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Sample records for multiple-ion species inertial

  1. Instability-Enhanced Collisional Friction Determines the Bohm Criterion in Multiple-Ion-Species Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalrud, S. D.; Hegna, C. C.; Callen, J. D.

    2009-11-01

    Ion-ion streaming instabilities are excited in the presheath region of plasmas with multiple ion species if the ions are much colder than the electrons. Streaming instabilities onset when the relative fluid flow between ion species exceeds a critical speed, δVc, of order the ion thermal speeds. Using a generalized Lenard-Balescu theory that accounts for instability-enhanced collective responses [1], one is able to show the instabilities rapidly enhance the collisional friction between ion species far beyond the contribution from Coulomb collisions alone. This strong frictional force determines the relative fluid speed between species. When this condition is combined with the Bohm criterion generalized for multiple ion species, the fluid speed of each ion species is determined at the sheath edge. For each species, this speed differs from the common ``system'' sound speed by a factor that depends on the species concentrations, masses and δVc.[4pt] [1] S.D. Baalrud, J.D. Callen, and C.C. Hegna, Phys. Plasmas 15, 092111 (2008).

  2. Influence of coupling on thermal forces and dynamic friction in plasmas with multiple ion species

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Grigory; Daligault, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    The recently proposed effective potential theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 235001 (2013)] is used to investigate the influence of coupling on inter-ion-species diffusion and momentum exchange in multi-component plasmas. Thermo-diffusion and the thermal force are found to diminish rapidly as strong coupling onsets. For the same coupling parameters, the dynamic friction coefficient is found to tend to unity. These results provide an impetus for addressing the role of coupling on diffusive processes in inertial confinement fusion experiments.

  3. Collisonal Friction Enhanced by Two-Stream Instabilities Determines the Bohm Criterion in Plasmas With Multiple Ion Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalrud, S. D.; Hegna, C. C.; Callen, J. D.

    2009-10-01

    Ion-ion streaming instabilities are excited in the presheath region of plasmas with multiple ion species if the ions are much colder than the electrons. Streaming instabilities onset when the relative fluid flow between ion species exceeds a critical speed, δVc, of order the ion thermal speeds. Using a generalized Lenard-Balescu theory that accounts for instability-enhanced collective responses [1], one is able to show the instabilities rapidly (within a few Debye lengths) enhance the collisional friction between ion species far beyond the contribution from Coulomb collisions alone. This strong frictional force determines the relative fluid speed between species. When this condition is combined with the Bohm criterion generalized for multiple ion species, the fluid speed of each ion species is determined at the sheath edge. For each species, this speed differs from the common ``system'' sound speed by a factor that depends on the species concentration and δVc.[4pt] [1] S.D. Baalrud, J.D. Callen, and C.C. Hegna, Phys. Plasmas 15, 092111 (2008).

  4. Species separation and modification of neutron diagnostics in inertial-confinement fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Inglebert, Aurelie; Larroche, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The different behaviours of deuterium (D) and tritium (T) in the hot spot of marginally-igniting cryogenic DT inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) targets are investigated with an ion Fokker-Planck model. With respect to an equivalent single-species model, a higher density and a higher temperature are found for T in the stagnation phase of the target implosion. In addition, the stagnating hot spot is found to be less dense but hotter than in the single-species case. As a result, the fusion reaction yield in the hot spot is significantly increased. Fusion neutron diagnostics of the implosion find a larger ion temperature as deduced from DT reactions than from DD reactions, in good agreement with NIF experimental results. ICF target designs should thus definitely take ion-kinetic effects into account.

  5. Multi-fluid studies of plasma shocks relevant to inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, B.; Kagan, G.; Adams, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    Results from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments performed at the Omega laser facility suggest the potential role of kinetic effects in plasmas during implosion. Recent theoretical and numerical work has indicated the importance of diffusion effects in the presence of multiple ion species as well as the importance of ion viscosity. This provides the motivation to adequately develop multi-fluid plasma models capable of capturing kinetic physics including concentration diffusion and ion species separation driven by the ion concentration gradient, the ion pressure gradient, the electron and ion temperature gradients, and the electric field. Benchmarks between the newly developed code and analytical results are presented for multi-fluid plasma shocks.

  6. Inertial squirmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Ardekani, A.

    2012-10-01

    Although the propulsion of micro-organisms has been extensively studied in the literature, current studies have mainly focused on their propulsion in the absence of inertia. Here in this paper, we quantify the effects of convective inertial forces in the limit of small, but nonzero, Reynolds number regime. We analytically quantify the role of inertia on swimming speed, energy expenditure, and flow signature of an archetypal swimming model "squirmer". Our results suggest that pushers, generating thrust behind their body, have a competitive advantage in swimming due to higher motility in the inertial regime. In contrast, those organisms that generate thrust in front of their body, pullers, have more efficient foraging in the inertial regime compared to their counterparts in the Stokes regime. Inertia enhances the swimming speed of a pusher swimmer and hinders it for a puller, potentially affecting a broad range of abundant millimeter- to centimeter-size organisms living in oceans and lakes.

  7. Rank-based model selection for multiple ions quantum tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guţă, Mădălin; Kypraios, Theodore; Dryden, Ian

    2012-10-01

    The statistical analysis of measurement data has become a key component of many quantum engineering experiments. As standard full state tomography becomes unfeasible for large dimensional quantum systems, one needs to exploit prior information and the ‘sparsity’ properties of the experimental state in order to reduce the dimensionality of the estimation problem. In this paper we propose model selection as a general principle for finding the simplest, or most parsimonious explanation of the data, by fitting different models and choosing the estimator with the best trade-off between likelihood fit and model complexity. We apply two well established model selection methods—the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC)—two models consisting of states of fixed rank and datasets such as are currently produced in multiple ions experiments. We test the performance of AIC and BIC on randomly chosen low rank states of four ions, and study the dependence of the selected rank with the number of measurement repetitions for one ion states. We then apply the methods to real data from a four ions experiment aimed at creating a Smolin state of rank 4. By applying the two methods together with the Pearson χ2 test we conclude that the data can be suitably described with a model whose rank is between 7 and 9. Additionally we find that the mean square error of the maximum likelihood estimator for pure states is close to that of the optimal over all possible measurements.

  8. Thermo-diffusion in inertially confined plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Grigory

    2013-01-01

    In a plasma of multiple ion species, thermodynamic forces such as pressure and temperature gradients can drive ion species separation via inter-species diffusion. Unlike its neutral mix counterpart, plasma thermo-diffusion is found comparable to, or even much larger than, baro-diffusion. It is shown that such a strong effect is due to the long-range nature of the Coulomb potential, as opposed to short-range interactions in neutral gases. A special composition of the tritium and 3He fuel is identified to have vanishing net diffusion during adiabatic compression, and hence provides an experimental test in which yield degradation is minimized during ICF implosions.

  9. A smartphone inertial balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Garrido, Azael

    2017-04-01

    In order to measure the mass of an object in the absence of gravity, one useful tool for many decades has been the inertial balance. One of the simplest forms of inertial balance is made by two mass holders or pans joined together with two stiff metal plates, which act as springs.

  10. Micromachined Fluid Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiang Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Micromachined fluid inertial sensors are an important class of inertial sensors, which mainly includes thermal accelerometers and fluid gyroscopes, which have now been developed since the end of the last century for about 20 years. Compared with conventional silicon or quartz inertial sensors, the fluid inertial sensors use a fluid instead of a solid proof mass as the moving and sensitive element, and thus offer advantages of simple structures, low cost, high shock resistance, and large measurement ranges while the sensitivity and bandwidth are not competitive. Many studies and various designs have been reported in the past two decades. This review firstly introduces the working principles of fluid inertial sensors, followed by the relevant research developments. The micromachined thermal accelerometers based on thermal convection have developed maturely and become commercialized. However, the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, which are based on jet flow or thermal flow, are less mature. The key issues and technologies of the thermal accelerometers, mainly including bandwidth, temperature compensation, monolithic integration of tri-axis accelerometers and strategies for high production yields are also summarized and discussed. For the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, improving integration and sensitivity, reducing thermal errors and cross coupling errors are the issues of most concern.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic inertial reference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelkamp-Baker, Dan; Sebesta, Henry R.; Burkhard, Kevin

    2000-07-01

    Optical platforms increasingly require attitude knowledge and optical instrument pointing at sub-microradian accuracy. No low-cost commercial system exists to provide this level of accuracy for guidance, navigation, and control. The need for small, inexpensive inertial sensors, which may be employed in pointing control systems that are required to satisfy angular line-of-sight stabilization jitter error budgets to levels of 1-3 microradian rms and less, has existed for at least two decades. Innovations and evolutions in small, low-noise inertial angular motion sensor technology and advances in the applications of the global positioning system have converged to allow improvement in acquisition, tracking and pointing solutions for a wide variety of payloads. We are developing a small, inexpensive, and high-performance inertial attitude reference system that uses our innovative magnetohydrodynamic angular rate sensor technology.

  12. Inertial Frames and Clock Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Kak, Subhash

    2012-01-01

    This article revisits the historiography of the problem of inertial frames. Specifically, the case of the twins in the clock paradox is considered to see that some resolutions implicitly assume inertiality for the non-accelerating twin. If inertial frames are explicitly identified by motion with respect to the large scale structure of the universe, it makes it possible to consider the relative inertiality of different frames.

  13. Microelectromechanical inertial sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat (Edgewood, NM); Nielson, Gregory N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-06-26

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) inertial sensor is disclosed which can be used to sense a linear acceleration, or a Coriolis acceleration due to an angular rotation rate, or both. The MEM inertial sensor has a proof mass which is supported on a bridge extending across an opening through a substrate, with the proof mass being balanced on the bridge by a pivot, or suspended from the bridge by the pivot. The proof mass can be oscillated in a tangential direction in the plane of the substrate, with any out-of-plane movement of the proof mass in response to a sensed acceleration being optically detected using transmission gratings located about an outer edge of the proof mass to generate a diffracted light pattern which changes with the out-of-plane movement of the proof mass.

  14. Inertial microfluidic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilovitch, Pavel; Govyadinov, Alexander; Markel, David; Torniainen, Erik

    2015-11-01

    The inertial pump is powered by a microheater positioned near one end of a fluidic microchannel. As the microheater explosively boils the surrounding fluid, a vapor bubble expands and then collapses asymmetrically, resulting in net flow. Such devices become an effective means of transporting fluids at microscale. They have no moving parts and can be manufactured in large numbers using standard batch fabrication processes. In this presentation, physical principles behind pump operation are described, in particular the role of reservoirs in dissipating mechanical momentum and the expansion-collapse asymmetry. An effective one-dimensional dynamic model is formulated and solved. The model is compared with full three-dimensional CFD simulations and available experimental data. Potential applications of inertial micropumps are described.

  15. Micromachined Precision Inertial Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    and vacuum packaging techniques to achieve degree-per-hour inertial micro-gyroscopes. A single-wafer, all-silicon, high aspect-ratio p...Although vacuum packaging substantially reduces the mechanical noise of a surface micromachined accelerometer and lowers the output noise floor...it is desirable to operate sensors in atmosphere since vacuum packaging is not cost effective [15]. Figure 10: Performance improvements for In

  16. Synchronization and Inertial Frames

    CERN Document Server

    Viazminsky, C P

    1999-01-01

    In classical mechanics, a procedure for simultaneous synchronization in all inertial frames is consistent with the Galilean transformation. However, if one attempts to achieve such a synchronization utilizing light signals, he will be facing in the first place the break down of simultaneity, and secondly, a self-contradictory transformation that has the Lorentz transformation, or its confinement to the velocity of light, as the only possible ways that resolve the contradiction. The current work constitutes a smooth transition from traditional to relativistic vision of mechanics, and therefore is quite appealing from pedagogical point of view.

  17. Biomimetic heterogeneous multiple ion channels: a honeycomb structure composite film generated by breath figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Keyu; Heng, Liping; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2016-06-01

    We design a novel type of artificial multiple nanochannel system with remarkable ion rectification behavior via a facile breath figure (BF) method. Notably, even though the charge polarity in the channel wall reverses under different pH values, this nanofluidic device displays the same ionic rectification direction. Compared with traditional nanochannels, this composite multiple ion channel device can be more easily obtained and has directional ionic rectification advantages, which can be applied in many fields.We design a novel type of artificial multiple nanochannel system with remarkable ion rectification behavior via a facile breath figure (BF) method. Notably, even though the charge polarity in the channel wall reverses under different pH values, this nanofluidic device displays the same ionic rectification direction. Compared with traditional nanochannels, this composite multiple ion channel device can be more easily obtained and has directional ionic rectification advantages, which can be applied in many fields. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Pore size distribution histograms of the AAO substrates; SEM images of the side view of pure AAO membranes and top view of the flat PI/AAO composite film; the current-time curves of the flat composite film; the current-voltage characteristics curves of pure AAO nanochannels with different mean pore diameters; CA of the two surfaces of the composite PI/AAO film, the structural formula of the polymer polyimide resin (PI), and solid surface zeta potential. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02506d

  18. Suppression of multiple ion bunches and generation of monoenergetic ion beams in laser foil-plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shan; Xie Bai-Song; Hong Xue-Ren; Wu Hai-Cheng; Aimierding Aimidula; Zhao Xue-Yan; Liu Ming-Ping

    2011-01-01

    In one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, this paper shows that the formation of multiple ion bunches is disadvantageous to the generation of monoenergetic ion beams and can be suppressed by choosing an optimum target thickness in the radiation pressure acceleration mechanism by a circularly polarised laser pulse. As the laser pulse becomes intense, the optimum target thickness obtained by a non-relativistic treatment is no longer adequate. Considering the relativistic Doppler-shifted pressure, it proposes a relativistic formulation to determine the optimum target thickness. The theoretical predictions agree with the simulation results well. The model is also valid for two-dimensional cases. The accelerated ion beams can be compelled to be more stable by choosing the optimum target thickness when they exhibit some unstable behaviours.

  19. A multiple ion channel blocker, NIP-142, for the treatment of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hikaru; Hashimoto, Norio

    2007-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and the risk of stroke. Although currently available antiarrhythmic drugs are moderately effective in restoring normal sinus rhythm in patients with AF, excessive delay of ventricular repolarization by these agents may be associated with increased risk of proarrhythmia. Therefore, selective blockers of cardiac ion channel(s) that are exclusively present in the atria are highly desirable. NIP-142 is a novel benzopyrane derivative, which blocks potassium, calcium, and sodium channels and shows atrial specific action potential duration prolongation. NIP-142 preferentially blocks the ultrarapid delayed rectifier potassium current (I Kur) and the acetylcholine-activated potassium current (I KACh). Since I Kur and I KACh have been shown to be expressed more abundantly in the atrial than in the ventricular myocardium, the atrial-specific repolarization prolonging effect of NIP-142 is considered to be due to the blockade of these potassium currents. In canine models, NIP-142 was shown to terminate the microreentry type AF induced by vagal nerve stimulation and the macroreentry type atrial flutter induced by an intercaval crush. These effects of NIP-142 have been attributed to the prolongation of atrial effective refractory period (ERP), because this compound prolonged atrial ERP without affecting intraatrial and interatrial conduction times in these models. The ERP prolongation by NIP-142 was greater in the atrium than in the ventricle. NIP-142 also terminated the focal activity type AF induced by aconitine. In addition, NIP-142 reversed the atrial ERP shortening and the loss of rate adaptation induced by short-term rapid atrial pacing in anesthetized dogs. Thus, although clinical trials are required to provide evidence for its efficacy and safety, the novel multiple ion channel blocker, NIP-142, appears to be a useful agent for

  20. Inertial measurement unit using rotatable MEMS sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Stewart M.; Allen, James J.

    2006-06-27

    A MEM inertial sensor (e.g. accelerometer, gyroscope) having integral rotational means for providing static and dynamic bias compensation is disclosed. A bias compensated MEM inertial sensor is described comprising a MEM inertial sense element disposed on a rotatable MEM stage. A MEM actuator for drives the rotation of the stage between at least two predetermined rotational positions. Measuring and comparing the output of the MEM inertial sensor in the at least two rotational positions allows, for both static and dynamic bias compensation in inertial calculations based on the sensor's output. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) comprising a plurality of independently rotatable MEM inertial sensors and methods for making bias compensated inertial measurements are disclosed.

  1. Inertial measurement unit using rotatable MEMS sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Stewart M. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, James J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-05-01

    A MEM inertial sensor (e.g. accelerometer, gyroscope) having integral rotational means for providing static and dynamic bias compensation is disclosed. A bias compensated MEM inertial sensor is described comprising a MEM inertial sense element disposed on a rotatable MEM stage. A MEM actuator drives the rotation of the stage between at least two predetermined rotational positions. Measuring and comparing the output of the MEM inertial sensor in the at least two rotational positions allows for both static and dynamic bias compensation in inertial calculations based on the sensor's output. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) comprising a plurality of independently rotatable MEM inertial sensors and methods for making bias compensated inertial measurements are disclosed.

  2. Inertial measurement unit using rotatable MEMS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Stewart M.; Allen, James J.

    2007-05-01

    A MEM inertial sensor (e.g. accelerometer, gyroscope) having integral rotational means for providing static and dynamic bias compensation is disclosed. A bias compensated MEM inertial sensor is described comprising a MEM inertial sense element disposed on a rotatable MEM stage. A MEM actuator drives the rotation of the stage between at least two predetermined rotational positions. Measuring and comparing the output of the MEM inertial sensor in the at least two rotational positions allows for both static and dynamic bias compensation in inertial calculations based on the sensor's output. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) comprising a plurality of independently rotatable MEM inertial sensors and methods for making bias compensated inertial measurements are disclosed.

  3. Competitive migration behaviors of multiple ions and their impacts on ion-exchange resin packed microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Kuichang; Yuan, Lulu; Wei, Jincheng; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia

    2013-10-01

    Mixed ion-exchange resins packed microbial desalination cell (R-MDC) could stabilize the internal resistance, however, the impacts of multiple ions on R-MDC performance was unclear. This study investigated the desalination performance, multiple ions migration behaviors and their impacts on R-MDCs fed with salt solution containing multiple anions and cations. Results showed that R-MDC removed multiple anions better than multiple cations with desalination efficiency of 99% (effluent conductivity NO3(-)>Cl(-) for anions and Ca(2+)≈Mg(2+)>NH4(+)>Na(+) for cations, jointly affected by both their molar conductivity and exchange selectivity on resins. After long-term operation, the existence of higher concentration Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) caused the electric conductivity of mixed resins decrease and scaling on the surface of cation-exchange membrane adjoined with cathode chamber, suggesting that R-MDC would be more suitable for desalination of water with lower hardness.

  4. Inertial Response of Wind Power Plants: A Comparison of Frequency-Based Inertial Control and Stepwise Inertial Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiao; Gao, Wenzhong; Wang, Jianhui; Yan, Shijie; Wu, Ziping; Yan, Weihang; Gevorgian, Vahan; Muljadi, Eduard; Kang, Moses; Hwang, Min; Kang, YongCheol

    2016-11-21

    The frequency regulation capability of a wind power plant plays an important role in enhancing frequency reliability especially in an isolated power system with high wind power penetration levels. A comparison of two types of inertial control methods, namely frequency-based inertial control (FBIC) and stepwise inertial control (SIC), is presented in this paper. Comprehensive case studies are carried out to reveal features of the different inertial control methods, simulated in a modified Western System Coordination Council (WSCC) nine-bus power grid using real-time digital simulator (RTDS) platform. The simulation results provide an insight into the inertial control methods under various scenarios.

  5. Effects of Chinese herbs on multiple ion channels in isolated ventricular myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; MA Ke-juan; WU Xiang-feng; SUN Qi; ZHANG Yi-hui; PU Jie-lin

    2007-01-01

    Background Shensong Yangxin (SSYX) is one of the compound recipe of Chinese materia medica. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of SSYX on sodium current (INa), L-type calcium current (ICa,L), transient outward potassium current (Ito), delayed rectifier current (IK), and inward rectifier potassium currents (IK1) in isolated ventricular myocytes.Methods Whole cell patch-clamp technique was used to study ion channel currents in enzymatically isolated guinea pig or rat ventricular myocytes.Results SSYX decreased peak INa by (44.84±7.65)% from 27.21±5.35 to 14.88±2.75 pA/pF (n=5, P<0.05). The medicine significantly inhibited the ICa,L. At concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 g/100 mi, the peak ICa,L was reduced by(19.22±1.10)%, (44.82±6.50)% and (50.69±5.64)%, respectively (n=5, all P<0.05). SSYX lifted the Ⅰ-Ⅴ curve of both INa and ICa,L without changing the threshold, peak and reversal potentials. At the concentration of 0.5%, the drug blocked the transient component of Ito by 50.60% at membrane voltage of 60 mV and negatively shifted the inactive curve and delayed the recovery from channel inactivation. The tail current density of IK was decreased by (30.77±1.11)% (n=5,P<0.05) at membrane voltage of 50 mV after exposure to the medicine and the time-dependent activity of IK was also inhibited. Similar to the effect on IK, the SSYX inhibited IK1 by 33.10% at the test potential of -100 mV with little effect on reversal potential and the rectification property.Conclusions The experiments revealed that SSYX could block multiple ion channels such as INa ICa,L, Ik, Ito and IK1,which may change the action potential duration and contribute to some of its antiarrhythmic effects.

  6. Rest mass or inertial mass?

    OpenAIRE

    Khrapko, R. I.

    2001-01-01

    Rest mass takes the place of inertial mass in modern physics textbooks. It seems to be wrong. But this phenomenon is hidden away by the facts that rest mass adherents busily call rest mass "mass", not rest mass, and the word "mass" is associated with a measure of inertia. This topic has been considered by the author in the article "What is mass?" [1, 2, 3]. Additional arguments to a confirmation of such a thesis are presented here.

  7. OF INERTIAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargsjan Akop Egishovich

    2012-10-01

    The article describes the motion of the construction foundation slab as a rigid body with six degrees of freedom on the surface of the inertial linearly deformable semi-space. The dynamic mechanical model of the base is presented as six pairs of parallel-connected springs and dampers that characterize the rigidity of the base subjected to ultimate forces (three forces alongside the axes and three moments in relation to the axes.

  8. Inertial measurement using atom interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA; Aiai; YANG; Jun; YAN; Shuhua; LUO; Yukun; HU; Qingqing; WEI; Chunhua; LI; Zehuan

    2015-01-01

    The recent advances of atom interferometer and its application in precision inertial measurement are review ed. The principle,characteristics and implementation of atom interferometer are introduced and it can be used to measure gravitational acceleration,gravity gradient and rotation for its high sensitivity. We also present the principle,structure and new progress of gravimeter,gravity gradiometer and gyroscope based on atom interferometer.

  9. Inertial imaging with nanomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanay, M. Selim; Kelber, Scott I.; O’Connell, Cathal D.; Mulvaney, Paul; Sader, John E.; Roukes, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Mass sensing with nanoelectromechanical systems has advanced significantly during the last decade. With nanoelectromechanical systems sensors it is now possible to carry out ultrasensitive detection of gaseous analytes, to achieve atomic-scale mass resolution and to perform mass spectrometry on single proteins. Here, we demonstrate that the spatial distribution of mass within an individual analyte can be imaged—in real time and at the molecular scale—when it adsorbs onto a nanomechanical resonator. Each single-molecule adsorption event induces discrete, time-correlated perturbations to all modal frequencies of the device. We show that by continuously monitoring a multiplicity of vibrational modes, the spatial moments of mass distribution can be deduced for individual analytes, one-by-one, as they adsorb. We validate this method for inertial imaging, using both experimental measurements of multimode frequency shifts and numerical simulations, to analyse the inertial mass, position of adsorption and the size and shape of individual analytes. Unlike conventional imaging, the minimum analyte size detectable through nanomechanical inertial imaging is not limited by wavelength-dependent diffraction phenomena. Instead, frequency fluctuation processes determine the ultimate attainable resolution. Advanced nanoelectromechanical devices appear capable of resolving molecular-scale analytes. PMID:25822931

  10. An integrated platform for inertial navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrascu, Ana; Tamas, Razvan D.; Caruntu, George; Bobirca, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we propose a new configuration for an inertial navigation system (INS), type strap down, designed to be used onboard a ship. The system consists of an inertial navigation unit (IMU), using a 9-axis inertial sensor and pressure and temperature sensors, a GPS module, various interfaces for optimal communication and command, a microcontroller for data processing and computing and a power supply.

  11. Microminiature Inertial Measurement System and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛刚; 顾启泰

    2001-01-01

    The microminiature inertial measurement system, a new style of inertial measurement system, hasmany advantages compared with traditional systems, such as small size, Iow mass, low cost, low powerconsumption, high bearing capacity, and long life. Undoubtedly, it will have wide applications in military andcommercial fields. However, current micro inertial sensors do not have sufficient accuracy, so, its applicationsare limited to some extent. This paper describes a microminiature inertial measurement system and its design,operating theory and error control techniques. In addition, its performance and applications are evaluated.``

  12. Observability of Inertial Navigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To improve the observability of strapdown inertial navigation system and the effectiveness of Kalman filter in the navigation system, the method of estimating the observability is analyzed based on eigenvalues and eigenvectors which are proved to be availabe, on this basis two-position alignment technigue is applied. The simulation shows that two-position alignment really makes the system's observability change from being incomplete to being complete, and the test method based on eigenvalues and eigenvectors is available to determine the observability of every state vector.

  13. Inertial sensors for smartphones navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabove, P; Ghinamo, G; Lingua, A M

    2015-01-01

    The advent of smartphones and tablets, means that we can constantly get information on our current geographical location. These devices include not only GPS/GNSS chipsets but also mass-market inertial platforms that can be used to plan activities, share locations on social networks, and also to perform positioning in indoor and outdoor scenarios. This paper shows the performance of smartphones and their inertial sensors in terms of gaining information about the user's current geographical locatio n considering an indoor navigation scenario. Tests were carried out to determine the accuracy and precision obtainable with internal and external sensors. In terms of the attitude and drift estimation with an updating interval equal to 1 s, 2D accuracies of about 15 cm were obtained with the images. Residual benefits were also obtained, however, for large intervals, e.g. 2 and 5 s, where the accuracies decreased to 50 cm and 2.2 m, respectively.

  14. Mechanical Energy Change in Inertial Reference Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical energy change of a system in an inertial frame of reference equals work done by the total nonconservative force in the same frame. This relation is covariant under the Galilean transformations from inertial frame S to S', where S' moves with constant velocity relative to S. In the presence of nonconservative forces, such as normal…

  15. Inertial modes of slowly rotating isentropic stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, S; Yoshida, Shijun; Lee, Umin

    2000-01-01

    We investigate inertial mode oscillations of slowly and uniformly rotating, isentropic, Newtonian stars. Inertial mode oscillations are induced by the Coriolis force due to the star's rotation, and their characteristic frequencies are comparable with the rotation frequency $\\Omega$ of the star. So called r-mode oscillations form a sub-class of the inertial modes. In this paper, we use the term ``r-modes'' to denote the inertial modes for which the toroidal motion dominates the spheroidal motion, and the term ``inertial modes'' to denote the inertial modes for which the toroidal and spheroidal motions have comparable amplitude to each other. Using the slow rotation approximation consistent up to the order of $\\Omega^3$, we study the properties of the inertial modes and r-modes, by taking account of the effect of the rotational deformation of the equilibrium on the eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions. The eigenfrequencies of the r-modes and inertial modes calculated in this paper are in excellent agreement with...

  16. Lagrangian coherent structures and inertial particle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sudharsan, M; Riley, James J

    2015-01-01

    In this work we investigate the dynamics of inertial particles using finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE). In particular, we characterize the attractor and repeller structures underlying preferential concentration of inertial particles in terms of FTLE fields of the underlying carrier fluid. Inertial particles that are heavier than the ambient fluid (aerosols) attract onto ridges of the negative-time fluid FTLE. This negative-time FTLE ridge becomes a repeller for particles that are lighter than the carrier fluid (bubbles). We also examine the inertial FTLE (iFTLE) determined by the trajectories of inertial particles evolved using the Maxey-Riley equations with non-zero Stokes number and density ratio. Finally, we explore the low-pass filtering effect of Stokes number. These ideas are demonstrated on two-dimensional numerical simulations of the unsteady double gyre flow.

  17. Fluvial experiments using inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, Georgios; Valyrakis, Manousos; Hodge, Rebecca; Drysdale, Tim; Hoey, Trevor

    2017-04-01

    During the last four years we have announced results on the development of a smart pebble that is constructed and calibrated specifically for capturing the dynamics of coarse sediment motion in river beds, at a grain scale. In this presentation we report details of our experimental validation across a range of flow regimes. The smart pebble contains Inertial Measurements Units (IMUs), which are sensors capable of recording the inertial acceleration and the angular velocity of the rigid bodies into which they are attached. IMUs are available across a range of performance levels, with commensurate increase in size, cost and performance as one progresses from integrated-circuit devices for use in commercial applications such as gaming and mobile phones, to larger brick-sized systems sometimes found in industrial applications such as vibration monitoring and quality control, or even the rack-mount equipment used in some aerospace and navigation applications (which can go as far as to include lasers and optical components). In parallel with developments in commercial and industrial settings, geomorphologists started recently to explore means of deploying IMUs in smart pebbles. The less-expensive, chip-scale IMUs have been shown to have adequate performance for this application, as well as offering a sufficiently compact form-factor. Four prototype sensors have been developed so far, and the latest (400 g acceleration range, 50-200 Hz sampling frequency) has been tested in fluvial laboratory experiments. We present results from three different experimental regimes designed for the evaluation of this sensor: a) an entrainment threshold experiment ; b) a bed impact experiment ; and c) a rolling experiment. All experiments used a 100 mm spherical sensor, and set a) were repeated using an equivalent size elliptical sensor. The experiments were conducted in the fluvial laboratory of the University of Glasgow (0.9 m wide flume) under different hydraulic conditions. The use of

  18. Inertial mass from Unruh temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, J.; McCulloch, M. E.

    2016-05-01

    It has been proposed that inertia can be explained as follows: when objects accelerate in one direction, a Rindler horizon forms in the other direction suppressing Unruh radiation on that side and producing a net Unruh radiation pressure that always opposes the acceleration, just like inertia. So far, this model has predicted masses over twice those expected. In this paper, an error in this model is corrected so that its prediction improves to within 29% of the expected Planck mass. It is also shown that inertial mass may be understood qualitatively by applying Carnot’s principle and entropy to Unruh temperatures, so that the work needed for inertia comes from the difference in the Unruh temperatures seen by the accelerated object and the cosmos. This implies that highly-accelerated systems may emit heat in a new way.

  19. Implementing Silicon Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors as Arrays for Multiple Ion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph L. Stoop

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ionic gradients play a crucial role in the physiology of the human body, ranging from metabolism in cells to muscle contractions or brain activities. To monitor these ions, inexpensive, label-free chemical sensing devices are needed. Field-effect transistors (FETs based on silicon (Si nanowires or nanoribbons (NRs have a great potential as future biochemical sensors as they allow for the integration in microscopic devices at low production costs. Integrating NRs in dense arrays on a single chip expands the field of applications to implantable electrodes or multifunctional chemical sensing platforms. Ideally, such a platform is capable of detecting numerous species in a complex analyte. Here, we demonstrate the basis for simultaneous sodium and fluoride ion detection with a single sensor chip consisting of arrays of gold-coated SiNR FETs. A microfluidic system with individual channels allows modifying the NR surfaces with self-assembled monolayers of two types of ion receptors sensitive to sodium and fluoride ions. The functionalization procedure results in a differential setup having active fluoride- and sodium-sensitive NRs together with bare gold control NRs on the same chip. Comparing functionalized NRs with control NRs allows the compensation of non-specific contributions from changes in the background electrolyte concentration and reveals the response to the targeted species.

  20. Spectral gaps, inertial manifolds and kinematic dynamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Manuel [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.es

    2005-10-17

    Inertial manifolds are desirable objects when ones wishes a dynamical process to behave asymptotically as a finite-dimensional ones. Recently [Physica D 194 (2004) 297] these manifolds are constructed for the kinematic dynamo problem with time-periodic velocity. It turns out, however, that the conditions imposed on the fluid velocity to guarantee the existence of inertial manifolds are too demanding, in the sense that they imply that all the solutions tend exponentially to zero. The inertial manifolds are meaningful because they represent different decay rates, but the classical dynamos where the magnetic field is maintained or grows are not covered by this approach, at least until more refined estimates are found.

  1. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology and the effect of multiple-ion interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharma-Wardana, M W C

    2017-09-01

    High incidence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDU) prevalent in many countries (e.g., Sri Lanka, equatorial America) is reviewed in the context of recent experimental work and using our understanding of the hydration of ions and proteins. Qualitative considerations based on Hofmeister-type action of these ions, as well as quantitative electrochemical models for the Gibbs free energy change for ionpair formation, are used to explain why (1) fluoride and water hardness due to magnesium ions (but not due to calcium ions) and similarly (2) cadmium ions in the presence of suitable pairing ions can be expected to be more nephrotoxic, while arsenite in the presence of fluoride and hardness may be expected to be less nephrotoxic. No synergy of arsenic with calcium hardness is found. The analysis is applied to a variety of ionic species that may be found in typical water sources to predict their likely combined electrochemical action. These results clarify the origins of chronic kidney disease that has reached epidemic proportions in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka as being most likely due to the joint presence of fluoride and magnesium ions in drinking water. The conclusion is further strengthened by a study of the dietary load of Cd and other toxins in the affected regions and in the healthy regions where the dietary toxin loads and lifestyles are similar, and found to be safe especially when the mitigating effects of micronutrient ionic forms of Zn, Se, as well as corrections for bioavailability are taken into account. The resulting etiological picture is consistent with the views of most workers in the field who have suspected that fluoride and other ions found in the hard water stagnant in shallow household wells were the major causative factors of the disease. Similar incidence of CKDu found in other hot tropical climates is likely to have similar origins.

  2. Inertial Confinement Fusion Materials Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, A V

    2004-06-01

    Demonstration of thermonuclear ignition and gain on a laboratory scale is one of science's grand challenges. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is committed to achieving inertial confinement fusion (ICF) by 2010. Success in this endeavor depends on four elements: the laser driver performance, target design, experimental diagnostics performance, and target fabrication and target materials performance. This article discusses the current state of target fabrication and target materials performance. The first three elements will only be discussed insofar as they relate to target fabrication specifications and target materials performance. Excellent reviews of the physics of ICF are given by Lindl [Lindl 1998] and Lindl et al. [Lindl 2004]. To achieve conditions under which inertial confinement is sufficient to achieve thermonuclear burn, an imploded fuel capsule is compressed to conditions of high density and temperature. In the laboratory a driver is required to impart energy to the capsule to effect an implosion. There are three drivers currently being considered for ICF in the laboratory: high-powered lasers, accelerated heavy ions, and x rays resulting from pulsed power machines. Of these, high-powered lasers are the most developed, provide the most symmetric drive, and provide the most energy. Laser drive operates in two configurations. The first is direct drive where the laser energy impinges directly on the ICF capsule and drives the implosion. The second is indirect drive, where the energy from the laser is first absorbed in a high-Z enclosure or hohlraum surrounding the capsule, and the resulting x-rays emitted by the hohlraum material drives the implosion. Using direct drive the laser beam energy is absorbed by the electrons in the outer corona of the target. The electrons transport the energy to the denser shell region to provide the ablation and the resulting implosion. Laser direct drive is generally less efficient and more hydrodynamically unstable

  3. Micro-system inertial sensing technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, James Joe

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of Micro-System technology as it applies to inertial sensing. Transduction methods are reviewed with capacitance and piezoresistive being the most often used in COTS Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) inertial sensors. Optical transduction is the most recent transduction method having significant impact on improving sensor resolution. A few other methods are motioned which are in a R&D status to hopefully allow MEMS inertial sensors to become viable as a navigation grade sensor. The accelerometer, gyroscope and gravity gradiometer are the type of inertial sensors which are reviewed in this report. Their method of operation and a sampling of COTS sensors and grade are reviewed as well.

  4. Time and Relative Distance Inertial Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precise location information is critical for crewmembers for safe EVA Moon and Mars exploration. Current inertial navigation systems are too bulky, fragile, and...

  5. One possible interaction-inertial interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    Proposed in this paper is a possible interaction which exists in nature - inertial interaction. It gives matter an inertia and inertial mass. The formula of inertial mass has been derived. It is possible that inertial interaction leads to the redshifts of quasars, the rotation curve of spiral galaxy, the accelerating expansion of the universe, and the stronger gravitational lens effects of quasars, galaxies, or clusters of galaxies. Einstein's Gravitational Equation has been modified. Gravitational redshift, perihelion precession, and bending of light in spherically symmetric vacuum gravitational field are calculated. The differential equations of static spherically symmetric star's internal evolution are given. The accelerating expansion stage of the universe evolution equations are derived. The evolution of the universe is periodic. Time does not have an origin. There is no Big Bang. Although there is divergent singularity, there is no universe's singularity of incomplete geodesic. There are no horizon prob...

  6. MEMS inertial sensors with integral rotation means.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Stewart M.

    2003-09-01

    The state-of-the-art of inertial micro-sensors (gyroscopes and accelerometers) has advanced to the point where they are displacing the more traditional sensors in many size, power, and/or cost-sensitive applications. A factor limiting the range of application of inertial micro-sensors has been their relatively poor bias stability. The incorporation of an integral sensitive axis rotation capability would enable bias mitigation through proven techniques such as indexing, and foster the use of inertial micro-sensors in more accuracy-sensitive applications. Fabricating the integral rotation mechanism in MEMS technology would minimize the penalties associated with incorporation of this capability, and preserve the inherent advantages of inertial micro-sensors.

  7. Inertial Upper Stage Thermal Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-12

    REPORT SD-TR-89-26 Inertial Upper Stage Thermal Test Program D. J. SPENCER and H. A. BIXLER Aerophysics Laboratory Laboratory Operations The...TITLE (Include Security Classification) Inertial Upper Stage Thermal Test Program 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Spencer, Donald J., and Bixler, Henry A. 13a...by the laboratory thermal test program under consideration here. Details of the IUS launch vehicle characteristics and corrective action taken in

  8. Segregation of helicity in inertial wave packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, A.

    2017-03-01

    Inertial waves are known to exist in the Earth's rapidly rotating outer core and could be important for the dynamo generation. It is well known that a monochromatic inertial plane wave traveling parallel to the rotation axis (along positive z ) has negative helicity while the wave traveling antiparallel (negative z ) has positive helicity. Such a helicity segregation, north and south of the equator, is necessary for the α2-dynamo model based on inertial waves [Davidson, Geophys. J. Int. 198, 1832 (2014), 10.1093/gji/ggu220] to work. The core is likely to contain a myriad of inertial waves of different wave numbers and frequencies. In this study, we investigate whether this characteristic of helicity segregation also holds for an inertial wave packet comprising waves with the same sign of Cg ,z, the z component of group velocity. We first derive the polarization relations for inertial waves and subsequently derive the resultant helicity in wave packets forming as a result of superposition of two or more waves. We find that the helicity segregation does hold for an inertial wave packet unless the wave numbers of the constituent waves are widely separated. In the latter case, regions of opposite color helicity do appear, but the mean helicity retains the expected sign. An illustration of this observation is provided by (a) calculating the resultant helicity for a wave packet formed by superposition of four upward-propagating inertial waves with different wave vectors and (b) conducting the direct numerical simulation of a Gaussian eddy under rapid rotation. Last, the possible effects of other forces such as the viscous dissipation, the Lorentz force, buoyancy stratification, and nonlinearity on helicity are investigated and discussed. The helical structure of the wave packet is likely to remain unaffected by dissipation or the magnetic field, but can be modified by the presence of linearly stable stratification and nonlinearity.

  9. The NIM Inertial Mass Measurement Project

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shisong; He, Qing; Li, Zhengkun; Zhao, Wei; Han, Bing; Lu, Yunfeng

    2014-01-01

    An inertial mass measurement project, which is expected to precisely measure the Planck constant, $h$, for possible comparisons with known gravitational mass measurement projects, e.g., the watt balance and the Avogadro project, is being carried out at the National Institute of Metrology, China. The principle, apparatus, and experimental investigations of the inertial mass measurement are presented. The prototype of the experiment and the Planck constant with relative uncertainty of several parts in $10^{4}$ have been achieved for principle testing.

  10. Bubble-Driven Inertial Micropump

    CERN Document Server

    Torniainen, Erik D; Markel, David P; Kornilovitch, Pavel E

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental action of the bubble-driven inertial micropump is investigated. The pump has no moving parts and consists of a thermal resistor placed asymmetrically within a straight channel connecting two reservoirs. Using numerical simulations, the net flow is studied as a function of channel geometry, resistor location, vapor bubble strength, fluid viscosity, and surface tension. Two major regimes of behavior are identified: axial and non-axial. In the axial regime, the drive bubble either remains inside the channel or continues to grow axially when it reaches the reservoir. In the non-axial regime the bubble grows out of the channel and in all three dimensions while inside the reservoir. The net flow in the axial regime is parabolic with respect to the hydraulic diameter of the channel cross-section but in the non-axial regime it is not. From numerical modeling, it is determined that the net flow is maximal when the axial regime crosses over to the non-axial regime. To elucidate the basic physical princi...

  11. Isotope ratio measurements of pg-size plutonium samples using TIMS in combination with "multiple ion counting" and filament carburization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakopic, Rozle; Richter, Stephan; Kühn, Heinz; Benedik, Ljudmila; Pihlar, Boris; Aregbe, Yetunde

    2009-01-01

    A sample preparation procedure for isotopic measurements using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) was developed which employs the technique of carburization of rhenium filaments. Carburized filaments were prepared in a special vacuum chamber in which the filaments were exposed to benzene vapour as a carbon supply and carburized electrothermally. To find the optimal conditions for the carburization and isotopic measurements using TIMS, the influence of various parameters such as benzene pressure, carburization current and the exposure time were tested. As a result, carburization of the filaments improved the overall efficiency by one order of magnitude. Additionally, a new "multi-dynamic" measurement technique was developed for Pu isotope ratio measurements using a "multiple ion counting" (MIC) system. This technique was combined with filament carburization and applied to the NBL-137 isotopic standard and samples of the NUSIMEP 5 inter-laboratory comparison campaign, which included certified plutonium materials at the ppt-level. The multi-dynamic measurement technique for plutonium, in combination with filament carburization, has been shown to significantly improve the precision and accuracy for isotopic analysis of environmental samples with low-levels of plutonium.

  12. Inertial response from wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ian F.

    Wind power is an essential part of the strategy to address challenges facing the energy sector. Operation of the electricity network in 2020 will require higher levels of response and reserve from generation. The provision of inertial response from wind turbines was investigated. A model was developed for the simulation of frequency on the mainland UK system, including a simplified model for a synchronous generator to represent Full Power Converter turbines. Two different methods of inertia response, the step method and the inertia coupling method, were modelled and introduced into the turbine torque speed control. Simulations illustrated the effects on primary frequency control for a high penetration of wind turbines. Results are shown for different demand levels with generation losses of 1320GW and 1800GW. A comparison of the inertia functions is included and the effect of wind speed and the constant speed region of the maximum power extraction curve. For the scenarios modelled only a small change in turbine output was required for inertia response (0.02p.u). Without inertia response a large increase in synchronous plant response was needed. A test rig was constructed consisting of a Full Power Converter bridge and a synchronous generator driven by a dc machine. Power converters were designed and constructed by the candidate. Vector control of both the generator converter and grid converter was implemented on a dedicated control platform. The inertia coupling function was implemented and a test frequency deviation injected to represent a load generation imbalance. Results compared closely to those from the model and demonstrated the capability to closely couple turbine speed to system frequency with adjustment of the response via a filter if desired. The experimental work confirmed the adequacy of the simplified generator model and further confirmed the possibility of using inertia response. The inertia coupling function was considered suitable for use for the UK

  13. Theory of inertial waves in rotating fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelash, Andrey; L'vov, Victor; Zakharov, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    The inertial waves emerge in the geophysical and astrophysical flows as a result of Earth rotation [1]. The linear theory of inertial waves is known well [2] while the influence of nonlinear effects of wave interactions are subject of many recent theoretical and experimental studies. The three-wave interactions which are allowed by inertial waves dispersion law (frequency is proportional to cosine of the angle between wave direction and axes of rotation) play an exceptional role. The recent studies on similar type of waves - internal waves, have demonstrated the possibility of formation of natural wave attractors in the ocean (see [3] and references herein). This wave focusing leads to the emergence of strong three-wave interactions and subsequent flows mixing. We believe that similar phenomena can take place for inertial waves in rotating flows. In this work we present theoretical study of three-wave and four-wave interactions for inertial waves. As the main theoretical tool we suggest the complete Hamiltonian formalism for inertial waves in rotating incompressible fluids [4]. We study three-wave decay instability and then present statistical description of inertial waves in the frame of Hamiltonian formalism. We obtain kinetic equation, anisotropic wave turbulence spectra and study the problem of parametric wave turbulence. These spectra were previously found in [5] by helicity decomposition method. Taking this into account we discuss the advantages of suggested Hamiltonian formalism and its future applications. Andrey Gelash thanks support of the RFBR (Grant No.16-31-60086 mol_a_dk) and Dr. E. Ermanyuk, Dr. I. Sibgatullin for the fruitful discussions. [1] Le Gal, P. Waves and instabilities in rotating and stratified flows, Fluid Dynamics in Physics, Engineering and Environmental Applications. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 25-40, 2013. [2] Greenspan, H. P. The theory of rotating fluids. CUP Archive, 1968. [3] Brouzet, C., Sibgatullin, I. N., Scolan, H., Ermanyuk, E

  14. Dual-use micromechanical inertial sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, John M., Jr.

    1995-03-01

    A new industry, which will provide low-cost silicon-based inertial sensors to the commercial and military markets. is being created. Inertial measurement units are used extensively in military systems, and new versions are expected to find their way into commercial products, such as automobiles, as production costs fall as technology advances. An automotive inertial measurement unit can be expected to perform a complete range of control, diagnostic, and navigation functions. These functions are expected to provide significant active safety, performance, comfort, convenience, and fuel economy advantages to the automotive consumer. An inertial measurement unit applicable to the automobile industry would meet many of the performance requirements for the military in important areas, such as antenna and image stabilization, autopilot control, and the guidance of smart weapons. Such a new industrial base will significantly reduce the acquisition cost of many future tactical weapons systems. An alliance, consisting of the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory and Rockwell International, has been created to develop inertial products for this new industry.

  15. Inertial-range spectrum of whistler turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We develop a theoretical model of an inertial-range energy spectrum for homogeneous whistler turbulence. The theory is a generalization of the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan concept of the inertial-range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. In the model the dispersion relation is used to derive scaling laws for whistler waves at highly oblique propagation with respect to the mean magnetic field. The model predicts an energy spectrum for such whistler waves with a spectral index −2.5 in the perpendicular component of the wave vector and thus provides an interpretation about recent discoveries of the second inertial-range of magnetic energy spectra at high frequencies in the solar wind.

  16. Foot mounted inertial system for pedestrian navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godha, S.; Lachapelle, G.

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses algorithmic concepts, design and testing of a system based on a low-cost MEMS-based inertial measurement unit (IMU) and high-sensitivity global positioning system (HSGPS) receivers for seamless personal navigation in a GPS signal degraded environment. The system developed here is mounted on a pedestrian shoe/foot and uses measurements based on the dynamics experienced by the inertial sensors on the user's foot. The IMU measurements are processed through a conventional inertial navigation system (INS) algorithm and are then integrated with HSGPS receiver measurements and dynamics derived constraint measurements using a tightly coupled integration strategy. The ability of INS to bridge the navigation solution is evaluated through field tests conducted indoors and in severely signal degraded forest environments. The specific focus is on evaluating system performance under challenging GPS conditions.

  17. Indoor inertial waypoint navigation for the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Whalen, William E; Giudice, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Indoor navigation technology is needed to support seamless mobility for the visually impaired. This paper describes the construction and evaluation of an inertial dead reckoning navigation system that provides real-time auditory guidance along mapped routes. Inertial dead reckoning is a navigation technique coupling step counting together with heading estimation to compute changes in position at each step. The research described here outlines the development and evaluation of a novel navigation system that utilizes information from the mapped route to limit the problematic error accumulation inherent in traditional dead reckoning approaches. The prototype system consists of a wireless inertial sensor unit, placed at the users' hip, which streams readings to a smartphone processing a navigation algorithm. Pilot human trials were conducted assessing system efficacy by studying route-following performance with blind and sighted subjects using the navigation system with real-time guidance, versus offline verbal directions.

  18. Inertial Control of the VIRGO Superattenuator

    CERN Document Server

    Losurdo, G

    1999-01-01

    The VIRGO superattenuator (SA) is effective in depressing the seismic noise below the thermal noise level above 4 Hz. On the other hand, the residual mirror motion associated to the SA normal modes can saturate the dynamics of the interferometer locking system. This motion is reduced implementing a wideband (DC-5 Hz) multidimensional control (the so called inertial damping) which makes use of both accelerometers and position sensors and of a DSP system. Feedback forces are exerted by coil-magnet actuators on the top of the inverted pendulum. The inertial damping is successful in reducing the mirror motion within the requirements. The results are presented.

  19. Inertial manifold of the atmospheric equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平; 丑纪范

    1999-01-01

    For a class of nonlinear evolution equations, their global attractors are studied and the existence of their inertial manifolds is discussed using the truncated method. Then, on the basis of the properties of operators of the atmospheric equations, it is proved that the operator equation of the atmospheric motion with dissipation and external forcing belongs to the class of nonlinear evolution equations. Therefore, it is known that there exists an inertial manifold of the atmospheric equations if the spectral gap condition for the dissipation operator is satisfied. These results furnish a basis for further studying the dynamical properties of global attractor of the atmospheric equations and for designing better numerical scheme.

  20. CHAOTIC DUFFING TYPE OSCILLATOR WITH INERTIAL DAMPING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamaševicius, Arunas; Mykolaitis, Gytis; Kirvaitis, Raimundas

    2009-01-01

    A novel Duffing-Holmes type autonomous chaotic oscillator is described. In comparison with the well-known non-autonomous Duffing-Holmes circuit it lacks the external periodic drive, but includes two extra linear feedback sub-circuits, namely a direct positive feedback loop, and an inertial negative...

  1. Computer simulation technology in inertial confinement (ICF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabe, Takashi (Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-12-01

    Recent development of computational technologies in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is reviewed with a special emphasis on hydrodynamic simulations. The CIP method developed for ICF simulations is one of the typical examples that are used in various fields of physics such as variety of computational fluid dynamics, astrophysics, laser applications, geophysics, and so on. (author).

  2. Inertial Sensor Signals Denoising with Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Raluca EDU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper we propose a new software procedure for processing data from an inertial navigation system boarded on a moving vehicle, in order to achieve accurate navigation information on the displacement of the vehicle in terms of position, speed, acceleration and direction. We divided our research in three phases. In the first phase of our research, we implemented a real-time evaluation criterion with the intention of achieving real-time data from an accelerometer. It is well-known that most errors in the detection of position, velocity and attitude in inertial navigation occur due to difficult numerical integration of noise. In the second phase, we were interested in achieving a better estimation and compensation of the gyro sensor angular speed measurements. The errors of these sensors occur because of their miniaturization, they cannot be eliminated but can be modelled by applying specific signal processing methods. The objective of both studies was to propose a signal processing algorithm, based on Wavelet filter, along with a criterion for evaluating and updating the optimal decomposition level of Wavelet transform for achieving accurate information from inertial sensors. In the third phase of our work we are suggesting the utility of a new complex algorithm for processing data from an inertial measurement unit, containing both miniaturized accelerometers and gyros, after undergoing a series of numerical simulations and after obtaining accurate information on vehicle displacement

  3. Optical alignment of Centaur's inertial guidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, Andrew L.

    1987-01-01

    During Centaur launch operations the launch azimuth of the inertial platform's U-accelerometer input axis must be accurately established and maintained. This is accomplished by using an optically closed loop system with a long-range autotheodolite whose line of sight was established by a first-order survey. A collimated light beam from the autotheodolite intercepts a reflecting Porro prism mounted on the platform azimuth gimbal. Thus, any deviation of the Porro prism from its predetermined heading is optically detected by the autotheodolite. The error signal produced is used to torque the azimuth gimbal back to its required launch azimuth. The heading of the U-accelerometer input axis is therefore maintained automatically. Previously, the autotheodolite system could not distinguish between vehicle sway and rotational motion of the inertial platform unless at least three prisms were used. One prism was mounted on the inertial platform to maintain azimuth alignment, and two prisms were mounted externally on the vehicle to track sway. For example, the automatic azimuth-laying theodolite (AALT-SV-M2) on the Saturn vehilce used three prisms. The results of testing and modifying the AALT-SV-M2 autotheodolite to simultaneously monitor and maintain alignment of the inertial platform and track the sway of the vehicle from a single Porro prism.

  4. Enhanced Subsea Acoustically Aided Inertial Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Juhl

    This thesis deals with enhancing state-of-the-art underwater acoustic–inertial navigation systems that are necessary for deep water robotic operations. Throughout the project intelligent and simple operational solutions to complex real-world problems was emphasized. Offshore hydrocarbon, oil...

  5. Simulation Platform for Vision Aided Inertial Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    canyons, indoors or underground. It is also possible for a GPS signal to be jammed. This weakness motivates the development of alternate navigation ...Johnson, E. N., Magree, D., Wu, A., & Shein, A. (2013). "GPS‐Denied Indoor and Outdoor Monocular Vision Aided Navigation and Control of Unmanned...SIMULATION PLATFORM FOR VISION AIDED INERTIAL NAVIGATION THESIS SEPTEMBER 2014 Jason Gek

  6. The moment of inertia of bird wings and the inertial power requirement for flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg; Rayner

    1995-01-01

    The agility and manoeuvrability of a flying animal and the inertial power required to flap the wings are related to the moment of inertia of the wings. The moments of inertia of the wings of 29 bird species and three bat species were determined using wing strip analysis. We also measured wing length, wing span, wing area, wing mass and body mass. A strong correlation (r2=0.997) was found between the moment of inertia and the product of wing mass and the square of wing length. Using this relationship, it was found that all birds that use their wings for underwater flight had a higher than average moment of inertia. Assuming sinusoidal wing movement, the inertial power requirement was found to be proportional to (body mass)0.799, an exponent close to literature values for both metabolic power output and minimum power required for flight. Ignoring wing retraction, a fairly approximate estimate showed that the inertial power required is 11­15 % of the minimum flight power. If the kinetic energy of the wings is partly converted into aerodynamic (useful) work at stroke reversal, the power loss due to inertial effects may be smaller.

  7. Wakes in Inertial Fusion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ian Norman

    Plasma wave wakes, which are the collective oscillatory response near the plasma frequency to the propagation of particles or electromagnetic waves through a plasma, play a critical role in many plasma processes. New results from backwards stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS), in which wakes with phase velocities much less than the speed of light are induced by the beating of counter-propagating light waves, and from electron beam stopping, in which the wakes are produced by the motion of relativistically propagating electrons through the dense plasma, are discussed. Both processes play important roles in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). In BSRS, laser light is scattered backwards out of the plasma, decreasing the energy available to compress the ICF capsule and affecting the symmetry of where the laser energy hits the hohlraum wall in indirect drive ICF. The plasma wave wake can also generate superthermal electrons that can preheat the core and/or the ablator. Electron beam stopping plays a critical role in the Fast Ignition (FI) ICF concept, in which a beam of relativistic electrons is used to heat the target core to ignition temperatures after the compression stage. The beam stopping power determines the effectiveness of the heating process. This dissertation covers new discoveries on the importance of plasma wave wakes in both BSRS and electron beam stopping. In the SRS studies, 1D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations using OSIRIS are performed, which model a short-duration (˜500/ω0 --1FWHM) counter-propagating scattered light seed pulse in the presence of a constant pump laser with an intensity far below the absolute instability threshold for plasma waves undergoing Landau damping. The seed undergoes linear convective Raman amplification and dominates over the amplification of fluctuations due to particle discreteness. The simulation results are in good agreement with results from a coupled-mode solver when special relativity and the effects of finite size PIC

  8. Indoor inertial navigation application for smartphones with Android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Ł.; Tarapata, G.

    2015-09-01

    Inertial navigation is widely used by the military, in logistics and sailing. In mobile devices, inertial sensors are mostly used as a support for GPS and Wi-Fi-based navigation systems. Inertial-based navigation might prove useful on mobile devices running Android OS. At present, in spite of the accelerometer sensor's precision having been greatly improved, as well as the devices' computing power continuously rising, inertial navigation's precision still suffers. For smartphones, the key solution seems to be the usage of sensor fusion and signal smart filtering, both discussed in this paper. The paper also describes implementation of inertial navigation in Android devices, their analysis as well as test results.

  9. Torque for an Inertial Piezoelectric Rotary Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichun Xing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For a novel inertial piezoelectric rotary motor, the equation of the strain energy in the piezoceramic bimorph and the equations of the strain energy and the kinetic energy in the rotor are given. Based on them, the dynamic equation of the motor is obtained. Using these equations, the inertial driving torque of the motor is investigated. The results show that the impulsive driving torque changes with changing peak voltage of the excitation signal, the piezoelectric stress constant, the thickness of the piezoceramic bimorph, and the rotor radius obviously. Tests about the motor torque are completed which verifies the theory analysis here in. The results can be used to design the operating performance of the motor.

  10. Inertial-confinement fusion with lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, R.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-05-01

    The quest for controlled fusion energy has been ongoing for over a half century. The demonstration of ignition and energy gain from thermonuclear fuels in the laboratory has been a major goal of fusion research for decades. Thermonuclear ignition is widely considered a milestone in the development of fusion energy, as well as a major scientific achievement with important applications in national security and basic sciences. The US is arguably the world leader in the inertial confinement approach to fusion and has invested in large facilities to pursue it, with the objective of establishing the science related to the safety and reliability of the stockpile of nuclear weapons. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, major challenges still remain in the quest for thermonuclear ignition via laser fusion. Here, we review the current state of the art in inertial confinement fusion research and describe the underlying physical principles.

  11. Extended inertial range phenomenology of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaeus, William H.; Zhou, YE

    1989-01-01

    A phenomenological treatment of the inertial range of isotropic statistically steady magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented, extending the theory of Kraichnan (1965). The role of Alfven wave propagation is treated on equal footing with nonlinear convection, leading to a simple generalization of the relations between the times characteristic of wave propagation, convection, energy transfer, and decay of triple correlations. The theory leads to a closed-form steady inertial range spectral law that reduces to the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov laws in appropriate limits. The Kraichnan constant is found to be related in a simple way to the Kolmogorov constant; for typical values of the latter constant, the former has values in the range 1.22-1.87. Estimates of the time scale associated with spectral transfer of energy also emerge from the new approach, generalizing previously presented 'golden rules' for relating the spectral transfer time scale to the Alfven and eddy-turnover time scales.

  12. Tuning particle focusing in inertial microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Kaitlyn; Kahkeshani, Soroush; di Carlo, Dino; Roper, Marcus

    2014-11-01

    Particles in microfluidic devices at finite Reynolds number are subject to two forces: (i) inertial focusing and (ii) particle-particle interactions. Although microfluidic chips exploit these forces to manipulate particles for particle/cell sorting and high throughput flow cytometry, the forces are not understood well enough to allow rational design of devices that can tune and attenuate particle focusing. We present a mathematical model addressing both inertial focusing and particle interactions, and we apply our model to various channel geometries to determine the balance of forces. In addition, we present experimental data that illustrate the accuracy of our model. We will address the following questions: Why do high aspect ratio channels favor two equilibrium positions? Why do particle chains form?

  13. Dynamic Accuracy of Inertial Magnetic Sensor Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    interpolate function to replace the repeating values to ensure the RMS value was only calculated with the ground truth data obtained directly from...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Magnetic, angular rate, and gravity (MARG) sensor modules have extensive applications in inertial...and gravity , MARG, micro-electro-mechanical systems, MEMS, quaternion 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 147 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  14. Membrane-less microfiltration using inertial microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani; Andy Kah Ping Tay; Guofeng Guan; Jongyoon Han

    2015-01-01

    Microfiltration is a ubiquitous and often crucial part of many industrial processes, including biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Yet, all existing filtration systems suffer from the issue of membrane clogging, which fundamentally limits the efficiency and reliability of the filtration process. Herein, we report the development of a membrane-less microfiltration system by massively parallelizing inertial microfluidics to achieve a macroscopic volume processing rates (~ 500 mL/min). We demonstra...

  15. Precise laser gyroscope for autonomous inertial navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, A G; Molchanov, A V; Izmailov, E A [Joint Stock Company ' Moscow Institute of Electromechanics and Automatics' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Chirkin, M V [Ryazan State Radio Engineering University (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-31

    Requirements to gyroscopes of strapdown inertial navigation systems for aircraft application are formulated. The construction of a ring helium – neon laser designed for autonomous navigation is described. The processes that determine the laser service life and the relation between the random error of the angular velocity measurement and the surface relief features of the cavity mirrors are analysed. The results of modelling one of the promising approaches to processing the laser gyroscope signals are presented. (laser gyroscopes)

  16. Towards a Wearable Inertial Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Van Laerhoven, Kristof; Gellersen, Hans; Kern, Nicky; Schiele, Bernt

    2003-01-01

    Abstract. Wearable inertial sensors have become an inexpensive option to measure the movements and positions of a person. Other techniques that use environmental sensors such as ultrasound trackers or vision-based methods need full line of sight or a local setup, and it is complicated to access this data from a wearable computer’s perspective. However, a body-centric approach where sensor data is acquired and processed locally, has a need for appropriate algorithms that have to operate under ...

  17. Inertial focusing of microparticles and its limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, FJ; Hooshmand Zadeh, S.; Wu, ZG; Hjort, K.

    2016-10-01

    Microfluidic devices are useful tools for healthcare, biological and chemical analysis and materials synthesis amongst fields that can benefit from the unique physics of these systems. In this paper we studied inertial focusing as a tool for hydrodynamic sorting of particles by size. Theory and experimental results are provided as a background for a discussion on how to extend the technology to submicron particles. Different geometries and dimensions of microchannels were designed and simulation data was compared to the experimental results.

  18. High throughput-per-footprint inertial focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftlik, Ata Tuna; Ettori, Maxime; Gijs, Martin A M

    2013-08-26

    Matching the scale of microfluidic flow systems with that of microelectronic chips for realizing monolithically integrated systems still needs to be accomplished. However, this is appealing only if such re-scaling does not compromise the fluidic throughput. This is related to the fact that the cost of microelectronic circuits primarily depends on the layout footprint, while the performance of many microfluidic systems, like flow cytometers, is measured by the throughput. The simple operation of inertial particle focusing makes it a promising technique for use in such integrated flow cytometer applications, however, microfluidic footprints demonstrated so far preclude monolithic integration. Here, the scaling limits of throughput-per-footprint (TPFP) in using inertial focusing are explored by studying the interplay between theory, the effect of channel Reynolds numbers up to 1500 on focusing, the entry length for the laminar flow to develop, and pressure resistance of the microchannels. Inertial particle focusing is demonstrated with a TPFP up to 0.3 L/(min cm²) in high aspect-ratio rectangular microfluidic channels that are readily fabricated with a post-CMOS integratable process, suggesting at least a 100-fold improvement compared to previously demonstrated techniques. Not only can this be an enabling technology for realizing cost-effective monolithically integrated flow cytometry devices, but the methodology represented here can also open perspectives for miniaturization of many biomedical microfluidic applications requiring monolithic integration with microelectronics without compromising the throughput.

  19. Inertial Focusing of Microparticles in Curvilinear Microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbey, Arzu; Karimzadehkhouei, Mehrdad; Akgönül, Sarp; Gozuacik, Devrim; Koşar, Ali

    2016-12-01

    A passive, continuous and size-dependent focusing technique enabled by “inertial microfluidics”, which takes advantage of hydrodynamic forces, is implemented in this study to focus microparticles. The objective is to analyse the decoupling effects of inertial forces and Dean drag forces on microparticles of different sizes in curvilinear microchannels with inner radius of 800 μm and curvature angle of 280°, which have not been considered in the literature related to inertial microfluidics. This fundamental approach gives insight into the underlying physics of particle dynamics and offers continuous, high-throughput, label-free and parallelizable size-based particle separation. Our design allows the same footprint to be occupied as straight channels, which makes parallelization possible with optical detection integration. This feature is also useful for ultrahigh-throughput applications such as flow cytometers with the advantages of reduced cost and size. The focusing behaviour of 20, 15 and 10 μm fluorescent polystyrene microparticles was examined for different channel Reynolds numbers. Lateral and vertical particle migrations and the equilibrium positions of these particles were investigated in detail, which may lead to the design of novel microfluidic devices with high efficiency and high throughput for particle separation, rapid detection and diagnosis of circulating tumour cells with reduced cost.

  20. Gyroscopic Inertial Micro-Balance Azimuth Locator (GIMBAL) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI) proposes the Gyroscopic Inertial Micro-Balance Azimuth Locator (GIMBAL) program to use an innovative encapsulated spinning...

  1. INERTIAL ALGORITHMS FOR THE STATIONARY NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Yanren(侯延仁); R.M.M. Mattheij

    2003-01-01

    Several kind of new numerical schemes for the stationary Navier-Stokes equa-tions based on the virtue of Inertial Manifold and Approximate Inertial Manifold, whichwe call them inertial algorithms in this paper, together with their error estimations are pre-sented. All these algorithms are constructed under an uniform frame, that is to constructsome kind of new projections for the Sobolev space in which the true solution is sought.It is shown that the proposed inertial algorithms can greatly improve the convergence rateof the standard Galerkin approximate solution with lower computing effort. And somenumerical examples are also given to verify results of this paper.

  2. Distributed chaos and inertial ranges in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that appearance of inertial range of scales, adjacent to distributed chaos range, results in adiabatic invariance of an energy correlation integral for isotropic homogeneous turbulence and for buoyancy driven turbulence (with stable or unstable stratification, including Rayleigh-Taylor mixing zone). Power spectrum of velocity field for distributed chaos dominated by this adiabatic invariant has a stretched exponential form $\\propto \\exp(-k/k_{\\beta})^{3/5}$. Results of recent direct numerical simulations have been used in order to support these conclusions.

  3. Fault tolerant highly reliable inertial navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeerage, Mahesh; Boettcher, Kevin

    This paper describes a development of failure detection and isolation (FDI) strategies for highly reliable inertial navigation systems. FDI strategies are developed based on the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT). A relationship between detection threshold and false alarm rate is developed in terms of the sensor parameters. A new method for correct isolation of failed sensors is presented. Evaluation of FDI performance parameters, such as false alarm rate, wrong isolation probability, and correct isolation probability, are presented. Finally a fault recovery scheme capable of correcting false isolation of good sensors is presented.

  4. Diamond Ablators for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, J; Mirkarimi, P B; Tringe, J W; Baker, S L; Wang, Y M; Kucheyev, S O; Teslich, N E; Wu, K J; Hamza, A V; Wild, C; Woerner, E; Koidl, P; Bruehne, K; Fecht, H

    2005-06-21

    Diamond has a unique combination of physical properties for the inertial confinement fusion ablator application, such as appropriate optical properties, high atomic density, high yield strength, and high thermal conductivity. Here, we present a feasible concept to fabricate diamond ablator shells. The fabrication of diamond capsules is a multi-step process, which involves diamond chemical vapor deposition on silicon mandrels followed by polishing, microfabrication of holes, and removing of the silicon mandrel by an etch process. We also discuss the pros and cons of coarse-grained optical quality and nanocrystalline chemical vapor deposition diamond films for the ablator application.

  5. Application of inertial sensors for motion analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Soha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our results on the application of various inertial sensors for motion analysis. After the introduction of different sensor types (accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetic field sensor, we discuss the possible data collection and transfer techniques using embedded signal processing and wireless data communication methods [1,2]. Special consideration is given to the interpretation of accelerometer readings, which contains both the static and dynamic components, and is affected by the orientation and rotation of the sensor. We will demonstrate the possibility to decompose these components for quasiperiodic motions. Finally we will demonstrate the application of commercially available devices (Wii sensor, Kinect sensor, mobile phone for motion analysis applications.

  6. Cold-atom Inertial Sensor without Deadtime

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Bess; Savoie, Denis; Venon, Bertrand; Alzar, Carlos L Garrido; Geiger, Remi; Landragin, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    We report the operation of a cold-atom inertial sensor in a joint interrogation scheme, where we simultaneously prepare a cold-atom source and operate an atom interferometer in order to eliminate dead times. Noise aliasing and dead times are consequences of the sequential operation which is intrinsic to cold-atom atom interferometers. Both phenomena have deleterious effects on the performance of these sensors. We show that our continuous operation improves the short-term sensitivity of atom interferometers, by demonstrating a record rotation sensitivity of $100$ nrad.s$^{-1}/\\sqrt{\\rm Hz}$ in a cold-atom gyroscope of $11$ cm$^2$ Sagnac area. We also demonstrate a rotation stability of $1$ nrad.s$^{-1}$ after $10^4$ s of integration, improving previous results by an order of magnitude. We expect that the continuous operation will allow cold-atom inertial sensors with long interrogation time to reach their full sensitivity, determined by the quantum noise limit.

  7. Contributions on Laser Driven Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Hora

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The following modified preprint of a chapter in the forthcoming book by Guillermo Velarde and Natividad Carpintero Santamaria Inertial Confinement Nuclear Fusion: A Historical Approach by its Pioneers with personal comments is presented here as an example about the long years difficult developments towards the aim for producing unlimited, safe and clean nuclear energy in the same way as it is the energy source of the sun. There are arguments that the most recent developments with the plasma block ignition using petawatt-picosecond laser pulses may lead to a fusion power station with a highly simplified operation such that the cost of electricity may be three or more times lower than any energy source on earth, opening the golden age with dramatic consequences for human life and the environment. Applied sciences in all fields, economics and politics may be stimulated just by considering these consequences though these new results on Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE need to be further examined and developed on a broad basis.

  8. Review of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-03-29

    Igniting fusion fuel in the laboratory remains an alluring goal for two reasons: the desire to study matter under the extreme conditions needed for fusion burn, and the potential of harnessing the energy released as an attractive energy source for mankind. The inertial confinement approach to fusion involves rapidly compressing a tiny spherical capsule of fuel, initially a few millimeters in radius, to densities and temperatures higher than those in the core of the sun. The ignited plasma is confined solely by its own inertia long enough for a significant fraction of the fuel to burn before the plasma expands, cools down and the fusion reactions are quenched. The potential of this confinement approach as an attractive energy source is being studied in the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program, which is the subject of this report. A complex set of interrelated requirements for IFE has motivated the study of novel potential solutions. Three types of “drivers” for fuel compression are presently studied: high-averagepower lasers (HAPL), heavy-ion (HI) accelerators, and Z-Pinches. The three main approaches to IFE are based on these drivers, along with the specific type of target (which contains the fuel capsule) and chamber that appear most promising for a particular driver.

  9. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  10. Gyroscopes for Orientation and Inertial Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Marjanović Kavanagh

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the main elements of gyro-theodolites and inertial navigation systems are provided. The main function principles of mechanical gyros are explained and the main difficulties in maintenance and sources of errors while measuring with gyros and gyro-theodolites are listed. The principles of RLG and FOG gyros and the principles of inertial navigation are explained. The main differences of a guided platform and a strap-down system are explained. A brief review of mathematical expressions for position coordinate- determination from double integration of acceleration measurements from accelerometers is given. It is indicated on difficulties in INS application during a long time period caused by insufficient knowledge of gravity acceleration due to locally gravity anomalies and gyro-drift. The necessity of INS signal correction using another positioning system like GNSS is pointed out, applying Kalman filter algorithms for interpolation between two measuring points so as position prediction of points which are not measured. 

  11. Integrated micro-electro-mechanical sensor development for inertial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.J.; Kinney, R.D.; Sarsfield, J. [and others

    1998-04-01

    Electronic sensing circuitry and micro electro mechanical sense elements can be integrated to produce inertial instruments for applications unheard of a few years ago. This paper will describe the Sandia M3EMS fabrication process, inertial instruments that have been fabricated, and the results of initial characterization tests of micro-machined accelerometers.

  12. Inertial Force Coupling to Nonlinear Aeroelasticity of Flexible Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ting, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the inertial force effect on nonlinear aeroelasticity of flexible wing aircraft. The geometric are nonlinearity due to rotational and tension stiffening. The effect of large bending deflection will also be investigated. Flutter analysis will be conducted for a truss-braced wing aircraft concept with tension stiffening and inertial force coupling.

  13. Dispersion of (light) inertial particles in stratified turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aartrijk, M.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Armenio, Vincenzo; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Fröhlich, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    We present a brief overview of a numerical study of the dispersion of particles in stably stratified turbulence. Three types of particles arc examined: fluid particles, light inertial particles ($\\rho_p/\\rho_f = \\mathcal{O}(1)$) and heavy inertial particles ($\\rho_p/\\rho_f \\gg 1$). Stratification

  14. The dynamics of small inertial particles in weakly stratified turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aartrijk, M.; Clercx, H.J.H.

    We present an overview of a numerical study on the small-scale dynamics and the large-scale dispersion of small inertial particles in stably stratified turbulence. Three types of particles are examined: fluid particles, light inertial particles (with particle-to-fluid density ratio 1Ͽp/Ͽf25) and

  15. Multiple Ion Cluster Source for the Generation of Magnetic Nanoparticles: Investigation of the Efficiency as a Function of the Working Parameters for the Case of Cobalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Llamosa Perez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present dataset of Co nanoparticles production using a Multiple Ion Cluster Source (MICS. We study the evolution of the mean size and deposition rate of Co nanoparticles as a function of the power and argon flux applied to the Co magnetron, the aggregation length of the Co magnetron and the total argon flux. The results show the strong influence of these parameters on the mean size of the nanoparticles and the efficiency of the process as well as on the atomic deposition rate. In particular, it is shown that nanoparticles of mean size ranging from 4 to 14 nm can be produced and that the influence of the working parameters on the production of magnetic nanoparticles is more complex than for the case of noble metal presented previously.

  16. The effect of static pressure on the inertial cavitation threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Kenneth B; Raymond, Jason L; Mobley, Joel; Church, Charles C; Felipe Gaitan, D

    2012-08-01

    The amplitude of the acoustic pressure required to nucleate a gas or vapor bubble in a fluid, and to have that bubble undergo an inertial collapse, is termed the inertial cavitation threshold. The magnitude of the inertial cavitation threshold is typically limited by mechanisms other than homogeneous nucleation such that the theoretical maximum is never achieved. However, the onset of inertial cavitation can be suppressed by increasing the static pressure of the fluid. The inertial cavitation threshold was measured in ultrapure water at static pressures up to 30 MPa (300 bars) by exciting a radially symmetric standing wave field in a spherical resonator driven at a resonant frequency of 25.5 kHz. The threshold was found to increase linearly with the static pressure; an exponentially decaying temperature dependence was also found. The nature and properties of the nucleating mechanisms were investigated by comparing the measured thresholds to an independent analysis of the particulate content and available models for nucleation.

  17. Effect of friction on the performance of inertial slider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Anantheshwara; N S Murali; M S Bobji

    2008-06-01

    Inertial sliders are friction based drives used to position with a resolution of a few hundred of nanometers to over a range of few millimeters. The compactness and simple construction enabled it to be used as a coarse positioner in various Scanning Probe Microscopes (SPM). Even heavy masses has been thought off earlier to use the inertial slider to position precisely, lack of understanding in the dynamical friction behaviour has been the main reason why the inertial sliders potential has not been explored fully in any practical device. In this paper, we have studied the effect of different operating parameters on the step size of the slider. The inertial mass is kept on three sapphire balls, which are attached to shear piezoelectric material. The behaviour of inertial mass was studied for different input waveforms and different surface conditions that come in contact with the sapphire balls. It was observed that under lubricated conditions the step size was reduced.

  18. MEMS Aluminum Nitride Technology for Inertial Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigevani, Gabriele

    2011-12-01

    The design and fabrication of MEMS Inertial Sensors (both accelerometers and gyroscopes) made of Aluminum Nitride (AlN) is described in this dissertation. The goal of this work is to design and fabricate inertial sensors based on c-axis oriented AlN polycrystalline thin films. AlN is a post-CMOS compatible piezoelectric material widely used for acoustic resonators, such Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) and Lamb Wave Resonators (LWR). In this work we develop the design techniques necessary to obtain inertial sensors with AlN thin film technology. Being able to use AlN as structural material for both acoustic wave resonator and sensing elements is key to achieve the three level integration of RF-MEMS components, sensing elements and CMOS in the same chip. Using AlN as integration platform is particularly suitable for large consumer emerging markets where production costs are the major factor that determine a product success. In order to achieve a platform integration, the first part of this work focuses on the fabrication process: starting from the fabrication technology used for LWR devices, this work shows that by slightly modifying some of the fabrication steps it is possible to obtain MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes with the same structural layers used for LWR. In the second part of this work, an extensive analysis, performed with analytical and Finite Element Models (FEM), is developed for beam and ring based structures. These models are of great importance as they provide tools to understand the physics of lateral piezoelectric beam actuation and the major limitations of this technology. Based on the models developed for beam based resonators, we propose two designs for Double Ended Tuning Fork (DETF) based accelerometers. In the last part of the dissertation, we show the experimental results and the measurements performed on actual devices. As this work shows analytically and experimentally, there are some fundamental constraints that limit the ultimate sensitivity

  19. Inertial measurement unit-camera calibration based on incomplete inertial sensor information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong LIU; Yu-long ZHOU; Zhao-peng GU

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of estimating the relative orientation between an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a camera. Unlike most existing IMU-camera calibrations, the main challenge in this paper is that the information output from the IMU is incomplete. For example, only two tilt information can be read from the gravity sensor of a smart phone. Despite incomplete inertial information, there are strong restrictions between the IMU and camera coordinate systems. This paper addresses the incomplete information based IMU-camera calibration problem by exploiting the intrinsic restrictions among the coordinate transformations. First, the IMU transformation between two poses is formulated with the unknown IMU information. Then the defective IMU information is restored using the complementary visual information. Finally, the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm is applied to estimate the optimal calibration result in noisy environments. Experiments on both synthetic and real data show the validity and robustness of our algorithm.

  20. Study on Improvement of Accuracy in Inertial Photogrammetry by Combining Images with Inertial Measurement Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hideaki; Anzai, Shojiro; Koizumi, Toshio

    2016-06-01

    Inertial photogrammetry is defined as photogrammetry that involves using a camera on which an inertial measurement unit (IMU) is mounted. In inertial photogrammetry, the position and inclination of a shooting camera are calculated using the IMU. An IMU is characterized by error growth caused by time accumulation because acceleration is integrated with respect to time. This study examines the procedure to estimate the position of the camera accurately while shooting using the IMU and the structure from motion (SfM) technology, which is applied in many fields, such as computer vision. When neither the coordinates of the position of the camera nor those of feature points are known, SfM provides a similar positional relationship between the position of the camera and feature points. Therefore, the actual length of positional coordinates is not determined. If the actual length of the position of the camera is unknown, the camera acceleration is obtained by calculating the second order differential of the position of the camera, with respect to the shooting time. The authors had determined the actual length by assigning the position of IMU to the SfM-calculated position. Hence, accuracy decreased because of the error growth, which was the characteristic feature of IMU. In order to solve this problem, a new calculation method was proposed. Using this method, the difference between the IMU-calculated acceleration and the camera-calculated acceleration can be obtained using the method of least squares, and the magnification required for calculating the actual dimension from the position of the camera can be obtained. The actual length can be calculated by multiplying all the SfM point groups by the obtained magnification factor. This calculation method suppresses the error growth, which is due to the time accumulation in IMU, and improves the accuracy of inertial photogrammetry.

  1. Generalized Lawson Criteria for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipton, Robert E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-27

    The Lawson Criterion was proposed by John D. Lawson in 1955 as a general measure of the conditions necessary for a magnetic fusion device to reach thermonuclear ignition. Over the years, similar ignition criteria have been proposed which would be suitable for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) designs. This paper will compare and contrast several ICF ignition criteria based on Lawson’s original ideas. Both analytical and numerical results will be presented which will demonstrate that although the various criteria differ in some details, they are closely related and perform similarly as ignition criteria. A simple approximation will also be presented which allows the inference of each ignition parameter directly from the measured data taken on most shots fired at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with a minimum reliance on computer simulations. Evidence will be presented which indicates that the experimentally inferred ignition parameters on the best NIF shots are very close to the ignition threshold.

  2. Membrane-less microfiltration using inertial microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Tay, Andy Kah Ping; Guan, Guofeng; Han, Jongyoon

    2015-07-08

    Microfiltration is a ubiquitous and often crucial part of many industrial processes, including biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Yet, all existing filtration systems suffer from the issue of membrane clogging, which fundamentally limits the efficiency and reliability of the filtration process. Herein, we report the development of a membrane-less microfiltration system by massively parallelizing inertial microfluidics to achieve a macroscopic volume processing rates (~ 500 mL/min). We demonstrated the systems engineered for CHO (10-20 μm) and yeast (3-5 μm) cells filtration, which are two main cell types used for large-scale bioreactors. Our proposed system can replace existing filtration membrane and provide passive (no external force fields), continuous filtration, thus eliminating the need for membrane replacement. This platform has the desirable combinations of high throughput, low-cost, and scalability, making it compatible for a myriad of microfiltration applications and industrial purposes.

  3. Inertial-particle dispersion and diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, Marco Martins [Universite de Toulouse, INP/UPS/CNRS, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse - groupe Particules Spray et Combustion, allee du Professeur Camille Soula, 31400 Toulouse (France); Mazzino, Andrea [Department of Physics - University of Genova, and CNISM and INFN - Genova Section, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo, E-mail: marcomar@fisica.unige.it [Department of Mathematics and Statistics - University of Helsinki, PO Box 4, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-12-22

    We analytically investigate the dynamics of inertial particles in incompressible flows in the limit of small but finite inertia, focusing on two specific instances. First, we study the concentration of particles continuously emitted from a point source with a given exit velocity distribution. The anisotropy of the latter turns out to be a necessary factor for the presence of a correction (with respect to the corresponding tracer case) at order square root of the Stokes number. Secondly, by means of a multiple-scale expansion, we analyse the particle effective diffusivity, and in particular its dependence on Brownian diffusivity, gravity effects and particle-to-fluid density ratio. In both cases, we obtain forced advection-diffusion equations for auxiliary quantities in the physical space, thus simplifying the problem from the full phase space to a system which can easily be solved numerically.

  4. Inertial capture in flow through porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, J. S., Jr.; Araújo, A. D.; Vasconcelos, T. F.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate through numerical calculation of non-Brownian particles transported by a fluid in a porous medium, the influence of geometry and inertial effects on the capture efficiency of the solid matrix. In the case of a periodic array of cylinders and under the action of gravity, our results reveal that δ ˜ St, where δ is the particle capture efficiency, and St is the Stokes number. In the absence of gravity, we observe a typical second order transition between non-trapping and trapping of particles that can be expressed as δ ˜ ( St - St c ) α , with an exponent α ≈ 0.5, where St c is the critical Stokes number. We also perform simulations for flow through a random porous structure and confirm that its capture behavior is consistent with the simple periodic model.

  5. Eddy diffusivities of inertial particles under gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Afonso, Marco Martins; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The large-scale/long-time transport of inertial particles of arbitrary mass density under gravity is investigated by means of a formal multiple-scale perturbative expansion in the scale-separation parametre between the carrier flow and the particle concentration field. The resulting large-scale equation for the particle concentration is determined, and is found to be diffusive with a positive-definite eddy diffusivity. The calculation of the latter tensor is reduced to the resolution of an auxiliary differential problem, consisting of a coupled set of two differential equations in a (6+1)-dimensional coordinate system (3 space coordinates plus 3 velocity coordinates plus time). Although expensive, numerical methods can be exploited to obtain the eddy diffusivity, for any desirable non-perturbative limit (e.g. arbitrary Stokes and Froude numbers). The aforementioned large-scale equation is then specialized to deal with two different relevant perturbative limits: i) vanishing of both Stokes time and sedimenting...

  6. Inertial particles in homogeneous shear turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolai, Claudia; Jacob, Boris [CNR-INSEAN, via di Vallerano 139, 00128 Rome (Italy); Gualtieri, Paolo; Piva, Renzo, E-mail: claudia.nicolai@uniroma1.it [DMA, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy)

    2011-12-22

    The characteristics of inertial particles distribution in a uniformly sheared turbulent flow are investigated, with the aim of quantifying the effects associated with the large-scale anisotropy induced by the mean velocity gradient. The focus of the analysis is on clustering aspects, and in particular on the dependence of the radial distribution function on both the directionality and the magnitude of the observation scale. We discuss experimental data measured in a homogeneous shear flow seeded with particles of size comparable with the Kolmogorov length scale and Stokes number St Almost-Equal-To 0.3, and discuss their distribution properties in comparison with results provided by related one-way coupled direct numerical simulations which make use of the point-force approximation.

  7. High-Gain Magnetized Inertial Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetized inertial fusion (MIF) could substantially ease the difficulty of reaching plasma conditions required for significant fusion yields, but it has been widely accepted that the gain is not sufficient for fusion energy. Numerical simulations are presented showing that high-gain MIF is possible in cylindrical liner implosions based on the MagLIF concept [S. A. Slutz et al Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)PHPAEN1070-664X10.1063/1.3333505] with the addition of a cryogenic layer of deuterium-tritium (DT). These simulations show that a burn wave propagates radially from the magnetized hot spot into the surrounding much denser cold DT given sufficient hot-spot areal density. For a drive current of 60 MA the simulated gain exceeds 100, which is more than adequate for fusion energy applications. The simulated gain exceeds 1000 for a drive current of 70 MA.

  8. Technology applications for Magneto Inertial Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrator, T.; Weber, T.; Gao, K.; Yoo, C.; Klarenbeek, J.

    2012-10-01

    We describe several technology advances that we believe will be helpful for Magneto Inertial Fusion (MIF) experiments. We are developing plasma guns to improve the startup and flux trapping for magnetized plasma field reversed configuration (FRC) targets for MIF compression. This should aid initial pre ionization, freezing in of bias flux, line tie each end to the middle to retard toroidal rotation, and provide end shorting of radial electric fields. We are also developing a novel magnetic field diagnostic that uses a tiny section of Terbium doped optical fiber as a Faraday rotation medium. The optical path and hardware is inexpensive and simple, and has a small form factor that will fit inside a MagLIF capsule, and can be radation hardened. Low noise, optically coupled magnetic field measurements will be possible for vacuum MaGLIF shots.

  9. Tripartite Entanglements in Non-inertial Frames

    CERN Document Server

    Shamirzai, Mahmoud; Soltani, Morteza

    2011-01-01

    Entanglement degradation caused by the Unruh effect is discussed for the tripartite GHZ or W states constructed by modes of a non-interacting quantum field viewed by one inertial observer and two uniformly accelerated observers. For fermionic states, the Unruh effect even for infinite accelerations cannot completely remove the entanglement. However, for the bosonic states, the situation is different and the entanglement vanishes asymptotically. Also, the entanglement is studied for the bipartite subsystems. While for the GHZ states all the bipartite subsystems are identically disentangled, for the W states the bipartite subsystems are somewhat entangled, though, this entanglement can be removed for appropriately accelerated observers. Interestingly, logarithmic negativity as a measure for determining the entanglement of one part of the system relative to the other two parts, is not generally the same for different parts. This means that we encounter tripartite systems where each part is differently entangled ...

  10. Inertial Fusion Energy at Denim (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velarde, G.

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes the history and the research carried out in the field on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) since 1966 at the Spanish Atomic Energy Commission (JEN) up to present time at the Institute of Nuclear Fusion (DENIM) of the Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM), Late in the 70s, we developed the NORCLA code that was the first non-classified coupled code to analyze the different processes held in ICF. Since then, we have developed a set of more accurate codes such as the ARWEN (two-dimensional transport), JIMENA and ANALOP (Atomic physics), ACAB (safety and environmental), material and reactor chambers and advanced fuels. The paper tells also the origins of DENIM and all the efforts made to achieve an international declassification in ICF research. (Author)

  11. Crank inertial load affects freely chosen pedal rate during cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Jørgensen, Lars Vincents; Jensen, Kurt; Fregly, Benjamin Jon; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2002-02-01

    Cyclists seek to maximize performance during competition, and gross efficiency is an important factor affecting performance. Gross efficiency is itself affected by pedal rate. Thus, it is important to understand factors that affect freely chosen pedal rate. Crank inertial load varies greatly during road cycling based on the selected gear ratio. Nevertheless, the possible influence of crank inertial load on freely chosen pedal rate and gross efficiency has never been investigated. This study tested the hypotheses that during cycling with sub-maximal work rates, a considerable increase in crank inertial load would cause (1) freely chosen pedal rate to increase, and as a consequence, (2) gross efficiency to decrease. Furthermore, that it would cause (3) peak crank torque to increase if a constant pedal rate was maintained. Subjects cycled on a treadmill at 150 and 250W, with low and high crank inertial load, and with preset and freely chosen pedal rate. Freely chosen pedal rate was higher at high compared with low crank inertial load. Notably, the change in crank inertial load affected the freely chosen pedal rate as much as did the 100W increase in work rate. Along with freely chosen pedal rate being higher, gross efficiency at 250W was lower during cycling with high compared with low crank inertial load. Peak crank torque was higher during cycling at 90rpm with high compared with low crank inertial load. Possibly, the subjects increased the pedal rate to compensate for the higher peak crank torque accompanying cycling with high compared with low crank inertial load.

  12. A Particle X-ray Temporal Diagnostic (PXTD) for studies of kinetic, multi-ion effects, and ion-electron equilibration rates in Inertial Confinement Fusion plasmas at OMEGA (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sio, H. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Frenje, J. A. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Katz, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Weiner, D. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Bedzyk, M. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Glebov, V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Sorce, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Gatu Johnson, M. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Rinderknecht, H. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Zylstra, A. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Regan, S. P. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Kwan, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA; Le, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA; Simakov, A. N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA; Taitano, W. T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA; Chacòn, L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA; Keenan, B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA; Shah, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA; Sutcliffe, G. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA

    2016-09-14

    A Particle X-ray Temporal Diagnostic (PXTD) has been implemented on OMEGA for simultaneous time-resolved measurements of several nuclear products as well as the x-ray continuum produced in High Energy Density Plasmas and Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions. The PXTD removes systematic timing uncertainties typically introduced by using multiple instruments, and it has been used to measure DD, DT, D3He, and T3He reaction histories and the emission history of the x-ray core continuum with relative timing uncertainties within ±10-20 ps. This enables, for the first time, accurate and simultaneous measurements of the x-ray emission histories, nuclear reaction histories, their time differences, and measurements of Ti(t) and Te(t) from which an assessment of multiple-ion-fluid effects, kinetic effects during the shock-burn phase, and ion-electron equilibration rates can be made.

  13. A Particle X-ray Temporal Diagnostic (PXTD) for studies of kinetic, multi-ion effects, and ion-electron equilibration rates in Inertial Confinement Fusion plasmas at OMEGA (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sio, H.; Frenje, J. A.; Katz, J.; Stoeckl, C.; Weiner, D.; Bedzyk, M.; Glebov, V.; Sorce, C.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Sangster, T. C.; Regan, S. P.; Kwan, T.; Le, A.; Simakov, A. N.; Taitano, W. T.; Chacòn, L.; Keenan, B.; Shah, R.; Sutcliffe, G.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2016-11-01

    A Particle X-ray Temporal Diagnostic (PXTD) has been implemented on OMEGA for simultaneous time-resolved measurements of several nuclear products as well as the x-ray continuum produced in High Energy Density Plasmas and Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions. The PXTD removes systematic timing uncertainties typically introduced by using multiple instruments, and it has been used to measure DD, DT, D3He, and T3He reaction histories and the emission history of the x-ray core continuum with relative timing uncertainties within ±10-20 ps. This enables, for the first time, accurate and simultaneous measurements of the x-ray emission histories, nuclear reaction histories, their time differences, and measurements of Ti(t) and Te(t) from which an assessment of multiple-ion-fluid effects, kinetic effects during the shock-burn phase, and ion-electron equilibration rates can be made.

  14. Human Perception of Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan-Lu

    2010-01-01

    Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that

  15. Development of compact cold-atom sensors for inertial navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Battelier, B; Fouché, L; Chichet, L; Antoni-Micollier, L; Porte, H; Napolitano, F; Lautier, J; Landragin, A; Bouyer, P

    2016-01-01

    Inertial sensors based on cold atom interferometry exhibit many interesting features for applications related to inertial navigation, particularly in terms of sensitivity and long-term stability. However, at present the typical atom interferometer is still very much an experiment---consisting of a bulky, static apparatus with a limited dynamic range and high sensitivity to environmental effects. To be compliant with mobile applications further development is needed. In this work, we present a compact and mobile experiment, which we recently used to achieve the first inertial measurements with an atomic accelerometer onboard an aircraft. By integrating classical inertial sensors into our apparatus, we are able to operate the atomic sensor well beyond its standard operating range, corresponding to half of an interference fringe. We report atom-based acceleration measurements along both the horizontal and vertical axes of the aircraft with one-shot sensitivities of $2.3 \\times 10^{-4}\\,g$ over a range of $\\sim 0...

  16. Gait Kinematic Analysis in Water Using Wearable Inertial Magnetic Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fantozzi, Silvia; Giovanardi, Andrea; Borra, Davide; Gatta, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    .... The aim of the present study was to estimate the 3D joint kinematics of the lower limbs and thorax-pelvis joints in sagittal and frontal planes during underwater walking using wearable inertial and magnetic sensors...

  17. Compact Optical Inertial Tracking for Launch Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a method for developing a miniature all-optical Inertial Navigation System. In an optical INS, the rotation sensitivity depends on the area enclosed by a...

  18. Multiple equilibria of cross-equatorial Inertial jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO JiPing; LIU Fei

    2007-01-01

    Based on the developed Anderson and Moore's theory about cross-equatorial inertial jets and a nonlinear equivalence shallow water model, new universal functions are determined by the characters of the vortical large-scale air flow (atmosphere) or ocean current (ocean) related to the jet, then the potential vorticity and energy conservation equations along the streamline in the cross-equatorial inertial jets can be obtained. Because the governing equations are nonlinear, some limited multiple equilibria of cross-equatorial inertial jets may exist. According to the character of large-scale air flow or ocean current outside the jets, the existent criterion for multiple eqnilibria in cross-equatorial inertial jets is discussed, and two examples for multiple equilibia of nonlinear governing equations are given.

  19. Multiple equilibria of cross-equatorial Inertial jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the developed Anderson and Moore’s theory about cross-equatorial inertial jets and a nonlinear equivalence shallow water model, new universal functions are determined by the characters of the vortical large-scale air flow (atmosphere) or ocean current (ocean) related to the jet, then the potential vorticity and energy conservation equations along the streamline in the cross-equatorial in-ertial jets can be obtained. Because the governing equations are nonlinear, some limited multiple equi-libria of cross-equatorial inertial jets may exist. According to the character of large-scale air flow or ocean current outside the jets, the existent criterion for multiple eqnilibria in cross-equatorial inertial jets is discussed, and two examples for multiple equilibia of nonlinear governing equations are given.

  20. Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Moving Strip with Inertial Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-yi Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the movement mechanism of strip and rollers in tandem mill, the strip between two stands was simplified to axially moving Euler beam and the rollers were simplified to the inertial component on the fixed axis rotation, namely, inertial boundary. Nonlinear vibration mechanical model of Euler beam with inertial boundary conditions was established. The transverse and longitudinal motion equations were derived based on Hamilton’s principle. Kantorovich averaging method was employed to discretize the motion equations and the inertial boundary equations, and the solutions were obtained using the modified iteration method. Depending on numerical calculation, the amplitude-frequency responses of Euler beam were determined. The axial velocity, tension, and rotational inertia have strong influences on the vibration characteristics. The results would provide an important theoretical reference to control and analyze the vertical vibration of moving strip in continuous rolling process.

  1. Bundle adjustment with raw inertial observations in UAV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucci, Davide Antonio; Rehak, Martin; Skaloud, Jan

    2017-08-01

    It is well known that accurate aerial position and attitude control is beneficial for image orientation in airborne photogrammetry. The aerial control is traditionally obtained by Kalman filtering/smoothing inertial and GNSS observations prior to the bundle-adjustment. However, in Micro Aerial Vehicles this process may result in poor attitude determination due to the limited quality of the inertial sensors, large alignment uncertainty and residual correlations between sensor biases and initial attitude. We propose to include the raw inertial observations directly into the bundle-adjustment instead of as position and attitude weighted observations from a separate inertial/GNSS fusion step. The necessary observation models are derived in detail within the context of the so called ;Dynamic Networks;. We examine different real world cases and we show that the proposed approach is superior to the established processing pipeline in challenging scenarios such as mapping in corridors and in areas where the reception of GNSS signals is denied.

  2. Inertial-particle accelerations in turbulence: a Lagrangian closure

    CERN Document Server

    Vajedi, S; Mehlig, B; Biferale, L

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of particle accelerations in turbulence is intermittent, with non-Gaussian tails that are quite different for light and heavy particles. In this article we analyse a closure scheme for the acceleration fluctuations of light and heavy inertial particles in turbulence, formulated in terms of Lagrangian correlation functions of fluid tracers. We compute the variance and the flatness of inertial particle accelerations and we discuss their dependency on the Stokes number. The closure incorporates effects induced by the Lagrangian correlations along the trajectories of fluid tracers, and its predictions agree well with results of direct numerical simulations of inertial particles in turbulence, provided that the effects induced by the inertial preferential sampling of heavy/light particles outside/inside vortices are negligible. In particular, the scheme predicts the correct functional behaviour of the acceleration variance, as a function of Stokes, as well as the presence of a minimum/maximum for ...

  3. Fusion of Inertial Navigation and Imagery Data Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovations of the Fusion of Inertial Navigation and Imagery Data are the application of the concept to the dynamic entry-interface through near-landing phases,...

  4. Backward Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents in Inertial Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Tobias; Theisel, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Inertial particles are finite-sized objects that are carried by fluid flows and in contrast to massless tracer particles they are subject to inertia effects. In unsteady flows, the dynamics of tracer particles have been extensively studied by the extraction of Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS), such as hyperbolic LCS as ridges of the Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE). The extension of the rich LCS framework to inertial particles is currently a hot topic in the CFD literature and is actively under research. Recently, backward FTLE on tracer particles has been shown to correlate with the preferential particle settling of small inertial particles. For larger particles, inertial trajectories may deviate strongly from (massless) tracer trajectories, and thus for a better agreement, backward FTLE should be computed on inertial trajectories directly. Inertial backward integration, however, has not been possible until the recent introduction of the influence curve concept, which - given an observation and an initial velocity - allows to recover all sources of inertial particles as tangent curves of a derived vector field. In this paper, we show that FTLE on the influence curve vector field is in agreement with preferential particle settling and more importantly it is not only valid for small (near-tracer) particles. We further generalize the influence curve concept to general equations of motion in unsteady spatio-velocity phase spaces, which enables backward integration with more general equations of motion. Applying the influence curve concept to tracer particles in the spatio-velocity domain emits streaklines in massless flows as tangent curves of the influence curve vector field. We demonstrate the correlation between inertial backward FTLE and the preferential particle settling in a number of unsteady vector fields.

  5. Measuring postural stability with an inertial sensor: validity and sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville C

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Neville,1 Caleb Ludlow,1 Brian Rieger21Department of Physical Therapy Education, 2Upstate Concussion Center, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USAIntroduction/purpose: To examine the concurrent validity, and sensitivity, of an inertial sensor for use in the assessment of postural sway.Methods: This was a laboratory-based, repeated-measures design with ten healthy participants. Concurrent validity was tested between an inertial sensor, forceplate, and rigid-body kinematics across three commonly used balance tests. Further, the inertial sensor measures were compared across eight commonly used tests of balance. Variables manipulated include stance position, surface condition, and eyes-open versus eyes-closed.Results: The inertial sensor was correlated to both the forceplate-derived measures (r=0.793 and rigid-body kinematics (r=0.887. Significant differences between the balance tests were observed when tested with the inertial sensor. In general, there was a three-way interactions between the three balance factors (surface, stance, and vision leading to pairwise comparisons between each balance test. The root-mean-square showed an increase across tasks of greater difficulty ranging from an average of 0.0368 with two legs, eyes-open to 0.911 when tested during tandem stance, eyes-closed tested on a foam pad.Conclusion: The new inertial sensor shows promise for use in the assessment of postural sway. Additionally, the inertial sensor appears sensitive to differences in balance tasks of varying degrees of difficulty when tested in a healthy sample of young adults. This inertial sensor may provide new opportunities for further research in the assessment of balance changes in the mild traumatic brain injury population.Keywords: balance, concussion, forceplate, posturography, accelerometer

  6. Vertical inertial piezoelectric translation device for a scanning tunneling microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agraït, N.

    1992-01-01

    We report a new type of inertial translation device that uses a single piezoelectric tube. In contrast to previous inertial translation devices which must operate in horizontal position, this new design can operate in any position, even vertical. This makes possible the construction of a compact high-stability thermally compensated low temperature scanning tunneling microscope, specially suited to designs that allow for a very short tip and sample change time.

  7. Accuracy Enhancement of Inertial Sensors Utilizing High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Korenberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In both military and civilian applications, the inertial navigation system (INS and the global positioning system (GPS are two complementary technologies that can be integrated to provide reliable positioning and navigation information for land vehicles. The accuracy enhancement of INS sensors and the integration of INS with GPS are the subjects of widespread research. Wavelet de-noising of INS sensors has had limited success in removing the long-term (low-frequency inertial sensor errors. The primary objective of this research is to develop a novel inertial sensor accuracy enhancement technique that can remove both short-term and long-term error components from inertial sensor measurements prior to INS mechanization and INS/GPS integration. A high resolution spectral analysis technique called the fast orthogonal search (FOS algorithm is used to accurately model the low frequency range of the spectrum, which includes the vehicle motion dynamics and inertial sensor errors. FOS models the spectral components with the most energy first and uses an adaptive threshold to stop adding frequency terms when fitting a term does not reduce the mean squared error more than fitting white noise. The proposed method was developed, tested and validated through road test experiments involving both low-end tactical grade and low cost MEMS-based inertial systems. The results demonstrate that in most cases the position accuracy during GPS outages using FOS de-noised data is superior to the position accuracy using wavelet de-noising.

  8. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  9. Motion of Inertial Observers Through Negative Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, L H; Roman, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that negative energy fluxes due to quantum coherence effects obey uncertainty principle-type inequalities of the form $|\\Delta E|\\,{\\Delta \\tau} \\lprox 1\\,$. Here $|\\Delta E|$ is the magnitude of the negative energy which is transmitted on a timescale $\\Delta \\tau$. Our main focus in this paper is on negative energy fluxes which are produced by the motion of observers through static negative energy regions. We find that although a quantum inequality appears to be satisfied for radially moving geodesic observers in two and four-dimensional black hole spacetimes, an observer orbiting close to a black hole will see a constant negative energy flux. In addition, we show that inertial observers moving slowly through the Casimir vacuum can achieve arbitrarily large violations of the inequality. It seems likely that, in general, these types of negative energy fluxes are not constrained by inequalities on the magnitude and duration of the flux. We construct a model of a non-gravitational ...

  10. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Bangerter, R.O. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Bock, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  11. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bangerter, R.O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bock, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  12. Asymptotic dynamics of inertial particles with memory

    CERN Document Server

    Langlois, Gabriel Provencher; Haller, George

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental and numerical observations have shown the significance of the Basset--Boussinesq memory term on the dynamics of small spherical rigid particles (or inertial particles) suspended in an ambient fluid flow. These observations suggest an algebraic decay to an asymptotic state, as opposed to the exponential convergence in the absence of the memory term. Here, we prove that the observed algebraic decay is a universal property of the Maxey--Riley equation. Specifically, the particle velocity decays algebraically in time to a limit that is $\\mathcal O(\\epsilon)$-close to the fluid velocity, where $0<\\epsilon\\ll 1$ is proportional to the square of the ratio of the particle radius to the fluid characteristic length-scale. These results follows from a sharp analytic upper bound that we derive for the particle velocity. For completeness, we also present a first proof of existence and uniqueness of global solutions to the Maxey--Riley equation, a nonlinear system of fractional-order differential equ...

  13. Bioinspired dynamic inclination measurement using inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikas, Vishesh; Crane, Carl

    2015-04-16

    Biologically, the vestibular feedback is critical to the ability of human body to balance in different conditions. This balancing ability inspires analysis of the reference equilibrium position in dynamic environments. The research proposes and experimentally validates the concept of equilibrium for the human body modeled as an inverted pendulum, which is instrumental in explaining why we align the body along the surface normal when standing on a surface but not on an incline, and tend to lean backward or forward on non-static surfaces e.g. accelerating or decelerating bus. This equilibrium position--the dynamic equilibrium axis--is dependent only on the acceleration of surface of contact (e.g. gravity) and acts as the reference to the orientation measurements. The research also draws design inspiration from the two human ears--symmetry and plurality of inertial sensors. The vestibular dynamic inclinometer and planar vestibular dynamic inclinometer consist of multiple (two or four) symmetrically placed accelerometers and a gyroscope. The sensors measure the angular acceleration and absolute orientation, not the change in orientation, from the reference equilibrium position and are successful in separating gravity from motion for objects moving on ground. The measurement algorithm is an analytical solution that is not time-recursive, independent of body dynamics and devoid of integration errors. The experimental results for the two sensor combinations validate the theoretically (kinematics) derived analytical solution of the measurement algorithm.

  14. Dynamics of inertial particles in free jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casciola, C M; Gualtieri, P; Picano, F; Sardina, G [Dipartimento di Meccanica e Aeronautica, Sapienza University, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Troiani, G, E-mail: carlomassimo.casciola@uniroma1.it [ENEA C R Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Turbulent mixing of small and diluted inertial particles presents many peculiar and unexpected features such as preferential segregation at small scales, i.e. clustering or, in wall flows, preferential wall accumulation, i.e. turbophoresis, which are induced by the multi-scale features of the turbulence in the carrier fluid. In the context of multi-phase flows, the effect of turbulence on particle distributions was commonly addressed in simplified geometries as in homogeneous or channel flows. The present paper discusses the dynamics of suspensions with different inertia in the far field of turbulent axisymmetric jets by means of direct numerical simulations. The jet is a well-known constant Reynolds number flow where the characteristic length scale grows linearly with distance from the jet origin, while the characteristic velocity decays in inverse proportion. These features, combined with the finite inertia, induce peculiar non-equilibrium effects on the spatial distribution of the particles. They range from spatially developing small-scale clustering, due to the multi-scale nature of the turbulent fluctuations, to self-similarity of the mean particle velocity profile, presumably collapsing on a one-parameter family of shapes parameterized in terms of the local large-scale Stokes number. The properties presented here are the most evident features of this most interesting system, where intermittency and spatial inhomogeneity interact to induce even subtler effects of spatial segregation, which certainly deserve further investigation.

  15. Gorgon simulations of Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeltgen, Jonathan; Jennings, Christopher; Sefkow, Adam; Slutz, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Substantial fusion yields are predicted with pulsed power machines driving cylindrical liner implosions with preheated and magnetized deuterium-tritium [S.A. Slutz et al Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is the most likely mechanism that could degrade the fusion yield of this concept which we call Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF). Gorgon is a 3D magnetohydrodynamics code that is well suited to simulating the effects of 3D Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. It has successfully simulated wire array z-pinches in 3D. We plan to use Gorgon to simulate the MagLIF concept in 3D, but first we are performing 1D simulations to test the essential physics necessary to simulate the MagLIF concept, for example bremsstrahlung losses from the fuel and the inhibition of transport by the magnetic field. We will present 1D Gorgon results of optimized MagLIF yields as a function of drive current.

  16. The Radio Spectra and - Inertial Defects Behavior of Planar Aromatic Heterocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Don; Jahn, Michaela K.; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Godfrey, Peter; Travers, Michael; Wachsmuth, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    The simplest tricyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocyclic molecules 5,6 benzoquinoline and 7,8 benzoquinoline are possible candidates for detection of aromatic systems in the interstellar medium. Therefore the pure rotational spectra have been recorded using frequency-scanned Stark modulated, jet-cooled millimetre wave absorption spectroscopy (48-87 GHz) and Fourier Transform Microwave (FT MW) spectroscopy (2-26 GHz) of a supersonic rotationally cold molecular jet. Guided by ab initio molecular orbital predictions, spectral analysis of mm wave spectra, and higher resolution FT MW spectroscopy provided accurate rotational and centrifugal distortion constants together with 14N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants for both species. The determined inertial defects, along with those of similar species are used to develop an empirical formula for calculation of inertial defects of aromatic ring systems. The predictive ability of the formula is shown to be excellent for planar species with a number of pronounced out of plane vibrations. The resultant constants are of sufficient accuracy to be used in potential astrophysical searches. We gratefully acknowledge support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the Deutsche Akademische Austauschdienst, as well as the Land Niedersachsen (J.-U.G). DMcN also thanks the Royal Society of Chemistry for their generous travel support.

  17. Mixing with applications to inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, V.; Lim, H.; Melvin, J.; Glimm, J.; Cheng, B.; Sharp, D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Approximate one-dimensional (1D) as well as 2D and 3D simulations are playing an important supporting role in the design and analysis of future experiments at National Ignition Facility. This paper is mainly concerned with 1D simulations, used extensively in design and optimization. We couple a 1D buoyancy-drag mix model for the mixing zone edges with a 1D inertial confinement fusion simulation code. This analysis predicts that National Ignition Campaign (NIC) designs are located close to a performance cliff, so modeling errors, design features (fill tube and tent) and additional, unmodeled instabilities could lead to significant levels of mix. The performance cliff we identify is associated with multimode plastic ablator (CH) mix into the hot-spot deuterium and tritium (DT). The buoyancy-drag mix model is mode number independent and selects implicitly a range of maximum growth modes. Our main conclusion is that single effect instabilities are predicted not to lead to hot-spot mix, while combined mode mixing effects are predicted to affect hot-spot thermodynamics and possibly hot-spot mix. Combined with the stagnation Rayleigh-Taylor instability, we find the potential for mix effects in combination with the ice-to-gas DT boundary, numerical effects of Eulerian species CH concentration diffusion, and ablation-driven instabilities. With the help of a convenient package of plasma transport parameters developed here, we give an approximate determination of these quantities in the regime relevant to the NIC experiments, while ruling out a variety of mix possibilities. Plasma transport parameters affect the 1D buoyancy-drag mix model primarily through its phenomenological drag coefficient as well as the 1D hydro model to which the buoyancy-drag equation is coupled.

  18. Sea ice inertial oscillations in the Arctic Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gimbert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An original method to quantify the amplitude of inertial motion of oceanic and ice drifters, through the introduction of a non-dimensional parameter M defined from a spectral analysis, is presented. A strong seasonal dependence of the magnitude of sea ice inertial oscillations is revealed, in agreement with the corresponding annual cycles of sea ice extent, concentration, thickness, advection velocity, and deformation rates. The spatial pattern of the magnitude of the sea ice inertial oscillations over the Arctic Basin is also in agreement with the sea ice thickness and concentration patterns. This argues for a strong interaction between the magnitude of inertial motion on one hand, the dissipation of energy through mechanical processes, and the cohesiveness of the cover on the other hand. Finally, a significant multi-annual evolution towards greater magnitudes of inertial oscillations in recent years, in both summer and winter, is reported, thus concomitant with reduced sea ice thickness, concentration and spatial extent.

  19. Inertial waves in a differentially rotating spherical shell

    CERN Document Server

    Baruteau, C

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the properties of small-amplitude inertial waves propagating in a differentially rotating incompressible fluid contained in a spherical shell. For cylindrical and shellular rotation profiles and in the inviscid limit, inertial waves obey a second-order partial differential equation of mixed type. Two kinds of inertial modes therefore exist, depending on whether the hyperbolic domain where characteristics propagate covers the whole shell or not. The occurrence of these two kinds of inertial modes is examined, and we show that the range of frequencies at which inertial waves may propagate is broader than with solid-body rotation. Using high-resolution calculations based on a spectral method, we show that, as with solid-body rotation, singular modes with thin shear layers following short-period attractors still exist with differential rotation. They exist even in the case of a full sphere. In the limit of vanishing viscosities, the width of the shear layers seems to weakly depend on the global bac...

  20. Shoulder and elbow joint angle tracking with inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gohary, Mahmoud; McNames, James

    2012-09-01

    Wearable inertial systems have recently been used to track human movement in and outside of the laboratory. Continuous monitoring of human movement can provide valuable information relevant to individuals' level of physical activity and functional ability. Traditionally, orientation has been calculated by integrating the angular velocity from gyroscopes. However, a small drift in the measured velocity leads to increasing integration error over time. To compensate that drift, complementary data from accelerometers are normally fused into tracking systems using the Kalman or extended Kalman filter. In this study, we combine kinematic models designed for control of robotic arms with state-space methods to continuously estimate the angles of human shoulder and elbow using two wearable inertial measurement units. We use the unscented Kalman filter to implement the nonlinear state-space inertial tracker. Shoulder and elbow joint angles obtained from 8 subjects using our inertial tracker were compared to the angles obtained from an optical-tracking reference system. On average, there was an RMS angle error of less than 8° for all shoulder and elbow angles. The average correlation coefficient for all movement tasks among all subjects was r ≥ 0.95 . This agreement between our inertial tracker and the optical reference system was obtained for both regular and fast-speed movement of the arm. The same method can be used to track movement of other joints.

  1. Inertial effect on spin–orbit coupling and spin transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, B., E-mail: sribbasu@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Debashree, E-mail: debashreephys@gmail.com

    2013-08-15

    We theoretically study the renormalization of inertial effects on the spin dependent transport of conduction electrons in a semiconductor by taking into account the interband mixing on the basis of k{sup →}⋅p{sup →} perturbation theory. In our analysis, for the generation of spin current we have used the extended Drude model where the spin–orbit coupling plays an important role. We predict enhancement of the spin current resulting from the renormalized spin–orbit coupling effective in our model in cubic and non-cubic crystals. Attention has been paid to clarify the importance of gauge fields in the spin transport of this inertial system. A theoretical proposition of a perfect spin filter has been done through the Aharonov–Casher like phase corresponding to this inertial system. For a time dependent acceleration, effect of k{sup →}⋅p{sup →} perturbation on the spin current and spin polarization has also been addressed. Furthermore, achievement of a tunable source of polarized spin current through the non uniformity of the inertial spin–orbit coupling strength has also been discussed. -- Highlights: •Study of the renormalization of inertial spin dependent transport of electrons. •Enhancement of the spin current due to the renormalized spin–orbit coupling. •A theoretical proposition of a perfect spin filter. •For a time dependent acceleration, spin current, spin polarization is addressed.

  2. Near-inertial parametric subharmonic instability of internal wave beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Hussain H.; Akylas, T. R.

    2017-07-01

    Parametric subharmonic instability (PSI) of internal wave beams in a uniformly stratified fluid is discussed, for the case where the beam frequency is nearly twice the inertial frequency due to background rotation. Compared with generic PSI, beams of finite width are expected on physical grounds to be more vulnerable to subharmonic perturbations of near-inertial frequency, as these disturbances have small group velocity and stay in contact with the underlying beam longer, thus extracting more energy. A weakly nonlinear theory for such near-inertial PSI is developed in the "distinguished limit" where the effects of triad nonlinear interactions, dispersion, and viscous dissipation are equally important. This model is used to examine the linear stability of a uniform beam to infinitesimal perturbations under a "pump-wave" approximation, as well as the nonlinear development of PSI that takes into account the effect of the growing perturbations on the beam evolution. Near-inertial PSI is possible for beams of general locally confined profile, in sharp contrast to generic PSI which can arise only for quasimonochromatic beams whose profile comprises a sinusoidal carrier modulated by a locally confined envelope. The theoretical predictions are consistent with earlier numerical simulations of semidiurnal internal tide beams generated over the continental shelf break at latitudes above and below the critical value 28 .8∘N , at which the subharmonic semidiurnal frequency matches the local inertial frequency.

  3. Comparison of male and female lower limb segment inertial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challis, John H; Winter, Samantha L; Kuperavage, Adam J

    2012-10-11

    Many studies have examined human segmental inertial parameters, but these studies have focused more on male rather than female data. The purpose of this study was to determine the lower limb segmental inertial parameters for a large sample (n>1500) of both males and females. The participants in this study were those measured as part of a survey of the anthropometry of US army personnel. The sample comprised 1774 males (mean height 1.756±0.079 m, mean mass of 78.49±0.11 kg, and mean age of 27.21±6.81 years), and 2208 females (mean height 1.629±0.072 m, mean mass of 62.01±0.08 kg, and mean age of 26.18±5.70 years). Anthropometric measurements were used to determine the inertial properties of the lower limb segments by modeling them as series of geometric solids. An analysis of variance revealed that the normalized inertial parameters for each of the segments were statistically significantly different (p>0.001) between the two groups. The time for each segment to swing through the range of motion of the swing phase of gait, produced shorter swing times for the male segments. The differences between the segmental inertial properties for the sexes have implications for how these parameters are customized to experimental subjects.

  4. Inertial Confinement Fusion Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correll, D

    1998-06-01

    The ICF Annual Report provides documentation of the achievements of the LLNL ICF Program during the fiscal year by the use of two formats: (1) an Overview that is a narrative summary of important results for the fiscal year and (2) a compilation of the articles that previously appeared in the ICF Quarterly Report that year. Both the Overview and Quarterly Report are also on the Web at http://lasers.llnl.gov/lasers/pubs/icfq.html. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1997, the fourth quarter issue of the ICF Quarterly was no longer printed as a separate document but rather included in the ICF Annual. This change provided a more efficient process of documenting our accomplishments with-out unnecessary duplication of printing. In addition we introduced a new document, the ICF Program Monthly Highlights. Starting with the September 1997 issue and each month following, the Monthly Highlights will provide a brief description of noteworthy activities of interest to our DOE sponsors and our stakeholders. The underlying theme for LLNL's ICF Program research continues to be defined within DOE's Defense Programs missions and goals. In support of these missions and goals, the ICF Program advances research and technology development in major interrelated areas that include fusion target theory and design, target fabrication, target experiments, and laser and optical science and technology. While in pursuit of its goal of demonstrating thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory, the ICF Program provides research and development opportunities in fundamental high-energy-density physics and supports the necessary research base for the possible long-term application of inertial fusion energy for civilian power production. ICF technologies continue to have spin-off applications for additional government and industrial use. In addition to these topics, the ICF Annual Report covers non-ICF funded, but related, laser research and development and associated

  5. Capillary-inertial colloidal catapults upon drop coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Roger L.; Liu, Fangjie; Feng, James J.; Chen, Chuan-Hua

    2016-07-01

    Surface energy released upon drop coalescence is known to power the self-propelled jumping of liquid droplets on superhydrophobic solid surfaces, and the jumping droplets can additionally carry colloidal payloads toward self-cleaning. Here, we show that drop coalescence on a spherical particle leads to self-propelled launching of the particle from virtually any solid surface. The main prerequisite is an intermediate wettability of the particle, such that the momentum from the capillary-inertial drop coalescence process can be transferred to the particle. By momentum conservation, the launching velocity of the particle-drop complex is proportional to the capillary-inertial velocity based on the drop radius and to the fraction of the liquid mass in the total mass. The capillary-inertial catapult is not only an alternative mechanism for removing colloidal contaminants, but also a useful model system for studying ballistospore launching.

  6. Indoor dynamic positioning system based on strapdown inertial navigation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, YaDong; Wu, Hong

    2011-11-01

    Strapdown inertial navigation technology, which is widely used in aerospace, is a navigation technology in which the gyros sensor and accelerometers sensor are rigidly attached to the body of the object. This article describes an application of strapdown inertial navigation technology in indoor dynamic positioning system. The hardware design of the node include the master controller, data collection, sensors, antenna and related peripheral circuit. Positioning algorithm, data acquisition and transmission are done by software programming based on the hardware circuit. The strapdown inertial navigation composed of the hardware and the software could calculate the position of the object. Simulation software(matlab) is used to confirm the correctness of the positioning algorithm which is implemented by software programming in the system. The system uses the wireless sensor network to expand the range of the positioning. The system of which the information transmission is reliable and the mobility is strongly can satisfy the requirements of the emergency.

  7. Gait analysis using floor markers and inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tri Nhut; Suh, Young Soo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a gait analysis system which estimates step length and foot angles is proposed. A measurement unit, which consists of a camera and inertial sensors, is installed on a shoe. When the foot touches the floor, markers are recognized by the camera to obtain the current position and attitude. A simple planar marker with 4,096 different codes is used. These markers printed on paper are placed on the floor. When the foot is moving off the floor, the position and attitude are estimated using an inertial navigation algorithm. For accurate estimation, a smoother is proposed, where vision information and inertial sensor data are combined. Through experiments, it is shown that the proposed system can both track foot motion and estimate step length.

  8. Gait Analysis Using Floor Markers and Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Soo Suh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a gait analysis system which estimates step length and foot angles is proposed. A measurement unit, which consists of a camera and inertial sensors, is installed on a shoe. When the foot touches the floor, markers are recognized by the camera to obtain the current position and attitude. A simple planar marker with 4,096 different codes is used. These markers printed on paper are placed on the floor. When the foot is moving off the floor, the position and attitude are estimated using an inertial navigation algorithm. For accurate estimation, a smoother is proposed, where vision information and inertial sensor data are combined. Through experiments, it is shown that the proposed system can both track foot motion and estimate step length.

  9. Inertial frames without the relativity principle: breaking Lorentz symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Baccetti, Valentina; Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    We investigate inertial frames in the absence of Lorentz invariance, reconsidering the usual group structure implied by the relativity principle. We abandon the relativity principle, discarding the group structure for the transformations between inertial frames, while requiring these transformations to be at least linear (to preserve homogeneity). In theories with a preferred frame (aether), the set of transformations between inertial frames forms a groupoid/pseudogroup instead of a group, a characteristic essential to evading the von Ignatowsky theorems. In order to understand the dynamics, we also demonstrate that the transformation rules for energy and momentum are in general affine. We finally focus on one specific and compelling model implementing a minimalist violation of Lorentz invariance.

  10. Moving toward low frequencies active vibration control with inertial actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquemani, S.; Costa, A.; Resta, F.

    2017-04-01

    In applications of vibration suppression, control forces ideally act on the structure increasing its damping. While the frequency response of the structure is guaranteed to have a positive real part under ideal conditions, in practice a stability limit exists when inertial actuators are used. In this case the system response is no longer guaranteed to be positive real and so the control system may become unstable at high gains. Moreover, traditional approaches suggest the use of inertial actuators only if its natural frequency is well below the natural frequency of the structure, thus preventing their use at low frequencies. This paper proposes an interesting technique to enlarge the operational range to lower frequencies and to allow the use of inertial actuators. The approach is numerically tested and experimentally validated on a test rig.

  11. Single-pulse dynamics and flow rates of inertial micropumps

    CERN Document Server

    Govyadinov, A N; Markel, D P; Torniainen, E D

    2015-01-01

    Bubble-driven inertial pumps are a novel method of moving liquids through microchannels. We combine high-speed imaging, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and an effective one-dimensional model to study the fundamentals of inertial pumping. Single-pulse flow through 22 x 17 um2 U-shaped channels containing 4-um polystyrene tracer beads has been imaged with a high-speed camera. The results are used to calibrate the CFD and one-dimensional models to extract an effective bubble strength. Then the frequency dependence of inertial pumping is studied both experimentally and numerically. The pump efficiency is found to gradually decrease once the successive pulses start to overlap in time.

  12. Detecting inertial effects with airborne matter-wave interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Geiger, Remi; Stern, Guillaume; Zahzam, Nassim; Cheinet, Patrick; Battelier, Baptiste; Villing, André; Moron, Frédéric; Lours, Michel; Bidel, Yannick; Bresson, Alexandre; Landragin, Arnaud; Bouyer, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Inertial sensors relying on atom interferometry offer a breakthrough advance in a variety of applications, such as inertial navigation, gravimetry or ground- and space-based tests of fundamental physics. These instruments require a quiet environment to reach their performance and using them outside the laboratory remains a challenge. Here we report the first operation of an airborne matter-wave accelerometer set up aboard a 0g plane and operating during the standard gravity (1g) and microgravity (0g) phases of the flight. At 1g, the sensor can detect inertial effects more than 300 times weaker than the typical acceleration fluctuations of the aircraft. We describe the improvement of the interferometer sensitivity in 0g, which reaches 2 x 10-4 ms-2 / \\surdHz with our current setup. We finally discuss the extension of our method to airborne and spaceborne tests of the Universality of free fall with matter waves.

  13. Global Observer-Based Attitude Controller Using Direct Inertial Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saâdi Bouhired

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we address the problem of global attitude control using direct inertial measurements. When using direct inertial measurement to observe the rigid body attitude, it is shown that due to a geometrical obstruction, it is impossible to achieve global asymptotic stability. In fact, for a particular initial condition the tracking error quaternion converges to a pure imaginary quaternion formed by an eigenvector of a characteristic matrix related to the inertial constant and known vectors. Our proposition consists of adding a dynamic signal to force the rigid body to escape from such a situation. The proposed observer-based controller is synthesized based on a single Lyapunov function and a stability analysis shows that the controller stabilizes globally and asymptotically the rigid body attitude at the desired one. The effectiveness of the proposed observer-based controller is confirmed by simulation results.

  14. Detecting inertial effects with airborne matter-wave interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, R; Ménoret, V; Stern, G; Zahzam, N; Cheinet, P; Battelier, B; Villing, A; Moron, F; Lours, M; Bidel, Y; Bresson, A; Landragin, A; Bouyer, P

    2011-09-20

    Inertial sensors relying on atom interferometry offer a breakthrough advance in a variety of applications, such as inertial navigation, gravimetry or ground- and space-based tests of fundamental physics. These instruments require a quiet environment to reach their performance and using them outside the laboratory remains a challenge. Here we report the first operation of an airborne matter-wave accelerometer set up aboard a 0g plane and operating during the standard gravity (1g) and microgravity (0g) phases of the flight. At 1g, the sensor can detect inertial effects more than 300 times weaker than the typical acceleration fluctuations of the aircraft. We describe the improvement of the interferometer sensitivity in 0g, which reaches 2 x 10-4 ms-2 / √Hz with our current setup. We finally discuss the extension of our method to airborne and spaceborne tests of the Universality of free fall with matter waves.

  15. Decoherence and Multipartite Entanglement of Non-Inertial Observers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Ramzan

    2012-01-01

    The decoherence effect on multipartite entanglement in non-inertial frames is investigated.The GHZ state is considered to be shared between partners with one partner in the inertial frame whereas the other two are in accelerated frames.One-tangle and π-tangles are used to quantify the entanglement of the multipartite system influenced by phase damping and phase flip channels.It is seen that for the phase damping channel,entanglement sudden death (ESD) occurs for p > 0.5 in the infinite acceleration limit.On the other hand,in the case of the phase flip channel,ESD behavior occurs at p =0.5.It is also seen that entanglement sudden birth (ESB) occurs in the case of phase flip channel just after ESD,i.e.p > 0.5.Furthermore,it is seen that the effect of the environment on multipartite entanglement is much stronger than that of the acceleration of non-inertial frames.%The decoherence effect on multipartite entanglement in non-inertial frames is investigated. The GHZ state is considered to be shared between partners with one partner in the inertial frame whereas the other two are in accelerated frames. One-tangle and w-tangles are used to quantify the entanglement of the multipartite system influenced by phase damping and phase Hip channels. It is seen that for the phase damping channel, entanglement sudden death (ESD) occurs for p > 0.5 in the inSnite acceleration limit. On the other hand, in the case of the phase Hip channel, ESD behavior occurs at p = 0.5. It is also seen that entanglement sudden birth (ESB) occurs in the case of phase flip channel just after ESD, I.e. p > 0.5. Furthermore, it is seen that the effect of the environment on multipartite entanglement is much stronger than that of the acceleration of non-inertial frames.

  16. Analysis of Magnetic Fields in Inertial Alfven Wave Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Dereth J; Shanken, Brian C; Howes, Gregory G; Skiff, Frederick; Kletzing, Craig A; Carter, Troy A; Dorfman, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Turbulence in astrophysical and space plasmas is dominated by the nonlinear interaction of counterpropagating Alfven waves. Most Alfven wave turbulence theories have been based on ideal plasma models, such as incompressible MHD, for Alfven waves at large scales. However, in the inertial Alfven wave regime (vA > vthe), relevant to magnetospheric plasmas, how the turbulent nonlinear interactions are modified by the dispersive nature of the waves remains to be explored. Here we present the first laboratory evidence of the nonlinear interaction in the inertial regime. A comparison is made with the theory for MHD Alfven waves.

  17. Direct Measurement of Particle Inertial Migration in Rectangular Microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Hood, Kaitlyn; Di Carlo, Dino; Roper, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Particles traveling at high velocities through microfluidic channels migrate across streamlines due to inertial lift forces. There are contradictory theories predicting how the inertial lift force depends on flow parameters, but little experimental evidence by which to validate theory. Here we directly measure particle migration velocities and show agreement with numerical simulations and a two-term asymptotic theory that contains no unmeasured parameters. Our data also highlight the previously unconsidered effect of migration forces that act on particles before they enter the microchannel.

  18. Status and Prospects of the Fast Ignition Inertial Fusion Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, M H

    2006-11-15

    Fast ignition is an alternate concept in inertial confinement fusion, which has the potential for easier ignition and greater energy multiplication. If realized it could improve the prospects for inertial fusion energy. It poses stimulating challenges in science and technology and the research is approaching a key stage in which the feasibility of fast ignition will be determined. This review covers the concepts, the state of the science and technology, the near term prospects and the challenges and risks involved in demonstrating high gain fast ignition.

  19. Inertial fusion energy; L'energie de fusion inertielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decroisette, M.; Andre, M.; Bayer, C.; Juraszek, D. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dir. des Systemes d' Information (CEA/DIF), 91 (France); Le Garrec, B. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, 33 - Le Barp (France); Deutsch, C. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Migus, A. [Institut d' Optique Centre scientifique, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    We first recall the scientific basis of inertial fusion and then describe a generic fusion reactor with the different components: the driver, the fusion chamber, the material treatment unit, the target factory and the turbines. We analyse the options proposed at the present time for the driver and for target irradiation scheme giving the state of art for each approach. We conclude by the presentation of LMJ (laser Megajoule) and NIF (national ignition facility) projects. These facilities aim to demonstrate the feasibility of laboratory DT ignition, first step toward Inertial Fusion Energy. (authors)

  20. Sampling and Control Circuit Board for an Inertial Measurement Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David T (Inventor); Powis, Richard T., Jr. (Inventor); Sands, Obed (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A circuit board that serves as a control and sampling interface to an inertial measurement unit ("IMU") is provided. The circuit board is also configured to interface with a local oscillator and an external trigger pulse. The circuit board is further configured to receive the external trigger pulse from an external source that time aligns the local oscillator and initiates sampling of the inertial measurement device for data at precise time intervals based on pulses from the local oscillator. The sampled data may be synchronized by the circuit board with other sensors of a navigation system via the trigger pulse.

  1. Tanscranial Threshold of Inertial Cavitation Induced by Diagnosticc Ultrasound and Microbubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Gao, S.; Porter, T.R.; Everbach, C; Shi, W.; Vignon, F.; Powers, J.; Lof, J.; Turner, J.; Xie, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Inertial cavitation may cause hazardous bioeffects whileusing ultrasound and microbubble mediated thrombolysis. The purposeof this study was to investigate the influence of ultrasound pulselength and temporal bone on inertial cavitation thresholds within the brain utilizing transtemporal

  2. On the risk of false positive identification using multiple ion monitoring in qualitative mass spectrometry: large-scale intercomparisons with a comprehensive mass spectral library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Stephen E; Heller, David N

    2006-06-01

    Analysts involved in qualitative mass spectrometry have long debated the minimum data requirements for demonstrating that signals from an unknown sample are identical to those from a known compound. Often this process is carried out by comparing a few selected ions acquired by multiple ion monitoring (MIM), with due allowance for expected variability in response. In a few past experiments with electron-ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS), the number of ions selected and the allowable variability in relative abundance were tested by comparing one spectrum against a library of mass spectra, where library spectra served to represent potential false positive signals in an analysis. We extended these experiments by carrying out large-scale intercomparisons between thousands of spectra and a library of one hundred thousand EI mass spectra. The results were analyzed to gain insights into the identification confidence associated with various numbers of selected ions. A new parameter was investigated for the first time, to take into account that a library spectrum with a different base peak than the search spectrum may still cause a false positive identification. The influence of peak correlation among the specific ions in all the library mass spectra was also studied. Our computations showed that (1) false positive identifications can result from similar compounds, or low-abundance peaks in unrelated compounds if the method calls for detection at very low levels; (2) a MIM method's identification confidence improves in a roughly continuous manner as more ions are monitored, about one order of magnitude for each additional ion selected; (3) full scan spectra still represent the best alternative, if instrument sensitivity is adequate. The use of large scale intercomparisons with a comprehensive library is the only way to provide direct evidence in support of these conclusions, which otherwise depend on the judgment and experience of individual analysts. There are

  3. Differential Mobility Spectrometry Coupled with Multiple Ion Monitoring in Regulated LC-MS/MS Bioanalysis of a Therapeutic Cyclic Peptide in Human Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yunlin; Xia, Yuan-Qing; Flarakos, Jimmy; Tse, Francis L S; Miller, Jeffrey D; Jones, Elliott B; Li, Wenkui

    2016-04-05

    A differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) in combination with a multiple ion monitoring (MIM) method was developed and validated for quantitative LC-MS/MS bioanalysis of pasireotide (SOM230) in human plasma. Pasireotide, a therapeutic cyclic peptide, exhibits poor collision-induced dissociation (CID) efficiency for multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection. Therefore, in an effort to increase the overall sensitivity of the assay, a DMS-MIM approach was explored. By selecting the most abundant doubly charged precursor ion in both the Q1 and Q3 of the mass analyzer in MIM and combining the DMS capability to significantly reduce the high matrix/chemical background noise, this new LC-DMS-MIM method overcomes the sensitivity challenge in the typical MRM method due to poor CID fragmentation of the analyte. Human plasma was spiked with pasireotide with concentrations in the range 0.01-50 ng/mL. Weak cation-exchange solid-phase extraction was employed for sample preparation. The sample extracts were analyzed with a SCIEX QTRAP 6500 system equipped with an ESI source and DMS device. The separation voltage and compensation voltage of the DMS and other parameters of the MS system were optimized to maximize signal responses. The performance of the LC-DMS-MIM assay for quantitative analysis of pasireotide in human plasma was evaluated and compared to those obtained via LC-MRM and LC-MIM without DMS. Overall, the assay sensitivity with DMS-MIM was approximately 5-fold better than that observed in MRM or MIM without DMS. The assay was validated with accuracy (% bias) and precision (% CV) of the QC results at eight concentration levels (0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.15, 0.3, 1.5, 15, and 37.5 ng/mL) evaluated ranging from -4.8 to 5.0% bias and 0.7 to 8.6% CV for the intraday and interday runs. The current LC-DMS-MIM workflow can be expanded to quantitative analysis of other molecules that have poor fragmentation efficiency in CID.

  4. Advanced Optical Inertial Reference Unit with 100 Nanoradian Stability, Two-axis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    ATA Sensors and Systems produces precision angular rate sensors, state-of-the-art optical inertial reference units, fast steering mirrors, inertial measurement u-nits, actuators and controls used in long-range optical systems and laser communications and space qualified subsystems for satellite imaging and inertial guidance.

  5. Microfluidic filtration and extraction of pathogens from food samples by hydrodynamic focusing and inertial lateral migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clime, Liviu; Hoa, Xuyen D; Corneau, Nathalie; Morton, Keith J; Luebbert, Christian; Mounier, Maxence; Brassard, Daniel; Geissler, Matthias; Bidawid, Sabah; Farber, Jeff; Veres, Teodor

    2015-02-01

    target bacteria, it remains possible to reach 70 % for sample recovery and more than 50 % for debris removal even in the most turbid samples tested. Due to the relatively simple design, the robustness of the inertial migration effect itself, the high operational flow rates and fabrication methods that leverage low-cost materials, the proposed device can have an impact on a wide range of applications where high-throughput separation of particles and biological species is of interest.

  6. Inertial Particle Migration in the Presence of a Permeate Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mike; Singelton, Amanda; Pennathur, Sumita

    2016-11-01

    Tangential Flow Filtration (TFF) is a rapid and efficient method for the filtration and separation of suspensions of particles such as viruses, bacteria or cellular material. Enhancing the efficacy of TFF not only requires a detailed understanding of particle transport mechanisms, but also the interactions between these mechanisms and a porous wall. In this work, we numerically and experimentally explore the mechanisms of inertial particle migration in the presence of a permeate flow through the porous walls of a microchannel. Numerically, we develop a force balance model to understand the competition between permeate and inertial forces and the resultant consequences on the particle equilibrium location. Experimentally, we fabricated MEMS TFF devices to study the migration of 5, 10 and 15 µm fluorescent polystyrene beads in straight channels with perpendicular permeate flow rates up to 90% of the inlet flow rate. We find that the permeate flow directly influences the inertial focusing position of the particles, both as a function of downstream channel position and ratio of inlet to outlet flow rate. Comparing experiments to our model, we can identify inertial, viscous and a co-dominant regimes.

  7. Rotating saddle trap: A Coriolis force in an inertial frame

    CERN Document Server

    Kirillov, Oleg N

    2015-01-01

    Particles in rotating saddle potentials exhibit precessional motion which, up to now, has been explained by explicit computation. We show that this precession is due to a hidden Coriolis-like force which, unlike the standard Coriolis force, is present in the inertial frame. We do so by finding a hodograph-like "guiding center" transformation using the method of normal form.

  8. Inertial drives for micro- and nanorobots: analytical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechi, Roland; Zesch, Wolfgang; Codourey, Alain; Siegwart, Roland Y.

    1995-12-01

    The need for high precision robots dedicated to the assembly of microsystems has led to the design of new kinds of actuators able to reach very high positional accuracy over large distances. Among these, inertial sliders have received considerably interest in the last years. They have the advantage of being based on a simple principle that leads to a simple mechanical design. However, because they are based on the nonlinearity of friction, it is not easy to predict their stepsize repeatability. In order to understand the most important parameters affecting the precision of inertial drives, a theoretical study of a 1 degree of freedom inertial slider has been established. Analytical formulas describing the influence of different parameters, such as static and dynamic friction and mass distribution, have been developed. The effect of applied functions (sawtooth and parabolic), have also been studied. The theoretical cut off frequency has been found for each of the different waveforms, allowing us to predict the maximal and minimal working frequencies for the system. Thus, for each curve form, the repeatability of inertial sliders can be evaluated taking into account the uncertainties in the friction coefficients. The best suited waveforms for given constraints can therefore be selected. Simulations carried out from this have been successfully compared to experimental results.

  9. Collapse of Incoherent Light Beams in Inertial Bulk Kerr Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Edmundson, Darran; Królikowski, Wieslaw

    1999-01-01

    We use the coherent density function theory to show that partially coherent beams are unstable and may collapse in inertial bulk Kerr media. The threshold power for collapse, and its dependence on the degree of coherence, is found analytically and checked-numerically. The internal dynamics of the...

  10. Automatic Identification of Inertial Sensors on the Human Body Segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; Beijnum, van B.J.F.; Veltink, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years, inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes) in combination with magnetic sensors was proven to be a suitable ambulatory alternative to traditional human motion tracking systems based on optical position measurements. While accurate full 6 degrees of freedom information is

  11. Single stream inertial focusing in a straight microchannel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Zandi, Matthew; Ho, Chia-Chi; Kaval, Necati; Papautsky, Ian

    2015-04-21

    In the past two decades, microfluidics has become of great value in precisely aligning cells or microparticles within fluids. Microfluidic techniques use either external forces or sheath flow to focus particulate samples, and face the challenges of complex instrumentation design and limited throughput. The burgeoning field of inertial microfluidics brings single-position focusing functionality at throughput orders of magnitude higher than previously available. However, most inertial microfluidic focusers rely on cross-sectional flow-induced drag force to achieve single-position focusing, which inevitably complicates the device design and operation. In this work, we present an inertial microfluidic focuser that uses inertial lift force as the only driving force to focus microparticles into a single position. We demonstrate single-position focusing of different sized microbeads and cells with 95-100% efficiency, without the need for secondary flow, sheath flow or external forces. We further integrate this device with a laser counting system to form a sheathless flow cytometer, and demonstrated counting of microbeads with 2200 beads s(-1) throughput and 7% coefficient of variation. Cells can be completely recovered and remain viable after passing our integrated cytometry system. Our approach offers a number of benefits, including simplicity in fundamental principle and geometry, convenience in design, modification and integration, flexibility in focusing of different samples, high compatibility with real-world cellular samples as well as high-precision and high-throughput single-position focusing.

  12. Approximate Inertial Manifolds for Chemotaxis-Growth System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong LUO; Zhilin PU

    2012-01-01

    The long-time behaviour of solution to chemotaxis-growth system with Neumann condition is considered in this paper.The approximate inertial manifolds of such equations are constructed based on the contraction principle,and the orders of approximations of the manifolds to the global attractor are derived.

  13. Automatic Identification of Inertial Sensors on the Human Body Segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    In the last few years, inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes) in combination with magnetic sensors was proven to be a suitable ambulatory alternative to traditional human motion tracking systems based on optical position measurements. While accurate full 6 degrees of freedom information is

  14. Sensitivity Study of Strapdown Inertial Sensors in High Performance Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    system error varied with a change in heading 7K. ( xii 1 SENSITIVITY STUDY OF STRAPDOWN INERTIAL SENSORS IN HIGH PERFORMANCE APPLICATIONS I. Introduction...given in Tabla 10. 23 State Meaning o Basic Altitude Damped INS x(1) Error in East Longitude 5.7735 x 1O Ŗ arc min x(2) Error in North Latitude

  15. Analysis of indoor rowing motion using wearable inertial sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Stephan; Shoaib, Muhammad; Geerlings, Stephen; Buit, Lennart; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory work the motion of rowers is analyzed while rowing on a rowing machine. This is performed using inertial sensors that measure the orientation at several positions on the body. Using these measurements, this work provides a preliminary analysis of the differences between experienc

  16. Inertial effect on spin-orbit coupling and spin transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, B.; Chowdhury, Debashree

    2013-08-01

    We theoretically study the renormalization of inertial effects on the spin dependent transport of conduction electrons in a semiconductor by taking into account the interband mixing on the basis of k→ṡp→ perturbation theory. In our analysis, for the generation of spin current we have used the extended Drude model where the spin-orbit coupling plays an important role. We predict enhancement of the spin current resulting from the renormalized spin-orbit coupling effective in our model in cubic and non-cubic crystals. Attention has been paid to clarify the importance of gauge fields in the spin transport of this inertial system. A theoretical proposition of a perfect spin filter has been done through the Aharonov-Casher like phase corresponding to this inertial system. For a time dependent acceleration, effect of k→ ṡp→ perturbation on the spin current and spin polarization has also been addressed. Furthermore, achievement of a tunable source of polarized spin current through the non uniformity of the inertial spin-orbit coupling strength has also been discussed.

  17. Ambulatory position and orientation tracking fusing magnetic and inertial sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roetenberg, Daniel; Slycke, Per J.; Veltink, Peter H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design and testing of a portable magnetic system combined with miniature inertial sensors for ambulatory 6 degrees of freedom ( DOF) human motion tracking. The magnetic system consists of three orthogonal coils, the source, fixed to the body and 3-D magnetic sensors, fixed to

  18. Inertial particle focusing in microchannels with gradually changing geometrical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liang-Liang; Yan, Qing; Guo, Jing; Zhao, Hong; Zhao, Liang; Zhe, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    The influence of gradually changing geometrical structures on the inertial focusing of particles is systematically investigated by numerical simulations and experiments in this paper. The Saffman lift force, often ignored in the straight microchannel, becomes strong in microchannels with gradually changing geometrical structures, affecting the lateral migration of particles in the microchannels. In comparison with microchannels that have straight and gradually constricting structures, microchannels with gradually expanding structures focus all the particles in a much narrower bandwidth due to the combined effect of the Saffman lift force and the inertial lift force at the appropriate flow rates. Additionally, the influence of the different arrangements of gradually expanding structures on the inertial focusing of particles was also studied. Results suggest that to achieve the single-stream inertial focusing of particles, gradually expanding structures should be designed on one side or symmetrically on two sides of the microchannel. This study is of importance for the better design of the microchannels utilized for the efficient separation and manipulation of particle-related applications, such as microflow cytometry.

  19. Systematic Calibration for Ultra-High Accuracy Inertial Measurement Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qingzhong; Yang, Gongliu; Song, Ningfang; Liu, Yiliang

    2016-06-22

    An inertial navigation system (INS) has been widely used in challenging GPS environments. With the rapid development of modern physics, an atomic gyroscope will come into use in the near future with a predicted accuracy of 5 × 10(-6)°/h or better. However, existing calibration methods and devices can not satisfy the accuracy requirements of future ultra-high accuracy inertial sensors. In this paper, an improved calibration model is established by introducing gyro g-sensitivity errors, accelerometer cross-coupling errors and lever arm errors. A systematic calibration method is proposed based on a 51-state Kalman filter and smoother. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method can realize the estimation of all the parameters using a common dual-axis turntable. Laboratory and sailing tests prove that the position accuracy in a five-day inertial navigation can be improved about 8% by the proposed calibration method. The accuracy can be improved at least 20% when the position accuracy of the atomic gyro INS can reach a level of 0.1 nautical miles/5 d. Compared with the existing calibration methods, the proposed method, with more error sources and high order small error parameters calibrated for ultra-high accuracy inertial measurement units (IMUs) using common turntables, has a great application potential in future atomic gyro INSs.

  20. Systematic Calibration for Ultra-High Accuracy Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Cai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An inertial navigation system (INS has been widely used in challenging GPS environments. With the rapid development of modern physics, an atomic gyroscope will come into use in the near future with a predicted accuracy of 5 × 10−6°/h or better. However, existing calibration methods and devices can not satisfy the accuracy requirements of future ultra-high accuracy inertial sensors. In this paper, an improved calibration model is established by introducing gyro g-sensitivity errors, accelerometer cross-coupling errors and lever arm errors. A systematic calibration method is proposed based on a 51-state Kalman filter and smoother. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method can realize the estimation of all the parameters using a common dual-axis turntable. Laboratory and sailing tests prove that the position accuracy in a five-day inertial navigation can be improved about 8% by the proposed calibration method. The accuracy can be improved at least 20% when the position accuracy of the atomic gyro INS can reach a level of 0.1 nautical miles/5 d. Compared with the existing calibration methods, the proposed method, with more error sources and high order small error parameters calibrated for ultra-high accuracy inertial measurement units (IMUs using common turntables, has a great application potential in future atomic gyro INSs.

  1. Parameter Identification Method for SINS Initial Alignment under Inertial Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijian Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS largely depends on the accuracy and rapidness of the initial alignment. The conventional alignment method with parameter identification has been already applied widely, but it needs to calculate the gyroscope drifts through two-position method; then the time of initial alignment is greatly prolonged. For this issue, a novel self-alignment algorithm by parameter identification method under inertial frame for SINS is proposed in this paper. Firstly, this coarse alignment method using the gravity in the inertial frame as a reference is discussed to overcome the limit of dynamic disturbance on a rocking base and fulfill the requirement for the fine alignment. Secondly, the fine alignment method by parameter identification under inertial frame is formulated. The theoretical analysis results show that the fine alignment model is fully self-aligned with no external reference information and the gyrodrifts can be estimated in real time. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve rapid and highly accurate initial alignment for SINS.

  2. Inertial waves in a laboratory model of the Earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Santiago Andres

    2011-12-01

    A water-filled three-meter diameter spherical shell built as a model of the Earth's core shows evidence of precessionally forced flows and, when spinning the inner sphere differentially, inertial modes are excited. We identified the precessionally forced flow to be primarily the spin-over inertial mode, i.e., a uniform vorticity flow whose rotation axis is not aligned with the container's rotation axis. A systematic study of the spin-over mode is carried out, showing that the amplitude dependence on the Poincare number is in qualitative agreement with Busse's laminar theory while its phase differs significantly, likely due to topographic effects. At high rotation rates free shear layers concentrating most of the kinetic energy of the spin-over mode have been observed. When spinning the inner sphere differentially, a total of 12 inertial modes have been identified, reproducing and extending previous experimental results. The inertial modes excited appear ordered according to their azimuthal drift speed as the Rossby number is varied.

  3. Fresnel-Fizeau drag: Invisibility conditions for all inertial observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimeh, Jad C.; Thompson, Robert T.

    2016-03-01

    It was recently shown [J. C. Halimeh et al., Phys. Rev. A 93, 013850 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.013850] that as a result of the Doppler effect, inherently dispersive single-frequency ideal free-space invisibility cloaks in relative motion to an observer can only cloak light whose frequency in the cloak frame coincides with the operational frequency of the cloak, although an infinite number of such rays exist for any cloak motion. In this article, we show analytically and through ray-tracing simulations that even though this relationship can be relaxed by simplifying the ideal invisibility cloak into a broadband amplitude cloak, Fresnel-Fizeau drag uncloaks the phase of light in the inertial frame of the cloak thereby compromising its amplitude cloaking in all other inertial frames. In other words, only an invisibility device that perfectly cloaks both the amplitude and the phase of light in its own inertial frame will also (perfectly) cloak this light in any other inertial frame. The same conclusion lends itself to invisible objects that are not cloaks, such as the invisible sphere.

  4. Fresnel-Fizeau drag: Invisibility conditions for all inertial observers

    CERN Document Server

    Halimeh, Jad C

    2016-01-01

    It was recently shown [Halimeh \\emph{et al.} arXiv:1510.06114 (to appear in Phys. Rev. A)] that as a result of the Doppler effect, inherently dispersive single-frequency ideal free-space invisibility cloaks in relative motion to an observer can only cloak light whose frequency in the cloak frame coincides with the operational frequency of the cloak, although an infinite number of such rays exist for any cloak motion. In this article, we show analytically and through ray-tracing simulations that even though this relationship can be relaxed by simplifying the ideal invisibility cloak into a broadband amplitude cloak, Fresnel-Fizeau drag uncloaks the phase of light in the inertial frame of the cloak thereby compromising its amplitude cloaking in all other inertial frames. In other words, only an invisibility device that perfectly cloaks both the amplitude and the phase of light in its own inertial frame will also (perfectly) cloak this light in any other inertial frame. The same conclusion lends itself to invisi...

  5. Tracking Systems and the Value of Inertial Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, F.; Smits, A.T.; Jense, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper intents to add to the literature on 3D position and orientation tracking systems by describing TNO's experience with the InterSense tracking system that uses a combination of inertial and ultra-sound technology. From the results of a performance evaluation study and our practical

  6. Tracking Systems and the Value of Inertial Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, F.; Smits, A.T.; Jense, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper intents to add to the literature on 3D position and orientation tracking systems by describing TNO's experience with the InterSense tracking system that uses a combination of inertial and ultra-sound technology. From the results of a performance evaluation study and our practical experien

  7. The technology benefits of inertial confinement fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, H T

    1999-05-26

    The development and demonstration of inertial fusion is incredibly challenging because it requires simultaneously controlling and precisely measuring parameters at extreme values in energy, space, and time. The challenges range from building megajoule (10{sup 6} J) drivers that perform with percent-level precision to fabricating targets with submicron specifications to measuring target performance at micron scale (10{sup {minus}6} m) with picosecond (10{sup {minus}12} s) time resolution. Over the past 30 years in attempting to meet this challenge, the inertial fusion community around the world has invented new technologies in lasers, particle beams, pulse power drivers, diagnostics, target fabrication, and other areas. These technologies have found applications in diverse fields of industry and science. Moreover, simply assembling the teams with the background, experience, and personal drive to meet the challenging requirements of inertial fusion has led to spin-offs in unexpected directions, for example, in laser isotope separation, extreme ultraviolet lithography for microelectronics, compact and inexpensive radars, advanced laser materials processing, and medical technology. The experience of inertial fusion research and development of spinning off technologies has not been unique to any one laboratory or country but has been similar in main research centers in the US, Europe, and Japan. Strengthening and broadening the inertial fusion effort to focus on creating a new source of electrical power (inertial fusion energy [IFE]) that is economically competitive and environmentally benign will yield rich rewards in technology spin-offs. The additional challenges presented by IFE are to make drivers affordable, efficient, and long-lived while operating at a repetition rate of a few Hertz; to make fusion targets that perform consistently at high-fusion yield; and to create target chambers that can repetitively handle greater than 100-MJ yields while producing minimal

  8. Can zonally symmetric inertial waves drive an oscillating mean flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, Torsten; Harlander, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    In the presentation [5] zonal mean flow excitation by inertial waves is studied in analogy to mean flow excitation by gravity waves [3] that plays an important role for the quasi-biennial oscillation in the equatorial atmosphere. In geophysical flows that are stratified and rotating, pure gravity and inertial waves correspond to the two limiting cases: gravity waves neglect rotation, inertial waves neglect stratification. The former are more relevant for fluids like the atmosphere, where stratification is dominant, the latter for the deep oceans or planet cores, where rotation dominates. In the present study a hierarchy of simple analytical and numerical models of zonally symmetric inertial wave-mean flow interactions is considered and the results are compared with data from a laboratory experiment [4]. The main findings can be summarised as follows: (i) when the waves are decoupled from the mean flow they just drive a retrograde (eastward) zonal mean flow, independent of the sign of the meridional phase speed; (ii) when coupling is present and the zonal mean flow is assumed to be steady, the waves can drive vertically alternating jets, but still, in contrast to the gravity wave case, the structure is independent of the sign of the meridional phase speed; (iii) when coupling is present and time-dependent zonal mean flows are considered the waves can drive vertically and temporarily oscillating mean flows. The comparison with laboratory data from a rotating annulus experiment shows a qualitative agreement. It appears that the experiment captures the basic elements of the inertial wave mean flow coupling. The results might be relevant to understand how the Equatorial Deep Jets can be maintained against dissipation [1, 2], a process currently discussed controversially. [1] Greatbatch, R., Brandt, P., Claus, M., Didwischus, S., Fu, Y.: On the width of the equatorial deep jets. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 42, 1729-1740 (2012) [2] Muench, J.E., Kunze, E.: Internal wave

  9. Adaptive Data Filtering of Inertial Sensors with Variable Bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mushfiqul; Rohac, Jan

    2015-01-01

    MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system)-based inertial sensors, i.e., accelerometers and angular rate sensors, are commonly used as a cost-effective solution for the purposes of navigation in a broad spectrum of terrestrial and aerospace applications. These tri-axial inertial sensors form an inertial measurement unit (IMU), which is a core unit of navigation systems. Even if MEMS sensors have an advantage in their size, cost, weight and power consumption, they suffer from bias instability, noisy output and insufficient resolution. Furthermore, the sensor's behavior can be significantly affected by strong vibration when it operates in harsh environments. All of these constitute conditions require treatment through data processing. As long as the navigation solution is primarily based on using only inertial data, this paper proposes a novel concept in adaptive data pre-processing by using a variable bandwidth filtering. This approach utilizes sinusoidal estimation to continuously adapt the filtering bandwidth of the accelerometer's data in order to reduce the effects of vibration and sensor noise before attitude estimation is processed. Low frequency vibration generally limits the conditions under which the accelerometers can be used to aid the attitude estimation process, which is primarily based on angular rate data and, thus, decreases its accuracy. In contrast, the proposed pre-processing technique enables using accelerometers as an aiding source by effective data smoothing, even when they are affected by low frequency vibration. Verification of the proposed concept is performed on simulation and real-flight data obtained on an ultra-light aircraft. The results of both types of experiments confirm the suitability of the concept for inertial data pre-processing. PMID:25648711

  10. Adaptive Data Filtering of Inertial Sensors with Variable Bandwidth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushfiqul Alam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system-based inertial sensors, i.e., accelerometers and angular rate sensors, are commonly used as a cost-effective solution for the purposes of navigation in a broad spectrum of terrestrial and aerospace applications. These tri-axial inertial sensors form an inertial measurement unit (IMU, which is a core unit of navigation systems. Even if MEMS sensors have an advantage in their size, cost, weight and power consumption, they suffer from bias instability, noisy output and insufficient resolution. Furthermore, the sensor’s behavior can be significantly affected by strong vibration when it operates in harsh environments. All of these constitute conditions require treatment through data processing. As long as the navigation solution is primarily based on using only inertial data, this paper proposes a novel concept in adaptive data pre-processing by using a variable bandwidth filtering. This approach utilizes sinusoidal estimation to continuously adapt the filtering bandwidth of the accelerometer’s data in order to reduce the effects of vibration and sensor noise before attitude estimation is processed. Low frequency vibration generally limits the conditions under which the accelerometers can be used to aid the attitude estimation process, which is primarily based on angular rate data and, thus, decreases its accuracy. In contrast, the proposed pre-processing technique enables using accelerometers as an aiding source by effective data smoothing, even when they are affected by low frequency vibration. Verification of the proposed concept is performed on simulation and real-flight data obtained on an ultra-light aircraft. The results of both types of experiments confirm the suitability of the concept for inertial data pre-processing.

  11. Fast Thermal Calibration of Low-Grade Inertial Sensors and Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalong Ban

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The errors of low-cost inertial sensors, especially Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS ones, are highly dependent on environmental conditions such as the temperature. Thus, there is a need for the development of accurate and reliable thermal compensation models to reduce the impact of such thermal drift of the sensors. Since the conventional thermal calibration methods are typically time-consuming and costly, an efficient thermal calibration method to investigate the thermal drift of a full set of gyroscope and accelerometer errors (i.e., biases, scale factor errors and non-orthogonalities over the entire temperature range in a few hours is proposed. The proposed method uses the idea of the Ramp method, which removes the time-consuming process of stabilizing the sensor temperature, and addresses its inherent problems with several improvements. We change the temperature linearly for a complete cycle and take a balanced strategy by making comprehensive use of the sensor measurements during both heating and cooling processes. Besides, an efficient 8-step rotate-and-static scheme is designed to further improve the calibration accuracy and efficiency. Real calibration tests showed that the proposed method is suitable for low-grade IMUs and for both lab and factory calibration due to its efficiency and sufficient accuracy.

  12. Fast thermal calibration of low-grade inertial sensors and inertial measurement units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoji; Li, You; Zhang, Hongping; Wang, Qingjiang; Ban, Yalong

    2013-09-12

    The errors of low-cost inertial sensors, especially Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) ones, are highly dependent on environmental conditions such as the temperature. Thus, there is a need for the development of accurate and reliable thermal compensation models to reduce the impact of such thermal drift of the sensors. Since the conventional thermal calibration methods are typically time-consuming and costly, an efficient thermal calibration method to investigate the thermal drift of a full set of gyroscope and accelerometer errors (i.e., biases, scale factor errors and non-orthogonalities) over the entire temperature range in a few hours is proposed. The proposed method uses the idea of the Ramp method, which removes the time-consuming process of stabilizing the sensor temperature, and addresses its inherent problems with several improvements. We change the temperature linearly for a complete cycle and take a balanced strategy by making comprehensive use of the sensor measurements during both heating and cooling processes. Besides, an efficient 8-step rotate-and-static scheme is designed to further improve the calibration accuracy and efficiency. Real calibration tests showed that the proposed method is suitable for low-grade IMUs and for both lab and factory calibration due to its efficiency and sufficient accuracy.

  13. Mean flow generation mechanism by inertial waves and normal modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Andreas; Ghasemi, Abouzar

    2016-04-01

    The mean flow generation mechanism by nonlinearity of the inertial normal modes and inertial wave beams in a rotating annular cavity with longitudinally librating walls in stable regime is discussed. Inertial normal modes (standing waves) are excited when libration frequency matches eigenfrequencies of the system. Inertial wave beams are produced by Ekman pumping and suction in a rotating cylinder and form periodic orbits or periodic ray trajectories at selected frequencies. Inertial wave beams emerge as concentrated shear layers in a librating annular cavity, while normal modes appear as global recirculation cells. Both (inertial wave beam and mode) are helical and thus intrinsically non-linear flow structures. No second mode or wave is necessary for non-linearity. We considered the low order normal modes (1,1), (2,1) and (2,2) which are expected to be excited in the planetary objects and investigate the mean flow generation mechanism using two independent solutions: 1) analytical solution (Borcia 2012) and 2) the wave component of the flow (ω0 component) obtained from the direct numerical simulation (DNS). It is well known that a retrograde bulk mean flow is generated by the Ekman boundary layer and E1/4-Stewartson layer close to the outer cylinder side wall due to libration. At and around the normal mode resonant frequencies we found additionally a prograde azimuthal mean flow (Inertial Normal Mode Mean Flow: INMMF) in the bulk of the fluid. The fluid in the bulk is in geostrophic balance in the absence of the inertial normal modes. However, when INMMF is excited, we found that the geostrophic balance does not hold in the region occupied by INMMF. We hypothesize that INMMF is generated by the nonlinearity of the normal modes or by second order effects. Expanding the velocity {V}(u_r,u_θ,u_z) and pressure (p) in a power series in ɛ (libration amplitude), the Navier-Stokes equations are segregated into the linear and nonlinear parts at orders ɛ1 and ɛ^2

  14. Inertial Gait Phase Detection for control of a drop foot stimulator: Inertial sensing for gait phase detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotiadis, D; Hermens, H.J.; Veltink, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    An Inertial Gait Phase Detection system was developed to replace heel switches and footswitches currently being used for the triggering of drop foot stimulators. A series of four algorithms utilising accelerometers and gyroscopes individually and in combination were tested and initial results are sh

  15. Radiation-MHD Simulations of Plasma-Jet-Driven Magneto-Inertial Fusion Gain Using USim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Peter; Beckwith, Kristian; Kundrapu, Mahdusudhan; Hsu, Scott; Langendorf, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    One goal of the modeling effort for the PLX- α project is to identify plasma-jet-driven magneto-inertial fusion (PJMIF) configurations with potential net fusion-energy gain. We use USim, which is a tool for modeling high-energy-density plasmas using multi-fluid models coupled to electromagnetics using fully-implicit iterative solvers, combined with finite volume discretizations on unstructured meshes. We include physical viscosity and advanced-EOS modeling capability, and are investigating the effects of different radiation (including flux-limited diffusion) and alpha-transport models. We compare 2D and 1D gain calculations for various liner geometries, parameters, and plasma species, and consider the effects of liner non-uniformities on fusion-gain degradation. Supported by the ARPA-E ALPHA Program.

  16. A spectroscopic study of ion channels in a prototype inertial electrostatic confinement reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collis, S.; Khachan, J. [School of Physics, Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia)

    2000-03-01

    Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) involves using a semi-transparent and negatively biased grid to accelerate light nuclei towards a common centre for the purpose of generating neutrons through fusion reactions. This project investigated the plasma properties in a small prototype IEC device that was operated using a relatively low grid bias in a discharge of hydrogen. Electrostatic lenses, which are the product of the geometry of the grid, create ion channels. Doppler shift spectroscopy was performed on the emission produced by charge exchange reactions in these channels. Using the spectra we obtained, we were able to determine energies, ratios of hydrogen species (H{sup +}:H{sub 2}{sup +}:H{sub 3}{sup +}) and thermal properties of ions present in these channels. A discussion of results will be presented with particular emphasis on the implications of our findings to the construction of a portable neutron production device. (author)

  17. The effects of gentle topographic variation on dispersal kernels of inertial particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katul, G. G.; Poggi, D.

    2012-02-01

    Seed dispersal kernels of wind-dispersed species imprint the initial spatial template over which later demographic processes such as establishment or re-colonization operate from. A major knowledge gap in seed dispersal modeling by wind is the role of complex topography in modifying the kernel shape when referenced to the flat-world case. How complex topography modifies the dispersal kernels of inertial particles such as seeds is explored here via novel flume experiments. A train of gentle cosine hills and a canopy composed of densely arrayed rods with a roughness density resembling the leaf area density profile of hardwood species at maximum leaf area were used to represent a canopy-hill system. Spherical inertial particles having a coefficient of variation in terminal velocity commensurate with values reported from field studies were employed as model seeds. It was demonstrated that the seed dispersal kernel maintained its canonical ‘Wald’ form as derived from simplified turbulent dispersion theories for flat terrain and vertically uniform flow field. Seeds released near the canopy top and from the top of the hill have a dispersal kernel mean distance that was about 35% times larger than its counterpart for releases from the bottom of the hill. Moreover, the probability of occurrence of long-distance dispersal (LDD) events, defined here as seeds traversing a longitudinal distance exceeding 10 times the canopy height, were one order of magnitude larger for seeds released near the canopy top and from the hill top when compared to their counterpart released from the hill bottom.

  18. Systems and Methods for Determining Inertial Navigation System Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Raj Mohan (Inventor); Bageshwar, Vibhor L. (Inventor); Kim, Kyusung (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An inertial navigation system (INS) includes a primary inertial navigation system (INS) unit configured to receive accelerometer measurements from an accelerometer and angular velocity measurements from a gyroscope. The primary INS unit is further configured to receive global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals from a GNSS sensor and to determine a first set of kinematic state vectors based on the accelerometer measurements, the angular velocity measurements, and the GNSS signals. The INS further includes a secondary INS unit configured to receive the accelerometer measurements and the angular velocity measurements and to determine a second set of kinematic state vectors of the vehicle based on the accelerometer measurements and the angular velocity measurements. A health management system is configured to compare the first set of kinematic state vectors and the second set of kinematic state vectors to determine faults associated with the accelerometer or the gyroscope based on the comparison.

  19. Inertial Effects on Finite Length Pipe Seismic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Corrado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A seismic analysis for soil-pipe interaction which accounts for length and constraining conditions at the ends of a continuous pipe is developed. The Winkler model is used to schematize the soil-structure interaction. The approach is focused on axial strains, since bending strains in a buried pipe due to the wave propagation are typically a second-order effect. Unlike many works, the inertial terms are considered in solving equations. Accurate numerical simulations are carried out to show the influence of pipe length and constraint conditions on the pipe seismic strain. The obtained results are compared with results inferred from other models present in the literature. For free-end pipelines, inertial effects have significant influence only for short length. On the contrary, their influence is always important for pinned pipes. Numerical simulations show that a simple rigid model can be used for free-end pipes, whereas pinned pipes need more accurate models.

  20. Near-Inertial Internal Gravity Waves in the Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Matthew H; MacKinnon, Jennifer A; Simmons, Harper L; Nash, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    We review the physics of near-inertial waves (NIWs) in the ocean and the observations, theory, and models that have provided our present knowledge. NIWs appear nearly everywhere in the ocean as a spectral peak at and just above the local inertial period f, and the longest vertical wavelengths can propagate at least hundreds of kilometers toward the equator from their source regions; shorter vertical wavelengths do not travel as far and do not contain as much energy, but lead to turbulent mixing owing to their high shear. NIWs are generated by a variety of mechanisms, including the wind, nonlinear interactions with waves of other frequencies, lee waves over bottom topography, and geostrophic adjustment; the partition among these is not known, although the wind is likely the most important. NIWs likely interact strongly with mesoscale and submesoscale motions, in ways that are just beginning to be understood.

  1. Measuring contact-line mobility during inertial spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Paul; Daniel, Susan; Xia, Yi

    2016-11-01

    During "inertial spreading", when inertia drives a partially wetting liquid across a solid, the role of bulk viscosity may be neglected. For such inertial-capillary motions, behavior of the moving contact-line (CL) can be understood within the context of ideal (or nearly ideal) fluid motion, provided an alternate to the Voinov-Hocking-Cox model of mobility is adopted. The alternate we adopt is the so-called Hocking condition. In this talk, we report experiments with Resonantly-Driven Droplets (RDD) whereby the bulk resonance of the drop amplifies the small and fast CL motion sufficiently to be measurable. The RDD approach enables us to measure a CL mobility and to infer a CL dissipation for droplets on a number of hydrophobic surfaces, surfaces with varying contact-angle hysteresis. Our results are compared to prior results in the literature, measured with alternative approaches. National Science Foundation Grant No. CBET-1236582.

  2. Inertial Measurements Based Velocity-free Attitude Stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Tayebi, A; Benallegue, A

    2012-01-01

    The existing attitude controllers (without angular velocity measurements) involve explicitly the orientation (\\textit{e.g.,} the unit-quaternion) in the feedback. Unfortunately, there does not exist any sensor that directly measures the orientation of a rigid body, and hence, the attitude must be reconstructed using a set of inertial vector measurements as well as the angular velocity (which is assumed to be unavailable in velocity-free control schemes). To overcome this \\textit{circular reasoning}-like problem, we propose a velocity-free attitude stabilization control scheme relying solely on inertial vector measurements. The originality of this control strategy stems from the fact that the reconstruction of the attitude as well as the angular velocity measurements are not required at all. Moreover, as a byproduct of our design approach, the proposed controller does not lead to the unwinding phenomenon encountered in unit-quaternion based attitude controllers.

  3. Quantum correlations in non-inertial cavity systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsij, Zeynab; Mirza, Behrouz

    2016-10-01

    Non-inertial cavities are utilized to store and send Quantum Information between mode pairs. A two-cavity system is considered where one is inertial and the other accelerated in a finite time. Maclaurian series are applied to expand the related Bogoliubov coefficients and the problem is treated perturbatively. It is shown that Quantum Discord, which is a measure of quantumness of correlations, is degraded periodically. This is almost in agreement with previous results reached in accelerated systems where increment of acceleration decreases the degree of quantum correlations. As another finding of the study, it is explicitly shown that degradation of Quantum Discord disappears when the state is in a single cavity which is accelerated for a finite time. This feature makes accelerating cavities useful instruments in Quantum Information Theory.

  4. Diagnosing magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments on Z

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S. B., E-mail: sbhanse@sandia.gov; Gomez, M. R.; Sefkow, A. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Hahn, K. D.; Harding, E. C.; Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Awe, T. J.; McBride, R. D.; Jennings, C. A.; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Peterson, K. J.; Rovang, D. C.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Hess, M. H. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments performed at Sandia's Z facility have demonstrated significant thermonuclear fusion neutron yields (∼10{sup 12} DD neutrons) from multi-keV deuterium plasmas inertially confined by slow (∼10 cm/μs), stable, cylindrical implosions. Effective magnetic confinement of charged fusion reactants and products is signaled by high secondary DT neutron yields above 10{sup 10}. Analysis of extensive power, imaging, and spectroscopic x-ray measurements provides a detailed picture of ∼3 keV temperatures, 0.3 g/cm{sup 3} densities, gradients, and mix in the fuel and liner over the 1–2 ns stagnation duration.

  5. Phase transitions in the distribution of inelastically colliding inertial particles

    CERN Document Server

    Belan, Sergey; Falkovich, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    It was recently suggested that the sign of particle drift in inhomogeneous temperature or turbulence depends on the particle inertia: weakly inertial particles localize near minima of temperature or turbulence intensity (effects known as thermophoresis and turbophoresis), while strongly inertial particles fly away from minima in an unbounded space. The problem of a particle near minima of turbulence intensity is related to that of two particles in a random flow, so that the localization-delocalization transition in the former corresponds to the path-coalescence transition in the latter. The transition is signaled by the sign change of the Lyapunov exponent that characterizes the mean rate of particle approach to the minimum (which could be wall or another particle). Here we solve analytically this problem for inelastic collisions and derive the phase diagram for the transition in the inertia-inelasticity plane. An important feature of the phase diagram is the region of inelastic collapse: if the restitution c...

  6. Application of inertial instruments for DSN antenna pointing and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldred, D. B.; Nerheim, N. M.; Holmes, K. G.

    1990-05-01

    The feasibility of using inertial instruments to determine the pointing attitude of the NASA Deep Space Network antennas is examined. The objective is to obtain 1 mdeg pointing knowledge in both blind pointing and tracking modes to facilitate operation of the Deep Space Network 70 m antennas at 32 GHz. A measurement system employing accelerometers, an inclinometer, and optical gyroscopes is proposed. The initial pointing attitude is established by determining the direction of the local gravity vector using the accelerometers and the inclinometer, and the Earth's spin axis using the gyroscopes. Pointing during long-term tracking is maintained by integrating the gyroscope rates and augmenting these measurements with knowledge of the local gravity vector. A minimum-variance estimator is used to combine measurements to obtain the antenna pointing attitude. A key feature of the algorithm is its ability to recalibrate accelerometer parameters during operation. A survey of available inertial instrument technologies is also given.

  7. The effect of surface wettability on inertial pouring flows

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwhuis, Wilco

    2015-01-01

    A liquid poured from a curved solid surface can separate as a steady jet or sheet, or trickle down along the solid surface. It was shown by Duez et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084503 (2010)] that surface wettability controls the separation of an inertial flow from a solid surface to an unexpected degree, which was further motivated by an inertial-capillary adhesion model. In this paper we extend the analysis by a control volume calculation that takes into account the velocity profile within the flowing layer, supported by Boundary Integral potential flow simulations, and the detailed capillary forces induced by the local curvatures of the sheet. Our analysis captures the appearance of a critical Weber number below which no steady separated solutions can be sustained. We investigate the dependence of the critical Weber number on the wettability and sharpness of the edge of the curved solid, and recover the key experimental trends.

  8. Next-generation laser for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, C; Bibeau, C; Bayramian, A; Beach, R; Ebbers, C A; Emanuel, M; Freitas, B; Fulkerson, S; Honea, E; Krupke, B; Lawson, J; Orth, C; Payne, S; Petty, C; Powell, H; Schaffers, K; Skidmore, J; Smith, L; Sutton, S; Telford, S

    1998-03-13

    We are developing and building the ''Mercury'' laser system as the first in a series of a new generation of diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSL) for advanced high energy density (HED) physics experiments at LLNL. Mercury will be the first integrated demonstration of a scalable laser architecture compatible with advanced Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) goals. Primary performance goals include 10% efficiencies at 10 Hz and a <10 ns pulse with l {omega} energies of 100 J and with 2 {omega}/3 {omega} frequency conversion. Achieving this performance will provide a near term capability for HED experiments and prove the potential of DPSSLs for inertial fusion energy (IFE).

  9. Numerical Analysis of Vibrations of Structures under Moving Inertial Load

    CERN Document Server

    Bajer, Czeslaw I

    2012-01-01

    Moving inertial loads are applied to structures in civil engineering, robotics, and mechanical engineering. Some fundamental books exist, as well as thousands of research papers. Well known is the book by L. Frýba, Vibrations of Solids and Structures Under Moving Loads, which describes almost all problems concerning non-inertial loads. This book presents broad description of numerical tools successfully applied to structural dynamic analysis. Physically we deal with non-conservative systems. The discrete approach formulated with the use of the classical finite element method results in elemental matrices, which can be directly added to global structure matrices. A more general approach is carried out with the space-time finite element method. In such a case, a trajectory of the moving concentrated parameter in space and time can be simply defined. We consider structures described by pure hyperbolic differential equations such as strings and structures described by hyperbolic-parabolic differential equations ...

  10. Atom lasers: Production, properties and prospects for precision inertial measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robins, N.P., E-mail: nick.robins@anu.edu.au; Altin, P.A.; Debs, J.E.; Close, J.D.

    2013-08-20

    We review experimental progress on atom lasers out-coupled from Bose–Einstein condensates, and consider the properties of such beams in the context of precision inertial sensing. The atom laser is the matter-wave analogue of the optical laser. Both devices rely on Bose-enhanced scattering to produce a macroscopically populated trapped mode that is output-coupled to produce an intense beam. In both cases, the beams often display highly desirable properties such as low divergence, high spectral flux and a simple spatial mode that make them useful in practical applications, as well as the potential to perform measurements at or below the quantum projection noise limit. Both devices display similar second-order correlations that differ from thermal sources. Because of these properties, atom lasers are a promising source for application to precision inertial measurements.

  11. Nonlinear laser-plasma interaction in magnetized liner inertial fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissel, Matthias; Awe, T. J.; Bliss, D. E.; Campbell, M. E.; Gomez, M. R.; Harding, E.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Hansen, S. B.; Jennings, C.; Kimmel, M. W.; Knapp, P.; Lewis, S. M.; McBride, R. D.; Peterson, K.; Schollmeier, M.; Scoglietti, D. J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Shores, J. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Smith, I. C.; Speas, C. S.; Vesey, R. A.; Porter, J. L.

    2016-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing a variation of Magneto-Inertial Fusion called Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion, or MagLIF. The MagLIF approach requires magnetization of the deuterium fuel, which is accomplished by an initial external B-Field and laser-driven pre-heat. While magnetization is crucial to the concept, it is challenging to couple sufficient energy to the fuel, since laser-plasma instabilities exist, and a compromise between laser spot size, laser entrance window thickness, and fuel density must be found. Nonlinear processes in laser plasma interaction, or laser-plasma instabilities (LPI), complicate the deposition of laser energy by enhanced absorption, backscatter, filamentation and beam-spray. Key LPI processes are determined, and mitigation methods are discussed. Results with and without improvement measures are presented.

  12. On the electromagnetic origin of inertia and inertial mass

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Alexandre A

    2008-01-01

    We address the problem of inertial property of matter through analysis of the motion of an extended charged particle. Our approach is based on the continuity equation for momentum (Newton's second law) taking due account of the vector potential and its convective derivative. We obtain a development in terms of retarded potentials allowing an intuitive physical interpretation of its main terms. The inertial property of matter is then discussed in terms of a kind of induction law related to the extended charged particle's own vector potential. Moreover, it is obtained a force term that represents a drag force acting on the charged particle when in motion relatively to its own vector potential field lines. The time rate of variation of the particle's vector potential leads to the acceleration inertia reaction force, equivalent to the Schott term responsible for the source of the radiation field. We also show that the velocity dependent term of the particle's vector potential is connected with the relativistic in...

  13. Hydrodynamic interaction of swimming organisms in an inertial regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaojin; Ostace, Anca; Ardekani, Arezoo M.

    2016-11-01

    We numerically investigate the hydrodynamic interaction of swimming organisms at small to intermediate Reynolds number regimes, i.e., Re˜O (0.1 -100 ) , where inertial effects are important. The hydrodynamic interaction of swimming organisms in this regime is significantly different from the Stokes regime for microorganisms, as well as the high Reynolds number flows for fish and birds, which involves strong flow separation and detached vortex structures. Using an archetypal swimmer model, called a "squirmer," we find that the inertial effects change the contact time and dispersion dynamics of a pair of pusher swimmers, and trigger hydrodynamic attraction for two pullers. These results are potentially important in investigating predator-prey interactions, sexual reproduction, and the encounter rate of marine organisms such as copepods, ctenophora, and larvae.

  14. Inertial wave and zonal flow in librating spherical shells

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Yufeng; Calkin, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    We numerically study the inertial waves and zonal flows in spherical shells driven by longitudinal libration, an oscillatory variation of rotation rate. Internal shear layers are generated due to breakdown of the Ekman boundary layer at critical latitudes. Our numerical results validate the scaling laws of internal shear layers predicted by previous studies. Mean zonal flows are driven by the non-linear interaction in the boundary layers. Non-linear interaction of inertial waves in the interior fluids has no significant contribution to the zonal flow. Multiple geostrophic shear layers are generated due to non-linearities in the boundary layers at critical latitudes and reflection points of internal shear layers. We also investigate the scaling laws of geostrophic shear layers and extrapolate the results to the planetary setting.

  15. Inertial modes of non-stratified superfluid neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Prix, R; Andersson, N

    2004-01-01

    We present results concerning adiabatic inertial-mode oscillations of non-stratified superfluid neutron stars in Newtonian gravity, using the anelastic and slow-rotation approximations. We consider a simple two-fluid model of a superfluid neutron star, where one fluid consists of the superfluid neutrons and the second fluid contains all the comoving constituents (protons, electrons). The two fluids are assumed to be ``free'' in the sense that vortex-mediated forces like mutual friction or pinning are absent, but they can be coupled by the equation of state, in particular by entrainment. The stationary background consists of the two fluids rotating uniformly around the same axis with potentially different rotation rates. We study the special cases of co-rotating backgrounds, vanishing entrainment, and the purely toroidal r-modes, analytically. We calculate numerically the eigenfunctions and frequencies of inertial modes in the general case of non co-rotating backgrounds, and study their dependence on the relat...

  16. Damping strapdown inertial navigation system based on a Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lin; Li, Jiushun; Cheng, Jianhua; Hao, Yong

    2016-11-01

    A damping strapdown inertial navigation system (DSINS) can effectively suppress oscillation errors of strapdown inertial navigation systems (SINSs) and improve the navigation accuracy of SINSs. Aiming at overcoming the disadvantages of traditional damping methods, a DSINS, based on a Kalman filter (KF), is proposed in this paper. Using the measurement data of accelerometers and calculated navigation parameters during the navigation process, the expression of the observation equation is derived. The calculation process of the observation in both the internal damping state and the external damping state is presented. Finally, system oscillation errors are compensated by a KF. Simulation and test results show that, compared with traditional damping methods, the proposed method can reduce system overshoot errors and shorten the convergence time of oscillation errors effectively.

  17. Enstrophy inertial range dynamics in generalized two-dimensional turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwayama, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    We show that the transition to a k-1 spectrum in the enstrophy inertial range of generalized two-dimensional turbulence can be derived analytically using the eddy damped quasinormal Markovianized (EDQNM) closure. The governing equation for the generalized two-dimensional fluid system includes a nonlinear term with a real parameter α . This parameter controls the relationship between the stream function and generalized vorticity and the nonlocality of the dynamics. An asymptotic analysis accounting for the overwhelming dominance of nonlocal triads allows the k-1 spectrum to be derived based upon a scaling analysis. We thereby provide a detailed analytical explanation for the scaling transition that occurs in the enstrophy inertial range at α =2 in terms of the spectral dynamics of the EDQNM closure, which extends and enhances the usual phenomenological explanations.

  18. Pedestrian Navigation Using Foot-Mounted Inertial Sensor and LIDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Duy Duong; Suh, Young Soo

    2016-01-19

    Foot-mounted inertial sensors can be used for indoor pedestrian navigation. In this paper, to improve the accuracy of pedestrian location, we propose a method using a distance sensor (LIDAR) in addition to an inertial measurement unit (IMU). The distance sensor is a time of flight range finder with 30 m measurement range (at 33.33 Hz). Using a distance sensor, walls on corridors are automatically detected. The detected walls are used to correct the heading of the pedestrian path. Through experiments, it is shown that the accuracy of the heading is significantly improved using the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, the system is shown to work robustly in indoor environments with many doors and passing people.

  19. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  20. Fermionic entanglement extinction in non-inertial frames

    CERN Document Server

    Montero, M; Martin-Martinez, E

    2011-01-01

    We study families of fermionic field states in non-inertial frames which show no entanglement survival in the infinite acceleration limit. We generalise some recent results where some particular examples of such states where found. We analyse the abundance and characteristics of the states showing this behaviour and discuss its relation with the statistics of the field. We also consider the phenomenon beyond the single mode approximation

  1. Inertial confinement fusion driven by long wavelength electromagnetic pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baifei; Shen; Xueyan; Zhao; Longqing; Yi; Wei; Yu; Zhizhan; Xu

    2013-01-01

    A method for inertial confinement fusion driven by powerful long wavelength electromagnetic pulses(EMPs), such as CO2 laser pulses or high power microwave pulses, is proposed. Due to the high efficiency of generating such long wavelength electromagnetic pulses, this method is especially important for the future fusion electricity power. Special fuel targets are designed to overcome the shortcomings of the long wavelength electromagnetic pulses.

  2. Vision-aided inertial navigation system for robotic mobile mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoud, Fadi; Skaloud, Jan

    2008-04-01

    A mapping system by vision-aided inertial navigation was developed for areas where GNSS signals are unreachable. In this framework, a methodology on the integration of vision and inertial sensors is presented, analysed and tested. The system employs the method of “SLAM: Simultaneous Localisation And Mapping” where the only external input available to the system at the beginning of the mapping mission is a number of features with known coordinates. SLAM is a term used in the robotics community to describe the problem of mapping the environment and at the same time using this map to determine the location of the mapping device. Differing from the robotics approach, the presented development stems from the frameworks of photogrammetry and kinematic geodesy that are merged in two filters that run in parallel: the Least-Squares Adjustment (LSA) for features coordinates determination and the Kalman filter (KF) for navigation correction. To test this approach, a mapping system-prototype comprising two CCD cameras and one Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is introduced. Conceptually, the outputs of the LSA photogrammetric resection are used as the external measurements for the KF that corrects the inertial navigation. The filtered position and orientation are subsequently employed in the photogrammetric intersection to map the surrounding features that are used as control points for the resection in the next epoch. We confirm empirically the dependency of navigation performance on the quality of the images and the number of tracked features, as well as on the geometry of the stereo-pair. Due to its autonomous nature, the SLAM's performance is further affected by the quality of IMU initialisation and the a-priory assumptions on error distribution. Using the example of the presented system we show that centimetre accuracy can be achieved in both navigation and mapping when the image geometry is optimal.

  3. Inertial waste separation system for zero G WMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The design, operation, and flight test are presented for an inertial waste separation system. Training personnel to use this system under simulated conditions is also discussed. Conclusions indicate that before the system is usable in zero gravity environments, a mirror for the user's guidance should be installed, the bounce cycle and bag changing system should be redesigned, and flange clips should be added to improve the user's balance.

  4. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Ryan D.; Slutz, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression...

  5. Inertial currents in the southern Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    G Expósito-Díaz; DA Salas-de León; MA Monreal-Gómez; D Salas-Monreal; F Vázquez-Gutiérrez

    2009-01-01

    Current velocity data recorded from 1 March to 17 June 1997 at four stations in the Bay of Campeche, southern Gulf of Mexico, were used to describe inertial currents. Data were low-pass filtered using a Lanczos filter, and transformed to the frequency domain with the classical Fast Fourier Transform, rotary spectra, and the Morlet Wavelet Method. The strongest total currents developed in the eastern part of the bay, with a dominant east-west component. The predominant direction of the total ...

  6. Capillary-Inertial Colloidal Catapult upon Drop Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Roger; Liu, Fangjie; Feng, James; Chen, Chuan-Hua

    2014-11-01

    To discharge micron-sized particles such as colloidal contaminants and biological spores, an enormous power density is needed to compete against the strong adhesive forces between the small particles and the supporting surface as well as the significant air friction exerted on the particles. Here, we demonstrate a colloidal catapult that achieves such a high power density by extracting surface energy released upon drop coalescence within an extremely short time period, which is governed by the capillary-inertial process converting the released surface energy into the bulk inertia of the merged drop. When two drops coalesce on top of a spherical particle, the resulting capillary-inertial oscillation is perturbed by the solid particle, giving rise to a net momentum eventually propelling the particle to launch from the supporting surface. The measured launching velocity follows a scaling law that accounts for the redistribution of the momentum of the merged drop onto the particle-drop complex, and is therefore proportional to the capillary-inertial velocity characterizing the coalescing drops. The interfacial flow process associated with the colloidal catapult is elucidated with both high-speed imaging and phase-field simulations.

  7. Application of inertial navigation to wellbore positional surveying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, A.C.

    1982-06-01

    There is an increasing need for higher accuracy in wellbore directional and positional surveying than is currently available using conventional techniques. Among the factors contributing to this need are closed interspacing of wells particularly from offshore platforms, deeper and more highly deviated wells, smaller target formations and the requirement for rapid drilling of relief wells in the case of blowouts. The application of inertial navigation system (INS) of suitable size and cost for this type of application is not inherently accurate enough to offer significant improvements in well-surveying accuracy. Techniques to improve accuracy are, in general, based on the fact that the dynamics associated with the propagation of the navigator errors are very well known. Inertial systems are routinely aided using external data from a number of sources. Such aiding may take the form of an external position or velocity measurement which is compared to the position or velocity indicated by the navigator. Kalman filter theory provides a convenient formulation for generation of a minimum variance estimate of the state vector of a linear system. The theory may be extended to the nonlinear case through the use of linearization about a state trajectory. This approach is currently seeing wide use in aiding of inertial navigation systems. The approach proposed here would use the Kalman filter formulation for estimation of the INS errors and updating of the navigator. This formulation also provides a structure for estimation of various instrument parameters which should improve system performance.

  8. Inertial particles in a shearless mixing layer: direct numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Peter; Collins, Lance

    2010-11-01

    Entrainment, the drawing in of external fluid by a turbulent flow, is present in nearly all turbulent processes, from exhaust plumes to oceanic thermoclines to cumulus clouds. While the entrainment of fluid and of passive scalars in turbulent flows has been studied extensively, comparatively little research has been undertaken on inertial particle entrainment. We explore entrainment of inertial particles in a shearless mixing layer across a turbulent-non-turbulent interface (TNI) and a turbulent-turbulent interface (TTI) through direct numerical simulation (DNS). Particles are initially placed on one side of the interface and are advanced in time in decaying turbulence. Our results show that the TTI is more efficient in mixing droplets than the TNI. We also find that without the influence of gravity, over the range of Stokes numbers present in cumulus clouds, particle concentration statistics are essentially independent of the dissipation scale Stokes number. The DNS data agrees with results from experiments performed in a wind tunnel with close parametric overlap. We anticipate that a better understanding of the role of gravity and turbulence in inertial particle entrainment will lead to improved cloud evolution predictions and more accurate climate models. Sponsored by the U.S. NSF.

  9. A Visual-aided Inertial Navigation and Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Munguía

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available State estimation is a fundamental necessity for any application involving autonomous robots. This paper describes a visual-aided inertial navigation and mapping system for application to autonomous robots. The system, which relies on Kalman filtering, is designed to fuse the measurements obtained from a monocular camera, an inertial measurement unit (IMU and a position sensor (GPS. The estimated state consists of the full state of the vehicle: the position, orientation, their first derivatives and the parameter errors of the inertial sensors (i.e., the bias of gyroscopes and accelerometers. The system also provides the spatial locations of the visual features observed by the camera. The proposed scheme was designed by considering the limited resources commonly available in small mobile robots, while it is intended to be applied to cluttered environments in order to perform fully vision-based navigation in periods where the position sensor is not available. Moreover, the estimated map of visual features would be suitable for multiple tasks: i terrain analysis; ii three dimensional (3D scene reconstruction; iii localization, detection or perception of obstacles and generating trajectories to navigate around these obstacles; and iv autonomous exploration. In this work, simulations and experiments with real data are presented in order to validate and demonstrate the performance of the proposal.

  10. Wearable inertial sensors in swimming motion analysis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhaes, Fabricio Anicio; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Gatta, Giorgio; Fantozzi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The use of contemporary technology is widely recognised as a key tool for enhancing competitive performance in swimming. Video analysis is traditionally used by coaches to acquire reliable biomechanical data about swimming performance; however, this approach requires a huge computational effort, thus introducing a delay in providing quantitative information. Inertial and magnetic sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers, have been recently introduced to assess the biomechanics of swimming performance. Research in this field has attracted a great deal of interest in the last decade due to the gradual improvement of the performance of sensors and the decreasing cost of miniaturised wearable devices. With the aim of describing the state of the art of current developments in this area, a systematic review of the existing methods was performed using the following databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, IEEE Xplore, Google Scholar, Scopus and Science Direct. Twenty-seven articles published in indexed journals and conference proceedings, focusing on the biomechanical analysis of swimming by means of inertial sensors were reviewed. The articles were categorised according to sensor's specification, anatomical sites where the sensors were attached, experimental design and applications for the analysis of swimming performance. Results indicate that inertial sensors are reliable tools for swimming biomechanical analyses.

  11. Analysis of the correlation dimension for inertial particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Kristian [Department of Physics, University of Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Physics, Göteborg University, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Mehlig, Bernhard [Department of Physics, Göteborg University, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Wilkinson, Michael [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    We obtain an implicit equation for the correlation dimension which describes clustering of inertial particles in a complex flow onto a fractal measure. Our general equation involves a propagator of a nonlinear stochastic process in which the velocity gradient of the fluid appears as additive noise. When the long-time limit of the propagator is considered our equation reduces to an existing large-deviation formalism from which it is difficult to extract concrete results. In the short-time limit, however, our equation reduces to a solvability condition on a partial differential equation. In the case where the inertial particles are much denser than the fluid, we show how this approach leads to a perturbative expansion of the correlation dimension, for which the coefficients can be obtained exactly and in principle to any order. We derive the perturbation series for the correlation dimension of inertial particles suspended in three-dimensional spatially smooth random flows with white-noise time correlations, obtaining the first 33 non-zero coefficients exactly.

  12. Silicon-micromachined accelerometers for space inertial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, I.; Islam, R.; Kanakaraju, K.; Jain, Yashwant K.; Alex, T. K.

    1999-11-01

    Accelerometers are key components of various motion control systems ranging in use from inertial guidance of rockets and satellite launch vehicles to safety applications in the automotive industry. The accelerometers that are used for spare inertial systems are characterized by high resolution, small bandwidth, large working range and excellent linearity. Current advances in this field are based on silicon micromachining. Silicon bulk and surface micromachined accelerometers offer advantages of reduced size and weight, less power consumption and the use of a fabrication process derived form an already well established semiconductor fab technology. Of the various approaches to silicon micromachined accelerometers, two are in a well advanced state of development. The first is the capacitive force balanced type and the second the piezoresistive type. The capacitive approach has the advantage of higher stability and resolution and lower temperature coefficients. But it requires proximal detection circuitry to prevent parasitics to overwhelm the circuit. A new approach reported recently uses a silicon micromachined cantilever beam which acts as a Fabry Perot interferometer when light form an optical fiber is impinged on it. In this paper we overview all the approaches and try to select a suitable candidate for use in space borne inertial systems.

  13. Robust Active Suspension Design Subject to Vehicle Inertial Parameter Variations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Ping Du; Nong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an approach in designing a robust controller for vehicle suspensions considering changes in vehicle inertial properties. A four-degree-of-freedom half-car model with active suspension is studied in this paper, and three main performance requirements are considered. Among these requirements, the ride comfort performance is optimized by minimizing the H∞ norm of the transfer function from the road disturbance to the sprung mass acceleration, while the road holding performance and the suspension deflection limitation are guaranteed by constraining the generalized H2 (GH2) norms of the transfer functions from the road disturbance to the dynamic tyre load and the suspension deflection to be less than their hard limits, respectively. At the same time, the controller saturation problem is considered by constraining its peak response output to be less than a given limit using the GH2 norm as well. By solving the finite number of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) with the minimization optimization procedure, the controller gains, which are dependent on the time-varying inertial parameters, can be obtained. Numerical simulations on both frequency and bump responses show that the designed parameter-dependent controller can achieve better active suspension performance compared with the passive suspension in spite of the variations of inertial parameters.

  14. Inertial Pocket Navigation System: Unaided 3D Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefania Munoz Diaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inertial navigation systems use dead-reckoning to estimate the pedestrian’s position. There are two types of pedestrian dead-reckoning, the strapdown algorithm and the step-and-heading approach. Unlike the strapdown algorithm, which consists of the double integration of the three orthogonal accelerometer readings, the step-and-heading approach lacks the vertical displacement estimation. We propose the first step-and-heading approach based on unaided inertial data solving 3D positioning. We present a step detector for steps up and down and a novel vertical displacement estimator. Our navigation system uses the sensor introduced in the front pocket of the trousers, a likely location of a smartphone. The proposed algorithms are based on the opening angle of the leg or pitch angle. We analyzed our step detector and compared it with the state-of-the-art, as well as our already proposed step length estimator. Lastly, we assessed our vertical displacement estimator in a real-world scenario. We found that our algorithms outperform the literature step and heading algorithms and solve 3D positioning using unaided inertial data. Additionally, we found that with the pitch angle, five activities are distinguishable: standing, sitting, walking, walking up stairs and walking down stairs. This information complements the pedestrian location and is of interest for applications, such as elderly care.

  15. Inertial Pocket Navigation System: Unaided 3D Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Estefania Munoz

    2015-04-17

    Inertial navigation systems use dead-reckoning to estimate the pedestrian's position. There are two types of pedestrian dead-reckoning, the strapdown algorithm and the step-and-heading approach. Unlike the strapdown algorithm, which consists of the double integration of the three orthogonal accelerometer readings, the step-and-heading approach lacks the vertical displacement estimation. We propose the first step-and-heading approach based on unaided inertial data solving 3D positioning. We present a step detector for steps up and down and a novel vertical displacement estimator. Our navigation system uses the sensor introduced in the front pocket of the trousers, a likely location of a smartphone. The proposed algorithms are based on the opening angle of the leg or pitch angle. We analyzed our step detector and compared it with the state-of-the-art, as well as our already proposed step length estimator. Lastly, we assessed our vertical displacement estimator in a real-world scenario. We found that our algorithms outperform the literature step and heading algorithms and solve 3D positioning using unaided inertial data. Additionally, we found that with the pitch angle, five activities are distinguishable: standing, sitting, walking, walking up stairs and walking down stairs. This information complements the pedestrian location and is of interest for applications, such as elderly care.

  16. 3D environment capture from monocular video and inertial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. Robert; Lin, Michael H.; Taylor, Colin J.

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents experimental methods and results for 3D environment reconstruction from monocular video augmented with inertial data. One application targets sparsely furnished room interiors, using high quality handheld video with a normal field of view, and linear accelerations and angular velocities from an attached inertial measurement unit. A second application targets natural terrain with manmade structures, using heavily compressed aerial video with a narrow field of view, and position and orientation data from the aircraft navigation system. In both applications, the translational and rotational offsets between the camera and inertial reference frames are initially unknown, and only a small fraction of the scene is visible in any one video frame. We start by estimating sparse structure and motion from 2D feature tracks using a Kalman filter and/or repeated, partial bundle adjustments requiring bounded time per video frame. The first application additionally incorporates a weak assumption of bounding perpendicular planes to minimize a tendency of the motion estimation to drift, while the second application requires tight integration of the navigational data to alleviate the poor conditioning caused by the narrow field of view. This is followed by dense structure recovery via graph-cut-based multi-view stereo, meshing, and optional mesh simplification. Finally, input images are texture-mapped onto the 3D surface for rendering. We show sample results from multiple, novel viewpoints.

  17. Plasma–wall interaction in laser inertial fusion reactors: novel proposals for radiation tests of first wall materials

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus; Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Mima, K.; Garoz, D.; Gonzalez Arrabal, Raquel; Gordillo Garcia, Nuria; Fuchs, J; Tanaka, K.; Fernández, I.; Briones, F.; Perlado Martin, Jose Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Dry-wall laser inertial fusion (LIF) chambers will have to withstand strong bursts of fast charged particles which will deposit tens of kJ m−2 and implant more than 1018 particles m−2 in a few microseconds at a repetition rate of some Hz. Large chamber dimensions and resistant plasma-facing materials must be combined to guarantee the chamber performance as long as possible under the expected threats: heating, fatigue, cracking, formation of defects, retention of light species, swelling and er...

  18. Movement-related potentials accompanying unilateral and bilateral finger movements with different inertial loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeva, R; Cheyne, D; Lang, W; Lindinger, G; Deecke, L

    1990-05-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of inertial loading on movement-related potentials (MRPs) recorded from the scalps of normal subjects while performing finger movements. Two experiments were performed. Experiment 1. MRPs preceding and accompanying the execution of voluntary, unilateral finger movements were investigated in 8 subjects under the 3 experimental conditions of: no inertial load, small inertial load (250 g), and large inertial load (400 g). A significant effect of the inertial load on Bereitschaftspotential (BP) amplitude was observed for the 100 msec period preceding movement onset (BP -100 to 0) at precentral electrode sites and following movement onset (N0 to 100) at both precentral and parietal electrode sites. Pairwise comparisons revealed that significant effects were due to differences between the loading and non-loading conditions and not for different amounts of loading. No significant differences were observed for BP onset or early BP amplitudes, indicating that scalp negativity immediately prior to, and during, movement onset is primarily influenced by conditions of inertial loading. Experiment 2. This experiment examined the effect of inertial loading on MRPs for bilateral, simultaneous voluntary finger movements in 10 subjects under conditions of: no inertial load, inertial load applied separately to the left and right fingers, and with identical inertial loads applied to both fingers. No significant effect of inertial load on MRP amplitude was observed. These results are contrasted with those of experiment 1 which show significant effects of inertial loading for unilateral movements and are interpreted in terms of the hypothesis that bilateral movement organization involves 'higher' aspects of motor control than those reflecting adjustment to conditions of inertial loading.

  19. Laser-Driven Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnak, D. H.

    2016-10-01

    Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is an approach that combines the implosion and compression of fusion fuel (a hallmark of inertial fusion) with strongly magnetized plasmas that suppress electron heat losses (a hallmark of magnetic fusion). It is of interest because it could potentially reduce some of the traditional velocity, pressure, and convergence ratio requirements of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) concept being studied at the Z Pulsed-Power Facility is a key target concept in the U.S. ICF Program. Laser-driven MagLIF is being developed to enable a test of the scaling of MagLIF over a range of absorbed energy from of the order of 20 kJ (on OMEGA) to 500 kJ (on Z). It is also valuable as a platform for studying the key physics of MIF. An energy-scaled point design has been developed for the Omega Laser Facility that is roughly 10 × smaller in linear dimensions than Z MagLIF targets. A 0.6-mm-outer-diam plastic cylinder filled with 2.4 mg/cm3 of D2 is placed in a 10-T axial magnetic field, generated by MIFEDS (magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system), the cylinder is compressed by 40 OMEGA beams, and the gas fill is preheated by a single OMEGA beam propagating along the axis. Preheating to >100 eV and axially uniform compression over a 0.7-mm height have been demonstrated, separately, in a series of preparatory experiments that meet our initial expectations. Preliminary results from the first integrated experiments combining magnetization, compression, and preheat will be reported for the first time. The scaling of laser-driven MagLIF from OMEGA up to the 1800 kJ available on the NIF (National Ignition Facility) will also be described briefly. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  20. Latitude-energy structure of multiple ion beamlets in Polar/TIMAS data in plasma sheet boundary layer and boundary plasma sheet below 6 RE radial distance: basic properties and statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. Peterson

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Velocity dispersed ion signatures (VDIS occurring at the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL are a well reported feature. Theory has, however, predicted the existence of multiple ion beamlets, similar to VDIS, in the boundary plasma sheet (BPS, i.e. at latitudes below the PSBL. In this study we show evidence for the multiple ion beamlets in Polar/TIMAS ion data and basic properties of the ion beamlets will be presented. Statistics of the occurrence frequency of ion multiple beamlets show that they are most common in the midnight MLT sector and for altitudes above 4 RE, while at low altitude (≤3 RE, single beamlets at PSBL (VDIS are more common. Distribution functions of ion beamlets in velocity space have recently been shown to correspond to 3-dimensional hollow spheres, containing a large amount of free energy. We also study correlation with ~100 Hz waves and electron anisotropies and consider the possibility that ion beamlets correspond to stable auroral arcs.

  1. The approximate weak inertial manifolds of a class of nonlinear hyperbolic dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵怡

    1996-01-01

    Some concepts about approximate and semi-approximate weak inertial manifolds are introduced and the existence of global attractor and semi-approximate weak inertial manifolds is obtained for a class of nonlinear hyperbolic dynamical systems by means of some topologically homeomorphic mappings and techniques. Using these results, the existence of approximate weak inertial manifolds is also presented for a kind of nonlinear hyperbolic system arising from relativistic quantum mechanics. The regularization problem is proposed finally.

  2. Novel approaches for improved performance of inertial sensors and integrated navigation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Edwan, Ezzaldeen

    2013-01-01

    Navigation is the science and art that answers the questions of knowing where you are at the current moment and where you will be in the next moment. Modern navigation systems are based mainly on satellite and inertial sensors. Inertial sensor systems are becoming very popular in navigation systems because they are self contained sensors. The goal of this research is to develop novel approaches for improving the performance of inertial sensor systems and their integration algorithms with exte...

  3. MEMS and FOG Technologies for Tactical and Navigation Grade Inertial Sensors—Recent Improvements and Comparison

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olaf Deppe; Georg Dorner; Stefan König; Tim Martin; Sven Voigt; Steffen Zimmermann

    2017-01-01

    .... Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) inertial sensors have revolutionized consumer, automotive, and industrial applications and they have started to fulfill the high end tactical grade performance requirements of hybrid navigation...

  4. Evaluation of the Inertial Response of Variable-Speed Wind Turbines Using Advanced Simulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholbrock, Andrew K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scholbrock, Andrew K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-09

    In this paper, we focus on the temporary frequency support effect provided by wind turbine generators (WTGs) through the inertial response. With the implemented inertial control methods, the WTG is capable of increasing its active power output by releasing parts of the stored kinetic energy when the frequency excursion occurs. The active power can be boosted temporarily above the maximum power points, but the rotor speed deceleration follows and an active power output deficiency occurs during the restoration of rotor kinetic energy. In this paper, we evaluate and compare the inertial response induced by two distinct inertial control methods using advanced simulation. In the first stage, the proposed inertial control methods are analyzed in offline simulation. Using an advanced wind turbine simulation program, FAST with TurbSim, the response of the researched wind turbine is comprehensively evaluated under turbulent wind conditions, and the impact on the turbine mechanical components are assessed. In the second stage, the inertial control is deployed on a real 600-kW wind turbine, the three-bladed Controls Advanced Research Turbine, which further verifies the inertial control through a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Various inertial control methods can be effectively evaluated based on the proposed two-stage simulation platform, which combines the offline simulation and real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The simulation results also provide insights in designing inertial control for WTGs.

  5. Suction power output and the inertial cost of rotating the neurocranium to generate suction in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Day, Steven W; Hernández, L Patricia; Higham, Timothy E; Skorczewski, Tyler

    2015-05-07

    To expand the buccal cavity, many suction-feeding fishes rely on a considerable contribution from dorsal rotation of the dorsal part of the head including the brains, eyes, and several bones forming the braincase and skull roof (jointly referred to as the neurocranium). As the neurocranium takes up a large part of the total mass of the head, this rotation may incur a considerable inertial cost. If so, this would suggest a significant selective pressure on the kinematics and mass distribution of the neurocranium of suction feeders. Here, an inverse dynamic model is formulated to calculate the instantaneous power required to rotate the neurocranium, approximated by a quarter ellipsoid volume of homogeneous density, as well as to calculate the instantaneous suction power based on intra-oral pressure and head volume quantifications. We applied this model to largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and found that the power required to rotate the neurocranium accounts for only about 4% of the power required to suck water into the mouth. Furthermore, recovery of kinetic energy from the rotating neurocranium converted into suction work may be possible during the phase of neurocranial deceleration. Thus, we suggest that only a negligible proportion of the power output of the feeding muscles is lost as inertial costs in the largemouth bass. Consequently, the feeding performance of piscivorous suction feeders with generalised morphology, comparable to our model species, is not limited by neurocranial motion during head expansion. This suggests that it is thus not likely to be a factor of importance in the evolution of cranial shape and size. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Training Effectiveness of the Inertial Training and Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naczk Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of inertial training with different external loads using a new original device - the Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS. Forty-six physical education male students were tested. The participants were randomly divided into three training groups and a control group (C group. The training groups performed inertial training with three different loads three times weekly for four weeks. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg, the T5 and T10 groups had an additional 5 and 10 kg on the flywheel, respectively. Each training session included three exercise sets involving the shoulder joint adductors. Before and after training, the maximal torque and power were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer during adduction of the shoulder joint. Simultaneously, the electromyography activity of the pectoralis major muscle was recorded. Results of the study indicate that ITMS training induced a significant increase in maximal muscle torque in the T0, T5, T10 groups (15.5%, 13.0%, and 14.0%, respectively. Moreover, ITMS training caused a significant increase in power in the T0, T5, T10 groups (16.6%, 19.5%, and 14.5%, respectively. The percentage changes in torque and power did not significantly differ between training groups. Electromyography activity of the pectoralis major muscle increased only in the T0 group after four weeks of training. Using the ITMS device in specific workouts allowed for an increase of shoulder joint adductors torque and power in physical education students.

  7. Landmark-Based Drift Compensation Algorithm for Inertial Pedestrian Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Diaz, Estefania; Caamano, Maria; Fuentes Sánchez, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    The navigation of pedestrians based on inertial sensors, i.e., accelerometers and gyroscopes, has experienced a great growth over the last years. However, the noise of medium- and low-cost sensors causes a high error in the orientation estimation, particularly in the yaw angle. This error, called drift, is due to the bias of the z-axis gyroscope and other slow changing errors, such as temperature variations. We propose a seamless landmark-based drift compensation algorithm that only uses inertial measurements. The proposed algorithm adds a great value to the state of the art, because the vast majority of the drift elimination algorithms apply corrections to the estimated position, but not to the yaw angle estimation. Instead, the presented algorithm computes the drift value and uses it to prevent yaw errors and therefore position errors. In order to achieve this goal, a detector of landmarks, i.e., corners and stairs, and an association algorithm have been developed. The results of the experiments show that it is possible to reliably detect corners and stairs using only inertial measurements eliminating the need that the user takes any action, e.g., pressing a button. Associations between re-visited landmarks are successfully made taking into account the uncertainty of the position. After that, the drift is computed out of all associations and used during a post-processing stage to obtain a low-drifted yaw angle estimation, that leads to successfully drift compensated trajectories. The proposed algorithm has been tested with quasi-error-free turn rate measurements introducing known biases and with medium-cost gyroscopes in 3D indoor and outdoor scenarios. PMID:28671622

  8. Secondary Nuclear Reactions in Magneto-Inertial Fusion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    The goal of Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) is to relax the extreme pressure requirements of inertial confinement fusion by magnetizing the fuel. Understanding the level of magnetization at stagnation is critical for charting the performance of any MIF concept. We show here that the secondary nuclear reactions in magnetized deuterium plasma can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product (BR), the critical confinement parameter for MIF. The secondary neutron yields and spectra are examined and shown to be extremely sensitive to BR. In particular, embedded magnetic fields are shown to affect profoundly the isotropy of the secondary neutron spectra. Detailed modeling of these spectra along with the ratio of overall secondary to primary neutron yields is used to form the basis of a diagnostic technique used to infer BR at stagnation. Effects of gradients in density, temperature and magnetic field strength are examined, as well as other possible non-uniform fuel configurations. Computational results employing a fully kinetic treatment of charged reaction product transport and Monte Carlo treatment of secondary reactions are compared to results from recent experiments at Sandia National Laboratories' Z machine testing the MAGnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept. The technique reveals that the charged reaction products were highly magnetized in these experiments. Implications for eventual ignition-relevant experiments with deuterium-tritium fuel are discussed. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Near-inertial currents off the east coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Shankar, D.; G Aparna, S.; Amol, P.; Fernando, V.; Fernandes, R.; Khalap, S.; Narayan, S.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Gaonkar, M.; Tari, P.; Kankonkar, A.; Vernekar, S.

    2013-03-01

    We use data from moorings equipped with Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) and deployed in the Bay of Bengal off the east coast of India from May 2009 to February 2012 to study the near-inertial currents (NICs) on the continental shelf and slope. The data show that the NICs are much weaker at the shelf break than on the slope. Inertial energy is weak all along the east coast during January-April. It is high during the summer monsoon (May-September) in the northern Bay of Bengal and early during the winter monsoon (October-December) in the southern bay; at locations in the central bay, the inertial energy does not show this seasonality. This difference between the northern and southern bay is due to the seasonality in the occurrence of storms, which tend to occur in the north (south) during the summer (winter) monsoon. Variability across years is evident in the three-year record, with the NICs being weaker during 2010-2011 compared to 2009. Upward phase propagation is evident in the data, indicating downward propagation of energy. During severe cyclones, the data suggest that the strong NICs extend below the thin surface mixed layer in the bay. A comparison of the NICs amplitude with that of the detided (residual) current shows that the NICs make a significant contribution to the observed current on the east-coast slope: the magnitude of the NICs exceeds that of the residual current on the slope in the northern and southern Bay of Bengal on over 10 days in a year.

  10. Inertial Confinement Fusion R&D and Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28

    In a few months, or a few years, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory may achieve fusion gain using 192 powerful lasers to generate x-rays that will compress and heat a small target containing isotopes of hydrogen. This event would mark a major milestone after decades of research on inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It might also mark the beginning of an accelerated global effort to harness fusion energy based on this science and technology. Unlike magnetic confinement fusion (ITER, 2011), in which hot fusion fuel is confined continuously by strong magnetic fields, inertial confinement fusion involves repetitive fusion explosions, taking advantage of some aspects of the science learned from the design and testing of hydrogen bombs. The NIF was built primarily because of the information it would provide on weapons physics, helping the United States to steward its stockpile of nuclear weapons without further underground testing. The U.S. National Academies' National Research Council is now hosting a study to assess the prospects for energy from inertial confinement fusion. While this study has a classified sub-panel on target physics, it has not been charged with examining the potential nuclear proliferation risks associated with ICF R&D. We argue here that this question urgently requires direct and transparent examination, so that means to mitigate risks can be assessed, and the potential residual risks can be balanced against the potential benefits, now being assessed by the NRC. This concern is not new (Holdren, 1978), but its urgency is now higher than ever before.

  11. Landmark-Based Drift Compensation Algorithm for Inertial Pedestrian Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Estefania Munoz; Caamano, Maria; Sánchez, Francisco Javier Fuentes

    2017-07-03

    The navigation of pedestrians based on inertial sensors, i.e., accelerometers and gyroscopes, has experienced a great growth over the last years. However, the noise of medium- and low-cost sensors causes a high error in the orientation estimation, particularly in the yaw angle. This error, called drift, is due to the bias of the z-axis gyroscope and other slow changing errors, such as temperature variations. We propose a seamless landmark-based drift compensation algorithm that only uses inertial measurements. The proposed algorithm adds a great value to the state of the art, because the vast majority of the drift elimination algorithms apply corrections to the estimated position, but not to the yaw angle estimation. Instead, the presented algorithm computes the drift value and uses it to prevent yaw errors and therefore position errors. In order to achieve this goal, a detector of landmarks, i.e., corners and stairs, and an association algorithm have been developed. The results of the experiments show that it is possible to reliably detect corners and stairs using only inertial measurements eliminating the need that the user takes any action, e.g., pressing a button. Associations between re-visited landmarks are successfully made taking into account the uncertainty of the position. After that, the drift is computed out of all associations and used during a post-processing stage to obtain a low-drifted yaw angle estimation, that leads to successfully drift compensated trajectories. The proposed algorithm has been tested with quasi-error-free turn rate measurements introducing known biases and with medium-cost gyroscopes in 3D indoor and outdoor scenarios.

  12. Wellbore inertial navigation system (WINS) software development and test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardlaw, R. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    The structure and operation of the real-time software developed for the Wellbore Inertial Navigation System (WINS) application are described. The procedure and results of a field test held in a 7000-ft well in the Nevada Test Site are discussed. Calibration and instrumentation error compensation are outlined, as are design improvement areas requiring further test and development. Notes on Kalman filtering and complete program listings of the real-time software are included in the Appendices. Reference is made to a companion document which describes the downhole instrumentation package.

  13. Fuel Target Implosion in Ion beam Inertial Confinement Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    The numerical results for the fuel target implosion are presented in order to clarify the target physics in ion beam inertial fusion. The numerical analyses are performed for a direct-driven ion beam target. In the paper the following issues are studied: the beam obliquely incidence on the target surface, the plasma effect on the beam-stopping power, the beam particle energy, the beam time duration, the target radius, the beam input energy and the non-uniformity effect on the fuel target performance. In this paper the beam ions are protons.

  14. Advances in Inertial Measurement Technology for Marine Motion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Håndlykken

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the function of an inertial "strap down" attitude sensor based on solid state Coriolis force rate gyros, accelerometers and magnetic sensor. Performance is analyzed taking into account the typical excitations in attitude and linear motion seen in marine applications. The use is for control of fast crafts, ROV and AUV heading, roll, pitch and heave control. The influence on performance given by utilization of external information from velocity log and more accurate heading devices is also analyzed. Typical performance of this low cost type of technology is shown.

  15. Global navigation satellite systems, inertial navigation, and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Grewal, Mohinder S; Bartone, Chris G

    2013-01-01

    An updated guide to GNSS, and INS, and solutions to real-world GNSS/INS problems with Kalman filtering Written by recognized authorities in the field, this third edition of a landmark work provides engineers, computer scientists, and others with a working familiarity of the theory and contemporary applications of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Inertial Navigational Systems, and Kalman filters. Throughout, the focus is on solving real-world problems, with an emphasis on the effective use of state-of-the-art integration techniques for those systems, especially the application of Kal

  16. Eddy diffusivities of inertial particles in random Gaussian flows

    CERN Document Server

    Boi, Simone; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the large-scale transport of inertial particles. We derive explicit analytic expressions for the eddy diffusivities for generic Stokes times. These latter expressions are exact for any shear flow while they correspond to the leading contribution either in the deviation from the shear flow geometry or in the P\\'eclet number of general random Gaussian velocity fields. Our explicit expressions allow us to investigate the role of inertia for such a class of flows and to make exact links with the analogous transport problem for tracer particles.

  17. Membrane-free microfiltration by asymmetric inertial migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeonggi; Lean, Meng H.; Kole, Ashutosh

    2007-07-01

    Membrane-free microfiltration by asymmetric inertial migration is studied and evidence of the filtration capability is presented. Centrifugal force induced by flow in spiral channel geometry modifies the lateral symmetry of straight-channel tubular pinch equilibrium resulting in a focused particle band nearer to the inner sidewall. Bifurcated outlets separately collect the concentrated particle band and remaining effluent. The spiral continuous flow filtration relies solely on internal fluidic shear characteristics, eliminating the need for membrane filters or external force fields. This device has the desirable combinations of high throughput and low cost, making it inherently suited for preparative filtration in the range of micro- to macroscale applications.

  18. Near-inertial currents off the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukherjee, A.; Shankar, D.; Aparna, S.G.; Amol, P.; Fernando, V.; Fernandes, R.; Khalap, S.T.; Satlekar, N.P.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Gaonkar, M.G.; Tari, A.P.; Kankonkar, A.; Vernekar, S.

    , however, does not give an idea of the magnitude of the NICs. does not give a feel for the actual magnitudes of these currents. Therefore, in addition to the histogram, we show a correspondence (also called Kolmogorov-Smirnov) plot (Figure 8a) to show... the residual current. Un- like the histogram, which examines the ratio day by day, the correspondence plot merely provides a statistical idea of the current magnitudes. For example, the strong inertial current (over 40 cm/s) seen at Paradip implies a strong...

  19. RESEARCH OF INERTIAL STABILIZATION APPLICATIONS FOR INFORMATION-MEASURING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Сущенко

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to research of the field of application of the modern information-measuringsystems inertial stabilization. The characteristics of the basic applications of the systems for theinertial stabilization of the information-measuring devices mounted at the ground vehicles, thedirection-finding devices, the optical sensors, the mobile antennas for satellite communication aredescribed in the paper. Basic features of these applications, which influence on organization of theeffective procedures for stabilizing systems design, are represented. The research results are ofinterest of the field of the wide class vehicle control systems

  20. Transfer alignment of shipborne inertial-guided weapon systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Changyue; Deng Zhenglong

    2009-01-01

    The transfer alignment problem of the shipborne weapon inertial navigation system (INS) is addressed. Specifically, two transfer alignment algorithms subjected to the ship motions induced by the waves are discussed. To consider the limited maneuver level performed by the ship, a new filter algorithm for transfer alignment methods using velocity and angular rate matching is first derived. And then an improved method using integrated velocity and integrated angular rate matching is introduced to reduce the effect of the ship body flexure. The simulation results show the feasibility and validity of the proposed transfer alignment algorithms.

  1. The Long way Towards Inertial Fusion Energy (lirpp Vol. 13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    In 1955 the first Geneva Conference was held in which two important events took place. Firstly, the announcement by President Eisenhower of the Program Atoms for Peace declassifying the information concerning nuclear fission reactors. Secondly, it was forecast that due to the research made on stellerators and magnetic mirrors, the first demo fusion facility would be in operation within ten years. This forecasting, as all of us know today, was a mistake. Forty years afterwards, we can say that probably the first Demo Reactor will be operative in some years more and I sincerely hope that it will be based on the inertial fusion concept...

  2. Anomalous diffusion for inertial particles under gravity in parallel flows

    CERN Document Server

    Afonso, Marco Martins

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the bounds between normal or anomalous effective diffusion for inertial particles transported by parallel flows. The infrared behavior of the fluid kinetic-energy spectrum, i.e. the possible presence of long-range spatio-temporal correlations, is modeled as a power law by means of two parameters, and the problem is studied as a function of these latter. Our results, obtained in the limit of weak relative inertia, extend well-known results for tracers and apply to particles of any mass density, subject to gravity and Brownian diffusion. We consider both steady and time-dependent flows, and cases of both vanishing and finite particle sedimentation.

  3. Ultrasound-induced inertial cavitation from gas-stabilizing nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, J J; Graham, S; Myers, R; Carlisle, R; Stride, E; Coussios, C C

    2015-08-01

    The understanding of cavitation from nanoparticles has been hindered by the inability to control nanobubble size. We present a method to manufacture nanoparticles with a tunable single hemispherical depression (nanocups) of mean diameter 90, 260, or 650 nm entrapping a nanobubble. A modified Rayleigh-Plesset crevice model predicts the inertial cavitation threshold as a function of cavity size and frequency, and is verified experimentally. The ability to tune cavitation nanonuclei and predict their behavior will be useful for applications ranging from cancer therapy to ultrasonic cleaning.

  4. Pedestrian navigation based on a waist-worn inertial sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez, Diego; López, Antonio; González, Rafael C

    2012-01-01

    We present a waist-worn personal navigation system based on inertial measurement units. The device makes use of the human bipedal pattern to reduce position errors. We describe improved algorithms, based on detailed description of the heel strike biomechanics and its translation to accelerations of the body waist to estimate the periods of zero velocity, the step length, and the heading estimation. The experimental results show that we are able to support pedestrian navigation with the high-resolution positioning required for most applications.

  5. GPS-Aided Gyroscope-Free Inertial Navigation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sungsu; Tan, Chin-Woo

    2002-01-01

    A gyroscope-free inertial navigation system uses only accelerometers to compute navigation trajectories. It is a low-cost navigation system, but its output error diverges at a rate that is an order faster than that of a conventional gyroscope-based system. So integration with an external reference system, such as the Global Positioning System, is necessary for long-term navigation applications. In this pa-per, an integrated GPS and gyroscope-free INS system is designed to achieve stable long-...

  6. Laboratory measurements of grain-bedrock interactions using inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, Georgios; Hoey, Trevor; Hodge, Rebecca; Valyrakis, Manousos; Drysdale, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Sediment transport in steep mountain streams is characterized by the movement of coarse particles (diameter c.100 mm) over beds that are not fully sediment-covered. Under such conditions, individual grain dynamics become important for the prediction of sediment movement and subsequently for understanding grain-bedrock interaction. Technological advances in micro-mechanical-electrical systems now provide opportunities to measure individual grain dynamics and impact forces from inside the sediments (grain inertial frame of reference) instead of trying to infer them indirectly from water flow dynamics. We previously presented a new prototype sensor specifically developed for monitoring sediment transport [Maniatis et al. EGU 2014], and have shown how the definition of the physics of the grain using the inertial frame and subsequent derived measurements which have the potential to enhance the prediction of sediment entrainment [Maniatis et al. 2015]. Here we present the latest version of this sensor and we focus on beginning of the cessation of grain motion: the initial interaction with the bed after the translation phase. The sensor is housed in a spherical case, diameter 80mm, and is constructed using solid aluminum (density = 2.7 kg.m-3) after detailed 3D-CAD modelling. A complete Inertial Measurement Unit (a combination of micro- accelerometer, gyroscope and compass) was placed at the center of the mass of the assembly, with measurement ranges of 400g for acceleration, and 1200 rads/sec for angular velocity. In a 0.9m wide laboratory flume, bed slope = 0.02, the entrainment threshold of the sensor was measured, and the water flow was then set to this value. The sensor was then rolled freely from a static cylindrical bar positioned exactly on the surface of the flowing water. As the sensor enters the flow we record a very short period of transport (1-1.5 sec) followed by the impact on the channel bed. The measured Total Kinetic Energy (Joules) includes the

  7. Motional dispersions and ratchet effect in inertial systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W L Reenbohn; S Saikia; R Roy; Mangal C Mahato

    2008-08-01

    We obtain ratchet effect in inertial structureless systems in symmetric periodic potentials where the asymmetry comes from the non-uniform friction offered by the medium and driven by symmetric periodic forces. In the adiabatic limit the calculations are done by extending the matrix continued fraction method and also by numerically solving the appropriate Langevin equation. For finite frequency field drive the ratchet effect is obtained only numerically. In the transient time scales the system shows dispersionless behaviour as reported earlier when a constant force is applied. In the periodic drive case the dispersion behaviour is more complex. In this brief communication we report some of the results of our work.

  8. Computer simulation of tritium releases in inertial fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlado, J.M.; Velarde, M. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, DENIM (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Accidental releases of tritium from Inertial Fusion reactors are presented. A well-established computer code, MACCS2, is used with realistic models. Release fractions of 1 - 10 - 50 - 100 % of inventories are considered, with height of emissions 10, 30, 60 m, and duration of 10 min. and 2 hours. Only early emergency phase is considered with mitigative actions and shielding factors. It is concluded that except in 100 % releases for some reactors and heights the effective doses to workers and general population does not exceed the regulatory limits. Differences with very conservative results can attain 2 orders of magnitude. (authors)

  9. Pedestrian Navigation Based on a Waist-Worn Inertial Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael C. González

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a waist-worn personal navigation system based on inertial measurement units. The device makes use of the human bipedal pattern to reduce position errors. We describe improved algorithms, based on detailed description of the heel strike biomechanics and its translation to accelerations of the body waist to estimate the periods of zero velocity, the step length, and the heading estimation. The experimental results show that we are able to support pedestrian navigation with the high-resolution positioning required for most applications.

  10. Investigation of the Working Parameters of a Single Magnetron of a Multiple Ion Cluster Source: Determination of the Relative Influence of the Parameters on the Size and Density of Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Ion Cluster Source (MICS is the new optimized route of a standard technique based on a sputtering gas aggregation source, the Ion Cluster Source. The single magnetron used in the standard Ion Cluster Source is replaced by three magnetrons inside the aggregation zone, and they are controlled individually in order to fabricate nanoparticles with the desired and tunable chemical composition. Apart from the working parameters of each magnetron, it is also reported that the relation between the working parameters of individual magnetrons is of prime importance for the control of both the size and density of the nanoparticles. The influences of fluxes of the sputtering gas applied to each magnetron, the total gas flux in the aggregation zone, the position in the aggregation zone of Ag magnetron, and the relative position of the magnetrons in the aggregation zone have been studied through the operation of one of the magnetrons loaded with a silver target.

  11. Dual Matter-Wave Inertial Sensors in Weightlessness

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Brynle; Chichet, Laure; Battelier, Baptiste; Lévèque, Thomas; Landragin, Arnaud; Bouyer, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Quantum technology based on cold-atom interferometers is showing great promise for fields such as inertial sensing and fundamental physics. However, the best precision achievable on Earth is limited by the free-fall time of the atoms, and their full potential can only be realized in Space where interrogation times of many seconds will lead to unprecedented sensitivity. Various mission scenarios are presently being pursued which plan to implement matter-wave inertial sensors. Toward this goal, we realize the first onboard operation of simultaneous $^{87}$Rb $-$ $^{39}$K interferometers in the weightless environment produced during parabolic flight. The large vibration levels ($10^{-2}~g/\\sqrt{\\rm Hz}$), acceleration range ($0-1.8~g$) and rotation rates ($5$ deg/s) during flight present significant challenges. We demonstrate the capability of our dual-quantum sensor by measuring the E\\"{o}tv\\"{o}s parameter with systematic-limited uncertainties of $1.1 \\times 10^{-3}$ and $3.0 \\times 10^{-4}$ during standard- a...

  12. Integrated navigation method based on inertial navigation system and Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyue; Shi, Haitao; Pan, Jianye; Zhang, Chunxi

    2016-04-01

    An integrated navigation method based on the inertial navigational system (INS) and Lidar was proposed for land navigation. Compared with the traditional integrated navigational method and dead reckoning (DR) method, the influence of the inertial measurement unit (IMU) scale factor and misalignment was considered in the new method. First, the influence of the IMU scale factor and misalignment on navigation accuracy was analyzed. Based on the analysis, the integrated system error model of INS and Lidar was established, in which the IMU scale factor and misalignment error states were included. Then the observability of IMU error states was analyzed. According to the results of the observability analysis, the integrated system was optimized. Finally, numerical simulation and a vehicle test were carried out to validate the availability and utility of the proposed INS/Lidar integrated navigational method. Compared with the test result of a traditional integrated navigation method and DR method, the proposed integrated navigational method could result in a higher navigation precision. Consequently, the IMU scale factor and misalignment error were effectively compensated by the proposed method and the new integrated navigational method is valid.

  13. Review of Heavy-Ion Inertial Fusion Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata1, S; Ogoyski, A I

    2015-01-01

    In this review paper on heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF), the state-of-the-art scientific results are presented and discussed on the HIF physics, including physics of the heavy ion beam (HIB) transport in a fusion reactor, the HIBs-ion illumination on a direct-drive fuel target, the fuel target physics, the uniformity of the HIF target implosion, the smoothing mechanisms of the target implosion non- uniformity and the robust target implosion. The HIB has remarkable preferable features to release the fusion energy in inertial fusion: in particle accelerators HIBs are generated with a high driver efficiency of ~ 30-40%, and the HIB ions deposit their energy inside of materials. Therefore, a requirement for the fusion target energy gain is relatively low, that would be ~50-70 to operate a HIF fusion reactor with the standard energy output of 1GW of electricity. The HIF reactor operation frequency would be ~10~15 Hz or so. Several- MJ HIBs illuminate a fusion fuel target, and the fuel target is imploded to about a...

  14. Near-inertial wave scattering by random flows

    CERN Document Server

    Danioux, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The impact of a turbulent flow on wind-driven oceanic near-inertial waves is examined using a linearised shallow-water model of the mixed layer. Modelling the flow as a homogeneous and stationary random process with spatial scales comparable to the wavelengths, we derive a transport (or kinetic) equation governing wave-energy transfers in both physical and spectral spaces. This equation describes the scattering of the waves by the flow which results in a redistribution of energy between waves with the same frequency (or, equivalently, with the same wavenumber) and, for isotropic flows, in the isotropisation of the wave field. The time scales for the scattering and isotropisation are obtained explicitly and found to be of the order of tens of days for typical oceanic parameters. The predictions inferred from the transport equation are confirmed by a series of numerical simulations. Two situations in which near-inertial waves are strongly influenced by flow scattering are investigated through dedicated nonlinea...

  15. Autonomous Quality Control of Joint Orientation Measured with Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Lebel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical mobility assessment is traditionally performed in laboratories using complex and expensive equipment. The low accessibility to such equipment, combined with the emerging trend to assess mobility in a free-living environment, creates a need for body-worn sensors (e.g., inertial measurement units—IMUs that are capable of measuring the complexity in motor performance using meaningful measurements, such as joint orientation. However, accuracy of joint orientation estimates using IMUs may be affected by environment, the joint tracked, type of motion performed and velocity. This study investigates a quality control (QC process to assess the quality of orientation data based on features extracted from the raw inertial sensors’ signals. Joint orientation (trunk, hip, knee, ankle of twenty participants was acquired by an optical motion capture system and IMUs during a variety of tasks (sit, sit-to-stand transition, walking, turning performed under varying conditions (speed, environment. An artificial neural network was used to classify good and bad sequences of joint orientation with a sensitivity and a specificity above 83%. This study confirms the possibility to perform QC on IMU joint orientation data based on raw signal features. This innovative QC approach may be of particular interest in a big data context, such as for remote-monitoring of patients’ mobility.

  16. Laminar and weakly turbulent oceanic gravity currents performing inertial oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wirth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The small scale dynamics of a weakly turbulent oceanic gravity current is determined. The gravity current considered is initially at rest and adjusts by performing inertial oscillations to a geostrophic mean flow. The dynamics is explored with a hierarchy of mathematical models. The most involved are the fully 3-D Navier-Stokes equations subject to the Boussinesq approximation. A 1-D and 0-D mathematical model of the same gravity current dynamics are systematically derived. Using this hierarchy and the numerical solutions of the mathematical models, the turbulent dynamics at the bottom and the interface is explored and their interaction investigated. Three different regimes of the small scale dynamics of the gravity current are identified, they are characterised by laminar flow, coherent roll vortices and turbulent dynamics with coherent streaks and bursts.

    The problem of the rectification of the turbulent fluxes, that is, how to average out the fluctuations and calculate their average influence on the flow, is considered. It is shown that two different regimes of friction are superposed, an Ekman friction applies to the average geostrophic flow and a linear friction, not influenced by rotation, to the inertial oscillations. The combination of the two makes the bulk friction non-local in time for the 0-D model.

    The implications of the results for parametrisations of the Ekman dynamics and the small scale turbulent fluxes in the planetary boundary layer are discussed.

  17. Laminar and weakly turbulent oceanic gravity currents performing inertial oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wirth

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The small scale dynamics of a weakly turbulent oceanic gravity current is determined. The gravity current considered is initially at rest and adjusts by performing inertial oscillations to a geostrophic mean flow. The dynamics is explored with a hierarchy of mathematical models. The most involved are the fully 3-D Navier-Stokes equations subject to the Boussinesq approximation. A 1-D and 0-D mathematical model of the same gravity current dynamics are systematically derived. Using this hierarchy and the numerical solutions of the mathematical models, the turbulent dynamics at the bottom and the interface is explored and their interaction investigated. Three different regimes of the small scale dynamics of the gravity current are identified, they are characterised by laminar flow, coherent roll vortices and turbulent dynamics with coherent streaks and bursts.

    The problem of the rectification of the turbulent fluxes, that is how to average out the fluctuations and calculate their average influence on the flow is considered. It is shown that two different regimes of friction are superposed, an Ekman friction applies to the average geostrophic flow and a linear friction, not influenced by rotation, to the inertial oscillations. The combination of the two makes the bulk friction non-local in time for the 0-D model. The implications of the results for parametrisations of the Ekman dynamics and the small scale turbulent fluxes in the planetary boundary layer are discussed.

  18. Researches on a reactor core in heavy ion inertial fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, S; Iinuma, T; Kubo, K; Kato, H; Kawata, S; Ogoyski, A I

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a study on a fusion reactor core is presented in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF), including the heavy ion beam (HIB) transport in a fusion reactor, a HIB interaction with a background gas, reactor cavity gas dynamics, the reactor gas backflow to the beam lines, and a HIB fusion reactor design. The HIB has remarkable preferable features to release the fusion energy in inertial fusion: in particle accelerators HIBs are generated with a high driver efficiency of ~30-40%, and the HIB ions deposit their energy inside of materials. Therefore, a requirement for the fusion target energy gain is relatively low, that would be ~50 to operate a HIF fusion reactor with a standard energy output of 1GW of electricity. In a fusion reactor the HIB charge neutralization is needed for a ballistic HIB transport. Multiple mechanical shutters would be installed at each HIB port at the reactor wall to stop the blast waves and the chamber gas backflow, so that the accelerator final elements would be protected from the ...

  19. High-energy krypton fluoride lasers for inertial fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenschain, Stephen; Lehmberg, Robert; Kehne, David; Hegeler, Frank; Wolford, Matthew; Sethian, John; Weaver, James; Karasik, Max

    2015-11-01

    Laser fusion researchers have realized since the 1970s that the deep UV light from excimer lasers would be an advantage as a driver for robust high-performance capsule implosions for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Most of this research has centered on the krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser. In this article we review the advantages of the KrF laser for direct-drive ICF, the history of high-energy KrF laser development, and the present state of the art and describe a development path to the performance needed for laser fusion and its energy application. We include descriptions of the architecture and performance of the multi-kilojoule Nike KrF laser-target facility and the 700 J Electra high-repetition-rate KrF laser that were developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. Nike and Electra are the most advanced KrF lasers for inertial fusion research and energy applications.

  20. Robust Gait Recognition by Integrating Inertial and RGBD Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qin; Ni, Lihao; Wang, Qian; Li, Qingquan; Wang, Song

    2017-03-29

    Gait has been considered as a promising and unique biometric for person identification. Traditionally, gait data are collected using either color sensors, such as a CCD camera, depth sensors, such as a Microsoft Kinect, or inertial sensors, such as an accelerometer. However, a single type of sensors may only capture part of the dynamic gait features and make the gait recognition sensitive to complex covariate conditions, leading to fragile gait-based person identification systems. In this paper, we propose to combine all three types of sensors for gait data collection and gait recognition, which can be used for important identification applications, such as identity recognition to access a restricted building or area. We propose two new algorithms, namely EigenGait and TrajGait, to extract gait features from the inertial data and the RGBD (color and depth) data, respectively. Specifically, EigenGait extracts general gait dynamics from the accelerometer readings in the eigenspace and TrajGait extracts more detailed subdynamics by analyzing 3-D dense trajectories. Finally, both extracted features are fed into a supervised classifier for gait recognition and person identification. Experiments on 50 subjects, with comparisons to several other state-of-the-art gait-recognition approaches, show that the proposed approach can achieve higher recognition accuracy and robustness.

  1. Inertial effects on heat transfer in superhydrophobic microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Adam; Maynes, Daniel; Crockett, Julie; Iverson, Brian; BYU Fluids Team

    2015-11-01

    This work numerically studies the effects of inertia on thermal transport in superhydrophbic microchannels. An infinite parallel plate channel comprised of structured superhydrophbic walls is considered. The structure of the superhydrophobic surfaces consists of square pillars organized in a square array aligned with the flow direction. Laminar, fully developed flow is explored. The flow is assumed to be non-wetting and have an idealized flat meniscus. A shear-free, adiabatic boundary condition is used at the liquid/gas interface, while a no-slip, constant heat flux condition is used at the liquid/solid interface. A wide range of Peclet numbers, relative channel spacing distances, and relative pillar sizes are considered. Results are presented in terms of Poiseuille number, Nusselt number, hydrodynamic slip length, and temperature jump length. Interestingly, the thermal transport is varied only slightly by inertial effects for a wide range of parameters explored and compares well with other analytical and numerical work that assumed Stokes flow. It is only for very small relative channel spacing and large Peclet number that inertial effects exert significant influence. Overall, the heat transfer is reduced for the superhydrophbic channels in comparison to classic smooth walled channels. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) - United States (Grant No. CBET-1235881).

  2. Ultrasensitive Inertial and Force Sensors with Diamagnetically Levitated Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat-Camps, J.; Teo, C.; Rusconi, C. C.; Wieczorek, W.; Romero-Isart, O.

    2017-09-01

    We theoretically show that a magnet can be stably levitated on top of a punctured superconductor sheet in the Meissner state without applying any external field. The trapping potential created by such induced-only superconducting currents is characterized for magnetic spheres ranging from tens of nanometers to tens of millimeters. Such a diamagnetically levitated magnet is predicted to be extremely well isolated from the environment. We propose to use it as an ultrasensitive force and inertial sensor. A magnetomechanical readout of its displacement can be performed by using superconducting quantum interference devices. An analysis using current technology shows that force and acceleration sensitivities on the order of 10-23 N /√{Hz } (for a 100-nm magnet) and 10-14 g /√{Hz } (for a 10-mm magnet) might be within reach in a cryogenic environment. Such remarkable sensitivities, both in force and acceleration, can be used for a variety of purposes, from designing ultrasensitive inertial sensors for technological applications (e.g., gravimetry, avionics, and space industry), to scientific investigations on measuring Casimir forces of magnetic origin and gravitational physics.

  3. Impact of target modifications on Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Matthew; Knapp, Patrick; Sefkow, Adam; Slutz, Stephen; Awe, Thomas; Hansen, Stephanie; Hahn, Kelly; Harding, Eric; Jennings, Christopher; McBride, Ryan; Sinars, Daniel; Rochau, Gregory; Peterson, Kyle

    2015-11-01

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) is a magnetically-driven fusion concept in which an axial magnetic field and laser heating are used to relax the implosion requirements of inertial confinement fusion. Initial experiments demonstrated the promise of the concept with relatively high yields (primary DD = 2e12), ion temperatures (2.5 keV), and magnetic field-radius products (>0.3 MG-cm). In order to better understand the portions of parameter space in which MagLIF can operate effectively, a series of experiments are being conducted to test the impact of various changes (e.g., laser-entrance-hole window thickness, imploding height of the target, endcap material, laser energy, laser spot size, initial fuel density). The impact of these changes on target performance (primary neutron yield, ion temperature, stagnation volume, etc.) will be discussed. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Near-inertial-wave scattering by random flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danioux, Eric; Vanneste, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    The impact of a turbulent flow on wind-driven oceanic near-inertial waves is examined using a linearized shallow-water model of the mixed layer. Modeling the flow as a homogeneous and stationary random process with spatial scales comparable to the wavelengths, we derive a transport (or kinetic) equation governing wave-energy transfers in both physical and spectral spaces. This equation describes the scattering of the waves by the flow which results in a redistribution of energy between waves with the same frequency (or, equivalently, with the same wave number) and, for isotropic flows, in the isotropization of the wave field. The time scales for the scattering and isotropization are obtained explicitly and found to be of the order of tens of days for typical oceanic parameters. The predictions inferred from the transport equation are confirmed by a series of numerical simulations. Two situations in which near-inertial waves are strongly influenced by flow scattering are investigated through dedicated nonlinear shallow-water simulations. In the first, a wave packet propagating equatorward as a result from the β effect is shown to be slowed down and dispersed both zonally and meridionally by scattering. In the second, waves generated by moving cyclones are shown to be strongly disturbed by scattering, leading again to an increased dispersion.

  5. Inertial mass of an elementary particle from the holographic scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Jaume

    2017-03-01

    Various attempts have been made to fully explain the mechanism by which a body has inertial mass. Recently, it has been proposed that this mechanism is as follows: when an object accelerates in one direction, a dynamical Rindler event horizon forms in the opposite direction, suppressing Unruh radiation on that side by a Rindler-scale Casimir effect whereas the radiation on the other side is only slightly reduced by a Hubble-scale Casimir effect. This produces a net Unruh radiation pressure force that always opposes the acceleration, just like inertia, although the masses predicted are twice those expected, see Ref. 17. In a later work, an error was corrected so that its prediction improves to within 26% of the Planck mass, see Ref. 10. In this paper, the expression of the inertial mass of a elementary particle is derived from the holographic scenario giving the exact value of the mass of a Planck particle when it is applied to a Planck particle.

  6. Spring gravimeter calibration experiment with an inertial acceleration platform

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Ping; Noel, Jean-Phillippe

    2014-01-01

    This experiment tested an automatically calibrate the relatively gravimeter with an absolute inertial force. The whole calibration system was controlled by microprocessor and low frequency oscillations were generated by a step motor. It could produce different period low frequency sinusoid inertial force. A LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) sensor was introduced to determine the frequency transfer function and the stability of platform vertical motion. The error of vertical displacement induced by the mechanical part of platform is less than 0.01 mm. Two LCR gravimeters (G336, G906) were settled on the platform. G336 was in the centre of platform and G906 was in the left side. A calibration program has been integrated in the micro processor which could send calibrate signal once a week. During the more than 7 moths experiment, the scale factor of G336 is 8128.647 nm/s2/v with 1.1% uncertainties and G906 is 9421.017 nm/s2/v with 2.7% fluctuations.

  7. Gravito-inertial waves in a differentially rotating spherical shell

    CERN Document Server

    Mirouh, Giovanni M; Rieutord, Michel; Ballot, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    We study the properties of gravito-inertial waves in a differentially rotating fluid inside a spherical shell. The fluid is modeled with the Boussinesq approximation and has a shellular steady rotation profile that stems from the combined effects of stratification, rotation, and no-slip boundary conditions. The waves properties are examined by computing paths of characteristics in the non-dissipative limit, and by solving the full dissipative eigenvalue problem using a high-resolution spectral method. Gravito-inertial waves are found to obey a mixed-type second-order operator and to be often focused around short-period attractors of characteristics or trapped in a wedge formed by turning surfaces and boundaries. We also find eigenmodes that show a weak dependence with respect to viscosity and heat diffusion just like truly regular modes. Some axisymmetric modes are found unstable and likely destabilized by baroclinic instabilities. Similarly, some non-axisymmetric modes that meet a critical layer (or corotati...

  8. Numerical Study of U-beam Inertial Separator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.H. Chen; J.R. Fan; K.F. Cen

    2001-01-01

    A detailed parametric study is conducted on three-dimensional gas-solid multiphase flow characteristics in inertial separators via numerical simulation. The carrier phase is treated in the Eulerian frame, the particles are tracked in the Lagrangian frame, and particle-wall collision and particle-particle collision are considered. The inertial separators are made out of U-beam tube, arranged staggered .The separator has good performance for large particles and its compact structures make it easy to manufacture and install. The simulation is carried out in different inflow rate and provide the pressure losses in the separators, velocity field of gas phase, the trajectories of particles and the separation efficiency of separators. The result from this study not only shows the multiphase flow-dynamic characteristics of the separators, but also gives the relationship among the efficiency, structure and pressure losses of the separator. The comparison between the numerical simulation result and experimental data demonstrate the reliability of the numerical simulation.

  9. Dual matter-wave inertial sensors in weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Brynle; Antoni-Micollier, Laura; Chichet, Laure; Battelier, Baptiste; Lévèque, Thomas; Landragin, Arnaud; Bouyer, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    Quantum technology based on cold-atom interferometers is showing great promise for fields such as inertial sensing and fundamental physics. However, the finite free-fall time of the atoms limits the precision achievable on Earth, while in space interrogation times of many seconds will lead to unprecedented sensitivity. Here we realize simultaneous 87Rb-39K interferometers capable of operating in the weightless environment produced during parabolic flight. Large vibration levels (10-2 g Hz-1/2), variations in acceleration (0-1.8 g) and rotation rates (5° s-1) onboard the aircraft present significant challenges. We demonstrate the capability of our correlated quantum system by measuring the Eötvös parameter with systematic-limited uncertainties of 1.1 × 10-3 and 3.0 × 10-4 during standard- and microgravity, respectively. This constitutes a fundamental test of the equivalence principle using quantum sensors in a free-falling vehicle. Our results are applicable to inertial navigation, and can be extended to the trajectory of a satellite for future space missions.

  10. Calibration and Validation of Inertial Measurement Unit for Wave Resolving Drifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    multiple microelectromechanical systems ( MEMS ), including a triaxial accelerometer, a triaxial gyroscope , and a triaxial magnetometer. The...14. SUBJECT TERMS Ocean waves, wave buoys, drifters, inertial measurement units, MEMS , sensor validation, reference frames...GPS-based buoy GPS global positioning system GUI graphical user interface IMU inertial measurement unit MCR mouth of the Columbia River MEMS

  11. The inertial attitude augmentation for ambiguity resolution in SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Wu, Meiping

    2014-06-26

    The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV) is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP), two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation.

  12. Real-time precision pedestrian navigation solution using Inertial Navigation System and Global Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jin Yoon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System and Inertial Navigation System can be used to determine position and velocity. A Global Positioning System module is able to accurately determine position without sensor drift, but its usage is limited in heavily urbanized environments and heavy vegetation. While high-cost tactical-grade Inertial Navigation System can determine position accurately, low-cost micro-electro-mechanical system Inertial Navigation System sensors are plagued by significant errors. Global Positioning System is coupled with Inertial Navigation System to correct the errors, while Inertial Navigation System itself can be used to provide navigation solution during a Global Positioning System outage. Data from Global Positioning System and Inertial Navigation System can be integrated by extensive Kalman filtering, using loosely coupled integration architecture to provide navigation solutions. In this study, real-time low-cost loosely coupled micro-electro-mechanical system Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System sensors have been used for pedestrian navigation. Trial runs of Global Positioning System outages have been conducted to determine the accuracy of the system described. The micro-electro-mechanical system Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System can successfully project a trajectory during a Global Positioning System outage and produces a root mean square error of 9.35 m in latitude direction and 10.8 m in longitude direction. This technology is very suitable for visually impaired pedestrians.

  13. DRIE and Bonding Assisted Low Cost MEMS Processing of In-plane HAR Inertial Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Makinwa, K.A.A.; French, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple, flexible and low cost MEMS fabrication process, developed using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and wafer bonding technologies, for manufacturing in-plane high aspect ratio (HAR) inertial sensors. Among examples, the design and fabrication results of a two axis inertial device

  14. Motion sickness and tilts of the inertial force environment: active suspension systems vs. active passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golding, J.F.; Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.; Haynes, T.; Gresty, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Maneuvering in vehicles exposes occupants to low frequency forces (<1 Hz) which can provoke motion sickness. Hypothesis: Aligning with the tilting inertial resultant (gravity + imposed horizontal acceleration: gravito-inertial force (GIF)) may reduce motion sickness when tilting is either 'active'

  15. Automatic identification of inertial sensor placement on human body segments during walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Baten, Christian T.M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel method for the automatic identification of inertial sensors on human body segments during walking. This method allows the user to place (wireless) inertial sensors on arbitrary body segments. Next, the user walks for just a few seconds and the segment to which each sensor is

  16. Perceived mismatch between visual and inertial cues in a simulation environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia Grácio, B.J.; Wentink, M.; Bos, J.E.; Paassen, M.M. van; Mulder, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the field of motion simulation it was found that a visual amplitude equal to the inertial amplitude does not always provide the best perceived match between visual and inertial motion. This result is thought to be caused by the “quality” of the motion cues delivered by the simulator motion and vi

  17. Motion sickness and tilts of the inertial force environment: active suspension systems vs. active passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golding, J.F.; Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.; Haynes, T.; Gresty, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Maneuvering in vehicles exposes occupants to low frequency forces (<1 Hz) which can provoke motion sickness. Hypothesis: Aligning with the tilting inertial resultant (gravity + imposed horizontal acceleration: gravito-inertial force (GIF)) may reduce motion sickness when tilting is either 'active' (

  18. DriftLess™, an innovative method to estimate and compensate for the biases of inertial sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruizenaar, M.G.H.; Kemp, R.A.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented that allows for bias compensation of low-cost MEMS inertial sensors. It is based on the use of two sets of inertial sensors and a rotation mechanism that physically rotates the sensors in an alternating fashion. After signal processing, the biases of both sets of

  19. Optimal configuration of redundant inertial sensors for navigation and FDI performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Duk-Sun; Yang, Cheol-Kwan

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the optimal sensor configuration for inertial navigation systems which have redundant inertial sensors such as gyroscopes and accelerometers. We suggest a method to determine the optimal sensor configuration which considers both the navigation and FDI performance. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to show the performance of the suggested optimal sensor configuration method.

  20. Geophysical flight line flying and flight path recovery utilizing the Litton LTN-76 inertial navigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitkus, A.F.; Cater, D.; Farmer, P.F.; Gay, S.P. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    The Litton LTN-76 Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) with Inertial Track guidance System (ITGS) software is geared toward the airborne survey industry. This report is a summary of tests performed with the LTN-76 designed to fly an airborne geophysical survey as well as to recover the subsequent flight path utilizing INS derived coordinates.

  1. DRIE and Bonding Assisted Low Cost MEMS Processing of In-plane HAR Inertial Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Makinwa, K.A.A.; French, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple, flexible and low cost MEMS fabrication process, developed using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and wafer bonding technologies, for manufacturing in-plane high aspect ratio (HAR) inertial sensors. Among examples, the design and fabrication results of a two axis inertial device

  2. Near-inertial motions in the DeSoto Canyon during Hurricane Georges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi, Antoni; Wang, Dong-Ping; Hamilton, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Hurricane Georges passed directly over an array of 13 moorings deployed in the DeSoto Canyon in the northern Gulf of Mexico on 27-28 September 1998. Current velocity data from the mooring array were analyzed together with a primitive-equation model simulation with realistic hurricane forcing, to characterize the generation and propagation of the hurricane-generated near-inertial waves. The model successfully reproduces the observed mean (sub-inertial) and near-inertial motions. The upper ocean response is strongly impacted by the canyon 'wall': a strong jet is formed along the slope, and the near-inertial motions on the shelf are rapidly suppressed. The model results moreover suggest that strong near-inertial waves in the mixed layer are mostly trapped in an energy flux recirculating gyre around the canyon. This gyre retains the near-inertial energy in the canyon region and enhances the transfer of near-inertial energy below the mixed layer. Additional simulations with idealized topographies show that the presence of a steep slope rather than the canyon is fundamental for the generation of this recirculating gyre. The near-inertial wave energy budget shows that during the study period the wind generated an input of 6.79 × 10-2 Wm-2 of which about 1/3, or 2.43 × 10-2 Wm-2, was transferred below the mixed layer. The horizontal energy flux into and out of the canyon region, in contrast, was relatively weak.

  3. 3D gait assessment in young and elderly subjects using foot-worn inertial sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariani, B.; Hoskovec, C.; Rochat, S.; Büla, C.; Penders, J.; Aminian, K.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the validation of a new wearable system for assessment of 3D spatial parameters of gait. The new method is based on the detection of temporal parameters, coupled to optimized fusion and de-drifted integration of inertial signals. Composed of two wirelesses inertial modules attac

  4. Post-Minkowskian Gravity: Dark Matter as a Relativistic Inertial Effect?

    CERN Document Server

    Lusanna, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A review is given of the theory of non-inertial frames (with the associated inertial effects and the study of the non-relativistic limit) in Minkowski space-time, of parametrized Minkowski theories and of the rest-frame instant form of dynamics for isolated systems admitting a Lagrangian description. The relevance and gauge equivalence of the clock synchronization conventions for the identification of the instantaneous 3-spaces (Euclidean only in inertial frames) are described. Then this formalism is applied to tetrad gravity in globally hyperbolic, asymptotically Minkowskian space-times without super-translations, where the equivalence principle implies the absence of global inertial frames. The recently discovered York canonical basis, diagonalizing the York-Lichnerowicz approach, allows to identify the gauge variables (inertial effects in general relativity) and the tidal ones (the gravitational waves of the linearized theory) and to clarify the meaning of the Hamilton equations. The role of the gauge vari...

  5. Hand-Writing Motion Tracking with Vision-Inertial Sensor Fusion: Calibration and Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengli Zhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to improve the accuracy of real-time ego-motion tracking through inertial sensor and vision sensor fusion. Due to low sampling rates supported by web-based vision sensor and accumulation of errors in inertial sensors, ego-motion tracking with vision sensors is commonly afflicted by slow updating rates, while motion tracking with inertial sensor suffers from rapid deterioration in accuracy with time. This paper starts with a discussion of developed algorithms for calibrating two relative rotations of the system using only one reference image. Next, stochastic noises associated with the inertial sensor are identified using Allan Variance analysis, and modeled according to their characteristics. Finally, the proposed models are incorporated into an extended Kalman filter for inertial sensor and vision sensor fusion. Compared with results from conventional sensor fusion models, we have shown that ego-motion tracking can be greatly enhanced using the proposed error correction model.

  6. Stability and synchronization analysis of inertial memristive neural networks with time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakkiyappan, R; Premalatha, S; Chandrasekar, A; Cao, Jinde

    2016-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of stability and pinning synchronization of a class of inertial memristive neural networks with time delay. In contrast to general inertial neural networks, inertial memristive neural networks is applied to exhibit the synchronization and stability behaviors due to the physical properties of memristors and the differential inclusion theory. By choosing an appropriate variable transmission, the original system can be transformed into first order differential equations. Then, several sufficient conditions for the stability of inertial memristive neural networks by using matrix measure and Halanay inequality are derived. These obtained criteria are capable of reducing computational burden in the theoretical part. In addition, the evaluation is done on pinning synchronization for an array of linearly coupled inertial memristive neural networks, to derive the condition using matrix measure strategy. Finally, the two numerical simulations are presented to show the effectiveness of acquired theoretical results.

  7. TRANSVERSAL INERTIAL EFFECT ON RELAXATION/RETARDATION TIME OF CEMENT MORTAR UNDER HARMONIC WAVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jue Zhu; Yonghui Cao; Jiankang Chen

    2008-01-01

    Under dynamic loading, the constitutive relation of the cement mortar will be signif-icantly affected by the transversal inertial effect of specimens with large diameters. In this paper,one-dimensional theoretical analysis is carried out to determine the transversal inertial effect on the relaxation/retardation time of the cement mortar under the harmonic wave. Relaxation time or retardation time is obtained by means of the wave velocity, attenuation coefficient and the frequency of the harmonic wave. Thus, the transversal inertial effect on the relaxation time from Maxwell model, as well as on retardation time from Voigt model is analyzed. The results show that the transversal inertial effect may lead to the increase of the relaxation time, but induce the decrease of the retardation time. Those should be taken into account when eliminating the transversal inertial effect in applications.

  8. A New Method for Accurate Prediction of Ship’s Inertial Stopping Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langxiong Gan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to research the prediction of ship’s inertial stopping distance. Accurate prediction of a ship’s inertial stopping distance helps the duty officers to make the collision avoidance decisions effectively. In this study ship’s inertial stopping distance is calculated using the ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian algorithm implemented in the FLUENT code. Firstly, a method for predicting the inertial stopping distance of a floating body based on the FLUENT code is established. Then, the results calculated by the method are compared with those obtained from the empirical formulae and the physical model tests. The comparison result indicates that the proposed method is robust and can be used effectively to predict the ship’s inertial stopping distance.

  9. Gait Kinematic Analysis in Water Using Wearable Inertial Magnetic Sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fantozzi

    Full Text Available Walking is one of the fundamental motor tasks executed during aquatic therapy. Previous kinematics analyses conducted using waterproofed video cameras were limited to the sagittal plane and to only one or two consecutive steps. Furthermore, the set-up and post-processing are time-consuming and thus do not allow a prompt assessment of the correct execution of the movements during the aquatic session therapy. The aim of the present study was to estimate the 3D joint kinematics of the lower limbs and thorax-pelvis joints in sagittal and frontal planes during underwater walking using wearable inertial and magnetic sensors. Eleven healthy adults were measured during walking both in shallow water and in dry-land conditions. Eight wearable inertial and magnetic sensors were inserted in waterproofed boxes and fixed to the body segments by means of elastic modular bands. A validated protocol (Outwalk was used. Gait cycles were automatically segmented and selected if relevant intraclass correlation coefficients values were higher than 0.75. A total of 704 gait cycles for the lower limb joints were normalized in time and averaged to obtain the mean cycle of each joint, among participants. The mean speed in water was 40% lower than that of the dry-land condition. Longer stride duration and shorter stride distance were found in the underwater walking. In the sagittal plane, the knee was more flexed (≈ 23° and the ankle more dorsiflexed (≈ 9° at heel strike, and the hip was more flexed at toe-off (≈ 13° in water than on land. On the frontal plane in the underwater walking, smoother joint angle patterns were observed for thorax-pelvis and hip, and ankle was more inversed at toe-off (≈ 7° and showed a more inversed mean value (≈ 7°. The results were mainly explained by the effect of the speed in the water as supported by the linear mixed models analysis performed. Thus, it seemed that the combination of speed and environment triggered

  10. A Highly Miniaturized Inertial Grade Gyroscope for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, D. V.; Challoner, A. D.; Shcheglov, K.; Hayworth, K.; Bae, S.; Yee, K.; Blaes, B.; DAgostino, S.; Stock, T.

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of inertial grade gyroscopes for space applications represents well over 50 years of technology development and an investment of hundreds of millions of dollars. The workhorse product which represents the current state-of-the art for commercially available high performance devices is the Litton-Hemishperical Resonator Gyro (HRG) Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). This product has a performance figure of merit of 0.003 deg/hr bias drift, a volume of 567 cubic inches, weighs 19 pounds, draws about 30 watts and costs over 1 million each. Clearly devices of this magnitude are not conducive to the minimized mass, volume, power, and cost constraints of outer planet missions. An approach to breaking these potential barriers is the use of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) based inertial devices. Although substantially reduced in size, mass power and cost, this approach has produced devices in the tactical performance range of greater than 1 deg/hour bias drift. This level of performance satisfies the preponderance of high market volume requirements such as automotive and tactical munitions but does not meet the limited market quantity requirements for the high precision space based market. Because of the very limited size of the space based market, there is little economic incentive for commercial fabricators of tactical grade devices to address the necessary performance improvements. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in conjunction with Boeing Space Systems (BSS) is addressing this void to satisfy our mutual requirements in this area. The project objective to is to achieve 0.01 deg/hr performance in an IMU which is less than 10 cubic inches in volume, weighs less than 0.5 pounds, draws less than 1 watt and is available in volume production for less than 2500. Reductions of this magnitude will be mission enabling capabilities for a variety of anticipated outer planet mission attributes such as autonomous control and docking, formation flying and robotic

  11. Gait Kinematic Analysis in Water Using Wearable Inertial Magnetic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantozzi, Silvia; Giovanardi, Andrea; Borra, Davide; Gatta, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Walking is one of the fundamental motor tasks executed during aquatic therapy. Previous kinematics analyses conducted using waterproofed video cameras were limited to the sagittal plane and to only one or two consecutive steps. Furthermore, the set-up and post-processing are time-consuming and thus do not allow a prompt assessment of the correct execution of the movements during the aquatic session therapy. The aim of the present study was to estimate the 3D joint kinematics of the lower limbs and thorax-pelvis joints in sagittal and frontal planes during underwater walking using wearable inertial and magnetic sensors. Eleven healthy adults were measured during walking both in shallow water and in dry-land conditions. Eight wearable inertial and magnetic sensors were inserted in waterproofed boxes and fixed to the body segments by means of elastic modular bands. A validated protocol (Outwalk) was used. Gait cycles were automatically segmented and selected if relevant intraclass correlation coefficients values were higher than 0.75. A total of 704 gait cycles for the lower limb joints were normalized in time and averaged to obtain the mean cycle of each joint, among participants. The mean speed in water was 40% lower than that of the dry-land condition. Longer stride duration and shorter stride distance were found in the underwater walking. In the sagittal plane, the knee was more flexed (≈ 23°) and the ankle more dorsiflexed (≈ 9°) at heel strike, and the hip was more flexed at toe-off (≈ 13°) in water than on land. On the frontal plane in the underwater walking, smoother joint angle patterns were observed for thorax-pelvis and hip, and ankle was more inversed at toe-off (≈ 7°) and showed a more inversed mean value (≈ 7°). The results were mainly explained by the effect of the speed in the water as supported by the linear mixed models analysis performed. Thus, it seemed that the combination of speed and environment triggered modifications in the

  12. Selective metal-ion extraction for multiple-ion liquid-liquid exchange reactions. Final report, June 1, 1979-May 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavlarides, L.L.

    1982-01-29

    This research in hydrometallurgical solvent extraction is to develop a fundamental means to predict selectivity during simultaneous solvent extraction of multiple metal ions when the kinetic rates and thermodynamic equilibria both do not favor the desired metal. To this end the chemical kinetics and thermodynamic chemical equilibria models for the system copper-iron-acid sulfate solutions extracted by ..beta..-alkenyl-8-hydroxy quinoline in xylene are studied. These models can be employed with appropriate design equations to predict selectivity factors for two phase contactors. The work completed and in progress during the first half of the third funding period is on chemical equilibria studies for the iron-acid-sulfate-..beta..-alkenyl-8-hydroxy quinoline-xylene system. An aqueous phase ionic equilibrium model is available which can be used to calculate concentration of various Fe(III) ionic species present. Iron extraction data were obtained using both the AKUFVE, a high intensity stirrer with an in line centrifugal separator, and a shaker bath apparatus. Analysis of the data to determine a thermodynamic equilibrium model is in progress.

  13. Data analysis of inertial sensor for train positioning detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Jin; Park, Sung Soo; Lee, Jae Ho; Kang, Dong Hoon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Train positioning detection information is fundamental for high-speed railroad inspection, making it possible to simultaneously determine the status and evaluate the integrity of railroad equipment. This paper presents the results of measurements and an analysis of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) used as a positioning detection sensors. Acceleration and angular rate measurements from the IMU were analyzed in the amplitude and frequency domains, with a discussion on vibration and train motions. Using these results and GPS information, the positioning detection of a Korean tilting train express was performed from Naju station to Illo station on the Honam-line. The results of a synchronized analysis of sensor measurements and train motion can help in the design of a train location detection system and improve the positioning detection performance.

  14. WISDOM: wheelchair inertial sensors for displacement and orientation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansiot, J.; Zhang, Z.; Lo, B.; Yang, G. Z.

    2011-10-01

    Improved wheelchair design in recent years has significantly increased the mobility of people with disabilities, which has also enhanced the competitive advantage of wheelchair sports. For the latter, detailed assessment of biomechanical factors influencing individual performance and team tactics requires real-time wireless sensing and data modelling. In this paper, we propose the use of a miniaturized wireless wheel-mounted inertial sensor for wheelchair motion monitoring and tracking in an indoor sport environment. Based on a combined use of 3D microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscopes and 2D MEMS accelerometers, the proposed system provides real-time velocity, heading, ground distance covered and motion trajectory of the wheelchair across the sports court. The proposed system offers a number of advantages compared to existing platforms in terms of size, weight and ease of installation. Beyond sport applications, it also has important applications for training and rehabilitation for people with disabilities.

  15. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    CERN Document Server

    McBride, Ryan D

    2015-01-01

    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression with Nernst thermoelectric losses; (7) magnetized electron and ion thermal conduction losses; (8) end losses; (9) enhanced losses due to prescribed dopant concentrations and contaminant mix; (10) deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium primary fusion reactions for arbitrary deuterium to tritium fuel ratios; and (11) magnetized alpha-particle fuel heating. We show that this simplified model, with its transparent and accessible physics, can be used to reproduce the general 1D behavior presented throughout the original Ma...

  16. Inertial and viscoelastic forces on rigid colloids in microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Michael P; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z; Nikoubashman, Arash

    2015-06-14

    We perform hybrid molecular dynamics simulations to study the flow behavior of rigid colloids dispersed in a dilute polymer solution. The underlying Newtonian solvent and the ensuing hydrodynamic interactions are incorporated through multiparticle collision dynamics, while the constituent polymers are modeled as bead-spring chains, maintaining a description consistent with the colloidal nature of our system. We study the cross-stream migration of the solute particles in slit-like channels for various polymer lengths and colloid sizes and find a distinct focusing onto the channel center under specific solvent and flow conditions. To better understand this phenomenon, we systematically measure the effective forces exerted on the colloids. We find that the migration originates from a competition between viscoelastic forces from the polymer solution and hydrodynamically induced inertial forces. Our simulations reveal a significantly stronger fluctuation of the lateral colloid position than expected from thermal motion alone, which originates from the complex interplay between the colloid and polymer chains.

  17. Rugged Packaging for Damage Resistant Inertial Fusion Energy Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelmack, Larry

    2003-11-17

    The development of practical fusion energy plants based on inertial confinement with ultraviolet laser beams requires durable, stable final optics that will withstand the harsh fusion environment. Aluminum-coated reflective surfaces are fragile, and require hard overcoatings resistant to contamination, with low optical losses at 248.4 nanometers for use with high-power KrF excimer lasers. This program addresses the definition of requirements for IFE optics protective coatings, the conceptual design of the required deposition equipment according to accepted contamination control principles, and the deposition and evaluation of diamondlike carbon (DLC) test coatings. DLC coatings deposited by Plasma Immersion Ion Processing were adherent and abrasion-resistant, but their UV optical losses must be further reduced to allow their use as protective coatings for IFE final optics. Deposition equipment for coating high-performance IFE final optics must be designed, constructed, and operated with contamination control as a high priority.

  18. Inertial navigation sensor integrated motion analysis for autonomous vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry; Bhanu, Bir

    1992-01-01

    Recent work on INS integrated motion analysis is described. Results were obtained with a maximally passive system of obstacle detection (OD) for ground-based vehicles and rotorcraft. The OD approach involves motion analysis of imagery acquired by a passive sensor in the course of vehicle travel to generate range measurements to world points within the sensor FOV. INS data and scene analysis results are used to enhance interest point selection, the matching of the interest points, and the subsequent motion-based computations, tracking, and OD. The most important lesson learned from the research described here is that the incorporation of inertial data into the motion analysis program greatly improves the analysis and makes the process more robust.

  19. Radiation Hydrodynamic Parameter Study of Inertial Fusion Energy Reactor Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Ryan; Moses, Gregory

    2014-10-01

    Inertial fusion energy reactors present great promise for the future as they are capable of providing baseline power with no carbon footprint. Simulation work regarding the chamber response and first wall insult is performed with the 1-D radiation hydrodynamics code BUCKY. Simulation with differing chamber parameters are implemented to study the effect of gas fill, gas mixtures and chamber radii. Xenon and argon gases are of particular interest as shielding for the first wall due to their high opacity values and ready availability. Mixing of the two gases is an attempt to engineer a gas cocktail to provide the maximum amount of shielding with the least amount of cost. A parameter study of different chamber radii shows a consistent relationship with that of first wall temperature (~1/r2) and overpressure (~1/r3). This work is performed under collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  20. Experimental demonstration of an inertial collimation mechanism in nested outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Yurchak, R; Pelka, A; Pikuz, S; Falize, E; Vinci, T; Koenig, M; Loupias, B; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Fatenejad, M; Tzeferacos, P; Lamb, D Q; Blackman, E G

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between a central outflow and a surrounding wind is common in astrophysical sources powered by accretion. Understanding how the interaction might help to collimate the inner central outflow is of interest for assessing astrophysical jet formation paradigms. In this context, we studied the interaction between two nested supersonic plasma flows generated by focusing a long pulse high-energy laser beam onto a solid target. A nested geometry was created by shaping the energy distribution at the focal spot with a dedicated phase plate. Optical and X-ray diagnostics were used to study the interacting flows. Experimental results and numerical hydrodynamic simulations indeed show the formation of strongly collimated jets. Our work experimentally confirms the "shock-focused inertial confinement" mechanism proposed in previous theoretical astrophysics investigations.

  1. Inertial Confinement Fusion and the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, P.

    2012-08-29

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) seeks to provide sustainable fusion energy by compressing frozen deuterium and tritium fuel to extremely high densities. The advantages of fusion vs. fission are discussed, including total energy per reaction and energy per nucleon. The Lawson Criterion, defining the requirements for ignition, is derived and explained. Different confinement methods and their implications are discussed. The feasibility of creating a power plant using ICF is analyzed using realistic and feasible numbers. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is shown as a significant step forward toward making a fusion power plant based on ICF. NIF is the world’s largest laser, delivering 1.8 MJ of energy, with a peak power greater than 500 TW. NIF is actively striving toward the goal of fusion energy. Other uses for NIF are discussed.

  2. Feedback control of inertial microfluidics using axial control forces

    CERN Document Server

    Prohm, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Inertial microfluidics is a promising tool for many lab-on-a-chip applications. Particles in channel flows with Reynolds numbers above one undergo cross-streamline migration to a discrete set of equilibrium positions in square and rectangular channel cross sections. This effect has been used extensively for particle sorting and the analysis of particle properties. Using the lattice Boltzmann method, we determine equilibrium positions in square and rectangular cross sections and classify their types of stability for different Reynolds numbers, particle sizes, and channel aspect ratios. Our findings thereby help to design microfluidic channels for particle sorting. Furthermore, we demonstrate how an axial control force, which slows down the particles, shifts the stable equilibrium position towards the channel center. Ultimately, the particles then stay on the centerline for forces exceeding a threshold value. This effect is sensitive to particle size and channel Reynolds number and therefore suggests an efficie...

  3. Cockpit Considerations for Inertial-Affect and FTL Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, M. G.

    Breakthroughs in propulsion physics (control over gravitational or inertial forces, propellant-less space drives, and faster-thanlight travel) may not appear imminent, but enough progress has been made to allow thoughtful speculation about their nature and implications. The implications to cockpit design include added degrees of motion, combination of operational regimes (near ground, orbit, and beyond), greater span of speed (from zero-speed hover to beyond light-speed), the need for new motion displays and navigational tracking methods, and the loss of familiar motion cues (pilot's inertia and visual cues) due to the separation of external and internal environments. The primary reference used to predict these possibilities is the 2009 book, Frontiers of Propulsion Science. These implications are detailed in terms of design requirements.

  4. Stochastic control of inertial sea wave energy converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffero, Mattia; Martini, Michele; Passione, Biagio; Mattiazzo, Giuliana; Giorcelli, Ermanno; Bracco, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The ISWEC (inertial sea wave energy converter) is presented, its control problems are stated, and an optimal control strategy is introduced. As the aim of the device is energy conversion, the mean absorbed power by ISWEC is calculated for a plane 2D irregular sea state. The response of the WEC (wave energy converter) is driven by the sea-surface elevation, which is modeled by a stationary and homogeneous zero mean Gaussian stochastic process. System equations are linearized thus simplifying the numerical model of the device. The resulting response is obtained as the output of the coupled mechanic-hydrodynamic model of the device. A stochastic suboptimal controller, derived from optimal control theory, is defined and applied to ISWEC. Results of this approach have been compared with the ones obtained with a linear spring-damper controller, highlighting the capability to obtain a higher value of mean extracted power despite higher power peaks.

  5. An Optimal Calibration Method for a MEMS Inertial Measurement Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Fang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An optimal calibration method for a micro-electro-mechanical inertial measurement unit (MIMU is presented in this paper. The accuracy of the MIMU is highly dependent on calibration to remove the deterministic errors of systematic errors, which also contain random errors. The overlapping Allan variance is applied to characterize the types of random error terms in the measurements. The calibration model includes package misalignment error, sensor-to-sensor misalignment error and bias, and a scale factor is built. The new concept of a calibration method, which includes a calibration scheme and a calibration algorithm, is proposed. The calibration scheme is designed by D-optimal and the calibration algorithm is deduced by a Kalman filter. In addition, the thermal calibration is investigated, as the bias and scale factor varied with temperature. The simulations and real tests verify the effectiveness of the proposed calibration method and show that it is better than the traditional method.

  6. Proprioceptive gait and speed selection in a slender inertial swimmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentina, Mederic; Gazzola, Mattia; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-11-01

    We study the dynamics of a slender inertial swimmer accounting for hydrodynamics, mechanics, muscle activity and sensory feedbacks. Our theory elucidates how elastic properties and proprioception contribute to selecting swimming speed and locomotion gait. Swimmers are shown to take advantage of resonance phenomena to enhance speed and efficiency. Furthermore, we demonstrate how a minimal proprioceptive model, in which the local muscle activation is function of body curvature, is sufficient to exploit hydro-mechanic properties and drive elastic instabilities associated with thrust production. Our results quantitatively agree with live fish experiments and provide a mechanistic basis for the relation U/L ~ f between the swimmer's speed U, length L and tail beat frequency f determined empirically by Bainbridge more than half a century ago.

  7. Asymmetric Talbot-Lau interferometry for inertial sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Simone; Giammarchi, Marco; Olivares, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    We study in detail a peculiar configuration of the Talbot-Lau matter wave interferometer, characterized by unequal distances between the two diffraction gratings and the observation plane. We refer to this apparatus as the "asymmetric Talbot-Lau setup." Particular attention is given to its capabilities as an inertial sensor for particle and atomic beams, also in comparison with the classical moiré deflectometer. The present paper is motivated by possible experimental applications in the context of antimatter wave interferometry, including the measurement of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter particles. Therefore we focus our analysis on the current state of the art. To support our findings, we have also performed numerical simulations of realistic particle beams with varying speed distributions.

  8. INERTIAL BEHAVIOUR AND THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhD Mihail DIMITRIU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As increasingly obvious signs tell us that the natural environment is changing abruptly and, unfortunately, noticeably, the natural resources, while being increasingly depleted, have to support a growing population. In this context, strategies for the sustainable development of the society have to be implemented. This situation will entail a rethinking of the place and role of the firm within the society. During the transition towards another type of human society, the problem of behaviour, including the behaviour of the economic agent, will appear more and more frequently and in terms that we can not even imagine now. Within this context, the paper attempts to capture several aspects concerning the inertial behaviour of the firms in the financial domain.

  9. An inertial range length scale in structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kerr, R M; Gotoh, T; Kerr, Robert M.; Meneguzzi, Maurice; Gotoh, Toshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    It is shown using experimental and numerical data that within the traditional inertial subrange defined by where the third order structure function is linear that the higher order structure function scaling exponents for longitudinal and transverse structure functions converge only over larger scales, $r>r_S$, where $r_S$ has scaling intermediate between $\\eta$ and $\\lambda$ as a function of $R_\\lambda$. Below these scales, scaling exponents cannot be determined for any of the structure functions without resorting to procedures such as extended self-similarity (ESS). With ESS, different longitudinal and transverse higher order exponents are obtained that are consistent with earlier results. The relationship of these statistics to derivative and pressure statistics, to turbulent structures and to length scales is discussed.

  10. Inertial fusion target development for ignition and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, K.R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Norimatsu, T. [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering

    1994-12-01

    The target needs of the next ICF experiments that will lead toward ignition and energy are different from those of today`s experiments. The future experiments on OMEGA Upgrade, GEKKO XII Upgrade, the National Ignition Facility and Megajoule will need large, precise, cryogenic targets. Development is needed on a number of aspects of these targets, including shell fabrication, characterization, cryogenic layering and target handling. However, coordinated R and D programs are in place and work is in process to carry out the needed development. It is vital to the success of inertial fusion that this work be sustained. Coordinated effort, like the National Cryogenic Target Program in the USA, will help make the development activities as efficient and effective as possible, and should be encouraged.

  11. Localization-delocalization transitions in turbophoresis of inertial particles

    CERN Document Server

    Belan, S; Falkovich, G

    2014-01-01

    Small aerosols drift down temperature or turbulence gradient since faster particles fly longer distances before equilibration. That fundamental phenomenon, called thermophoresis or turbophoresis, is widely encountered in nature and used in industry. It is universally believed that particles moving down the kinetic energy gradient must concentrate in minima (say, on walls in turbulence). Here we show that this is incorrect: escaping minima is possible for inertial particles whose time of equilibration is longer than the time to reach the minimum. The best way out is always through: particles escape by flying through minima or reflecting from walls. We solve the problem analytically and find the phase transition as a sign change of the mean velocity. That means separation: light particles concentrate in a minimum while heavy particles spread away from it (gravity can reverse the effect). That discovery changes understanding of that fundamental phenomenon and may find numerous applications.

  12. Nonlinear inertial oscillations of a multilayer eddy: An analytical solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, S. F.; Rubino, A.

    2008-06-01

    Nonlinear axisymmetric oscillations of a warm baroclinic eddy are considered within the framework of an reduced-gravity model of the dynamics of a multilayer ocean. A class of exact analytical solutions describing pure inertial oscillations of an eddy formation is found. The thicknesses of layers in the eddy vary according to a quadratic law, and the horizontal projections of the velocity in the layers depend linearly on the radial coordinate. Owing to a complicated structure of the eddy, weak limitations on the vertical distribution of density, and an explicit form of the solution, the latter can be treated as a generalization of the exact analytical solutions of this form that were previously obtained for homogeneous and baroclinic eddies in the ocean.

  13. Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Aceves, S; Anklam, T; Badders, D; Cook, A W; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Farmer, J C; Flowers, D; Fratoni, M; ONeil, R G; Heltemes, T; Kane, J; Kramer, K J; Kramer, R; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G A; Morris, K R; Moses, G A; Olson, B; Pantano, C; Reyes, S; Rhodes, M; Roe, K; Sawicki, R; Scott, H; Spaeth, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S

    2010-11-30

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  14. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-10-01

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well as to directly driven laser fusion. This synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.

  15. Progress in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCrory R.L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been made in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics since the 2009 IFSA Conference [R.L. McCrory et al., J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 244, 012004 (2010]. Areal densities of 300mg/cm2 have been measured in cryogenic target implosions with neutron yields 15% of 1-D predictions. A model of crossed-beam energy transfer has been developed to explain the observed scattered-light spectrum and laser–target coupling. Experiments show that its impact can be mitigated by changing the ratio of the laser beam to target diameter. Progress continues in the development of the polar-drive concept that will allow direct-drive–ignition experiments to be conducted on the National Ignition Facility using the indirect-drive-beam layout.

  16. Personal Navigation Algorithms Based on Wireless Networks and Inertial Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaňa, Zdenek; Bradáč, Zdenek; Fiedler, Petr

    2014-08-01

    The work aims at a development of positioning algorithm suitable for low-cost indoor or urban pedestrian navigation application. The sensor fusion was applied to increase the localization accuracy. Due to required low application cost only low grade inertial sensors and wireless network based ranging were taken into account. The wireless network was assumed to be preinstalled due to other required functionality (for example: building control) therefore only received signal strength (RSS) range measurement technique was considered. Wireless channel loss mapping method was proposed to overcome the natural uncertainties and restrictions in the RSS range measurements The available sensor and environment models are summarized first and the most appropriate ones are selected secondly. Their effective and novel application in the navigation task, and favorable fusion (Particle filtering) of all available information are the main objectives of this thesis.

  17. Inertial Fusion Program. Progress report, January-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    This report summarizes research and development effort in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program, including absorption measurements with an integrating sphere, generation of high CO/sub 2/-laser harmonics in the backscattered light from laser plasmas, and the effects of hydrogen target contamination on the hot-electron temperature and transport. The development of new diagnostics is outlined and measurements taken with a proximity-focused x-ray streak camera are presented. High gain in phase conjugation using germanium was demonstrated, data were obtained on retropulse isolation by plasmas generated from metal shutters, damage thresholds for copper mirrors at high fluences were characterized, and phase conjugation in the ultraviolet was demonstrated. Significant progress in the characterization of targets, new techniques in target coating, and important advances in the development of low-density, small-cell-size plastic foam that permit highly accurate machining to any desired shape are presented. The results of various fusion reactor system studies are summarized.

  18. Inertial electrostatic confinement I(IEC) neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebel, R.A.; Barnes, D.C.; Caramana, E.J.; Janssen, R.D.; Nystrom, W.D.; Tiouririne, T.N.; Trent, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Miley, G.H.; Javedani, J. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is one of the earliest plasma confinement concepts, having first been suggested by P.T. Farnsworth in the 1950s. The concept involves a simple apparatus of concentric spherical electrostatic grids or a combination of grids and magnetic fields. An electrostatic structure is formed from the confluence of electron or ion beams. Gridded IEC systems have demonstrated neutron yields as high as 2*10 [10]. neutrons/sec in steady state. These systems have considerable potential as small, inexpensive, portable neutron sources for assaying applications. Neutron tomography is also a potential application. This paper discusses the IEC concept and how it can be adapted to a steady-state assaying source and an intense pulsed neutron source. Theoretical modeling and experimental results are presented.

  19. Diagnosing Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments on Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Stephanie

    2014-10-01

    Recent Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments performed at Sandia's Z facility have demonstrated DD fusion neutron yields above 1012 and effective confinement of charged fusion products by the flux-compressed magnetic field signaled by >1010 secondary DT neutrons. The neutron diagnostics are complemented by an extensive suite of visible and x-ray diagnostics providing power, imaging, and spectroscopic data. This talk will present analyses of emission and absorption features from the imploding and stagnating plasma that provide a consistent picture of the magnetic drive and the temperatures, densities, mix, and gradients in the fuel and liner at stagnation. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Characterisation of walking loads by 3D inertial motion tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nimmen, K.; Lombaert, G.; Jonkers, I.; De Roeck, G.; Van den Broeck, P.

    2014-09-01

    The present contribution analyses the walking behaviour of pedestrians in situ by 3D inertial motion tracking. The technique is first tested in laboratory experiments with simultaneous registration of the ground reaction forces. The registered motion of the pedestrian allows for the identification of stride-to-stride variations, which is usually disregarded in the simulation of walking forces. Subsequently, motion tracking is used to register the walking behaviour of (groups of) pedestrians during in situ measurements on a footbridge. The calibrated numerical model of the structure and the information gathered using the motion tracking system enables detailed simulation of the step-by-step pedestrian induced vibrations. Accounting for the in situ identified walking variability of the test-subjects leads to a significantly improved agreement between the measured and the simulated structural response.

  1. Alpha Heating and Burning Plasmas in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, R.; Christopherson, A. R.; Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.

    2016-05-01

    Assessing the degree to which fusion alpha particles contribute to the fusion yield is essential to understanding the onset of the thermal runaway process of thermonuclear ignition. It is shown that in inertial confinement fusion, the yield enhancement due to alpha particle heating (before ignition occurs) depends on the generalized Lawson parameter that can be inferred from experimental observables. A universal curve valid for arbitrary laser-fusion targets shows the yield amplification due to alpha heating for a given value of the Lawson parameter. The same theory is used to determine the onset of the burning plasma regime when the alpha heating exceeds the compression work. This result can be used to assess the performance of current ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility.

  2. Interplay of Laser-Plasma Interactions and Inertial Fusion Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozzi, D. J.; Bailey, D. S.; Michel, P.; Divol, L.; Sepke, S. M.; Kerbel, G. D.; Thomas, C. A.; Ralph, J. E.; Moody, J. D.; Schneider, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of laser-plasma interactions (LPI) on the dynamics of inertial confinement fusion hohlraums are investigated via a new approach that self-consistently couples reduced LPI models into radiation-hydrodynamics numerical codes. The interplay between hydrodynamics and LPI—specifically stimulated Raman scatter and crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET)—mostly occurs via momentum and energy deposition into Langmuir and ion acoustic waves. This spatially redistributes energy coupling to the target, which affects the background plasma conditions and thus, modifies laser propagation. This model shows reduced CBET and significant laser energy depletion by Langmuir waves, which reduce the discrepancy between modeling and data from hohlraum experiments on wall x-ray emission and capsule implosion shape.

  3. Inertial confinement fusion and prospects for power production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.B.Edwards; C.N.Danson

    2015-01-01

    As our understanding of the environmental impact of fossil fuel based energy production increases, it is becoming clear that the world needs a new energy solution to meet the challenges of the future. A transformation is required in the energy market to meet the need for low carbon, sustainable, affordable generation matched with security of supply. In the short term, an increasing contribution from renewable sources may provide a solution in some locations. In the longer term,low carbon, sustainable solutions must be developed to meet base load energy demand, if the world is to avoid an ever increasing energy gap and the attendant political instabilities. Laser-driven inertial fusion energy(IFE) may offer such a solution.

  4. Application of inertial confinement fusion to weapon technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, A.J.; Posey, L.D.

    1978-12-01

    This report reviews aspects of the military applications of the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program at Sandia Laboratories. These applications exist in the areas of: (1) weapon physics research, and (2) weapon effects simulation. In the area of weapon physics research, ICF source technology can be used to study: (1) equations-of-state at high energy densities, (2) implosion dynamics, and (3) laboratory simulation of exoatmospheric burst phenomena. In the area of weapon effects simulation, ICF technology and facilities have direct near, intermediate, and far term applications. In the near term, short pulse x-ray simulation capabilities exist for electronic component effects testing. In the intermediate term, capabilities can be developed for high energy neutron exposures and bremsstrahlung x-ray exposures of components. In the far term, system level exposures of full reentry vehicles will be possible if sufficiently high pellet gains are achieved.

  5. Objective evaluation of oral presentation skills using Inertial Measurement Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Salvatore; Kong, Weisheng; Zhang, Di; Cosentino, Sarah; Manawadu, Udara; Kawasaki, Motoji; Thomas, George Thuruthel; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Tsumura, Ryosuke; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Oral presentation is considered as one of the most sought after skills by companies and professional organizations and program accreditation agencies. However, both learning process and evaluation of this skill are time demanding and complex tasks that need dedication and experience. Furthermore, the role of the instructor is fundamental during the presentation assessment. The instructor needs to consider several verbal and nonverbal communications cues sent in parallel and this kind of evaluation is often subjective. Even if there are oral presentation rubrics that try to standardize the evaluation, they are not an optimal solution because they do not provide the presenter a real-time feedback. In this paper, we describe a system for behavioral monitoring during presentations. We propose an ecological measurement system based on Inertial Measurement Units to evaluate objectively the presenter's posture through objective parameters. The system can be used to provide a real-time feedback to the presenters unobtrusively.

  6. A Novel Ball on Beam Stabilizing Platform with Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shahbaz Haider

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents dynamic modeling of inertial sensor based one degree of freedom (1-DoF stabilizing platform. Plant is a ball on a pivoted beam. Nonlinear modeling of the plant is done. Ball position on beam is actuated by DC motor using two arms and one beam structure. Arms and beam are linked by pivoted joints. Nonlinear geometrical relations for mechanical structure are derived followed by physically realizable approximations. These relations are used in system dynamic equations followed by linearization, resulting in a linear continuous time differential equation model. State space conversion is done. Final model is simulation and system dynamics are elaborated by analysis of the simulation responses

  7. Direct numerical simulation of inertial flows in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, S.; Finn, J.; Wood, B. D.

    2010-12-01

    At modest flow rates (10 ≤ Re ≤ 300) through porous media and packed beds, fluid inertia can result in complex steady and unsteady recirculation regions, dependent on the local pore geometry. Body fitted CFD is a broadly used design and analysis tool for flows in porous media and packed bed type reactors. Unfortunately, the inherent complexities of porous media make unstructured mesh generation a difficult and time consuming step in the simulation process. To accurately capture the inertial dynamics using high-fidelity direct simulations, body fitted meshes must be high quality and sufficiently refined. We present methods to parameterize and simplify mesh generation for packed beds, with an eye toward obtaining efficient mesh independence for Reynolds numbers in the inertial and unsteady regimes. The crux of mesh generation for packed beds is dealing with sphere-sphere or sphere-wall contact points, where a geometric singularity exists. To handle the sphere-sphere and sphere-wall contact points, we use a fillet bridge model, in which every pair of contacting entities are bridged by a fillet, eliminating a small fluid region near the contact point. This results in a continuous surface mesh which does not require resizing of the spheres and can accommodate prism cells for improved boundary layer resolution. A second order accurate, parallel, incompressible flow solver [Moin and Apte, AIAA J. 2006] is used to simulate flow through three different sphere packings: a periodic simple cubic packing, a wall bounded hexagonal close packing, and a randomly packed tube. Mesh independence is assessed using several measures including Ergun pressure drop coefficients, viscous and pressure components of drag force, kinetic energy, kinetic energy dissipation and interstitial velocity profiles. The results of these test cases are used to determine the feasibility of accurate and very large scale simulations of flow through a randomly packed bed of 103 pores. Preliminary results

  8. The MICROSCOPE Inertial sensors and their flight models electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, Pierre; Boulanger, Damien; Liorzou, Françoise

    2012-07-01

    Dedicated space inertial sensors have been developed for the payload of the MICROSCOPE mission which scientific objective is the test of the universality of free fall at level better than 10-15. This accuracy requires the operation of four inertial sensors on board a specific drag-free satellite, exhibiting resolution of better than 1 femto-g for data integrating period over 20 orbits. Such an outstanding resolution requires the fine electrostatic servo-control of each sensor test mass motion, free of any perturbation along its six degrees of freedom. In addition to a very accurate geometrical sensor core, highly performing electronics architecture is necessary to provide the measurement of the weak electrostatic forces and torques applied to the mass. Capacitive sensing provides the linear and attitude motion of the mass with respect to gold coated electrodes silica parts. Charges are controlled on the electrodes all around the mass to generate adequate electrical field and so electrostatic pressures in order to maintain the mass motionless with respect to the instrument structure. Digital control laws are implemented to deal with both the instrument operation flexibility and the preservation of the weak position sensor noise. The flight model electronics units have been produced and tested. All characteristics have been verified as well as the thermal sensitivities. Description of these units and test results are presented in the paper. These electronics provide not only the scientific data for the General Relativity test but also the data for the satellite orbit and attitude control. The satellite is now under production for a launch in 2016.

  9. Ignition and Inertial Confinement Fusion at The National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Edward I.

    2016-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and for studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF is now conducting experiments to commission the laser drive, the hohlraum and the capsule and to develop the infrastructure needed to begin the first ignition experiments in FY 2010. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear bum in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. NIF will achieve this by concentrating the energy from the 192 beams into a mm3-sized target and igniting a deuterium-tritium mix, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reaction. NIP's ignition program is a national effort managed via the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC has two major goals: execution of DT ignition experiments starting in FY20l0 with the goal of demonstrating ignition and a reliable, repeatable ignition platform by the conclusion of the NIC at the end of FY2012. The NIC will also develop the infrastructure and the processes required to operate NIF as a national user facility. The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on laser fusion as a viable energy option. A laser fusion-based energy concept that builds on NIF, known as LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy), is currently under development. LIFE is inherently safe and can provide a global carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This paper describes recent progress on NIF, NIC, and the LIFE concept.

  10. Demonstration of thermonuclear conditions in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    The Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion concept utilizes a magnetic field and laser heating to relax the implosion requirements to achieve inertial confinement fusion. The first experiments to test the concept were recently conducted utilizing the 19 MA, 100 ns Z machine, the 2.5 kJ, 1 TW Z Beamlet laser, and the 10 T Applied B-field on Z coils. Despite the relatively slow implosion velocity (70 km/s) in these experiments, electron and ion temperatures at stagnation were approximately 3 keV, and thermonuclear DD neutron yields up to 2e12 have been produced. X-ray emission from the fuel at stagnation had a width ranging from 60-120 microns over a roughly 6 mm height and lasted approximately 2 ns. X-ray spectra from these experiments are consistent with a stagnation density of the hot fuel equal to 0.4 g/cm3 . In these experiments 1-5e10 secondary DT neutrons were produced. Given that the areal density of the plasma was approximately 2 mg/cm2, this indicates the stagnation plasma was significantly magnetized. This is consistent with the anisotropy observed in the DT neutron time of flight spectra. Control experiments where the laser and/or magnetic field were not utilized failed to produce stagnation temperatures greater than 1 keV and DD yields greater than 1e10. An additional control experiment where the fuel contained a sufficient dopant fraction to radiate away the laser energy deposited in the fuel also failed to produce a relevant stagnation temperature. The results of these experiments are consistent with a thermonuclear neutron source. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. The development and validation of using inertial sensors to monitor postural change in resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleadhill, Sam; Lee, James Bruce; James, Daniel

    2016-05-03

    This research presented and validated a method of assessing postural changes during resistance exercise using inertial sensors. A simple lifting task was broken down to a series of well-defined tasks, which could be examined and measured in a controlled environment. The purpose of this research was to determine whether timing measures obtained from inertial sensor accelerometer outputs are able to provide accurate, quantifiable information of resistance exercise movement patterns. The aim was to complete a timing measure validation of inertial sensor outputs. Eleven participants completed five repetitions of 15 different deadlift variations. Participants were monitored with inertial sensors and an infrared three dimensional motion capture system. Validation was undertaken using a Will Hopkins Typical Error of the Estimate, with a Pearson׳s correlation and a Bland Altman Limits of Agreement analysis. Statistical validation measured the timing agreement during deadlifts, from inertial sensor outputs and the motion capture system. Timing validation results demonstrated a Pearson׳s correlation of 0.9997, with trivial standardised error (0.026) and standardised bias (0.002). Inertial sensors can now be used in practical settings with as much confidence as motion capture systems, for accelerometer timing measurements of resistance exercise. This research provides foundations for inertial sensors to be applied for qualitative activity recognition of resistance exercise and safe lifting practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Generation of Accelerated Stability Experiment Profile of Inertial Platform Based on Finite Element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yunxia; HUANG Xiaokai; KANG Rui

    2012-01-01

    The residual stress generated in the manufacturing process of inertial platform causes the drift of inertial platform parameters in long-term storage condition.However,the existing temperature cycling experiment could not meet the increased repeatability technical requirements of inertial platform parameters.In order to solve this problem,in this paper,firstly the Unigraphics (UG) software and the interface compatibility of ANSYS software are used to establish the inertial platform finite element model.Secondly,the residual stress is loaded into finite element model by ANSYS function editor in the form of surface loads to analyze the efficiency.And then,the generation based on ANSYS simulation inertial platform to accelerate the stability of experiment profile is achieved by the application of the analysis method of orthogonal experimental design and ANSYS thermal-structural coupling.The optimum accelerated stability experiment profile is determined finally,which realizes the rapid,effective release of inertial platform residual stress.The research methodology and conclusion of this paper have great theoretical and practical significance to the production technology of inertial platform.

  13. One-dimensional Lagrangian implicit hydrodynamic algorithm for Inertial Confinement Fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramis, Rafael

    2017-02-01

    A new one-dimensional hydrodynamic algorithm, specifically developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) applications, is presented. The scheme uses a fully conservative Lagrangian formulation in planar, cylindrical, and spherically symmetric geometries, and supports arbitrary equations of state with separate ion and electron components. Fluid equations are discretized on a staggered grid and stabilized by means of an artificial viscosity formulation. The space discretized equations are advanced in time using an implicit algorithm. The method includes several numerical parameters that can be adjusted locally. In regions with low Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) number, where stability is not an issue, they can be adjusted to optimize the accuracy. In typical problems, the truncation error can be reduced by a factor between 2 to 10 in comparison with conventional explicit algorithms. On the other hand, in regions with high CFL numbers, the parameters can be set to guarantee unconditional stability. The method can be integrated into complex ICF codes. This is demonstrated through several examples covering a wide range of situations: from thermonuclear ignition physics, where alpha particles are managed as an additional species, to low intensity laser-matter interaction, where liquid-vapor phase transitions occur.

  14. Resistive thrust production can be as crucial as added mass mechanisms for inertial undulatory swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeirua, M; Godoy-Diana, R; Thiria, B

    2015-08-01

    In this Rapid Communication, we address a crucial point regarding the description of moderate to high Reynolds numbers aquatic swimmers. For decades, swimming animals have been classified in two different families of propulsive mechanisms based on the Reynolds number: the resistive swimmers, using local friction to produce the necessary thrust force for locomotion at low Reynolds number, and the reactive swimmers, lying in the high Reynolds range, and using added mass acceleration (described by perfect fluid theory). However, inertial swimmers are also systems that dissipate energy, due to their finite size, therefore involving strong resistive contributions, even for high Reynolds numbers. Using a complete model for the hydrodynamic forces, involving both reactive and resistive contributions, we revisit here the physical mechanisms responsible for the thrust production of such swimmers. We show, for instance, that the resistive part of the force balance is as crucial as added mass effects in the modeling of the thrust force, especially for elongated species. The conclusions brought by this work may have significant contributions to the understanding of complex swimming mechanisms, especially for the future design of artificial swimmers.

  15. Differential GPS/inertial navigation approach/landing flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Scott; Schipper, Brian; Vallot, Larry; Parker, Nigel; Spitzer, Cary

    1992-01-01

    Results of a joint Honeywell/NASA-Langley differential GPS/inertial flight test conducted in November 1990 are discussed focusing on postflight data analysis. The test was aimed at acquiring a system performance database and demonstrating automatic landing based on an integrated differential GPS/INS with barometric and radar altimeters. Particular attention is given to characteristics of DGPS/inertial error and the magnitude of the differential corrections and vertical channel performance with and without altimeter augmentation. It is shown that DGPS/inertial integrated with a radar altimeter is capable of providing a precision approach and autoland guidance of manned return space vehicles within the Space Shuttle accuracy requirements.

  16. Inertial effect on frequency synchronization for the second-order Kuramoto model with local coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Qin, Wen-Xin

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of the inertial effect on frequency synchronization in an ensemble of Kuramoto oscillators with finite inertia and symmetric and connected interactions. We present sufficient conditions in terms of coupling strength, algebraic connectivity, natural frequencies, and the inertial term to guarantee the occurrence of frequency synchronization. We also make a comparison with the existing conditions proposed for the first-order Kuramoto model and conclude that the inertial effect, if appropriately small, has little influence on frequency synchronization as long as the initial phase configurations are distributed in a half circle.

  17. Error reduction by combining strapdown inertial measurement units in a baseball stitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Leah

    A poor musical performance is rarely due to an inferior instrument. When a device is under performing, the temptation is to find a better device or a new technology to achieve performance objectives; however, another solution may be improving how existing technology is used through a better understanding of device characteristics, i.e., learning to play the instrument better. This thesis explores improving position and attitude estimates of inertial navigation systems (INS) through an understanding of inertial sensor errors, manipulating inertial measurement units (IMUs) to reduce that error and multisensor fusion of multiple IMUs to reduce error in a GPS denied environment.

  18. The concept of isochoric central spark ignition and its fuel gain in inertial fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmin, A D

    2004-01-01

    One of the best methods in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is the concept of central spark ignition, consisting of two distinct regions named as hot and cold regions and formed by hydro-dynamical implosion of fuel micro-sphere central spark ignition method in inertial fusion and fuel pellet design condition in fusion power plant has been investigated and fuel gain for isochoric model in this method is calculated. We have shown the effects of different physical parameters of inertial fusion on fuel gain and optimized limit for fuel density and fuel pellet radius has been calculated.

  19. Error model identification of inertial navigation platform based on errors-in-variables model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ming; Liu Yu; Su Baoku

    2009-01-01

    Because the real input acceleration cannot be obtained during the error model identification of inertial navigation platform, both the input and output data contain noises. In this case, the conventional regression model and the least squares (LS) method will result in bias. Based on the models of inertial navigation platform error and observation error, the errors-in-variables (EV) model and the total least squares (TLS) method are proposed to identify the error model of the inertial navigation platform. The estimation precision is improved and the result is better than the conventional regression model based LS method. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Study and Validation of a Double Inertial Platform for a Lunar Pico-Rover

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Araque, Johan Steven

    2013-01-01

    This Final Bachelor work is a study and validation of a double Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) for a Lunar Pico-Rover. The first chapter is a review of the current market for low-cost IMUs based on Commercial off-the-shelf components. The second chapter is a study of specifications for the MultiWii SE v0.2 inertial platform, having an arduino computer with nine degrees of freedom. The third chapter is a study of specifications for the GY-80 inertial platform with also nine degrees of freedom....

  1. Energy and dissipation range spectra in the inertial range of homogeneous turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, V.; She, Z.-S.; Orszag, S. A.

    A study is conducted of deviations from Kolmogorov's inertial-range scaling behavior using the dynamical 'renormalization group' (RNG) analysis of turbulence; RNG has been found to yield good predictions for inertial-range statistics including the Kolmogorov and the Batchelor-Obukhov-Corrsin constants. Attention is given to the implications of the deviations for higher-order statistics of small-scale turbulence. It was established by Edwards (1964) that the relation between the exponent of the inertial range energy spectrum and that of the Gaussian force correlation spectrum is independent of the perturbation expansion. It is presently shown that this relationship holds even for higher-order correlation functions.

  2. Metrology with Atom Interferometry: Inertial Sensors from Laboratory to Field Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Bess; Gillot, Pierre; Savoie, Denis; Lautier, Jean; Cheng, Bing; Alzar, Carlos L Garrido; Geiger, Remi; Merlet, Sebastien; Santos, Franck Pereira Dos; Landragin, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Developments in atom interferometry have led to atomic inertial sensors with extremely high sensitivity. Their performances are for the moment limited by the ground vibrations, the impact of which is exacerbated by the sequential operation, resulting in aliasing and dead time. We discuss several experiments performed at LNE-SYRTE in order to reduce these problems and achieve the intrinsic limit of atomic inertial sensors. These techniques have resulted in transportable and high-performance instruments that participate in gravity measurements, and pave the way to applications in inertial navigation.

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Advanced Diagnostics for Magnetic and Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, PE; Wootton, A.; Gorini, G.; Sindoni, E.; Batani, D.

    2003-02-01

    This book is a collection of papers, written by specialists in the field, on advanced topics of nuclear fusion diagnostics. The 78 contributions were originally presented at the International Conference on Advanced Diagnostics for Magnetic and Inertial Fusion held at Villa Monastero, Italy in September 2001. Both magnetically confined and inertial fusion programmes are quite extensively covered, with more emphasis given to the former scheme. In the case of magnetic confinement, since the present international programme is strongly focused on next-step devices, particular attention is devoted to techniques and technologies viable in an environment with strong neutron fluxes. Indeed, in the first section, the various methods are considered in the perspective of performing the measurements of the relevant parameters in conditions approaching a burning plasma, mainly in the Tokamak configuration. The most demanding requirements, like the implications of the use of tritium and radiation resistance, are reviewed and the most challenging open issues, which require further research and development, are also clearly mentioned. The following three sections are devoted to some of the most recent developments in plasma diagnostics, which are grouped according to the following classification: `Neutron and particle diagnostics', `Optical and x-ray diagnostics' and `Interferometry, Polarimetry and Thomson Scattering'. In these chapters, several of the most recent results are given, covering measurements taken on the most advanced experiments around the world. Here the developments described deal more with the requirements imposed by the physical issues to be studied. They are therefore more focused on the approaches adopted to increase the spatial and time resolution of the diagnostics, on some methods to improve the characterisation of the turbulence and on fast particles. Good coverage is given to neutron diagnostics, which are assuming increasing relevance as the plasma

  4. Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craxton, R. S.; Anderson, K. S.; Boehly, T. R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Knauer, J. P.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Myatt, J. F.; Schmitt, A. J.; Sethian, J. D.; Short, R. W.; Skupsky, S.; Theobald, W.; Kruer, W. L.; Tanaka, K.; Betti, R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Delettrez, J. A.; Hu, S. X.; Marozas, J. A.; Maximov, A. V.; Michel, D. T.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Soures, J. M.; Stoeckl, C.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    The direct-drive, laser-based approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is reviewed from its inception following the demonstration of the first laser to its implementation on the present generation of high-power lasers. The review focuses on the evolution of scientific understanding gained from target-physics experiments in many areas, identifying problems that were demonstrated and the solutions implemented. The review starts with the basic understanding of laser-plasma interactions that was obtained before the declassification of laser-induced compression in the early 1970s and continues with the compression experiments using infrared lasers in the late 1970s that produced thermonuclear neutrons. The problem of suprathermal electrons and the target preheat that they caused, associated with the infrared laser wavelength, led to lasers being built after 1980 to operate at shorter wavelengths, especially 0.35 μm—the third harmonic of the Nd:glass laser—and 0.248 μm (the KrF gas laser). The main physics areas relevant to direct drive are reviewed. The primary absorption mechanism at short wavelengths is classical inverse bremsstrahlung. Nonuniformities imprinted on the target by laser irradiation have been addressed by the development of a number of beam-smoothing techniques and imprint-mitigation strategies. The effects of hydrodynamic instabilities are mitigated by a combination of imprint reduction and target designs that minimize the instability growth rates. Several coronal plasma physics processes are reviewed. The two-plasmon-decay instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (together with cross-beam energy transfer), and (possibly) stimulated Raman scattering are identified as potential concerns, placing constraints on the laser intensities used in target designs, while other processes (self-focusing and filamentation, the parametric decay instability, and magnetic fields), once considered important, are now of lesser concern for mainline direct

  5. Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craxton, R. S.; Anderson, K. S.; Boehly, T. R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Knauer, J. P.; McKenty, P. W.; Myatt, J. F.; Short, R. W.; Skupsky, S.; Theobald, W.; Collins, T. J. B.; Delettrez, J. A.; Hu, S. X.; Marozas, J. A.; Maximov, A. V.; Michel, D. T.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); and others

    2015-11-15

    The direct-drive, laser-based approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is reviewed from its inception following the demonstration of the first laser to its implementation on the present generation of high-power lasers. The review focuses on the evolution of scientific understanding gained from target-physics experiments in many areas, identifying problems that were demonstrated and the solutions implemented. The review starts with the basic understanding of laser–plasma interactions that was obtained before the declassification of laser-induced compression in the early 1970s and continues with the compression experiments using infrared lasers in the late 1970s that produced thermonuclear neutrons. The problem of suprathermal electrons and the target preheat that they caused, associated with the infrared laser wavelength, led to lasers being built after 1980 to operate at shorter wavelengths, especially 0.35 μm—the third harmonic of the Nd:glass laser—and 0.248 μm (the KrF gas laser). The main physics areas relevant to direct drive are reviewed. The primary absorption mechanism at short wavelengths is classical inverse bremsstrahlung. Nonuniformities imprinted on the target by laser irradiation have been addressed by the development of a number of beam-smoothing techniques and imprint-mitigation strategies. The effects of hydrodynamic instabilities are mitigated by a combination of imprint reduction and target designs that minimize the instability growth rates. Several coronal plasma physics processes are reviewed. The two-plasmon–decay instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (together with cross-beam energy transfer), and (possibly) stimulated Raman scattering are identified as potential concerns, placing constraints on the laser intensities used in target designs, while other processes (self-focusing and filamentation, the parametric decay instability, and magnetic fields), once considered important, are now of lesser concern for mainline

  6. Vision aided inertial navigation system augmented with a coded aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jamie R.

    Navigation through a three-dimensional indoor environment is a formidable challenge for an autonomous micro air vehicle. A main obstacle to indoor navigation is maintaining a robust navigation solution (i.e. air vehicle position and attitude estimates) given the inadequate access to satellite positioning information. A MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) based inertial navigation system provides a small, power efficient means of maintaining a vehicle navigation solution; however, unmitigated error propagation from relatively noisy MEMS sensors results in the loss of a usable navigation solution over a short period of time. Several navigation systems use camera imagery to diminish error propagation by measuring the direction to features in the environment. Changes in feature direction provide information regarding direction for vehicle movement, but not the scale of movement. Movement scale information is contained in the depth to the features. Depth-from-defocus is a classic technique proposed to derive depth from a single image that involves analysis of the blur inherent in a scene with a narrow depth of field. A challenge to this method is distinguishing blurriness caused by the focal blur from blurriness inherent to the observed scene. In 2007, MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory demonstrated replacing the traditional rounded aperture with a coded aperture to produce a complex blur pattern that is more easily distinguished from the scene. A key to measuring depth using a coded aperture then is to correctly match the blur pattern in a region of the scene with a previously determined set of blur patterns for known depths. As the depth increases from the focal plane of the camera, the observable change in the blur pattern for small changes in depth is generally reduced. Consequently, as the depth of a feature to be measured using a depth-from-defocus technique increases, the measurement performance decreases. However, a Fresnel zone

  7. Observation of Interspecies Ion Separation in Inertial-Confinement-Fusion Implosions via Imaging X-Ray Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, S C; Hakel, P; Vold, E L; Schmitt, M J; Hoffman, N M; Rauenzahn, R M; Kagan, G; Tang, X -Z; Mancini, R C; Kim, Y; Herrmann, H W

    2016-01-01

    We report direct experimental evidence of interspecies ion separation in direct-drive, inertial-confinement-fusion experiments on the OMEGA laser facility. These experiments, which used plastic capsules with D$_2$/Ar gas fill (1% Ar by atom), were designed specifically to reveal interspecies ion separation by exploiting the predicted, strong ion thermo-diffusion between ion species of large mass and charge difference. Via detailed analyses of imaging x-ray-spectroscopy data, we extract Ar-atom-fraction radial profiles at different times, and observe both enhancement and depletion compared to the initial 1%-Ar gas fill. The experimental results are interpreted with radiation-hydrodynamic simulations that include recently implemented, first-principles models of interspecies ion diffusion. The experimentally inferred Ar-atom-fraction profiles agree reasonably, but not exactly, with calculated profiles associated with the incoming and rebounding first shock.

  8. Le principe d’inertie et le conatus du corps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Épaminondas Vamboulis

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Le principe d’inertie constitue la loi fondamentale qui a permis à la nouvelle physique du XVIIe siècle de construire son édifice en s’opposant aux explications scolastiques des phénomènes physiques. Tant Descartes que Spinoza ont proposé des démonstrations de cette loi physique en l’intégrant chacun dans son propre système philosophique. Spinoza dans ses Principes de la philosophie de Descartes propose même implicitement une critique de la démonstration cartésienne. Nous analysons cette critique dans la première partie de cet article et dans la suite nous proposons une lecture de la manière dont Spinoza déduit le principe d’inertie dans l’Éthique. Comme ce principe présente quant à son énoncé et quant à sa conceptualisation des affinités avec la théorie du conatus de la troisième partie de l’Éthique, cet article met en valeur la relation de ces deux parties du système et tire de leur confrontation quelques conclusions concernant le statut et la place de la physique dans la philosophie de Spinoza.The principle of inertia, despite the fact that it cannot be proven by any kind of experimental observation, is one of those principles that during the seventeenth century formed the foundations of a new physics. Both Descartes and Spinoza have tried however to demonstrate this principle and integrate it in their philosophical systems. Spinoza even proposes in his work Descartes’ Principles of Philosophy, while presenting Descartes’ view on that matter, a critical appraisal of some of the metaphysical presuppositions of the cartesian demonstration. An analysis of Spinoza’s arguments leads us to a study of the relation of the principle of inertia and the conatus theory of the Ethics, and subsequently to an interrogation concerning the status of Spinoza’s physics and the place that this science occupies in Spinoza’s philosophy.

  9. Demonstration of thermonuclear conditions in magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M. R.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Hahn, K. D.; Hansen, S. B.; Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sinars, D. B.; Harding, E. C.; Jennings, C. A.; Awe, T. J.; Geissel, M.; Rovang, D. C.; Smith, I. C.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Hess, M. H. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion concept [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] utilizes a magnetic field and laser heating to relax the pressure requirements of inertial confinement fusion. The first experiments to test the concept [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] were conducted utilizing the 19 MA, 100 ns Z machine, the 2.5 kJ, 1 TW Z Beamlet laser, and the 10 T Applied B-field on Z system. Despite an estimated implosion velocity of only 70 km/s in these experiments, electron and ion temperatures at stagnation were as high as 3 keV, and thermonuclear deuterium-deuterium neutron yields up to 2 × 10{sup 12} have been produced. X-ray emission from the fuel at stagnation had widths ranging from 50 to 110 μm over a roughly 80% of the axial extent of the target (6–8 mm) and lasted approximately 2 ns. X-ray yields from these experiments are consistent with a stagnation density of the hot fuel equal to 0.2–0.4 g/cm{sup 3}. In these experiments, up to 5 × 10{sup 10} secondary deuterium-tritium neutrons were produced. Given that the areal density of the plasma was approximately 1–2 mg/cm{sup 2}, this indicates the stagnation plasma was significantly magnetized, which is consistent with the anisotropy observed in the deuterium-tritium neutron spectra. Control experiments where the laser and/or magnetic field were not utilized failed to produce stagnation temperatures greater than 1 keV and primary deuterium-deuterium yields greater than 10{sup 10}. An additional control experiment where the fuel contained a sufficient dopant fraction to substantially increase radiative losses also failed to produce a relevant stagnation temperature. The results of these experiments are consistent with a thermonuclear neutron source.

  10. The scientific benefits of inertially confined fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, M

    1999-05-14

    A striking feature of 25 years of research into inertially confined fusion (ICF) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) has been its significant impact in other fields of science. Most ICF facilities worldwide are now being used in part to support a wider portfolio of research than simply ICF. Reasons for this trend include the high intrinsic interest of the new science coupled with the relative ease and low marginal cost of adapting the facilities particularly lasers, to carry out experiments with goals other than ICF. The availability at ICF laboratories of sophisticated theory and modeling capability and advanced diagnostics has given added impetus. The expertise of ICF specialists has also triggered more lateral scientific spin-offs leading for example to new types of lasers and to related developments in basic science. In a generic sense, the facilities developed for ICF have made possible study of new regimes of the properties of matter at extremely high-energy density and the interaction of ultraintense light with matter. This general opportunity has been exploited in numerous and diverse specific lines of research. Examples elaborated below include laboratory simulation of astrophysical phenomena; studies of the equation of state (EOS) of matter under conditions relevant to the interior of planets and stars; development of uniquely intense sources of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to hard x-ray emission, notably the x-ray laser; understanding of the physics of strong field interaction of light and matter; and related new phenomena such as laser-induced nuclear processes and high-field-electron accelerators. Some of these developments have potential themselves for further scientific exploitation such as the scientific use of advanced light sources. There are also avenues for commercial exploitation, for example the use of laser plasma sources in EUV lithography. Past scientific progress is summarized here and projections are made for new science that may flow from the

  11. Gait Kinematic Analysis in Water Using Wearable Inertial Magnetic Sensors: e0138105

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silvia Fantozzi; Andrea Giovanardi; Davide Borra; Giorgio Gatta

    2015-01-01

    .... The aim of the present study was to estimate the 3D joint kinematics of the lower limbs and thorax-pelvis joints in sagittal and frontal planes during underwater walking using wearable inertial and magnetic sensors...

  12. Thermal-inertial effects on magnetic reconnection in relativistic pair plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comisso, Luca; Asenjo, Felipe A

    2014-07-25

    The magnetic reconnection process is studied in relativistic pair plasmas when the thermal and inertial properties of the magnetohydrodynamical fluid are included. We find that in both Sweet-Parker and Petschek relativistic scenarios there is an increase of the reconnection rate owing to the thermal-inertial effects, both satisfying causality. To characterize the new effects we define a thermal-inertial number which is independent of the relativistic Lundquist number, implying that reconnection can be achieved even for vanishing resistivity as a result of only thermal-inertial effects. The current model has fundamental importance for relativistic collisionless reconnection, as it constitutes the simplest way to get reconnection rates faster than those accessible with the sole resistivity.

  13. Large Thrust Trans-scale Precision Positioning Stage Based on Inertial Stick-Slip Driving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zongwei; Zhong Bowen; Wang Zhenhua; Jin Ziqi; Sun Lining; Chen Linsen

    2015-01-01

    For the smaller thrust ,it is difficult to achieve 3D trans-scale precision positioning based on previous stick-slip driving .A large thrust trans-scale precision positioning stage is studied based on the inertial stick-slip driving .The process of the movement is divided into two steps ,i .e .,the″sliding″phase and the″stickness″phase . In the whole process ,the kinematics model of the inertial stick-slip driving is established ,and it reveals some fac-tors affecting the velocity of inertial stick-slip driving .Furthermore ,a simulation of movement is preformed by Matlab-Simulink software ,and the whole process of the inertial stick-slip driving is displayed .After one experi-mental prototype is designed ,the back and forth velocity is tested .Finally ,the simulation verifies the accuracy of the kinematics model .

  14. Wide-Bandwidth, Ultra-Accurate, Composite Inertial Reference Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Applied Technology Associates (ATA) proposes to develop a new inertial sensor by combining two sensing phenomena in a single device. ATA has patented an advanced...

  15. A three-axis flight simulator. [for testing and evaluating inertial measuring units, and flight platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A simulator is described, which was designed for testing and evaluating inertial measuring units, and flight platforms. Mechanical and electrical specifications for the outer, middle, and inner axis are presented. Test results are included.

  16. Best Sensor Configuration and Accommodation Rule Based on Navigation Performance for INS with Seven Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol-Kwan Yang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the best sensor configuration and fault accommodation problem for inertial navigation systems which use seven inertial sensors such as gyroscopes and accelerometers. We prove that when six inertial sensors are used, the isolation of a double fault cannot be achieved for some combinations of fault magnitudes, whereas when seven inertial sensors are used, the isolation of any double fault can be achieved. There are many configurations which provide the minimum position errors. This paper proposes four configurations which show the best navigation performance and compares their FDI performances. Considering the FDI performance and the complexity of the accommodation rule, we choose one sensor configuration and provide accommodation rules for double faults. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed to show that the accommodation rules work well.

  17. Time in the theory of relativity: inertial time, light clocks, and proper time

    CERN Document Server

    Valente, Mario Bacelar

    2016-01-01

    In a way similar to classical mechanics where we have the concept of inertial time as expressed in the motions of bodies, in the (special) theory of relativity we can regard the inertial time as the only notion of time at play. The inertial time is expressed also in the propagation of light. This gives rise to a notion of clock - the light clock, which we can regard as a notion derived from the inertial time. The light clock can be seen as a solution of the theory, not as an independent concept, which complies with the requirement that a clock to be so must have a rate that is independent from its past history.

  18. Miniaturized MEMS-Based Gas Chromatograph for High Inertial Loads Associated with Planetary Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a rugged, miniaturized, low power MEMS-based gas chromatograph (GC) capable of handling the high inertial loads...

  19. Coupled inertial and gravitational effects in the proper reference frame of an accelerated, rotating observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Ni, W.

    1979-07-01

    To the second order in metric and the first order in equations of motion in the local coordinates of an accelerated rotating observer, the inertial effects and gravitational effects are simply additive. To look into the coupled inertial and gravitational effects, we derive the third-order expansion of the metric and the second-order expansion of the equations of motion in local coordinates. Besides purely gravitational (purely curvature) effects, the equations of motion contain, in this order, the following coupled inertial and gravitational effects: redshift corrections to electric, magnetic, and double-magnetic type curvature forces; velocity-induced special relativistic corrections; and electric, magnetic, and double-magnetic type coupled inertial and gravitational forces. An example is provided with a static observer in the Schwarzchild spacetime.

  20. Application of Roll-Isolated Inertial Measurement Units to the Instrumentation of Spinning Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEADER,MARK E.

    2000-12-01

    Roll-isolated inertial measurement units are developed at Sandia for use in the instrumentation, guidance, and control of rapidly spinning vehicles. Roll-isolation is accomplished by supporting the inertial instrument cluster (gyros and accelerometers) on a single gimbal, the axis of which is parallel to the vehicle's spin axis. A rotary motor on the gimbal is driven by a servo loop to null the roll gyro output, thus inertially stabilizing the gimbal and instrument cluster while the vehicle spins around it. Roll-isolation prevents saturation of the roll gyro by the high vehicle spin rate, and vastly reduces measurement errors arising from gyro scale factor and alignment uncertainties. Nine versions of Sandia-developed roll-isolated inertial measurement units have been flown on a total of 27 flight tests since 1972.

  1. Condensation of ablated first-wall materials in the cascade inertial confinement fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, A.J.C.

    1985-12-18

    This report concerns problems involved in recondensing first-wall materials vaporized by x rays and pellet debris in the Cascade inertial confinement fusion reactor. It examines three proposed first-wall materials, beryllium oxide (BeO), silicon carbide (SiO), and pyrolytic graphite (C), paying particular attention to the chemical equilibrium and kinetics of the vaporized gases. The major results of this study are as follows. Ceramic materials composed of diatomic molecules, such as BeO and SiC, exist as highly dissociated species after vaporization. The low gas density precludes significant recombination during times of interest (i.e., less than 0.1 s). The dissociated species (Be, O, Si, and C) are, except for carbon, quite volatile and are thermodynamically stable as a vapor under the high temperature and low density found in Cascade. These materials are thus unsuitable as first-wall materials. This difficulty is avoided with pyrolytic graphite. Since the condensation coefficient of monatomic carbon vapor (approx. 0.5) is greater than that of the polyatomic vapor (<0.1), recondensation is assisted by the expected high degree of dissociation. The proposed 10-layer granular carbon bed is sufficient to condense all the carbon vapor before it penetrates to the BeO layer below. The effective condensation coefficient of the porous bed is about 50% greater than that of a smooth wall. An estimate of the mass flux leaving the chamber results in a condensation time for a carbon first wall of about 30 to 50 ms. An experiment to investigate condensation in a Cascade-like chamber is proposed.

  2. Coupling Vanishing Point Tracking with Inertial Navigation to Estimate Attitude in a Structured Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    tured by Honeywell. This is a much higher performance device than the MEMS IMU, as it is equipped with ring laser gyroscopes . While it provides much...deviations for the full set of test data. Figure 4.4 shows the ensemble of unaided MEMS inertial errors for all 3 gyroscopes and all 15 data runs along...70 4.2 Unaided inertial attitude profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 4.3 Unaided MEMS

  3. Inertial currents in the Indian Ocean derived from satellite tracked surface drifters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saji, P.K.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Almeida, A.M.; Rao, L.V.G.

    ´sume´ – Courants d’inertie dans l’oce´an Indien estime´s a` partir de flotteurs de surface suivis par satellite. Des flotteurs de surface suivis par satellite ont e´te´ utilise´s pour analyser les caracte´ristiques des courants d’inertie dans l’oce´an Indien...

  4. Inertial Confinement Fusion quarterly report, January--March 1995. Volume 5, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The ICF quarterly report is published by the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Topics included this quarter include: the role of the National Ignition Facility in the development of Inertial Confinement Fusion, laser-plasma interactions in large gas-filled hohlraums, evolution of solid-state induction modulators for a heavy-ion recirculator, the National Ignition Facility project, and terminal-level relaxation in Nd-doped laser material.

  5. A Method of Reducing Random Drift in the Combined Signal of an Array of Inertial Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Invention [0003] The present invention relates to the components of inertial measurement units, sensors such as gyroscopes and accelerometers. More...METHOD OF REDUCING RANDOM DRIFT IN THE COMBINED SIGNAL OF AN ARRAY OF INERTIAL SENSORS STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described...royalties thereon or therefore. CROSS REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the

  6. Avionic Inertial and Radar Navigation Systems Career Ladder AFSC 328X4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    OR LABEL EQUIPMENT 80 F173 INSPECT EGRESS SYSTEM SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 80 N464 REMOVE OR REPLACE GENERAL PURPOSE OR NAVIGATIONAL COMPUTERS 80 G191...ISOLATE MALFUNCTIONS TO INERTIAL PLATFORMS 60 F173 INSPECT EGRESS SYSTEM SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 60 J294 ISOLATE MALFUNCTIONS TO INERTIAL COMPUTERS...COMPUTERS 72 N457 OPERATIONALLY CHECK GENERAL PURPOSE OR NAVIGATIONAL COMPUTER SYSTEMS 71 F173 INSPECT EGRESS SYSTEM SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 71 4

  7. Near-inertial ocean response to tropical cyclone forcing on the Australian North-West Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayson, M. D.; Ivey, G. N.; Jones, N. L.; Lowe, R. J.; Wake, G. W.; McConochie, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was applied to the Australian North-West Shelf (NWS) to hindcast the ocean response to four intense historical tropical cyclones (TCs). While the four cyclones had very different trajectories across the NWS, all passed within 150 km of a long-term vertical mooring located on the continental shelf in 125 m depth. The observed ocean response at this relatively shallow, Southern Hemisphere shelf site was characterized by the development of a peak in the counter-clockwise (CCW) near-inertial kinetic energy, mixed layer deepening, and subsequent restratification. Strong near-inertial isotherm oscillations were also observed following two of the cyclones. ROMS reproduced these features and also showed that the peak in the near-inertial CCW kinetic energy was observed on the left side of each cyclone trajectory. The time rate of change of near-inertial kinetic energy depended strongly on the storm Rossby number, i.e., defined based on the storm speed, the storm length scale, and the Coriolis frequency. The shallow water depth on the NWS resulted in first, a more rapid decay of near-inertial oscillations than in the deep ocean, and second a generation efficiency (the ratio of near-inertial power to the rate of wind work) of up to 10%, smaller than found for cyclones propagating across deeper water. The total energy put into near-inertial motions is nevertheless large compared to the background tidal energy. The rapid decay of near-inertial motions emphasizes the importance of frictional effects in characterizing the response to cyclone forcing in shallow seas.

  8. Structural properties of hydrogen isotopes in solid phase in the context of inertial confinement fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrero Carlo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Deuterium-Tritium capsules is a critical aspect in Inertial Confinement Fusion. In this work, we present a Quantum Molecular Dynamics methodology able to model hydrogen isotopes and their structural molecular organisation at extreme pressures and cryogenic temperatures (< 15 K. Our study sets up the basis for a future analysis on the mechanical and structural properties of DT-ice in inertial confinement fusion (ICF target manufacturing conditions.

  9. Data Integration from GPS and Inertial Navigation Systems for Pedestrians in Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Bikonis; Jerzy Demkowicz

    2013-01-01

    The GPS system is widely used in navigation and the GPS receiver can offer long-term stable absolute positioning information. The overall system performance depends largely on the signal environments. The position obtained from GPS is often degraded due to obstruction and multipath effect caused by buildings, city infrastructure and vegetation, whereas, the current performance achieved by inertial navigation systems (INS) is still relatively poor due to the large inertial sensor errors. The c...

  10. The task of the relativistic oscillator in a non-inertial frame of reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelkin, E. E.; Sadovnikov, B. I.; Inozemtseva, N. G.

    2016-09-01

    The relativistic theory is one of the most difficult parts of theoretical physics to understand by high school students and scientists alike. In this paper, the important aspects from this theory are considered. The case of the non-inertial reference frame in which the space-time interval was presented for the Lorentz-like transformations, and the condition by which the transition to the inertial reference frame takes place, is shown.

  11. Body segment inertial parameters and low back load in individuals with central adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Robert; Kriellaars, Dean

    2014-09-22

    There is a paucity of information regarding the impact of central adiposity on the inertial characteristics of body segments. Deriving low back loads during lifting requires accurate estimate of inertial parameters. The purpose was to determine the body segment inertial parameters of people with central adiposity using a photogrammetric technique, and then to evaluate the impact on lumbar spine loading. Five participants with central adiposity (waist:hip ratio>0.9, waist circumference>102 cm) were compared to a normal BMI group. A 3D wireframe model of the surface topography was constructed, partitioned into 8 body segments and then body segment inertial parameters were calculated using volumetric integration assuming uniform segment densities for the segments. Central adiposity dependent increases in body segment parameters ranged from 12 to 400%, varying across segments (greatest for trunk) and parameters. The increase in mass distribution to the trunk was accompanied by an anterior and inferior shift of the centre of mass. A proximal shift in centre of mass was detected for the extremities, along with a reduction in mass distribution to the lower extremity. L5/S1 torques (392 vs 263 Nm) and compressive forces (5918 vs 3986 N) were substantially elevated in comparison to the normal BMI group, as well as in comparison to torques and forces predicted using published BSIP equations. Central adiposity resulted in substantial but non-uniform increases in inertial parameters resulting in task specific increases in torque and compressive loads arising from different inertial and physical components.

  12. Experience with the ULISS-30 inertial survey system for local geodetic and cadastral network control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Rene

    1991-09-01

    The capability of the recently developed SAGEM ULISS-30 inertial survey system for performing local surveys at high accuracies have been tested in a field campaign carried out November 1989 on the island of Fyn, Denmark, in cooperation with the Swedish National Land Survey. In the test a number of lines between existing national geodetic control points were surveyed, along with points in the less reliably determined cadastral network, forming an irregular network pattern of 10 15 km extent. The survey involved frequent offset measurements (up to 50 100 m) with an ISS-integrated total station. The profile geometries were not particularly suited for inertial surveys, with narrow and rather winding roads, necessitating frequent vehicle turns. In addition to the pure inertial surveys a kinematic GPS/inertial test was also carried out, using a pair of Ashtech L-XII receivers. The inertial survey results, analyzed with a smoothing algoritm utilizing common points on forward/backward runs, indicate that 5-cm accuracies are possible on reasonably straight profiles of 5 km length, corresponding to a 10 ppm “best-case” accuracy for double-run traverses. On longer, more winding traverses error levels of 10 20 cm are typical. To handle the inertial data optimally, proper network adjustments are required. A discussion of suitable adjustment models of both conventional and collocation type is included in the paper.

  13. GMI High Frequency Antenna Pattern Correction Update Based on GPM Inertial Hold and Comparison with ATMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, David W.

    2015-01-01

    In an inertial hold, the spacecraft does not attempt to maintain geodetic pointing, but rather maintains the same inertial position throughout the orbit. The result is that the spacecraft appears to pitch from 0 to 360 degrees around the orbit. Two inertial holds were performed with the GPM spacecraft: 1) May 20, 2014 16:48:31 UTC-18:21:04 UTC, spacecraft flying forward +X (0yaw), pitch from 55 degrees (FCS) to 415 degrees (FCS) over the orbit2) Dec 9, 2014 01:30:00 UTC-03:02:32 UTC, spacecraft flying backward X (180yaw), pitch from 0 degrees (FCS) to 360 degrees (FCS) over the orbitThe inertial hold affords a view of the earth through the antenna backlobe. The antenna spillover correction may be evaluated based on the inertial hold data.The current antenna pattern correction does not correct for spillover in the 166 and 183 GHz channels. The two inertial holds both demonstrate that there is significant spillover from the 166 and 183 GHz channels. By not correcting the spillover, the 166 and 183 GHz channels are biased low by about 1.8 to 3K. We propose to update the GMI calibration algorithm with the spill-over correction presented in this document for 166 GHz and 183 GHz.

  14. IMU: inertial sensing of vertical CoM movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Patrick; Dawes, Helen; Collett, Johnny; Howells, Ken

    2009-07-22

    The purpose of this study was to use a quaternion rotation matrix in combination with an integration approach to transform translatory accelerations of the centre of mass (CoM) from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) during walking, from the object system onto the global frame. Second, this paper utilises double integration to determine the relative change in position of the CoM from the vertical acceleration data. Five participants were tested in which an IMU, consisting of accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers was attached on the lower spine estimated centre of mass. Participants were asked to walk three times through a calibrated volume at their self-selected walking speed. Synchronized data were collected by an IMU and an optical motion capture system (OMCS); both measured at 100 Hz. Accelerations of the IMU were transposed onto the global frame using a quaternion rotation matrix. Translatory acceleration, speed and relative change in position from the IMU were compared with the derived data from the OMCS. Peak acceleration in vertical axis showed no significant difference (p> or =0.05). Difference between peak and trough speed showed significant difference (pIMU and OMCS did not show any significant difference (p> or =0.05). These results indicate that quaternions, in combination with Simpsons rule integration, can be used in transforming translatory acceleration from the object frame to the global frame and therefore obtain relative change in position, thus offering a solution for using accelerometers in accurate global frame kinematic gait analyses.

  15. Data Fusion Algorithms for Multiple Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Lachapelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A single low cost inertial measurement unit (IMU is often used in conjunction with GPS to increase the accuracy and improve the availability of the navigation solution for a pedestrian navigation system. This paper develops several fusion algorithms for using multiple IMUs to enhance performance. In particular, this research seeks to understand the benefits and detriments of each fusion method in the context of pedestrian navigation. Three fusion methods are proposed. First, all raw IMU measurements are mapped onto a common frame (i.e., a virtual frame and processed in a typical combined GPS-IMU Kalman filter. Second, a large stacked filter is constructed of several IMUs. This filter construction allows for relative information between the IMUs to be used as updates. Third, a federated filter is used to process each IMU as a local filter. The output of each local filter is shared with a master filter, which in turn, shares information back with the local filters. The construction of each filter is discussed and improvements are made to the virtual IMU (VIMU architecture, which is the most commonly used architecture in the literature. Since accuracy and availability are the most important characteristics of a pedestrian navigation system, the analysis of each filter’s performance focuses on these two parameters. Data was collected in two environments, one where GPS signals are moderately attenuated and another where signals are severely attenuated. Accuracy is shown as a function of architecture and the number of IMUs used.

  16. Non-electric applications for magneto-inertial fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slough, John

    2016-10-01

    In addition to the generation of commercial electric power, there are several other applications for an intense pulse of neutrons that would be produced by magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) systems. Many of these applications can be achieved without the need for a fully developed reactor at high gain, and could thus be pursued at a much earlier stage of development which would dramatically reduce the risk of the long-term development and concern for the expense of an all-encompassing, single use system such as the tokamak or stellerator. A short list of applications well suited for MIF would include: (1) production of radioisotopes for medical applications and research, (2) efficient, high power propulsion through direct fusion heating of lithium propellants (3) Noninvasive interrogation of objects for homeland security (4) neutron radiography and tomography (5) destruction of long-lived radioactive waste, and (6) breeding of proliferation proof fissile fuel for existing nuclear reactors. These applications could all be pursued at lower neutron yield, but clearly the energy goals are by far the most significant and far reaching such as applying fusion energy as a hybrid to enable thorium cycle reactors which produce very little waste compared to the current uranium reactors. A discussion of how MIF could be configured and utilized to realize several of these uses will be discussed.

  17. The Dynamics of Liquid Drops Coalescing in the Inertial Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Sprittles, James E

    2014-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of two coalescing liquid drops in the `inertial regime', where the effects of viscosity are negligible and the propagation of the bridge front connecting the drops can be considered as `local'. The solution fully computed in the framework of classical fluid-mechanics allows this regime to be identified and the accuracy of the approximating scaling laws proposed to describe the propagation of the bridge to be established. It is shown that the scaling law known for this regime has a very limited region of accuracy and, as a result, in describing experimental data it has frequently been applied outside its limits of applicability. The origin of the scaling law's shortcoming appears to be the fact that it accounts for the capillary pressure due only to the longitudinal curvature of the free surface as the driving force for the process. To address this deficiency, the scaling law is extended to account for both the longitudinal and azimuthal curvatures at the bridge front which, fortuitousl...

  18. Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K. L.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J. L.; Jones, O. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Landen, O. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Weber, C. R.; Haan, S. W.; Döppner, T. D.; Dixit, S.; Hamza, A. V.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Kroll, J. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform for both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. This approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures.

  19. Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miley, George H

    2014-01-01

    This book provides readers with an introductory understanding of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC), a type of fusion meant to retain plasma using an electrostatic field. IEC provides a unique approach for plasma confinement, as it offers a number of spin-off applications, such as a small neutron source for Neutron Activity Analysis (NAA), that all work towards creating fusion power. The IEC has been identified in recent times as an ideal fusion power unit because of its ability to burn aneutronic fuels like p-B11 as a result of its non-Maxwellian plasma dominated by beam-like ions. This type of fusion also takes place in a simple mechanical structure small in size, which also contributes to its viability as a source of power. This book posits that the ability to study the physics of IEC in very small volume plasmas makes it possible to rapidly investigate a design to create a power-producing device on a much larger scale. Along with this hypothesis the book also includes a conceptual experiment propose...

  20. Magnetized Inertial Fusion (MIF) Research at the Shiva Star Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, James; Grabowski, C.; Domonkos, M.; Ruden, E. L.; Amdahl, D. J.; White, W. M.; Frese, M. H.; Frese, S. D.; Wurden, G. A.; Weber, T. E.

    2015-11-01

    The AFRL Shiva Star capacitor bank (1300 μF, up to 120 kV) used typically at 4 to 5 MJ stored energy, 10 to 15 MA current, 10 μs current rise time, has been used to drive metal shell (solid liner) implosions for compression of axial magnetic fields to multi-megagauss levels, suitable for compressing magnetized plasmas to MIF conditions. MIF approaches use magnetic field to reduce thermal conduction relative to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). MIF substantially reduces required implosion speed and convergence. Using profiled thickness liner enables large electrode apertures and field-reversed configuration (FRC) injection. Using a longer capture region, FRC trapped flux lifetime was made comparable to implosion time and an integrated compression test was conducted. The FRC was radially compressed a factor of ten, to 100x density >1018 cm-3 (a world FRC record), but temperatures were only 300-400 eV, compared to intended several keV. Compression to megabar pressures was inferred by the observed liner rebound, but the heating rate during the first half of the compression was less than the normal FRC decay rate. Principal diagnostics were soft x-ray imaging, soft x-ray diodes, and neutron measurements. This work has been supported by DOE-OFES.

  1. Fusion technologies for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE∗

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer K.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE engine design builds upon on going progress at the National Ignition Facility (NIF and offers a near-term pathway to commercial fusion. Fusion technologies that are critical to success are reflected in the design of the first wall, blanket and tritium separation subsystems. The present work describes the LIFE engine-related components and technologies. LIFE utilizes a thermally robust indirect-drive target and a chamber fill gas. Coolant selection and a large chamber solid-angle coverage provide ample tritium breeding margin and high blanket gain. Target material selection eliminates the need for aggressive chamber clearing, while enabling recycling. Demonstrated tritium separation and storage technologies limit the site tritium inventory to attractive levels. These key technologies, along with the maintenance and advanced materials qualification program have been integrated into the LIFE delivery plan. This describes the development of components and subsystems, through prototyping and integration into a First Of A Kind power plant.

  2. Memory effects in chaotic advection of inertial particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daitche, Anton; Tél, Tamás

    2014-07-01

    A systematic investigation of the effect of the history force on particle advection is carried out for both heavy and light particles. General relations are given to identify parameter regions where the history force is expected to be comparable with the Stokes drag. As an illustrative example, a paradigmatic two-dimensional flow, the von Kármán flow is taken. For small (but not extremely small) particles all investigated dynamical properties turn out to heavily depend on the presence of memory when compared to the memoryless case: the history force generates a rather non-trivial dynamics that appears to weaken (but not to suppress) inertial effects, it enhances the overall contribution of viscosity. We explore the parameter space spanned by the particle size and the density ratio, and find a weaker tendency for accumulation in attractors and for caustics formation. The Lyapunov exponent of transients becomes larger with memory. Periodic attractors are found to have a very slow, {{t}^{-1/2}} type convergence towards the asymptotic form. We find that the concept of snapshot attractors is useful to understand this slow convergence: an ensemble of particles converges exponentially fast towards a snapshot attractor, which undergoes a slow shift for long times.

  3. Aided strapdown inertial navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Li, X. Rong

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a navigation algorithm based on aided strapdown inertial navigation (INS) for an underwater autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The AUV is equipped with a long baseline (LBL) acoustic positioning system, acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and a depth sensor to aid the INS. They have, however, much slower data rates than that of the INS. A linearized, quaternion-based dynamic model and measurement model of the INS output errors are presented. Data from different sensors are fused by applying the extended Kalman filer (EKF) to estimate and correct the errors. Due to the difficulty of generating realistic simulation scenario, real data (raw INS measurement) collected from AUV field experiments are processed to test the algorithm. Without knowing the ground truth, however, performance evaluation becomes much more complicated and needs further research. In this paper, the problem is circumvented by considering the post-processed real data as the "ground truth" and noisy raw measurements are generated from this "ground truth" to feed the algorithm. The simulation results demonstrate the algorithm applicability and show that by incorporating readings from the ADCP and the depth sensor, the (horizontal) position errors still increase but with a significant lower rate than the case of stand-alone operation. If the LBL sensor is further included, the navigation errors can be constrained within a certain bound.

  4. Inertial particles in a turbulent premixed Bunsen flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battista, F.; Picano, F.; Casciola, C.M. [Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica e Aeronautica; Troiani, G. [ENEA C.R. Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Many fields of engineering and physics are characterized by reacting flows seeded with particles of different inertia and dimensions, e.g. solid-propellant rockets, reciprocating engines where carbon particles form due to combustion, vulcano eruptions. Particles are also used as velocity transducers in Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) of turbulent flames. The effects of combustion on inertial particle dynamics is still poorly understood, despite its relevance for its effects on particle collisions and coalescence, phenomena which have a large influence in soot formation and growth. As a matter of fact, the flame front induces abrupt accelerations of the fluid in a very thin region which particles follow with different lags depending on their inertia. This phenomenon has a large impact on the particle spatial arrangement. The issuing clustering is here analyzed by a DNS of Bunsen turbulent flame coupled with particle Lagrangian tracking with the aim of evaluating the effect of inertia on particle spatial localization in combustion applications. The Eulerian algorith is based on Low-Mach number expansion of Navier-Stokes equations that allow arbitrary density variations neglecting acoustics waves. (orig.)

  5. Postural Stability Analysis with Inertial Measurement Units in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel F. Gago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cause of frequent falls in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD is still not well understood. Nevertheless, balance control and sensory organization are known to be critical for moving safely and adapting to the environment. Methods: We evaluated postural stability in 20 AD patients (11 fallers and 9 nonfallers and 16 healthy controls with an inertial measurement unit (triaxial accelerometers and gyroscopes attached to the center of mass (COM in different balance conditions (Romberg on flat surface and frontward/backward-inclined surface, with or without visual suppression in a motor lab. Results: In AD patients, the group of fallers showed a different kinetic pattern of postural stability characterized by higher vulnerability to visual suppression, higher total/maximal displacement and a mediolateral/anteroposterior range of sway, and a consequent need for more corrections of COM pitch and roll angles. Conclusion: Further studies are needed to consolidate the normative values of the discriminatory kinetic variables with the potential of inclusion in a multifactorial analysis of the risk of falls. Nevertheless, these results highlight signs of impairment of central postural control in AD, which may require early therapeutic intervention.

  6. Android Platform for Realtime Gait Tracking Using Inertial Measurement Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueveque, Pablo; Sobarzo, Sergio; Saavedra, Francisco; Maldonado, Claudio; Gómez, Britam

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important movements performed by the humans is gait. Biomechanical Gait analysis is usually by optical capture systems. However, such systems are expensive and sensitive to light and obstacles. In order to reduce those costs a system based on Inertial Measurements Units (IMU) is proposed. IMU are a good option to make movement analisys indoor with a low post-processing data, allowing to connect those systems to an Android platform. The design is based on two elements: a) The IMU sensors and the b) Android device. The IMU sensor is simple, small (35 x 35 mm), portable and autonomous (7.8 hrs). A resolution of 0.01° in their measurements is obtained, and sends data via Bluetooth link. The Android application works for Android 4.2 or higher, and it is compatible with Bluetooth devices 2.0 or higher. Three IMU sensors send data to a Tablet wirelessly, in order to evaluate the angles evolution for each joint of the leg (hip, knee and ankle). This information is used to calculate gait index and evaluate the gait quality online during the physical therapist is working with the patient. PMID:27990241

  7. Android platform for realtime gait tracking using inertial measurement units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Aqueveque

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important movements performed by the humans is gait. Biomechanical Gait analysis is usually by optical capture systems. However, such systems are expensive and sensitive to light and obstacles. In order to reduce those costs a system based on Inertial Measurements Units (IMU is proposed. IMU are a good option to make movement analisys indoor with a low post-processing data, allowing to connect those systems to an Android platform. The design is based on two elements: a The IMU sensors and the b Android device. The IMU sensor is simple, small (35 x 35 mm, portable and autonomous (7.8 hrs. A resolution of 0.01° in their measurements is obtained, and sends data via Bluetooth link. The Android application works for Android 4.2 or higher, and it is compatible with Bluetooth devices 2.0 or higher. Three IMU sensors send data to a Tablet wirelessly, in order to evaluate the angles evolution for each joint of the leg (hip, knee and ankle. This information is used to calculate gait index and evaluate the gait quality online during the physical therapist is working with the patient.

  8. Memory Effects in Chaotic Advection of Inertial Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Daitche, Anton

    2014-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the effect of the history force on particle advection is carried out for both heavy and light particles. General relations are given to identify parameter regions where the history force is expected to be comparable with the Stokes drag. As an illustrative example, a paradigmatic two-dimensional flow, the von K\\'arm\\'an flow is taken. For small (but not extremely small) particles all investigated dynamical properties turn out to heavily depend on the presence of memory when compared to the memoryless case: the history force generates a rather nontrivial dynamics that appears to weaken (but not to suppress) inertial effects, it enhances the overall contribution of viscosity. We explore the parameter space spanned by the particle size and the density ratio, and find a weaker tendency for accumulation in attractors and for caustics formation. The Lyapunov exponent of transients becomes larger with memory. Periodic attractors are found to have a very slow, $t^{-1/2}$ type convergence...

  9. Auto-magnetizing liners for magnetized inertial fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutz, S. A.; Jennings, C. A.; Awe, T. J.; Shipley, G. A.; Hutsel, B. T.; Lamppa, D. C.

    2017-01-01

    The MagLIF (Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion) concept [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] has demonstrated fusion-relevant plasma conditions [Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] on the Z accelerator using external field coils to magnetize the fuel before compression. We present a novel concept (AutoMag), which uses a composite liner with helical conduction paths separated by insulating material to provide fuel magnetization from the early part of the drive current, which by design rises slowly enough to avoid electrical breakdown of the insulators. Once the magnetization field is established, the drive current rises more quickly, which causes the insulators to break down allowing the drive current to follow an axial path and implode the liner in the conventional z-pinch manner. There are two important advantages to AutoMag over external field coils for the operation of MagLIF. Low inductance magnetically insulated power feeds can be used to increase the drive current, and AutoMag does not interfere with diagnostic access. Also, AutoMag enables a pathway to energy applications for MagLIF, since expensive field coils will not be damaged each shot. Finally, it should be possible to generate Field Reversed Configurations (FRC) by using both external field coils and AutoMag in opposite polarities. This would provide a means to studying FRC liner implosions on the 100 ns time scale.

  10. A novel inertial energy harvester using magnetic shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari Farsangi, Mohammad Amin; Sayyaadi, Hassan; Zakerzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    This paper studies the output voltage from a novel inertial energy harvester using magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs). The MSMA elements are attached to the root of a cantilever beam by means of two steps. In order to get electrical voltage, two coils are wound around the MSMAs and a shock load is applied to a tip mass at the end of the beam to have vibration in it. The beam vibration causes strain in the MSMAs along their longitudinal directions and as a result the magnetic flux alters in the coils. The change of magnetic flux in the surrounding coil produces an AC voltage. In order to predict the output voltage, the nonlinear governing equations of beam motion based on Euler-Bernoulli model and von Kármán theory are derived. A thermodynamics-based constitutive model is used to predict the nonlinear strain and magnetization response of the MSMAs. Also, the induced voltage during martensite variant reorientation in MSMAs is investigated with the help of Faraday’s law of induction. Finally, the effect of different parameters including bias magnetic field, pre-strain and number of MSMA elements are investigated in details. The results show that this novel energy harvester has the capability of using as an alternative to the current piezoelectric and magnetostrictive ones for harvesting energy from ambient vibration.

  11. Review on Recent Developments in Laser Driven Inertial Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghoranneviss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of the laser in 1960 hopes were based on using its very high energy concentration within very short pulses of time and very small volumes for energy generation from nuclear fusion as “Inertial Fusion Energy” (IFE, parallel to the efforts to produce energy from “Magnetic Confinement Fusion” (MCF, by burning deuterium-tritium (DT in high temperature plasmas to helium. Over the years the fusion gain was increased by a number of magnitudes and has reached nearly break-even after numerous difficulties in physics and technology had been solved. After briefly summarizing laser driven IFE, we report how the recently developed lasers with pulses of petawatt power and picosecond duration may open new alternatives for IFE with the goal to possibly ignite solid or low compressed DT fuel thereby creating a simplified reactor scheme. Ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks after irradiation of picosecond (PS laser pulses of around terawatt (TW power in the range of 1020 cm/s2 was discovered by Sauerbrey (1996 as measured by Doppler effect where the laser intensity was up to about 1018 W/cm2. This is several orders of magnitude higher than acceleration by irradiation based on thermal interaction of lasers has produced.

  12. Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurricane, O A; Callahan, D A; Casey, D T; Celliers, P M; Cerjan, C; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Döppner, T; Hinkel, D E; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Kline, J L; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; MacPhee, A G; Milovich, J L; Pak, A; Park, H-S; Patel, P K; Remington, B A; Salmonson, J D; Springer, P T; Tommasini, R

    2014-02-20

    Ignition is needed to make fusion energy a viable alternative energy source, but has yet to be achieved. A key step on the way to ignition is to have the energy generated through fusion reactions in an inertially confined fusion plasma exceed the amount of energy deposited into the deuterium-tritium fusion fuel and hotspot during the implosion process, resulting in a fuel gain greater than unity. Here we report the achievement of fusion fuel gains exceeding unity on the US National Ignition Facility using a 'high-foot' implosion method, which is a manipulation of the laser pulse shape in a way that reduces instability in the implosion. These experiments show an order-of-magnitude improvement in yield performance over past deuterium-tritium implosion experiments. We also see a significant contribution to the yield from α-particle self-heating and evidence for the 'bootstrapping' required to accelerate the deuterium-tritium fusion burn to eventually 'run away' and ignite.

  13. Stokes drift for inertial particles transported by water waves

    CERN Document Server

    Boffetta, G; Mazzino, A; Onorato, M; Santamaria, F

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of surface gravity waves on the motion of inertial particles in an incompressible fluid. Using the multiple-scale technique, we perform an analytical calculation which allows us to predict the dynamics of such particles; results are shown for both the infinite- and finite-depth regimes. Numerical simulations based on the velocity field resulting from the second-order Stokes theory for the surface elevation have been performed, and an excellent agreement with the analytical predictions is observed. Such an agreement seems to hold even beyond the formal applicability of the theory. We find that the presence of inertia leads to a non-negligible correction to the well-known horizontal Stokes drift; moreover, we find that the vertical velocity is also affected by a drift. The latter result may have some relevant consequences on the rate of sedimentation of particles of finite size. We underline that such a drift would also be observed in the (hypothetical) absence of the gravitational force.

  14. Experimental progress toward magnetized liner inertial fusion on Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinars, Daniel; Herrmann, Mark; Cuneo, Michael; Lamppa, Derek; Lopez, Andrew; McBride, Ryan; Rovang, Dean; Hanson, David; Harding, Eric; Nakhleh, Charles; Slutz, Stephen; Vesey, Roger; Sefkow, Adam; Peterson, Kyle

    2011-10-01

    Yields exceeding 100 kJ may be possible on the 25 MA Z facility at Sandia using the implosion of cylindrical metal liners onto magnetized (>10 T) and preheated (100-500 eV) deuterium-tritium fuel [S.A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. The fusion fuel in such targets absorbs about 100 kJ, so a 100 kJ yield would be `scientific breakeven.' Suitable liner targets (Al and Be) have been fabricated and used in experiments on the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Magnetic field coil prototypes for >10 T axial fields are being tested. Preheat experiments using the multi-kJ Z-Beamlet laser are planned. Cryogenic deuterium fuel systems have been developed. Integrated magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) tests using deuterium fuel are expected in 2013. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Ryan D.; Slutz, Stephen A.

    2015-05-01

    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression with Nernst thermoelectric losses; (7) magnetized electron and ion thermal conduction losses; (8) end losses; (9) enhanced losses due to prescribed dopant concentrations and contaminant mix; (10) deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium primary fusion reactions for arbitrary deuterium to tritium fuel ratios; and (11) magnetized α-particle fuel heating. We show that this simplified model, with its transparent and accessible physics, can be used to reproduce the general 1D behavior presented throughout the original MagLIF paper [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. We also discuss some important physics insights gained as a result of developing this model, such as the dependence of radiative loss rates on the radial fraction of the fuel that is preheated.

  16. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Ryan D.; Slutz, Stephen A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression with Nernst thermoelectric losses; (7) magnetized electron and ion thermal conduction losses; (8) end losses; (9) enhanced losses due to prescribed dopant concentrations and contaminant mix; (10) deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium primary fusion reactions for arbitrary deuterium to tritium fuel ratios; and (11) magnetized α-particle fuel heating. We show that this simplified model, with its transparent and accessible physics, can be used to reproduce the general 1D behavior presented throughout the original MagLIF paper [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. We also discuss some important physics insights gained as a result of developing this model, such as the dependence of radiative loss rates on the radial fraction of the fuel that is preheated.

  17. Condensed droplet jumping: Capillary to inertial energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Ryan; Miljkovic, Nenad; Morris, Michael; Wang, Evelyn

    2013-03-01

    When condensed droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump from the surface due to the release of excess surface energy. This behavior has been shown to follow a simple inertial-capillary scaling. However, questions remain regarding the nature of the energy conversion process linking the excess surface energy of the system before coalescence and the kinetic energy of the jumping droplet. Furthermore, the primary energy dissipation mechanisms limiting this jumping behavior remain relatively unexplored. In this work, we present new experimental data from a two-camera setup capturing the trajectory of jumping droplets on nanostructured surfaces with a characteristic surface roughness length scale on the order of 10 nm. Coupled with a model developed to capture the main details of the bridging flow during coalescence, our findings suggest that: 1. the excess surface energy available for jumping is a fraction of that suggested by simple scaling due to incomplete energy transfer, 2. internal viscous dissipation is not a limiting factor on the jumping process at droplet sizes on the order of 10 μm and 3. jumping performance is strongly affected by forces associated with the external flow and fields around the droplet. This work suggests bounds on the heat transfer performance of superhydrophobic condensation surfaces.

  18. Diagnosing inertial confinement fusion gamma ray physics (invited)a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Hoffman, N.; Wilson, D. C.; Stoeffl, W.; Dauffy, L.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.; Miller, E. K.; Ali, Z. A.

    2010-10-01

    The gamma reaction history (GRH) diagnostic is a multichannel, time-resolved, energy-thresholded γ-ray spectrometer that provides a high-bandwidth, direct-measurement of fusion reaction history in inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments. 16.75 MeV deuterium+tritium (DT) fusion γ-rays, with a branching ratio of the order of 10-5γ/(14 MeV n), are detected to determine fundamental burn parameters, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, critical to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. During the tritium/hydrogen/deuterium ignition tuning campaign, an additional γ-ray line at 19.8 MeV, produced by hydrogen+tritium fusion with a branching ratio of unity, will increase the available γ-ray signal and may allow measurement of reacting fuel composition or ion temperature. Ablator areal density measurements with the GRH are also made possible by detection of 4.43 MeV γ-rays produced by inelastic scatter of DT fusion neutrons on C12 nuclei in the ablating plastic capsule material.

  19. Diagnosing inertial confinement fusion gamma ray physics (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Hoffman, N.; Wilson, D. C.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, M/S E526, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Stoeffl, W.; Dauffy, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Miller, E. K. [Special Technologies Laboratory, NSTec, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States); Ali, Z. A. [Livermore Operations, NSTec, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The gamma reaction history (GRH) diagnostic is a multichannel, time-resolved, energy-thresholded {gamma}-ray spectrometer that provides a high-bandwidth, direct-measurement of fusion reaction history in inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments. 16.75 MeV deuterium+tritium (DT) fusion {gamma}-rays, with a branching ratio of the order of 10{sup -5}{gamma}/(14 MeV n), are detected to determine fundamental burn parameters, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, critical to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. During the tritium/hydrogen/deuterium ignition tuning campaign, an additional {gamma}-ray line at 19.8 MeV, produced by hydrogen+tritium fusion with a branching ratio of unity, will increase the available {gamma}-ray signal and may allow measurement of reacting fuel composition or ion temperature. Ablator areal density measurements with the GRH are also made possible by detection of 4.43 MeV {gamma}-rays produced by inelastic scatter of DT fusion neutrons on {sup 12}C nuclei in the ablating plastic capsule material.

  20. Diagnosing inertial confinement fusion gamma ray physics (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, H W; Hoffman, N; Wilson, D C; Stoeffl, W; Dauffy, L; Kim, Y H; McEvoy, A; Young, C S; Mack, J M; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M; Miller, E K; Ali, Z A

    2010-10-01

    The gamma reaction history (GRH) diagnostic is a multichannel, time-resolved, energy-thresholded γ-ray spectrometer that provides a high-bandwidth, direct-measurement of fusion reaction history in inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments. 16.75 MeV deuterium+tritium (DT) fusion γ-rays, with a branching ratio of the order of 10(-5)γ/(14 MeV n), are detected to determine fundamental burn parameters, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, critical to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. During the tritium/hydrogen/deuterium ignition tuning campaign, an additional γ-ray line at 19.8 MeV, produced by hydrogen+tritium fusion with a branching ratio of unity, will increase the available γ-ray signal and may allow measurement of reacting fuel composition or ion temperature. Ablator areal density measurements with the GRH are also made possible by detection of 4.43 MeV γ-rays produced by inelastic scatter of DT fusion neutrons on (12)C nuclei in the ablating plastic capsule material.

  1. Current control in inertial Brownian motors by noise recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zheng-Lin; Li, Kai-Yi; Li, Chun; Yang, Chun-Yan; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2015-03-01

    The transport properties of an inertial Brownian motor were numerically studied in the presence of recycled noise, which is obtained by re-injecting a fraction of the primary white noise after a processing time, being introduced into the system in a multiplicative way. The simulation results indicate that various parameters such as the external driving force, the friction coefficient, the mass of the particle, the recycling strength, and the delay time can induce the current reversal phenomenon when the sign of the recycling strength is in agreement with the sign of the external bias force, otherwise the current reversal cannot be observed. Additionally, the asymptotic mean velocity as a function of the delay time of the recycled noise always shows a resonance-like behavior with the presence of a maximum current. These results demonstrate that the delay time and the recycling strength of the recycled noise can be used as the feasible and flexible control parameters for the amplitude and direction of the current.

  2. Advanced Scintillator Detectors for Neutron Imaging in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert-Kleinrath, Verena; Danly, Christopher; Merrill, Frank; Simpson, Raspberry; Volegov, Petr; Wilde, Carl

    2016-10-01

    The neutron imaging team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been providing two-dimensional neutron imaging of the inertial confinement fusion process at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for over five years. Neutron imaging is a powerful tool in which position-sensitive detectors register neutrons emitted in the fusion reactions, producing a picture of the burning fuel. Recent images have revealed possible multi-dimensional asymmetries, calling for additional views to facilitate three-dimensional imaging. These will be along shorter lines of sight to stay within the existing facility at NIF. In order to field imaging capabilities equivalent to the existing system several technological challenges have to be met: high spatial resolution, high light output, and fast scintillator response to capture lower-energy neutrons, which have scattered from non-burning regions of fuel. Deuterated scintillators are a promising candidate to achieve the timing and resolution required; a systematic study of deuterated and non-deuterated polystyrene and liquid samples is currently ongoing. A test stand has been implemented to measure the response function, and preliminary data on resolution and light output have been obtained at the LANL Weapons Neutrons Research facility.

  3. SUPERCAVITY MOTION WITH INERTIAL FORCE IN THE VERTICAL PLANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Kai-ping; ZOU Wang; ARNDT Roger; ZHANG Guang

    2012-01-01

    The curvilinear motion in a vertical plane is one of the most important features of the supercavitating vehicle.It is of great significance to study the controllability and the maneuverability of the supercavitating vehicle.Models are built for the effects of the angle of attack,the gravity and the inertial force in the curvilinear motion in the vertical plane.Numerical simulations are carried out for the supercavity motion based on these models combined with the Logvinovich model.It is shown that the maximum deviation displacement in the outward normal direction of the trajectory with a constant curvature,which occurs in the tail of the supercavity,increases as the cavitation number or the curvature radius of the supercavity trajectory decreases under the condition that other model and flow parameters are kept constant.For a varied curvature,the supercavity shape changes evidently because of the change of the ambient pressure,but with the same trend as in constant curvature.The deviation displacement increases along the supercavity length gradually.

  4. Inertial Manifold and Large Deviations Approach to Reduced PDE Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, Franco; Favretti, Marco; Lovison, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    In this paper a certain type of reaction-diffusion equation—similar to the Allen-Cahn equation—is the starting point for setting up a genuine thermodynamic reduction i.e. involving a finite number of parameters or collective variables of the initial system. We firstly operate a finite Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction of the cited reaction-diffusion equation when reformulated as a variational problem. In this way we gain a finite-dimensional ODE description of the initial system which preserves the gradient structure of the original one and that is exact for the static case and only approximate for the dynamic case. Our main concern is how to deal with this approximate reduced description of the initial PDE. To start with, we note that our approximate reduced ODE is similar to the approximate inertial manifold introduced by Temam and coworkers for Navier-Stokes equations. As a second approach, we take into account the uncertainty (loss of information) introduced with the above mentioned approximate reduction by considering the stochastic version of the ODE. We study this reduced stochastic system using classical tools from large deviations, viscosity solutions and weak KAM Hamilton-Jacobi theory. In the last part we suggest a possible use of a result of our approach in the comprehensive treatment non equilibrium thermodynamics given by Macroscopic Fluctuation Theory.

  5. Integrated inertial fusion energy chamber dynamics and response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Hasib, E-mail: uddin3@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kramer, Richard; Pantano, Carlos [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kramer, Kevin; Tang, Vincent [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Sacks, Ryan; Moses, Gregory [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hunt, Ryan; DeMuth, James; Scott, Howard; Dunne, A. Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • LES with embedded geometry. • Repetitive IFE chamber state. • Sensitivity to blast modeling. - Abstract: This paper presents results of three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations of the flow inside a model inertial fusion energy (IFE) fusion chamber. Turbulence modeling employing the large-eddy simulation approach is used to estimate the gas dynamics, state, and mixing after a sufficiently large number of target ignitions. The rich radiation-flow physics that takes place immediately after the lasers hit the hohlraum is modeled separately using a high-fidelity one-dimensional model, which provides reference conditions for the complex geometry three-dimensional turbulence simulations. The IFE geometry includes optical ports and recirculation openings as well as a duct to evacuate the debris produced after each energy deposition (as a model of a laser shot). Furthermore, a selected set of sensitivity studies are conducted to estimate the effect of uncertainty in radiative properties of the Xenon gas at the prevalent conditions in the chamber. The results provide guidance regarding the turbulence conditions in the chamber, which seem to have entered a decay state immediately before a new shot takes place. Computational estimates of the density variability within the chamber as well as pressure history at the approximate location of the laser optical ports is presented among other turbulence statistics.

  6. Android Platform for Realtime Gait Tracking Using Inertial Measurement Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueveque, Pablo; Sobarzo, Sergio; Saavedra, Francisco; Maldonado, Claudio; Gómez, Britam

    2016-06-13

    One of the most important movements performed by the humans is gait. Biomechanical Gait analysis is usually by optical capture systems. However, such systems are expensive and sensitive to light and obstacles. In order to reduce those costs a system based on Inertial Measurements Units (IMU) is proposed. IMU are a good option to make movement analisys indoor with a low post-processing data, allowing to connect those systems to an Android platform. The design is based on two elements: a) The IMU sensors and the b) Android device. The IMU sensor is simple, small (35 x 35 mm), portable and autonomous (7.8 hrs). A resolution of 0.01° in their measurements is obtained, and sends data via Bluetooth link. The Android application works for Android 4.2 or higher, and it is compatible with Bluetooth devices 2.0 or higher. Three IMU sensors send data to a Tablet wirelessly, in order to evaluate the angles evolution for each joint of the leg (hip, knee and ankle). This information is used to calculate gait index and evaluate the gait quality online during the physical therapist is working with the patient.

  7. Addressing Common Technical challenges in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Donald A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-22

    The implosion phase for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) occurs from initiation of the drive until just before stagnation. Evolution of the shell and fusion fuel during the implosion phase is affected by the initial conditions of the target, the drive history. Poor performing implosions are a result of the behavior that occurs during the implosion phase such as low mode asymmetries, mixing of the ablator into the fuel, and the hydrodynamic evolution of initial target features and defects such as the shell mounting hardware. The ultimate results of these effects can only be measured at stagnation. However, studying the implosion phase can be effective for understanding and mitigating these effects and for of ultimately improving the performance of ICF implosions. As the ICF program moves towards the 2020 milestone to “determine the efficacy of ignition”, it will be important to understand the physics that occurs during the implosion phase. This will require both focused and integrated experiments. Focused experiments will provide the understanding and the evidence needed to support any determination concerning the efficacy of ignition.

  8. Energy harvesting potential of tuned inertial mass electromagnetic transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Takehiko; Araki, Yoshikazu; Ikago, Kohju

    2017-02-01

    The demand for developing renewable energy technologies has been growing in today's society. As one of promising renewable energy sources, large-scale energy harvesting from structural vibrations employing electromagnetic transducers has recently been proposed and considerable effort has been devoted to increase the power generation capability. In this paper, we introduce the mechanism of a tuned inertial mass electromagnetic transducer (TIMET), which can absorb vibratory energy more efficiently by tuning the parameters to adjust the system. Then we propose a new vibratory energy harvester with the TIMET and determine the parameter values for the device with a simple static admittance (SA) control law to maximize the energy harvested from a stationary stochastic disturbance. To investigate the energy harvesting potential of the TIMET further, the performance-guaranteed (PG) control and the LQG control proposed in the literature are applied as well. Then the numerical simulation studies are carried out and the effectiveness of the proposed energy harvester is examined by comparing the traditional electromagnetic transducers.

  9. Ultrahigh-Speed Dynamics of Micrometer-Scale Inertial Cavitation from NanoparticlesUltrahigh-Speed Dynamics of Micrometer-Scale Inertial Cavitation from Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwan, J.J.; Lajoinie, Guillaume Pierre Rene; de Jong, N.; Stride, E.; Versluis, Andreas Michel; Coussios, C.C.

    2016-01-01

    Direct imaging of cavitation from solid nanoparticles has been a challenge due to the combined nanosized length and time scales involved. We report on high-speed microscopic imaging of inertial cavitation from gas trapped on nanoparticles with a tunable hemispherical depression (nanocups) at

  10. Semiconductor Laser Diode Pumps for Inertial Fusion Energy Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R J

    2011-01-03

    Solid-state lasers have been demonstrated as attractive drivers for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and at the Omega Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in Rochester, NY. For power plant applications, these lasers must be pumped by semiconductor diode lasers to achieve the required laser system efficiency, repetition rate, and lifetime. Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require approximately 40-to-80 GW of peak pump power, and must operate efficiently and with high system availability for decades. These considerations lead to requirements on the efficiency, price, and production capacity of the semiconductor pump sources. This document provides a brief summary of these requirements, and how they can be met by a natural evolution of the current semiconductor laser industry. The detailed technical requirements described in this document flow down from a laser ampl9ifier design described elsewhere. In brief, laser amplifiers comprising multiple Nd:glass gain slabs are face-pumped by two planar diode arrays, each delivering 30 to 40 MW of peak power at 872 nm during a {approx} 200 {micro}s quasi-CW (QCW) pulse with a repetition rate in the range of 10 to 20 Hz. The baseline design of the diode array employs a 2D mosaic of submodules to facilitate manufacturing. As a baseline, they envision that each submodule is an array of vertically stacked, 1 cm wide, edge-emitting diode bars, an industry standard form factor. These stacks are mounted on a common backplane providing cooling and current drive. Stacks are conductively cooled to the backplane, to minimize both diode package cost and the number of fluid interconnects for improved reliability. While the baseline assessment in this document is based on edge-emitting devices, the amplifier design does not preclude future use of surface emitting diodes, which may offer appreciable future cost reductions and

  11. An improved pseudotargeted metabolomics approach using multiple ion monitoring with time-staggered ion lists based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Fang; Li, Peng; He, Chengwei; Wang, Ruibing; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo, E-mail: jbwan@umac.mo

    2016-07-13

    Pseudotargeted metabolomics is a novel strategy integrating the advantages of both untargeted and targeted methods. The conventional pseudotargeted metabolomics required two MS instruments, i.e., ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time- of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF MS) and UHPLC/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QQQ-MS), which makes method transformation inevitable. Furthermore, the picking of ion pairs from thousands of candidates and the swapping of the data between two instruments are the most labor-intensive steps, which greatly limit its application in metabolomic analysis. In the present study, we proposed an improved pseudotargeted metabolomics method that could be achieved on an UHPLC/Q-TOF/MS instrument operated in the multiple ion monitoring (MIM) mode with time-staggered ion lists (tsMIM). Full scan-based untargeted analysis was applied to extract the target ions. After peak alignment and ion fusion, a stepwise ion picking procedure was used to generate the ion lists for subsequent single MIM and tsMIM. The UHPLC/Q-TOF tsMIM MS-based pseudotargeted approach exhibited better repeatability and a wider linear range than the UHPLC/Q-TOF MS-based untargeted metabolomics method. Compared to the single MIM mode, the tsMIM significantly increased the coverage of the metabolites detected. The newly developed method was successfully applied to discover plasma biomarkers for alcohol-induced liver injury in mice, which indicated its practicability and great potential in future metabolomics studies. - Highlights: • An UHPLC/Q-TOF tsMIM MS-based pseudotargeted metabolomics was proposed. • Compared to full scan, the improved method exhibits better repeatability and a wider linear range. • The proposed method could achieve pseudotargeted analysis on one UHPLC/Q-TOF/MS instrument. • The developed method was successfully used to discover biomarkers for alcohol-induced liver injury.

  12. Inertial Fusion Program. Progress report, July 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoberne, F. (comp.)

    1981-10-01

    Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse CO/sub 2/ laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements in the Los Alamos National Laboratory eight-beam Helios system are described. These improvements increased the reliability of the laser and permitted the firing of 290 shots, most of which delivered energies of approximately 8 kJ to the target. Modifications to Gemini are outlined, including the installation of a new target-insertion mechanism. The redirection of the Antares program is discussed in detail, which will achieve a total energy of approximatey 40 kJ with two beams. This redirection will bring Antares on-line almost two years earlier than was possible with the full six-beam system, although at a lower energy. Experiments with isentropically imploded Sirius-B targets are discussed, and x-ray radiation-loss data from gold microballoons are presented, which show that these results are essentially identical with those obtained at glass-laser wavelengths. Significant progress in characterizing laser fusion targets is reported. New processes for fabricating glass miroballoon x-ray diagnostic targets, the application of high-quality metallic coatings, and the deposition of thick plastic coatings are described. Results in the development of x-ray diagnostics are reported, and research in the Los Alamos heavy-ion fusion program is summarized. Results of investigations of phase-conjugation research of gaseous saturable absorbers and of the use of alkali-halide crystals in a new class of saturable absorbers are summarized. New containment-vessel concepts for Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors are discussed, and results of a scoping study of four fusion-fission hybrid concepts are presented.

  13. Inertial drives for micro- and nanorobots: two novel mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zesch, Wolfgang; Buechi, Roland; Codourey, Alain; Siegwart, Roland Y.

    1995-12-01

    In micro or nanorobotics, high precision movement in two or more degrees of freedom is one of the main problems. Firstly, the positional precision has to be increased (Nanorobot Project, two new piezoelectric devices have been developed. `Abalone' is a 3-dof system that relies on the impact drive principle. The 38 mm X 33 mm X 9 mm slider can be moved to each position and orientation in a horizontal plane within a theoretically infinite workspace. In the stepping mode it achieves a speed of 1 mm/s in translation and 7 deg/s in rotation. Within the actuator's local range of 6 micrometers fine positioning is possible with a resolution better than 10 nm. `NanoCrab' is a bearingless rotational micromotor relying on the stick-slip effect. This 10 mm X 7 mm X 7 mm motor has the advantage of a relatively high torque at low rotational speed and an excellent runout. While the maximum velocity is 60 rpm, it reaches its highest torque of 0.3 mNm at 2 rpm. Another benefit is the powerless holding torque of 0.9 mNm. With a typical step of 0.1 mrad and a local resolution 3 orders of magnitude better than the step angle, NanoCrab can be very precisely adjusted. Design and measurements of the characteristics of these two mechanisms will be presented and compared with the theoretical analysis of inertial drives presented in a companion paper. Finally their integration into the Nanorobot system will be discussed.

  14. Final optics for laser-driven inertial fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, J. G.; Chase, L. L.; Guinan, M. W.; Krupke, W. F.; Sooy, W. R.

    1991-10-01

    If Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) power plus utilizing laser drivers are to be considered for electrical power generation, a method for delivering the driver energy into the reactor must be developed. This driver-reactor interface will necessarily employ 'final optics,' which must survive in the face of fast neutrons, x rays, hot vapors and condensates, and high speed droplets. The most difficult to protect against is fast neutron damage since no optically transmissive shielding material for 14 MeV neutrons is available. Multilayer dielectric mirrors are judged to be unsuitable because radiation induced chemical change, diffusion, and thickness changes will destroy their reflectivity within a few months of plant operation. Recently, grazing incidence metal mirrors were proposed, but optical damage issues are unresolved for this approach. In this study, we considered the use of refractive optics. A baseline design consists of two wedges of fused silica, which put a dogleg into the beam and thus remove optics further upstream from direct sight of the reactor. If the closest optic were located 40 m from the center of a 3 GW sub t reactor it would be subject to an average 14 MeV neutron flux of approx. 5 x 10(exp 12) n/sq cm with a peak flux of approx. 6 x 10(exp 18) n/sq cm. A major question to be answered is: 'what duration of reactor operation can this optic withstand'. To answer this question we have reviewed the literature bearing on radiation induced optical damage in fused silica and assessed its implications for reactor operation with the baseline final optics scheme. It appears possible to continuously anneal the neutron damage in the silica by keeping the wedge at a modestly elevated temperature.

  15. Inertial Confinement Fusion: Quarterly report, April-June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correll, D.

    1996-06-01

    The lead article, `Ion-beam propagation in a low-density reactor chamber for heavy-ion inertial fusion` (p. 89), explores the ability of heavy-ion beams to be adequately transported and focused in an IFE reactor. The next article, `Efficient production and applications of 2- to 10-keV x rays by laser-heated underdense radiators` (p. 96), explores the ability of the NIF to produce sufficient high-energy x rays for diagnostic backlighting, target preheating, or uniform irradiation of large test objects for Nuclear Weapons Effects Testing. For capsule implosion experiments, the increasing energies and distances involved in the NIF compared to Nova require the development of new diagnostics methods. The article `Fusion reaction-rate measurements--Nova and NIF` (p. 115) first reviews the use of time-resolved neutron measurements on Nova to monitor fusion burn histories and then explores the limitations of that technique, principally Doppler broadening, for the proposed NIF. It also explores the use of gamma rays on Nova, thereby providing a proof-of-principle for using gamma rays for monitoring fusion burn histories on the NIF. The articles `The energetics of gas-filled hohlraums` (p. 110) and `Measurements of laser- speckle-induced perturbations in laser-driven foils` (p. 123) report measurements on Nova of two important aspects of implosion experiments. The first characterizes the amount of energy lost from a hohlraum by stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering as a function of gas fill and laser-beam uniformity. The second of these articles shows that the growth of density nonuniformities implanted on smooth capsule surfaces by laser speckle can be correlated with the effects of physical surface roughness. The article `Laser-tissue interaction modeling with the LATIS computer program` (p. 103) explores the use of modeling to enhance the effectiveness--maximize desired effects and minimize collateral damage--of lasers for medical purposes.

  16. Inertial migration of deformable droplets in a microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Xue, Chundong; Hu, Guoqing, E-mail: guoqing.hu@imech.ac.cn, E-mail: sunjs@nanoctr.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, Li [Research and Development Center, Synfuels China Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing 101407 (China); Jiang, Xingyu; Sun, Jiashu, E-mail: guoqing.hu@imech.ac.cn, E-mail: sunjs@nanoctr.cn [Beijing Engineering Research Center for BioNanotechnology and Key Lab for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-11-15

    The microfluidic inertial effect is an effective way of focusing and sorting droplets suspended in a carrier fluid in microchannels. To understand the flow dynamics of microscale droplet migration, we conduct numerical simulations on the droplet motion and deformation in a straight microchannel. The results are compared with preliminary experiments and theoretical analysis. In contrast to most existing literature, the present simulations are three-dimensional and full length in the streamwise direction and consider the confinement effects for a rectangular cross section. To thoroughly examine the effect of the velocity distribution, the release positions of single droplets are varied in a quarter of the channel cross section based on the geometrical symmetries. The migration dynamics and equilibrium positions of the droplets are obtained for different fluid velocities and droplet sizes. Droplets with diameters larger than half of the channel height migrate to the centerline in the height direction and two equilibrium positions are observed between the centerline and the wall in the width direction. In addition to the well-known Segré-Silberberg equilibrium positions, new equilibrium positions closer to the centerline are observed. This finding is validated by preliminary experiments that are designed to introduce droplets at different initial lateral positions. Small droplets also migrate to two equilibrium positions in the quarter of the channel cross section, but the coordinates in the width direction are between the centerline and the wall. The equilibrium positions move toward the centerlines with increasing Reynolds number due to increasing deformations of the droplets. The distributions of the lift forces, angular velocities, and the deformation parameters of droplets along the two confinement direction are investigated in detail. Comparisons are made with theoretical predictions to determine the fundamentals of droplet migration in microchannels. In

  17. Inertial cavitation initiated by polytetrafluoroethylene nanoparticles under pulsed ultrasound stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qiaofeng; Kang, Shih-Tsung; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Zheng, Hairong; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2016-09-01

    Nanoscale gas bubbles residing on a macroscale hydrophobic surface have a surprising long lifetime (on the order of days) and can serve as cavitation nuclei for initiating inertial cavitation (IC). Whether interfacial nanobubbles (NBs) reside on the infinite surface of a hydrophobic nanoparticle (NP) and could serve as cavitation nuclei is unknown, but this would be very meaningful for the development of sonosensitive NPs. To address this problem, we investigated the IC activity of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) NPs, which are regarded as benchmark superhydrophobic NPs due to their low surface energy caused by the presence of fluorocarbon. Both a passive cavitation detection system and terephthalic dosimetry was applied to quantify the intensity of IC. The IC intensities of the suspension with PTFE NPs were 10.30 and 48.41 times stronger than those of deionized water for peak negative pressures of 2 and 5MPa, respectively. However, the IC activities were nearly completely inhibited when the suspension was degassed or ethanol was used to suspend PTFE NPs, and they were recovered when suspended in saturated water, which may indicates the presence of interfacial NBs on PTFE NPs surfaces. Importantly, these PTFE NPs could sustainably initiate IC for excitation by a sequence of at least 6000 pulses, whereas lipid microbubbles were completely depleted after the application of no more than 50 pulses under the same conditions. The terephthalic dosimetry has shown that much higher hydroxyl yields were achieved when PTFE NPs were present as cavitation nuclei when using ultrasound parameters that otherwise did not produce significant amounts of free radicals. These results show that superhydrophobic NPs may be an outstanding candidate for use in IC-related applications.

  18. Post-Minkowskian Gravity: Dark matter as a relativistic inertial effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusanna, Luca

    2010-04-01

    Talk at the 1st Mediterranean Conference in Classical and Quantum Gravity, held in the Orthodox Academy of Crete in Kolymbari (Greece) from Monday, September 14th to Friday, September 18th, 2009. A review is given of the theory of non-inertial frames (with the associated inertial effects and the study of the non-relativistic limit) in Minkowski space-time, of parametrized Minkowski theories and of the rest-frame instant form of dynamics for isolated systems admitting a Lagrangian description. The relevance and gauge equivalence of the clock synchronization conventions for the identification of the instantaneous 3-spaces (Euclidean only in inertial frames) are described. Then this formalism is applied to tetrad gravity in globally hyperbolic, asymptotically Minkowskian space-times without super-translations, where the equivalence principle implies the absence of global inertial frames. The recently discovered York canonical basis, diagonalizing the York-Lichnerowicz approach, allows to identify the gauge variables (inertial effects in general relativity) and the tidal ones (the gravitational waves of the linearized theory) and to clarify the meaning of the Hamilton equations. The role of the gauge variable 3K, the trace of the extrinsic curvature of the non-Euclidean 3-space (the York time not existing in Newton theory), as a source of inertial effects is emphasized. After the presentation of preliminary results on the linearization of tetrad gravity in the family of non-harmonic 3-orthogonal gauges with a free value of 3K, we define post-Minkowskian gravitational waves (without post-Newtonian approximations on the matter sources) propagating in a non-Euclidean 3-space, emphasizing the non-graviton-like aspects of gravity. It is conjectured that dark matter may be explained as a relativistic inertial effect induced by 3K: it would simulate the need to choose a privileged gauge connected with the observational conventions for the description of matter.

  19. Linear theory and measurements of electron oscillations in an inertial Alfvén wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, J. W. R.; Skiff, F.; Howes, G. G.; Kletzing, C. A.; Carter, T. A.; Dorfman, S.

    2017-03-01

    The physics of the aurora is one of the foremost unsolved problems of space physics. The mechanisms responsible for accelerating electrons that precipitate onto the ionosphere are not fully understood. For more than three decades, particle interactions with inertial Alfvén waves have been proposed as a possible means for accelerating electrons and generating auroras. Inertial Alfvén waves have an electric field aligned with the background magnetic field that is expected to cause electron oscillations as well as electron acceleration. Due to the limitations of spacecraft conjunction studies and other multi-spacecraft approaches, it is unlikely that it will ever be possible, through spacecraft observations alone, to confirm definitively these fundamental properties of the inertial Alfvén wave by making simultaneous measurements of both the perturbed electron distribution function and the Alfvén wave responsible for the perturbations. In this laboratory experiment, the suprathermal tails of the reduced electron distribution function parallel to the mean magnetic field are measured with high precision as inertial Alfvén waves simultaneously propagate through the plasma. The results of this experiment identify, for the first time, the oscillations of suprathermal electrons associated with an inertial Alfvén wave. Despite complications due to boundary conditions and the finite size of the experiment, a linear model is produced that replicates the measured response of the electron distribution function. These results verify one of the fundamental properties of the inertial Alfvén wave, and they are also a prerequisite for future attempts to measure the acceleration of electrons by inertial Alfvén waves.

  20. Crank inertial load has little effect on steady-state pedaling coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregly, B J; Zajac, F E; Dairaghi, C A

    1996-12-01

    Inertial load can affect the control of a dynamic system whenever parts of the system are accelerated or decelerated. During steady-state pedaling, because within-cycle variations in crank angular acceleration still exist, the amount of crank inertia present (which varies widely with road-riding gear ratio) may affect the within-cycle coordination of muscles. However, the effect of inertial load on steady-state pedaling coordination is almost always assumed to be negligible, since the net mechanical energy per cycle developed by muscles only depends on the constant cadence and workload. This study test the hypothesis that under steady-state conditions, the net joint torques produced by muscles at the hip, knee, and ankle are unaffected by crank inertial load. To perform the investigation, we constructed a pedaling apparatus which could emulate the low inertial load of a standard ergometer or the high inertial load of a road bicycle in high gear. Crank angle and bilateral pedal force and angle data were collected from ten subjects instructed to pedal steadily (i.e., constant speed across cycles) and smoothly (i.e., constant speed within a cycle) against both inertias at a constant workload. Virtually no statistically significant changes were found in the net hip and knee muscle joint torques calculated from an inverse dynamics analysis. Though the net ankle muscle joint torque, as well as the one- and two-legged crank torque, showed statistically significant increases at the higher inertia, the changes were small. In contrast, large statistically significant reductions were found in crank kinematic variability both within a cycle and between cycles (i.e., cadence), primarily because a larger inertial load means a slower crank dynamic response. Nonetheless, the reduction in cadence variability was somewhat attenuated by a large statistically significant increase in one-legged crank torque variability. We suggest, therefore, that muscle coordination during steady

  1. Characteristics of inertial oscillations according to the experimental measurements of currents on the Russian shelf of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondur, V. G.; Sabinin, K. D.; Grebenyuk, Yu. V.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of inertial oscillations on the Gelendzhik shelf of the Black Sea is presented. Spectral characteristics of the current fields are studied based on the measurements taken by the acoustic Doppler current profiler. Strong variability of the inertial oscillation hodographs at variations in the background shear current and diverse forms of inertial oscillations measured at a fixed point at various values of the shear current are revealed. The relation between the passage of the multidirectional jets and the trains of inertial oscillations inside the jets in the studied region are established.

  2. HYPERFUSE: a hypervelocity inertial confinement system for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from a LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 129/I, /sup 99/Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,..cap alpha..), (n,..gamma..), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R = 1.0 to 3.0) requirements. These studies also indicate that masses on the order of 1.0 g at densities of rho greater than or equal to 500.0 g/cm/sup 3/ are required for a practical fusion-based fission product transmutation system.

  3. Mooring observations of the near-inertial wave wake of Hurricane Ida (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallàs-Sanz, Enric; Candela, Julio; Sheinbaum, Julio; Ochoa, José

    2016-12-01

    The near-inertial wave wake of Hurricane Ida is examined of the basis of horizontal velocity observations acquired from 7 moorings instrumented with acoustic Doppler current profilers deployed across the shelf break, slope, and at the abyssal plain of the Yucatan Peninsula, from 130 m to ∼3300 m. During the forced stage, background mean-flow consisted on a dominant cyclonic circulation of ∼100 km of diameter intensified toward the Yucatan's shelf (topographic constraint) and bounded by anticyclonic vorticity northeastward (north 25° N). In the low frequency band, subinertial signals of ∈ [5.5-7.5] day period propagating along the Yucatan shelf break. After the passage of Hurricane Ida, energetic near-inertial oscillations spread away from the storm's track over cyclonic vorticity. The wave's Eulerian frequency increases shoreward and toward the Yucatan's shelf. After Ida's passage, mooring data show a contrasting velocity response: semi-diurnal and diurnal tides are enhanced at the shelf break of the Yucatan Peninsula and near-inertial oscillations at the slope and abyssal plain. The near-inertial kinetic energy is largest to the right of the storm track because of the asymmetric wind-stress and amplified due to vorticity trapping near z =-500 m, which is a proxy of the base of the mesoscale structure and where the mean-flow is nearly zero. The blue frequency shifted wave wake propagates downward at ∼57-70 m day-1 and horizontally at 23-28 km day-1 leading a downward vertical energy flux of [1.3-1.6] × 10-2 W m-2. This represents a 7-9% of the total wind power input to near-inertial oscillations that, ultimately, became available for interior ocean mixing. The results suggest that the most energetic wave packet propagated poleward and downward from a broad upwelling region located near the Hurricane's track. The vertical structure of the near-inertial kinetic energy is described as a sum of the first 12 standing vertical modes and as vertically

  4. Detection of (Inactivity Periods in Human Body Motion Using Inertial Sensors: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Damas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Determination of (inactivity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (inactivity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU. Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved.

  5. Are OPERA neutrinos faster than light because of non-inertial reference frames?

    CERN Document Server

    Germana, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Recent results from the OPERA experiment reported a neutrino beam traveling faster than light. The experiment measured the neutrino time of flight (TOF) over a baseline from the CERN to the Gran Sasso site. The neutrino beam arrives 60 ns earlier than a light ray would do. Because the result has an enormous impact on science, it might be worth double-checking the time definitions with respect to the non-inertial system in which the neutrino travel time was measured. Potential problems in the OPERA data analysis connected with the definition of the reference frame and time synchronization are emphasized. We aim to investigate the synchronization of non-inertial clocks on Earth by relating this time to the proper time of an inertial observer at Solar System Barycenter(SSB). The Tempo2 software was used to time-stamp events observed on the geoid with respect to the SSB inertial observer time. Neutrino results from OPERA might carry the fingerprint of non-inertial effects. The CERN-Gran Sasso clock synchronizatio...

  6. Measuring upper limb function in children with hemiparesis with 3D inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Christopher J; Bruchez, Roselyn; Roches, Sylvie; Jequier Gygax, Marine; Duc, Cyntia; Dadashi, Farzin; Massé, Fabien; Aminian, Kamiar

    2017-08-25

    Upper limb assessments in children with hemiparesis rely on clinical measurements, which despite standardization are prone to error. Recently, 3D movement analysis using optoelectronic setups has been used to measure upper limb movement, but generalization is hindered by time and cost. Body worn inertial sensors may provide a simple, cost-effective alternative. We instrumented a subset of 30 participants in a mirror therapy clinical trial at baseline, post-treatment, and follow-up clinical assessments, with wireless inertial sensors positioned on the arms and trunk to monitor motion during reaching tasks. Inertial sensor measurements distinguished paretic and non-paretic limbs with significant differences (P < 0.01) in movement duration, power, range of angular velocity, elevation, and smoothness (normalized jerk index and spectral arc length). Inertial sensor measurements correlated with functional clinical tests (Melbourne Assessment 2); movement duration and complexity (Higuchi fractal dimension) showed moderate to strong negative correlations with clinical measures of amplitude, accuracy, and fluency. Inertial sensor measurements reliably identify paresis and correlate with clinical measurements; they can therefore provide a complementary dimension of assessment in clinical practice and during clinical trials aimed at improving upper limb function.

  7. Accuracy Evaluation of Stereo Vision Aided Inertial Navigation for Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessbach, D. G.; Baumbach, D. B.; Boerner, A. B.; Zuev, S. Z.

    2013-11-01

    Accurate knowledge of position and orientation is a prerequisite for many applications regarding unmanned navigation, mapping, or environmental modelling. GPS-aided inertial navigation is the preferred solution for outdoor applications. Nevertheless a similar solution for navigation tasks in difficult environments with erroneous or no GPS-data is needed. Therefore a stereo vision aided inertial navigation system is presented which is capable of providing real-time local navigation for indoor applications. A method is described to reconstruct the ego motion of a stereo camera system aided by inertial data. This, in turn, is used to constrain the inertial sensor drift. The optical information is derived from natural landmarks, extracted and tracked over consequent stereo image pairs. Using inertial data for feature tracking effectively reduces computational costs and at the same time increases the reliability due to constrained search areas. Mismatched features, e.g. at repetitive structures typical for indoor environments are avoided. An Integrated Positioning System (IPS) was deployed and tested on an indoor navigation task. IPS was evaluated for accuracy, robustness, and repeatability in a common office environment. In combination with a dense disparity map, derived from the navigation cameras, a high density point cloud is generated to show the capability of the navigation algorithm.

  8. Vibrations of a Mindlin plate subjected to a pair of inertial loads moving in opposite directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyniewicz, Bartłomiej; Pisarski, Dominik; Bajer, Czesław I.

    2017-01-01

    A Mindlin plate subjected to a pair of inertial loads traveling at a constant high speed in opposite directions along arbitrary trajectory, straight or curved, is presented. The masses represent vehicles passing a bridge or track plates. A numerical solution is obtained using the space-time finite element method, since it allows a clear and simple derivation of the characteristic matrices of the time-stepping procedure. The transition from one spatial finite element to another must be energetically consistent. In the case of the moving inertial load the classical time-integration schemes are methodologically difficult, since we consider the Dirac delta term with a moving argument. The proposed numerical approach provides the correct definition of force equilibrium in the time interval. The given approach closes the problem of the numerical analysis of vibration of a structure subjected to inertial loads moving arbitrarily with acceleration. The results obtained for a massless and an inertial load traveling over a Mindlin plate at various speeds are compared with benchmark results obtained for a Kirchhoff plate. The pair of inertial forces traveling in opposite directions causes displacements and stresses more than twice as large as their corresponding quantities observed for the passage of a single mass.

  9. An Inertial-Fusion Z-Pinch Power Plant Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DERZON,MARK S.; ROCHAU,GARY E.; DEGROOT,J.; OLSON,CRAIG L.; PETERSON,P.; PETERSON,R.R.; SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.; ZAMORA,ANTONIO J.

    2000-12-15

    With the promising new results of fast z-pinch technology developed at Sandia National Laboratories, we are investigating using z-pinch driven high-yield Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) as a fusion power plant energy source. These investigations have led to a novel fusion system concept based on an attempt to separate many of the difficult fusion engineering issues and a strict reliance on existing technology, or a reasonable extrapolation of existing technology, wherever possible. In this paper, we describe the main components of such a system with a focus on the fusion chamber dynamics. The concept works with all of the electrically-coupled ICF proposed fusion designs. It is proposed that a z-pinch driven ICF power system can be feasibly operated at high yields (1 to 30 GJ) with a relatively low pulse rate (0.01-0.1 Hz). To deliver the required current from the rep-rated pulse power driver to the z-pinch diode, a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) and the integrated target hardware are fabricated, vacuum pumped, and aligned prior to loading for each power pulse. In this z-pinch driven system, no laser or ion beams propagate in the chamber such that the portion of the chamber outside the RTL does not need to be under vacuum. Additionally, by utilizing a graded-density solid lithium or fluorine/lithium/beryllium eutectic (FLiBe) blanket between the source and the first-wall the system can breed its own fuel absorb a large majority of the fusion energy released from each capsule and shield the first-wall from a damaging neutron flux. This neutron shielding significantly reduces the neutron energy fluence at the first-wall such that radiation damage should be minimal and will not limit the first-wall lifetime. Assuming a 4 m radius, 8 m tall cylindrical chamber design with an 80 cm thick spherical FLiBe blanket, our calculations suggest that a 20 cm thick 6061-T6 Al chamber wall will reach the equivalent uranium ore radioactivity level within 100 years after a 30

  10. Experimental measurement of utricle system dynamic response to inertial stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, M D; Grant, J W

    2014-08-01

    The membranous utricle sac of the red-eared turtle was mounted in a piezoelectric actuated platform mounted on the stage of a light microscope. The piezoelectric actuator oscillated the base of the neuroepithelium along a linear axis. Displacements were in the plane of the utricle and consisted of a linear sinusoidal-sweep signal starting at 0 and increasing to 500 Hz over 5 s. This inertial stimulus caused measurable shear displacement of the otoconial layer's dorsal surface, resulting in shear deformation of the gelatinous and column filament layers. Displacements of the otoconial layer and a reference point on the neuroepithelium were filmed at 2,000 frames/s with a high-speed video camera during oscillations. Image registration was performed on the video to track displacements with a resolution better than 15 nm. The displacement waveforms were then matched to a linear second-order model of the dynamic system. The model match identified two system mechanical parameters-the natural circular frequency ω n and the damping ratio ζ-that characterized the utricle dynamic response. The median values found for the medial-lateral axis on 20 utricles with 95 % confidence intervals in parenthesis were as follows: ω n = 374 (353, 396) Hz and ζ = 0.50 (0.47, 0.53). The anterior-posterior axis values were not significantly different: ω n = 409 (390, 430) Hz and ζ = 0.53 (0.48, 0.57). The results have two relevant and significant dynamic system findings: (1) a higher than expected natural frequency and (2) significant under damping. Previous to this study, utricular systems were treated as overdamped and with natural frequencies much lower that measured here. Both of these system performance findings result in excellent utricle time response to acceleration stimuli and a broad frequency bandwidth up to 100 Hz. This study is the first to establish the upper end of this mechanical system frequency response of the utricle in any animal.

  11. Chamber and target technology development for inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M; Besenbruch, G; Duke, J; Forman, L; Goodin, D; Gulec, K; Hoffer, J; Khater, H; Kulcinsky, G; Latkowski, J F; Logan, B G; Margevicious, B; Meier, W R; Moir, R W; Morley, N; Nobile, A; Payne, S; Peterson, P F; Peterson, R; Petzoldt, R; Schultz, K; Steckle, W; Sviatoslavsky, L; Tillack, M; Ying, A

    1999-04-07

    Fusion chambers and high pulse-rate target systems for inertial fusion energy (IFE) must: regenerate chamber conditions suitable for target injection, laser propagation, and ignition at rates of 5 to 10 Hz; extract fusion energy at temperatures high enough for efficient conversion to electricity; breed tritium and fuel targets with minimum tritium inventory; manufacture targets at low cost; inject those targets with sufficient accuracy for high energy gain; assure adequate lifetime of the chamber and beam interface (final optics); minimize radioactive waste levels and annual volumes; and minimize radiation releases under normal operating and accident conditions. The primary goal of the US IFE program over the next four years (Phase I) is to develop the basis for a Proof-of-Performance-level driver and target chamber called the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE will explore beam transport and focusing through prototypical chamber environment and will intercept surrogate targets at high pulse rep-rate. The IRE will not have enough driver energy to ignite targets, and it will be a non-nuclear facility. IRE options are being developed for both heavy ion and laser driven IFE. Fig. 1 shows that Phase I is prerequisite to an IRE, and the IRE plus NIF (Phase II) is prerequisite to a high-pulse rate. Engineering Test Facility and DEMO for IFE, leading to an attractive fusion power plant. This report deals with the Phase-I R&D needs for the chamber, driver/chamber interface (i.e., magnets for accelerators and optics for lasers), target fabrication, and target injection; it is meant to be part of a more comprehensive IFE development plan which will include driver technology and target design R&D. Because of limited R&D funds, especially in Phase I, it is not possible to address the critical issues for all possible chamber and target technology options for heavy ion or laser fusion. On the other hand, there is risk in addressing only one approach to each technology

  12. Inertial motion capture system for biomechanical analysis in pressure suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Massimiliano

    A non-invasive system has been developed at the University of Maryland Space System Laboratory with the goal of providing a new capability for quantifying the motion of the human inside a space suit. Based on an array of six microprocessors and eighteen microelectromechanical (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMUs), the Body Pose Measurement System (BPMS) allows the monitoring of the kinematics of the suit occupant in an unobtrusive, self-contained, lightweight and compact fashion, without requiring any external equipment such as those necessary with modern optical motion capture systems. BPMS measures and stores the accelerations, angular rates and magnetic fields acting upon each IMU, which are mounted on the head, torso, and each segment of each limb. In order to convert the raw data into a more useful form, such as a set of body segment angles quantifying pose and motion, a series of geometrical models and a non-linear complimentary filter were implemented. The first portion of this works focuses on assessing system performance, which was measured by comparing the BPMS filtered data against rigid body angles measured through an external VICON optical motion capture system. This type of system is the industry standard, and is used here for independent measurement of body pose angles. By comparing the two sets of data, performance metrics such as BPMS system operational conditions, accuracy, and drift were evaluated and correlated against VICON data. After the system and models were verified and their capabilities and limitations assessed, a series of pressure suit evaluations were conducted. Three different pressure suits were used to identify the relationship between usable range of motion and internal suit pressure. In addition to addressing range of motion, a series of exploration tasks were also performed, recorded, and analysed in order to identify different motion patterns and trajectories as suit pressure is increased and overall suit mobility is reduced

  13. Laser-plasma interactions relevant to Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, K.B.

    1998-11-02

    Research into laser-driven inertial confinement fusion is now entering a critical juncture with the construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Many of the remaining unanswered questions concerning NIF involve interactions between lasers and plasmas. With the eventual goal of fusion power in mind, laser-plasma interactions relevant to laser fusion schemes is an important topic in need of further research. This work experimentally addresses some potential shortcuts and pitfalls on the road to laser-driven fusion power. Current plans on NIF have 192 laser beams directed into a small cylindrical cavity which will contain the fusion fuel; to accomplish this the beams must cross in the entrance holes, and this intersection will be in the presence of outward-flowing plasma. To investigate the physics involved, interactions of crossing laser beams in flowing plasmas are investigated with experiments on the Nova laser facility at LLNL. It was found that in a flowing plasma, energy is transferred between two crossing laser beams, and this may have deleterious consequences for energy balance and ignition in NIF. Possible solutions to this problem are presented. A recently-proposed alternative to standard laser-driven fusion, the ''fast ignitor'' concept, is also experimentally addressed in this dissertation. Many of the laser-plasma interactions necessary for the success of the fast ignitor have not previously been explored at the relevant laser intensities. Specifically, the transfer of high-intensity laser energy to electrons at solid-target interfaces is addressed. 20-30% conversion efficiencies into forward-propagated electrons were measured, along with an average electron energy that varied with the type of target material. The directionality of the electrons was also measured, revealing an apparent beaming of the highest energy electrons. This work was extended to various intensities and

  14. Could space be considered as the inertial rest frame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar; Ambroselli, Michael

    2015-09-01

    We take the postulate of Special Relativity, that the cosmic rules observable through physical phenomena, are the same for all stars in all galaxies. We have deliberately avoided using the phrase; "in all inertial frames of reference" to avoid conceptual mathematical debate in defining what such frames of references are [1-4]. Then, accepting the universal validity of light velocity defined by Maxwell's wave equation, c2 = 1 / (ɛ 0μ 0) ; we revive the old ether concept with physically descriptive phrase that space is a continuous Complex Tension Field (CTF). This is strengthened by the fact that all non-dissipative tension fields allow for perpetual propagation of waves when excited within its linear restoration capability. We accommodate the particles as localized self-phase-looped resonant oscillations of the same CTF; thus integrating particles as another kind of excited states of the same CTF [5]. Further, all tension fields allow co-propagation and cross-propagation of multiple waves (preservation of wave properties and the respective Poynting vectors) through the same physical volume (linear Superposition Principle) in the absence of perturbing resonant detectors within the volume of superposition. We have re-named this universal property of all waves as Non-Interaction of Waves [6,7]. Thus, Doppler shifted waves from different stars and galaxies can cross through each other unperturbed while bringing to us the signatures of the properties of their parent stars. Now, if these light signals are waving of CTF, the optical Doppler effects must also be, as for sound waves in air pressure tension field, discernable into two different frequency shifts: as due to (i) source velocity (distant stars) and (ii) detector velocity (that of the earth) [8,9]. In other words, we are proposing that CTF (modified old ether) is the stationary cosmic rest frame. Since we have been routinely assuming that quantum phenomena are same in all stars; we strengthen our position by

  15. An Inertial-Fusion Z-Pinch Power Plant Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DERZON,MARK S.; ROCHAU,GARY E.; DEGROOT,J.; OLSON,CRAIG L.; PETERSON,P.; PETERSON,R.R.; SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.; ZAMORA,ANTONIO J.

    2000-12-15

    With the promising new results of fast z-pinch technology developed at Sandia National Laboratories, we are investigating using z-pinch driven high-yield Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) as a fusion power plant energy source. These investigations have led to a novel fusion system concept based on an attempt to separate many of the difficult fusion engineering issues and a strict reliance on existing technology, or a reasonable extrapolation of existing technology, wherever possible. In this paper, we describe the main components of such a system with a focus on the fusion chamber dynamics. The concept works with all of the electrically-coupled ICF proposed fusion designs. It is proposed that a z-pinch driven ICF power system can be feasibly operated at high yields (1 to 30 GJ) with a relatively low pulse rate (0.01-0.1 Hz). To deliver the required current from the rep-rated pulse power driver to the z-pinch diode, a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) and the integrated target hardware are fabricated, vacuum pumped, and aligned prior to loading for each power pulse. In this z-pinch driven system, no laser or ion beams propagate in the chamber such that the portion of the chamber outside the RTL does not need to be under vacuum. Additionally, by utilizing a graded-density solid lithium or fluorine/lithium/beryllium eutectic (FLiBe) blanket between the source and the first-wall the system can breed its own fuel absorb a large majority of the fusion energy released from each capsule and shield the first-wall from a damaging neutron flux. This neutron shielding significantly reduces the neutron energy fluence at the first-wall such that radiation damage should be minimal and will not limit the first-wall lifetime. Assuming a 4 m radius, 8 m tall cylindrical chamber design with an 80 cm thick spherical FLiBe blanket, our calculations suggest that a 20 cm thick 6061-T6 Al chamber wall will reach the equivalent uranium ore radioactivity level within 100 years after a 30

  16. VARIABLE INERTIAL DAMPER AND ITS APPLICATION IN ZERO-DRIVE GEAR HOBBING MACHINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Runai; ZHANG Genbao; GONG Li; HUANG Qiang

    2006-01-01

    A variable inertial damper, whose viscous damping coefficient can be adjusted by changing the gap between inertia wheel and motor spindle, is designed in servomechanism of zero-drive hobbing machine and is directly attached on the motor spindle. The mathematical model of servo system with inertial damper is built. By using theoretical analysis and system simulation, it is demonstrated that the variable inertial damper with optimal damping coefficient and moment of inertia should lead to no resonance point in wider frequency range of exciting force. Therefore, its application in zero-drive hobbing machine makes this system not only achieve higher system stiffness to overcome load torque fluctuation, but also gain better stability.

  17. Opposing Shear-Induced Forces Dominate Inertial Focusing in Curved Channels and High Reynolds Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Keinan, Eliezer; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    Inertial focusing is the migration of particles in fluid toward equilibrium, where current theory predicts that shear-induced and wall-induced lift forces are balanced. First reported in 1961, this Segre-Silberberg effect is particularly useful for microfluidic isolation of cells and particles. Interestingly, recent work demonstrated particle focusing at high Reynolds numbers that cannot be explained by current theory. In this work, we show that non-monotonous velocity profiles, such as those developed in curved channels, create peripheral velocity maxima around which opposing shear-induced forces dominate over wall effects. Similarly, entry effects amplified in high Reynolds flow produce an equivalent trapping mechanism in short, straight channels. This new focusing mechanism in the developing flow regime enables a 10-fold miniaturization of inertial focusing devices, while our model corrects long-standing misconceptions about the nature of mechanical forces governing inertial focusing in curved channels.

  18. Control of fuel target implosion non-uniformity in heavy ion inertial fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Iinuma, T; Kondo, S; Kubo, T; Kato, H; Suzuki, T; Kawata, S; Ogoyski, A I

    2016-01-01

    In inertial fusion, one of scientific issues is to reduce an implosion non-uniformity of a spherical fuel target. The implosion non-uniformity is caused by several factors, including the driver beam illumination non-uniformity, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) growth, etc. In this paper we propose a new control method to reduce the implosion non-uniformity; the oscillating implosion acceleration dg(t) is created by pulsating and dephasing heavy ion beams (HIBs) in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). The dg(t) would reduce the RTI growth effectively. The original concept of the non- uniformity control in inertial fusion was proposed in (Kawata, et al., 1993). In this paper it was found that the pulsating and dephasing HIBs illumination provide successfully the controlled dg(t) and that dg(t) induced by the pulsating HIBs reduces well the implosion non-uniformity. Consequently the pulsating HIBs improve a pellet gain remarkably in HIF.

  19. Foot Pose Estimation Using an Inertial Sensor Unit and Two Distance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Duy Duong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many inertial sensor-based foot pose estimation algorithms. In this paper, we present a methodology to improve the accuracy of foot pose estimation using two low-cost distance sensors (VL6180 in addition to an inertial sensor unit. The distance sensor is a time-of-flight range finder and can measure distance up to 20 cm. A Kalman filter with 21 states is proposed to estimate both the calibration parameter (relative pose of distance sensors with respect to the inertial sensor unit and foot pose. Once the calibration parameter is obtained, a Kalman filter with nine states can be used to estimate foot pose. Through four activities (walking, dancing step, ball kicking, jumping, it is shown that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the vertical position estimation.

  20. The task of the relativistic oscillator in a non-inertial frame of reference

    CERN Document Server

    Perepelkin, E E; Inozemtseva, N G

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the analogues of the Lorentz transformations for non-inertial reference frames have been obtained. A common case when the movement speed of one coordinate frame in relation to another one can have time derivatives of higher orders. The obtained transformations conserve invariance of the space-time interval, and in the particular case of inertial frames become the well-known Lorentz transformations. It is shown that the transition from classical mechanics to the theory of relativity is analogous to the consideration of the vibrating system described by the equation of the sine-Gordon type. In this case, if the amplitude of the elliptic functions is $k\\to 0$ the fluctuations can be considered small, and that leads to classical mechanics. With $k\\to 1$ time depends on the vibration amplitude, which leads to the theory of relativity. In the case of inertial frames the amplitude is $k=\\beta ={v}/{c}\\;$.

  1. Design and implementation of a GPS-aided inertial navigation system for a helicopter UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelan, David R.

    Helicopter unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) benefit from vertical takeoff and landing, hover, low-speed, and cruising flight capabilities. This versatility has the expense of nonlinear, unstable, and underactuated system dynamics. These challenges and numerous potential applications make the helicopter UAV an interesting testbed for nonlinear control. A platform for such development has been established in the Applied Nonlinear Controls Lab (ANCL). A miniature helicopter was augmented with a manual/autonomous takeover system and the ANCL Avionics. This payload contains a global positioning system (GPS) receiver, inertial sensors, and communications and computing hardware. Allan variance analysis of inertial sensor data enabled the derivation of a GPS-aided inertial navigation system that was implemented on the ANCL Avionics. This extended Kalman filter (EKF)-based algorithm estimates vehicle position, velocity, and attitude necessary for system identification tasks and control system feedback. Performance validation of this algorithm was demonstrated in simulation and in experimental ground and flight tests.

  2. Control of a laser inertial confinement fusion-fission power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, Edward I.; Latkowski, Jeffery F.; Kramer, Kevin J.

    2015-10-27

    A laser inertial-confinement fusion-fission energy power plant is described. The fusion-fission hybrid system uses inertial confinement fusion to produce neutrons from a fusion reaction of deuterium and tritium. The fusion neutrons drive a sub-critical blanket of fissile or fertile fuel. A coolant circulated through the fuel extracts heat from the fuel that is used to generate electricity. The inertial confinement fusion reaction can be implemented using central hot spot or fast ignition fusion, and direct or indirect drive. The fusion neutrons result in ultra-deep burn-up of the fuel in the fission blanket, thus enabling the burning of nuclear waste. Fuels include depleted uranium, natural uranium, enriched uranium, spent nuclear fuel, thorium, and weapons grade plutonium. LIFE engines can meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the highly undesirable stockpiles of depleted uranium, spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials.

  3. Entanglement concentration for two-mode Gaussian states in non-inertial frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Maurizio; Giraldi, Filippo; Petruccione, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Entanglement creation and concentration by means of a beam splitter (BS) is analysed for a generic two-mode bipartite Gaussian state in a relativistic framework. The total correlations, the purity and the entanglement in terms of logarithmic negativity are analytically studied for observers in an inertial state and in a non-inertial state of uniform acceleration. The dependence of entanglement on the BS transmissivity due to the Unruh effect is analysed in the case when one or both observers undergo uniform acceleration. Due to the Unruh effect, depending on the initial Gaussian state parameters and observed accelerations, the best condition for entanglement generation limited to the two modes of the observers in their regions is not always a balanced beam splitter, as it is for the inertial case.

  4. The Effects of Matched Filter on Stable Performance of Semistrapdown Inertially Stabilized Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the optimization performance of matched filter and further improve line of sight (LOS stability of platform in inertial space, the proposed matched filter algorithm is conducted by adjusting matched filter coefficients of first-order low pass filter utilizing the regional search method based on invariance principle. The coefficients of the fraction molecule and denominator of proposed regional search algorithm are altered instead of denominator coefficients only being modified. Simulations are performed to verify the validity of inside factors performed with stabilization control model and quartz rate sensor (QRS mathematical model. The stable angular error is sharply alleviated, so the decoupling accuracy of airborne semistrapdown inertially stabilized platform is largely promoted. The optimization matched filter can effectively increase stability of LOS in inertial space.

  5. Estimating the orientation of a rigid body moving in space using inertial sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Peng, E-mail: peng.he.1@ulaval.ca; Cardou, Philippe, E-mail: pcardou@gmc.ulaval.ca [Université Laval, Robotics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Canada); Desbiens, André, E-mail: andre.desbiens@gel.ulaval.ca [Université Laval, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (Canada); Gagnon, Eric, E-mail: Eric.Gagnon@drdc-rddc.gc.ca [RDDC Valcartier (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents a novel method of estimating the orientation of a rigid body moving in space from inertial sensors, by discerning the gravitational and inertial components of the accelerations. In this method, both a rigid-body kinematics model and a stochastic model of the human-hand motion are formulated and combined in a nonlinear state-space system. The state equation represents the rigid body kinematics and stochastic model, and the output equation represents the inertial sensor measurements. It is necessary to mention that, since the output equation is a nonlinear function of the state, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is applied. The absolute value of the error from the proposed method is shown to be less than 5 deg in simulation and in experiments. It is apparently stable, unlike the time-integration of gyroscope measurements, which is subjected to drift, and remains accurate under large accelerations, unlike the tilt-sensor method.

  6. On a Special Transformation to a Non-Inertial, Radially Rigid Reference Frame

    CERN Document Server

    Voytik, Vitaliy

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the conditions under which a body, moving non-inertially in Minkowski space, can preserve its size. Under these conditions, using a series expansion of the generalized Lorentz transformation, we ?nd a coor- dinate transformation connecting the laboratory inertial reference frame S and the rigid non-inertial reference frame s which moves without its own rotation with respect to S. Direct consequences of this transformation are: (a) desynchronization, in system s, of the coordinate clocks of s which were previously synchronized in S, and (b) a kinematic contraction of a ruler of system s observed in S. We also consider the dependence of the transfor- mation vector parameter on the proper coordinates of s.

  7. A rotating inertial navigation system with the rotating axis error compensation consisting of fiber optic gyros

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHA Feng; HU Bai-qing; QIN Fang-jun; LUO Yin-bo

    2012-01-01

    An effective and flexible rotation and compensation scheme is designed to improve the accuracy of rotating inertial navigation system (RINS).The accuracy of single-axial RINS is limited by the errors on the rotating axis.A novel inertial measurement unit (IMU) scheme with error compensation for the rotating axis of fiber optic gyros (FOG) RINS is presented.In the scheme,two couples of inertial sensors with similar error characteristics are mounted oppositely on the rotating axes to compensate the sensors error.Without any change for the rotation cycle,this scheme improves the system's precision and reliability,and also offers the redundancy for the system.The results of 36 h navigation simulation prove that the accuracy of the system is improved notably compared with normal strapdown INS,besides the heading accuracy is increased by 3 times compared with single-axial RINS,and the position accuracy is improved by 1 order of magnitude.

  8. Development of a facility using robotics for testing automation of inertial instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Joy Y.; Lamont, Gary B.; Biezad, Daniel J.; Lewantowicz, Zdsislaw H.; Greig, Joy Y.

    1987-01-01

    The Integrated Robotics System Simulation (ROBSIM) was used to evaluate the performance of the PUMA 560 arm as applied to testing of inertial sensors. Results of this effort were used in the design and development of a feasibility test environment using a PUMA 560 arm. The implemented facility demonstrated the ability to perform conventional static inertial instrument tests (rotation and tumble). The facility included an efficient data acquisitions capability along with a precision test servomechanism function resulting in various data presentations which are included in the paper. Analysis of inertial instrument testing accuracy, repeatability and noise characteristics are provided for the PUMA 560 as well as for other possible commercial arm configurations. Another integral aspect of the effort was an in-depth economic analysis and comparison of robot arm testing versus use of contemporary precision test equipment.

  9. A method to calculate finite-time Lyapunov exponents for inertial particles in incompressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaboa-Paz, D.; Pérez-Muñuzuri, V.

    2015-10-01

    The present study aims to improve the calculus of finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs) applied to describe the transport of inertial particles in a fluid flow. To this aim, the deformation tensor is modified to take into account that the stretching rate between particles separated by a certain distance is influenced by the initial velocity of the particles. Thus, the inertial FTLEs (iFTLEs) are defined in terms of the maximum stretching between infinitesimally close trajectories that have different initial velocities. The advantages of this improvement, if compared to the standard method (Shadden et al., 2005), are discussed for the double-gyre flow and the meandering jet flow. The new method allows one to identify the initial velocity that inertial particles must have in order to maximize their dispersion.

  10. Direct numerical simulations of an inertial wave attractor in linear and nonlinear regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Jouve, Laurène

    2014-01-01

    In a uniformly rotating fluid, inertial waves propagate along rays that are inclined to the rotation axis by an angle that depends on the wave frequency. In closed domains, multiple reflections from the boundaries may cause inertial waves to focus on to particular structures known as wave attractors. Such structures have previously been studied from a theoretical point of view, in laboratory experiments, in linear numerical calculations and in some recent numerical simulations. In the present paper, two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of an inertial wave attractor are presented. In the linear regime, we first recover the results of the linear calculations and asymptotic theory of Ogilvie (2005) who considered a prototypical problem involving the focusing of linear internal waves into a narrow beam centred on a wave attractor in a steady state. The velocity profile of the beam and its scalings with the Ekman number, as well as the asymptotic value of the dissipation rate, are found to be in agreement ...

  11. Estimating three-dimensional orientation of human body parts by inertial/magnetic sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2011-01-01

    User-worn sensing units composed of inertial and magnetic sensors are becoming increasingly popular in various domains, including biomedical engineering, robotics, virtual reality, where they can also be applied for real-time tracking of the orientation of human body parts in the three-dimensional (3D) space. Although they are a promising choice as wearable sensors under many respects, the inertial and magnetic sensors currently in use offer measuring performance that are critical in order to achieve and maintain accurate 3D-orientation estimates, anytime and anywhere. This paper reviews the main sensor fusion and filtering techniques proposed for accurate inertial/magnetic orientation tracking of human body parts; it also gives useful recipes for their actual implementation.

  12. Global stability of trajectories of inertial particles within domains of instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarsanam, Senbagaraman; Tallapragada, Phanindra

    2017-01-01

    Finite sized particles exhibit complex dynamics that differ from that of the underlying fluid flow. These dynamics such as chaotic motion, size dependent clustering and separation can have important consequences in many natural and engineered settings. Though fluid streamlines are global attractors for the inertial particles, regions of local instability can exist where the inertial particle can move away from the fluid streamlines. Identifying and manipulating the location of the so called stable and unstable regions in the fluid flow can find important applications in microfluidics. Research in the last two decades has identified analytical criteria that can partition the fluid domain into locally stable and unstable regions. In this paper, we identify two new mechanisms by which neutrally buoyant inertial particles could exhibit globally stable dynamics in the regions of the fluid flow that are thought to be locally unstable and demonstrate this with examples. The examples we use are restricted to the simpler case of time independent fluid flows.

  13. Inertial modes and their transition to turbulence in a differentially rotating spherical gap flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Michael; Harlander, Uwe; Andrés Triana, Santiago; Egbers, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    We present a study of inertial modes in a spherical shell experiment. Inertial modes are Coriolis-restored linear wave modes, often arise in rapidly-rotating fluids (e.g. in the Earth's liquid outer core [1]). Recent experimental works showed that inertial modes exist in differentially rotating spherical shells. A set of particular inertial modes, characterized by (l,m,ˆω), where l, m is the polar and azimuthal wavenumber and ˆω = ω/Ωout the dimensionless frequency [2], has been found. It is known that they arise due to eruptions in the Ekman boundary layer of the outer shell. But it is an open issue why only a few modes develop and how they get enhanced. Kelley et al. 2010 [3] showed that some modes draw their energy from detached shear layers (e.g. Stewartson layers) via over-reflection. Additionally, Rieutord et al. (2012) [4] found critical layers within the shear layers below which most of the modes cannot exist. In contrast to other spherical shell experiments, we have a full optical access to the flow. Therefore, we present an experimental study of inertial modes, based on Particle-Image-Velocimetry (PIV) data, in a differentially rotating spherical gap flow where the inner sphere is subrotating or counter-rotating at Ωin with respect to the outer spherical shell at Ωout, characterized by the Rossby number Ro = (Ωin - Ωout)/Ωout. The radius ratio of η = 1/3, with rin = 40mm and rout = 120mm, is close to that of the Earth's core. Our apparatus is running at Ekman numbers (E ≈ 10-5, with E = ν/(Ωoutrout2), two orders of magnitude higher than most of the other experiments. Based on a frequency-Rossby number spectrogram, we can partly confirm previous considerations with respect to the onset of inertial modes. In contrast, the behavior of the modes in the counter-rotation regime is different. We found a triad interaction between three dominant inertial modes, where one is a slow axisymmetric Rossby mode [5]. We show that the amplitude of the most

  14. Mathematical analysis of inertial waves in rectangular basins with one sloping boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Troitskaya, S D

    2016-01-01

    Here we consider the problem of small oscillations of a rotating inviscid incompressible fluid. From a mathematical point of view, new exact solutions to the two-dimensional Poincar\\'e-Sobolev equation in a class of domains including trapezoid are found in an explicit form and their main properties are described. These solutions correspond to the absolutely continuous spectrum of a linear operator that is associated with this system of equations. For specialists in Astrophysics and Geophysics the existence of these solutions signifies the existence of some previously unknown type of inertial waves corresponding to the continuous spectrum of inertial oscillations. A fundamental distinction between monochromatic inertial waves and waves of the new type is shown: usual characteristics (frequency, amplitude, wave vector, dispersion relation, direction of energy propagation, and so on) are not applicable to the last. Main properties of these waves are described. In particular it is proved that they are progressive...

  15. Inertial Sensor-Based Methods in Walking Speed Estimation: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-selected walking speed is an important measure of ambulation ability used in various clinical gait experiments. Inertial sensors, i.e., accelerometers and gyroscopes, have been gradually introduced to estimate walking speed. This research area has attracted a lot of attention for the past two decades, and the trend is continuing due to the improvement of performance and decrease in cost of the miniature inertial sensors. With the intention of understanding the state of the art of current development in this area, a systematic review on the exiting methods was done in the following electronic engines/databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, SportDiscus and IEEE Xplore. Sixteen journal articles and papers in proceedings focusing on inertial sensor based walking speed estimation were fully reviewed. The existing methods were categorized by sensor specification, sensor attachment location, experimental design, and walking speed estimation algorithm.

  16. Inertial sensor-based methods in walking speed estimation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuozhi; Li, Qingguo

    2012-01-01

    Self-selected walking speed is an important measure of ambulation ability used in various clinical gait experiments. Inertial sensors, i.e., accelerometers and gyroscopes, have been gradually introduced to estimate walking speed. This research area has attracted a lot of attention for the past two decades, and the trend is continuing due to the improvement of performance and decrease in cost of the miniature inertial sensors. With the intention of understanding the state of the art of current development in this area, a systematic review on the exiting methods was done in the following electronic engines/databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, SportDiscus and IEEE Xplore. Sixteen journal articles and papers in proceedings focusing on inertial sensor based walking speed estimation were fully reviewed. The existing methods were categorized by sensor specification, sensor attachment location, experimental design, and walking speed estimation algorithm.

  17. Influence of varying upper ocean stratification on coastal near-inertial currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Yong; Kurapov, Alexander L.; Kosro, P. Michael

    2015-12-01

    The influence of varying horizontal and vertical stratification in the upper layer (O>(10>) m) associated with riverine waters and seasonal atmospheric fluxes on coastal near-inertial currents is investigated with remotely sensed and in situ observations of surface and subsurface currents and realistic numerical model outputs off the coast of Oregon. Based on numerical simulations with and without the Columbia River (CR) during summer, the directly wind-forced near-inertial surface currents are enhanced by 30%-60% when the near-surface layer has a stratified condition due to riverine water inputs from the CR. Comparing model results without the CR for summer and winter conditions indicates that the directly wind-forced near-inertial surface current response to a unit wind forcing during summer are 20%-70% stronger than those during winter depending on the cross-shore location, which is in contrast to the seasonal patterns of both mixed-layer depth and amplitudes of near-inertial currents. The model simulations are used to examine aspects of coastal inhibition of near-inertial currents, manifested in their spatial coherence in the cross-shore direction, where the phase propagates upward over the continental shelf, bounces at the coast, and continues increasing upward offshore (toward surface) and then downward offshore at the surface, with magnitudes and length scales in the near-surface layer increasing offshore. This pattern exhibits a particularly well-organized structure during winter. Similarly, the raypaths of clockwise near-inertial internal waves are consistent with the phase propagation of coherence, showing the influence of upper layer stratification and coastal inhibition.

  18. An Inertial and Optical Sensor Fusion Approach for Six Degree-of-Freedom Pose Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Changyu; Kazanzides, Peter; Sen, Hasan Tutkun; Kim, Sungmin; Liu, Yue

    2015-07-08

    Optical tracking provides relatively high accuracy over a large workspace but requires line-of-sight between the camera and the markers, which may be difficult to maintain in actual applications. In contrast, inertial sensing does not require line-of-sight but is subject to drift, which may cause large cumulative errors, especially during the measurement of position. To handle cases where some or all of the markers are occluded, this paper proposes an inertial and optical sensor fusion approach in which the bias of the inertial sensors is estimated when the optical tracker provides full six degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) pose information. As long as the position of at least one marker can be tracked by the optical system, the 3-DOF position can be combined with the orientation estimated from the inertial measurements to recover the full 6-DOF pose information. When all the markers are occluded, the position tracking relies on the inertial sensors that are bias-corrected by the optical tracking system. Experiments are performed with an augmented reality head-mounted display (ARHMD) that integrates an optical tracking system (OTS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU). Experimental results show that under partial occlusion conditions, the root mean square errors (RMSE) of orientation and position are 0.04° and 0.134 mm, and under total occlusion conditions for 1 s, the orientation and position RMSE are 0.022° and 0.22 mm, respectively. Thus, the proposed sensor fusion approach can provide reliable 6-DOF pose under long-term partial occlusion and short-term total occlusion conditions.

  19. An Inertial and Optical Sensor Fusion Approach for Six Degree-of-Freedom Pose Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyu He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical tracking provides relatively high accuracy over a large workspace but requires line-of-sight between the camera and the markers, which may be difficult to maintain in actual applications. In contrast, inertial sensing does not require line-of-sight but is subject to drift, which may cause large cumulative errors, especially during the measurement of position. To handle cases where some or all of the markers are occluded, this paper proposes an inertial and optical sensor fusion approach in which the bias of the inertial sensors is estimated when the optical tracker provides full six degree-of-freedom (6-DOF pose information. As long as the position of at least one marker can be tracked by the optical system, the 3-DOF position can be combined with the orientation estimated from the inertial measurements to recover the full 6-DOF pose information. When all the markers are occluded, the position tracking relies on the inertial sensors that are bias-corrected by the optical tracking system. Experiments are performed with an augmented reality head-mounted display (ARHMD that integrates an optical tracking system (OTS and inertial measurement unit (IMU. Experimental results show that under partial occlusion conditions, the root mean square errors (RMSE of orientation and position are 0.04° and 0.134 mm, and under total occlusion conditions for 1 s, the orientation and position RMSE are 0.022° and 0.22 mm, respectively. Thus, the proposed sensor fusion approach can provide reliable 6-DOF pose under long-term partial occlusion and short-term total occlusion conditions.

  20. Inertial Response of an Offshore Wind Power Plant with HVDC-VSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preciado, V.; Gevorgian, Vahan; Muljadi, Eduard; Madrigal, M.

    2017-01-05

    This paper analyzes the inertial response of an offshore wind power plant (WPP) to provide ancillary services to the power system grid. The WPP is connected to a high-voltage direct-current voltage source converter HVDC-VSC to deliver the power to the onshore substation. The wind turbine generator (WTG) used is a doubly-fed induction generator (Type 3 WTG). In this paper we analyze a control method for the WTGs in an offshore WPP to support the grid and contribute ancillary services to the power system network. Detailed time domain simulations will be conducted to show the transient behavior of the inertial response of an offshore WPP.

  1. Cavitation Generated by Amplitude Modulated HIFU: Investigation on the Inertial Cavitation Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Bruno; Saletes, Izella; Béra, Jean-Christophe

    2007-05-01

    An experimental investigation on cavitation threshold was carried out in order to compare monochromatic and dichromatic ultrasound excitations in their ability to generate inertial cavitation on a target. Using a cavitation activity spectral criterion, a precise inertial cavitation threshold could be extracted in every case considered. The results showed that these thresholds could be very different depending on the type of excitation used. More precisely, for the parameters investigated in the present study, the ratio between monochromatic and dichromatic thresholds decreased when cavitation thresholds are increased. The potential application of this study to purely ultrasonic thrombolysis is discussed.

  2. AFTI/SITAN (Advanced Fighter Technology Integration/Sandia Inertial Terrain-Aided Navigation) final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellerhoff, J.R.

    1988-11-01

    Sandia Inertial Terrain-Aided Navigation (SITAN) provides continuous position fixes to an inertial navigation system (INS) by real-time comparison of radar altimeter ground clearance measurements with stored digital terrain elevation data (DTED). This is accomplished by using an extended Kalman filter algorithm to estimate the errors in the reference trajectory provided by an INS. In this report, Sandia National Laboratories documents the results of a reimbursable effort funded by the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFWAL) Avionics Laboratory to flight test SITAN as implemented onboard the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI)F-16. 5 refs., 101 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Ultrahigh-Speed Dynamics of Micrometer-Scale Inertial Cavitation from Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, J. J.; Lajoinie, G.; de Jong, N.; Stride, E.; Versluis, M.; Coussios, C. C.

    2016-10-01

    Direct imaging of cavitation from solid nanoparticles has been a challenge due to the combined nanosized length and time scales involved. We report on high-speed microscopic imaging of inertial cavitation from gas trapped on nanoparticles with a tunable hemispherical depression (nanocups) at nanosecond time scales. The high-speed recordings establish that nanocups facilitate bubble growth followed by inertial collapse. Nanoparticle size, acoustic pressure amplitude, and frequency influence bubble dynamics and are compared to model predictions. Understanding these cavitation dynamics is critical for applications enhanced by acoustic cavitation.

  4. Concentration of near-inertial waves in anticyclones: an energetic argument

    CERN Document Server

    Danioux, Eric; Bühler, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    An overlooked conservation law for near-inertial waves propagating in a background flow provides a new perspective on the concentration of these waves in regions of anticyclonic vorticity. The conservation law implies that this concentration is a direct consequence of the decrease in spatial scales and associated increase in potential energy experienced by an initially homogeneous wave field. Scaling arguments and numerical simulations of a reduced-gravity model of mixed-layer near-inertial waves confirm this interpretation and elucidate the influence of the strength of the background flow relative to the dispersion.

  5. A robust optical/inertial data fusion system for motion tracking of the robot manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie CHEN; Can-jun YANG; Jens HOFSCHULTE; Wan-li JIANG; Cha ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    We present an optical/inertial data fusion system for motion tracking of the robot manipulator, which is proved to be more robust and accurate than a normal optical tracking system (OTS). By data fusion with an inertial measurement unit (IMU), both robustness and accuracy of OTS are improved. The Kalman filter is used in data fusion. The error distribution of OTS pro-vides an important reference on the estimation of measurement noise using the Kalman filter. With a proper setup of the system and an effective method of coordinate frame synchronization, the results of experiments show a significant improvement in terms of robustness and position accuracy.

  6. Improving power output of inertial energy harvesters by employing principal component analysis of input acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilek, Jan; Hadas, Zdenek

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we propose the use of principal component analysis to process the measured acceleration data in order to determine the direction of acceleration with the highest variance on given frequency of interest. This method can be used for improving the power generated by inertial energy harvesters. Their power output is highly dependent on the excitation acceleration magnitude and frequency, but the axes of acceleration measurements might not always be perfectly aligned with the directions of movement, and therefore the generated power output might be severely underestimated in simulations, possibly leading to false conclusions about the feasibility of using the inertial energy harvester for the examined application.

  7. Error Modeling, Calibration, and Nonlinear Interpolation Compensation Method of Ring Laser Gyroscope Inertial Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the precision of Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS and reduce the complexity of the traditional calibration method, a novel calibration and compensation scheme is proposed. An optimization calibration method with four-direction rotations is designed to calculate all error coefficients of Ring Laser Gyroscope (RLG SINS in a series of constant temperatures. According to the actual working environment, the temperature errors of RLG SINS are compensated by a nonlinear interpolation compensation algorithm. The experimental results show that the inertial navigation errors of the proposed method are reduced.

  8. Inertial Sensor-Based Two Feet Motion Tracking for Gait Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Nhat Hung

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two feet motion is estimated for gait analysis. An inertial sensor is attached on each shoe and an inertial navigation algorithm is used to estimate the movement of both feet. To correct inter-shoe position error, a camera is installed on the right shoe and infrared LEDs are installed on the left shoe. The proposed system gives key gait analysis parameters such as step length, stride length, foot angle and walking speed. Also it gives three dimensional trajectories of two feet for gait analysis.

  9. Inertial sensor-based two feet motion tracking for gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tran Nhat; Suh, Young Soo

    2013-04-29

    Two feet motion is estimated for gait analysis. An inertial sensor is attached on each shoe and an inertial navigation algorithm is used to estimate the movement of both feet. To correct inter-shoe position error, a camera is installed on the right shoe and infrared LEDs are installed on the left shoe. The proposed system gives key gait analysis parameters such as step length, stride length, foot angle and walking speed. Also it gives three dimensional trajectories of two feet for gait analysis.

  10. Materials Research for Advanced Inertial Instrumentation. Task 2. Gas Bearing Material Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    AD-RA4e 435 MATERIALS RESEARCH FOR ADVANCED INERTIAL 1/i INSTRUMENTATION TASK 2 GAS BERRI..(U) CHARLES STARK DRAPER LAB INC CAMBRIDGE MR K KUMAR ET...I.25.2 - U-2 1Ŗ AmsaŚ MATERIALS RESEARCH FOR ADVANCE- INERTIAL INSTRUMENTATION TASK 2: GAS BEAR ING MATERIAL F4., FEBRUARY 1984". 414 K . KUMAR...HNEWBORN’ DAS 1 4 -r~ edfor fte Office of N w ta rdv mapch ~~ppr~vedfor public rele..; distribution ea- . . " 0*sinis granted to U.S. Govemn pr~t in

  11. Free inertial modes in differentially rotating convective envelopes of low-mass stars : numerical exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Guenel, M; Mathis, S; Rieutord, M

    2015-01-01

    Tidally-excited inertial waves in stellar convective regions are a key mechanism for tidal dissipation in stars and therefore the evolution of close-in binary or planetary systems. As a first step, we explore here the impact of latitudinal differential rotation on the properties of free inertial modes and identify the different families of modes. We show that they differ from the case of solid-body rotation. Using an analytical approach as well as numerical calculations, we conclude that critical layers (where the Doppler-shifted frequency vanishes) could play a very important role for tidal dissipation.

  12. MicroASC instrument onboard Juno spacecraft utilizing inertially controlled imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Arge Klevang; Jørgensen, Andreas Härstedt; Benn, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    This contribution describes the post-processing of the raw image data acquired by the microASC instrument during the Earth-fly-by of the Juno spacecraft. The images show a unique view of the Earth and Moon system as seen from afar. The procedure utilizes attitude measurements and inter......-calibration of the Camera Head Units of the microASC system to trigger the image capturing. The triggering is synchronized with the inertial attitude and rotational phase of the sensor acquiring the images. This is essentially works as inertially controlled imaging facilitating image acquisition from unexplored...

  13. On power flow suppression in straight elastic pipes by use of equally spaced eccentric inertial attachments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey; Holst-Jensen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    of the problem in vibrations of this structure. The power flow analysis in a pipe with and without equally spaced eccentric inertial attachments is performed and the effect of suppression of the energy transmission is demonstrated theoretically. These results are put in the context of predictions from......The paper addresses the power flow suppression in an elastic beam of the tubular cross section (a pipe) at relatively low excitation frequencies by deploying a small number of equally spaced inertial attachments. The methodology of boundary integral equations is used to obtain an exact solution...

  14. Perceptual scaling of visual and inertial cues: Effects of field of view, image size, depth cues, and degree of freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia Grácio, B.J.; Bos, J.E.; Paassen, M.M. van; Mulder, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the field of motion-based simulation, it was found that a visual amplitude equal to the inertial amplitude does not always provide the best perceived match between visual and inertial motion. This result is thought to be caused by the "quality" of the motion cues delivered by the simulator motion

  15. A New Inertial Aid Method for High Dynamic Compass Signal Tracking Based on a Nonlinear Tracking Differentiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqi Wu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Compass/INS integrated navigation systems, feedback inertial navigation solutions to baseband tracking loops may eliminate receiver dynamic effects, and effectively improve the tracking accuracy and sensitivity. In the conventional inertially-aided tracking loop, the satellite-receiver line-of-sight velocity is used directly to adjust local carrier frequency. However, if the inertial solution drifts, the phase tracking error will be enlarged. By using Kalman filter based carrier phase tracking loop, this paper introduces a new inertial aid method, in which the line-of-sight jerk obtained from inertial acceleration by a nonlinear tracking differentiator is used to adjust relevant parameters of the Kalman filter’s process noise matrix. Validation is achieved through high dynamic Compass B3 signal with line-of-sight jerk of 10 g/s collected by a GNSS simulator. Experimental results indicate that the new inertial aid method proposed in this paper is free of the impact of the receiver dynamic and inertial errors. Therefore, when the integrated navigation system is starting or re-tracking after losing lock, the inertial error is absent from the navigation solution correction that induces large drift, and the new aid method proposed in this paper can track highly dynamic signals.

  16. A new inertial aid method for high dynamic Compass signal tracking based on a nonlinear tracking differentiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yao; Wu, Wenqi; Tang, Kanghua

    2012-01-01

    In Compass/INS integrated navigation systems, feedback inertial navigation solutions to baseband tracking loops may eliminate receiver dynamic effects, and effectively improve the tracking accuracy and sensitivity. In the conventional inertially-aided tracking loop, the satellite-receiver line-of-sight velocity is used directly to adjust local carrier frequency. However, if the inertial solution drifts, the phase tracking error will be enlarged. By using Kalman filter based carrier phase tracking loop, this paper introduces a new inertial aid method, in which the line-of-sight jerk obtained from inertial acceleration by a nonlinear tracking differentiator is used to adjust relevant parameters of the Kalman filter's process noise matrix. Validation is achieved through high dynamic Compass B3 signal with line-of-sight jerk of 10 g/s collected by a GNSS simulator. Experimental results indicate that the new inertial aid method proposed in this paper is free of the impact of the receiver dynamic and inertial errors. Therefore, when the integrated navigation system is starting or re-tracking after losing lock, the inertial error is absent from the navigation solution correction that induces large drift, and the new aid method proposed in this paper can track highly dynamic signals.

  17. Global exponential stability of inertial memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delays and impulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Tingwen; He, Xing; Li, Chuandong

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we investigate the global exponential stability of inertial memristor-based neural networks with impulses and time-varying delays. We construct inertial memristor-based neural networks based on the characteristics of the inertial neural networks and memristor. Impulses with and without delays are considered when modeling the inertial neural networks simultaneously, which are of great practical significance in the current study. Some sufficient conditions are derived under the framework of the Lyapunov stability method, as well as an extended Halanay differential inequality and a new delay impulsive differential inequality, which depend on impulses with and without delays, in order to guarantee the global exponential stability of the inertial memristor-based neural networks. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Species concepts and species delimitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Queiroz, Kevin

    2007-12-01

    The issue of species delimitation has long been confused with that of species conceptualization, leading to a half century of controversy concerning both the definition of the species category and methods for inferring the boundaries and numbers of species. Alternative species concepts agree in treating existence as a separately evolving metapopulation lineage as the primary defining property of the species category, but they disagree in adopting different properties acquired by lineages during the course of divergence (e.g., intrinsic reproductive isolation, diagnosability, monophyly) as secondary defining properties (secondary species criteria). A unified species concept can be achieved by treating existence as a separately evolving metapopulation lineage as the only necessary property of species and the former secondary species criteria as different lines of evidence (operational criteria) relevant to assessing lineage separation. This unified concept of species has several consequences for species delimitation, including the following: First, the issues of species conceptualization and species delimitation are clearly separated; the former secondary species criteria are no longer considered relevant to species conceptualization but only to species delimitation. Second, all of the properties formerly treated as secondary species criteria are relevant to species delimitation to the extent that they provide evidence of lineage separation. Third, the presence of any one of the properties (if appropriately interpreted) is evidence for the existence of a species, though more properties and thus more lines of evidence are associated with a higher degree of corroboration. Fourth, and perhaps most significantly, a unified species concept shifts emphasis away from the traditional species criteria, encouraging biologists to develop new methods of species delimitation that are not tied to those properties.

  19. Gyroscope-reduced inertial navigation system for flight vehicle motion estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Xiao, Lu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel configuration of strategically distributed accelerometer sensors with the aid of one gyro to infer a flight vehicle's angular motion is presented. The MEMS accelerometer and gyro sensors are integrated to form a gyroscope-reduced inertial measurement unit (GR-IMU). The motivation for gyro aided accelerometers array is to have direct measurements of angular rates, which is an improvement to the traditional gyroscope-free inertial system that employs only direct measurements of specific force. Some technical issues regarding error calibration in accelerometers and gyro in GR-IMU are put forward. The GR-IMU based inertial navigation system can be used to find a complete attitude solution for flight vehicle motion estimation. Results of numerical simulation are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed configuration. The gyroscope-reduced inertial navigation system based on distributed accelerometer sensors can be developed into a cost effective solution for a fast reaction, MEMS based motion capture system. Future work will include the aid from external navigation references (e.g. GPS) to improve long time mission performance.

  20. Inertial effects on thin-film wave structures with imposed surface shear on an inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapuratharasu, M.; Hibberd, S.; Hubbard, M. E.; Power, H.

    2016-06-01

    This study provides an extended approach to the mathematical simulation of thin-film flow on a flat inclined plane relevant to flows subject to high surface shear. Motivated by modelling thin-film structures within an industrial context, wave structures are investigated for flows with moderate inertial effects and small film depth aspect ratio ε. Approximations are made assuming a Reynolds number, Re ∼ O(ε-1) and depth-averaging used to simplify the governing Navier-Stokes equations. A parallel Stokes flow is expected in the absence of any wave disturbance and a generalisation for the flow is based on a local quadratic profile. This approach provides a more general system which includes inertial effects and is solved numerically. Flow structures are compared with studies for Stokes flow in the limit of negligible inertial effects. Both two-tier and three-tier wave disturbances are used to study film profile evolution. A parametric study is provided for wave disturbances with increasing film Reynolds number. An evaluation of standing wave and transient film profiles is undertaken and identifies new profiles not previously predicted when inertial effects are neglected.