph in spectral mapping mode between the wavelengths of 5–15 μm. For each object we have spectral maps at a spatial resolution of ∼4″ in which we have measured all of the mid-infrared emission and absorption features. These include the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission bands, primarily at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2, and 12.7 μm, as well as the spectral emission lines of neon and sulfur and the absorption band caused by silicate dust at around 9.8 μm. In this work we describe the data in detail, including the data reduction and measurement strategies, and subsequently present the PAH emission band intensity correlations for each of the objects and the sample as a whole. We find that there are distinct differences between the sources in the sample, with two main groups: the first comprising the H ii regions and the second the reflection nebulae (RNe). Three sources—the reflection nebula NGC 7023, the Horsehead nebula PDR (an interface between the H ii region IC 434 and the Orion B molecular cloud), and M17—resist this categorization, with the Horsehead PDR points mimicking the RNe and the NGC 7023 fluxes displaying a unique bifurcated appearance in our correlation plots. These discrepancies seem to be due to the very low radiation field experienced by the Horsehead PDR and the very clean separation between the PDR environment and a diffuse environment in the NGC 7023 observations.

  15. COLORS OF ELLIPTICALS FROM GALEX TO SPITZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schombert, James M., E-mail: jschombe@uoregon.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Multi-color photometry is presented for a large sample of local ellipticals selected by morphology and isolation. The sample uses data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ( GALEX ), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), and Spitzer to cover the filters NUV , ugri , JHK and 3.6 μ m. Various two-color diagrams, using the half-light aperture defined in the 2MASS J filter, are very coherent from color to color, meaning that galaxies defined to be red in one color are always red in other colors. Comparison to globular cluster colors demonstrates that ellipticals are not composed of a single age, single metallicity (e.g., [Fe/H]) stellar population, but require a multi-metallicity model using a chemical enrichment scenario. Such a model is sufficient to explain two-color diagrams and the color–magnitude relations for all colors using only metallicity as a variable on a solely 12 Gyr stellar population with no evidence of stars younger than 10 Gyr. The [Fe/H] values that match galaxy colors range from −0.5 to +0.4, much higher (and older) than population characteristics deduced from Lick/IDS line-strength system studies, indicating an inconsistency between galaxy colors and line indices values for reasons unknown. The NUV colors have unusual behavior, signaling the rise and fall of the UV upturn with elliptical luminosity. Models with blue horizontal branch tracks can reproduce this behavior, indicating the UV upturn is strictly a metallicity effect.

  16. COLORS OF ELLIPTICALS FROM GALEX TO SPITZER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schombert, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-color photometry is presented for a large sample of local ellipticals selected by morphology and isolation. The sample uses data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ( GALEX ), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), and Spitzer to cover the filters NUV , ugri , JHK and 3.6 μ m. Various two-color diagrams, using the half-light aperture defined in the 2MASS J filter, are very coherent from color to color, meaning that galaxies defined to be red in one color are always red in other colors. Comparison to globular cluster colors demonstrates that ellipticals are not composed of a single age, single metallicity (e.g., [Fe/H]) stellar population, but require a multi-metallicity model using a chemical enrichment scenario. Such a model is sufficient to explain two-color diagrams and the color–magnitude relations for all colors using only metallicity as a variable on a solely 12 Gyr stellar population with no evidence of stars younger than 10 Gyr. The [Fe/H] values that match galaxy colors range from −0.5 to +0.4, much higher (and older) than population characteristics deduced from Lick/IDS line-strength system studies, indicating an inconsistency between galaxy colors and line indices values for reasons unknown. The NUV colors have unusual behavior, signaling the rise and fall of the UV upturn with elliptical luminosity. Models with blue horizontal branch tracks can reproduce this behavior, indicating the UV upturn is strictly a metallicity effect.

  17. A Large Catalog of Multiwavelength GRB Afterglows. I. Color Evolution and Its Physical Implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Wang, Yu; Shao, Lang; Wu, Xue-Feng; Huang, Yong-Feng; Zhang, Bing; Ryde, Felix; Yu, Hoi-Fung

    2018-02-01

    The spectrum of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows can be studied with color indices. Here, we present a large comprehensive catalog of 70 GRBs with multiwavelength optical transient data on which we perform a systematic study to find the temporal evolution of color indices. We categorize them into two samples based on how well the color indices are evaluated. The Golden sample includes 25 bursts mostly observed by GROND, and the Silver sample includes 45 bursts observed by other telescopes. For the Golden sample, we find that 96% of the color indices do not vary over time. However, the color indices do vary during short periods in most bursts. The observed variations are consistent with effects of (i) the cooling frequency crossing the studied energy bands in a wind medium (43%) and in a constant-density medium (30%), (ii) early dust extinction (12%), (iii) transition from reverse-shock to forward-shock emission (5%), or (iv) an emergent SN emission (10%). We also study the evolutionary properties of the mean color indices for different emission episodes. We find that 86% of the color indices in the 70 bursts show constancy between consecutive ones. The color index variations occur mainly during the late GRB–SN bump, the flare, and early reverse-shock emission components. We further perform a statistical analysis of various observational properties and model parameters (spectral index {β }o{CI}, electron spectral indices p CI, etc.) using color indices. Overall, we conclude that ∼90% of colors are constant in time and can be accounted for by the simplest external forward-shock model, while the varying color indices call for more detailed modeling.

  18. Spitzer IRS (8-30 micron) Spectra of Basaltic Asteroids 1459 Magnya and 956 Elisa: Mineralogy and Thermal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, J. P.; Moskovitz, N. A.

    2009-01-01

    We report preliminary results from Spitzer IRS (Infrared Spectrograph) spectroscopy of 956 Elisa, 1459 Magnya, and other small basaltic asteroids with the Spitzer IRS. Program targets include members of the dynamical family of the unique large differentiated asteroid 4 Vesta ("Vestoids"), several outer-main-belt basaltic asteroids whose orbits exclude them from originating on 4 Vesta, and the basaltic near-Earth asteroid 4055 Magellan. The preliminary thermal model (STM) fit to the 5--35 micron spectrum of 956 Elisa gives a radius of 5.4 +/- 0.3 km and a subsolar- point temperature of 282.2 +/- 0.5 K. This temperature corresponds to eta approximately equals 1.06 +/- 0.02, which is substantially higher than the eta approximately equals 0.756 characteristic of large main-belt asteroids. Unlike 4 Vesta and other large asteroids, therefore, 956 Elisa has significant thermal inertia in its surface layer. The wavelength of the Christiansen feature (emissivity maximum near 9 micron), the positions and shapes of the narrow maxima (10 micron, 11 micron) within the broad 9--14 micron silicate band, and the 19--20 micron minimum are consistent with features found in the laboratory spectra of diogenites and of low-Ca pyroxenes of similar composition (Wo<5, En50-En75).

  19. Dynamic Young Stars and their Disks: A Temporal View of NGC 2264 with Spitzer and CoRoT*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody Ann Marie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability is a signature feature of young stars. Among the well known light curve phenomena are periodic variations attributed to surface spots and irregular changes associated with accretion or circumstellar disk material. While decades of photometric monitoring have provided a framework for classifying young star variability, we still know surprisingly little about its underlying mechanisms and connections to the surrounding disks. In the past few years, dedicated photometric monitoring campaigns from the ground and space have revolutionized our view of young stars in the time domain. We present a selection of optical and infrared time series from several recent campaigns, highlighting the Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC 2264 (“CSI 2264”– a joint30-day effort with the Spitzer, CoRoT, and MOST telescopes. The extraordinary photometric precision, high cadence, and long time baseline of these observations is now enabling correlation of variability properties at very different wavelengths, corresponding to locations from the stellar surface to the inner 0.1 AU of the disk. We present some results of the CSI 2264 program, including new classes of optical/infrared behavior. Further efforts to tie observed variability features to physical models will provide insights into the inner disk environment at a time when planet formation may be underway.

  20. The All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey(AEGIS) Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.; Guhathakurta, P.; Konidaris, N.P.; Newman, J.A.; Ashby, M.L.N.; Biggs, A.D.; Barmby, P.; Bundy, K.; Chapman, S.C.; Coil,A.L.; Conselice, C.J.; Cooper, M.C.; Croton, D.J.; Eisenhardt, P.R.M.; Ellis, R.S.; Faber, S.M.; Fang, T.; Fazio, G.G.; Georgakakis, A.; Gerke,B.F.; Goss, W.M.; Gwyn, S.; Harker, J.; Hopkins, A.M.; Huang, J.-S.; Ivison, R.J.; Kassin, S.A.; Kirby, E.N.; Koekemoer, A.M.; Koo, D.C.; Laird, E.S.; Le Floc' h, E.; Lin, L.; Lotz, J.M.; Marshall, P.J.; Martin,D.C.; Metevier, A.J.; Moustakas, L.A.; Nandra, K.; Noeske, K.G.; Papovich, C.; Phillips, A.C.; Rich,R. M.; Rieke, G.H.; Rigopoulou, D.; Salim, S.; Schiminovich, D.; Simard, L.; Smail, I.; Small,T.A.; Weiner,B.J.; Willmer, C.N.A.; Willner, S.P.; Wilson, G.; Wright, E.L.; Yan, R.

    2006-10-13

    In this the first of a series of Letters, we present a description of the panchromatic data sets that have been acquired in the Extended Groth Strip region of the sky. Our survey, the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS), is intended to study the physical properties and evolutionary processes of galaxies at z{approx}1. It includes the following deep, wide-field imaging data sets: Chandra/ACIS X-ray (0.5-10 keV), GALEX ultraviolet (1200-2500 Angstroms), CFHT/MegaCam Legacy Survey optical (3600-9000 Angstroms), CFHT/CFH12K optical (4500-9000 Angstroms), Hubble Space Telescope/ACS optical (4400-8500 Angstroms), Palomar/WIRC near-infrared (1.2-2.2 {micro}m), Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared (3.6-8.0 {micro}m), Spitzer/MIPS far-infrared (24-70 {micro}m), and VLA radio continuum (6-20 cm). In addition, this region of the sky has been targeted for extensive spectroscopy using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II 10 m telescope. Our survey is compared to other large multiwavelength surveys in terms of depth and sky coverage.

  1. IRAS 20050+2720: ANATOMY OF A YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Günther, H. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Spitzbart, B.; Forbrich, J.; Wright, N. J.; Bourke, T. L.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Allen, L.; Megeath, S. T.; Pipher, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    IRAS 20050+2720 is young star-forming region at a distance of 700 pc without apparent high-mass stars. We present results of our multi-wavelength study of IRAS 20050+2720 which includes observations by Chandra and Spitzer, and Two Micron All Sky Survey and UBVRI photometry. In total, about 300 young stellar objects (YSOs) in different evolutionary stages are found. We characterize the distribution of YSOs in this region using a minimum spanning tree analysis. We newly identify a second cluster core, which consists mostly of class II objects, about 10' from the center of the cloud. YSOs of earlier evolutionary stages are more clustered than more evolved objects. The X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of IRAS 20050+2720 is roughly lognormal, but steeper than the XLF of the more massive Orion Nebula complex. IRAS 20050+2720 shows a lower N H /A K ratio compared with the diffuse interstellar medium.

  2. IRAS 20050+2720: ANATOMY OF A YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, H. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Spitzbart, B.; Forbrich, J.; Wright, N. J.; Bourke, T. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Allen, L. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Megeath, S. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS-113, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Pipher, J. L., E-mail: hguenther@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, 500 Wilson Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    IRAS 20050+2720 is young star-forming region at a distance of 700 pc without apparent high-mass stars. We present results of our multi-wavelength study of IRAS 20050+2720 which includes observations by Chandra and Spitzer, and Two Micron All Sky Survey and UBVRI photometry. In total, about 300 young stellar objects (YSOs) in different evolutionary stages are found. We characterize the distribution of YSOs in this region using a minimum spanning tree analysis. We newly identify a second cluster core, which consists mostly of class II objects, about 10' from the center of the cloud. YSOs of earlier evolutionary stages are more clustered than more evolved objects. The X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of IRAS 20050+2720 is roughly lognormal, but steeper than the XLF of the more massive Orion Nebula complex. IRAS 20050+2720 shows a lower N{sub H}/A{sub K} ratio compared with the diffuse interstellar medium.

  3. MN48: a new Galactic bona fide luminous blue variable revealed by Spitzer and SALT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazev, A. Y.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Berdnikov, L. N.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we report the results of spectroscopic and photometric observations of the candidate evolved massive star MN48 disclosed via detection of a mid-infrared circular shell around it with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Follow-up optical spectroscopy of MN48 with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) carried out in 2011-2015 revealed significant changes in the spectrum of this star, which are typical of luminous blue variables (LBVs). The LBV status of MN48 was further supported by photometric monitoring which shows that in 2009-2011 this star has brightened by ≈0.9 and 1 mag in the V and Ic bands, respectively, then faded by ≈1.1 and 1.6 mag during the next four years, and apparently started to brighten again recently. The detected changes in the spectrum and brightness of MN48 make this star the 18th known Galactic bona fide LBV and increase the percentage of LBVs associated with circumstellar nebulae to more than 70 per cent. We discuss the possible birth place of MN48 and suggest that this star might have been ejected either from a putative star cluster embedded in the H II region IRAS 16455-4531 or the young massive star cluster Westerlund 1.

  4. Assessment of multi-wavelength pulse photometry for non-invasive dose estimation of circulating drugs and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Pratik; Eklund, Wakako; Sherer, Eric A.; O'Neal, D. Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of multi-wavelength photoplethysmography for the real-time sensing of absorptive and scattering agents in pulsatile blood is discussed. The use of pulsatile signals extracted from trans-illumination of an accessible section of tissue allows us to calculate the concentration of the optically extinctive species in the pulsatile blood. This technology, initially used for pulse oximetry and dye densitometry, can be applied to monitor in vivo concentration and clearance of various absorptive species. Recently, our prototype has been used monitor the concentration of therapeutic gold nanoparticles, antimalarial quinine, and the antifungal agent amphotericin B. The assessment of the optical properties, device specifications, and signal quality for each compound are presented. We observe that this technology can be used to monitor numerous extinctive drug and nano-materials that present features in the 350-1100 nm range. The rationale for using this technology in a clinical setting would be to improve outcomes by real-time pharmacological feedback and/or control at point of care in addition to the elimination of invasive blood draws for collection of data.

  5. Multiwavelength Monitoring of the Enigmatic Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 PMN J0948 0022 in March-July 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A.A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Federal City Coll.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R. /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, T.H.; /Washington U., Seattle; Caliandro, G.A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /Milan Polytechnic /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard /CSST, Baltimore /SISSA, Trieste /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Ecole Polytechnique /Brera Observ. /INFN, Trieste /Bonn, Max Planck Inst., Radioastron. /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; /more authors..

    2012-03-29

    Following the recent discovery of {gamma} rays from the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PMN J0948+0022 (z = 0.5846), we started a multiwavelength campaign from radio to {gamma} rays, which was carried out between the end of 2009 March and the beginning of July. The source displayed activity at all the observed wavelengths: a general decreasing trend from optical to {gamma}-ray frequencies was followed by an increase of radio emission after less than two months from the peak of the {gamma}-ray emission. The largest flux change, about a factor of about 4, occurred in the X-ray band. The smallest was at ultraviolet and near-infrared frequencies, where the rate of the detected photons dropped by a factor 1.6-1.9. At optical wavelengths, where the sampling rate was the highest, it was possible to observe day scale variability, with flux variations up to a factor of about 3. The behavior of PMN J0948+0022 observed in this campaign and the calculated power carried out by its jet in the form of protons, electrons, radiation, and magnetic field are quite similar to that of blazars, specifically of flat-spectrum radio quasars. These results confirm the idea that radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies host relativistic jets with power similar to that of average blazars.

  6. MULTIWAVELENGTH MONITORING OF THE ENIGMATIC NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 PMN J0948+0022 IN 2009 MARCH-JULY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.

    2009-01-01

    Following the recent discovery of γ rays from the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PMN J0948+0022 (z = 0.5846), we started a multiwavelength campaign from radio to γ rays, which was carried out between the end of 2009 March and the beginning of July. The source displayed activity at all the observed wavelengths: a general decreasing trend from optical to γ-ray frequencies was followed by an increase of radio emission after less than two months from the peak of the γ-ray emission. The largest flux change, about a factor of about 4, occurred in the X-ray band. The smallest was at ultraviolet and near-infrared frequencies, where the rate of the detected photons dropped by a factor 1.6-1.9. At optical wavelengths, where the sampling rate was the highest, it was possible to observe day scale variability, with flux variations up to a factor of about 3. The behavior of PMN J0948+0022 observed in this campaign and the calculated power carried out by its jet in the form of protons, electrons, radiation, and magnetic field are quite similar to that of blazars, specifically of flat-spectrum radio quasars. These results confirm the idea that radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies host relativistic jets with power similar to that of average blazars.

  7. SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF PAH PROPERTIES IN M17SW REVEALED BY SPITZER /IRS SPECTRAL MAPPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Kaneda, H.; Ishihara, D.; Oyabu, S.; Suzuki, T.; Nishimura, A.; Kohno, M. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onaka, T.; Ohashi, S. [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nagayama, T.; Matsuo, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Umemoto, T.; Minamidani, T.; Fujita, S. [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 462-2, Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Tsuda, Y., E-mail: yamagish@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-0042 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    We present Spitzer /IRS mid-infrared spectral maps of the Galactic star-forming region M17 as well as IRSF/SIRIUS Br γ and Nobeyama 45 m/FOREST {sup 13}CO ( J = 1–0) maps. The spectra show prominent features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at wavelengths of 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, 12.7, 13.5, and 14.2  μ m. We find that the PAH emission features are bright in the region between the H ii region traced by Br γ and the molecular cloud traced by {sup 13}CO, supporting that the PAH emission originates mostly from photo-dissociation regions. Based on the spatially resolved Spitzer /IRS maps, we examine spatial variations of the PAH properties in detail. As a result, we find that the interband ratio of PAH 7.7  μ m/PAH 11.3  μ m varies locally near M17SW, but rather independently of the distance from the OB stars in M17, suggesting that the degree of PAH ionization is mainly controlled by local conditions rather than the global UV environments determined by the OB stars in M17. We also find that the interband ratios of the PAH 12.0  μ m, 12.7  μ m, 13.5  μ m, and 14.2  μ m features to the PAH 11.3  μ m feature are high near the M17 center, which suggests structural changes of PAHs through processing due to intense UV radiation, producing abundant edgy irregular PAHs near the M17 center.

  8. Design of multi-wavelength tunable filter based on Lithium Niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ailing; Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Yue; Song, Hongyun

    2018-05-01

    A multi-wavelength tunable filter is designed. It consists of multiple waveguides among multiple waveguide gratings. A pair of electrodes were placed on both sides of each waveguide. The tunable filter uses the electro-optic effect of Lithium Niobate to tune the phase caused by each waveguide. Consequently, the wavelength and wavelength spacing of the filter are tuned by changing external voltages added on the electrode pairs. The tunable property of the filter is analyzed by phase matching condition and transfer-matrix method. Numerical results show that not only multiple wavelengths with narrow bandwidth are tuned with nearly equal spacing by synchronously changing the voltages added on all electrode pairs, but also the number of wavelengths is determined by the number of phase shifts caused by electrode pairs. Furthermore, due to the electro-optic effect of Lithium Niobate, the tuning speed of the filter can reach the order of ns.

  9. Multiwavelength Study of Quiescent States of Mrk 421 with Unprecedented Hard X-Ray Coverage Provided by NuSTAR in 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Baloković, M.; Madejski, G.; Furniss, A.; Chiang, J.; Ajello, M.; Alexander, D.M.; Barret, D.; Blandford, R.; Boggs, S.E.; Christensen, F.E.; Craig, W.W.; Forster, K.; Giommi, P.; Grefenstette, B.W.; Hailey, C.J.; Harrison, F.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Kitaguchi, T.; Koglin, J.E.; Madsen, K.K.; Mao, P.H.; Miyasaka, H.; Mori, K.; Perri, M.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Puccetti, S.; Rana, V.; Stern, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Urry, C.M.; Westergaard, N.J.; Zhang, W.W.; Zoglauer, A.; Archambault, S.; Archer, A.A.; Barnacka, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Buckley, J.; Bugaev, V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M.P.; Cui, W.; Dickinson, H.J.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J.D.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J.P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortson, L.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S.T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Huetten, M.; Haakansson, N.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T.B.; Johnson, C.A.; Kaaret, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M.J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; Meagher, K.; Moriarty, P.; Nelson, T.; Nieto, D.; Ong, R.A.; Park, N.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Reynolds, P.T.; Richards, G.T.; Roache, E.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G.H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A.W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Todd, N.W.; Tucci, J.V.; Tyler, J.; Vincent, S.; Weinstein, A.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D.A.; Zitzer, B.; Ahnen, M.L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L.A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Clavero, R.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J.L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; Wilhelmi, E. D. de Oña; Delgado Mendez, C.; Di Pierro, F.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Elsaesser, D.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M.V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; López, R. J. García; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Eisenacher, D.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Guberman, D.; Hahn, A.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J.M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moretti, E.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas-Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J.M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Garcia, J. Rodriguez; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S.N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Strzys, M.; Takalo, L.O.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Torres, D.F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Verguilov, V.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J.E.; Will, M.; Wu, M.H.; Zanin, R.; Perkins, J.; Verrecchia, F.; Leto, C.; Böttcher, M.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C.M.; Acosta-Pulido, J.A.; Bachev, R.; Berdyugin, A.; Blinov, D.A.; Carnerero, M.I.; Chen, W.P.; Chinchilla, P.; Damljanovic, G.; Eswaraiah, C.; Grishina, T.S.; Ibryamov, S.; Jordan, B.; Jorstad, S.G.; Joshi, M.; Kopatskaya, E.N.; Kurtanidze, O.M.; Kurtanidze, S.O.; Larionova, E.G.; Larionova, L.V.; Larionov, V.M.; Latev, G.; Lin, H.C.; Marscher, A.P.; Mokrushina, A.A.; Morozova, D.A.; Nikolashvili, M.G.; Semkov, E.; Strigachev, A.; Troitskaya, Yu. V.; Troitsky, I.S.; Vince, O.; Barnes, J.; Güver, T.; Moody, J.W.; Sadun, A.C.; Sun, S.; Hovatta, T.; Richards, J.L.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A.C.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Tammi, J.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Reinthal, R.; Angelakis, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Myserlis, I.; Karamanavis, V.; Sievers, A.; Ungerechts, H.; Zensus, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    We present coordinated multiwavelength observations of the bright, nearby BL Lac object Mrk 421 taken in 2013 January-March, involving GASP-WEBT, Swift, NuSTAR, Fermi-LAT, MAGIC, VERITAS, and other collaborations and instruments, providing data from radio to very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray bands. NuSTAR yielded previously unattainable sensitivity in the 3-79 keV range, revealing that the spectrum softens when the source is dimmer until the X-ray spectral shape saturates into a steep power law with a photon index of approximately 3, with no evidence for an exponential cutoff or additional hard components up to about 80 keV. For the first time, we observed both the synchrotron and the inverse-Compton peaks of the spectral energy distribution (SED) simultaneously shifted to frequencies below the typical quiescent state by an order of magnitude. The fractional variability as a function of photon energy shows a double-bump structure which relates to the two bumps of the broadband SED. In each bump, the variabilit...

  10. Tunable and switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber and polarization controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X M; Lin, A; Zhao, W; Lu, K Q; Wang, Y S; Zhang, T Y; Chung, Y

    2008-01-01

    We have proposed a novel multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser by using two polarization controllers and a sampled chirped fiber Bragg grating(SC-FBG). On the assistance of SC-FBG, the proposed fiber lasers with excellent stability and uniformity are tunable and switchable by adjusting the polarization controllers. Our laser can stably lase two waves and up to eight waves simultaneously at room temperature

  11. Asteroid (16) Psyche: Evidence for a silicate regolith from spitzer space telescope spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Zoe A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Campins, Humberto; Hanuš, Josef; Lim, Lucy F.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    2018-04-01

    Asteroid (16) Psyche is a unique, metal-rich object belonging to the "M" taxonomic class. It may be a remnant protoplanet that has been stripped of most silicates by a hit-and-run collision. Because Psyche offers insight into the planetary formation process, it is the target of NASA's Psyche mission, set to launch in 2023. In order to constrain Psyche's surface properties, we have carried out a mid-infrared (5-14 μm) spectroscopic study using data collected with the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph. Our study includes two observations covering different rotational phases. Using thermophysical modeling, we find that Psyche's surface is smooth and likely has a thermal inertia Γ = 5-25 J/m2/K/s1/2 and bolometric emissivity ɛ = 0.9, although a scenario with ɛ = 0.7 and thermal inertia up to 95 J/m2/K/s1/2 is possible if Psyche is somewhat larger than previously determined. The smooth surface is consistent with the presence of a metallic bedrock, which would be more ductile than silicate bedrock, and thus may not readily form boulders upon impact events. From comparisons with laboratory spectra of silicate and meteorite powders, Psyche's 7-14 μm emissivity spectrum is consistent with the presence of fine-grained (Psyche's surface. We conclude that Psyche is likely covered in a fine silicate regolith, which may also contain iron grains, overlying an iron-rich bedrock.

  12. Crystal structure of core streptavidin determined from multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, W.A.; Paehler, A.; Smith, J.L.; Satow, Y.; Merritt, E.A.; Phizackerley, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    A three-dimensional crystal structure of the biotin-binding core of streptavidin has been determined at 3.1-angstrom resolution. The structure was analyzed from diffraction data measured at three wavelengths from a single crystal of the selenobiotinyl complex with streptavidin. Streptavidin is a tetramer with subunits arrayed in D 2 symmetry. Each protomer is an 8-stranded β-barrel with simple up-down topology. Biotin molecules are bound at one end of each barrel. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) procedures for macromolecular crystallography and provides a basis for detailed study of biotin-avidin interactions

  13. MULTI-WAVELENGTH PROBES OF OBSCURATION TOWARD THE NARROW-LINE REGION IN SEYFERT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H.R.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Melendez, M.; Turner, T.J.; Guainazzi, M.; Mushotzky, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of reddening and absorption toward the narrow line regions (NLRs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected from the Revised Shapley-Ames, 12 μm, and Swift/Burst Alert Telescope samples. For the sources in host galaxies with inclinations of b/a > 0.5, we find that the mean ratio of [O III] λ5007, from ground-based observations, and [O IV] 28.59 μm, from Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph observations, is a factor of two lower in Seyfert 2s than Seyfert 1s. The combination of low [O III]/[O IV] and [O III] λ4363/λ5007 ratios in Seyfert 2s suggests more extinction of emission from the NLR than in Seyfert 1s. Similar column densities of dusty gas, N H ∼ several x 10 21 cm -2 , can account for the suppression of both [O III] λ5007 and [O III] λ4363, as compared to those observed in Seyfert 1s. Also, we find that the X-ray line O VII λ22.1 A is weaker in Seyfert 2s, consistent with absorption by the same gas that reddens the optical emission. Using a Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph slitless spectrum of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151, we estimate that only ∼30% of the [O III] λ5007 comes from within 30 pc of the central source, which is insufficient to account for the low [O III]/[O IV] ratios in Seyfert 2s. If Seyfert 2 galaxies have similar intrinsic [O III] spatial profiles, the external dusty gas must extend further out along the NLR, perhaps in the form of nuclear dust spirals that have been associated with fueling flows toward the AGN.

  14. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SURVEY OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN ORION A. I. DISK PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.; Forrest, W. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Furlan, Elise [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, 770 S. Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Najita, Joan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Sargent, Benjamin [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Hernández, Jesús [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, Apdo. Postal 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Adame, Lucía [Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Universidad S/N, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, C.P. 66451, México (Mexico); Espaillat, Catherine [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Megeath, S. T. [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Muzerolle, James, E-mail: quarkosmos@kasi.re.kr [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2016-09-01

    We present our investigation of 319 Class II objects in Orion A observed by Spitzer /IRS. We also present the follow-up observations of 120 of these Class II objects in Orion A from the Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX. We measure continuum spectral indices, equivalent widths, and integrated fluxes that pertain to disk structure and dust composition from IRS spectra of Class II objects in Orion A. We estimate mass accretion rates using hydrogen recombination lines in the SpeX spectra of our targets. Utilizing these properties, we compare the distributions of the disk and dust properties of Orion A disks with those of Taurus disks with respect to position within Orion A (Orion Nebular Cluster [ONC] and L1641) and with the subgroups by the inferred radial structures, such as transitional disks (TDs) versus radially continuous full disks (FDs). Our main findings are as follows. (1) Inner disks evolve faster than the outer disks. (2) The mass accretion rates of TDs and those of radially continuous FDs are statistically significantly displaced from each other. The median mass accretion rate of radially continuous disks in the ONC and L1641 is not very different from that in Taurus. (3) Less grain processing has occurred in the disks in the ONC compared to those in Taurus, based on analysis of the shape index of the 10 μ m silicate feature ( F {sub 11.3}/ F {sub 9.8}). (4) The 20–31 μ m continuum spectral index tracks the projected distance from the most luminous Trapezium star, θ {sup 1} Ori C. A possible explanation is UV ablation of the outer parts of disks.

  15. THE LUMINOSITIES OF PROTOSTARS IN THE SPITZER c2d AND GOULD BELT LEGACY CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, Michael M.; Arce, Héctor G.; Allen, Lori E.; Evans II, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul M.; Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Cieza, Lucas A.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Hatchell, Jennifer; Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F.; Kirk, Jason M.; Merín, Bruno; Peterson, Dawn E.; Spezzi, Loredana

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the long-standing 'luminosity problem' in low-mass star formation whereby protostars are underluminous compared to theoretical expectations, we identify 230 protostars in 18 molecular clouds observed by two Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy surveys of nearby star-forming regions. We compile complete spectral energy distributions, calculate L bol for each source, and study the protostellar luminosity distribution. This distribution extends over three orders of magnitude, from 0.01 L ☉ to 69 L ☉ , and has a mean and median of 4.3 L ☉ and 1.3 L ☉ , respectively. The distributions are very similar for Class 0 and Class I sources except for an excess of low luminosity (L bol ∼ ☉ ) Class I sources compared to Class 0. 100 out of the 230 protostars (43%) lack any available data in the far-infrared and submillimeter (70 μm bol underestimated by factors of 2.5 on average, and up to factors of 8-10 in extreme cases. Correcting these underestimates for each source individually once additional data becomes available will likely increase both the mean and median of the sample by 35%-40%. We discuss and compare our results to several recent theoretical studies of protostellar luminosities and show that our new results do not invalidate the conclusions of any of these studies. As these studies demonstrate that there is more than one plausible accretion scenario that can match observations, future attention is clearly needed. The better statistics provided by our increased data set should aid such future work.

  16. WARM SPITZER PHOTOMETRY OF THREE HOT JUPITERS: HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b AND HAT-P-12b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, Kamen O. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Desert, Jean-Michel [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sada, Pedro V. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Monterrey, Monterrey (Mexico); Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Langton, Jonathan [Department of Physics, Principia College, Elsah, IL 62028 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    We present Warm Spitzer/IRAC secondary eclipse time series photometry of three short-period transiting exoplanets, HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b and HAT-P-12b, in both the available 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands. HAT-P-3b and HAT-P-4b are Jupiter-mass objects orbiting an early K and an early G dwarf star, respectively. For HAT-P-3b we find eclipse depths of 0.112%+0.015%-0.030% (3.6 micron) and 0.094%+0.016%-0.009% (4.5 {mu}m). The HAT-P-4b values are 0.142%+0.014%-0.016% (3.6 micron) and 0.122%+0.012%-0.014% 4.5 {mu}m). The two planets' photometry is consistent with inefficient heat redistribution from their day to night sides (and low albedos), but it is inconclusive about possible temperature inversions in their atmospheres. HAT-P-12b is a Saturn-mass planet and is one of the coolest planets ever observed during secondary eclipse, along with the hot Neptune GJ 436b and the hot Saturn WASP-29b. We are able to place 3{sigma} upper limits on the secondary eclipse depth of HAT-P-12b in both wavelengths: <0.042% (3.6 {mu}m) and <0.085% (4.5 {mu}m). We discuss these results in the context of the Spitzer secondary eclipse measurements of GJ 436b and WASP-29b. It is possible that we do not detect the eclipses of HAT-P-12b due to high eccentricity, but find that weak planetary emission in these wavelengths is a more likely explanation. We place 3{sigma} upper limits on the |e cos {omega}| quantity (where e is eccentricity and {omega} is the argument of periapsis) for HAT-P-3b (<0.0081) and HAT-P-4b (<0.0042), based on the secondary eclipse timings.

  17. Multi-wavelength Polarimetry of the GF9-2 YSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Dan P.; El-Batal, Adham M.; Montgomery, Jordan; Kressy, Sophia; Schroeder, Genevieve; Pillai, Thushara

    2018-06-01

    Our new SOFIA/HAWC+ 214 μm polarimetry of the cloud core containing the young stellar object GF9-2 (IRAS 20503+6006, aka L1082C) has been combined with deep near-infrared H- and K-band polarimetry of the cloud's core, obtained with the Mimir instrument. Additionally, Planck 870 μm and published optical polarimetry are included to provide context at larger size scales. We follow the direction and structure of the plane-of-sky magnetic field from the smallest physical scales (~10 arcsec or 4,000 AU) traced by SOFIA/HAWC+ to the Mimir field of view (10 arcmin, or 1.3 pc) and compare the B-field orientation with that of a faint reflection nebula seen in WISE and Spitzer images. The importance, or lack thereof, for the B-field in this naescent star-forming region is assessed through estimates of the Mass-to-Flux (M/Φ) ratio.This work has been supported by NSF AST14-12269, NASA NNX15AE51G, and USRA/SOF 04-0014 grants

  18. Detection of the cosmic γ-ray horizon from multiwavelength observations of blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, A. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Finke, J. D. [U.S. Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Prada, F. [Campus of International Excellence UAM_CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Granada (Spain); Primack, J. R. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Kitaura, F. S. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Potsdam (Germany); Siana, B. [Univ. Of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Paneque, D. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States). Kavli Inst. sor Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany)

    2013-05-24

    The first statistically significant detection of the cosmic γ-ray horizon (CGRH) that is independent of any extragalactic background light (EBL) model is presented. The CGRH is a fundamental quantity in cosmology. It gives an estimate of the opacity of the Universe to very high energy (VHE) γ-ray photons due to photon-photon pair production with the EBL. The only estimations of the CGRH to date are predictions from EBL models and lower limits from γ-ray observations of cosmological blazars and γ-ray bursts. Here, we present homogeneous synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models of the spectral energy distributions of 15 blazars based on (almost) simultaneous observations from radio up to the highest energy γ-rays taken with the Fermi satellite. These synchrotron/SSC models predict the unattenuated VHE fluxes, which are compared with the observations by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The comparison provides an estimate of the optical depth of the EBL, which allows a derivation of the CGRH through a maximum likelihood analysis that is EBL-model independent. We find that the observed CGRH is compatible with the current knowledge of the EBL.

  19. THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES BETWEEN REDSHIFT 4 AND 6: OBSERVING SUCCESSIVE GENERATIONS OF MASSIVE GALAXIES IN FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, Daniel P.; Ellis, Richard S.; Targett, Tom; Benson, Andrew; Bunker, Andrew; Bundy, Kevin; Lacy, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We present new measurements of the evolution in the Lyman break galaxy (LBG) population between z ≅ 4 and z ≅ 6. By utilizing the extensive multiwavelength data sets available in the GOODS fields, we identify 2443 B, 506 V, and 137 i'-band dropout galaxies likely to be at z ∼ 4, 5, and 6. For the subset of dropouts for which reliable Spitzer IRAC photometry is feasible (roughly 35% of the sample), we estimate luminosity-weighted ages and stellar masses. With the goal of understanding the duration of typical star formation episodes in galaxies at z ∼> 4, we examine the distribution of stellar masses and ages as a function of cosmic time. We find that at a fixed rest-UV luminosity, the average stellar masses and ages of galaxies do not increase significantly between z ≅ 6 and 4. In order to maintain this near equilibrium in the average properties of high-redshift LBGs, we argue that there must be a steady flux of young, newly luminous objects at each successive redshift. When considered along with the short duty cycles inferred from clustering measurements, these results may suggest that galaxies are undergoing star formation episodes lasting only several hundred million years. In contrast to the unchanging relationship between the average stellar mass and rest-UV luminosity, we find that the number density of massive galaxies increases considerably with time over 4 ∼ 11 M sun ) z ≅ 2-3 distant red galaxies (DRGs) were in part assembled in an LBG phase at earlier times. Integrating the growth in the stellar mass function of actively forming LBGs over 4 ∼ 3 LBGs could have contributed significantly to the quiescent DRG population, indicating that the intense star-forming systems probed by submillimeter observations are not the only route toward the assembly of DRGs at z ≅ 2.

  20. Non-invasive multiwavelength photoplethysmography under low partial pressure of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yung Chieh; Tai, Cheng-Chi

    2016-08-01

    A reduction in partial pressure of oxygen in the environment may be caused by a gain in altitude, which reduces the atmospheric pressure; it may also be caused by the carbon dioxide generated from breathing in an enclosed space. Does inhaling oxygen of lower partial pressure affect the oxygen-carrying function of haemoglobin in vivo? This study uses non-invasive multiwavelength photoplethysmography to measure the effects that inhaling this type of oxygen can have on the plethysmography of the appendages of the body (fingertips). The results indicate that under low partial pressure of oxygen, be it the result of a gain in carbon dioxide concentration or altitude, the change in visible light absorption is the biggest for short wavelengths (approximately 620 or 640 nm) near deoxyhaemoglobin, which has higher absorption coefficient. Moreover, increasing carbon dioxide concentration from 5000 to 10,000 ppm doubly reduces the absorption rate of these short wavelengths.

  1. Adaptation of an aerosol retrieval algorithm using multi-wavelength and multi-pixel information of satellites (MWPM) to GOSAT/TANSO-CAI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, M.; Takenaka, H.; Higurashi, A.; Nakajima, T.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol in the atmosphere is an important constituent for determining the earth's radiation budget, so the accurate aerosol retrievals from satellite is useful. We have developed a satellite remote sensing algorithm to retrieve the aerosol optical properties using multi-wavelength and multi-pixel information of satellite imagers (MWPM). The method simultaneously derives aerosol optical properties, such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT), single scattering albedo (SSA) and aerosol size information, by using spatial difference of wavelegths (multi-wavelength) and surface reflectances (multi-pixel). The method is useful for aerosol retrieval over spatially heterogeneous surface like an urban region. In this algorithm, the inversion method is a combination of an optimal method and smoothing constraint for the state vector. Furthermore, this method has been combined with the direct radiation transfer calculation (RTM) numerically solved by each iteration step of the non-linear inverse problem, without using look up table (LUT) with several constraints. However, it takes too much computation time. To accelerate the calculation time, we replaced the RTM with an accelerated RTM solver learned by neural network-based method, EXAM (Takenaka et al., 2011), using Rster code. And then, the calculation time was shorternd to about one thouthandth. We applyed MWPM combined with EXAM to GOSAT/TANSO-CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager). CAI is a supplement sensor of TANSO-FTS, dedicated to measure cloud and aerosol properties. CAI has four bands, 380, 674, 870 and 1600 nm, and observes in 500 meters resolution for band1, band2 and band3, and 1.5 km for band4. Retrieved parameters are aerosol optical properties, such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) of fine and coarse mode particles at a wavelenth of 500nm, a volume soot fraction in fine mode particles, and ground surface albedo of each observed wavelength by combining a minimum reflectance method and Fukuda et al. (2013). We will show

  2. Analytic Method on Characteristic Parameters of Bacteria in Water by Multiwavelength Transmission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxia Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytic method together with the Mie scattering theory and Beer-Lambert law is proposed for the characteristic parameter determination of bacterial cells (Escherichia coli 10389 from multiwavelength transmission spectroscopy measurements. We calculate the structural parameters of E. coli cells, and compared with the microscopy, the relative error of cell volume is 7.90%, the cell number is compared with those obtained by plate counting, the relative error is l.02%, and the nucleic content and protein content of single E. coli cells are consistent with the data reported elsewhere. The proposed method can obtain characteristic parameters of bacteria as an excellent candidate for the rapid detection and identification of bacteria in the water.