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Sample records for multiple-beam irradiated al

  1. Irradiation uniformity of spherical targets by multiple uv beams from OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beich, W.; Dunn, M.; Hutchison, R.

    1984-01-01

    Direct-drive laser fusion demands extremely high levels of irradiation uniformity to ensure uniform compression of spherical targets. The assessment of illumination uniformity of targets irradiated by multiple beams from the OMEGA facility is made with the aid of multiple beams spherical superposition codes, which take into account ray tracing and absorption and a detailed knowledge of the intensity distribution of each beam in the target plane. In this report, recent estimates of the irradiation uniformity achieved with 6 and 12 uv beams of OMEGA will be compared with previous measurements in the IR, and predictions will be made for the uv illumination uniformity achievable with 24 beams of OMEGA

  2. X-ray luminescence computed tomography imaging via multiple intensity weighted narrow beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bo; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Huijuan; Zhang, Limin; Li, Jiao; Zhou, Zhongxing

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to introduce and study a novel x-ray beam irradiation pattern for X-ray Luminescence Computed Tomography (XLCT), termed multiple intensity-weighted narrow-beam irradiation. The proposed XLCT imaging method is studied through simulations of x-ray and diffuse lights propagation. The emitted optical photons from X-ray excitable nanophosphors were collected by optical fiber bundles from the right-side surface of the phantom. The implementation of image reconstruction is based on the simulated measurements from 6 or 12 angular projections in terms of 3 or 5 x-ray beams scanning mode. The proposed XLCT imaging method is compared against the constant intensity weighted narrow-beam XLCT. From the reconstructed XLCT images, we found that the Dice similarity and quantitative ratio of targets have a certain degree of improvement. The results demonstrated that the proposed method can offer simultaneously high image quality and fast image acquisition.

  3. Impact of neutron irradiation on mechanical performance of FeCrAl alloy laser-beam weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussev, M. N.; Cakmak, E.; Field, K. G.

    2018-06-01

    Oxidation-resistant iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys demonstrate better performance in Loss-of-Coolant Accidents, compared with austenitic- and zirconium-based alloys. However, further deployment of FeCrAl-based materials requires detailed characterization of their performance under irradiation; moreover, since welding is one of the key operations in fabrication of light water reactor fuel cladding, FeCrAl alloy weldment performance and properties also should be determined prior to and after irradiation. Here, advanced C35M alloy (Fe-13%Cr-5%Al) and variants with aluminum (+2%) or titanium carbide (+1%) additions were characterized after neutron irradiation in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor at 1.8-1.9 dpa in a temperature range of 195-559 °C. Specimen sets included as-received (AR) materials and specimens after controlled laser-beam welding. Tensile tests with digital image correlation (DIC), scanning electron microscopy-electron back scatter diffraction analysis, fractography, and x-ray tomography analysis were performed. DIC allowed for investigating local yield stress in the weldments, deformation hardening behavior, and plastic anisotropy. Both AR and welded material revealed a high degree of radiation-induced hardening for low-temperature irradiation; however, irradiation at high-temperatures (i.e., 559 °C) had little overall effect on the mechanical performance.

  4. Isothermal oxidation behaviour of thermal barrier coatings with CoCrAlY bond coat irradiated by high-current pulsed electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Guan, Qingfeng, E-mail: guanqf@mail.ujs.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Hou, Xiuli [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wang, Zhiping; Su, Jingxin; Han, Zhiyong [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • The original coarse surface was re-melted by pulsed electron beam irradiation. • Very fine grains were homogeneously dispersed on the irradiated coat surface. • A compact Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale was formed in irradiated TBCs at the onset of oxidation. • The selective oxidation of Al element avoided the formation of other oxides. • The irradiated coating has a much higher oxidation resistance. - Abstract: Thermal sprayed CoCrAlY bond coat irradiated by high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) and thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) prepared with the irradiated bond coat and the ceramic top coat were investigated. The high temperature oxidation resistance of these specimens was tested at 1050 °C in air. Microstructure observations revealed that the original coarse surface of the as-sprayed bond coat was significantly changed as the interconnected bulged nodules with a compact appearance after HCPEB irradiation. Abundant Y-rich alumina particulates and very fine grains were dispersed on the irradiated surface. After high temperature oxidation test, the thermally grown oxide (TGO) in the initial TBCs grew rapidly and was comprised of two distinct layers: a large percentage of mixed oxides in the outer layer and a relatively small portion of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the inner layer. Severe local internal oxidation and extensive cracks in the TGO layer were discovered as well. Comparatively, the irradiated TBCs exhibited thinner TGO layer, slower TGO growth rate, and homogeneous TGO composition (primarily consisting of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The results indicate that TBCs with the irradiated bond coat have a much higher oxidation resistance.

  5. Preparation of nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/polyethylene separator crosslinked by electron beam irradiation for lithium secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Young-Chang; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shin, Junhwa; Park, Jong-Seok; Lim, Yoon-Mook; Kang, Phil-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Although micro-porous membranes made of polyethylene (PE) offer excellent mechanical strength and chemical stability, they exhibit large thermal shrinkage at high temperature, which causes a short circuit between positive and negative electrodes in cases of unusual heat generation. We tried to develop a new technology to reduce the thermal shrinkage of PE separators by introducing γ-Al2O3 particles treated with coupling agent on PE separators. Nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators were prepared by the dip coating of polyethylene(PE) separators in γ-Al2O3/poly(vinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/crosslinker (1,3,5-trially-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1 H,3 H,5 H)-trione (TTT) solution with humidity control followed by electron beam irradiation. γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT (95/5/2)-coated PE separator showed the highest electrolyte uptake (157%) and ionic conductivity (1.3 mS/cm). On the basis of the thermal shrinkage test, the nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators containing TTT irradiated by electron beam exhibited a higher thermal resistance. Moreover, a linear sweep voltammetry test showed that the irradiated nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators have electrochemical stabilities of up to 5.0 V. In a battery performance test, the coin cell assembled with γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT-coated PE separator showed excellent discharge cycle performance.

  6. Tuning of Schottky barrier height of Al/n-Si by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vali, Indudhar Panduranga [Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Shetty, Pramoda Kumara, E-mail: pramod.shetty@manipal.edu [Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Mahesha, M.G. [Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Petwal, V.C.; Dwivedi, Jishnu [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India, Indore 452012 (India); Choudhary, R.J. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Tuning of Schottky barrier height has been achieved by electron beam irradiation at different doses on n-Si wafer prior to the fabrication of Schottky contact. • The XPS analyses have shown irradiation induced defects and the formation of several localized chemical states in Si/SiOx interface that influences the Schottky barrier height. • High ideality factor indicates metal-insulator-semiconductor configuration of the Schottky diode and the inhomogeneous nature of the Schottky barrier height. • The modifications in I–V characteristics have been observed as a function of electron dose. This is caused due to changes in the Schottky diode parameters and different transport mechanisms. - Abstract: The effect of electron beam irradiation (EBI) on Al/n-Si Schottky diode has been studied by I–V characterization at room temperature. The behavior of the metal-semiconductor (MS) interface is analyzed by means of variations in the MS contact parameters such as, Schottky barrier height (Φ{sub B}), ideality factor (n) and series resistance (R{sub s}). These parameters were found to depend on the EBI dose having a fixed incident beam of energy 7.5 MeV. At different doses (500, 1000, 1500 kGy) of EBI, the Schottky contacts were prepared and extracted their contact parameters by applying thermionic emission and Cheung models. Remarkably, the tuning of Φ{sub B} was observed as a function of EBI dose. The improved n with increased Φ{sub B} is seen for all the EBI doses. As a consequence of which the thermionic emission is more favored. However, the competing transport mechanisms such as space charge limited emission, tunneling and tunneling through the trap states were ascribed due to n > 1. The analysis of XPS spectra have shown the presence of native oxide and increased radiation induced defect states. The thickness variation in the MS interface contributing to Schottky contact behavior is discussed. This study explains a new technique to tune

  7. Structure and properties of combined coatings on C (graphite)/Al/Al2O3 base after Ti ion implantation with subsequent electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogrebnjak, A.D.; Pogrebnjak, N.A.; Gritsenko, B.P.; Kylyshkanov, M.K.; Ruzimov, Sh.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The presented report deals with new results on deposition of combined coatings using Al metallization (by a plasma jet) and micro-arc (discharge) Al oxidation. After this, the coating was implanted by Ti ions with 5·10 I7 cm -2 dose (60 and 90 kV and about 200 μs duration). One series of samples with such coatings was irradiated using the accelerator Y-112 by an electron beam in melting regime (two regimes). Analysis of the structure and element composition was performed using SIMS, RBS, SEM with micro-analysis (WDS), XRD as well as measurements of microhardness, wear and adhesion. It had been demonstrated that the coating was able to sustain very high temperatures and oxidation medium. However, after electron beam irradiation temperature resistance decreased because the oxide coating was melted almost to the graphite surface. The work was funded by the Project of NANU 'Nanosystems, nanomaterials and nanotechnology'

  8. Conduction mechanism in electron beam irradiated Al/n-Si Schottky diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vali, Indudhar Panduranga; Shetty, Pramoda Kumara; Mahesha, M.G.; Petwal, V.C.

    2016-01-01

    In the high energy physics experiments, silicon based diodes are used to fabricate radiation detector to detect the charged particles. The Schottky barrier diodes have been studied extensively to understand the behavior of metal semiconductor interface, since such interfaces have been utilized as typical contacts in silicon devices. Because of surface states, interfacial layer, microscopic clusters of metal-semiconductor phases and other effects, it is difficult to fabricate junctions with barriers near the ideal values predicted from the work functions of the two isolated materials, therefore measured barrier heights are used in the device design. In this work, the Al/n-Si Schottky contacts are employed to study the diode parameters (Schottky barrier height and ideality factor), where the Schottky contacts were fabricated on electron beam irradiated silicon wafers. The interface behavior between electron irradiated Si wafer and post metal deposition is so far not reported. This method could be an alternative way to tailor the Schottky barrier height (SBH) without subjecting semiconductor sample to pre chemical and/or post heat treatments during fabrication

  9. Thermoluminescence properties of Al2O3:Tb nanoparticles irradiated by gamma rays and 85 MeV C6+ ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah, Numan; Alharbi, Najlaa D.; Habib, Sami S.; Lochab, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon ions beam is recently recognized as an ideal cancer treatment modality, because of its excellent local tumor control. These ions have a high relative biological effectiveness resulting from high linear energy transfer (LET) and their sharp Bragg peak. However, the dose of those energetic ions needs to be measured with great precision using a proper dosimeter. Aluminum Oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) is a highly luminescent phosphor widely used for radiation dosimetry using thermoluminesence (TL) technique. In this work nanoparticles of this material activated by different elements like Eu, Tb, Dy, Cu and Ag were evaluated for their TL response to gamma rays irradiation. Tb doped sample is found to be the most sensitive sample, which could be selected for exposure to 85 MeV C 6+ ion beam in the fluence range 10 9 –10 13 ions/cm 2 . The obtained result shows that C ion beam irradiated sample has a simple glow curve structure with a prominent glow peak at around 230 °C. This glow curve has a dosimetric peak better than those induced by gamma rays. This glow peak exhibits a linear response in the range 10 9 –10 11 ions/cm 2 , corresponding to the equivalent absorbed doses 0.285–28.5 kGy. The absorbed doses, penetration depths and main energy loss were calculated using TRIM code based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The wide linear response of Al 2 O 3 :Tb nanoparticles along with the low fading makes this low cost nanomaterial a good candidate for C ion beam dosimetry. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of Al 2 O 3 doped with Eu, Tb, Dy, Cu and Ag were synthesised. • They were evaluated for their TL response to gamma rays and C ion beam irradiation. • Tb doped sample is the most sensitive sample to gamma rays. • Al 2 O 3 :Tb was exposed to 85 MeV C 6+ ion beam in the fluence range 10 9 -10 13 ions/cm 2 . • The glow peak induced by C ions has a linear response in the range 10 9 -10 11 ions/cm 2

  10. Surface Microstructure of Nanoaluminized CoCrAlY Coating Irradiated by HCPEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermal sprayed CoCrAlY coating was prepared by air plasma spray on the surface of Ni-based superalloy GH4169; then, a nanoscale aluminum film was deposited with electron beam vacuum deposition on it. The coatings irradiated by high-current pulsed electron beam were investigated. After HCPEB treatment, the Al film was remelted into the bond coat. XRD result shows that Al and Al2O3 phase were recorded in the irradiated and aluminized coatings, while Co-based oxides which originally existed in the initial samples disappeared. Microstructure observations reveal that the original coating with porosity, cavities, and inclusions was significantly changed after HCPEB treatment as compact appearance of interconnected bulged nodules. Moreover, the grains on the irradiated coating were very refined and homogeneously dispersed on the surface, which could effectively inhibit the corrosive gases and improve the coating oxidation resistance.

  11. Anisotropic dislocation loop nucleation in ion-irradiated MgAl2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Polycrystalline disks of stoichiometric magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) were irradiated with 2 MeV Al + ions at 650 degrees C and subsequently analyzed in cross-section using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Interstitial dislocation loops were observed on 110 and 11 habit planes. The population of loops on both sets of habit planes was strongly dependent on their orientation with respect to the ion beam direction. The density of loops with habit plane normals nearly perpendicular to the ion beam direction much higher than loops with habit plane normals nearly parallel to the ion beam direction. On the other hand, the loop size was nearly independent of habit plane orientation. This anisotropic loop nucleation does not occur in ion-irradiated metals such as copper. An additional anomaly associated with ion-irradiated spinel is that the loops on 111 planes were partially unfaulted with a Burgers vector of b = a/4 . Previous neutron irradiation studies have never reported unfaulted loops in stoichiometric spinel. Possible cause of the unusual response of spinel to ion irradiation are discussed. 12 refs., 14 figs

  12. Surface flashover performance of epoxy resin microcomposites improved by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yin; Min, Daomin [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Li, Shengtao, E-mail: stli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Li, Zhen; Xie, Dongri [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Xuan [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and its Application, Ministry of Education, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China); Lin, Shengjun [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Pinggao Group Company Ltd., State Grid High Voltage Switchgear Insulation Materials Laboratory, Pingdingshan 467001 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Epoxy resin microcomposites were irradiated by electron beam with energies of 10 and 20 keV. • Surface flashover voltage increase with the increase of electron beam energy. • Both the untreated and irradiated samples have two trap centers, which are labeled as shallow and deep traps. • Deposition energy in epoxy resin microcomposites increases with electron beam energy, and surface trap properties are determined by deposition energy. • The influence of surface conductivity and trap distribution on flashover voltage is discussed. - Abstract: The influencing mechanism of electron beam irradiation on surface flashover of epoxy resin/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} microcomposite was investigated. Epoxy resin/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} microcomposite samples with a diameter of 50 mm and a thickness of 1 mm were prepared. The samples were irradiated by electron beam with energies of 10 and 20 keV and a beam current of 5 μA for 5 min. Surface potential decay, surface conduction, and surface flashover properties of untreated and irradiated samples were measured. Both the decay rate of surface potential and surface conductivity decrease with an increase in the energy of electron beam. Meanwhile, surface flashover voltage increase. It was found that both the untreated and irradiated samples have two trap centers, which are labeled as shallow and deep traps. The increase in the energy and density of deep surface traps enhance the ability to capture primary emitted electrons. In addition, the decrease in surface conductivity blocks electron emission at the cathode triple junction. Therefore, electron avalanche at the interface between gas and an insulating material would be suppressed, eventually improving surface flashover voltage of epoxy resin microcomposites.

  13. Time-resolved x-ray line emission studies of thermal transport in multiple beam uv-irradiated targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaanimagi, P.A.; Henke, B.L.; Delettrez, J.; Richardson, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal transport in spherical targets irradiated with multiple, nanosecond duration laser beams, has been a topic of much discussion recently. Different inferences on the level of thermal flux inhibition have been drawn from plasma velocity and x-ray spectroscopic diagnostics. We present new measurements of thermal transport on spherical targets made through time-resolved x-ray spectroscopic measurements of the progress of the ablation surface through thin layers of material on the surface of the target. These measurements, made with 6 and 12 uv (351 nm) nanosecond beams from OMEGA, will be compared to previous thermal transport measurements. Transparencies of the conference presentation are given

  14. Apparatus for irradiation with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, K.; Ito, A.; Nishimune, K.; Fujita, K.

    1976-01-01

    An irradiation apparatus with high energy electrons is disclosed in which a wire shaped or linear object to be irradiated is moved back and forth many times under an electron window so as to irradiate it with an electron beam. According to one feature of the invention, an electron beam, which leaks through gaps between the objects to be irradiated or which penetrates the objects to be irradiated, is reversed by a magnetic field approximately perpendicular to the scanning face of the electron beam by means of a magnet which is disposed under the objects to be irradiated, and the reversed electron beam is thereby again applied to the objects to be irradiated. A high utilization rate of the electron beam is accomplished, and the objects can be thereby uniformly irradiated with the electron beam. 4 claims, 6 drawing figures

  15. Thermal self-focusing with multiple beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.; McCrory, R.L.

    1986-07-01

    Self-focusing in underdense plasmas in the presence of overlapping beams is of interest for multibeam laser-irradiation systems. The hydrodynamics/ray-tracing simulation code SAGE is used to model thermal self-focusing in two-dimensional line-focus geometry with beams incident obliquely at different angles. The conjecture that multiple overlapping beams may suppress self-focusing is investigated for parameters appropriate to reactor-sized targets; in particular, the dependence upon intensity, scale length and pulse width is examined. While the full problem is three-dimensional, insight may be gained from two-dimensional simulations

  16. Determination of the electron beam irradiated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarbout, K.; Kallel, A.; Moya, G.

    2005-01-01

    The investigation of the charge trapping properties of non-conductive materials open the way to an understanding of the degradation of their characteristics due to ageing and catastrophic phenomena, such as breakdown, which originate from the rapid relaxation of trapped charges. The defects, in particular those introduced during the fabrication process, are responsible for the charging phenomena which limit the technological performances and the reliability of these materials. Several characterisation techniques have been developed and among them the one which uses the electron beam of the scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The study of the charge trapping properties in non-conductive solids by using the electron beam of a SEM requires the knowledge of the current beam and injected charges densities. These densities depend on the irradiated sample area. For this reason, we report in this work two experimental procedures allowing a direct determination of the irradiated area size by the incident defocused beam. The first is based on the charging effect of oxide surfaces (SiO2, MgO, AL2O3) and the second is derived from the electron beam lithography technique. The latter procedure constitutes a convenient experimental method

  17. Parametric oesophageal multiple swallow scintigraphy for validation of dysphageal symptoms during external beam irradiation of mediastinal tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt-Mainz, K.; Eising, E.G.; Bockisch, A. [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Mallek, D. von; Poettgen, C.; Stuschke, M.; Sack, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate dysphageal symptoms and to measure the effect of local analgesic treatment using parametric oesophageal multiple swallow scintigraphy (PES) during external beam irradiation of the mediastinal region. Fifteen patients (most with lung cancer) with dysphagia grade II underwent PES during external beam radiotherapy of the mediastinum before and after application of local analgesics. Dynamic parametric condensed images were recorded. The intensity of clinical symptoms was correlated with the emptying rate at 10 s (ER-10 s) and the mean transit time (MTT). Visual analysis of the images was performed and the results were correlated with the fields of irradiation portals. Of the 15 patients, 12 showed a correlation between irradiation portals and the region of oesophageal motility disorder. Concordant results of clinical symptoms and PES data were found. In nine patients with a decrease in dysphagia following local analgesia, an increase in mean ER-10 s and a decrease in MTT were observed. In three patients with deterioration in clinical symptoms after analgesic treatment, a similar decrease in mean ER-10 s was found, though MTT remained constant. In three patients with normal values, motility disorders were detected in the dynamic study. In conclusion, PES was found to be a sensitive tool for the validation of dysphageal symptoms in patients during external beam irradiation of mediastinal tumours and for the evaluation and quantification of the efficacy of local analgesic treatment. Additional visual analysis of the dynamic study is helpful in diagnosing minimal disorders. (orig.)

  18. Parametric oesophageal multiple swallow scintigraphy for validation of dysphageal symptoms during external beam irradiation of mediastinal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt-Mainz, K.; Eising, E.G.; Bockisch, A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate dysphageal symptoms and to measure the effect of local analgesic treatment using parametric oesophageal multiple swallow scintigraphy (PES) during external beam irradiation of the mediastinal region. Fifteen patients (most with lung cancer) with dysphagia grade II underwent PES during external beam radiotherapy of the mediastinum before and after application of local analgesics. Dynamic parametric condensed images were recorded. The intensity of clinical symptoms was correlated with the emptying rate at 10 s (ER-10 s) and the mean transit time (MTT). Visual analysis of the images was performed and the results were correlated with the fields of irradiation portals. Of the 15 patients, 12 showed a correlation between irradiation portals and the region of oesophageal motility disorder. Concordant results of clinical symptoms and PES data were found. In nine patients with a decrease in dysphagia following local analgesia, an increase in mean ER-10 s and a decrease in MTT were observed. In three patients with deterioration in clinical symptoms after analgesic treatment, a similar decrease in mean ER-10 s was found, though MTT remained constant. In three patients with normal values, motility disorders were detected in the dynamic study. In conclusion, PES was found to be a sensitive tool for the validation of dysphageal symptoms in patients during external beam irradiation of mediastinal tumours and for the evaluation and quantification of the efficacy of local analgesic treatment. Additional visual analysis of the dynamic study is helpful in diagnosing minimal disorders. (orig.)

  19. Three-Dimensional FIB/EBSD Characterization of Irradiated HfAl3-Al Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Zilong; Guillen, Donna Post; Harris, William; Ban, Heng

    2016-09-01

    A thermal neutron absorbing material, comprised of 28.4 vol% HfAl3 in an Al matrix, was developed to serve as a conductively cooled thermal neutron filter to enable fast flux materials and fuels testing in a pressurized water reactor. In order to observe the microstructural change of the HfAl3-Al composite due to neutron irradiation, an EBSD-FIB characterization approach is developed and presented in this paper. Using the focused ion beam (FIB), the sample was fabricated to 25µm × 25µm × 20 µm and mounted on the grid. A series of operations were carried out repetitively on the sample top surface to prepare it for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). First, a ~100-nm layer was removed by high voltage FIB milling. Then, several cleaning passes were performed on the newly exposed surface using low voltage FIB milling to improve the SEM image quality. Last, the surface was scanned by Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD) to obtain the two-dimensional image. After 50 to 100 two-dimensional images were collected, the images were stacked to reconstruct a three-dimensional model using DREAM.3D software. Two such reconstructed three-dimensional models were obtained from samples of the original and post-irradiation HfAl3-Al composite respectively, from which the most significant microstructural change caused by neutron irradiation apparently is the size reduction of both HfAl3 and Al grains. The possible reason is the thermal expansion and related thermal strain from the thermal neutron absorption. This technique can be applied to three-dimensional microstructure characterization of irradiated materials.

  20. Electron beam irradiation effect on GaN HEMT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Yinhong; Guo Hongxia; Zhang Keying; Wang Yuanming; Zhang Fengqi

    2011-01-01

    In this work, GaN HEMTs (High Electron Mobility Transistor) were irradiated by 0.8 and 1.2 MeV electron beams, and the irradiation effects were investigated. The results show that the device damage caused by 0.8 MeV electrons is more serious than that by 1.2 MeV electrons. Saturation drain current increase and threshold voltage negative shift are due to trapped positive charge from ionization in the AlGaN layer and N, Ga vacancy from non-ionizing energy loss in the GaN layer. Electron traps and trapped positive charges from non-ionizing in the AlGaN layer act as trap-assisted-tunneling centers that increase the gate leakage current.(authors)

  1. Removing roughness on metal surface by irradiation of intense short-pulsed ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Surface modification of metals with an intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) was studied experimentally. When the temperature rise of metal surfaces by IPIB irradiation exceeds their boiling point, it is found that machining roughness on surfaces is removed. The experiments were performed with the pulsed power generator HARIMA-II at Himeji Institute of Technology. The main components of the ion beam were carbon and fluorine ions. The IPIB was irradiated to metal plates (Al, Cu and Ti) which were placed at the focal point. Machining roughness on Ti surface was removed after IPIB irradiation, while roughness on Al and Cu plates was not removed. Using the present experimental parameters (beam power density: 32 W/cm 2 , pulse width: 25 ns), the temperature rise of the Ti surface was estimated to be 8,100 K which exceed its boiling point (3,000 K). However, the estimated temperatures of Al and Cu surfaces was 2,500 and 1,500 K, respectively, that are less than their boiling points. These studies above suggests that temperature rise over the boiling point of metals is necessary for removing machining roughness on metal surfaces

  2. Tuning the electronic properties of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces by irradiating the LaAlO3 surface with low-energy cluster ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridier, Karl; Aureau, Damien; Bérini, Bruno; Dumont, Yves; Keller, Niels; Vigneron, Jackie; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Domengès, Bernadette; Fouchet, Arnaud

    2018-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of low-energy ion beam irradiations using argon clusters on the chemical and electronic properties of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) heterointerfaces by combining x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrical transport measurements. Due to its unique features, we demonstrate that a short-time cluster ion irradiation of the LAO surface induces significant modifications in the chemical properties of the buried STO substrate with (1) a lowering of Ti atoms oxidation states (from Ti4 + to Ti3 + and Ti2 +) correlated to the formation of oxygen vacancies at the LAO surface and (2) the creation of new surface states for Sr atoms. Contrary to what is generally observed by using higher energy ion beam techniques, this leads to an increase of the electrical conductivity at the LAO/STO interface. Our XPS data clearly reveal the existence of dynamical processes on the titanium and strontium atoms, which compete with the effect of the cluster ion beam irradiation. These relaxation effects are in part attributed to the diffusion of the ion-induced oxygen vacancies in the entire heterostructure since an increase of the interfacial metallicity is also evidenced far from the irradiated area. This paper highlights the possibility of tuning the electrical properties of LAO/STO interfaces by surface engineering, confirming experimentally the intimate connection between LAO chemistry and electronic properties of LAO/STO interfaces.

  3. Thermoluminescence properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb nanoparticles irradiated by gamma rays and 85 MeV C{sup 6+} ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salah, Numan, E-mail: nsalah@kau.edu.sa [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Alharbi, Najlaa D. [Sciences Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Habib, Sami S. [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Lochab, S.P. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Carbon ions beam is recently recognized as an ideal cancer treatment modality, because of its excellent local tumor control. These ions have a high relative biological effectiveness resulting from high linear energy transfer (LET) and their sharp Bragg peak. However, the dose of those energetic ions needs to be measured with great precision using a proper dosimeter. Aluminum Oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is a highly luminescent phosphor widely used for radiation dosimetry using thermoluminesence (TL) technique. In this work nanoparticles of this material activated by different elements like Eu, Tb, Dy, Cu and Ag were evaluated for their TL response to gamma rays irradiation. Tb doped sample is found to be the most sensitive sample, which could be selected for exposure to 85 MeV C{sup 6+} ion beam in the fluence range 10{sup 9}–10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The obtained result shows that C ion beam irradiated sample has a simple glow curve structure with a prominent glow peak at around 230 °C. This glow curve has a dosimetric peak better than those induced by gamma rays. This glow peak exhibits a linear response in the range 10{sup 9}–10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}, corresponding to the equivalent absorbed doses 0.285–28.5 kGy. The absorbed doses, penetration depths and main energy loss were calculated using TRIM code based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The wide linear response of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb nanoparticles along with the low fading makes this low cost nanomaterial a good candidate for C ion beam dosimetry. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped with Eu, Tb, Dy, Cu and Ag were synthesised. • They were evaluated for their TL response to gamma rays and C ion beam irradiation. • Tb doped sample is the most sensitive sample to gamma rays. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb was exposed to 85 MeV C{sup 6+} ion beam in the fluence range 10{sup 9}-10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. • The glow peak induced by C ions has a linear response in the range 10{sup 9

  4. Proton irradiation studies on Al and Al5083 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, P.; Gayathri, N.; Bhattacharya, M.; Gupta, A. Dutta; Sarkar, Apu; Dhar, S.; Mitra, M. K.; Mukherjee, P.

    2017-10-01

    The change in the microstructural parameters and microhardness values in 6.5 MeV proton irradiated pure Al and Al5083 alloy samples have been evaluated using different model based techniques of X-ray diffraction Line Profile Analysis (XRD) and microindendation techniques. The detailed line profile analysis of the XRD data showed that the domain size increases and saturates with irradiation dose both in the case of Al and Al5083 alloy. The corresponding microstrain values did not show any change with irradiation dose in the case of the pure Al but showed an increase at higher irradiation doses in the case of Al5083 alloy. The microindendation results showed that unirradiated Al5083 alloy has higher hardness value compared to that of unirradiated pure Al. The hardness increased marginally with irradiation dose in the case of Al5083, whereas for pure Al, there was no significant change with dose.

  5. Application of electron beam irradiation. 4. Treatment of pollutants by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Okihiro; Arai, Hidehiko

    1994-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation is capable of dissolving and removing pollutants, such as sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and organic compounds, by easy production of OH radicals in flue gas and water. This paper deals with current status in the search for techniques for treating flue gas and waste water, using electron beam irradiation. Pilot tests have been conducted during the period 1991-1994 for the treatment of flue gas caused by coal and garbage burning and road tunnels. Firstly, techniques for cleaning flue gas with electron beams are outlined, with special reference to their characteristics and process of research development. Secondly, the application of electron beam irradiation in the treatment of waste water is described in terms of the following: (1) disinfection of sewage, (2) cleaning of water polluted with toxic organic compounds, (3) treatment for eliminating sewage sludge, (4) promotion of sewage sludge sedimentation, (5) disinfection and composting of sewage sludge, and (6) regeneration of activated carbon used for the treatment of waste water. (N.K.)

  6. Anisotropic dislocation loop nucleation in ion-irradiated MgAl2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    This work is intended to investigate the effects of transmutation products and varying ionizing-to-displacive damage ratio on microstructural evolution in ceramics for fusion machine. Polycrystalline disks of stoichiometric magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) were irradiated with 2 MeV Al + ions at 650C and subsequently analyzed in cross section using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Interstitial dislocation loops were observed on [110] and [111] habit planes. The population of loops on both sets of habit planes was strongly dependent on their orientation with respect to the ion beam direction. The density of loops with habit plane normals nearly perpendicular to the ion beam direction was much higher than loops with habit plane normals nearly parallel to the ion beam direction. On the other hand, the loop size was nearly independent of habit plane orientation. This anisotropic loop nucleation does not occur in ion-irradiated metals such as copper and may be associated with the structure of displacement cascades in ceramics

  7. MeV single-ion beam irradiation of mammalian cells using the Surrey vertical nanobeam, compared with broad proton beam and X-ray irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Jeynes, J.C.G.; Merchant, M.J.; Kirkby, K.; Kirkby, N. [Surrey Ion Beam Center, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Science, University of Surrey, Guildford Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Thopan, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Recently completed nanobeam at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre was used. •3.8-MeV single and broad proton beams irradiated Chinese hamster cells. •Cell survival curves were measured and compared with 300-kV X-ray irradiation. •Single ion irradiation had a lower survival part at ultra-low dose. •It implies hypersensitivity, bystander effect and cell cycle phase of cell death. -- Abstract: As a part of a systematic study on mechanisms involved in physical cancer therapies, this work investigated response of mammalian cells to ultra-low-dose ion beam irradiation. The ion beam irradiation was performed using the recently completed nanobeam facility at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. A scanning focused vertical ion nano-beam was applied to irradiate Chinese hamster V79 cells. The V79 cells were irradiated in two different beam modes, namely, focused single ion beam and defocused scanning broad ion beam of 3.8-MeV protons. The single ion beam was capable of irradiating a single cell with a precisely controlled number of the ions to extremely low doses. After irradiation and cell incubation, the number of surviving colonies as a function of the number of the irradiating ions was measured for the cell survival fraction curve. A lower survival for the single ion beam irradiation than that of the broad beam case implied the hypersensitivity and bystander effect. The ion-beam-induced cell survival curves were compared with that from 300-kV X-ray irradiation. Theoretical studies indicated that the cell death in single ion irradiation mainly occurred in the cell cycle phases of cell division and intervals between the cell division and the DNA replication. The success in the experiment demonstrated the Surrey vertical nanobeam successfully completed.

  8. AECL IMPELA electron beam industrial irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrie, J.P.; Drewell, N.H.; Ebrahim, N.A.; Lawrence, C.B.; Mason, V.A.; Ungrin, J.; White, B.F.

    1989-01-01

    A family of industrial irradiators is being developed by AECL to cover an electron-beam energy range from 5 to 18 MeV at beam powers between 20 and 250 kW. The IMPELA family of irradiators is designed for push button, reliable operation. The major irradiator components are modular, allowing for later upgrades to meet increased demands in either electron or X-ray mode. Interface between the control system, irradiator availability and dose quality assurance is in conformance with the most demanding specifications. The IMPELA irradiators use a klystron-driven, standing-wave, L-band accelerator structure with direct injection from a rugged, triode electron gun. Direct control of the accelerating field during the beam pulse ensures constant output beam energy, independent of beam power. The first member of the family, the IMPELA 10/50 (10 MeV, 50 kW), is in the final stages of assembly at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. The IMPELA 10/50 is constructed around a 3.25 m long, high-power-capacity accelerator structure operated at a duty factor of 5%. Beam loading exceeds 60%. The rf power is provided by a 2 MW/150 kW modulated-anode klystron protected from load mismatches by a circulator. This prototype will be used to demonstrate the reliability and dose uniformity targets of the IMPELA family. Full beam operation of the IMPELA 10/50 is scheduled for early 1989. (orig.)

  9. Determination of cross sections of nuclear reactions to use Al as monitoring foil in heavy ion irradiation with 20Ne projectile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, D.P.; Datta, J.; Guin, R.; Verma, R.

    2009-01-01

    The beam current is generally accurately measured using monitoring foils during the irradiation of thick samples by high energy ion beams. The cross sections of many nuclear reactions induced by light particles are available in literature for use as monitoring foil. However, such cross sections of heavy ion induced reactions are not reported much for their use in applied works. We have determined cross sections of two nuclear reactions, 27 Al ( 20 Ne,2p2n) 43 Sc and 27 Al ( 20 Ne, 2pn) 44m Sc, to use Al as monitoring foil for the irradiation with 20 Ne heavy ion beam. (author)

  10. X-ray diffraction studies of 145MeV proton-irradiated AlBeMet 162

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elbakhshwan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AlBeMet 162 (Materion Co., formerly Brush Wellman has been irradiated with 145MeV protons up to 1.2×1020cm−2 fluence, with irradiation temperatures in the range of 100–220°C. Macroscopic post-irradiation evaluation on the evolution of mechanical and thermal properties was integrated with a comprehensive X-ray- diffraction study using high-energy monochromatic and polychromatic X-ray beams, which offered a microscopic view of the irradiation damage effects on AlBeMet. The study confirmed the stability of the metal–matrix composite, its resistance to proton damage, and the continuing separation of the two distinct phases, fcc aluminum and hcp beryllium, following irradiation. Furthermore, based on the absence of inter-planar distance change during proton irradiation, it was confirmed that the stacking faults and clusters on the Al (111 planes are stable, and thus can migrate from the cascade region and be absorbed at various sinks. XRD analysis of the unirradiated AlBeMet 162 showed clear change in the texture of the fcc phase with orientation especially in the Al (111 reflection which exhibits a “non-perfect” six-fold symmetry, implying lack of isotropy in the composite.

  11. In Situ TEM Multi-Beam Ion Irradiation as a Technique for Elucidating Synergistic Radiation Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Caitlin; Bufford, Daniel; Muntifering, Brittany; Senor, David; Steckbeck, Mackenzie; Davis, Justin; Doyle, Barney; Buller, Daniel; Hattar, Khalid

    2017-09-29

    Materials designed for nuclear reactors undergo microstructural changes resulting from a combination of several environmental factors, including neutron irradiation damage, gas accumulation and elevated temperatures. Typical ion beam irradiation experiments designed for simulating a neutron irradiation environment involve irradiating the sample with a single ion beam and subsequent characterization of the resulting microstructure, often by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This method does not allow for examination of microstructural effects due to simultaneous gas accumulation and displacement cascade damage, which occurs in a reactor. Sandia’s in situ ion irradiation TEM (I3TEM) offers the unique ability to observe microstructural changes due to irradiation damage caused by concurrent multi-beam ion irradiation in real time. This allows for time-dependent microstructure analysis. A plethora of additional in situ stages can be coupled with these experiments, e.g., for more accurately simulating defect kinetics at elevated reactor temperatures. This work outlines experiments showing synergistic effects in Au using in situ ion irradiation with various combinations of helium, deuterium and Au ions, as well as some initial work on materials utilized in tritium-producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs): zirconium alloys and LiAlO2.

  12. In Situ TEM Multi-Beam Ion Irradiation as a Technique for Elucidating Synergistic Radiation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Anne Taylor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Materials designed for nuclear reactors undergo microstructural changes resulting from a combination of several environmental factors, including neutron irradiation damage, gas accumulation and elevated temperatures. Typical ion beam irradiation experiments designed for simulating a neutron irradiation environment involve irradiating the sample with a single ion beam and subsequent characterization of the resulting microstructure, often by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. This method does not allow for examination of microstructural effects due to simultaneous gas accumulation and displacement cascade damage, which occurs in a reactor. Sandia’s in situ ion irradiation TEM (I3TEM offers the unique ability to observe microstructural changes due to irradiation damage caused by concurrent multi-beam ion irradiation in real time. This allows for time-dependent microstructure analysis. A plethora of additional in situ stages can be coupled with these experiments, e.g., for more accurately simulating defect kinetics at elevated reactor temperatures. This work outlines experiments showing synergistic effects in Au using in situ ion irradiation with various combinations of helium, deuterium and Au ions, as well as some initial work on materials utilized in tritium-producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs: zirconium alloys and LiAlO2.

  13. Application of electron beam irradiation, (1). Development and application of electron beam processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumura, Yosuke

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with characteristics, equipment (principle and kinds), present conditions, and future issues in the application of electron beam irradiation. Characteristics of electron beams are described in terms of the following: chemical and biological effects of radiation; energy and penetrating power of electron beams; and principle and kinds of electron beam accelerator. Industrial application of electron beam irradiation has advantages of high speed procedure and producibility, less energy, avoidance of poisonous gas, and extreme reduction of organic solvents to be used. The present application of electron beam irradiation cen be divided into the following: (1) hardening of resin or coated membrane; (2) improvement of macromolecular materials; (3) environmental protection; (4) sterilization; (5) food sterilization. The present equipment for electron beam irradiation is introduced according to low energy, medium energy, and high energy equipment. Finally, future issues focuses on (1) the improvement of traceability system and development of electron dosimetric techniques and (2) food sterilization. (N.K.)

  14. Ion beam mixing of marker layers in Al and Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantl, S.; Rehn, L.E.; Averback, R.S.; Thompson, L.J. Jr.

    1984-07-01

    Ion beam mixing experiments on thin Pt, Au, and Ni markers in Al and Si have performed at 17, 85, and 300 K. After irradiation with 300-keV Ar ions the broadening and relative shifts of the markers have been determined by RBS measurements. The marker broadenings are more pronounced in Si than in Al; in both matrices the broadenings decrease in the following order: Au, Pt, and Ni. No dependence of mixing on irradiation temperature was observed between 17 and 300 K. The shifts of the heavy Au and Pt markers relative to the Ni markers are approximately equal to the experimental accuracy. However, a shift of the Ni marker toward the surface relative to the heavier Au and Pt markers was consistently observed. 13 references, 2 figures

  15. Mutation induced with ion beam irradiation in rose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H. E-mail: yhiroya@nias.affrc.go.jp; Nagatomi, S.; Morishita, T.; Degi, K.; Tanaka, A.; Shikazono, N.; Hase, Y

    2003-05-01

    The effects of mutation induction by ion beam irradiation on axillary buds in rose were investigated. Axillary buds were irradiated with carbon and helium ion beams, and the solid mutants emerged after irradiation by repeated cutting back. In helium ion irradiation, mutations were observed in plants derived from 9 buds among 56 irradiated buds in 'Orange Rosamini' and in plants derived from 10 buds among 61 irradiated buds in 'Red Minimo'. In carbon ion, mutations were observed in plants derived from 12 buds among 88 irradiated buds in 'Orange Rosamini'. Mutations were induced not only in higher doses but also in lower doses, with which physiological effect by irradiation was hardly observed. Irradiation with both ion beams induced mutants in the number of petals, in flower size, in flower shape and in flower color in each cultivar.

  16. Evidence of amorphous interdiffusion layer in heavy ion irradiated U–8wt%Mo/Al interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, H-Y. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibniz (FRM II), Technische Universität München Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Zweifel, T. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibniz (FRM II), Technische Universität München Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Palancher, H., E-mail: herve.palancher@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Bonnin, A. [ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Beck, L. [Tandembeschleuniger des Maier-Leibnitz-Labors (MLL), Am Coulombwall 6, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Weiser, P. [Walther Schottky Institut, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall 4, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Döblinger, M. [Department Chemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU), Butenandstr. 11, D-81377 München (Germany); Sabathier, C. [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Jungwirth, R.; Petry, W. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibniz (FRM II), Technische Universität München Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    U–Mo/Al based nuclear fuels are worldwide considered as the most promising high density fuel for the conversion of high flux research and test reactors from highly enriched uranium to lower enrichment. However in-pile growth of an amorphous interdiffusion layer at the U–Mo/Al interfaces strongly limits the performances of this fuel. Several in-pile tests have been performed to optimize the composition. In this paper, a breakthrough in simulating the U–8wt%Mo/Al behavior under out-of-pile irradiation is reported. It is shown that an amorphous U–8wt%Mo/Al interdiffusion layer (IDL) is obtained by heavy ion irradiation ({sup 127}I) in a U–Mo/Al diffusion couple under controlled temperature conditions. The properties of this IDL coincide with the results obtained from in-pile tests. This methodological work clearly indicates that heavy ion irradiations could be routinely applied for optimizing composition of U–Mo/Al nuclear fuels. In other words these out-of-pile tests using ion beams could become a representative, efficient and economic step before in-pile irradiation.

  17. Evidence of amorphous interdiffusion layer in heavy ion irradiated U–8wt%Mo/Al interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, H-Y.; Zweifel, T.; Palancher, H.; Bonnin, A.; Beck, L.; Weiser, P.; Döblinger, M.; Sabathier, C.; Jungwirth, R.; Petry, W.

    2013-01-01

    U–Mo/Al based nuclear fuels are worldwide considered as the most promising high density fuel for the conversion of high flux research and test reactors from highly enriched uranium to lower enrichment. However in-pile growth of an amorphous interdiffusion layer at the U–Mo/Al interfaces strongly limits the performances of this fuel. Several in-pile tests have been performed to optimize the composition. In this paper, a breakthrough in simulating the U–8wt%Mo/Al behavior under out-of-pile irradiation is reported. It is shown that an amorphous U–8wt%Mo/Al interdiffusion layer (IDL) is obtained by heavy ion irradiation ( 127 I) in a U–Mo/Al diffusion couple under controlled temperature conditions. The properties of this IDL coincide with the results obtained from in-pile tests. This methodological work clearly indicates that heavy ion irradiations could be routinely applied for optimizing composition of U–Mo/Al nuclear fuels. In other words these out-of-pile tests using ion beams could become a representative, efficient and economic step before in-pile irradiation

  18. Electron beam irradiating device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, K

    1969-12-20

    The efficiency of an electron beam irradiating device is heightened by improving the irradiation atmosphere and the method of cooling the irradiation window. An irradiation chamber one side of which incorporates the irradiation windows provided at the lower end of the scanner is surrounded by a suitable cooling system such as a coolant piping network so as to cool the interior of the chamber which is provided with circulating means at each corner to circulate and thus cool an inert gas charged therewithin. The inert gas, chosen from a group of such gases which will not deleteriously react with the irradiating equipment, forms a flowing stream across the irradiation window to effect its cooling and does not contaminate the vacuum exhaust system or oxidize the filament when penetrating the equipment through any holes which the foil at the irradiation window may incur during the irradiating procedure.

  19. Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seunghee; Bae, Youngmin [Changwon Univ., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination was investigated in this research. Electron beam of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy was irradiated to the seeds of lettuce, green onion and cucumber, and the irradiated seeds were incubated at 25 .deg. Cn Nitsch medium solidified with 0.2% Phytagel. Germination percentage and the length of the sprouts were determined after 72 hours. Germination percentage of lettuce seeds was greatly reduced by the irradiation, and that of the green onion and cucumber were moderately reduced or unchanged by the irradiation. Although average length of the lettuce sprouts was reduced severely, that of the green onion and cucumber was unchanged or moderately reduced. Conclusively, electron beam irradiation might be a useful way of disinfecting some plant seeds including green onion and cucumber.

  20. Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seunghee; Bae, Youngmin

    2013-01-01

    Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination was investigated in this research. Electron beam of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy was irradiated to the seeds of lettuce, green onion and cucumber, and the irradiated seeds were incubated at 25 .deg. Cn Nitsch medium solidified with 0.2% Phytagel. Germination percentage and the length of the sprouts were determined after 72 hours. Germination percentage of lettuce seeds was greatly reduced by the irradiation, and that of the green onion and cucumber were moderately reduced or unchanged by the irradiation. Although average length of the lettuce sprouts was reduced severely, that of the green onion and cucumber was unchanged or moderately reduced. Conclusively, electron beam irradiation might be a useful way of disinfecting some plant seeds including green onion and cucumber

  1. Apparatus for electron beam irradiation of objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, S.P.; Ivanov, A.S.; Sviniin, M.P.; Fedotov, M.T.

    1984-01-01

    This patent provides an apparatus for electron beam irradiation of objects, comprising a shaper of a ribbon-shaped electron beam and a deflecting electromagnet having a frame-type magnetic circuit and used to direct said electron beam onto an irradiated object substantially at an angle of 90 degrees. The deflecting electromagnet has two poles extended over the width of the irradiated object and comprises two windings embracing said poles and connected to a d.c. source. The deflecting electromagnet is arranged in such a manner that the trajectories of the electrons at an area from the shaper to the electromagnet are inclined to the plane of the frame of its magnetic circuit

  2. Windowless Electron Beam Experimental Irradiation WEBExplr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyse, J.

    2009-01-01

    The design of the MYRRHA/XT-ADS, the European eXperimental Accelerator Driven System for the demonstration of Transmutation, includes a high power windowless spallation target operating with liquid LBE (Lead-Bismuth Eutectic) that will be irradiated with a 600 MeV proton beam at currents of up to 2.5 mA. When considering such a high power windowless target design, a number of questions need to be addressed, such as the stability of the free surface flow and its ability to remove the power deposited by the proton beam by forced convection, the compatibility of a large hot LBE reservoir with the beam line vacuum and the outgassing of the LBE in the spallation target circuit. These issues have been studied during previous experiments supported by numerical simulations. Another crucial point in the development of the spallation target is the demonstration of the safe and stable operation of the free LBE surface during irradiation with a high power proton beam. As a first step in this program, the WEBExpIr (Windowless target Electron Beam Experimental Irradiation) experiment was set up. The purpose of the WEBExpIr experiment was to investigate the influence of LBE surface heating caused by a charged particle beam in a situation representative of the MYRRHA/XT-ADS. More in particular, we wanted to assess possible free surface distortion or shockwave effects in nominal conditions and during sudden beam on/off transient situations, as well as possible enhanced evaporation

  3. Electron beam irradiation facility for low to high dose irradiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petwal, V.C.; Wanmode, Yashwant; Verma, Vijay Pal; Bhisikar, Abhay; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Shrivastava, P.; Gupta, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    Electron beam based irradiation facilities are becoming more and more popular over the conventional irradiator facilities due to many inherent advantages such as tunability of beam energy, availability of radiation both in electron mode and X-ray mode, wide range of the dose rate, control of radiation from a ON-OFF switch and other safety related merits. A prototype experimental facility based on electron accelerator has been set-up at RRCAT to meet the low-dose, medium dose and high-dose requirements for radiation processing of food, agricultural and medical products. The facility can be operated in the energy range from 7-10 MeV at variable power level from 0.05-3 kW to meet the dose rate requirement of 100 Gy to kGy. The facility is also equipped with a Bremsstrahlung converter optimized for X-ray irradiation at 7.5 MV. Availability of dose delivery in wide range with precision control and measurement has made the facility an excellent tool for researchers interested in electron/X-ray beam irradiation. A precision dosimetry lab based on alanine EPR and radiochromic film dosimetry system have been established to characterize the radiation field and precise dose measurements. Electron beam scattering technique has been developed to achieve low dose requirement for EB irradiation of various seeds such as groundnut, wheat, soybeans, moong beans, black gram etc. for mutation related studies. This paper describes various features of the facility together with the dosimetric measurements carried out for qualification of the facility and recent irradiation experiments carried out using this facility. (author)

  4. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Minea, R.

    2005-01-01

    Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties

  5. Treatment of supernatant from sewage sludge by elctron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hidehiko; Sugiyama, Masashi; Shimizu, Ken.

    1988-01-01

    Part of the results was presented on the investigation of treatment of supernatant from sewage sludge by combination of electron beam irradiation and microbiological treatment. Supernatant is electron-beam irradiated after microbiologically treated, and then treated microbiologically again. Based this method, by irradiation of 10 kGy, chemical oxygen demand (COD) in supernatant can be decreased lower than 30 ppm. Moreover, electron-beam irradiation induces remarkable decolorization and deodorization. (author)

  6. Role of isolated and clustered DNA damage and the post-irradiating repair process in the effects of heavy ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuyama, Yuka; Terato, Hiroaki; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Ide, Hiroshi; Yasui, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Clustered DNA damage is a specific type of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation. Any type of ionizing radiation traverses the target DNA molecule as a beam, inducing damage along its track. Our previous study showed that clustered DNA damage yields decreased with increased linear energy transfer (LET), leading us to investigate the importance of clustered DNA damage in the biological effects of heavy ion beam radiation. In this study, we analyzed the yield of clustered base damage (comprising multiple base lesions) in cultured cells irradiated with various heavy ion beams, and investigated isolated base damage and the repair process in post-irradiation cultured cells. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were irradiated by carbon, silicon, argon and iron ion beams with LETs of 13, 55, 90 and 200 keV µm -1 , respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis of the cells with enzymatic treatments indicated that clustered base damage yields decreased as the LET increased. The aldehyde reactive probe procedure showed that isolated base damage yields in the irradiated cells followed the same pattern. To analyze the cellular base damage process, clustered DNA damage repair was investigated using DNA repair mutant cells. DNA double-strand breaks accumulated in CHO mutant cells lacking Xrcc1 after irradiation, and the cell viability decreased. On the other hand, mouse embryonic fibroblast (Mef) cells lacking both Nth1 and Ogg1 became more resistant than the wild type Mef. Thus, clustered base damage seems to be involved in the expression of heavy ion beam biological effects via the repair process. (author)

  7. Omega: A 24-beam UV irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, M.C.; Beich, W.; Delettrez, J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors report on the characterization and performance of the 24-beam Omega laser facility under full third harmonic (351-nm) upconversion. This system provides for the first time a multibeam laser facility for the illumination of spherical targets with UV laser light in symmetric irradiation conditions with energies in the kilojoule range. This facility is capable of providing sufficient irradiation uniformity to test concepts of direct drive laser fusion with UV-driven ablation targets. The results of initial studies of ablatively driven DT-fueled glass microballoon targets will be described. The 24-beam Omega Nd:phosphate glass facility is capable of providing at 1054 nm output powers in excess of 10 TW in short ( 10 4 full system shots to date) irradiation facility with beam synchronism of approx. =3 psec, beam placement accuracy on target of 10 μm, and interbeam energy variance of approx. =2%. From measured target plane intensity distributions, overall illumination uniformity with tangentially focused beams is estimated to be approx. =5%. In 1984, a symmetric set of six beams was upconverted to 351-nm radiation using the polarization-mismatch scheme developed by Craxton. Monolithic cells of 20-cm clear aperture containing both frequency and doubler and tripler type II KDP crystals in index-matching propylene carbonate liquid were incorporated to output of six of the Omega beams with a full set of UV beam diagnostics

  8. High current beam transport with multiple beam arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.H.

    1985-05-01

    Highlights of recent experimental and theoretical research progress on the high current beam transport of single and multiple beams by the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) are presented. In the single beam transport experiment (SBTE), stability boundaries and the emittance growth of a space charge dominated beam in a long quadrupole transport channel were measured and compared with theory and computer simulations. Also, a multiple beam ion induction linac (MBE-4) is being constructed at LBL which will permit study of multiple beam transport arrays, and acceleration and bunch length compression of individually focused beamlets. Various design considerations of MBE-4 regarding scaling laws, nonlinear effects, misalignments, and transverse and longitudinal space charge effects are summarized. Some aspects of longitudinal beam dynamics including schemes to generate the accelerating voltage waveforms and to amplify beam current are also discussed

  9. Multiple-ion-beam time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrbacher, Andreas; Continetti, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    An innovative approach to increase the throughput of mass spectrometric analyses using a multiple-ion-beam mass spectrometer is described. Two sample spots were applied onto a laser desorption/ionization target and each spot was simultaneously irradiated by a beam of quadrupled Nd:YLF laser radiation (261.75 nm) to produce ions by laser-desorption ionization. Acceleration of the ions in an electric field created parallel ion beams that were focused by two parallel einzel lens systems. After a flight path of 2.34 m, the ions were detected with a microchannel plate-phosphor screen assembly coupled with a charge coupled device camera that showed two resolved ion beams. Time-of-flight mass spectra were also obtained with this detector. Experiments were performed using both metal atom cations (Ti + and Cr + ) produced by laser desorption/ionization and the molecular ions of two different proteins (myoglobin and lysozyme), created by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization using an excess of nicotinic acid as matrix

  10. Method of determining the position of an irradiated electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Wataru.

    1967-01-01

    The present invention relates to the method of determining the position of a radiated electron beam, in particular, the method of detecting the position of a p-n junction by a novel method when irradiating the electron beam on to the semi-conductor wafer, controlling the position of the electron beam from said junction. When the electron beam is irradiated on to the semi-conductor wafer which possesses the p-n junction, the position of the p-n junction may be ascertained to determine the position of the irradiated electron beam by detecting the electromotive force resulting from said p-n junction with a metal disposed in the proximity of but without mechanical contact with said semi-conductor wafer. Furthermore, as far as a semi-conductor wafer having at least one p-n junction is concerned, the present invention allows said p-n junction to be used to determine the position of an irradiated electron beam. Thus, according to the present invention, the electromotive force of the electron beam resulting from the p-n junction may easily be detected by electrostatic coupling, enabling the position of the irradiated electron beam to be accurately determined. (Masui, R.)

  11. Effects of ion beam irradiation on semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashiyama, Isamu; Hirao, Toshio; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Ohshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Energetic heavy-ion irradiation apparatus has been developed for single-event effects (SEE) testing. We have applied three irradiation methods such as a scattered-ion irradiation method, a recoiled-atom irradiation method, and a direct-beam irradiation method to perform SEE testing efficiently. (author)

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of FeCrAl alloys under heavy ion irradiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, E.; Weaver, J. S.; Maloy, S. A.; El-Atwani, O.; Wang, Y. Q.; Mara, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    FeCrAl ferritic alloys are excellent cladding candidates for accident tolerant fuel systems due to their high resistance to oxidation as a result of formation of a protective Al2O3 scale at high temperatures in steam. In this study, we report the irradiation response of the 10Cr and 13Cr FeCrAl cladding tubes under Fe2+ ion irradiation up to ∼16 dpa at 300 °C. Dislocation loop size, density and characteristics were determined using both two-beam bright field transmission electron microscopy and on-zone scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques. 10Cr (C06M2) tube has a lower dislocation density, larger grain size and a slightly weaker texture compared to the 13Cr (C36M3) tube before irradiation. After irradiation to 0.7 dpa and 16 dpa, the fraction of type sessile dislocations decreases with increasing Cr amount in the alloys. It has been found that there is neither void formation nor α‧ precipitation as a result of ion irradiations in either alloy. Therefore, dislocation loops were determined to be the only irradiation induced defects contributing to the hardening. Nanoindentation testing before the irradiation revealed that the average nanohardness of the C36M3 tube is higher than that of the C06M2 tube. The average nanohardness of irradiated tube samples saturated at 1.6-2.0 GPa hardening for both tubes between ∼3.4 dpa and ∼16 dpa. The hardening calculated based on transmission electron microscopy was found to be consistent with nanohardness measurements.

  13. Biological effect of penetration controlled irradiation with ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Shimizu, Takashi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Yamashita, Takao

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the effect of local irradiation with ion beams on biological systems, technique for penetration controlled irradiation has been established. The range in a target was controlled by changing the distance from beam window in the atmosphere, and could be controlled linearly up to about 31 {mu}m in biological material. In addition, the effects of the penetration controlled irradiations with 1.5 MeV/u C and He ions were examined using tobacco pollen. The increased frequency of leaky pollen produced by ion beams suggests that the efficient pollen envelope damages would be induced at the range-end of ion beams. (author)

  14. High-energy electron beam irradiation of Al-doped ZnO thin films deposited at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Eui-Jung; Jung, Jin-Woo; Hwang, Jong-Ha; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Jung, Myung-Hee

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we demonstrated the effects of high-energy electron beam irradiation (HEEBI) on the optical and structural properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films grown on transparent corning glass substrates at room temperature (RT) by using a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The AZO thin films were treated with HEEBI in air at RT at an electron beam energy of 0.8 MeV and doses of 1 x 10 14 - 1 x 10 16 electrons/cm 2 . The photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed that the dominant peak at 2.77 eV was a blue emission originating from donor-like defects, oxygen vacancies (V o ), suggesting that the n-type conductivity was preserved in HEEBI-treated films. On the basis of PL, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, we suggest that the density of V o donor defects is decreased due to in-diffusion of oxygen from the ambient into the films after HEEBI treatment at low doses up to 10 15 electrons/cm 2 while the opposite phenomenon can occur with further increase in the dose. We also found from the XRD analysis that the worse crystallinity with a smaller grain size was observed in HEEBI-treated AZO films at a higher dose, corresponding to a higher oxygen fraction in the films. We believe that our results will contribute to developing high-quality AZO-based materials and devices for space applications.

  15. The dynamics of Al/Pt reactive multilayer ignition via pulsed-laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Ryan D.; Reeves, Robert V.; Yarrington, Cole D.; Adams, David P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    Reactive multilayers consisting of alternating layers of Al and Pt were irradiated by single laser pulses ranging from 100 μs to 100 ms in duration, resulting in the initiation of rapid, self-propagating reactions. The threshold intensities for ignition vary with the focused laser beam diameter, bilayer thickness, and pulse length and are affected by solid state reactions and conduction of heat away from the irradiated regions. High-speed photography was used to observe ignition dynamics during irradiation and elucidate the effects of heat transfer into a multilayer foil. For an increasing laser pulse length, the ignition process transitioned from a more uniform to a less uniform temperature profile within the laser-heated zone. A more uniform temperature profile is attributed to rapid heating rates and heat localization for shorter laser pulses, and a less uniform temperature profile is due to slower heating of reactants and conduction during irradiation by longer laser pulses. Finite element simulations of laser heating using measured threshold intensities indicate that micron-scale ignition of Al/Pt occurs at low temperatures, below the melting point of both reactants.

  16. Effect of electron irradiation on gas sensing properties of Al-Zno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil C. Vattappalam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Al–ZnO thin films are prepared by Silar method and are annealed at 450°C for 1 h. A selected number of samples are irradiated by high-energy electron beam and all are characterized by XRD, SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Both irradiated and non-irradiated samples are then placed independently inside a gas chamber kept at rotary vacuum. The gas chamber is maintained at a pressure of 0.20 mb and at a temperature of 350°C. Ethanol vapour is admitted in a controlled manner into the chamber and the resistance of the film is measured continuously before, during and after the admittance of the ethanol vapour. The experiment is repeated for different dosages of irradiation and different doping concentrations of Al and the resistance of the film getting reduced fast and considerably at the admittance of ethanol has been observed. The response and recovery time of the irradiated samples is compared with that of non-irradiated samples of the same doping concentration. It has been noted that both irradiated and non-irradiated samples show a response time of 1 s and recovery time of the irradiated samples is shorter than that of non-irradiated samples.

  17. Comparison of electron beam and gamma irradiation for the sterilization of allograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong il Choi; Nak Yun Sung; Hee Sub Lee; Jae Hun Kim; Myung Woo Byun; Ju Woon Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full text: For human use, it is necessary to sterilize the allograft in order to reduce the risk of infections and associated complications. In this study, we compared the effects of electron beam and gamma irradiation for the sterilization of the demineralized bone matrix (DBM) in a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) carrier with regard to the physiological and osteoinductive properties. The CMC carrier was irradiated at the various doses. and the viscosity of the irradiated CMC was measured. The viscosity of the CMC irradiated with electron beam was higher than that with gamma ray. Also, the addition of vitamin C as the radical scavenger and irradiation at -70 degree C were shown to be effective in preventing the degradation of CMC by the irradiation. To investigate the effect of irradiation on the osteoinduction of DBM, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity with C2C12 cells was measured. The ALP activity of DBM in CMC was higher when irradiated with the electron beam compared with the gamma ray. The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) were extracted from DBM irradiated with electron beam and gamma ray, and it was found that the extraction efficiency of BMP was higher from DBM irradiated with the electron beam. This was reasoned for the higher APL activity of the electron beam irradiated DBM. With the advantages of electron beam such as short processing time, in-line processing, and low equipment cost, these results suggest that electron beam irradiation is recommendable for the sterilization of DBM allograft. (Author)

  18. Beam-induced temperature changes in HVEM irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Thomas, L.E.; Gelles, D.S.

    1975-01-01

    The peak value of the temperature distribution induced by energy loss of 1.0 MeV electrons in traversing a typical HVEM irradiation specimen can be very substantial. The origin and various features of this distribution were analyzed for a variety of specimen geometries. The major parametric dependencies are shown to be relatively independent of specimen geometry, however, and allow the definition of a scaling relationship that can be employed to predict temperature rises in materials that cannot be measured directly. The use of this scaling relationship requires that the experimenter minimize perturbations of the heat flow due to proximity of the central hole in the specimen. An experimental method of determining directly the magnitude and distribution of beam-induced temperature profiles was developed which utilizes the order-disorder transformation in Fe 3 Al and Cu 3 Au. Scaling of experimentally determined temperature changes leads to more realistic estimates of the total temperature rise than are currently available in various literature tabulations. The factors which determine the optimum selection of irradiation parameters for a given experiment are also discussed

  19. LEDs based upon AlGaInP heterostructures with multiple quantum wells: comparison of fast neutrons and gamma-quanta irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradoboev, A. V.; Orlova, K. N.; Simonova, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the research results of watt and volt characteristics of LEDs based upon AlGaInP heterostructures with multiple quantum wells in the active region. The research is completed for LEDs (emission wavelengths 624 nm and 590 nm) under irradiation by fast neutron and gamma-quanta in passive powering mode. Watt-voltage characteristics in the average and high electron injection areas are described as a power function of the operating voltage. It has been revealed that the LEDs transition from average electron injection area to high electron injection area occurs by overcoming the transition area. It disappears as it get closer to the limit result of the irradiation LEDs that is low electron injection mode in the entire supply voltage range. It has been established that the gamma radiation facilitates initial defects restructuring only 42% compared to 100% when irradiation is performed by fast neutrons. Ratio between measured on the boundary between low and average electron injection areas current value and the contribution magnitude of the first stage LEDs emissive power reducing is established. It is allows to predict LEDs resistance to irradiation by fast neutrons and gamma rays.

  20. Compositional and structural studies of ion-beam modified AlN/TiN multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amati, M., E-mail: matteo.amati@elettra.eu [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA,Area Science Park, 34149, Trieste (Italy); Gregoratti, L.; Sezen, H. [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA,Area Science Park, 34149, Trieste (Italy); Grce, A.; Milosavljević, M. [VINČA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade University, P.O. Box 522, 11001, Belgrade (Serbia); Homewood, K.P. [Materials Research Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Inter-layer mixing, atomic redistribution, structural change, and phase transformation on AlN/TiN multilayers via argon ion irradiation. • Severe modifications are observed with TEM studies on highly immiscible alternating layers without any side effects such as beam heating. • The original TiN layers appear to grow in thickness by consuming the adjacent AlN layers, while obtaining a better TiAlN fcc crystalline structure. • Photoemission spectroscopy/microscopy indicates a transformation into Al deficient ternary and highly homogeneous compounds on both layers. • These results can be interesting towards further development of radiation tolerant materials based on immiscible ceramic nanocomposites. - Abstract: This paper reports on compositional and structural modifications induced in coated AlN/TiN multilayers by argon ion irradiation. The initial structure consisting of totally 30 alternate AlN (8 nm thick) and TiN (9.3 nm thick) layers was deposited on Si (100) wafers, by reactive sputtering. Irradiation was done with 180 keV Ar{sup +} to a high dose of 8 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}, which introduces up to ∼10 at.% of argon species, and generates a maximum displacement per atom of 92 for AlN and 127 for TiN, around the projected ion range (109 ± 34 nm). Characterizations were performed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, spatially resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The obtained results reveal that this highly immiscible and thermally stable system suffered a severe modification upon the applied ion irradiation, although it was performed at room temperature. They illustrate a thorough inter-layer mixing, atomic redistribution, structural change and phase transformation within the affected depth. The original TiN layers appear to grow in thickness, consuming the adjacent AlN layers, while retaining the fcc crystalline structure. In the mostly affected region, the interaction proceeds

  1. Effect of electron beam irradiation on nutritional ingredient of Tegillarca granosa meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chao; Yang Wenge; Xu Dalun; Ou Changrong; Shi Huidong

    2011-01-01

    The influences of 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 kGy electron beam irradiation on the contents of protein and amino acid and the composition of amino acids and fatty acids in Tegillarca granosa meat were investigated. The results showed that the electron beam had no significant effect on contents of moisture, ash and protein. Fat was sensitive to electron beam irradiation, which decreased with the increasing of irradiation dose. The composition of amino acids remained stable with different doses. The values of EAA/TAA and EAA/NEAA were kept in accordance with FAO/WHO protein model. Besides, electron beam irradiation made no effect on the limiting amino acid (the first and second limiting amino acids were Met + Cys and Val, respectively). The relative content of PUFA increased significantly 1 ∼ 7 kGy irradiation. Electron beam irradiation produced a notable impact on the essential fatty acid, induced the increase of linoleic acid, linolenic acid and arachidonic acid at the doses of 5 ∼ 9 kGy. After the irradiation of 9 kGy, the increments of relative contents of the three essential fatty acids reached 94.61%, 41.37% and 89.91%, respectively. Electron beam irradiation had positive effect on EPA with the doses of 3, 5 and 9 kGy. However, DHA was sensitive to electron beam irradiation, whose relative content decreased with the increasing of irradiation dose and undetected at the dose of 9 kGy. According to the research of decontamination effect, the recommended dose of electron beam irradiation on Tegillarca granosa ws fixed at 3 ∼ 5 kGy. (authors)

  2. Nanoindentation and in situ microcompression in different dose regimes of proton beam irradiated 304 SS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichardt, A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lupinacci, A. [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Frazer, D.; Bailey, N.; Vo, H.; Howard, C. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jiao, Z. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Minor, A.M. [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chou, P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hosemann, P., E-mail: peterh@berkeley.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Recent developments in micromechanical testing have allowed for the efficient evaluation of radiation effects in micron-scale volumes of ion-irradiated materials. In this study, both nanoindentation and in situ SEM microcompression testing are carried out on 10 dpa proton beam irradiated 304 stainless steel to assess radiation hardening and radiation-induced deformation mechanisms in the material. Using a focused ion beam (FIB), arrays of 2 μm × 2 μm cross-section microcompression pillars are fabricated in multiple dose regimes within the same grain, providing dose-dependent behavior in a single crystal orientation. Analysis of the microcompression load-displacement data and real-time SEM imaging during testing indicates significant hardening, as well as increased localization of deformation in the irradiated material. Although nanoindentation results suggest that irradiation hardening saturates at low doses, microcompression results indicate that the pillar yield stress continues to rise with dose above 10 dpa in the tested orientation. - Highlights: •Mechanical properties are probed in small volumes of proton irradiated 304SS. •Nanoindentation indicates saturation of irradiation hardening at doses of 5–10 dpa. •Microcompression of irradiated specimens suggest localized deformation.

  3. 'The future of the electron beam irradiation service business'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamase, Yutaka

    1998-01-01

    The high energy electron beam has less penetration power in comparison with the gamma ray which has been used from before. However, the dose rate of the electron beam is considerably high in comparison with the gamma ray with more than several thousand times. Therefore, the irradiation of the product can be done in a short time, and there are cheap characteristics further in the irradiation cost as well. And, an electron beam is the technology which is very easy to accept in the country of a nuclear allergy constitution like our country so that it may not use radioactive substance. This time, I'd like to think about the present condition of the electron beam irradiation service business and a future based on the experience of Tsukuba EBcenter until now. (J.P.N.)

  4. WEBEXPIR: Windowless target electron beam experimental irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, Marc; Schuurmans, Paul; Heyse, Jan; Rosseel, Kris; Tichelen, Katrien Van; Nactergal, Benoit; Vandeplassche, Dirk; Aoust, Thierry; Abs, Michel; Guertin, Arnaud; Buhour, Jean-Michel; Cadiou, Arnaud; Abderrahim, Hamid Ait

    2008-01-01

    The windowless target electron beam experimental irradiation (WEBEXPIR) program was set-up as part of the MYRRHA/XT-ADS R and D effort on the spallation target design to investigate the interaction of a proton beam with a liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) free surface. In particular, possible free surface distortion or shockwave effects in nominal conditions and during sudden beam on/off transient situations, as well as possible enhanced evaporation were assessed. An experiment was conceived at the IBA TT-1000 Rhodotron, where a 7 MeV electron beam was used to simulate the high power deposition at the MYRRHA/XT-ADS LBE free surface. The geometry and the LBE flow characteristics in the WEBEXPIR set-up were made as representative as possible of the actual situation in the MYRRHA/XT-ADS spallation target. Irradiation experiments were carried out at beam currents of up to 10 mA, corresponding to 40 times the nominal beam current necessary to reproduce the MYRRHA/XT-ADS conditions. Preliminary analyses show that the WEBEXPIR free surface flow was not disturbed by the interaction with the electron beam and that vacuum conditions stayed well within the design specifications

  5. Development of Irradiation Procedure for Gamma Irradiation Chamber Bio beam GM 8000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuhaimi Shamsudin; Affrida Abu Hassan; Zaiton Ahmad; Abdul Rahim Harun; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir

    2015-01-01

    Bio Beam GM 8000 gamma irradiation chamber obtained a conditional approval to operate on March 27, 2012, and later acquired a full approval on December 13, 2012. The objective for the procurement of this gamma chamber is to develop an acute irradiation facility for biological samples, including plants tissues, insects, pupae, microorganisms, as well as animal and human cells. To ensure a smooth and efficient operation, irradiation procedures were developed and improved over time. This paper discusses the operation and management of the Bio Beam GM 8000 facility, including irradiation procedures and sample preparation, application for services through online e-client system, consultancy, quality assurance and information dissemination to internal as well as external clients. In addition, this paper also discusses the potential, constraints and improvement measures taken to optimize the use of this facility in order to meet its objectives. (author)

  6. Enhancement of CNT-based filters efficiency by ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsehly, Emad M.; Chechenin, N. G.; Makunin, A. V.; Shemukhin, A. A.; Motaweh, H. A.

    2018-05-01

    It is shown in the report that disorder produced by ion beam irradiation can enhance the functionality of the carbon nanotubes. The filters of pressed multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were irradiated by He+ ions of the energy E = 80 keV with the fluence 2 × 1016 ion/cm2. The removal of manganese from aqueous solutions by using pristine and ion beam irradiated MWNTs filters was studied as a function of pH, initial concentration of manganese in aqueous solution, MWNT mass and contact time. The filters before and after filtration were characterized by Raman (RS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques to investigate the deposition content in the filter and defect formation in the MWNTs. The irradiated samples showed an enhancement of removal efficiency of manganese up to 97.5% for 10 ppm Mn concentration, suggesting that irradiated MWNT filter is a better Mn adsorbent from aqueous solutions than the pristine one. Radiation-induced chemical functionalization of MWNTs due to ion beam irradiation, suggesting that complexation between the irradiated MWNTs and manganese ions is another mechanism. This conclusion is supported by EDS and RS and is correlated with a larger disorder in the irradiated samples as follows from RS. The study demonstrates that ion beam irradiation is a promising tool to enhance the filtration efficiency of MWNT filters.

  7. Change of the functional properties in polysaccharides irradiated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaue, Kazushi; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Tada, Mikiro; Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko; Asai, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    Polysaccharides widely used in the food industry were studied in terms of sterilization of bacteria by irradiation. 12 items of polysaccharides irradiated by electron beam ware investigated for bacteria count and the functional property of pH, gel strength, bloom and viscosity. This study aims to determine the sterilization effect by absorption dose and the applicability of the electron beam irradiation toward polysaccharides. Results shows that 1) Over 5kGy absorption dose are enough to be able to sterilize bacteria in the polysaccharide themselves. 2) We reconfirm that Arabic gum will be applicable for the electron beam irradiation, which has been used in some foreign countries. 3) Electron beam irradiation will be useful for Gellan gum b (acetyl type), as gelling agents in the food application. (author)

  8. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of fuel/matrix interaction layers in highly-irradiated U-Mo dispersion fuel plates with Al and Al-Si alloy matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, Dennis D. Jr; Jue, Jan Fong; Miller, Brandon D.; Gan, Jian; Robinson, Adom B.; Medvedev, Pavel; Madden, James; Wachs, Dan; Meyer, Mitch [Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division, Idaho National Laboratory (United States)

    2014-04-15

    In order to investigate how the microstructure of fuel/matrix-interaction (FMI) layers change during irradiation, different U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates have been irradiated to high fission density and then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Specifically, samples from irradiated U-7Mo dispersion fuel elements with pure Al, Al-2Si and AA4043 (-4.5 wt.%Si) matrices were SEM characterized using polished samples and samples that were prepared with a focused ion beam (FIB). Features not observable for the polished samples could be captured in SEM images taken of the FIB samples. For the Al matrix sample, a relatively large FMI layer develops, with enrichment of Xe at the FMI layer/Al matrix interface and evidence of debonding. Overall, a significant penetration of Si from the FMI layer into the U-7Mo fuel was observed for samples with Si in the Al matrix, which resulted in a change of the size (larger) and shape (round) of the fission gas bubbles. Additionally, solid fission product phases were observed to nucleate and grow within these bubbles. These changes in the localized regions of the microstructure of the U-7Mo may contribute to changes observed in the macroscopic swelling of fuel plates with Al-Si matrices.

  9. Effect of ion beam irradiation of fresh-keeping of strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Qing; Huang Min; Wu Ling; Mo Yan; Du Xiaoying; Xie Yan; Wang Yan; Gao Peng; Kang Ju

    2011-01-01

    Effects of ion beam irradiation on strawberry quality were studied, in this study and microbial biomass, decay index, weight loss and biological index were detected. Irradiation dosage were 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy. The results showed that the irradiation decreased the number of microorganism in the strawberry and delayed the rotten speed. The soluble solide, Vc and total acid content of irradiated strawberry reduced slower than that of control. It indicated that the irradiation dosage did not affect the quality of strawberry in this study . Therefore, 2.0 ∼ 3.0 kGy of ion beam irradiation were an excellent irradiation dosage for strawberry preservation. (authors)

  10. Study on application of the physical detection methods for electron beam-irradiated agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Yong; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong; Jeong, Il Yun; Yook, Hong Sun

    2010-01-01

    Physical detection methods, photostimulated luminescence (PSL), thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) were applied to detect electron beam-irradiated agricultural products, such as red pepper, black pepper, raisin, walnut, beef seasoning and pistachio. The absorbed irradiation doses for representative samples were controlled at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy. PSL values for non-irradiated samples were 1 ) except beef seasoning, whereas those of irradiated samples were more than 5,000 photon counts, upper threshold (T 2 ) in black pepper, raisin, and beef seasoning and intermediates values of T 1 -T 2 in red pepper, walnut, and pistachio. Minerals separated from the samples for TL measurement showed that non-irradiated samples except pistachio (TL ratio, 0.12) were characterized by no glow curves situated at temperature range of 50 ∼ 400 .deg. C with TL ratio (0.01 ∼ 0.08), while irradiated samples except pistachio at only 1 kGy (TL ratio, 0.08) indicated glow curve at about 150 ∼ 250 .deg. C with TL ratio (0.28 ∼ 3.10). ESR measurements of irradiated samples any specific signals to irradiation. The samples of both red pepper ad pistachio were produced specific signals derived from cellulose radicals as well as single line signals for black pepper and walnut, and multiple signals derived from crystalline sugar radicals for raisin and beef seasoning. In conclusion, The ESR methods can apply for detection of pistachio exposed to electron beam but PSL and TL are not suitable methods. Furthermore, TL and ESR suggested that both techniques were more useful detection method than PSL to confirm whether red pepper, walnut and beef seasoning samples have been exposed to electron beam

  11. Electron beam irradiation of gemstone for color enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Sarada; Ghazali, Zulkafli; Hashim, Siti A'iasah; Ahmad, Shamshad; Jusoh, Mohd Suhaimi

    2012-09-01

    Numerous treatment of gemstones has been going on for hundreds of years for enhancing color and clarity of gems devoid of these attributes. Whereas previous practices included fraudulent or otherwise processes to achieve the color enhancement, the ionizing radiation has proven to be a reliable and reproducible technique. Three types of irradiation processes include exposure to gamma radiation, electron beam irradiation and the nuclear power plants. Electron Beam Irradiation of Gemstone is a technique in which a gemstone is exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate color centers culminating in introduction of deeper colors. The color centers may be stable or unstable. Below 9MeV, normally no radioactivity is introduced in the exposed gems. A study was conducted at Electron Beam Irradiation Centre (Alurtron) for gemstone color enhancement by using different kind of precious gemstones obtained from Pakistan. The study shows that EB irradiation not only enhances the color but can also improves the clarity of some type of gemstones. The treated stones included kunzite, tourmaline, topaz, quartz, aquamarine and cultured pearls. Doses ranging from 25 kGy to 200 KGy were employed to assess the influence of doses on color and clarity and to select the optimum doses. The samples used included both the natural and the faceted gemstones. It is concluded that significant revenue generation is associated with the enhancement of the color in clarity of gemstones which are available at very cheap price in the world market.

  12. Electron beam irradiation of gemstone for color enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idris, Sarada; Ghazali, Zulkafli; Hashim, Siti A' iasah; Ahmad, Shamshad; Jusoh, Mohd Suhaimi [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); School of Chemicals and Material Engineering, NUST Islamabad (Pakistan); Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    Numerous treatment of gemstones has been going on for hundreds of years for enhancing color and clarity of gems devoid of these attributes. Whereas previous practices included fraudulent or otherwise processes to achieve the color enhancement, the ionizing radiation has proven to be a reliable and reproducible technique. Three types of irradiation processes include exposure to gamma radiation, electron beam irradiation and the nuclear power plants. Electron Beam Irradiation of Gemstone is a technique in which a gemstone is exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate color centers culminating in introduction of deeper colors. The color centers may be stable or unstable. Below 9MeV, normally no radioactivity is introduced in the exposed gems. A study was conducted at Electron Beam Irradiation Centre (Alurtron) for gemstone color enhancement by using different kind of precious gemstones obtained from Pakistan. The study shows that EB irradiation not only enhances the color but can also improves the clarity of some type of gemstones. The treated stones included kunzite, tourmaline, topaz, quartz, aquamarine and cultured pearls. Doses ranging from 25 kGy to 200 KGy were employed to assess the influence of doses on color and clarity and to select the optimum doses. The samples used included both the natural and the faceted gemstones. It is concluded that significant revenue generation is associated with the enhancement of the color in clarity of gemstones which are available at very cheap price in the world market.

  13. Electron beam irradiation of gemstone for color enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, Sarada; Ghazali, Zulkafli; Hashim, Siti A'iasah; Ahmad, Shamshad; Jusoh, Mohd Suhaimi

    2012-01-01

    Numerous treatment of gemstones has been going on for hundreds of years for enhancing color and clarity of gems devoid of these attributes. Whereas previous practices included fraudulent or otherwise processes to achieve the color enhancement, the ionizing radiation has proven to be a reliable and reproducible technique. Three types of irradiation processes include exposure to gamma radiation, electron beam irradiation and the nuclear power plants. Electron Beam Irradiation of Gemstone is a technique in which a gemstone is exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate color centers culminating in introduction of deeper colors. The color centers may be stable or unstable. Below 9MeV, normally no radioactivity is introduced in the exposed gems. A study was conducted at Electron Beam Irradiation Centre (Alurtron) for gemstone color enhancement by using different kind of precious gemstones obtained from Pakistan. The study shows that EB irradiation not only enhances the color but can also improves the clarity of some type of gemstones. The treated stones included kunzite, tourmaline, topaz, quartz, aquamarine and cultured pearls. Doses ranging from 25 kGy to 200 KGy were employed to assess the influence of doses on color and clarity and to select the optimum doses. The samples used included both the natural and the faceted gemstones. It is concluded that significant revenue generation is associated with the enhancement of the color in clarity of gemstones which are available at very cheap price in the world market.

  14. Development of an intermediate energy heavy-ion micro-beam irradiation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Mingtao; Wang Zhiguang; He Yuan; Gao Daqing; Yang Xiaotian; Liu Jie; Su Hong; Man Kaidi; Sheng Li'na

    2008-01-01

    The micro-beam irradiation system, which focuses the beam down the micron order and precisely delivers a predefined number of ions to a predefined spot of micron order, is a powerful tool for radio-biology, radio-biomedicine and micromachining. The Institute of Modern Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences is developing a heavy-ion micro-beam irradiation system up to intermediate energy. Based on the intermediate and low energy beam provided by Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou, the micro-beam system takes the form of the magnetic focusing. The heavy-ion beam is conducted to the basement by a symmetrical achromatic system consisting of two vertical bending magnets and a quadrupole in between. Then a beam spot of micron order is formed by magnetic triplet quadrupole of very high gradient. The sample can be irradiated either in vacuum or in the air. This system will be the first opening platform capable of providing heavy ion micro-beam, ranging from low (10 MeV/u) to intermediate energy (100 MeV/u), for irradiation experiment with positioning and counting accuracy. Target material may be biology cell, tissue or other non-biological materials. It will be a help for unveiling the essence of heavy-ion interaction with matter and also a new means for exploring the application of heavy-ion irradiation. (authors)

  15. Sterilization of ground spices by electron beams irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashigiwa, Masayuki; Nakachi, Ayako; Kobayashi, Hiroshi [K. Kobayashi and Co., Ltd., Kako, Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Each ground spice (Black Pepper, Turmeric, Ginger, Paprika and Basil), which was packaged into polyethylene film, was irradiated by electron beams at 5 different levels: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Bacteriological tests for total bacterial count were carried out on spices before and after irradiation, but the tests for microfiora were carried out only before irradiation. Total bacterial count decreased in proportion to the level of electron beams. But the decreasing rate for Turmeric, Ginger and Basil was lower compared with that of other spices. The reason seems that rate of contamination by B. pumilus, which is thought as radiation resistant bacteria, was higher on these spices. (author)

  16. Sterilization of ground spices by electron beams irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashigiwa, Masayuki; Nakachi, Ayako; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Each ground spice (Black Pepper, Turmeric, Ginger, Paprika and Basil), which was packaged into polyethylene film, was irradiated by electron beams at 5 different levels: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Bacteriological tests for total bacterial count were carried out on spices before and after irradiation, but the tests for microfiora were carried out only before irradiation. Total bacterial count decreased in proportion to the level of electron beams. But the decreasing rate for Turmeric, Ginger and Basil was lower compared with that of other spices. The reason seems that rate of contamination by B. pumilus, which is thought as radiation resistant bacteria, was higher on these spices. (author)

  17. Electrical properties of irradiated PVA film by using ion/electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, M. M.; Osman, M.; Hashhash, A.

    2016-02-01

    Ion/electron beam bombardment has shown great potential for improving the surface properties of polymers. Low-energy charged (ion/electron) beam irradiation of polymers is a good technique to modify properties such as electrical conductivity, structural behavior, and their mechanical properties. This paper reports on the effect of nitrogen and electron beam irradiation on the electrical properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films. PVA films of 4 mm were exposed to a charged (ion/electron) beam for different treatment times (15, 30, and 60 minutes); the beam was produced from a dual beam source using nitrogen gas with the other ion/electron source parameters optimized. The dielectric loss tangent tan δ , electrical conductivity σ , and dielectric constant ɛ ^' } in the frequency range 100 Hz-100 kHz were measured at room temperature. The variation of dielectric constant and loss tangent as a function of frequency was also studied at room temperature. The dielectric constant was found to be strongly dependent on frequency for both ion and electron beam irradiation doses. The real (ɛ ^' }) and imaginary (ɛ ^' ' }) parts of the dielectric constant decreased with frequency for all irradiated and non-irradiated samples. The AC conductivity showed an increase with frequency for all samples under the influence of both ion and electron irradiation for different times. Photoluminescence (PL) spectral changes were also studied. The formation of clusters and defects (which serve as non-radiative centers on the polymer surface) is confirmed by the decrease in the PL intensity.

  18. Concept development of X-ray mass thickness detection for irradiated items upon electron beam irradiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huaili; Yang, Guang; Kuang, Shan; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaomin; Li, Cancan; Han, Zhiwei; Li, Yuanjing

    2018-02-01

    The present project will adopt the principle and technology of X-ray imaging to quickly measure the mass thickness (wherein the mass thickness of the item =density of the item × thickness of the item) of the irradiated items and thus to determine whether the packaging size and inside location of the item will meet the requirements for treating thickness upon electron beam irradiation processing. The development of algorithm of X-ray mass thickness detector as well as the prediction of dose distribution have been completed. The development of the algorithm was based on the X-ray attenuation. 4 standard modules, Al sheet, Al ladders, PMMA sheet and PMMA ladders, were selected for the algorithm development. The algorithm was optimized until the error between tested mass thickness and standard mass thickness was less than 5%. Dose distribution of all energy (1-10 MeV) for each mass thickness was obtained using Monte-carlo method and used for the analysis of dose distribution, which provides the information of whether the item will be penetrated or not, as well as the Max. dose, Min. dose and DUR of the whole item.

  19. Multiple endocrine adenomatosis with Cushing's disease and the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome responsive to proton beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veseley, D.L.; Fass, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Multiple endocrine adenomatosis (MEA) or neoplasia is a hereditary disorder consisting of tumors of hyperplasia of several endocrine glands. In MEA-1 the pituitary, parathyroids, and pancreatic islets are most frequently involved, while in MEA-2 the thyroid (medullary carcinoma of the thyroid), parathyroids,and adrenals (pheochromocytomas) are the endocrine glands most likely to be involved. Cushings's syndrome may occur in MEA-1 and has also been found in patients with MEA-2, where the cause of Cushing's syndrome is usually ectopic ACTH production from medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Recently, there have been reports of amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome in patients with MEA-1, and confirmation that hyperprolactinemia is associated with this syndrom has been found in patients with MEA-1. The present report details a patient who has been followed up for 20 years since she first presented with amenorrhea and galactorrhea. Ten years after first being seen she was noted to have Cushing's syndrom and hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid hyperplasia. Both the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome and Cushing's sydrome disappeared with proton beam irradiation to the pituitary

  20. Degradation Of Aggregate Pollutant In Textiles Wastewater By Electron Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Zulkafli Ghazali; Siti Aiasah Hashim; Selambakkannu, S.; Ming, T.T.; Natasha Isnin; Hasnul Nizam Osman; Khasmidatul Akma Mohd Khairul Azmi

    2016-01-01

    Aggregate pollutant were refer to the mixture of the excess material that is used in the manufacturing proses of textiles, present in wastewater. This paper studies the effect of the beam energy, beam current and absorbed dose on degradation of aggregate pollutant in textiles effluent which was indicate by COD, pH and UV-Vis spectrum. The impact of beam energy was conducted when sample were exposed to the irradiation at various beam energy (1 to 3 MeV) at 20 mA and 17 kGy. The COD reduced from 495 mg/l to the range 398.00 -358 mg/l at beam energy 1 MeV to 3 MeV. The irradiated sample also slightly become more acidic at higher beam energy. While 1 MeV beam energy was sufficient to eliminate the exposed peak at wavelength of 425 nm, 550 nm and 650 nm in the UV spectrum. In the case effect of current, the COD effluent tested at constant beam energy of 1 MeV and 3 MeV at various beam current (3 mA, 5 mA, 10 mA, 15 mA and 20 mA) decreased with higher beam current. While interested peak in UV spectrum of irradiated samples was varnish at 3 mA beam current and 1 MeV energy applied. Considering to the 19.66 % COD removal and electric power used, 1 MeV beam energy and 20 mA beam current was the optimum irradiation parameter selected for this study. At 1 MeV:20 mA textiles wastewater irradiated at various dose of 17, 20, 25, 30, 35, 100 and 200 kGy shows removal of COD, were in the range 4.42 % - 30.09 %. (author)

  1. Study on application of the physical detection methods for electron beam-irradiated agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Yong; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong; Jeong, Il Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Physical detection methods, photostimulated luminescence (PSL), thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) were applied to detect electron beam-irradiated agricultural products, such as red pepper, black pepper, raisin, walnut, beef seasoning and pistachio. The absorbed irradiation doses for representative samples were controlled at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy. PSL values for non-irradiated samples were <700 counts/60s (lower threshold, T{sub 1}) except beef seasoning, whereas those of irradiated samples were more than 5,000 photon counts, upper threshold (T{sub 2}) in black pepper, raisin, and beef seasoning and intermediates values of T{sub 1}-T{sub 2} in red pepper, walnut, and pistachio. Minerals separated from the samples for TL measurement showed that non-irradiated samples except pistachio (TL ratio, 0.12) were characterized by no glow curves situated at temperature range of 50 {approx} 400 .deg. C with TL ratio (0.01 {approx} 0.08), while irradiated samples except pistachio at only 1 kGy (TL ratio, 0.08) indicated glow curve at about 150 {approx} 250 .deg. C with TL ratio (0.28 {approx} 3.10). ESR measurements of irradiated samples any specific signals to irradiation. The samples of both red pepper ad pistachio were produced specific signals derived from cellulose radicals as well as single line signals for black pepper and walnut, and multiple signals derived from crystalline sugar radicals for raisin and beef seasoning. In conclusion, The ESR methods can apply for detection of pistachio exposed to electron beam but PSL and TL are not suitable methods. Furthermore, TL and ESR suggested that both techniques were more useful detection method than PSL to confirm whether red pepper, walnut and beef seasoning samples have been exposed to electron beam.

  2. Electron beam irradiation technology for environmental conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Okihiro; Arai, Hidehiko; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews research and development of application of electron beam (EB) irradiation technology for treatment of flue gas and waste water, and for disinfection of sewage sludge. Feasibility studies on EB purification of flue gases have been performed with pilot-scale experiments in Japan, the USA and Germany, and is being carried out in Poland for flue gases from iron-sintering furnaces or coal burning boilers. Based on results obtained by experiments using simulated flue gas, pilot scale test for treatment of flue gas of low-sulfur containing coal combustion has recently started in Japan. Organic pollutants in waste water and ground water have been found to be decomposed by EB irradiation. Synergetic effect of EB irradiation and ozone addition was found to improve the decomposition efficiency. Electron beam irradiation technology for disinfection of water effluent from water treatment plants was found to avoid formation of chlorinated organic compounds which are formed in using chlorine. Efficient process for composting of sewage sludge disinfected by EB irradiation has been developed by small scale and pilot scale experiments. In the new process, disinfection by EB irradiation and composing can be done separately and optimum temperature for composting can be, therefore, selected to minimize period of composting. (author)

  3. Influence of E-beam irradiation on dielectric relaxation of recycled polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazilova, Z.; Gafurov, U.; Tolstov, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The dielectric relaxation connected with molecular groups and polymer chain mobility for un-irradiated and e-beam irradiated recycled polypropylene was investigated. It was studied films of samples produced from virgin (initial) and e- beam irradiated of the polymer granules (E-beam source with 5 MeV energy). The dielectric losses were measured with temperature increasing and decreasing regime. The losses were measured with E8-4 bridge help (the frequency is 1kH). Heating velocity was 2 grad/min. The dielectric losses did not appeared in minus temperature region for the initial polypropylene samples. The measurement in temperature increasing and decreasing shows that the relaxation peak at ∼ 35 o C for un-irradiated and ∼70 o C for irradiated polymer samples connected with macromolecular segments mobility with water molecular groups participation. The main relaxation peak (higher 100 o C) shifts after e-beam irradiation is result of the cross-links formation. ) The peak connected with macromolecular segments mobility in polymer amorphous regions (β-relaxation process). In irradiated polypropylene on IR spectroscopy data oxygen molecular groups is increased. The molecular groupings form inter-molecular hydrogen bonds. The intermolecular bonds also hindered molecular groups and macromolecular mobility. The e-beam stimulated cross-links formation was confirmed by method of sol-gel analyses. The work was supported by STCU Fund (Project No 3009)

  4. Behaviour of some fresh fruits under electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Stroia, A.L.; Potcoava, A.; Cojocaru, M.; Mihnea, R.; Oproiu, C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in preservation of fruits and vegetables is widely recognized. In this paper it is presented a study of the effect of electron-beam irradiation of some fresh, early and perishable fruits, like strawberries, cherries, and sour cherries concerning their shelf-life time extension. The irradiations were performed on common varieties in normal conditions to the IPTRD's electron-beam accelerator (Bucharest-Magurele) having the following parameters: flow current 10 μA, power 60 W and electron mean energy 6.23 MeV. The irradiation doses varied between 0.5-3.0 kGy and the dose rates between 100-1500 Gy/min. It was observed the fruit preservation capability of the treatment and it was analysed the main characteristics as organoleptic properties, weight of dry component, acidity, total and reducing sugars, ascorbic acid content and others. It was evidenced an increase in freshness and shelf-life extension by 5-7 days for strawberries and up to two weeks for cherries without any significant changes in the values of the considered parameters. Otherwise, for the applied doses, the electron-beam irradiation did not produce any significant changes in the values of fruit characteristic parameters. The results lead to the conclusion that the electron-beam irradiation is a good technological solution for fresh fruit processing. (Author) 1 Tab., 7 Refs

  5. Electron beam irradiation of simulated diluted sulfurous off-gases from copper smelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, L.; Ahumada, L.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Zimek, Z.; Bulka, S.; Licki, J.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental work for the verification of potential use of electron-beam irradiation processing for S O 2 removal from reduced-S O 2 -strength gases, between 1,000 and 10,000 ppm, was conducted in a laboratory unit equipped with a multi-purpose electron accelerator working with beam energy of 800 keV. During experimental tests performed, influence of different operating parameters on the overall S O 2 removal process was established. Tests were conducted under two main conditions, using only electron beam irradiation and using electron beam irradiation plus ammonia injection. Tests results proved the technical feasibility to move S O 2 from off-gases under working experimental conditions, i.e., S O 2 removal is achieved under the two modes of operation. When using only electron beam irradiation S O 2 removal efficiencies found were rather low, up to 40%, but in the case of using electron beam irradiation in conjunction with ammonia injection, it was found that S O 2 removal efficiency raises up to 85% under experimental conditions. (author)

  6. Bending of metal-filled carbon nanotube under electron beam irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abha Misra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam irradiation induced, bending of Iron filled, multiwalled carbon nanotubes is reported. Bending of both the carbon nanotube and the Iron contained within the core was achieved using two approaches with the aid of a high resolution electron microscope (HRTEM. In the first approach, bending of the nanotube structure results in response to the irradiation of a pristine kink defect site, while in the second approach, disordered sites induce bending by focusing the electron beam on the graphite walls. The HRTEM based in situ observations demonstrate the potential for using electron beam irradiation to investigate and manipulate the physical properties of confined nanoscale structures.

  7. Plastic coating on paper by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ametani, Kazuo; Tsuchiya, Mitsuaki; Sawai, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    It has been known long since that the resin system of unsaturated polyester and vinylmonomer mixture cures by irradiation. Ford of USA for the first time industrialized the radiation curing reaction of resins for the coating of automobile parts. Thereafter, accompanying the development and technical advance of the low energy electron beam irradiation apparatus which is suitable to surface treatment such as coating and easy to handle and the development of resins, the electron beam curing method has become to be utilized for coating hardboard and wooden doors, coating automobile tire rims, adhering printing papers and others. The electron beam curing method has advantage such as energy conservation, resource saving and little pollution because solvent is not used, high production rate and small floor space. In glossing industry, for the purpose of developing the techniques to apply electron beam curing method to glazed paper production, the selection of the composition of resins suitable to glazed papers, the irradiating condition and the properties of cured films were examined. The films withstanding bending can be obtained at low dose with urethane group, ester group or the combination of monomers. (Kako, I.)

  8. New cultivar produced by heavy-ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaya, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Kenichi; Iwaki, Kazunari [Suntory Flowers Ltd., Higashiomi, Shiga (Japan); Ichida, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoriko; Saito, Hiroyuki; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa; Abe, Tomoko [RIKEN, Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    The RIKEN accelerator research facility (RARF) is the one of the biggest facilities to accelerate heavy ions in all over the world since 1986. We started our trials in plant breeding since 1993. Soon we found that the ion beam is highly effective in the cause of mutagenesis of tobacco embryos during the fertilization without damage to other plant tissue. RIKEN and Suntory Flowers Ltd. have jointly developed some new ornamental varieties of Verbena and Petunia using ion-beam irradiation. We already put 5 new flower cultivars on the market in Japan, USA, Canada and EU since 2002. We report here a new variety of Torenia obtained by ion-beam irradiation. (author)

  9. New cultivar produced by heavy-ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Kenichi; Iwaki, Kazunari; Ichida, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoriko; Saito, Hiroyuki; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa; Abe, Tomoko

    2007-01-01

    The RIKEN accelerator research facility (RARF) is the one of the biggest facilities to accelerate heavy ions in all over the world since 1986. We started our trials in plant breeding since 1993. Soon we found that the ion beam is highly effective in the cause of mutagenesis of tobacco embryos during the fertilization without damage to other plant tissue. RIKEN and Suntory Flowers Ltd. have jointly developed some new ornamental varieties of Verbena and Petunia using ion-beam irradiation. We already put 5 new flower cultivars on the market in Japan, USA, Canada and EU since 2002. We report here a new variety of Torenia obtained by ion-beam irradiation. (author)

  10. Exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibamura, Yokichi; Suda, Shoichi; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    1991-01-01

    Among global environmental problems, atmospheric pollution has been discussed since relatively old days, and various countermeasures have been taken, but recently in connection with acid rain, the efficient and economical treatment technology is demanded. As the denitration and desulfurization technology for the exhaust gas from the combustion of fossil fuel, the incineration of city trash and internal combustion engines, three is the treatment method by electron beam irradiation. By irradiating electron beam to exhaust gas, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are oxidized to nitric acid and sulfuric acid, and by promoting the neutralization of these acids with injected alkali, harmless salts are recovered. This method has the merit that nitrogen oxides and surfur oxides can be removed efficiently with a single system. In this report, as for the exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation, its principle, features, and the present status of research and development are described, and in particular, the research on the recent exhaust gas treatment in city trash incineration is introduced. This treatment method is a dry process, accordingly, waste water disposal is unnecessary. The reaction products are utilized as fertilizer, and waste is not produced. (K.I.)

  11. Preliminary Beam Irradiation Test for RI Production Targets at KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sang Pil; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Cho, Yong Sub; Seol, Kyung Tae; Song, Young Gi; Kim, Dae Il; Jung, Myung Hwan; Kim, Kye Ryung; Min, Yi Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The new beamline and target irradiation facility has been constructed for the production of therapeutic radio-isotope. Sr-82 and Cu-67 were selected as the target isotope in this facility, they are promising isotope for the PET imaging and cancer therapy. For the facility commissioning, the irradiation test for the prototype-target was conducted to confirm the feasibility of radio-isotope production, the proto-type targets are made of RbCl pellet and the natural Zn metal for Sr-82 and Cu-67 production respectively, In this paper, an introduction to the RI production targetry system and the results of the preliminary beam irradiation test are discussed. the low-flux beam irradiation tests for proto-type RI target have been conducted. As a result of the beam irradiation tests, we could obtain the evidence of Sr-82 and Cu-67 production, have confirmed the feasibility of Sr-82 and Cu-67 production at KOMAC RI production facility.

  12. Preliminary Beam Irradiation Test for RI Production Targets at KOMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Pil; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Cho, Yong Sub; Seol, Kyung Tae; Song, Young Gi; Kim, Dae Il; Jung, Myung Hwan; Kim, Kye Ryung; Min, Yi Sub

    2016-01-01

    The new beamline and target irradiation facility has been constructed for the production of therapeutic radio-isotope. Sr-82 and Cu-67 were selected as the target isotope in this facility, they are promising isotope for the PET imaging and cancer therapy. For the facility commissioning, the irradiation test for the prototype-target was conducted to confirm the feasibility of radio-isotope production, the proto-type targets are made of RbCl pellet and the natural Zn metal for Sr-82 and Cu-67 production respectively, In this paper, an introduction to the RI production targetry system and the results of the preliminary beam irradiation test are discussed. the low-flux beam irradiation tests for proto-type RI target have been conducted. As a result of the beam irradiation tests, we could obtain the evidence of Sr-82 and Cu-67 production, have confirmed the feasibility of Sr-82 and Cu-67 production at KOMAC RI production facility

  13. Radiobiological comparison of external beam irradiation and radioimmunotherapy in renal cell carcinoma xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessels, B.W.; Vessella, R.L.; Palme, D.F. II; Berkopec, J.M.; Smith, G.K.; Bradley, E.W.

    1989-01-01

    Growth delay was measured in TK-82 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) xenografts implanted in nude mice receiving single fraction external beam irradiation (SF-XRT), multifraction external beam irradiation (MF-XRT), or radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Thermoluminescent dosimeter(s) (TLD) and autoradiography were used to ascertain the average absorbed dose delivered and the degree of heterogeneous uptake of radiolabeled antibody for the RIT irradiations. For intravenous administered activities of 100, 200, 400, and 600 microCi of I-131 labeled A6H antibody, volume doubling times (VDT) and TLD absorbed dose measurements for each administered activity were 7 days (341 cGy), 38 days (383 cGy), 85 days (886 cGy) and no regrowth (1034 cGy), respectively. For SF-XRT irradiations of 500, 1000, and 1500 cGy, VDT times were 11, 62, and 103 days, respectively. MF-XRT of 4 X 250 cGy over a 2-week period yielded a VDT of 25 days. Marked peripheral activity deposition was noted on most autoradiographs from multiple tumor samples. These data suggest that an equivalent to superior tumor growth delay is obtained for absorbed doses delivered by exponentially decaying low dose rate radioimmunotherapy RIT compared to similar doses of acute dose rate XRT as quantitated by the TLD method

  14. Ion beam techniques for analyzing polymers irradiated by ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickards, J.; Zironi, E.P.; Andrade, E.; Dominguez, B.

    1992-01-01

    In the study of the effects of ion beam irradiation of polymers very large doses can be administered in short times. Thousands of MGy can be produced in a small volume of a sample in a few minutes by bombarding with typical ion beam currents. For instance, in an experiment done to observe the effects of 750 keV proton irradiation PVC, using a collimator of 1 mm diameter, 1 μC of charge integration deposits a dose of 50 MGy. The use of ion beams also opens up the possibility of using the same beam for irradiation and for analysis of the effects, using the well known ion beam analysis techniques. PIXE allows the measurement of chlorine in PVC. Polymers containing fluorine can be measured with the resonant nuclear reaction (RNR) technique, which is specific only to certain elements. The amount of hydrogen in the sample and its profile can be obtained using energy recoil detection analysis (ERDA); carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen can be measured and profiled using Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and also using the (d,p) and (d, α) nuclear reactions (NR). Loss of mass is one effect that can be studied using these techniques. It was studied in two different polymers, PVC and CR-39, in order to determine carbon buildup during ion irradiation. It was concluded that carbon builds up following different mechanisms in these two materials, due to the different possibilities of forming volatile compounds. It is also suggested that CR-39 should be a good material for ion beam lithography. (author)

  15. Modification of PLGA Nanofibrous Mats by Electron Beam Irradiation for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Baek Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA has found widespread use in modern medical practice. However, the degradation rate of PLGA should be adjusted for specific biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, and surgical implantation. This study focused on the effect of electron beam radiation on nanofibrous PLGA mats in terms of physical properties and degradation behavior with cell proliferation. PLGA nanofiber mats were prepared by electrospinning, and electron beam was irradiated at doses of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 kGy. PLGA mats showed dimensional integrity after electron beam irradiation without change of fiber diameter. The degradation behavior of a control PLGA nanofiber (0 kGy and electron beam-irradiated PLGA nanofibers was analyzed by measuring the molecular weight, weight loss, change of chemical structure, and fibrous morphology. The molecular weight of the PLGA nanofibers decreased with increasing electron beam radiation dose. The mechanical properties of the PLGA nanofibrous mats were decreased with increasing electron beam irradiation dose. Cell proliferation behavior on all electron beam irradiated PLGA mats was similar to the control PLGA mats. Electron beam irradiation of PLGA nanofibrous mats is a potentially useful approach for modulating the biodegradation rate of tissue-specific nonwoven nanofibrous scaffolds, specifically for soft tissue engineering applications.

  16. Changes in mechanical and chemical wood properties by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnabel, Thomas; Huber, Hermann; Grünewald, Tilman A.; Petutschnigg, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Changes in wood due to electron beam irradiations (EBI) were evaluated. • Wood components undergo different altering mechanisms due to the irradiation. • Chemical reactions in wood lead to better surface hardness of low irradiated wood. - Abstract: This study deals with the influence of various electron beam irradiation (EBI) dosages on the Brinell hardness of Norway spruce. The results of the hardness measurements and the FT-IR spectroscopic analysis show different effects of the EBI at dosages of 25, 50, 100 and 200 kGy. It was assumed that the lignin and carbohydrates undergo different altering mechanisms due to the EBI treatment. New cleavage products and condensation reactions of lignin and carbohydrates lead to better surface hardness of low irradiated wood samples. These results provide a useful basis for further investigations on the changes in wood chemistry and material properties due to electron beam irradiations

  17. Changes in mechanical and chemical wood properties by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.schnabel@fh-salzburg.ac.at [Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Products Technology and Wood Constructions, Marktstraße 136a, 5431 Kuchl (Austria); Huber, Hermann [Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Products Technology and Wood Constructions, Marktstraße 136a, 5431 Kuchl (Austria); Grünewald, Tilman A. [BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Physics and Materials Science, Peter Jordan Straße 82, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Petutschnigg, Alexander [Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Products Technology and Wood Constructions, Marktstraße 136a, 5431 Kuchl (Austria); BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Konrad Lorenzstraße 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria)

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • Changes in wood due to electron beam irradiations (EBI) were evaluated. • Wood components undergo different altering mechanisms due to the irradiation. • Chemical reactions in wood lead to better surface hardness of low irradiated wood. - Abstract: This study deals with the influence of various electron beam irradiation (EBI) dosages on the Brinell hardness of Norway spruce. The results of the hardness measurements and the FT-IR spectroscopic analysis show different effects of the EBI at dosages of 25, 50, 100 and 200 kGy. It was assumed that the lignin and carbohydrates undergo different altering mechanisms due to the EBI treatment. New cleavage products and condensation reactions of lignin and carbohydrates lead to better surface hardness of low irradiated wood samples. These results provide a useful basis for further investigations on the changes in wood chemistry and material properties due to electron beam irradiations.

  18. The thermal and mechanical properties of electron beam-irradiated polylactide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuk, In Seol; Jung, Chan Hee; Hwang, In Tae; Choi, Jae Hak; Nho, Young Chang

    2010-01-01

    The effect of electron beam irradiation on the thermal and mechanical properties of polylactide (PLA) was investigated in this research. PLA films were irradiated by electron beams at different absorption doses ranging from 20 to 200 kGy. The thermal and mechanical properties of the irradiated PLA films were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetric analyzer, universal testing machine, dynamic mechanical analyzer, and thermal mechanical analyzer. The results revealed that the chain scission of the PLA predominated over the crosslinking during the irradiation, which considerably deteriorated the thermal and mechanical properties of the PLA

  19. Modification of mechanical properties of Si crystal irradiated by Kr-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaowei; Momota, Sadao; Nitta, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Takaharu; Sato, Noriyuki; Tokaji, Hideto

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Modification of mechanical properties of silicon crystal irradiated by Kr-beam was observed by means of continuous measurements of nano-indentation technique. • Modified mechanical properties show fluence-dependence. • Young's modulus is more sensitive to crystal to amorphous phase transition while hardness is more sensitive to damage induced by ion beam irradiation. • The depth profile of modified mechanical properties have a potential application of determining the longitudinal size of phase transition region induced by nanoindentation. - Abstract: The application of ion-beam irradiation in fabrication of structures with micro-/nanometer scale has achieved striking improvement. However, an inevitable damage results in the change of mechanical properties in irradiated materials. To investigate the relation between mechanical properties and ion-irradiation damages, nanoindentation was performed on crystalline silicon irradiated by Kr-beam with an energy of 240 keV. Modified Young's modulus and nanohardness, provided from the indentation, indicated fluence dependence. Stopping and range of ions in matter (SRIM) calculation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation, and Rutherford backscattering-channeling (RBS-C) measurement were utilized to understand the irradiation effect on mechanical properties. In addition, the longitudinal size of the phase transition region induced by indentation was firstly evaluated based on the depth profile of modified nanohardness

  20. Effect of Gamma and Electron Beam Irradiation on Textile Waste Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selambakkannu, S.; Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Ting, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this studies gamma and electron beam irradiation was used to treat textile waste water. Comparisons between both types of irradiation in terms of effectiveness to degrade the pollutants present in textile waste water was done. Prior to irradiation, the raw wastewater was diluted using distilled water to a target concentration of COD 400 mg/l. The sample was irradiated at selected doses between the ranges of 10 kGy to 100 kGy. The results showed that irradiation has significantly contributed in the reduction of the highly colored refractory organic pollutants. The COD removal at the lowest dose, 10 kGy, was reduced to 390 mg/l for gamma and 400 mg/l for electron beam. Meanwhile, at the highest dose, 100 kGy, the COD was reduced to 125 mg/l for gamma and 144 mg/l for electron beam. The degree of removal is influenced by the dose introduced during the treatment process. As the dose increased, the higher the removal of organic pollutant was recorded. However, gamma irradiation is more effective although the differences are not significant between gamma and electron beam irradiation. On the other hand, other properties of the wastewater such as pH, turbidity, suspended solid, BOD and color also shows a gradual decrease as the dose increases for both types of irradiation. (author)

  1. Electron beam influence on the carbon contamination of electron irradiated hydroxyapatite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristu, Radu; Stanciu, Stefan G.; Tranca, Denis E.; Stanciu, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon contamination mechanisms of electron-beam-irradiated hydroxyapatite. • Atomic force microscopy phase imaging used to detect carbon contamination. • Carbon contamination dependence on electron energy, irradiation time, beam current. • Simulation of backscattered electrons confirms the experimental results. - Abstract: Electron beam irradiation which is considered a reliable method for tailoring the surface charge of hydroxyapatite is hindered by carbon contamination. Separating the effects of the carbon contamination from those of irradiation-induced trapped charge is important for a wide range of biological applications. In this work we focus on the understanding of the electron-beam-induced carbon contamination with special emphasis on the influence of the electron irradiation parameters on this phenomenon. Phase imaging in atomic force microscopy is used to evaluate the influence of electron energy, beam current and irradiation time on the shape and size of the resulted contamination patterns. Different processes involved in the carbon contamination of hydroxyapatite are discussed

  2. Multiple myeloma of an extremity: must the whole bone be irradiated?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catell, Donna; Kogen, Zeev; Donahue, Bernadine; Steinfeld, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Radiation of the entire shaft of a long bone affected by multiple myeloma is often advocated to prevent recurrent disease in the bone remote from the symptomatic site. Our standard of care has been to irradiate only the symptomatic area. We investigated the pattern of recurrence in patients treated in this manner. Materials and Methods: 163 patients with multiple myeloma were treated between 1971 and 1994. Twenty-seven patients received treatment to a long bone with 43 sites irradiated (17 humeri, 24 femurs, 1 radius, 1 ulna.) The most common long bone treated was the femur. All patients were treated with megavoltage therapy. The symptomatic lesion, plus a margin of 1-2 cm was treated with no attempt to treat the entire shaft. Mean radiation dose was 2782 cGy (range 600-4480 cGy). The length of the field was measured in centimeters and expressed as both an absolute (AL) and relative (RL) length (i.e. percentage of total length of bone). Results: The mean total AL and RL for femur fields was 18 cm and 42% respectively. For the humerus, the AL and RL were 20 cm and 68% respectively. Only 4 patients developed progressive disease in the same bone but outside the previously irradiated field. In 3 of the 4 patients the RL was between 20 and 30%. The dose of radiation given to these patients was 1250, 2100, 3000 and 3500 cGy. In all of these 4 cases, treatment of progressive disease in adjacent sites provided effective palliation of symptoms. Conclusion: Radiation therapy to the symptomatic portion of a long bone affected by MM is effective for palliation. Symptomatic recurrence out of the irradiated field is uncommon and can be effectively treated. Potential benefits of this approach include irradiation of less normal marrow and elimination of use of pairs of fields or extended distance treatment to cover the entire femur

  3. Selective Adsorption of Nano-bio materials and nanostructure fabrication on Molecular Resists Modified by proton beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. W.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, S. M.

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this research is the fabrication of nanostructures on silicon substrate using proton beam and selectively adsorption of bio-nano materials on the patterned substrate. Recently, the miniaturization of the integrated devices with fine functional structures was intensively investigated, based on combination of nanotechnology (NT), biotechnology (BT) and information technology (IT). Because of the inherent limitation in optical lithography, large variety of novel patterning technologies were evolved to construct nano-structures onto a substrate. Atomic force microscope-based nanolithography has readily formed sub-50 nm patterns by the local modification of a substrate using a probe with a curvature of 10 nm. The surface property was regarded as one of the most important factors for AFM-based nanolithography as well as for other novel nanolithographies. The molecular thin films such as a self-assembled monolayer or a polymer resist layer have been used as an alternative to modifying the surface property. Although proton or ion beam irradiation has been used as an efficient tool to modify the physical, chemical and electrical properties of a surface, the nano-patterning on the substrate or the molecular film modified with the beam irradiation has hardly been studied at both home and abroad. The selective adsorption of nano-bio materials such as carbon nanotubes and proteins on the patterns would contribute to developing the integrated devices. The polystyrene nanoparticles (400 nm) were arrayed on al silicon surface using nanosphere lithography and the various nanopatterns were fabricated by proton beam irradiation on the polystyrene nanoparticles arrayed silicon surface. We obtained the two different nanopatterns such as polymer nanoring patterns and silicon oxide patterns on the same silicon substrate. The polymer nanoring patterns formed by the crosslinkage of polystyrene when proton beam was irradiated at the triangular void spaces that are enclosed by

  4. Creation of 3D microsculptures in PMMA by multiple angle proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, T.; Rothermel, M.; Reinert, T.; Koal, T.; Butz, T.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the technique of proton beam writing has established itself as a versatile method for the creation of microstructures in resist materials. While these structures can be almost arbitrary in two dimensions, the creation of genuine 3D structures remains a challenge. At the LIPSION accelerator facility a new approach has been developed which combines aspects of ion beam tomography, so far solely an analysis method, with proton beam writing. Key element is the targeted irradiation from multiple angles in order to obtain a much broader range of 3D microstructures than has hitherto been possible. PMMA columns with a diameter of ∼90 μm were used as raw material and placed in an upright position on top of a rotational axis. Using 2.25 MeV protons patterns corresponding to the silhouettes of the desired structures were written from two or more directions. In a subsequent step of chemical etching irradiated portions were dissolved, leaving behind the finished 3D sculpture. Various objects have been created. For the demonstration of the method a 70 μm high model of the Eiffel tower has been sculpted by irradiation from two angles. Using irradiation from three angles a 40 μm wide screw with right-handed thread could be crafted which might find applications in micromachining. Also, a cage structure with a pore size of ca. 20 μm was written with the intention to use it as a scaffold for the growth of biological cells.

  5. Effects of electron beam irradiation on cut flowers and mites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohino, Toshiyuki; Tanabe, Kazuo

    1994-01-01

    Two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae KOCH were irradiated with electron beams (2.5MeV) to develop an alternative quarantine treatment for imported cut flowers. The tolerance of eggs increased with age (1-5-day-old). Immature stages (larva-teleiochrysalis) irradiated at 0.4-0.8kGy increased tolerance with their development. Mated mature females irradiated at 0.4kGy or higher did not produce viable eggs, although temporary recovery was observed at 0.2kGy. Adult males were sterilized at 0.4kGy because non-irradiated virgin females mated with yielded female progeny malformed and sterilized. Various effects of electron beam irradiation were observed when nine species of cut flowers were irradiated in 5MeV Dynamitron accelerator. Chrysanthemum and rose were most sensitive among cut flowers. (author)

  6. Irradiation of Gemstones using Electron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarada Idris; Mohd Suhaimi Jusoh; Siti Aiasah Hashim

    2011-01-01

    Gemstone irradiation treatment using radiation is one of the studies conducted in the ALURTRON. The purpose of radiation is to study the effects of radiation on the gems. Through studies conducted on freshwater pearls and stones such as Topaz, Kunzite, TOURMALINE, Aquamarine, Quartz and so on, electron beam irradiation method can highlight the jewel colors but also to reduce the effects of haze on gemstones. The dose of radiation used is 25 kGy to 200 kGy. (author)

  7. The effects of electron beam irradiation on sterilization and preservation of chilled pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yanhong; Mao Duobin; Zhao Dianbo; Zhang Xiaoyan; Li Quanshun; Yang Gongming

    2009-01-01

    S The effects of electron beam irradiation on the sterilization and preservation of chilled pork were studied. The aim of this investigation was to provide academic and technical basis for application of electron beam irradiation on meat industry. The response surface analysis was used with electron beam energy(X 1 ) and dose(X 2 ) as factors and colony form unit(Y) as responses. The results have been shown that the model of sterilization of chilled pork by electron beam irradiation can be expressed Y=3.78-0.24X 1 -0.13X 2 -0.16X 1 X 2 -0.18X 1 2 +0.15X 1 2 (R 2 =0.9755). It has been found there is a interaction between electron beam energy and absorbed doses, and the significance sequence of factors is absorbed dose>interaction> electron beam energy. When absorbed doses are in range from 3.23 kGy to 4.0 kGy and electron beam energy is in range from 2.3 MeV to 3.8 MeV, the colony form unit would drop 2 logarithm units. The shelf life of samples treated with electron beam irradiation is longer by about 12 d than that of control samples when the samples are stored at 4 degree C. When the samples are stored at 7∼10 degree C, shelf life of samples treated with electron beam irradiation is longer by about 9 d than that of control samples. The results showed that electron beam irradiation has the effects of sterilization and preservation on chilled pork. This study has been confirmed that the application of electron beam irradiation is very useful for meat industry. (authors)

  8. CRionScan: A stand-alone real time controller designed to perform ion beam imaging, dose controlled irradiation and proton beam writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudin, L.; Barberet, Ph.; Serani, L.; Moretto, Ph.

    2013-07-01

    High resolution ion microbeams, usually used to perform elemental mapping, low dose targeted irradiation or ion beam lithography needs a very flexible beam control system. For this purpose, we have developed a dedicated system (called “CRionScan”), on the AIFIRA facility (Applications Interdisciplinaires des Faisceaux d'Ions en Région Aquitaine). It consists of a stand-alone real-time scanning and imaging instrument based on a Compact Reconfigurable Input/Output (Compact RIO) device from National Instruments™. It is based on a real-time controller, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), input/output modules and Ethernet connectivity. We have implemented a fast and deterministic beam scanning system interfaced with our commercial data acquisition system without any hardware development. CRionScan is built under LabVIEW™ and has been used on AIFIRA's nanobeam line since 2009 (Barberet et al., 2009, 2011) [1,2]. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) embedded in the Compact RIO as a web page is used to control the scanning parameters. In addition, a fast electrostatic beam blanking trigger has been included in the FPGA and high speed counters (15 MHz) have been implemented to perform dose controlled irradiation and on-line images on the GUI. Analog to Digital converters are used for the beam current measurement and in the near future for secondary electrons imaging. Other functionalities have been integrated in this controller like LED lighting using Pulse Width Modulation and a “NIM Wilkinson ADC” data acquisition.

  9. CRionScan: A stand-alone real time controller designed to perform ion beam imaging, dose controlled irradiation and proton beam writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daudin, L., E-mail: daudin@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Université Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Barberet, Ph.; Serani, L.; Moretto, Ph. [Université Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)

    2013-07-01

    High resolution ion microbeams, usually used to perform elemental mapping, low dose targeted irradiation or ion beam lithography needs a very flexible beam control system. For this purpose, we have developed a dedicated system (called “CRionScan”), on the AIFIRA facility (Applications Interdisciplinaires des Faisceaux d’Ions en Région Aquitaine). It consists of a stand-alone real-time scanning and imaging instrument based on a Compact Reconfigurable Input/Output (Compact RIO) device from National Instruments™. It is based on a real-time controller, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), input/output modules and Ethernet connectivity. We have implemented a fast and deterministic beam scanning system interfaced with our commercial data acquisition system without any hardware development. CRionScan is built under LabVIEW™ and has been used on AIFIRA’s nanobeam line since 2009 (Barberet et al., 2009, 2011) [1,2]. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) embedded in the Compact RIO as a web page is used to control the scanning parameters. In addition, a fast electrostatic beam blanking trigger has been included in the FPGA and high speed counters (15 MHz) have been implemented to perform dose controlled irradiation and on-line images on the GUI. Analog to Digital converters are used for the beam current measurement and in the near future for secondary electrons imaging. Other functionalities have been integrated in this controller like LED lighting using Pulse Width Modulation and a “NIM Wilkinson ADC” data acquisition.

  10. Parallel Beam-Beam Simulation Incorporating Multiple Bunches and Multiple Interaction Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, F W; Pieloni, T

    2007-01-01

    The simulation code COMBI has been developed to enable the study of coherent beam-beam effects in the full collision scenario of the LHC, with multiple bunches interacting at multiple crossing points over many turns. The program structure and input are conceived in a general way which allows arbitrary numbers and placements of bunches and interaction points (IP's), together with procedural options for head-on and parasitic collisions (in the strong-strong sense), beam transport, statistics gathering, harmonic analysis, and periodic output of simulation data. The scale of this problem, once we go beyond the simplest case of a pair of bunches interacting once per turn, quickly escalates into the parallel computing arena, and herein we will describe the construction of an MPI-based version of COMBI able to utilize arbitrary numbers of processors to support efficient calculation of multi-bunch multi-IP interactions and transport. Implementing the parallel version did not require extensive disruption of the basic ...

  11. Irradiation Effects on RIA Fragmentation Cu Beam Dump

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes, Susana; Boles, Jason; Stein, Werner; Wirth, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of conceptual R&D activities in support of the Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility, high priority is given to the development of high-power fragmentation beam dumps. A pre-study was made of a static water-cooled Cu beam dump that can meet requirements for a 400 MeV/u uranium beam. The issue of beam sputtering was addressed and found to be not a significant issue. Preliminary radiation transport simulations show significant damage (dpa) in the vicinity of the Bragg peak of uranium ions. Experimental data show that defects in Cu following neutron or high-energy particle irradiation tend to saturate at doses between 1 and 5 dpa, and this saturation in defect density also results in saturation of mechanical property degradation. However, effects of swift heavy ion irradiation and the production of gaseous and solid transmutant elements still need to be addressed. Initial calculations indicate that He concentrations on the order of 100 appm are produced in the beam dump after several weeks...

  12. Beam transfer line for food irradiation microtron at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Pradeep; Singh, Gurnam

    2003-01-01

    A 10 MeV microtron is being developed at CAT for irradiation of food products. A beam transfer line comprising a 90 deg bending magnet, a quadrupole doublet and a rectangular scanning magnet has been designed to irradiate food products from the upper side. The bending magnet has an edge angle of 22.5 deg. The length of the beam transfer line has been minimized to keep the whole unit as compact as possible. The beam optics has been optimized keeping in view the requirement of a small beam pipe aperture (25mm radius) and a large range of circular as well as elliptical beam sizes on the food product. The speed of the conveyor belt has been assumed to be very small. The results of the beam optics chosen and the variation of the linear charge density on a food product during the scanning are presented in this paper. The effects of path length variation within the scanning magnet and beam size variation during a scanning are also discussed

  13. The change of pollen traits in gladiolus irradiated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiwei; Wang Dan; Zhang Dongxue; Yuan Xianghui

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of electron beam induced mutation on Gladiolus and the effects of electron beam with different doses on pollen traits, M1 generation pollen traits were studied by use of 3MeV electron beams with seven doses of 0Gy, 40Gy, 80Gy, 120Gy, 160Gy, 200Gy, 240Gy. It has been shown that the sterile pollen rate of M1 generation is higher than that of control. At low dose there had no obvious effects on the viability and germination rate of M1 generation pollen. With the increase of irradiation dose, the viability and germination rate of pollen was decreased and the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). Comparing (SEM) photograph of the pollen shapes of M1 generation with control, within a certain doses level, mutagenic effects on pollen increased with the dose increasing in the angle of polynology. Variations of mutagenic effect extent were found at the different irradiation dosage. The EST isozymes expression of M1 generation pollen was obviously changed by electron beam irradiation confirmed by use of PAGE electrophoresis. EST patterns of pollen of Gladiolus irradiated at the dose no more than 120Gy were similar to CK, but there were some differences in the vigor of isozymes. The EST bands added or absent had been observed at the dose more than 160Gy compared to CK. There were a special EST band more and 2 EST bands less in plants treated by both 160Gy and 200Gy electron beam irradiation, and a special EST band more and 1 EST bands less in plants treated by 240Gy electron beam irradiation. The vigor of isozymes of plants treated at the dose more than 160Gy showed some respective differences compared to the other treated and CK's. These results revealed that electron beam irradiation is an effective way for Gladiolus breeding. (authors)

  14. Effect of electron beam irradiation on pollen mother cells of gladiolus 'chaoji'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiwei; Wang Dan; Wen Fangping Zhang Xiaoxue

    2008-01-01

    In order to test the effects of various doses of electron beam on M1 generation pollen mother cells (PMC), the corm of gladiolus 'chaoji' was irradiated by electron beam with 3 MeV energy. Some abnormalities of meiosis of pollen mother cells were studied and the bands of protein subunit were analyzed by SDS-PAGE for the irradiated corm. The genetic damage at meiosis of gladiolus is observed, and the types of chromosomal aberrations are laggard chromosomes, chromosomal bridge, chromosome outside nucleus, unequal separation of chromosome, micronuclei and so on. Some trispores and paraspores are viewed at tetraspore period. The shape and size of the microspores vary in some treated materials, and most of microspores display little volume. The statistic of aberrance types and frequencies in PMCs show that aberrance types are chromosome outside nucleus and micronuclei mostly. The SDS-PAGE result shows that protein expression of M1 generation pollen is obviously changed by electron beam irradiation. Low dose of electron beam has obvious effects, and some special proteins subunit bands are found among varieties of irradiation dosage respectively. The protein bands are absent at the dose more than 160 Gy compared to low dose of electron beam. The results indicate that electron beam irradiation is an effective way for gladiolus breeding. (authors)

  15. Nanocavity formation and hardness increase by dual ion beam irradiation of oxide dispersion strengthened FeCrAl alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koegler, R., E-mail: r.koegler@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Anwand, W. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Richter, A. [Department of Engineering, Technical University of Applied Sciences Wildau, Bahnhofstrasse 1, 15745 Wildau (Germany); Butterling, M.; Ou, Xin; Wagner, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Chen, C.-L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    Open volume defects generated by ion implantation into oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy and the related hardness were investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy and nanoindentation measurements, respectively. Synchronized dual beam implantation of Fe and He ions was performed at room temperature and at moderately enhanced temperature of 300 Degree-Sign C. For room temperature implantation a significant hardness increase after irradiation is observed which is more distinctive in heat treated than in as-received ODS alloy. There is also a difference between the simultaneous and sequential implantation mode as the hardening effect for the simultaneously implanted ODS alloy is stronger than for sequential implantation. The comparison of hardness profiles and of the corresponding open volume profiles shows a qualitative agreement between the open volume defects generated on the nanoscopic scale and the macroscopic hardness characteristics. Open volume defects are drastically reduced for performing the simultaneous dual beam irradiation at 300 Degree-Sign C which is a more realistic temperature under application aspects. Few remaining defects are clusters of 3-4 vacancies in connection with Y oxide nanoparticles. These defects completely disappear in a shallow layer at the surface. The results are in agreement with hardness measurements showing little hardness increase after irradiation at 300 Degree-Sign C. Suitable characteristics of ODS alloy for nuclear applications and the close correlation between He-related open volume defects and the hardness characteristics are verified.

  16. Influence of e-Beam Irradiation on the Performance of Energy Storage and Conversion Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeok, Sung Hyeon; Jo, Won Jun; Lee, Duwon; Lee, Myung An [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Joong Hyeok; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Electron beam irradiation was known as an effective method to improve the stability and performance of electrodes by varying the chemical and physical properties. It has been reported that surface morphology, oxidation state, optical properties, and electrochemical properties can be modified by e-beam irradiation. In this work, influence of electron beam irradiation on the performance of electrode was studied for the applications in energy storage and conversion, such as secondary battery, supercapacitor, and fuel cell. Changes in physical and chemical properties of electrodes before and after e-beam irradiation were investigated. The crystallinity of the synthesized materials was investigated by X-ray diffraction, and the oxidation states were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy was utilized to examine surface morphology. Crystallinity, surface morphology, and oxidation state were significantly changed by electron beam irradiation, and were found to be strongly dependent on irradiation time.

  17. Pre-feasibility study of electron beam irradiation of fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finshi V, Silvia.

    1997-01-01

    A technical/economic evaluation of electron beam irradiation for the decontamination of liquids in the country is presented. Irradiation of fresh water is evaluated for the production of drinking water as a replacement for chlorine disinfection, which can lead to the formation of tri halo methanes. that are carcinogenic compounds. The technical literature states that the percentage of microorganisms removed by electro beam irradiation is high and similar to that found with chlorine disinfection. From an economic point of view, irradiation technology is not presently competitive as an alternative to conventional chlorination in terms of processing costs (US$0.23/m 3 ) instead of US$0.013/m 3 for conventional chlorination. Nevertheless, irradiation costs decreased sharply when unit costs for the accelerator machine are decreased with a resulting drop in capital costs

  18. A plasma amplifier to combine multiple beams at NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, R. K.; Turnbull, D. P.; Chapman, T.; Wilks, S. C.; Rosen, M. D.; London, R. A.; Pickworth, L. A.; Colaitis, A.; Dunlop, W. H.; Poole, P.; Moody, J. D.; Strozzi, D. J.; Michel, P. A.; Divol, L.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Van Wonterghem, B. M.; Fournier, K. B.; Blue, B. E.

    2018-05-01

    Combining laser beams in a plasma is enabled by seeded stimulated Brillouin scattering which allows cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) to occur and re-distributes the energy between beams that cross with different incident angles and small differences in wavelength [Kirkwood et al. Phys. Plasmas 4, 1800 (1997)]. Indirect-drive implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Haynam et al. Appl. Opt. 46, 3276-3303 (2007)] have controlled drive symmetry by using plasma amplifiers to transfer energy between beams [Kirkwood et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 55, 103001 (2013); Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 020501 (2014); and Hurricane et al. Nature 506, 343-348 (2014)]. In this work, we show that the existing models are well enough validated by experiments to allow a design of a plasma beam combiner that, once optimized, is expected to produce a pulse of light in a single beam with the energy greatly enhanced over existing sources. The scheme combines up to 61 NIF beams with 120 kJ of available energy into a single f/20 beam with a 1 ns pulse duration and a 351 nm wavelength by both resonant and off-resonance CBET. Initial experiments are also described that have already succeeded in producing a 4 kJ, 1 ns pulse in a single beam by combination of up to eight incident pump beams containing <1.1 kJ/beam, which are maintained near resonance for CBET in a plasma that is formed by 60 pre-heating beams [Kirkwood et al., Nat. Phys. 14, 80 (2018)].

  19. Manufacture of electron beam irradiation vessel and its characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Takao; Haruyama, Yasuyuki; Yotsumoto, Keiichi

    1992-05-01

    Electron beam irradiation vessel, which is used for the irradiation of samples under an inert or a vacuum atmosphere, is made by considering the temperature control during or after irradiation. The vessel was composed of the temperature controlable samples supporting plate, beam slit with water cooling plate and the insert of thermosensor. The four samples supporting plate was produced with the materials made up of aluminium, stainless steel (SUS304), and copper. The stainless steel supporting plate has a heater inside the cooling pipes for the high temperature treatment of samples without exposure to atmosphere after the irradiation. In this report, the temperature distribution and dose characteristics such as dose distribution and effects of backscattered electron were studied by using several supporting plate and the comparison of the experimental results with the simulated results was also carried out. (author)

  20. Electron beam inactivation of Tulane virus on fresh produce, and mechanism of inactivation of human norovirus surrogates by electron beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predmore, Ashley; Sanglay, Gabriel C; DiCaprio, Erin; Li, Jianrong; Uribe, R M; Lee, Ken

    2015-04-02

    Ionizing radiation, whether by electron beams or gamma rays, is a non-thermal processing technique used to improve the microbial safety and shelf-life of many different food products. This technology is highly effective against bacterial pathogens, but data on its effect against foodborne viruses is limited. A mechanism of viral inactivation has been proposed with gamma irradiation, but no published study discloses a mechanism for electron beam (e-beam). This study had three distinct goals: 1) evaluate the sensitivity of a human norovirus surrogate, Tulane virus (TV), to e-beam irradiation in foods, 2) compare the difference in sensitivity of TV and murine norovirus (MNV-1) to e-beam irradiation, and 3) determine the mechanism of inactivation of these two viruses by e-beam irradiation. TV was reduced from 7 log10 units to undetectable levels at target doses of 16 kGy or higher in two food matrices (strawberries and lettuce). MNV-1 was more resistant to e-beam treatment than TV. At target doses of 4 kGy, e-beam provided a 1.6 and 1.2 log reduction of MNV-1 in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), compared to a 1.5 and 1.8 log reduction of TV in PBS and Opti-MEM, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that increased e-beam doses negatively affected the structure of both viruses. Analysis of viral proteins by SDS-PAGE found that irradiation also degraded viral proteins. Using RT-PCR, irradiation was shown to degrade viral genomic RNA. This suggests that the mechanism of inactivation of e-beam was likely the same as gamma irradiation as the damage to viral constituents led to inactivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hemibody irradiation in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, J.S.; Richards, J.D.M.; Blackman, G.M.; Joannides, T.; Trask, C.W.L.; Nathan, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    Eighteen patients with multiple myeloma were treated by hemibody irradiation using large single fractions, usually to a dose of 10 Gy (lower half) and 7.5 GY (upper half). All except one patient had previously been treated by multiple courses of conventional chemotherapy with melphalan and prednisone, and were considered to be resistant to further chemotherapy. In most cases, local field irradiation had also been given for symptomatic bone pain. Of the 13 patients who had symptoms at the start of hemibody irradiation, 11 improved sufficiently for their analgesia requirement to be reduced. In eight patients, there was a significant fall in circulating immunoglobulin but no patient with Bence-Jones proteinuria had complete resolution of this biochemical abnormality. Although thrombocytopenia and neutropenia were common, only two patients required platelet transfusion and the treatment was in general extremely well tolerated. Survival following hemibody irradiation was similar to the survival reported from the use of 'second-line' chemotherapy and we feel that hemibody irradiation is a more acceptable alternative for most patients. (orig.)

  2. LET effects of high energy ion beam irradiation on polysilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Shu; Kanzaki, Kenichi; Tagawa, Seiichi; Yoshida, Yoichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Sugimoto, Masaki; Sasuga, Tsuneo; Seguchi, Tadao; Shibata, Hiromi

    1997-03-01

    Thin films of poly(di-n-hexylsilane) were irradiated with 2-20 MeV H{sup +} and He{sup +} ion beams. The beams caused heterogeneous reactions of crosslinking and main chain scission in the films. The relative efficiency of the crosslinking was drastically changed in comparison with that of main chain scission. The anomalous change in the molecular weight distribution was analyzed with increasing irradiation fluence, and the ion beam induced reaction radius; track radius was determined for the radiation sources by the function of molecular weight dispersion. Obtained values were 59{+-}15 A and 14{+-}6 A for 2 MeV He{sup +} and 20 MeV H{sup +} ion beams respectively. (author)

  3. Ion beam irradiation effects on aromatic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukushima, Satoshi; Ueno, Keiji

    1995-01-01

    We studied the optical and thermal properties of aromatic polymer films which had been irradiated with 1 MeV H + , H 2 + and He + ions. The examined aromatic polymers were polyetherether ketone(PEEK), polyetherimide(PEI), polyether sulfon(PES), polysulfon(PSF), and polyphenylene sulfide(PPS). The optical densities at 300nm of PES and PSF greatly increased after the irradiation. The optical densities at 400nm of all the examined polymer lineally increased with the irradiation dose. The PEEK film which had been irradiated with 1 MeV H + was not deformed above melting point. This demonstrates that cross-linking occurs in PEEK films by ion beam irradiation. As for the effects, depending on the mass of the irradiated ions, it was found that the ions with a high mass induced larger effects on the aromatic polymers for the same absorption energy. (author)

  4. Changes in optical properties of polystyrene thin films by proton beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Hyun; Jung, Jin Mook; Choi, Jae Hak [Dept. of of Polymer Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Chan Hee; Hwang, In Tae; Shin, Jun Hwa [Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup(Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, changes in optical properties of polystyrene (PS) thin films by proton irradiation were investigated. PS thin films were irradiated with 150 keV proton ions at fluences ranging from 1 × 10{sup 15} to 1 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2}. The chemical structures and optical properties of proton beam-irradiated PS thin films were investigated by using a FT-IR spectrometer, an UVvis spectrophotometer, a photoluminescence (PL) and a fluorescence microscope. The results of the chemical structure analysis revealed that chemical functional groups, such as OH, C=O, and C=C, were formed in the PS films due to the oxidation and formation of carbon clusters by proton beam irradiation. The PL emission was generated and gradually red-shifted with an increasing fluence due to the higher formation of sp2 carbon clusters by proton beam irradiation. The highest PL intensity was obtained at a fluence of 5×10{sup 15} ions cm{sup -2}. The optical band gap of PS calculated by using a Tauc’s plot decreased with increasing the fluence due to the formation of sp2 carbon clusters by proton beam irradiation.

  5. SU-E-T-266: Development of Evaluation System of Optimal Synchrotron Controlling Parameter for Spot Scanning Proton Therapy with Multiple Gate Irradiations in One Operation Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T; Fujii, Y; Miyamoto, N; Matsuura, T; Takao, S; Matsuzaki, Y; Koyano, H; Shirato, H; Nihongi, H; Umezawa, M; Matsuda, K; Umegaki, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We have developed a gated spot scanning proton beam therapy system with real-time tumor-tracking. This system has the ability of multiple-gated irradiation in a single synchrotron operation cycle controlling the wait-time for consecutive gate signals during a flat-top phase so that the decrease in irradiation efficiency induced by irregular variation of gate signal is reduced. Our previous studies have shown that a 200 ms wait-time is appropriate to increase the average irradiation efficiency, but the optimal wait-time can vary patient by patient and day by day. In this research, we have developed an evaluation system of the optimal wait-time in each irradiation based on the log data of the real-time-image gated proton beam therapy (RGPT) system. Methods: The developed system consists of logger for operation of RGPT system and software for evaluation of optimal wait-time. The logger records timing of gate on/off, timing and the dose of delivered beam spots, beam energy and timing of X-ray irradiation. The evaluation software calculates irradiation time in the case of different wait-time by simulating the multiple-gated irradiation operation using several timing information. Actual data preserved in the log data are used for gate on and off time, spot irradiation time, and time moving to the next spot. Design values are used for the acceleration and deceleration times. We applied this system to a patient treated with the RGPT system. Results: The evaluation system found the optimal wait-time of 390 ms that reduced the irradiation time by about 10 %. The irradiation time with actual wait-time used in treatment was reproduced with accuracy of 0.2 ms. Conclusion: For spot scanning proton therapy system with multiple-gated irradiation in one synchrotron operation cycle, an evaluation system of the optimal wait-time in each irradiation based on log data has been developed. Funding Support: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) through the FIRST

  6. A study on chemical composition of spices irradiated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Lianzhong; Ding Shiyue; Zhu Yan; Li Yixu; Zhu Songmei

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative changes in common organic acids and inorganic acids from spices irradiated by electron beam were studied by Dionex-4000i ion chromatograph. The results showed that the acids content of either chilli or the five-spice powder irradiated with a dose of 9.94 kGy did not undergo significant changes in comparison with the control samples. The flavour composition in the five-spice powder irradiated by electron beam was also determined by Finnigan MAT-8230B gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, and compared to the results by heating treatment (120 deg. C, 30min). The comparison indicated that the effect of electron beam treatment on flavour composition was less than that of heating

  7. A study on chemical composition of spices irradiated by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lianzhong, Ding [Inst. of Applied Technical Physics of Zhejiang Province (China); Shiyue, Ding; Yan, Zhu; Yixu, Li [Testing Technology Inst. of Zhejiang Province (China)

    1992-02-01

    Quantitative changes in common organic acids and inorganic acids from spices irradiated by electron beam were studied by Dionex-4000 ion Chromatograph. The results showed that the acids content of either achilli or the five-spice powder irradiated with a dose of 9.94 kGy did not undergo significant changes in comparison with the control samples. The flavour composition in the five-spice powder irradiated by electron beam was also determined by Finnigan MAT-8230B gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, and compared to the results by heating treatment (120 C, 30 min). The comparison indicated that the effect of electron beam treatment on flavour composition was less than that of heating.

  8. Preparation of highly oriented poly-diacetylene LB-films with ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoi, F.; Aoki, Y.; Hagiwara, M.; Omichi, H.

    1992-01-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films such as 10,12-heptacosa-diynoic acid, 10,12-pentacosa-diynoic acid, 10,12-tricosa-diynoic acid were irradiated with ion beam, electron beam and UV-light, and the effect of irradiation on morphology of the polymerized film was studied. A sharp and intense X-ray diffraction pattern with higher order peaks which was not observed in the original films was obtained by Fe + beam irradiation. The interlayer spacing of diacetylene molecules calculated from the X-ray diffraction experiment was much longer than that theoretically anticipated. Similar results were observed when LB-films were treated with Ar + beam of 1keV for a short time although there was little observation of polymerization. In contrast, the diffraction pattern of the films polymerized with UV-light was broad and weak, and higher order peaks disappeared with the increase in irradiation dose. (author)

  9. Effect of electronic beam irradiation on development of Plodia interpunctella (Huebner)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Jialin; Chen Yuntang; Li Xuzhao; Guo Dongquan; Lu Xiaohua; Zhang Jianwei; Yang Bao'an; Liu Jiangyu; Tian Zhanjun; Zhang Xiaoyan

    2011-01-01

    The electronic beam irradiation effects on different developed stages of Plodia interpunctella Huebner were studied. The hatch rate, pupation rate, emergence rate and reproductive capacity of insect after irradiation were tested. The results showed that the order of sensitivity of the life stages of Plodia interpunctella Huebner to electron beam irradiation was: egg > larva > pupae > adult. The hatch rate, pupation rate, emergence rate and reproductive capacity significantly decreased with the increasing of irradiation dose (P<0.05). The egg, larvae, pupae couldn't grow to adults after irradiation at 100, 250 and 600 Gy, respectively. No new generation adult was found after the adults were irradiation at 600 Gy. It is concluded that 600 Gy irradiation could be used as a suitable dose to prevent the reproduction of Plodia interpunctella Huebner during the storage of tobacco. (authors)

  10. Electron irradiation response on Ge and Al-doped SiO 2 optical fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaakob, N. H.; Wagiran, H.; Hossain, I.; Ramli, A. T.; Bradley, D. A.; Hashim, S.; Ali, H.

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes the thermoluminescence response, sensitivity, stability and reproducibility of SiO 2 optical fibres with various electron energies and doses. The TL materials that comprise Al- and Ge-doped silica fibres were used in this experiment. The TL results are compared with those of the commercially available TLD-100. The doped SiO 2 optical fibres and TLD-100 are placed in a solid phantom and irradiated with 6, 9 and 12 MeV electron beams at doses ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 Gy using the LINAC at Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. It was found that the commercially available Al- and Ge-doped optical fibres have a linear dose-TL signal relationship. The intensity of TL response of Ge-doped fibre is markedly greater than that of the Al-doped fibre.

  11. Electron irradiation response on Ge and Al-doped SiO2 optical fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaakob, N.H.; Wagiran, H.; Hossain, I.; Ramli, A.T.; Bradley, D.A; Hashim, S.; Ali, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the thermoluminescence response, sensitivity, stability and reproducibility of SiO 2 optical fibres with various electron energies and doses. The TL materials that comprise Al- and Ge-doped silica fibres were used in this experiment. The TL results are compared with those of the commercially available TLD-100. The doped SiO 2 optical fibres and TLD-100 are placed in a solid phantom and irradiated with 6, 9 and 12 MeV electron beams at doses ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 Gy using the LINAC at Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. It was found that the commercially available Al- and Ge-doped optical fibres have a linear dose-TL signal relationship. The intensity of TL response of Ge-doped fibre is markedly greater than that of the Al-doped fibre.

  12. Gemstone color enhancement by electron beam irradiation-A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarada Idris; Zulkafli Ghazali; Shamshad Ahmad; Mohd Suhaimi Jusoh

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of gemstones has been going on for hundreds of years for enhancing color and clarity of gems devoid of these attributes. Whereas previous practices included fraudulent or otherwise processes to achieve the color enhancement, the ionizing radiation has proven to be a reliable and reproducible technique. Three types of irradiation processes include exposure to gamma radiation, electron beam irradiation and the nuclear power plants. Electron Beam Irradiation of Gemstone is a technique in which a gemstone is exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate color centers culminating in introduction of deeper colors. The color centers may be stable or unstable. Below 9 MeV, normally no radioactivity is introduced in the exposed gems. A study was conducted at Electron Beam Irradiation Centre (Alurtron) for gemstone color enhancement by using different kind of precious gemstones mined in Pakistan and elsewhere. The study shows that EB Irradiation not only enhances the color but also improves the clarity of the gemstones. The treated stones included kunzite tourmaline topaz quartz aquamarine and cultured pearls. Doses ranging from 25 kGy to 200 kGy were employed to assess the influence of doses on color and clarity and to select the optimum doses. The samples used included both the rough and the faceted gems. It is concluded that significant revenue generation is associated with the enhancement of the color in clarity of gemstones which are available at very cheap price in the world market. (author)

  13. Differential gene expression in primary fibroblasts induced by proton and cobalt-60 beam irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Bassler, Niels; Grzanka, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    profile: entrance, mid-SOBP and at the SOBP distal edge. Dose was delivered in three fractions × 3.5 Gy(RBE) (RBE 1.1). Cobalt-60 (Co-60) irradiation was used as reference. Real-time qPCR was performed to determine gene expression levels for 17 genes associated with inflammation response, fibrosis...... and angiogenesis. RESULTS: Differences in median gene expression levels were observed for multiple genes such as IL6, IL8 and CXCL12. Median IL6 expression was 30%, 24% and 47% lower in entrance, mid-SOBP and SOBP distal edge groups than in Co-60 irradiated cells. No genes were found to be oppositely regulated...... fibroblast cultures. Inflammatory factors were generally less extensively upregulated by proton irradiation compared with Co-60 photon irradiation. These effects may possibly influence the development of normal tissue damage in patients treated with proton beam therapy....

  14. Immunological aspect of the electron-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K [Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    1978-05-01

    In the present study, sciatic nerve tissues of the cat were emulsified with the complete Freund's adjuvant and injected into the foot-pads of the guinea pig. Frozen and frozen-irradiated feline sciatic nerve tissues were treated in the similar manner, and their encephalitogenicity was comparatively studied. Affected animals became skinny, weak in the hind limbs and sometimes solid their tails. Antigenic mixtures of the fresh peripheral nerves with adjuvant have sensitized 75% (15 out of 20) of guinea pigs, whereas none of the 41 animals manifested any sign of experimental allergic neuritis (EAN) after intradermal Frozen-preserved peripheral nerve-adjuvant mixtures gave rise to EAN in 29% (6 out of 21) of guinea pigs. The present results appear to show that the electron-beam irradiation might have modified the specific chemical structures of the myelin basic protein to completely suppress the encephalitogenicity of the peripheral nerve-tissues. High-voltage cathode irradiations would be capable of depressing the antigenicity of the transplantation immunology when the antigenic determinants have the chemical structures in common with the encephalitogenic antigens. Excessive amount of the irradiation used to result in severe tissue damages, therefore, an optimum dosis of electron-beams should be determined for each tissue destined for grafting. As the frozen peripheral nerve-adjuvant mixtures have been less encephalitogenic, freezing alone might well be considered partially to improve the acceptability of the grafts. Cryopreservation of the irradiated allografts would be worth further studying.

  15. Immunological aspect of the electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kimiyuki

    1978-01-01

    In the present study, sciatic nerve tissues of the cat were emulsified with the complete Freund's adjuvant and injected into the foot-pads of the guinea pig. Frozen and frozen-irradiated feline sciatic nerve tissues were treated in the similar manner, and their encephalitogenicity was comparatively studied. Affected animals became skinny, weak in the hind limbs and sometimes solid their tails. Antigenic mixtures of the fresh peripheral nerves with adjuvant have sensitized 75% (15 out of 20) of guinea pigs, whereas none of the 41 animals manifested any sign of experimental allergic neuritis (EAN) after intradermal Frozen-preserved peripheral nerve-adjuvant mixtures gave rise to EAN in 29% (6 out of 21) of guinea pigs. The present results appear to show that the electron-beam irradiation might have modified the specific chemical structures of the myelin basic protein to completely suppress the encephalitogenicity of the peripheral nerve-tissues. High-voltage cathode irradiations would be capable of depressing the antigenicity of the transplantation immunology when the antigenic determinants have the chemical structures in common with the encephalitogenic antigens. Excessive amount of the irradiation used to result in severe tissue damages, therefore, an optimum dosis of electron-beams should be determined for each tissue destined for grafting. As the frozen peripheral nerve-adjuvant mixtures have been less encephalitogenic, freezing alone might well be considered partially to improve the acceptability of the grafts. Cryopreservation of the irradiated allografts would be worth further studying. (author)

  16. 80 A/cm2 electron beams from metal targets irradiated by KrCl and XeCl excimer lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglazov, A.; Martino, M.; Nassisi, V.

    1996-05-01

    Due to the growing demand for high-current and long-duration electron-beam devices, laser electron sources were investigated in our laboratory. Experiments on electron-beam generation and propagation from aluminium and copper targets illuminated by XeCl (308 nm) and KrCl (222 nm) excimer lasers, were carried out under plasma ignition due to laser irradiation. This plasma supplied a spontaneous accelerating electric field of about 370 kV/m without an external accelerating voltage. By applying the modified one-dimensional Poisson equation, we computed the expected current and we also estimated the plasma concentration during the accelerating process. At 40 kV of accelerating voltage, an output current pulse of about 80 A/cm2 was detected from an Al target irradiated by the shorter wavelength laser.

  17. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the viscosity of carboxymethylcellulose solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Lee, Hee-Sub; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Kwang-Won; Chung, Young-Jin; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effects of an electron beam irradiation on the viscosity of a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution were investigated. The viscosity of the CMC solution was decreased with an increase in the irradiation dose. Interestingly, the extent of the degradation of the CMC was found to decrease with an increase of the CMC concentration in the solution. The change of the average molar mass confirmed the decrease in the viscosity due to the degradation of the polymer. The energy of the electron beam also affected the degradation of the CMC. Lower degradation of the CMC was obtained with a decreasing electron beam energy due to its lower penetration. Addition of vitamin C as a radical scavenger to the solution and an irradiation at -70 deg. C were shown to be moderately effective in preventing a decrease in the viscosity of the solution by irradiation.

  18. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the viscosity of carboxymethylcellulose solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Lee, Hee-Sub; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Kwang-Won; Chung, Young-Jin; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the effects of an electron beam irradiation on the viscosity of a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution were investigated. The viscosity of the CMC solution was decreased with an increase in the irradiation dose. Interestingly, the extent of the degradation of the CMC was found to decrease with an increase of the CMC concentration in the solution. The change of the average molar mass confirmed the decrease in the viscosity due to the degradation of the polymer. The energy of the electron beam also affected the degradation of the CMC. Lower degradation of the CMC was obtained with a decreasing electron beam energy due to its lower penetration. Addition of vitamin C as a radical scavenger to the solution and an irradiation at -70 °C were shown to be moderately effective in preventing a decrease in the viscosity of the solution by irradiation.

  19. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the viscosity of carboxymethylcellulose solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong-il [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hee-Sub [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwang-Won [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon 302-799 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Jin [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2008-12-15

    In this study, the effects of an electron beam irradiation on the viscosity of a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution were investigated. The viscosity of the CMC solution was decreased with an increase in the irradiation dose. Interestingly, the extent of the degradation of the CMC was found to decrease with an increase of the CMC concentration in the solution. The change of the average molar mass confirmed the decrease in the viscosity due to the degradation of the polymer. The energy of the electron beam also affected the degradation of the CMC. Lower degradation of the CMC was obtained with a decreasing electron beam energy due to its lower penetration. Addition of vitamin C as a radical scavenger to the solution and an irradiation at -70 deg. C were shown to be moderately effective in preventing a decrease in the viscosity of the solution by irradiation.

  20. Formation of novel reactive intermediate by electron-laser dual beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Akito; Takamuku, Setsuo

    1992-01-01

    The pulse radiolysis system of the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, (ISIR) has been progressed to observe a highly reactive species, which is produced by successive irradiation of electron and laser or of CW-UV-light and electron. The dual beam irradiation system, which consists of the beam synchronization system, the optical alignment, and the measurement system, is described in detail. Dual beam irradiation studies on 2-methylbenzophenone and some compounds with a C=N bond have been carried out by use of this system. Pulse radiolysis of 2-methylbenzophenone in benzene induced formation of an unstable photoenol via the triplet state, which was irradiated by a visible laser pulse to give dihydroanthrone. Pulse radiolysis of syn-benzalaniline and a nitrileylide in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, which were produced by steady state photoirradiation at low temperature, enabled us to observe their very unstable radical anions. (author)

  1. Changes in irradiated LnSiAlO(N) glasses at a microscopic scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauce, R. [UMR CNRS 6512, Verres et ceramiques, Institut de Chimie, Universite de Rennes 1, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France) and CE Cadarache, DEC/SESC, F-13018 St. Paul Lez Durances Cedex (France)]. E-mail: rachel.dauce@freenet.de; Sangleboeuf, J.-C. [LARMAUR, FRE CNRS 2717, Universite de Rennes 1, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Verdier, P. [UMR CNRS 6512, Verres et ceramiques, Institut de Chimie, Universite de Rennes 1, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2006-06-15

    Six oxide and oxynitride glasses from three different M-Ln-Si-Al-O(-N) systems (where M is an alkaline-earth and Ln a rare earth) have been irradiated by Kr, Ni and S ions, with different energies varying from 350 to 700 MeV. Neither micro-bubble formation nor crystallisation are evidenced, but the irradiated glasses exhibit an anisotropic deformation under the ion beam. The main crack mode developed during scratching is shifted from radial for the pristine glasses to lateral for all the irradiated glasses. The hardness of each glass decreases when irradiated for all the incident ions used. This decrease appears to be in close relation with the electronic stopping power of the incident particle, and is associated with a change in the indentation mechanism (from normal to anomalous behaviour). The evolution of the scratches in the material depth confirms the change in deformation mechanism and the strong dependence between the hardness of the irradiated material and the electronic stopping power of the incident ion. Three phenomena can be the source of the changes in the properties: the creation of internal stresses during irradiation, the creation of point defects and the cross-linking of the silicate network.

  2. Optical and Morphological Properties of Electron-Beam Irradiated High-Density Thin Poly Ethylene Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hamid, H. M.; Fawzy, Y.H.A.; El-Sayed, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of surface morphology alterations on the optical properties of the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) films irradiated by 1.5 MeV electron beam has been investigated. The irradiation doses were conducted at the values: 30, 135, 295 and 540 kGy, respectively. The changes induced in HDPE involved: the creation of free radicals, the formation of chemical bonds i.e., intermolecular crosslinking and irreversible cleavage of bonds in the main chain, which resulted in the fragmentation of the molecules. An Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer (UV-VIS) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the changes. Because the crosslinking (induced by electron irradiation) limits the movability of the HDPE molecular chains, the optical energy gap was then subjected to a change. It decreased from 4.41 to 3.22 eV with an increasing electron dose up to 540 kGy. At a higher dose of irradiation (540 kGy), degradation of HDPE rather than crosslinking was raised. The irradiated HDPE films indicated that the crosslinking and degradation are likely to have an effect on their surface morphologies. The physical properties of polymeric materials can be modified by ionizing radiation in the form of gamma rays, X-rays and energetic electrons. High-energy electron beam is an especially useful tool in this regard (Cleland et al, 2003). Polymerizing, grafting, crosslinking and chain scission reactions can be initiated by irradiation. The results of such reactions can enhance the utility and value of commercial products. HDPE (CH2-CH2) has many attractive properties, such as an excellent chemical resistance, low friction and low moisture absorption

  3. Polarization of electron-beam irradiated LDPE films: contribution to charge generation and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, M. E.; Griseri, V.; Teyssèdre, G.; Le Roy, S.

    2018-04-01

    Electron-beam irradiation is an alternative way to generate charges in insulating materials, at controlled position and quantity, in order to monitor their behaviour in regard to transport phenomena under the space charge induced electric field or external field applied. In this study, low density polyethylene (LDPE) films were irradiated by a 80 keV electron-beam with a flux of 1 nA cm‑2 during 10 min in an irradiation chamber under vacuum conditions, and were then characterized outside the chamber using three experimental methods. The electrical behaviour of the irradiated material was assessed by space charge measurements using the pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method under dc stress. The influence of the applied electric field polarity and amplitude has been tested in order to better understand the charge behaviour after electron-beam irradiation. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed to evaluate the impact of the electron beam irradiation, i.e. deposited charges and energy, on the chemical structure of the irradiated samples. The present results show that the electrical behaviour in LDPE after irradiation is mostly driven by charges, i.e. by physical process functions of the electric field, and that changes in the chemical structure seems to be mild.

  4. Postharvest quality of cut roses following electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.Y.; Gladon, R.J.; Gleason, M.L.; Parker, S.K.; Agnew, N.H.; Olson, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    Cut Rosa x hybrida L. 'Royalty' flowers were used to determine the efficacy of electron-beam irradiation for increasing postharvest quality and decreasing petal infection by Botrytis cinerea Pers. In an experiment for determining the injury threshold, roses received electron-beam irradiation of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kGy. Irradiation dosages greater than or equal to 4 kGy caused necrosis on petal tissue and decreased postharvest life at 20 degrees C. In a second experiment to evaluate postharvest quality, roses were irradiated at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 kGy. Dosages of 0.25 and 0.5 kGy slowed the rate of flower bud opening for 2 days but did not decrease postharvest quality when compared with nonirradiated roses. Roses that received irradiation dosages of 0.75 and 1 kGy showed unacceptable quality. In a third experiment, roses that had or had not been inoculated with B. cinerea were irradiated at 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 kGy. Irradiation did not control B. cinerea populations, and rose quality decreased as dosage increased. In a fourth experiment to determine the effect of irradiation on B. cinerea, conidia on water-agar plates exposed to dosages less than or equal to 1, 2, and 4 kGy germinated at rates of approximately 90%, 33%, and 2%, respectively, within 24 h

  5. SU-E-T-592: OSL Response of Al2O3:C Detectors Exposed to Therapeutic Proton Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granville, DA [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Flint, DB; Sawakuchi, GO [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To characterize the response of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) detectors (OSLDs) exposed to therapeutic proton beams of differing beam quality. Methods: We prepared Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C OSLDs from the same material as commercially available nanoDot dosimeters (Landauer, Inc). We irradiated the OSLDs in modulated proton beams of varying quality, as defined by the residual range. An absorbed dose to water of 0.2 Gy was delivered to all OSLDs with the residual range values varying from 0.5 to 23.5 cm (average LET in water from ∼0.5 to 2.5 keV/µm). To investigate the beam quality dependence of different emission bands within the OSL spectrum, we performed OSLD readouts using both continuous-wave stimulation (CW-OSL) and pulsed stimulation (P-OSL) with two sets of optical filters (Hoya U-340 and Kopp 5113). For all readout modes, the relative absorbed dose sensitivity (S{sub rel}) for each beam quality was calculated using OSLDs irradiated in a 6 MV photon beam as a reference. Results: We found that the relative absorbed dose sensitivity was highly dependent on both readout mode and integration time of the OSL signal. For CW-OSL signals containing only the blue emission band, S{sub rel} was between 0.85 and 0.94 for 1 s readouts and between 0.82 and 0.93 for 10 s readouts. Similarly, for P-OSL readouts containing only the blue emission band S{sub rel} ranged from 0.86 to 0.91, and 0.82 to 0.93 for 1 s and 10 s readouts, respectively. For OSLD signals containing only the UV emission band, S{sub rel} ranged from 1.00 to 1.46, and 0.97 to 1.30 for P-OSL readouts of 1 s and 10 s, respectively. Conclusion: For measurements of absorbed dose using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C OSLDs in therapeutic proton beams, dependence on beam quality was smallest for readout protocols that selected the blue emission band with small integration times. DA Granville received financial support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering

  6. Advanced Oxidation Treatment of Drinking Water and Wastewater Using High-energy Electron Beam Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Behjat

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Application of electron beam as a strong oxidation method for disinfection of drinking water and wastewater has been investigated. Drinking water samples were prepared from wells in rock zones in Yazd Province. Wastewater samples were collected from Yazd Wastewater Treatment Plant. Samples were irradiated by 10 MeV electron beam accelerator at Yazd Radiation Processing Center. The irradiation dose range varied from 0.5-5 kGy. Biological parameters and microbial agents such as aerobic mesophiles and coliforms including E. coli count before and after irradiation versus irradiation dose were obtained using MPN method. The data obtained from irradiated water and wastewater were compared with un-irradiated (control samples. The results showed a removal of 90% of all microorganisms at irradiation doses below 5 kGy, suggesting electron beam irradiation as an effective method for disinfection of wastewater.

  7. Electron beam irradiation crosslinked hydrogels based on tyramine conjugated gum tragacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Moslem; Dehshiri, Saeedeh; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim

    2016-11-05

    In the present study, electron beam irradiation was applied to prepare a chemically crosslinked hydrogel based on tyramine conjugated gum tragacanth. Then, the gel content, swelling behavior and cytotoxicity of the hydrogels were evaluated. The gel content of the hydrogels was in the range of 75-85%. Equilibrium swelling degree of the hydrogels decreased from 51 to 14 with increasing polymer concentration and irradiation dose. Moisture retention capability of the hydrogels after 5h incubation at 37°C was in the range of 45-52 that is comparable with of commercial hydrogels. The cytotoxicity analysis showed the good biocompatibility of hydrogels. These results indicated that electron beam irradiation is a promising method to prepare chemically crosslinked tyramine conjugated gum tragacanth hydrogels for biomedical applications. Also, the versatility of electron beam irradiation for crosslinking of a variety of polymers possessing tyramine groups was demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative study on disinfection potency of spore forming bacteria by electron-beam irradiation and gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Hironobu; Suzuki, Satoru; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Takama, Kozo; Hayashi, Toru; Yasumoto, Kyoden.

    1990-01-01

    Along with gamma-ray irradiation, electron-beam irradiation (EB) is a method to disinfect microorganisms which cause food decomposition and food-poisoning. The present study was undertaken to compare sterilization efficacy of EB and gamma-ray irradiation on bacterial spores and vegetative cells under various conditions. Spores of Bacillus pumilus, a marker strain for irradiation study, and Bacillus stearothermophilus known as a thermophilic bacteria were irradiated by electron-beam and gamma-ray separately at irradiation dose of 0 to 10 kGy on combination of wet/dry and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Sterilization effect of irradiation on spores was evaluated by colony counting on agar plates. Results showed that both EB and gamma-ray irradiation gave sufficient sterilization effect on spores, and the sterilization effect increased exponentially with irradiation dose. The sterilization effect of gamma-ray irradiation was higher than that of EB in all cases. Higher disinfection effect was observed under aerobic condition. The present study suggests that oxygen supply in EB is more important than gamma-ray irradiation. No results suggesting that chlorine ion at 0.1 ppm (as available chlorine concentration) enhanced the sterilization efficacy of either EB or gamma-ray irradiation was obtained under any conditions examined. (author)

  9. Comparative study on disinfection potency of spore forming bacteria by electron-beam irradiation and gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizawa, Hironobu; Suzuki, Satoru; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Takama, Kozo [Hokkaido Univ., Hakodate (Japan). Faculty of Fisheries; Hayashi, Toru; Yasumoto, Kyoden

    1990-10-01

    Along with gamma-ray irradiation, electron-beam irradiation (EB) is a method to disinfect microorganisms which cause food decomposition and food-poisoning. The present study was undertaken to compare sterilization efficacy of EB and gamma-ray irradiation on bacterial spores and vegetative cells under various conditions. Spores of Bacillus pumilus, a marker strain for irradiation study, and Bacillus stearothermophilus known as a thermophilic bacteria were irradiated by electron-beam and gamma-ray separately at irradiation dose of 0 to 10 kGy on combination of wet/dry and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Sterilization effect of irradiation on spores was evaluated by colony counting on agar plates. Results showed that both EB and gamma-ray irradiation gave sufficient sterilization effect on spores, and the sterilization effect increased exponentially with irradiation dose. The sterilization effect of gamma-ray irradiation was higher than that of EB in all cases. Higher disinfection effect was observed under aerobic condition. The present study suggests that oxygen supply in EB is more important than gamma-ray irradiation. No results suggesting that chlorine ion at 0.1 ppm (as available chlorine concentration) enhanced the sterilization efficacy of either EB or gamma-ray irradiation was obtained under any conditions examined. (author).

  10. The proliferative response of mouse intestinal crypts during fractionated irradiation of carbon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo, M.; Abe, Y.; Mariya, Y.; Ando, K.

    2000-01-01

    Clonogenic assay of jejunal crypt during carbon beam and X-ray irradiations was performed. Fractionation with top-up dose assay revealed carbon beam irradiations caused more damage than X-ray did. To clarify this problem is urgent. (author)

  11. Modification of bamboo surface by irradiation of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Nishigaito, S.; Flauta, R.; Kasuya, T.

    2003-01-01

    When beams of hydrogen ions, He + and Ar + were irradiated onto bamboo surface, gas release of hydrogen, water, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were enhanced. Time evolution of the gas emission showed two peaks corresponding to release of adsorbed gas from the surface by sputtering, and thermal desorption caused by the beam heating. The difference in etched depths between parenchyma lignin and vascular bundles was measured by bombarding bamboo surface with the ion beams in the direction parallel to the vascular bundles. For He + and Ar + , parenchyma lignin was etched more rapidly than vascular bundles, but the difference in etched depth decreased at a larger dose. In the case of hydrogen ion bombardment, vascular bundles were etched faster than parenchyma lignin and the difference in etched depth increased almost in proportion to the dose. The wettability of outer surface of bamboo was improved most effectively by irradiation of a hydrogen ion beam

  12. Multiple-beam laser–plasma interactions in inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myatt, J. F., E-mail: jmya@lle.rochester.edu; Zhang, J.; Maximov, A. V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Short, R. W.; Seka, W.; Edgell, D. H.; Michel, D. T.; Igumenshchev, I. V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627-0171 (United States); Hinkel, D. E.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The experimental evidence for multiple-beam laser-plasma instabilities of relevance to laser driven inertial confinement fusion at the ignition scale is reviewed, in both the indirect and direct-drive approaches. The instabilities described are cross-beam energy transfer (in both indirectly driven targets on the NIF and in direct-drive targets), multiple-beam stimulated Raman scattering (for indirect-drive), and multiple-beam two-plasmon decay instability (in direct drive). Advances in theoretical understanding and in the numerical modeling of these multiple beam instabilities are presented.

  13. Clarification of leachate from reclaimed ground by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Masao; Sawai, Teruko; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Sawai, Takeshi

    1985-01-01

    To decompose organic matters such as humic acid and fulvous acid in the leachate from reclaimed ground, an electron beam irradiation technique was examined because of availability of higher dose rate than a 60 Co γ-ray source. This paper describes results of the above-mentioned preliminary examination. Test water was collected from No.15 dumping site at the Tokyo Bay. Irradiation sample was prepared by filtration with a filter and decarbonation with sulfuric acid. Fulvous acid solution by eliminating humic acid was also served for the examination. Electron beam irradiation of the sample solution was made with a Van de Graaf accelerator by 1.5 MeV, 140 Gy/sec of irradiation condition and with a dynamitron by 2.0 MeV, 25 kGy/pass of the condition. It was clarified that oxygen bubbling velocity during the irradiation did not affect much for the decrease rate of total organic matters (TOC) within 0.5 to 3.0 1/min of an experimental condition. As for radiation doses and TOC decrease, TOC was decreased much for lower dose rate irradiation (Van de Graaf accelerator), lower initial TOC concentration, or addition of hydrogen peroxide. For the combined treatment of radiation and flocculation to aim at irradiation dose decrease, fulvous acid solution was served for the test. Lower dose irradiation with a 60 Co source showed better TOC elimination and it was concluded that combination with flocculation was effective for the dose reduction. It was also found experimentally that TOC decrease behavior by the both radiation source was different due to temperature effect and further study should be made for the development of the practical electron beam irradiation technique. (Takagi, S.)

  14. The combined effects of e-beam irradiation and microwaves on starch, flour and ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.S.; Martin, D.; Minea, R.; Tirlea, A.; Badea, M.

    1998-01-01

    The influences of both microwave field and electron beam irradiation, separately and combined, mainly on physical parameters of corn starch, wheat flour and black pepper were studied. These treatments have been used to achieve the hygienic and microbiological quality requirements of these materials and for their dehydration. The electron-beam irradiation has been carried out by using an ALIN-7 linear accelerator with the following parameters: electron mean energy 6 MeV, mean bean current 10 μA, pulse period 3.5 μs. repetition frequency 100 Hz. For microwave experiments, a special designed microwave applicator consisting of a special cavity, a power controlled generator with a 2.45 GHz standard frequency CW magnetron of 850 W maximum output power was used. The experiments were carried out in 5 variants: microwave treatment solely; electron beam irradiation solely; microwave treatment followed by electron beam irradiation; electron beam irradiation followed by microwave treatment; simultaneous microwave and electron beam treatment. The samples were treated by microwaves at 4 different power values from 250 W to 550 W for 5 different exposure times. The electron beam irradiation took place within the dose range of 1 - 10 kGy, at the same dose rate of approximately 2 kGy/min. The influence of these two physical fields on some common properties (r.h., pH), spectrophotometric (UV-VIS spectra), viscometric (rheograms) and microbiological (CFU/g) properties of the food materials was evaluated. A direct relationship between the variables was observed. The microwave effects are mainly thermal effects, although a non-thermal effect was also observed. The main microbiocidal action is due to the electron beam effect, although the microwave treatment affects sometimes significantly both the microbial population and its sensitivity to irradiation. The combined treatment indicates the presence of a synergistic effect of microwaves and electron-beams, which is of non

  15. Gamma and electron beam irradiation effects on SiR-EPDM blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deepalaxmi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM is widely used as Cable Insulation Material (CIM due to its good mechanical strength. Silicone Rubber (SiR is used in high temperature environments due to its good di-electric properties/hydrophobicity. The blending of SiR-EPDM may result in the improvement in their specific properties. The SiR-EPDM blend of equal composition (50:50 was prepared. When such blends are used as Cable Insulation Materials (CIM, they should perform their safety functions throughout their installed life in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP. The CIM will be exposed to Gamma irradiation at the installed locations. The short time accelerated testing was carried out, in order to forecast long-term performance of CIM. Electron beam irradiation is widely used in cable manufacturing industries to improve the performance of the polymeric materials. In the current study, on the purpose to investigate the effect of gamma/electron beam irradiation on the 50–50 composition of SiR-EPDM blend, blend was exposed to 25 Mrad dose of gamma/electron beam irradiation. The electrical and mechanical parameters like Volume Resistivity (VRY, Surface Resistivity (SRY, Tensile Strength (TS, Elongation at Break (EB, Hardness (H of the virgin, gamma/electron beam irradiated blends were determined as per ASTM/IEC standards. The nature of degradation was investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. To determine the elemental composition of the materials at the surface, Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX has been done. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM analysis has been done to study the morphological changes. The occurrence of cross-linking is found to be the mechanism for ageing in gamma/electron beam irradiated SiR-EPDM blends.

  16. Nanostructured surface processing by an intense pulsed ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsuzuka, M.; Masuda, T.; Yamasaki, T.; Uchida, H.; Nobuhara, S.; Hashimoto, Y.; Yoshihara, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Metal surface modification by irradiating an intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) with short pulse width has been studied experimentally. An IPIB irradiation to a target leads to rapid heating above its melting point. After the beam is turned off, the heated region is immediately cooled by thermal conduction at a cooling rate of typically 10 10 K/s. This rapid cooling and resolidification results in generation of nanostructured phase in the top of surface. The typical hydrogen IPIB parameters are 200 kV of energy, 500 A/cm 2 of current density and 70 ns of pulsewidth. The IPIB was irradiated on a pure titanium to generate nanocrystalline phase. The IPIB-irradiated surface was examined with X-ray diffraction, SEM, and HR-TEM. The randomly oriented lattice fringes as well as a halo diffraction pattern are observed in the HR-TEM micrograph of IPIB-irradiated titanium. The average grain size is found to be 32 nanometers

  17. Evaluation of electron beam irradiation for disinfection of turmeric fingers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumoto, Kyoden; Fujino, Masayuki; Supriyadi (Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Research Inst. for Food Science); Suzuki, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Toru

    1991-08-01

    Turmeric finger as one of the most popular spices has been widely used for food manufacturing. However, it has also been a major cause of bacterial infestation of food materials especially in curry, ham and sausage manufacturing. In this study decontamination of bacteria in turmeric finger by electron beam irradiation was evaluated by comparing with several other decontamination methods: i.e., boiling, microwave irradiation, treatment by twin screw extruder and gamma-ray irradiation. By estimation of colony counting on nutrient agar plate, turmeric finger without any treatment gave total viable cell at 10{sup 8}/g. Turmeric finger which was irradiated by electron beam at 10 kGy dose dramatically reduced thermotolerant cell population below self restriction level (<1000/g), which has been required by food hygiene law. The same level of sterilization effect was obtained only by gamma-ray irradiation at 10 kGy and 20 kGy. On the other hand, although treatment through twin screw extruder slightly reduced bacterial numbers, neither boiling nor microwave irradiation gave sufficient decontamination effect on turmeric fingers. (author).

  18. Evaluation of electron beam irradiation for disinfection of turmeric fingers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumoto, Kyoden; Fujino, Masayuki; Supriyadi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Toru.

    1991-01-01

    Turmeric finger as one of the most popular spices has been widely used for food manufacturing. However, it has also been a major cause of bacterial infestation of food materials especially in curry, ham and sausage manufacturing. In this study decontamination of bacteria in turmeric finger by electron beam irradiation was evaluated by comparing with several other decontamination methods: i.e., boiling, microwave irradiation, treatment by twin screw extruder and gamma-ray irradiation. By estimation of colony counting on nutrient agar plate, turmeric finger without any treatment gave total viable cell at 10 8 /g. Turmeric finger which was irradiated by electron beam at 10 kGy dose dramatically reduced thermotolerant cell population below self restriction level (<1000/g), which has been required by food hygiene law. The same level of sterilization effect was obtained only by gamma-ray irradiation at 10 kGy and 20 kGy. On the other hand, although treatment through twin screw extruder slightly reduced bacterial numbers, neither boiling nor microwave irradiation gave sufficient decontamination effect on turmeric fingers. (author)

  19. Evaluation of electron beam irradiation for disinfection of turmeric fingers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumoto, K.; Fujino, M.; Supriyadi; Suzuki, T.; Hayashi, T.

    1991-01-01

    Turmeric finger as one of the most popular spices has been widely used for food manufacturing. However, it has also been a major cause of bacterial infestation of food materials especially in curry, ham and sausage manufacturing. In this study decontamination of bacteria in turmeric finger by electron beam irradiation was evaluated by comparing with several other decontamination methods: i.e., boiling, microwave irradiation, treatment by twin screw extruder and gamma-ray irradiation. By estimation of colony counting on nutrient agar plate, turmeric finger without any treatment gave total viable cell at 10 8 /g. Turmeric finger which was irradiated by electron beam at 10kGy dose dramatically reduced thermotolerant cell population below self restriction level (<1000/g), which has been required by food hygiene law. The same level of sterilization effect was obtained only by gamma-ray irradiation at 10kGy and 20kGy. On the other hand, although treatment through twin screw extruder slightly reduced bacterial numbers, neither boiling nor microwave irradiation gave sufficient decontamination effect on turmeric fingers

  20. ESR investigataions of electron-beam irradiated cellulose nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipara, M.I.; Catana, D.; Grecu, V.; Romero, J.R.; Chipara, D.

    1994-01-01

    Electron spin resonance investigations on an electron-beam irradiated solid state nuclear track detector, based on cellulose nitrate (KODAK LR-311) are reported. The nature of free radicals induced in polymers by irradiation is discussed. The dependence of resonance spectral parameters on irradiation times, as well as on storage time and temperature, is studied. The experimental results are related to the stability of latent tracks and its is concluded that the free radicals induced by irradiation are located within the latent tracks. We have shown that both latent track and free radical thermal fading obey an Arrhenius-like dependence, with the same activation energy. (Author)

  1. ESR investigataions of electron-beam irradiated cellulose nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipara, M.I.; Catana, D. [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Grecu, V.; Romero, J.R. [Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Coca, S. [Chemical Research Inst., Bucharest (Romania); Chipara, D. [Research Inst. for Electrotechnics, Bucharest (Romania)

    1994-10-01

    Electron spin resonance investigations on an electron-beam irradiated solid state nuclear track detector, based on cellulose nitrate (KODAK LR-311) are reported. The nature of free radicals induced in polymers by irradiation is discussed. The dependence of resonance spectral parameters on irradiation times, as well as on storage time and temperature, is studied. The experimental results are related to the stability of latent tracks and its is concluded that the free radicals induced by irradiation are located within the latent tracks. We have shown that both latent track and free radical thermal fading obey an Arrhenius-like dependence, with the same activation energy. (Author).

  2. ESR investigations of electron-beam irradiated cellulose nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipara, M.I.; Grecu, V.; Catana, D.; Romero, J.R.; Coca, S.; Chipara, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    Electron spin resonance investigations on an electron-beam irradiated solid state nuclear track detector, based on cellulose nitrate (KODAK LR-311), are reported. The nature of free radicals induced in polymers by irradiation is discussed. The dependence of resonance spectral parameters on irradiation times, as well as on storage time and temperature, is studied. The experimental results are related to the stability of latent tracks and it is concluded that the free radicals induced by irradiation are located within the latent tracks. We have shown that both latent track and free radical thermal fading obey an Arrhenius-like dependence, with the same activation energy. (Author)

  3. Waste treatment by microwave and electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.; Craciun, G.; Manaila, E.; Ighigeanu, D; Oproiu, C.; Iacob, N.; Togoe, I.; Margaritescu, I.

    2007-01-01

    Comparative results obtained by applying separate and combined (successive and simultaneous) electron beam (EB) and microwave (MW) irradiation to waste treatment, such as food residuals (minced beef, wheat bran and wheat flour) and sewage sludge performed from a food industry wastewater treatment station (vegetable oil plant), are presented. The research results demonstrated that the simultaneous EB and MW irradiation produces the biggest reduction of microorganisms. The tests also demonstrated that the irradiation time and the upper limit of required EB absorbed dose, which ensures a complete sterilization effect, could be reduced by a factor of two by an additional use of MW energy to EB irradiation

  4. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the nutritional ingredient of Sciaenops ocellatus meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunfang; Yang Wenge; Xu Dalun; Shi Huidong

    2011-01-01

    The influences of electron beam irradiation and package pattern (vacuum or ordinary) on the nutritional ingredient of Sciaenops ocellatus meat were investigated. The results were summarized as follows: (1) Electron-beam irradiation dose had notable effect on the moisture content, but no significant impact on the content of ash, protein, lipid and total carbohydrate. Teh package pattern had no significant effect on the common nutrional composition of Sciaenops ocellatus meat. (2) Either package pattern or irradiation dose showed little influence on the total amino acids, delicious amino acid, EAA/TAA and EAA/NEAA of Sciaenops ocellatus meat. The first limiting amino acid of Sciaenops ocellatus meat changed from Met plus Cys to Val in virtue of electron beam irradiation. (3) Both irradiation dose and package pattern showed no difference to the total fatty acid content. But the irradiation dose had notable effect on the relative content of unsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid and DHA. The vacuum-packaged group had less DHA loss than the ordinary-packaged group with the same absorbed dose, and low dose groups had less DHA loss than the high groups. As conclusion, combining with the bactericidal effect of electron beam irradiation to Sciaenops ocellatus meat, the recommended dose has been proposed to be 3-5 kGy. (authors)

  5. Application of polymers cross-linked by electron beam irradiation to electric wire industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Eisuke

    1976-01-01

    Applications of the polymers cross-linked by electron beam irradiation to electric wire industry as an example of dully developed utilization are reviewed. The report is divided into five parts, namely 1) radiation sources and irradiation processes, 2) development of crosslinking materials, 3) accumulation of electric charge and accumulation of heat, 4) examples of application, and 5) future prospect. Such a phenomenon as discharge destruction pattern (Lichtenberg figure) must be solved, when cable insulation materials are cross-linked by electron beam irradiation. The measures for preventing the discharge destruction are required, especially when the layers of polyethylene insulation for high voltage cables are irradiated. The accumulation of heat causes the troubles in foaming, degeneration and wire running of high potential cables, when the layers of insulation are thick. Effective promoters for cross-linking must be studied to reduce the radiation dose. The irradiators capable of irradiating wires uniformly are desirable. Electron beam accelerators will be used, as far as the radiation dose of 10 or more Mrad is required for cross-linking irradiation. If the dose of one tenth or less of the above value is required, gamma-ray sources (RI) are rather easily applicable than focused strong beam. The utilization of spent nuclear fuel is desirable. (Iwakiri, K.)

  6. The effect of electron beam irradiation on lipid oxidation in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    atefeh yousefi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Irradiation treatment is one of the best techniques to extend the shelf-life of meat, without emerging the nutritional properties and sensory quality of irradiated meat products.  However electron -beam  may cause transformations in foods but has been known as to the most easily-applied irradiation technique in food industries. Electron-beam irradiation is an environment friendly, low cost and time effective alternative to other decontamination technologies. Lipid oxidation could produce of irradiated meat. This study aimed at evaluating the state of lipid oxidation of irradiated sausages. Its findings could help the control, improve food safety and quality properties to food industries. Methods: Sausages were purchased in a local supermarket, minced sausages blended for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS analysis and divided into 25 g pieces. The samples including one control group and four case groups. Packaged sausage were exposed at doses of 0 (control, 1, 2, 3 and 5 kGy and analyzed on various days 0, 5, 10 and 30. Results: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS has increased as time goes on (P<0.05. A significant relationship was observed on different Doses. But, the maximum of TBARS was observed in 3 kGy. Conclusion: Utilizing of Electron-beam irradiation in low doses does not have significant difference on lipid oxidation. Irradiating of meat products by addition of antioxidants can minimize or avoid the development of rancidity.

  7. Effects of electron-beam irradiation on HDPE/Brazil nut shell fiber composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maiara S.; Sartori, Mariana N.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B., E-mail: maiara.sferreira@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, research on the replacement of synthetic fibers by natural fibers as reinforcement in thermoplastic composites has increased dramatically due to the advantages of natural fibers, such as low density, low cost, environmental appeal and recyclability. In the present work, the influence of electron-beam irradiation on mechanical properties of HDPE and HDPE/Brazil Nut Shell (Bertholletia excelsa) fiber compositive was investigated. The HDPE composite reinforced with 5% or 10%, by weight of Brazil nut shell fiber powder with particle sizes equal or smaller than 250 μm were obtained by extrusion, using a twin screw extruder. The materials were irradiated at 200 kGy using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in presence of air. The irradiated and non-irradiated specimens tests samples were submitted to mechanical and thermo-mechanical tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and sol-gel analysis and the correlation between their properties was discussed. The results showed significant changes in HDPE mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties due to Brazil nut shell fibers addition and electron-beam irradiation. The surface of the cryo fractured composite samples irradiated showed important visual changes which suggest a better fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion, due to irradiation treatment. These results showed that it is possible to get interesting property gains by using waste from renewable sources instead of the traditional ones and electron-beam radiation treatment. (author)

  8. Effects of electron-beam irradiation on HDPE/Brazil nut shell fiber composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Maiara S.; Sartori, Mariana N.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, research on the replacement of synthetic fibers by natural fibers as reinforcement in thermoplastic composites has increased dramatically due to the advantages of natural fibers, such as low density, low cost, environmental appeal and recyclability. In the present work, the influence of electron-beam irradiation on mechanical properties of HDPE and HDPE/Brazil Nut Shell (Bertholletia excelsa) fiber compositive was investigated. The HDPE composite reinforced with 5% or 10%, by weight of Brazil nut shell fiber powder with particle sizes equal or smaller than 250 μm were obtained by extrusion, using a twin screw extruder. The materials were irradiated at 200 kGy using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in presence of air. The irradiated and non-irradiated specimens tests samples were submitted to mechanical and thermo-mechanical tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and sol-gel analysis and the correlation between their properties was discussed. The results showed significant changes in HDPE mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties due to Brazil nut shell fibers addition and electron-beam irradiation. The surface of the cryo fractured composite samples irradiated showed important visual changes which suggest a better fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion, due to irradiation treatment. These results showed that it is possible to get interesting property gains by using waste from renewable sources instead of the traditional ones and electron-beam radiation treatment. (author)

  9. Defocusing beam line design for an irradiation facility at the TAEA SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencer, A.; Demirköz, B.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Yiğitoğlu, M.

    2016-07-01

    Electronic components must be tested to ensure reliable performance in high radiation environments such as Hi-Limu LHC and space. We propose a defocusing beam line to perform proton irradiation tests in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility was inaugurated in May 2012 for radioisotope production. The facility has also an R&D room for research purposes. The accelerator produces protons with 30 MeV kinetic energy and the beam current is variable between 10 μA and 1.2 mA. The beam kinetic energy is suitable for irradiation tests, however the beam current is high and therefore the flux must be lowered. We plan to build a defocusing beam line (DBL) in order to enlarge the beam size, reduce the flux to match the required specifications for the irradiation tests. Current design includes the beam transport and the final focusing magnets to blow up the beam. Scattering foils and a collimator is placed for the reduction of the beam flux. The DBL is designed to provide fluxes between 107 p /cm2 / s and 109 p /cm2 / s for performing irradiation tests in an area of 15.4 cm × 21.5 cm. The facility will be the first irradiation facility of its kind in Turkey.

  10. An irradiation facility with a horizontal beam for radiobiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czub, J.; Adamus, T.; Banas, D.

    2006-01-01

    A facility with a horizontal beam for radiobiological experiments with heavy ions has been designed and constructed at the Heavy Ion Laboratory in Warsaw University. The facility is optimal to investigate the radiobiological effects of charged heavy particles on a cellular or molecular level as the plateau of the Bragg curve as well as in the Bragg peak. The passive beam spread out by a thin scattering foil provides a homogeneous irradiation field over an area of at least 1 x 1 cm 2 . For in vitro irradiation of biological samples the passive beam spreading combined with the x - y mechanical scanning of the irradiated sample was found to be an optimum solution. Using x - y step motor, the homogenous beam of ions with the energy loss range in the cells varied from 1 MeV/μm to 200 keV/μm is able to cover a 6 cm in diameter Petri dish that holds the biological samples. Moreover on-line fluence monitoring based on single-particle counting is performed to determine the dose absorbed by cells. Data acquisition system for dosimetry and ion monitoring based on a personal computer is described. (author)

  11. Effect of laser and/or electron beam irradiation on void swelling in SUS316L austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Subing [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Zhanbing, E-mail: yangzhanbing@ustb.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Hui [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Watanabe, Seiichi; Shibayama, Tamaki [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    Large amounts of void swelling still limit the application of austenitic stainless steels in nuclear reactors due to radiation-induced lattice point defects. In this study, laser and/or beam irradiation was conducted in a temperature range of 573–773 K to explore the suppression of void swelling. The results show that during sequential laser-electron beam irradiation, the void nucleation is enhanced because of the vacancy clusters and void nuclei formed under pre-laser irradiation, causing greater void swelling than single electron beam irradiation. However, simultaneous laser-electron dual-beam irradiation exhibits an obvious suppression effect on void swelling due to the enhanced recombination between interstitials and vacancies in the temperature range of 573–773 K; especially at 723 K, the swelling under simultaneous dual-beam irradiation is 0.031% which is only 22% of the swelling under electron beam irradiation (0.137%). These results provide new insight into the suppression of void swelling during irradiation. - Highlights: •The temperature dependence of void swelling under simultaneous laser-electron dual-beam irradiation has been investigated. •Pre-laser irradiation enhances void nucleation at temperatures from 573 K to 773 K. •Simultaneous laser-electron dual-beam irradiation suppresses void swelling in the temperature range of 573–773 K.

  12. Dual ion beam irradiation system for in situ observation with electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Tetuo; Hojou, Kiiti; Furuno, Sigemi; Otsu, Hitosi; Izui, Kazuhiko.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a new in situ observation system for dynamic processes under dual ion beam irradiation. The system consists of a modified 400 keV analytical electron microscope (JEOL, JEM-4000FX) and two 40 kV ion beam accelerators. This system allows evaluation of microscopic changes of structure and chemical bonding state of materials in the dynamic processes under two kinds of ion beam irradiations, that is required for the simulation test of the first wall of nuclear fusion reactors onto which He + , H + , and H 2 + ions are irradiated simultaneously. These two ion accelerators were equipped symmetrically both sides of the electron microscope and individually controlled. Each ion beam extracted from a duo-plasmatron ion gun is bent downward by an angle of 30deg with a mass-separating magnet, and introduced into specimen chamber of the electron microscope. Inside the specimen chamber the beam is deflected again by an angle of 30deg with an electrostatic prism so as to be incident on the specimen surface. Finally, two ion beams from both side are incident on the specimen surface at an angle of 60deg. The maximum ion current density of helium is more than 250μA/cm 2 at the specimen at an ion energy of 17 keV. Images of the electron microscope during dual ion beam irradiation are observed through a TV camera and recorded with a VTR. (author)

  13. Heavy ion irradiation induced effects in Ni3N/Al bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, S.; Rissanen, L.; Engel, K.; Wenderoth, M.; Lieb, K.P.

    2001-01-01

    The article reports on the Xe ion beam irradiation studies of Ni 3 N/Al bilayers at 80 K. The ion-induced modifications were monitored by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), resonant nuclear reaction analysis (RNRA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We found preferential loss of nitrogen from the surface region of the Ni 3 N top layers. The surface roughness Δσ S and the interface broadening variance Δσ int 2 increase linearly with the Xe ion fluence PHI. The experimental mixing rate of Δσ 2 /PHI=1.8 nm 4 is explained by considering an enhancement of ballistic mixing due to chemical reactions at the interface

  14. Electron irradiation response on Ge and Al-doped SiO{sub 2} optical fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaakob, N.H.; Wagiran, H. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia); Hossain, I., E-mail: imamhossain@utm.m [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia); Ramli, A.T. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia); Bradley, D.A [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Hashim, S. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia); Ali, H. [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia)

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes the thermoluminescence response, sensitivity, stability and reproducibility of SiO{sub 2} optical fibres with various electron energies and doses. The TL materials that comprise Al- and Ge-doped silica fibres were used in this experiment. The TL results are compared with those of the commercially available TLD-100. The doped SiO{sub 2} optical fibres and TLD-100 are placed in a solid phantom and irradiated with 6, 9 and 12 MeV electron beams at doses ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 Gy using the LINAC at Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. It was found that the commercially available Al- and Ge-doped optical fibres have a linear dose-TL signal relationship. The intensity of TL response of Ge-doped fibre is markedly greater than that of the Al-doped fibre.

  15. Sterilizing effect of irradiation for Zuogui power with electron beam and γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Ling; Kong Qiulian; Qi Wenyuan; Bao Yingzi; Chen Zhijun; Yuan Zhongyi

    2011-01-01

    The sterilizing effect of irradiation for Zuogui powder with accelerator (electron beam) and a cobalt unit (γ-rays) was studied. The results indicated that the D 10 values of E-beam irradiation and γ-rays irradiation were 2.602 kGy and 2.597 kGy for aerobic bacterial count, while those were 3.112 kGy and 3.208 kGy for mould and yeasts. (authors)

  16. The JANNUS Saclay facility: A new platform for materials irradiation, implantation and ion beam analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrino, S., E-mail: stephanie.pellegrino@cea.fr [CEA, INSTN, UEPTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Trocellier, P.; Miro, S.; Serruys, Y.; Bordas, E.; Martin, H. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chaabane, N.; Vaubaillon, S. [CEA, INSTN, UEPTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gallien, J.P.; Beck, L. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-02-15

    The third accelerator of the multi-ion irradiation platform JANNUS (Joint Accelerators for Nanosciences and NUclear Simulation), a 6SDH-2 Pelletron from National Electrostatic Corporation, Middleton was installed at Saclay in October 2009. The first triple beam irradiation combining Fe, He and H ion beams has been performed in March 2010. In the first part of this paper, we give a technical description of the triple beam facility, its performances and experimental capabilities. Typically, damage dose up to 100 dpa can be reached in 10 h irradiation with heavy ion beams, with or without simultaneous bombardment by protons, helium-4 ions or any other heavy ion beam. In the second part of this paper, we illustrate some IBA results obtained after irradiation and implantation experiments.

  17. In-situ synthesis of Ag nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Jiangfeng; Liu, Hongwei; Jiang, Yuwen; Yang, Shaoguang; Liao, Xiaozhou; Liu, Zongwen; Ringer, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by electron beam irradiation in the transmission electron microscope chamber at room temperature and the growth mechanism was explored in detail. The sizes of the Ag nanoparticles are controlled by the electron beam current density. Two nanoparticle growth stages were identified. The first growth stage was dominated by the discharging effect, while the second stage was controlled by the heating effect. The nanoparticle synthesis method should be applicable to the synthesis of other metallic nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by electron beam irradiation in the transmission electron microscope chamber. • The sizes of the Ag nanoparticles are controlled by the electron beam current density. • The growth mechanism was studied, two growth stages were confirmed. • The first growth stage was dominated by the discharging effect, and the second stage was controlled by the heating effect.

  18. Radiolysis study of actinide complexing agent by irradiation with helium ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugo, Yumi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Sasaki, Yuji; Hirota, Koichi; Kimura, Takaumi

    2009-01-01

    α-Radiolysis of N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA) in n-dodecane was investigated by the irradiation with helium ion beam provided by a tandem accelerator. The radiation chemical yield for the degradation of TODGA by helium ion beam irradiation was less than that by γ-rays irradiation. It is considered that the radical cations of n-dodecane, which contribute to the charge transfer reaction with the TODGA molecules, decrease by recombination in track by high LET radiations such as α-particles.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of potential irradiation geometries for carbon-ion beam grid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Toshiro; Henry, Thomas; Ureba, Ana; Valdman, Alexander; Bassler, Niels; Siegbahn, Albert

    2018-03-01

    Radiotherapy using grids containing cm-wide beam elements has been carried out sporadically for more than a century. During the past two decades, preclinical research on radiotherapy with grids containing small beam elements, 25 μm-0.7 mm wide, has been performed. Grid therapy with larger beam elements is technically easier to implement, but the normal tissue tolerance to the treatment is decreasing. In this work, a new approach in grid therapy, based on irradiations with grids containing narrow carbon-ion beam elements was evaluated dosimetrically. The aim formulated for the suggested treatment was to obtain a uniform target dose combined with well-defined grids in the irradiated normal tissue. The gain, obtained by crossfiring the carbon-ion beam grids over a simulated target volume, was quantitatively evaluated. The dose distributions produced by narrow rectangular carbon-ion beams in a water phantom were simulated with the PHITS Monte Carlo code. The beam-element height was set to 2.0 cm in the simulations, while the widths varied from 0.5 to 10.0 mm. A spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) was then created for each beam element in the grid, to cover the target volume with dose in the depth direction. The dose distributions produced by the beam-grid irradiations were thereafter constructed by adding the dose profiles simulated for single beam elements. The variation of the valley-to-peak dose ratio (VPDR) with depth in water was thereafter evaluated. The separation of the beam elements inside the grids were determined for different irradiation geometries with a selection criterion. The simulated carbon-ion beams remained narrow down to the depths of the Bragg peaks. With the formulated selection criterion, a beam-element separation which was close to the beam-element width was found optimal for grids containing 3.0-mm-wide beam elements, while a separation which was considerably larger than the beam-element width was found advantageous for grids containing 0.5-mm

  20. Discrimination of damages depending on the types of lactic dehydrogenase isozymes in electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Akishige; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Liu Xiaolan; Takizawa, Haruki.

    1995-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27,LDH) was a tetrameric molecule. The five different combinations of two different polypeptide chains can be readily identified by electrophoresis and ion-exchange chromatography. Injury patterns of LDH activity following electron-beam irradiation was investigated by assaying activities of three isozymes (pig heart LDH;M 4 , rabbit muscle LDH;H 4 , chicken heart LDH;M 3 H 1 ). Following results were obtained in the electron beam irradiation to three kinds of LDH isozymes: 1) Each isozyme has respective different reactivities to the electron beam irradiation. 2) Among the isozymes, M 4 enzyme was increased its enzymatic activity by the irradiations of low-level doses. 3) For the H 4 enzymes, an increasing phenomenon of -SH group was found in the low-level doses of electron beam irradiation. (author)

  1. Fabrication of high aspect ratio nanocell lattices by ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Osamu; Nitta, Noriko; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanocell lattice with a high aspect ratio on InSb semiconductor surface was fabricated by ion beam irradiation. • The fabrication technique consisting of top-down and bottom-up processes was performed in FIB. • High aspect ratio of 2 was achieved in nanocell lattice with a 100 nm interval. • The intermediate-flux irradiation is favorable for fabrication of nanocell with a high aspect ratio. - Abstract: A high aspect ratio nanocell lattice was fabricated on the InSb semiconductor surface using the migration of point defects induced by ion beam irradiation. The fabrication technique consisting of the top-down (formation of voids and holes) and bottom-up (growth of voids and holes into nanocells) processes was performed using a focused ion beam (FIB) system. A cell aspect ratio of 2 (cell height/cell diameter) was achieved for the nanocell lattice with a 100 nm dot interval The intermediate-flux ion irradiation during the bottom-up process was found to be optimal for the fabrication of a high aspect ratio nanocell.

  2. Ionic liquids influence on the surface properties of electron beam irradiated wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croitoru, Catalin [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design and Environment Department, 29 Eroilor Str., 500036, Brasov (Romania); Patachia, Silvia, E-mail: st.patachia@unitbv.ro [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design and Environment Department, 29 Eroilor Str., 500036, Brasov (Romania); Doroftei, Florica; Parparita, Elena; Vasile, Cornelia [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Physical Chemistry of Polymers Department, 41A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, Iasi (Romania)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Wood veneers impregnated with three imidazolium-based ionic liquids and irradiated with electron beam were studied by FTIR-ATR, SEM/EDX, AFM, contact angle and image analysis. • ILs preserve the surface properties of the wood (surface energy, roughness, color) upon irradiation, in comparison with the reference wood, but the surface composition is changed by treatment with IL-s, mainly with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. • Under electron beam irradiation covalent bonding of the imidazolium moiety to wood determines a higher resistance to water penetration and spreading on the surface. - Abstract: In this paper, the influence of three imidazolium-based ionic liquids (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) on the structure and surface properties of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) veneers submitted to electron beam irradiation with a dose of 50 kGy has been studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, as well as image, scanning electron microscopy/SEM/EDX, atomic force microscopy and contact angle analysis. The experimental results have proven that the studied ionic liquids determine a better preservation of the structural features of wood (cellulose crystallinity index and lignin concentration on the surface) as well as some of surface properties such as surface energy, roughness, color upon irradiation with electron beam, in comparison with the reference wood, but surface composition is changed by treatment with imidazolium-based ionic liquids mainly with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. Also, under electron beam irradiation covalent bonding of the imidazolium moiety to wood determines a higher resistance to water penetration and spreading on the surface.

  3. SU-C-207A-06: On-Line Beam Range Verification with Multiple Scanning Particle Beams: Initial Feasibility Study with Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Y; Sun, X; Lu, W; Jia, X; Wang, J; Shao, Y [The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Ctr., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and requirement for intra-fraction on-line multiple scanning particle beam range verifications (BRVs) with in-situ PET imaging, which is beyond the current single-beam BRV with extra factors that will affect the BR measurement accuracy, such as beam diameter, separation between beams, and different image counts at different BRV positions. Methods: We simulated a 110-MeV proton beam with 5-mm diameter irradiating a uniform PMMA phantom by GATE simulation, which generated nuclear interaction-induced positrons. In this preliminary study, we simply duplicated these positrons and placed them next to the initial protons to approximately mimic the two spatially separated positron distributions produced by two beams parallel to each other but with different beam ranges. These positrons were then imaged by a PET (∼2-mm resolution, 10% sensitivity, 320×320×128 mm^3 FOV) with different acquisition times. We calculated the positron activity ranges (ARs) from reconstructed PET images and compared them with the corresponding ARs of original positron distributions. Results: Without further image data processing and correction, the preliminary study show the errors between the measured and original ARs varied from 0.2 mm to 2.3 mm as center-to-center separations and range differences were in the range of 8–12 mm and 2–8 mm respectively, indicating the accuracy of AR measurement strongly depends on the beam separations and range differences. In addition, it is feasible to achieve ≤ 1.0-mm accuracy for both beams with 1-min PET acquisition and 12 mm beam separation. Conclusion: This study shows that the overlap between the positron distributions from multiple scanning beams can significantly impact the accuracy of BRVs of distributed particle beams and need to be further addressed beyond the established method of single-beam BRV, but it also indicates the feasibility to achieve accurate on-line multi-beam BRV with further improved

  4. 2 MeV, 60 kW dual-beam type electron accelerator irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yotsumoto, Keiichi; Kanazawa, Takao; Haruyama, Yasuyuki; Agematsu, Takashi; Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi; Sunaga, Hiromi; Washino, Masamitsu; Tamura, Naoyuki

    1984-02-01

    The specification of new irradiation facility which has been constructed from 1978 through 1981 as the replacement of 1st Accelerator of JAERI, TRCRE are described. The accelerator is the Cockcroft-Walton type and both vertical and horizontal accelerating tubes are arranged on a single high voltage generator. Transferring of the high voltage to the horizontal accelerating tube is performed with the high voltage changing system in the pressure vessel. The output ratings of the accelerator are 2 MV of acceleration voltage and 30 mA of beam current. By providing the dual beam system, two irradiation rooms, one for vertical and the other for horizontal beam, are independently operationable. Persons can enter the horizontal irradiation room for experimental setting even when the vertical irradiation room is in operation. The specification of the buildings, the exhaust air treatment system, the irradiation conveyor and the safety observation system are also described. (author)

  5. Regeneration of used activated carbon by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, H.; Hosono, M.; Zhu, G.; Miyata, T.

    1992-01-01

    The adsorbing power of granular activated carbons which adsorbed sodium laurylsulfate were most effectively recovered by irradiation of high energy electron beams in nitrogen stream, and the carbon was hardly lost by irradiation. The regeneration was induced mainly by microscopic heating of adsorption sites. Regeneration was also confirmed by adsorption endotherms. Regeneration cost was tentatively evaluated. (author)

  6. Large scale silver nanowires network fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H+) ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S, Honey; S, Naseem; A, Ishaq; M, Maaza; M T, Bhatti; D, Wan

    2016-01-01

    A random two-dimensional large scale nano-network of silver nanowires (Ag-NWs) is fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H + ) ion beam irradiation. Ag-NWs are irradiated under H +  ion beam at different ion fluences at room temperature. The Ag-NW network is fabricated by H + ion beam-induced welding of Ag-NWs at intersecting positions. H +  ion beam induced welding is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the structure of Ag NWs remains stable under H +  ion beam, and networks are optically transparent. Morphology also remains stable under H +  ion beam irradiation. No slicings or cuttings of Ag-NWs are observed under MeV H +  ion beam irradiation. The results exhibit that the formation of Ag-NW network proceeds through three steps: ion beam induced thermal spikes lead to the local heating of Ag-NWs, the formation of simple junctions on small scale, and the formation of a large scale network. This observation is useful for using Ag-NWs based devices in upper space where protons are abandoned in an energy range from MeV to GeV. This high-quality Ag-NW network can also be used as a transparent electrode for optoelectronics devices. (paper)

  7. Microstructural evolution in austenitic stainless steel irradiated with triple-beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Shozo; Miwa, Yukio; Yamaki, Daiju [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yichuan, Zhang

    1997-03-01

    An austenitic stainless steel was simultaneously irradiated with nickel, helium and hydrogen ions at the temperature range of 573-673 K. The damage level and injected concentration of He and H ions in the triple-beam irradiated region are 57 dpa, 19000 and 18000 at.ppm, respectively. Following to irradiation, the cross sectional observation normal to the incident surface of the specimen was carried out with a transmission electron microscope. Two bands parallel to the incident surface were observed in the irradiated specimen, which consist of dislocation loops and lines of high number density. These locate in the range of the depth of 0.4 to 1.3 {mu}m and 1.8 to 2.4 {mu}m from the incident surface, respectively. The region between two bands, which corresponds to the triple beam irradiated region, shows very low number density of dislocations than that in each band. Observation with higher magnification of this region shows that fine cavities with high number density uniformly distribute in the matrix. (author)

  8. Multiple endocrine adenomatosis with Cushing's disease and the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome responsive to proton beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veseley, D.L.; Fass, F.H.

    1981-09-01

    Multiple endocrine adenomatosis (MEA) or neoplasia is a hereditary disorder consisting of tumors of hyperplasia of several endocrine glands. In MEA-1 the pituitary, parathyroids, and pancreatic islets are most frequently involved, while in MEA-2 the thyroid (medullary carcinoma of the thyroid), parathyroids,and adrenals (pheochromocytomas) are the endocrine glands most likely to be involved. Cushings's syndrome may occur in MEA-1 and has also been found in patients with MEA-2, where the cause of Cushing's syndrome is usually ectopic ACTH production from medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Recently, there have been reports of amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome in patients with MEA-1, and confirmation that hyperprolactinemia is associated with this syndrom has been found in patients with MEA-1. The present report details a patient who has been followed up for 20 years since she first presented with amenorrhea and galactorrhea. Ten years after first being seen she was noted to have Cushing's syndrom and hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid hyperplasia. Both the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome and Cushing's sydrome disappeared with proton beam irradiation to the pituitary.

  9. Development of an irradiation device for electron beam wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rela, Paulo Roberto

    2003-01-01

    When domestic or industrial effluents with synthetic compounds are disposed without an adequate treatment, they impact negatively the environment with damages to aquatic life and for the human being. Both population and use of goods and services that contribute for the hazardous waste are growing. Hazardous regulations are becoming more restrictive and technologies, which do not destroy these products, are becoming less acceptable. The electron beam radiation process is an advanced oxidation process, that produces highly reactive radicals resulting in mineralization of the contaminant. In this work was developed an irradiation system in order to optimize the interaction of electron beam delivered from the accelerator with the processed effluent. It is composed by an irradiation device where the effluent presents to the electron beam in an up flow stream and a process control unit that uses the calorimetric principle. The developed irradiation device has a different configuration from the devices used by others researchers that are working with this technology. It was studied the technical and economic feasibility, comparing with the literature the results of the irradiation device demonstrated that it has a superior performance, becoming an process for use in disinfection and degradation of hazardous organic compounds of wastewater from domestic and industrial origin, contributing as an alternative technology for Sanitary Engineering. (author)

  10. Irradiation mixing of Al into U3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Ding, F.R.; Kestel, B.J.; Baldo, P.M.; Zaluzec, N.J.

    1995-11-01

    Thermal and irradiation induced intermixing of uranium silicide reactor fuels with the aluminum cladding is an important consideration in understanding their fission gas and fuel swelling behavior. The authors have used Rutherford backscattering to follow the behavior of an Al thin film on U 3 Si and U 3 Si 2 during 1.5 MeV Kr ion irradiation at temperatures of 30 and 350 C. After an initial dose during which no intermixing occurs, the Al mixes quickly into U 3 Si. The threshold dose is believed to be associated with an oxide layer between the Al and the uranium silicide. At 300 C and doses greater than threshold, rates of mixing and aluminide phase growth are extracted

  11. Effects of High-Energy Proton-Beam Irradiation on the Magnetic Properties of ZnO Nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Kue; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    There are still many problem for the application due to its unstable magnetism state and too small magnetization values. Here we investigate magnetic properties of ZnO nanorods after high-energy proton-beam irradiation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement on temperature was made to identify intrinsic or extrinsic defects as well as to observe magnetic ordering after irradiation. Understanding the effects of proton beam irradiation on magnetic behavior may help to shed light on the mechanism responsible for the magnetic ordering in this material. We have investigated proton-beam irradiation effects on the magnetic properties of ZnO nanorods. After irradiation a broad ESR line is observed, indicating emergence of ferromagnetic ordering up to room temperature. In M-H curve, stronger coercive field is observed after irradiation.

  12. Experimental research on fresh mussel meat irradiated by high-dose electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Lin; Lu Ruifeng; Hu Huachao; Wang Chaoqi; Liu Yanna

    2011-01-01

    The sterilization storage of fresh mussel irradiated high-dose electron beam was studied. From the subjective assessment by the weighted average of the test and other determined parameters, it can be concluded that the flavor of fresh mussel meat sealed canned food irradiated by high-dose electron beam has not been significant affected, and various micro-organisms can be killed effectively, which means that the irradiated fresh mussel meat can be preserved for long-term at room temperature. Therefore the method might resolve the problems induced by traditional frozen preservation methods. (authors)

  13. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the quality of mackerel (Pneumatophorus japonicus) Meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dongxiao; Yang Wenge; Xu Dalun; Zhou Xingyu; Ou Changrong; Shi Huidong

    2012-01-01

    The effect of 3, 5, 7 kGy electron beam irradiation on the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and peroxide value (POV), the contents of histamine and unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) in Pneumatophorus japonicus meat with vacuum or ordinary package were measured during refrigeration. The results showed that electron beam treatment could effectively control the contents of histamine and VBN, postpone the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acid in P. japonicus meat. The shelf life of P. japonicus meat could be extended with electron beam irradiation. Before cold storage, it is appropriate that the P. japonicus meat were ordinary packaged and irradiated at the dose of 5 kGy. (authors)

  14. The prophylactic effect of neck irradiation combined with intra-oral electron beam irradiation for early tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamori, Jiro; Kamata, Rikisaburo; Sanuki, Eiichi

    1993-01-01

    Between 1967 and 1988, 102 patients with Stage T1-2N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were treated with uneven fractional irradiation therapy (intra-oral electron beam irradiation with and without prophylactic ipsilateral upper neck irradiation at the Dept. of Radiology, Nihon University School of Medicine. Of 102 primary lesions, 89 cases were controlled with this therapy. In this study, these 89 cases were investigated in order to analyze the prophylactic effect of upper neck irradiation. Of the 89 patients, 42 received only intra-oral electron beam irradiation, while the remaining 47 received a combination of intra-oral electron beam irradiation and prophylactic irradiation to the ipsilateral upper neck. Twenty three of the 89 (25.8%) developed metastasis to the neck after the radiotherapy. A breakdown of these 23 cases reveals that 3/21 (14.3%) received 40-50 Gy to the neck, 9/26 (34.6%) received 20-40 Gy to the neck, and 11/42 (26.2%) received no irradiation to the neck (p<0.05 between first and second groups, and between first and third groups). The neck metastasis was classified into one of three categories based on the region in which it first appeared (ipsilateral upper neck, ipsilateral lower neck or contralateral neck). The first metastasis was seen in the ipsilateral upper neck, in the ipsilateral lower neck and in the contralateral neck in 17, 4 and 2 patients, respectively. In 1/19 who had received 40-50 Gy, in 5/21 who had received 20-40 Gy and in 11/42 who had not received neck irradiation the first metastasis appeared in the ipsilateral upper neck. The five year survival rate was 94%, 75% and 85% in the patients receiving 40-50 Gy, 20-40 Gy and no neck irradiation, respectively. These results suggest that prophylactic irradiation of 40-50 Gy to the ipsilateral upper neck might decrease the incidence of neck metastasis and slightly prolong survival time. (author)

  15. Vulcanization of rubber mixtures by simultaneous electron beam and microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D. E-mail: martin@ifin.nipne.ro; Ighigeanu, D.; Mateescu, E.; Craciun, G.; Ighigeanu, A

    2002-08-01

    The comparative results obtained by applying separate electron beam (EB) irradiation and simultaneous EB and microwave (MW) irradiation to vulcanization of rubber mixtures based on natural rubber and polybutadiene rubber with carbon black are presented. In the absence of MW, EB irradiation doses of 200-250 kGy are required in order to obtain a higher vulcanization degree. The irradiation doses as well as irradiation times were markedly diminished, from 2 to 6 times, by simultaneous EB and MW irradiation.

  16. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    sensitivity increases more rapidly under high doses of irra- diation than under low doses of irradiation. The electron beam irradiation effects were simulated and the mecha- nism was discussed. Acknowledgements. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the MOST 973 program, grant no. 2006CB705604 ...

  17. The effects of electron beam irradiation on additives present in food-contact polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowson, Andrew.

    1991-09-01

    A range of additives (Irganox 1010, Irganox 1076, Irganox 1330, Irgafos 168 and Tinuvin 622) has been incorporated into a variety of food-contact polymers including polypropylene and low density polyethylene. Samples of these stabilized polymers were subjected to electron-beam or gamma irradiation to receive doses of 1,5,10,25 and 50 kGy. The effects of electron-beam irradiation on the amount of extractable antioxidant in polymers were determined. Using hplc techniques it was found that there was a dose-related reduction in the amount of extractable antioxidant similar to that caused by gamma irradiation. The magnitude of this reduction was found to be dependent upon the nature of both the antioxidant and the polymer type. Electron-beam irradiation was also found to cause a dose-related reduction in the levels of the antioxidants Irganox 1010 and Irganox 1076 migrating from polymers into a food simulant. This effect was similar to that caused by gamma irradiation. (author)

  18. Effects on focused ion beam irradiation on MOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.N.; Peterson, K.A.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Soden, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of irradiation from a focused ion beam (FIB) system on MOS transistors are reported systematically for the first time. Three MOS transistor technologies, with 0.5, 1, and 3 μm minimum feature sizes and with gate oxide thicknesses ranging from 11 to 50 nm, were analyzed. Significant shifts in transistor parameters (such as threshold voltage, transconductance, and mobility) were observed following irradiation with a 30 keV Ga + focused ion beam with ion doses varying by over 5 orders of magnitude. The apparent damage mechanism (which involved the creation of interface traps, oxide trapped charge, or both) and extent of damage were different for each of the three technologies investigated

  19. Amorphization of Zr3Al by hydrogenation and subsequent electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, W.J.; Koike, J.; Okamoto, P.R.; Rehn, L.E.

    1988-12-01

    1-MeV electron irradiation of hydrogenated Zr 3 Al (Zr 3 AlH/sub 0.96/) at 10K is studied. A more than 20 fold reduction in the critical dose required for complete amorphization is observed for the hydrogenated specimen as compared to the un-hydrogenated Zr 3 Al under identical irradiation conditions. 11 refs., 4 figs

  20. Effects of gamma ray and electron-beam irradiations on survival of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Michiko; Miyahara, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    An extension of the approval for food irradiation is desired due to the increase in the incidence of food poisoning in the world. One anaerobic (Clostridium perfringens) and four facultatively anaerobic (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis) bacteria irradiated with gamma ray or electron beam (E-beam) were tested in terms of survival on agar under packaging atmosphere. Using pouch pack, effects of two irradiations on survival of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were evaluated comparatively. E-beam irradiation was more effective than gamma ray irradiation in decreasing the lethal dose 10% (D 10 ) value of B. cereus at 4 deg C, slightly more effective in that of E. coli O157, and similarly effective in that of the other three bacteria at 4 deg C. The gamma irradiation of the bacteria without incubation at 4 deg C before irradiation was more effective than that of the bacteria with incubation overnight at 4 deg C before irradiation in decreasing the D10 values of these bacteria (B. cereus, E. coli O157, and L. monocytogenes). Furthermore, ground beef patties inoculated with bacteria were irradiated with 1 kGy by E-beam (5 MeV) at 4 deg C. The inoculated bacteria in the 1-9 mm beef patties were killed by 1 kGy E-beam irradiation and some bacteria in more than 9 mm beef patties were not killed by the irradiation. (author)

  1. Effects of ion beam irradiation on adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro leaf explants of Septennial ionahta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, L.B.; Li, W.J.; Ma, S.; Dong, X.C.; Yu, L.X.; Li, Q.; Zhou, G.M.; Gao, Q.X.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of 960 MeV carbon ion beam and 8 MeV X-ray irradiation on adventitious shoots from in vitro leaf explants of two different Saintpaulia ionahta (Mauve and Indikon) cultivars were studied with regard to tissue increase, shoots differentiation and morphology changes in the shoots. The experimental results showed that the survival fraction of shoot formation for the Mauve and Indikon irradiated with the carbon ion beam at 20 Gy were 0.715 and 0.600, respectively, while those for both the cultivars exposed to the X-ray irradiation at the same dose were 1.000. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Mauve with respect to X-ray was about two. Secondly, the percentage of regenerating explants with malformed shoots in all Mauve regenerating explants irradiated with carbon ion beam at 20 Gy accounted for 49.6%, while that irradiated with the same dose of X-ray irradiation was only 4.7%; as for Saintpaulia ionahta Indikon irradiated with 20 Gy carbon ion beam, the percentage was 43.3%, which was higher than that of X-ray irradiation. Last, many chlorophyll deficient and other varieties of mutants were obtained in this study. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that the effect of mutation induction by carbon ion beam irradiation on the leaf explants of Saintpaulia ionahta is better than that by X-ray irradiation; and the optimal mutagenic dose varies from 20 Gy to 25 Gy for carbon ion beam irradiation

  2. Evaluation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of electron beam irradiated endodontic sealer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, Veena; Geethashri, A.; Palaksha, K.J.; Shridhar, K.R.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    The complete disinfection of root canal is achieved by endodontic instrumentation, irrigation and medications followed by complete filling of the canal space by appropriate sealer. However careful cleaning and shaping of the canal system do not assure the complete eradication of microorganisms from tubular or lateral canals. Therefore, to avoid the possible growth of microorganisms, the filling endodontic material should have good antimicrobial effect on the pathogens causing root canal failure or pulpo-periapical pathosis. Zinc Oxide- Eugenol (ZOE) is the most commonly used filling material in endodontics. Electron beam (e-beam) radiation is a form of ionizing radiation known to induce physiochemical and biological changes in the irradiated substances. Hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of e-beam radiation on antimicrobial property of ZOE sealer against root canal pathogens like Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The homogenous paste of Zinc oxide and Eugenol prepared by mixing at the ratio of 3:1 was loaded into the sterile molds of 6 mm diameter. After complete drying of paste, discs were aseptically separated from the mould. The prepared discs were subjected to e-beam irradiation of 250 Gy, 500 Gy, 750 Gy and 1000 Gy at Microtron Centre, Mangalore University. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties of control and irradiated sealer were determined by well diffusion method and growing the biofilm according to O'Toole method, respectively. The antimicrobial effect was observed only against S.aureus and C. albicans in non-irradiated ZOE. The ZOE sealer irradiated at 1000 Gy showed the significantly increased (P<0.001) antimicrobial effect against S. aureus and C. albicans. However, the substantially increased antibiofilm activity against C.albicans was noticed in the ZOE irradiated at 250 Gy. This study showed that e-beam irradiation at 1000 Gy and 250 Gy were found to be optimum

  3. Optical properties of a-plane (Al, Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on strain engineered Zn1-xMgxO layers by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Y.; Vinter, B.; Chauveau, J.-M.; Brault, J.; Nemoz, M.; Teisseire, M.; Leroux, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nonpolar (1120) Al 0.2 Ga 0.8 N/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (1120) Zn 0.74 Mg 0.26 O templates on r-plane sapphire substrates. The quantum wells exhibit well-resolved photoluminescence peaks in the ultra-violet region, and no sign of quantum confined Stark effect is observed in the complete multiple quantum well series. The results agree well with flat band quantum well calculations. Furthermore, we show that the MQW structures are strongly polarized along the [0001] direction. The origin of the polarization is discussed in terms of the strain anisotropy dependence of the exciton optical oscillator strengths.

  4. Muon Beam Studies in the H4 beam line and the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++)

    CERN Document Server

    Margraf, Rachel; CERN. Geneva. EN Department

    2017-01-01

    In this report, I summarize my work of detailed study and optimization of the muon beam configuration of H4 beam line in SPS North Area. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, I studied the properties and behavior of the muon beam in combination with the field of the large, spectrometer “ GOLIATH” magnet at -1.5, -1.0, 0, 1.0 and 1.5 Tesla, which is shown to affect the central x position of the muon beam that is delivered to the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). I also studied the muon beam for different configurations of the two XTDV beam dumps upstream of GIF++ in the H4 beam line. I will also discuss my role in mapping the magnetic field of the GOLIATH magnet in the H4 beam line.

  5. Three-dimensional space charge distribution measurement in electron beam irradiated PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, Yoichi; Suzuki, Ken; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Takada, Tatsuo

    1996-01-01

    The localized space charge distribution in electron beam irradiated PMMA was investigated using pulsed electroacoustic method. Using a conventional space charge measurement system, the distribution only in the depth direction (Z) can be measured assuming the charges distributed uniformly in the horizontal (X-Y) plane. However, it is difficult to measure the distribution of space charge accumulated in small area. Therefore, we have developed the new system to measure the three-dimensional space charge distribution using pulsed electroacoustic method. The system has a small electrode with a diameter of 1mm and a motor-drive X-Y stage to move the sample. Using the data measured at many points, the three-dimensional distribution were obtained. To estimate the system performance, the electron beam irradiated PMMA was used. The electron beam was irradiated from transmission electron microscope (TEM). The depth of injected electron was controlled using the various metal masks. The measurement results were compared with theoretically calculated values of electron range. (author)

  6. Multispecimen dual-beam irradiation damage chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packan, N.H.; Buhl, R.A.

    1980-06-01

    An irradiation damage chamber that can be used to rapidly simulate fast neutron damage in fission or fusion materials has been designed and constructed. The chamber operates in conjunction with dual Van de Graaff accelerators at ORNL to simulate a wide range of irradiation conditions, including pulsed irradiation. Up to six experiments, each with up to nine 3-mm disk specimens, can be loaded into the ultrahigh vacuum chamber. Specimen holders are heated with individual electron guns, and the temperature of each specimen can be monitored during bombardment by an infrared pyrometer. Three different dose levels may be obtained during any single bombardment, and the heavy-ion flux on each of the nine specimens can be measured independently with only a brief interruption of the beam. The chamber has been in service for nearly three years, during which time approximately 250 bombardments have been successfully carried out. An appendix contains detailed procedures for operating the chamber

  7. Constructing carbon nanotube junctions by Ar ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishaq, Ahmad; Ni Zhichun; Yan Long; Gong Jinlong; Zhu Dezhang

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) irradiated by Ar ion beams at elevated temperature were studied. The irradiation-induced defects in CNTs are greatly reduced by elevated temperature. Moreover, the two types of CNT junctions, the crossing junction and the parallel junction, were formed. And the CNT networks may be fabricated by the two types of CNT junctions. The formation process and the corresponding mechanism of CNT networks are discussed.

  8. A control technique of oxygen contamination by Ga beam irradiation in InN MOMBE growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isamoto, K.; Uesaka, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Hashimoto, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated about a control technique of oxygen contamination into the InN layers by simultaneous irradiation of Ga beam during RF-MOMBE growth using the combination of the TMIn and the RF-plasma nitrogen sources. Red shifts of the band gap energy and the improvement of the electrical properties have been achieved by the Ga beam irradiation. The suppression mechanism of the oxygen contamination has been discussed from the experimental results of the InN growth by the RF-MOMBE with the Ga beam irradiation. The present results strongly indicate that the simultaneous irradiation of the Ga beam would be useful to suppress the oxygen contamination into the InN layers during the growth. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Degradation behaviour of fiber reinforced plastic under electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Hashimoto, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Various mechanical properties of four kinds of glass fiber-reinforced plastics irradiated with electron beams were examined at three temperatures; room temperature, 123 K and 77 K. Dynamic viscoelastic properties were measured, and fractography by means of scanning electron microscopy was observed in order to clarify degradation behaviour. A considerable decrease in interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) at room temperature was observed above 60 MGy. On the other hand, the three-point bending strength at 77 K and the ILSS at 123 K decreased with increasing irradiation. Fractography reveals that the degradation of the interface layer between matrix resin and fiber plays an important role in the strength reduction at 123 K and 77 K. These findings suggest that the interface between matrix resin and fiber loses its bondability at 123 K arid 77 K after electron beam irradiation. (author)

  10. Compositional changes in industrial hemp biomass (Cannabis sativa L.) induced by electron beam irradiation Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Yong Joo; Shin, Soo-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical decomposition of industrial hemp biomass were evaluated at doses of 150, 300, and 450 kGy. The quantity of decomposed components was indirectly estimated by measuring changes in alkaline extraction. The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation doses resulted in larger amounts of alkaline extract. Carbohydrate compositional analysis using 1 H-NMR spectroscopy was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the polysaccharides of the industrial hemp. The xylose peak intensity in the NMR spectra decreased with increasing electron irradiation dose, indicating that xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose. -- Highlights: → The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation. → Carbohydrate analysis was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the industrial hemp. → Xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose.

  11. Compositional changes in industrial hemp biomass (Cannabis sativa L.) induced by electron beam irradiation Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Yong Joo [Department of Biobased Materials, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Soo-Jeong [Department of Wood and Paper Science, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical decomposition of industrial hemp biomass were evaluated at doses of 150, 300, and 450 kGy. The quantity of decomposed components was indirectly estimated by measuring changes in alkaline extraction. The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation doses resulted in larger amounts of alkaline extract. Carbohydrate compositional analysis using {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the polysaccharides of the industrial hemp. The xylose peak intensity in the NMR spectra decreased with increasing electron irradiation dose, indicating that xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose. -- Highlights: {yields} The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation. {yields} Carbohydrate analysis was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the industrial hemp. {yields} Xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose.

  12. A method of beam control for NFZ-10 industrial irradiation linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Minghua

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally negative feedback coming from output beam is used to stabilize output beam by regulating filament voltage of bombarding diode electron gun. The authors analysed the shortcomings of the method in detail and put forward a new method of regulating bombarding high voltage in NFZ-10 industrial irradiation linac. Output beam with high stability and high accuracy was obtained

  13. Effect of electron beam irradiation on fisheries water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarala Selambakkannu; Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Jamaliah Shariff; Suhairi Alimon

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies about water obtained from fish pond of fisheries research centre. Usual water quality parameters such as pH, COD, Turbidity and Ammonia content were analyzed before and after irradiation. Electron beam irradiation was used to irradiate the water with the dose 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 300 kGy. Only high dose was applied on this water as only a limited amount of samples was supplied. All the parameters indicated a slight increase after irradiation except for the ammonia content, which showed a gradual decrease as irradiation dose increases. Sample condition was changed before irradiation in order to obtain more effective results in the following batch. The water sample from fisheries was diluted with distilled water to the ratio of 1:1.This was followed with irradiation at 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 300 kGy. The results still showed an increase in all parameters after irradiation except for ammonia content. For the following irradiation batch, the pH of the sample was adjusted to pH 4 and pH 8 before irradiation. For this sample the irradiation dose selected was only 100 kGy. A higher value of ammonia was observed for the sample with pH 4 after irradiation. Other parameters were almost the same as the first two batches. (author)

  14. Experimental Performance of the NRL 8-Beam, 4-Cavity Multiple-Beam Klystron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, D. K.; Pershing, D. E.; Nguyen, K. T.; Wood, F. N.; Myers, R. E.; Eisen, E. L.; Cusick, M.; Levush, B.

    2006-01-01

    Multiple-beam amplifiers (MBAs) represent a device technology with the potential to produce high-power, efficient amplifiers with relatively wide bandwidths that are compact, low-weight, low-noise, and operate at reduced voltages relative to comparable single-beam devices. To better understand the device physics and technical issues involved in the design, fabrication, and operation of these devices, the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has an on-going program to develop high peak power (> 600 kW) multiple-beam klystrons (MBKs) operating in S-band (˜3.3 GHz).

  15. Wide variety of flower-color and -shape mutants regenerated from leaf cultures irradiated with ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, M.; Yasuno, N.; Ohtsuka, M.; Tanaka, A.; Shikazono, N.; Hase, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency of ion-beam irradiation combined with tissue culture in obtaining floral mutants was investigated and compared with those of gamma rays and X-rays in carnation. Leaf segments of carnation plants in vitro were irradiated with the 220 MeV carbon ions, and cultured till the shoot regenerated. The carbon ion had the highest effect in reducing the regeneration frequency, and the RBE value with respect to gamma-rays was four. The higher mutation frequency and the wider mutation spectrum were obtained in plants irradiated with the carbon ions than low LET radiations. Three new carnation varieties developed by ion-beam irradiation were applied for the registration of the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. The results indicate that ion beam irradiation could induce wide variety of flower-color and -shape mutants, and that the combined method of ion-beam irradiation with tissue culture is useful to obtain the commercial varieties in a short time

  16. Moving beam irradiation in combined therapy of cervix uteri cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, O M; Zholkiver, K I

    1976-07-01

    Postoperative moving beam irradiation in a dose of 3900 to 365 rad was conducted in 98 patients with the I--II stages of cervix uteri cancer. Skin reactions to irradiation were absent, marked leukopenia developed in 4 patients. Of 39 patients followed up for more than 5 years 35 have lived without relapses and metastases.

  17. Defocusing beam line design for an irradiation facility at the TAEA SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Gencer, A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Yiğitoğlu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic components must be tested to ensure reliable performance in high radiation environments such as Hi-Limu LHC and space. We propose a defocusing beam line to perform proton irradiation tests in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility was inaugurated in May 2012 for radioisotope production. The facility has also an R&D room for research purposes. The accelerator produces protons with 30 MeV kinetic energy and the beam current is variable between View the MathML source10μA and View the MathML source1.2mA. The beam kinetic energy is suitable for irradiation tests, however the beam current is high and therefore the flux must be lowered. We plan to build a defocusing beam line (DBL) in order to enlarge the beam size, reduce the flux to match the required specifications for the irradiation tests. Current design includes the beam transport and the final focusing magnets to blow up the beam. Scattering foils and a collimator is placed for the reduction of the beam ...

  18. Multi-walled carbon nanotube structural instability with/without metal nanoparticles under electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Huang, Shengli; Wu, Chenxu

    2017-12-01

    The structural transformation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) under electron beam (e-beam) irradiation at room temperature is studied, with respect to a novel passivation effect due to gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). MWCNT structural evolution induced by energetic e-beam irradiation leads to faster shrinkage, as revealed via in situ transmission electron microscopy, while MWCNT surface modification with Au NPs (Au-MWCNT) slows down the shrinkage by impeding the structural evolution process for a prolonged time under the same irradiation conditions. The new relationship between MWCNT and Au-MWCNT shrinking radii and irradiation time illustrates that the MWCNT shrinkage rate is faster than either theoretical predictions or the same process in Au-MWCNTs. As compared with the outer surface energy (positive curvature), the inner surface energy (negative curvature) of the MWCNT contributes more to the athermal evaporation of tube wall atoms, leading to structural instability and shrinkage under e-beam irradiation. Conversely, Au NPs possess only outer surface energy (positive curvature) compared with the MWCNT. Their presence on MWCNT surfaces retards the dynamics of MWCNT structural evolution by slowing down the evaporation process of carbon atoms, thus restricting Au-MWCNT shrinkage. Au NP interaction and growth evolves athermally on MWCNT surfaces, exhibits increase in their size, and indicates the association of this mechanism with the coalescence induced by e-beam activated electronic excitations. Despite their growth, Au NPs show extreme structural stability, and remain crystalline under prolonged irradiation. It is proposed that the surface energy of MWCNTs and Au NPs, together with e-beam activated soft modes or lattice instability effects, predominantly govern all the above varieties of structural evolution.

  19. Anti-angiogenic activity in metastasis of human breast cancer cells irradiated by a proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyu-Shik; Shin, Jin-Sun; Nam, Kyung-Soo [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Shon, Yun-Hee [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Angiogenesis is an essential process of metastasis in human breast cancer. We investigated the effects of proton beam irradiation on angiogenic enzyme activities and their expressions in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The regulation of angiogenic regulating factors, of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and of vesicular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in breast cancer cells irradiated with a proton beam was studied. Aromatase activity and mRNA expression, which is correlated with metastasis, were significantly decreased by irradiation with a proton beam in a dose-dependent manner. TGF-β and VEGF transcriptions were also diminished by proton beam irradiation. In contrast, transcription of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), also known as biological inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), was dose-dependently enhanced. Furthermore, an increase in the expression of TIMPs caused the MMP-9 activity to be diminished and the MMP-9 and the MMP-2 expressions to be decreased. These results suggest that inhibition of angiogenesis by proton beam irradiation in breast cancer cells is closely related to inhibitions of aromatase activity and transcription and to down-regulation of TGF-β and VEGF transcription.

  20. Fiber-coupled Al_2O_3:C radioluminescence dosimetry for total body irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buranurak, S.; Andersen, C.E.

    2016-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry can be important and relevant in radiotherapy, especially when commissioning new treatment techniques at hospitals. This study investigates the potential use of fiber-coupled radioluminescence (RL) dosimetry based on Al_2O_3:C or organic plastic scintillators for this purpose in the context of Total Body Irradiations (TBIs) where patients are treated with large fields of 6 or 18 MV photons at an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD). The study shows that Al_2O_3:C dosimetry using the saturated-RL protocol may be suitable for real-time in vivo dosimetry during TBI treatments from the perspective of the good agreement with alanine dosimetry and other critical phantom tests, including the ability to cope with the large stem signal experienced during TBI treatments at extended SSD. In contrast, the chromatic stem removal technique often used for organic plastic scintillators did not work well in large fields with the tested calibration procedure and instrumentation. An apparent dose-rate effect discussed in a previous study of the RL properties of Al_2O_3:C (Andersen et al., 2011) was found to have resulted from an overlooked dead time problem in the counting system, and this potential caveat can therefore be removed from the list of potential problems associated with fiber-coupled Al_2O_3:C dosimetry using the saturated-RL protocol. This further has implications for TBI dosimetry using the RL Al_2O_3:C system due to large dose-rate differences between calibrations at the iso-center and in vivo measurements at extended source-to-surface distances. - Highlights: • Fiber-coupled dosimetry can be used for measurements during total body irradiations. • An apparent dose-effect associated with radioluminescence from Al2O3:C was resolved. • The gated-counting stem removal procedure worked well for Al2O3:C in pulsed accelerator beams. • The chromatic stem removal procedure did not work well with the tested instrumentation and organic plastic

  1. Study on detection of electron beam irradiated food by ESR spectroscopy and comparison of the ESR spectrum of electron beams and γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weiming; Ha Yiming; Wang Feng

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to detect electron beam irradiated food by ESR spectroscopy. The white pepper powder, paprika powder, cumin powder and pistachios were used as test materials to study the feature changes of ESR spectrum and the relationship between ESR intensity and irradiation dose in different doses, the shape variation of ESR spectrum in γ-rays and electron beams in the same sample was also compared. The results showed that the ESR spectrum of 4 kinds of irradiated samples was obviously different before and after irradiation, the intensity of ESR signal increased with the increasing of the absorbed dose. The dose above 432 Gy could be detected in white pepper powder and pistachios, the dose above 875 Gy could be detected in paprika powder and cumin powder. The ESR intensity of all samples decreased during the storage time (200 d), even after 200 days the ESR method could also be used to detect whether or not the samples have been irradiated. The same dosage of y-rays and electron beams has no significant influence on the shape of ESR spectrum, however, the difference of irradiation mechanism caused slight impact on ESR intensity. The results could provide the technical basis for the application of ESR method in detecting electron beam irradiated food. (authors)

  2. Study on detection of electron beam irradiated food by ESR spectroscopy and comparison of the ESR spectrum of electron beams and γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weiming; Ha Yiming; Wang Feng

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to detect electron beam irradiated food by ESR spectroscopy. The white pepper powder, paprika powder, cumin powder and pistachios were used as test materials to study the feature changes of ESR spectrum and the relationship between ESR intensity and irradiation dose in different doses, the shape variation of ESR spectrum in γ-rays and electron beams in the same sample was also compared. The results showed that the ESR spectrum of 4 kinds of irradiated samples was obviously different before and after irradiation, the intensity of ESR signal increased with the increasing of the absorbed dose. The dose above 432 Gy could be detected in white pepper powder and pistachios, the dose above 875 Gy could be detected in paprika powder and cumin powder. The ESR intensity of all samples decreased during the storage time (200 d), even after 200 days the ESR method could also be used to detect whether or not the samples have been irradiated. The same dosage of γ-rays and electron beams has no significant influence on the shape of ESR spectrum, however, the difference of irradiation mechanism caused slight impact on ESR intensity. The results could provide the technical basis for the application of ESR method in detecting electron beam irradiated food. (authors)

  3. Development of small scale mechanical testing techniques on ion beam irradiated 304 SS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichardt, A.; Abad, M.D.; Hosemann, P.; Lupinacci, A.; Kacher, J.; Minor, A.; Jiao, Z; Chou, P.

    2015-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are widely used for structural components in light water reactors, however uncertainty in their susceptibility to irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) has made long term performance predictions difficult. In addition, the testing of reactor irradiated materials has proven challenging due to the long irradiation times required, limited sample availability, and unwanted activation. To address these problems, we apply recently developed techniques in nano-indentation and micro-compression testing to small volume samples of 10 dpa proton-beam irradiated 304 stainless steel. Cross sectional nano-indentation was performed on both proton beam irradiated and non-irradiated samples at temperatures ranging from 22 to 300 C. degrees to determine the effects of irradiation and operating temperature on hardening. Micro-compression tests using 2 μm x 2 μm x 5 μm focused-ion beam milled pillars were then performed in situ in an electron microscope to allow for a more accurate look at stress-strain behavior along with real-time observations of localized mechanical deformation. Large sudden slip events and significant increase in yield strength are observed in irradiated micro-compression samples at room temperature. Elevated temperature nano-indentation results reveal the possibility of thermally-activated changes in deformation mechanism for irradiated specimens. Since the deformation mechanism information provided by micro-compression testing can provide valuable information about IASCC susceptibility, future work will involve ex situ micro-compression tests at reactor operating temperature

  4. Carbon-ion beam irradiation kills X-ray-resistant p53-null cancer cells by inducing mitotic catastrophe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napapat Amornwichet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To understand the mechanisms involved in the strong killing effect of carbon-ion beam irradiation on cancer cells with TP53 tumor suppressor gene deficiencies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA damage responses after carbon-ion beam or X-ray irradiation in isogenic HCT116 colorectal cancer cell lines with and without TP53 (p53+/+ and p53-/-, respectively were analyzed as follows: cell survival by clonogenic assay, cell death modes by morphologic observation of DAPI-stained nuclei, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs by immunostaining of phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX, and cell cycle by flow cytometry and immunostaining of Ser10-phosphorylated histone H3. RESULTS: The p53-/- cells were more resistant than the p53+/+ cells to X-ray irradiation, while the sensitivities of the p53+/+ and p53-/- cells to carbon-ion beam irradiation were comparable. X-ray and carbon-ion beam irradiations predominantly induced apoptosis of the p53+/+ cells but not the p53-/- cells. In the p53-/- cells, carbon-ion beam irradiation, but not X-ray irradiation, markedly induced mitotic catastrophe that was associated with premature mitotic entry with harboring long-retained DSBs at 24 h post-irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: Efficient induction of mitotic catastrophe in apoptosis-resistant p53-deficient cells implies a strong cancer cell-killing effect of carbon-ion beam irradiation that is independent of the p53 status, suggesting its biological advantage over X-ray treatment.

  5. Thermoluminescent characteristics of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE irradiated with high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, R.; Rivera, T.; Calderon, J. A.; Jimenez, Y.; Rodriguez, J.; Oviedo, O.; Azorin, J.

    2011-10-01

    In the present work thermoluminescent response of dysprosium doped calcium sulfate embedded in polytetrafluorethylene (CaSO 4 :Dy+PTFE) under high electron beam irradiations from linear accelerator for clinical applications was investigated. The irradiations were carried out using high electron beams (6 to 18 MeV) from a linear accelerator Varian, C linac 2300C/D, for clinical practice purpose. The electron irradiations were obtained by using the water solid in order to guarantee electronic equilibrium conditions. Field shaping for electron beams was obtained with electron cones. Glow curve and other thermoluminescent characteristics of CaSO 4 :Dy+PTFE were conducted under high electron beams irradiations. The thermoluminescent response of the pellets showed and intensity peak centered at around 235 C. Thermoluminescent response of CaSO 4 :Dy+PTFE as a function of high electron absorbed dose showed a linearity in a wide range. To obtain reproducibility characteristic, a set of pellets were exposed repeatedly for the same electron absorbed dose. The results obtained in this study can suggest the applicability of CaSO 4 :Dy+PTFE pellets for high electron beam dosimetry, provided fading is correctly accounted for. (Author)

  6. Analysis of volatile organic compounds of ‘Fuji’ apples following electron beam irradiation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hyun-Pa; Shim, Sung-Lye; Lee, Sun-Im; Kim, Dong-Ho; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2012-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds of non-irradiated and electron-beam irradiated ‘Fuji’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) at 0, 0.5, and 1 kGy were isolated through simultaneous distillation extractions and analyzed using gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry. A total of 53 volatile organic compounds were characterized in 0 and 1 kGy irradiated samples, whereas two more compounds related to ketone and terpenoid group were identified in 0.5 kGy irradiated samples. The contents of volatile compounds were 24.33, 36.49, and 35.28 mg/kg in 0, 0.5, and 1 kGy irradiated samples, respectively. The major compounds identified were butanol, hexanal, [E]-2-hexenal, and hexanol in all samples. The relative content of alcohol increased after 30 days of storage in all samples, whereas that of aldehyde decreased. Although the contents of some volatile compounds were changed by electron-beam irradiation, the total yield and major flavor compounds of irradiated ‘Fuji’ apples were similar to, or even greater than, those of the control. Therefore, the application of e-beam irradiation if required for microbial decontamination of ‘Fuji’ apples is an acceptable method as it does not bring about any major quantitative changes of volatile organic compounds. - Highlights: ► We analyzed the volatile organic compounds of electron beam irradiated Fuji apples. ► The major compounds of samples were butanol, hexanal, [E]-2-hexenal, and hexanol. ► The contents of major flavor compounds of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were similar.

  7. Comparison of the effects of gamma ray and e-beam irradiation on the quality of minced beef during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Nam; Han, In Jun; Kim, Wang Geun; Song, Beom Seok; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il; Yoon, Yo Han; Byun, Myung Woo; Hwang, Han Joon; Lee, Ju Woon; Park, Jin Gyu

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the microbiological and physicochemical qualities of minced beef irradiated with gamma ray of e-beam at the absorbed doses from 5 to 20 kGy. The total bacterial counts of minced beef were decreased depending upon the irradiation doses, but sterilizing effect of gamma irradiation was higher than that of e-beam irradiation. The contents of malondialdegyde of minced beef were increased depending upon irradiation doses as well as storage periods (p< 0.05). Volatile basic nitrogen in minced beef was constantly increased during storage, but the increasing rate were retarded by irradiation. The hunter's color values(L*, a* and b*) of gamma or e-beam irradiated minced beef were decreased as irradiation dose increasing. Meanwhile, the quality changes of gamma irradiated samples were faster than e-beam irradiated samples

  8. Polymeric materials obtained by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragusin, M.; Moraru, R.; Martin, D.; Radoiu, M.; Marghitu, S.; Oproiu, C.

    1995-01-01

    Research activities in the field of electron beam irradiation of monomer aqueous solution to produce polymeric materials used for waste waters treatment, agriculture and medicine are presented. The technologies and special features of these polymeric materials are also described. The influence of the chemical composition of the solution to ba irradiated, absorbed dose level and absorbed dose rate level are discussed. Two kinds of polyelectrolytes, PA and PV types and three kinds of hydrogels, pAAm, pAAmNa and pNaAc types, the production of which was first developed with IETI-10000 Co-60 source and then adapted to the linacs built in Accelerator Laboratory, are described. (author)

  9. Oxidative decomposition of aromatic hydrocarbons by electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Do-Hung; Stuchinskaya, Tatiana; Won, Yang-Soo; Park, Wan-Sik; Lim, Jae-Kyong

    2003-05-01

    Decomposition of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under electron beam irradiation was studied in order to examine the kinetics of the process, to characterize the reaction product distribution and to develop a process of waste gas control technology. Toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m-, p-xylenes and chlorobenzene were used as target materials. The experiments were carried out at doses ranging from 0.5 to 10 kGy, using a flow reactor utilized under electron beam irradiation. Maximum degrees of decomposition carried out at 10 kGy in air environment were 55-65% for “non-chlorinated” aromatic VOC and 85% for chlorobenzene. It was found that a combination of aromatic pollutants with chlorobenzene would considerably increase the degradation value up to nearly 50% compared to the same compounds in the absence of chlorine groups. Based on our experimental observation, the degradation mechanism of the aromatic compounds combined with chloro-compound suggests that a chlorine radical, formed from EB irradiation, induces a chain reaction, resulting in an accelerating oxidative destruction of aromatic VOCs.

  10. Physics design of heavy-ion irradiation beam line on HI-13 tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Fei; Peng Zhaohua; Hu Yueming; Jiao Xuesheng; Chen Dongfeng; Cao Yali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Heavy-ion microporous membrane is a new kind of filter material, which has prosperous application in the fields of medical and biological agents, electronic, food, environmental science, materials science, etc. Purpose: Polyester membranes were irradiated with 32 S produced by HI-13 tandem accelerator to develop a microporous membrane at CIAE, and the irradiation uniformity is determined by the beam distribution, also the microporous uniformity is required higher than 90%. Methods: An octupole magnet was used to correct the beam distribution from Gauss to uniform. Meanwhile, main parameters of beam line were given, and the alignment tolerances for optical elements were also analyzed. Results: Alignment tolerance of the optical elements could cause great influence on the beam center deviation in the process of correction, which would destroy the irradiation uniformity. Steering magnet was applied to meet with the design requirements. Conclusion: This study provides a practical and feasible way for industrial production of heavy-ion microporous membrane. (authors)

  11. Muon Beam Studies in the H4 beam line and the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++)

    CERN Document Server

    Margraf, Rachel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    In this note, we present detailed simulation results for the trajectory of a muon beam, traversing beam zones PPE-134 and PPE-154, produced by a 150 GeV positive hadron beam incident on collimators 9 & 10 in the H4 beam line when these collimators are placed off-beam axis to stop all hadrons and electrons. Using G4Beamline, a GEANT-4 based Monte-Carlo program, the trajectory of the muon beam has been studied for several field strengths of the GOLIATH magnet, as well as for different polarities. The position of the beam at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++), located downstream the PPE-144 area, is also presented. In addition, two configurations of the two XTDV’s present in the line (XTDV.022.520 and XTDV.022.610) have been studied, with the purpose to simulate the pion contamination of the beam both in PPE134 and GIF++.

  12. Uniform irradiation system using beam scanning method for cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agematsu, Takashi; Okumura, Susumu; Arakawa, Kazuo

    1994-03-01

    JAERI AVF-cyclotron is equipped with an ion beam scanner for large area irradiation. The two-dimensional fluence distribution of ion beam obtained using cellulose triacetate film dosimeter was not uniform. This is resulted from the distortion of excitation current for electromagnet of the scanner. So, the beam scanning condition, i.e., the relation between the ion species, the beam profile and the scanning width, was extremely limited to make a good uniformity. We have developed a beam scanning simulator to get fluence distributions by calculation and then compared the simulated distributions with the measured ones. It was revealed that the both of them are in good agreement and the beam scanning condition to get good uniformity was led by using this simulator. On the basis of these results, the power supply of scanner was improved. A good uniformity of beam distribution was available. (author)

  13. Space-charge dynamics of polymethylmethacrylate under electron beam irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, H; Ong, C K

    1997-01-01

    Space-charge dynamics of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) under electron beam irradiation has been investigated employing a scanning electron microscope. Assuming a Gaussian space-charge distribution, the distribution range (sigma) has been determined using a time-resolved current method in conjunction with a mirror image method. sigma is found to increase with irradiation time and eventually attain a stationary value. These observations have been discussed by taking into account radiation-induced conductivity and charge mobility. (author)

  14. An ultrasound system for simultaneous ultrasound hyperthermia and photon beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straube, William L.; Moros, Eduardo G.; Low, Daniel A.; Klein, Eric E.; Willcut, Virgil M.; Myerson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: An existing ultrasound system has been adapted for simultaneous use with external photon beam irradiation. The system is being used to investigate the potential for increased biological benefit of simultaneously combined hyperthermia and external beam irradiation with currently achievable temperature distributions. Methods and Materials: An existing clinical ultrasound system has been modified for simultaneous operation with a 60 Co teletherapy machine. The generator, thermometry system, computer, and applicators are located inside the treatment room, while the monitor and system control are located at the control console. Two approaches have been used clinically to combine the two modalities. In the first approach, an en-face setup is used in which the ultrasound beam and the photon beam travel through the same window of entry to the tumor. This is achieved by a reflecting system designed to deflect the ultrasound to the tumor while positioning the ultrasound transducer outside the radiation beam. The reflecting system consists of water and water-equivalent materials except for a 1 mm sheet of polished brass that is used as the reflector. The relative pressure fields were measured in water at the same distance from the ultrasound source using a scanning hydrophone with and without the reflector at the two operating frequencies of the device (1.0 and 3.4 MHz) for two applicators. Radiation dosimetry measurements were performed to determine the relationship between 60 Co irradiation through the reflector and absorbed dose. In the second approach the ultrasound and the radiation beam travel into the tumor from different windows of entry such that the radiation beam passes through no portion of the water bolus prior to entering the patient. We have termed this approach the orthogonal approach. For both approaches, the radiation fraction is given in the middle of an uninterrupted 60-min hyperthermia treatment. Results: The system modifications did not impair

  15. Nitridation of vanadium by ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Masato; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Kinomura, Atsushi; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    1994-01-01

    The nitridation of vanadium by ion beam irradiation is studied by the ion implantation method and the dynamic mixing method. The nitrogen ion implantation was carried out into deposited V(110) films. Using both methods, three phases are formed, i.e. α-V, β-V 2 N, and δ-VN. Which phases are formed is related to the implantation dose or the arrival ratio. The orientation of the VN films produced by the dynamic ion beam mixing method is (100) and that of the VN films produced by the ion implantation method is (111). The nitridation of vanadium is also discussed in comparison with that of titanium and chromium. ((orig.))

  16. Extractable proteins from electron beam (EB) irradiated natural rubber (NR) latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feroza Akhtar; Fumio Yoshii; Keizo Makuuchi

    1996-01-01

    The protein assay of natural rubber latex (NRL) vulcanized by low energy electron beam (EB, 300 keV, 30 mA) has been carried out using Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) reagent. Extractable protein in irradiated latex film was determined by measuring the absorption of colored solution at 562 nm using UV spectrometer. The effect of various radiation doses on the extractable protein content of NRL was investigated. It was ,found that the quantities of extractable protein increases with radiation dose. When compared with ,gamma-ray irradiated samples the same trend was observed. Electron beam irradiated latex films are leached in 1% (ammonia water for various lengths of time. From the results it was established that within 2 hours of leaching in ammonia water most of the extractable protein (96%) were removed from rubber film

  17. Structure modification and medical application of the natural products by proton beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. W.; Park, J. K.; Kang, J. E.; Shin, S. C.; Ahn, J. H.; Lee, E. S.

    2008-04-01

    This study was performed for the investigation of changes of constituent contents of Korean ginseng (Panax genseng C.A. Meyer) after proton beam irradiation (Beam energy from MC-50 cyclotron : 36.5MeV) with beam range of 500 - 10000Gy

  18. Structure modification and medical application of the natural products by proton beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. W.; Park, J. K.; Kang, J. E.; Shin, S. C.; Ahn, J. H.; Lee, E. S. [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    This study was performed for the investigation of changes of constituent contents of Korean ginseng (Panax genseng C.A. Meyer) after proton beam irradiation (Beam energy from MC-50 cyclotron : 36.5MeV) with beam range of 500 - 10000Gy

  19. Application of the in-beam PET therapy monitoring on precision irradiations with helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, F.

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of the present dissertation was to extend the in-beam PET method to new ion types. It was shown that the in-beam PET method can also be applied for 3 He irradiations. For this experiments on a 3 He beam were performed. The activity yield is at equal applied dose about three times larger than at 12 C irradiations. The reachable range resolution is smaller than 1 mm. At the irradiation of an inhomogeneous phantom it was shown that a contrast between different materials is resolvable. From the experimentally determined reaction rates cross sections for the reactions leading to positron emitters were performed. The data taken in the 3 He experiments were compared those obtained in carbon-ion experiments as well as literature data for proton irradiations. A comparison with the calculations of the simulation program SHIELD-HIT was performed. A collection of cross-section models and the established requirements for a simulation program applicable for in-beam PET are preparing for further work

  20. Effects of high heat flux hydrogen and helium mixture beam irradiation on surface modification and hydrogen retention in tungsten materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, K.; Fujiwara, T.; Ezato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Akiba, M.; Kurishita, H.; Nagata, S.; Tsuchiya, B.; Tonegawa, A.; Yoshida, N.

    2009-01-01

    High heat flux experiments using a hydrogen-helium mixture beam have been carried out on powder metallurgy tungsten (PM-W) and ultra fine grain W-TiC alloy (W-0.5 wt%TiC-H 2 ). The energy of is 18 keV. Beam flux and heat flux at the beam center is 2.0 x 10 21 atoms/m 2 s and 7.0 MW/m 2 , respectively. Typical ratio of He/D ion is 0.25. Beam duration is 1.5-3 s and interval of beam shot start is 30 s. The samples are irradiated up to a fluence of 10 22 -10 24 He/m 2 by the repeated irradiation pulses. After the irradiation, surface modification by the irradiation and hydrogen retention, surface composition have been investigated. Surface modification by hydrogen-helium mixture beams is completely different from results of single beam irradiation. In particular, mixture beam irradiation causes remarkably high hydrogen retention.

  1. Electron beam irradiation induces abnormal development and the stabilization of p53 protein of American serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Yun, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Changmann [Department of Plant Medicine, College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gil-Hah, E-mail: khkim@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Plant Medicine, College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The American serpentine leafminer fly, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), is one of the most destructive polyphagous pests worldwide. In this study, we determined electron beam doses for inhibition of normal development of the leaf miner and investigated the effect of electron beam irradiation on DNA damage and p53 stability. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (2nd instar), puparia (0-24 h old after pupariation) and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with increasing doses of electron beam irradiation (six levels between 30 and 200 Gy). At 150 Gy, the number of adults that developed from irradiated eggs, larvae and puparia was lower than in the untreated control. Fecundity and egg hatchability decreased depending on the doses applied. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated flies demonstrated that males were more radiotolerant than females. Adult longevity was not affected in all stages. The levels of DNA damage in L. trifolii adults were evaluated using the alkaline comet assay. Our results indicate that electron beam irradiation increased levels of DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, low doses of electron beam irradiation led to the rapid appearance of p53 protein within 6 h; however, it decreased after exposure to high doses (150 Gy and 200 Gy). These results suggest that electron beam irradiation induced not only abnormal development and reproduction but also p53 stability caused by DNA damage in L. trifolii. We conclude that a minimum dose of 150 Gy should be sufficient for female sterilization of L. trifolii. - Highlights: > Electron beam irradiation inhibited normal development of the leaf miner. > Electron beam irradiation inhibited normal reproduction of the leaf miner. > Electron beam irradiation increased levels of DNA damage. > Electron beam irradiation induced p53 stability.

  2. Analytical examination of a spiral beam scanning method for uniform irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Okumura, Susumu; Arakawa, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A new circular beam scanning method for uniform irradiation of high-energy, intense ion beams over a large area has been developed. A sweeping speed and a trajectory density in a radial direction are kept constant to obtain uniform fluence distribution. A radial position of a beam spot on a target and an angular frequency of the circular motion are expressed by an irrational function of time. The beam is swept continuously, and a beam trajectory becomes spiral. More than 90 % uniformity of the fluence distribution can been achieved over a large area. (author)

  3. A comparison of mutagenic effects of common wheat by electron beam, fast neutron and 60Co gamma ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Daochang; Wang Linqing

    1988-02-01

    After winter wheat was irradiated by electron beam, fast neutron and γ-rays, respectively, the RBE value of electron beam to both fast neutrons and γ-rays was less than one, the RBE value of fast neutron to γ-rays was largely more than one. This results indicated that biological effect of M 1 generation induced by electron beam was less than that of fast neutrons very much, and similar to γ-ray irradiation. With electron beam irradiation, the half-lethal doses of M 1 generation were from 185 to 370 Gy, closer to 370 Gy, the lethal doses from 740 to 925 Gy. M 2 mutation efficiency with electron beam treatment was larger as compared with that with both fast neutrons and γ-rays. A wider mutation spectrum and higher mutation efficiency compared with other physical mutagens can be obtained with electron beam irradiation, about 30% higher than that with γ-ray irradiation. The best doses of irradiation with electron beam were 370 to 555 Gy. Fast neutrons, a better dose of which was 25 Gy, could induce more mutants than that with γ-rays in M 2 generation. The dose in which biological injury reached to 50% was the best dose for M 2 mutants by electron beam irradiation

  4. Treatment of toxic gases SO2 and NO X by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Rubio Poli, D. de; Vieira, J.M.; Campos, C.A. de.

    1993-01-01

    The removal of S O 2 and N O x by electron beam irradiation will be studied using a small scale flow system which is being set up in order to obtain basic data for the process technical and economical feasibility concerning industrial applications. The gas irradiation will be performed using a Electron Beam Accelerator with 1,5 MeV power, 25 m A current from Radiation Dynamics, Inc. USA. (author)

  5. Study on DNA Damage Induced by Neon Beam Irradiation in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Dong; Li Wenjian; Wu Xin; Wang Jufang; Ma Shuang; Liu Qingfang; He Jinyu; Jing Xigang; Ding Nan; Dai Zhongying; Zhou Jianping

    2010-01-01

    Yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae was irradiated with different doses of 85 MeV/u 20 Ne 10+ to investigate DNA damage induced by heavy ion beam in eukaryotic microorganism. The survival rate, DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and DNA polymorphic were tested after irradiation. The results showed that there were substantial differences in DNA between the control and irradiated samples. At the dose of 40 Gy, the yeast cell survival rate approached 50%, DNA double-strand breaks were barely detectable, and significant DNA polymorphism was observed. The alcohol dehydrogenase II gene was amplified and sequenced. It was observed that base changes in the mutant were mainly transversions of T→G and T→C. It can be concluded that heavy ion beam irradiation can lead to change in single gene and may be an effective way to induce mutation.

  6. Study on DNA Damage Induced by Neon Beam Irradiation in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dong; Li, Wenjian; Wu, Xin; Wang, Jufang; Ma, Shuang; Liu, Qingfang; He, Jinyu; Jing, Xigang; Ding, Nan; Dai, Zhongying; Zhou, Jianping

    2010-12-01

    Yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae was irradiated with different doses of 85 MeV/u 20Ne10+ to investigate DNA damage induced by heavy ion beam in eukaryotic microorganism. The survival rate, DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and DNA polymorphic were tested after irradiation. The results showed that there were substantial differences in DNA between the control and irradiated samples. At the dose of 40 Gy, the yeast cell survival rate approached 50%, DNA double-strand breaks were barely detectable, and significant DNA polymorphism was observed. The alcohol dehydrogenase II gene was amplified and sequenced. It was observed that base changes in the mutant were mainly transversions of T→G and T→C. It can be concluded that heavy ion beam irradiation can lead to change in single gene and may be an effective way to induce mutation.

  7. Isomer beam elastic scattering: 26mAl(p, p) for astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, D.; Shimizu, H.; Yamaguchi, H.; Abe, K.; Beliuskina, O.; Cha, S. M.; Chae, K. Y.; Chen, A. A.; Ge, Z.; Hayakawa, S.; Imai, N.; Iwasa, N.; Kim, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, M. J.; Kubono, S.; Kwag, M. S.; Liang, J.; Moon, J. Y.; Nishimura, S.; Oka, S.; Park, S. Y.; Psaltis, A.; Teranishi, T.; Ueno, Y.; Yang, L.

    2018-01-01

    The advent of radioactive ground-state beams some three decades ago ultimately sparked a revolution in our understanding of nuclear physics. However, studies with radioactive isomer beams are sparse and have often required sophisticated apparatuses coupled with the technologies of ground-state beams due to typical mass differences on the order of hundreds of keV and vastly different lifetimes for isomers. We present an application of a isomeric beam of 26mAl to one of the most famous observables in nuclear astrophysics: galactic 26Al. The characteristic decay of 26Al in the Galaxy was the first such specific radioactivity to be observed originating from outside the Earth some four decades ago. We present a newly-developed, novel technique to probe the structure of low-spin states in 27Si. Using the Center for Nuclear Study low-energy radioisotope beam separator (CRIB), we report on the measurement of 26mAl proton resonant elastic scattering conducted with a thick target in inverse kinematics. The preliminary results of this on-going study are presented.

  8. Direct nanopatterning of polymer/silver nanoblocks under low energy electron beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mel, Abdel-Aziz; Stephant, Nicolas; Gautier, Romain

    2016-10-06

    In this communication, we report on the growth, direct writing and nanopatterning of polymer/silver nanoblocks under low energy electron beam irradiation using a scanning electron microscope. The nanoblocks are produced by placing a droplet of an ethylene glycol solution containing silver nitrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone diluted in ethanol directly on a hot substrate heated up to 150 °C. Upon complete evaporation of the droplet, nanospheres, nano- and micro-triangles and nanoblocks made of silver-containing polymers, form over the substrate surface. Considering the nanoblocks as a model system, we demonstrate that such nanostructures are extremely sensitive to the e-beam extracted from the source of a scanning electron microscope operating at low acceleration voltages (between 5 and 7 kV). This sensitivity allows us to efficiently create various nanopatterns (e.g. arrays of holes, oblique slits and nanotrenches) in the material under e-beam irradiation. In addition to the possibility of writing, the nanoblocks revealed a self-healing ability allowing them to recover a relatively smooth surface after etching. Thanks to these properties, such nanomaterials can be used as a support for data writing and erasing on the nanoscale under low energy electron beam irradiation.

  9. Degradation and detoxification of aqueous nitrophenol solutions by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Weihua; Zheng Zheng; Rami, Abual-Suud; Zhou Tao; Hang Desheng

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this research was to study the degradation of nitrophenol solutions by high-energy electron beam irradiation. The results showed that the degradation processes obey an apparent first-order degradation. At the higher irradiation doses the pH of solutions decreased; however, the dissolved organic carbon of the solutions was essentially unchanged. To investigate the toxicity of the radiolytic products the oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge was determined. The toxicity of irradiated nitrophenol solutions decreased from the initial non-irradiated solutions

  10. A new Monte Carlo program for calculations of dose distributions within tissue equivalent phantoms irradiated from π--meson beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybilla, G.

    1980-11-01

    The present paper reports on the structure and first results from a new Monte Carlo programme for calculations of energy distributions within tissue equivalent phantoms irradiated from π - -beams. Each pion or generated secondary particle is transported until to the complete loss of its kinetic energy taking into account pion processes like multiple Coulomb scattering, pion reactions in flight and absorption of stopped pions. The code uses mainly data from experiments, and physical models have been added only in cases of lacking data. Depth dose curves for a pensil beam of 170 MeV/c within a water phantom are discussed as a function of various parameters. Isodose contours are plotted resulting from a convolution of an extended beam profile and the dose distribution of a pencil beams. (orig.) [de

  11. Irradiation of wastewater with electron beam is a key to sustainable smart/green cities: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Kaizar; Maruthi, Y. Avasn; Das, N. Lakshmana; Rawat, K. P.; Sarma, K. S. S.

    2018-03-01

    Remediation of wastewater, sludge and removal of objectionable substances from our environment using radiation technology is neglected. Hardly, a couple of decades ago, application of electron beam (EB) technology has gained attention for waste management. When wastewater is irradiated with electron beam, the beam can alter the physico-chemical properties of irradiated aqueous material and also transform wastewater chemicals due to the excitation or ionization of chemical molecules. Thus, chemical reactions may be capable of producing new compounds. The beam of electrons initiates primary reactions to induce the excitation or ionization of molecules at varied rates. This review paper will help to a budding researcher how to optimize the irradiation process to achieve high efficiency with low electron beam energy which is economically viable/feasible. Application of E-beam radiation for wastewater treatment may ensure future smart cities with sustainable water resources management.

  12. Effect of electron-beam irradiation on the antioxidant activity of extracts from Citrus unshiu pomaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Wan [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungnam University, Masan 631-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Cheol [Laboratory for Quantum Optics, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Hwa [School of Bioresource Sciences, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Ki-Chang [Chemistry and Biotechnology Examinations Bureau, Korean Intellectual Property Office, Daejeon 302-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Cheol [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungnam University, Masan 631-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sclee@kyungnam.ac.kr

    2008-01-15

    After electron-beam irradiation of citrus pomaces (CP), the total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and reducing power (RP) were evaluated. When CP were irradiated at 37.9 kGy; the TPC, RSA and RP of water extract of CP increased from 6543.2 to 7405.4 {mu}M, 37.6% to 52.9%, and 0.64 to 0.90, respectively, compared with the non-irradiated control. The results indicate that the electron-beam irradiation can be an efficient process for increasing the antioxidant activity of CP.

  13. Development of over-production strain of saccharification enzyme and biomass pretreatment by proton beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. O.; Lee, J. Y.; Song, Y. S.; Shin, H. S.

    2009-04-01

    - The first year : Pre-treatment of biomass by proton beam irradiation and characterization of the pretreated biomass by IR and SEM - The second year : Strain development by proton beam irradiation for the production of cellulase and hemicellulase - The third year : Optimization of Saccharification process by cellulase and hemicellulase

  14. Hole centers in γ-irradiated, oxidized Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.H.; Holmberg, G.E.; Crawford, J.H. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    ESR observations of centers with S = 1/2, g approximately equal to 2, S = 1, g approximately equal to 2 have been made at 77 K on oxidized Al 2 O 3 after γ-irradiation at 30 0 C. From the radiation growth data, it is shown that the S = 1/2 centers are precursors of the S = 1 centers. In addition, when the S = 1 centers anneal out at about 110 0 C, the S = 1/2 centers reappear and eventually anneal out at about 260 0 C. Previously Gamble (Gamble, F.T.; Ph.D. Thesis, U. of Connecticut (1963)) and Cox (Cox, R.T.; Ph.D. Thesis, U. of Grenoble (1972) unpublished), respectively, observed S = 1/2 and S = 1 paramagnetic centers in electron-irradiated nominally pure Al 2 O 3 and γ-irradiated, oxidized, titanium-doped Al 2 O 3 . The models proposed for these centers were one hole and two holes trapped on oxygen ions adjacent to Al 3+ vacancies. Our results further substantiate these models. (author)

  15. Polymerization of vinyl stearate multilayers by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishii, Masanobu; Hatada, Motoyoshi

    1975-01-01

    Studies on the radiation-induced polymerization of vinyl stearate (VST) multilayers were carried out. The VST multilayers built-up on an aluminum plated glass plate by Langmuir-Blodgett technique were irradiated with electron beams from a Van de Graaff electron accelerator in nitrogen atmosphere. The structure of the multilayers and the effects of irradiation were investigated by X-ray diffractometry, contact angle measurement, multireflection infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The VST multilayers became insoluble to methanol by the irradiation, and the multi-reflection infrared spectrum of the VST multilayers turned into that of poly (VST) with increasing dosage. The polymerization proceeded during the irradiation at the temperature range between -10 0 and 10 0 C, and the conversion attained to 90% within 2.5 minutes (total dose, 5.6 Mrads). The multilayers irradiated above 13 Mrads turned into the polymer film insoluble to benzene, indicating that the polymer chains were cross-linked by the irradiation. Stearic acid which was formed by the irradiation of VST at nitrogen-water interface as a hydrolysis product was not detected in this system. (auth.)

  16. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Neutron Irradiated Cold-worked Al-1050 and Al-6063 Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munitz, A.; Cotler, A; Talianker, M.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of neutron irradiation on the internal microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture morphology of cold-worked Al-1050 and Al-6063 alloys was studied, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and tensile measurements. Specimens consisting of 50 mm long and 6 mm wide gauge sections, were punched out from Al-1050 and Al-6063 23% cold-worked tubes. They were exposed to prolonged neutron irradiation of up to 4.5x10 25 and 8x10 25 thermal neutrons/m 2 (E -3 s -1 . In general, the uniform and total elongation, the yield stress, and the ultimate tensile strength increase as functions of fluence. However, for Al-1050 a decrease in the ultimate tensile strength and yield stress was observed up to a fluence of 1x10 25 thermal neutrons/m 2 which then increase with thermal neutrons fluence. Metallographic examination and fractography for Al-6063 revealed a decrease in the local area reduction of the final fracture necking. This reduction is accompanied by a morphology transition from ductile transgranular shear rupture to a combination of transgranular shear with intergranular dimpled rupture. The intergranular rupture area increases with fluence. In contrast, for Al-1050, fracture morphology remains ductile transgranular shear rupture and the final local area reduction remains almost constant No voids could be observed in either alloy up to the maximum fluence. The dislocation density of cold-worked Al was found to decrease with the thermal neutron fluence. Prolonged annealing of unirradiated cold-worked Al-6063 at 52 degree led to similar results. Thus, it appears that, under our irradiation conditions, whereby the temperature encompassing the samples increases the exposure to this thermal field is the major factor influencing the mechanical properties and microstructure of aluminum alloys

  17. Surface modification of the metal plates using continuous electron beam process (CEBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jisoo; Kim, Jin-Seok; Kang, Eun-Goo; Park, Hyung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We performed surface modification of SM20C, SUS303, and Al6061 using CEBP. • We analyzed surface properties and microstructure after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface quality was improved after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface hardness for SM20C was increased by ∼50% after CEBP irradiation. - Abstract: The finishing process is an important component of the quality-control procedure for final products in manufacturing applications. In this study, we evaluated the performance of continuous electron-beam process as the final process for finishing SM20C (steel alloy), SUS303 (stainless steel alloy), and Al6061 (aluminum alloy) surfaces both on the initially smooth and rough surfaces. Surface modification of the metals was carried out by varying the feed and frequency of the continuous electron-beam irradiation procedure. The resulting surface roughness was examined with respect to the initial surface roughness of the metals. SM20C and SUS303 experienced an improvement in surface roughness, particularly for initially rough surfaces. Continuous electron-beam process produced craters during the process and the effect of this phenomenon on the resulting surface roughness was relatively large with the initially smooth SM20C and SUS303 alloy surfaces. For Al6061, the continuous electron-beam process was effective at improving its surface roughness even with the initially smooth surface under the optimized conditions of process; this was attributed to its low melting point. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify metallurgical variation within the thin melted and re-solidification layers of the tested alloys. Changes in the surface contact angle and hardness before and after electron-beam irradiation were also examined

  18. Surface modification of the metal plates using continuous electron beam process (CEBP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jisoo, E-mail: kimjisu16@unist.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan Metropolitan City 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Seok, E-mail: totoro22@kitech.re.kr [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), KITECH Cheonan Headquarters 35-3 Hongcheon-ri, Ipjang-myeon, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 330-825 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Eun-Goo, E-mail: egkang@kitech.re.kr [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), KITECH Cheonan Headquarters 35-3 Hongcheon-ri, Ipjang-myeon, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 330-825 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Wook, E-mail: hwpark@unist.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan Metropolitan City 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • We performed surface modification of SM20C, SUS303, and Al6061 using CEBP. • We analyzed surface properties and microstructure after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface quality was improved after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface hardness for SM20C was increased by ∼50% after CEBP irradiation. - Abstract: The finishing process is an important component of the quality-control procedure for final products in manufacturing applications. In this study, we evaluated the performance of continuous electron-beam process as the final process for finishing SM20C (steel alloy), SUS303 (stainless steel alloy), and Al6061 (aluminum alloy) surfaces both on the initially smooth and rough surfaces. Surface modification of the metals was carried out by varying the feed and frequency of the continuous electron-beam irradiation procedure. The resulting surface roughness was examined with respect to the initial surface roughness of the metals. SM20C and SUS303 experienced an improvement in surface roughness, particularly for initially rough surfaces. Continuous electron-beam process produced craters during the process and the effect of this phenomenon on the resulting surface roughness was relatively large with the initially smooth SM20C and SUS303 alloy surfaces. For Al6061, the continuous electron-beam process was effective at improving its surface roughness even with the initially smooth surface under the optimized conditions of process; this was attributed to its low melting point. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify metallurgical variation within the thin melted and re-solidification layers of the tested alloys. Changes in the surface contact angle and hardness before and after electron-beam irradiation were also examined.

  19. Supine craniospinal irradiation in pediatric patients by proton pencil beam scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Paolo; Bizzocchi, Nicola; Righetto, Roberto; Fellin, Francesco; Fracchiolla, Francesco; Lorentini, Stefano; Widesott, Lamberto; Algranati, Carlo; Rombi, Barbara; Vennarini, Sabina; Amichetti, Maurizio; Schwarz, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Proton therapy is the emerging treatment modality for craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in pediatric patients. Herein, special methods adopted for CSI at proton Therapy Center of Trento by pencil beam scanning (PBS) are comprehensively described. Twelve pediatric patients were treated by proton PBS using two/three isocenters. Special methods refer to: (i) patient positioning in supine position on immobilization devices crossed by the beams; (ii) planning field-junctions via the ancillary-beam technique; (iii) achieving lens-sparing by three-beams whole-brain-irradiation; (iv) applying a movable-snout and beam-splitting technique to reduce the lateral penumbra. Patient-specific quality assurance (QA) program was performed using two-dimensional ion chamber array and γ-analysis. Daily kilovoltage alignment was performed. PBS allowed to obtain optimal target coverage (mean D98%>98%) with reduced dose to organs-at-risk. Lens sparing was obtained (mean D1∼730cGyE). Reducing lateral penumbra decreased the dose to the kidneys (mean Dmean4cm (mean γ>95%) than at depths<4cm. The reported methods allowed to effectively perform proton PBS CSI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 1-Chloronaphthalene decomposition in air using electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Sun, Y.; Bulka, S.; Zimek, Z.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the preparation of model gas containing 1-chloronaphthalene can be referred to 1,1-DCE (dichloroethene). A pulsed electron beam (EB) accelerator ILU-6 (2.0 MeV max., 20 kW max.) was used as an irradiation source. The absorbed dose rate inside the irradiation vessel was 10.835 kGy/min. Total absorbed dose was adjusted by changing irradiation time of the Pyrex glass vessels. 1-Chloronaphthalene concentration was analyzed using gas-chromatography. It has been found, that 1-chloronaphthalene can be decomposed in air or N 2 using EB irradiation. Decomposition efficiency of 1-chloronaphthalene in air is higher than that in N 2 . Positive charge transfer reactions and OH radicals' reaction may play a main role in 1-chloronaphthalene decomposition process

  1. Comparative effectiveness of gamma-rays and electron beams in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru

    1991-01-01

    Ionizing radiations which can be used for the treatment of foods are gamma-rays from Co-60 and Cs-137, accelerated electrons from a machine at an energy of 10 MeV or lower and X-rays from a machine at an energy of 5 MeV or lower. The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food held in 1980 concluded that the foods irradiated at overall average doses up to 10 kGy with the radiation listed above are wholesome for human consumption. While most of the commercial food irradiations are conducted with gamma-rays from Co-60, accelerated electrons are increasingly utilized for treating foods. An important difference between gamma-rays and accelerated electrons is the penetration capacity in materials. The penetration capacity of gamma-rays is much higher than that of accelerated electrons. Another important difference is the dose rate. The dose rates of gamma-rays from commercial Co-60 sources are 1-100 Gy/min, while those of electron beams from electron accelerators are 10 3 -10 6 Gy/s. Ideally a comparison of the effect of different types of ionizing radiation should be carried out at the same dose rate but this has been difficult due to the design of irradiators. It is very difficult to draw a definite conclusion on the difference in the effectiveness in food irradiation between gamma-rays and electron beams based on published data. This chapter deals with as many reports as possible on the comparative effectiveness of gamma-rays and electron beams and on the effect of dose rate on chemical reactions and living organisms, whether or not they demonstrate any dependency of the effect of irradiation on dose rate and type of radiation. (author)

  2. Electron beam irradiation on cation exchanger used for strontium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Sou; Nakamura, Masahiro; Nomura, Kazunori; Nakajima, Yasuo; Okamoto, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Titanate is promising material for radioactive Sr recovery from liquid waste generated in the nuclear facilities. "9"0Sr is one of the most important nuclides in order to release the liquid waste into the environment due to its strong beta-ray decay energy. Although the titanate is applied to radioactive Sr decontamination facility, their resistance to irradiations from radioactive elements adsorbed is not widely investigated so far. In this study, durability of a hydrous titanic acid ion exchanger against beta-ray irradiation were evaluated through electron beam irradiation, elution behaviour of Sr after the irradiation and local structural analysis of the titanate. 1.4 MGy irradiation led to 1% of Sr elution, and the elution could be attributed to defects of O in the titanate induced by the irradiation. Chemical state of Ti of the titanate must be stable up to 2.7 MGy irradiation. (author)

  3. Irradiation behavior of U 6Mn-Al dispersion fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. K.; Wiencek, T. C.; Hayes, S. L.; Hofman, G. L.

    2000-02-01

    Irradiation testing of U 6Mn-Al dispersion fuel miniplates was conducted in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR). Post-irradiation examination showed that U 6Mn in an unrestrained plate configuration performs similarly to U 6Fe under irradiation, forming extensive and interlinked fission gas bubbles at a fission density of approximately 3×10 27 m-3. Fuel plate failure occurs by fission gas pressure driven `pillowing' on continued irradiation.

  4. Preparation of thermal resistant-enhanced separators for lithium ion battery by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Joon Yong; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Youngchang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Micro-porous membrane made of polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP) is most widely used as physical separators between the cathode and anode in lithium secondary batteries. However, the polymer membranes so soften or melt when the temperature reaches 130 .deg. C or higher because of thermal shrinkage of the polyolefin separators, and thaw low thermal stability may cause internal short circuiting or lead to thermal runaway. In this study, to realize a highly safe battery, we prepared three type separators as crosslinked PE separator, polymer-coated PE separator, and ceramic-coated PE separators, for lithium secondary battery by electron beam irradiation. We prepared crosslinked PE separators with the improved thermal stability by irradiating a commercial PE separator with an electron beam. A polymer-coated PE separator was prepared by a dip-coating of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA on both sides of a PE separator followed by an electron beam irradiation. Ceramic-coated PE separator was prepared by coating ceramic particles on a PE separator followed by an electron beam irradiation. The prepared separators were characterized with FT-IR, SEM, electrolyte uptake, ion conductivity, thermal shrinkage and battery performance test.

  5. Electron-beam-irradiation-induced crystallization of amorphous solid phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dong; Wu, Liangcai; Wen, Lin; Ma, Liya; Zhang, Xingyao; Li, Yudong; Guo, Qi; Song, Zhitang

    2018-04-01

    The electron-beam-irradiation-induced crystallization of phase change materials in a nano sized area was studied by in situ transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Amorphous phase change materials changed to a polycrystalline state after being irradiated with a 200 kV electron beam for a long time. The results indicate that the crystallization temperature strongly depends on the difference in the heteronuclear bond enthalpy of the phase change materials. The selected area electron diffraction patterns reveal that Ge2Sb2Te5 is a nucleation-dominated material, when Si2Sb2Te3 and Ti0.5Sb2Te3 are growth-dominated materials.

  6. DT fusion neutron irradiation of BNL--LASL superconductor wires, LASL YAG, Al2O3 and Spinel, LASL-IIT MgO, YAG, Al2O3 and Spinel, and NRL GeO2 crystals, December 28, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, S.C.

    1978-01-01

    The DT fusion neutron irradiation of eleven BNL-LAST superconductor wires, six NRL GeO 2 crystals, two YAG, two Spinel and two Al 2 O 3 crystals for LASL and four LASL high purity single crystals of MgO, YAG, Spinel and Al 2 O 3 is described. The sample position, beam-on time, and neutron dose record are given. The maximum fluence on any sample was 1.51 x 10 16 neutrons/cm 2

  7. Intensity-modulated tangential beam irradiation of the intact breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.; Hunt, M.; Chui, C.; Spirou, S.; Forster, K.; Lee, H.; Yahalom, J.; Kutcher, G.J.; McCormick, B.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential benefits of intensity modulated tangential beams in the irradiation of the intact breast. Methods and Materials: Three-dimensional treatment planning was performed on five left and five right breasts using standard wedged and intensity modulated (IM) tangential beams. Optimal beam parameters were chosen using beams-eye-view display. For the standard plans, the optimal wedge angles were chosen based on dose distributions in the central plane calculated without inhomogeneity corrections, according to our standard protocol. Intensity-modulated plans were generated using an inverse planning algorithm and a standard set of target and critical structure optimization criteria. Plans were compared using multiple dose distributions and dose volume histograms for the planning target volume (PTV), ipsilateral lung, coronary arteries, and contralateral breast. Results: Significant improvements in the doses to critical structures were achieved using intensity modulation. Compared with a standard-wedged plan prescribed to 46 Gy, the dose from the IM plan encompassing 20% of the coronary artery region decreased by 25% (from 36 to 27 Gy) for patients treated to the left breast; the mean dose to the contralateral breast decreased by 42% (from 1.2 to 0.7 Gy); the ipsilateral lung volume receiving more than 46 Gy decreased by 30% (from 10% to 7%); the volume of surrounding soft tissue receiving more than 46 Gy decreased by 31% (from 48% to 33%). Dose homogeneity within the target volume improved greatest in the superior and inferior regions of the breast (approximately 8%), although some decrease in the medial and lateral high-dose regions (approximately 4%) was also observed. Conclusion: Intensity modulation with a standard tangential beam arrangement significantly reduces the dose to the coronary arteries, ipsilateral lung, contralateral breast, and surrounding soft tissues. Improvements in dose homogeneity throughout the target volume can also be

  8. Elastic wave from fast heavy ion irradiation on solids

    CERN Document Server

    Kambara, T; Kanai, Y; Kojima, T M; Nanai, Y; Yoneda, A; Yamazaki, Y

    2002-01-01

    To study the time-dependent mechanical effects of fast heavy ion irradiations, we have irradiated various solids by a short-bunch beam of 95 MeV/u Ar ions and observed elastic waves generated in the bulk. The irradiated targets were square-shaped plates of poly-crystals of metals (Al and Cu), invar alloy, ceramic (Al sub 2 O sub 3), fused silica (SiO sub 2) and single crystals of KC1 and LiF with a thickness of 10 mm. The beam was incident perpendicular to the surface and all ions were stopped in the target. Two piezo-electric ultrasonic sensors were attached to the surface of the target and detected the elastic waves. The elastic waveforms as well as the time structure and intensity of the beam bunch were recorded for each shot of a beam bunch. The sensor placed opposite to the beam spot recorded a clear waveform of the longitudinal wave across the material, except for the invar and fused silica targets. From its propagation time along with the sound velocity and the thickness of the target, the depth of the...

  9. Effects of Electron Beam Irradiated Natural Casings on the Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Hackyoun; Hwang, Koeun; Choi, Sunmi; Kim, Cheonjei; Choi, Jihun; Choi, Yunsang; Lee, Juwoon

    2011-01-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiated hog and sheep casings (1, 3, and 8 KGy) on the physicochemical properties and shelf stability of emulsion sausage were evaluated. There were no significantly differences in ph, instrumental color, and sensory evaluation among all the samples tested (p>0.05). The cooking yields for the irradiated treated samples were larger than the yields obtained for the non-irradiated samples for both the hog and sheep casing. However, the results on the purge loss after storage for 5 weeks were contradictory. The hardness of the sausage was lower when the irradiated natural casings were used. The irradiated natural casings accelerated lipid oxidation. The volatile basic nitrogen values were lower in samples treated with electron beam irradiation. The natural casings irradiated up to a dose of 3kGy not only had different total aerobic bacteria counts during the initial storage period but also displayed higher TAB counts at the final storage period

  10. Photon Irradiation Response on Ge and Al-Doped SiO2 Optical Fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaakob, Nor Haliza; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Ali, Hassan; Asni, Hazila

    2010-07-01

    Recently, research groups have reported a number of radiation effects on the applications of SiO2 optical fibres with possible use as dosimeter material because these optical fibre provide a good basis for medical radiation dosimetry. The objective of this study is to investigate the thermoluminescence response and fading characteristic for germanium and aluminium doped SiO2 optical fibres with photon irradiation. These optical fibres are placed in solid phantom and irradiated to 6 and 10 MV photon beam at dose ranging from 0.06 Gy to 0.24 Gy using Primus MLC 3339 linear accelerator at Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru. In fading studies, the TL measurements were continued up to 14 days period. The optical fibres will produce glow curves whereby the information is then analyzed. Al and Ge-doped optical fibres have a linear dose-TL signal relationship that is proportionality between the TL signal and the doses. Comparison for TL response between different linear accelerator showed a good agreement because these optical fibres also have a linear dose-TL signal relationship even using different equipments.

  11. Tumor bed delineation for external beam accelerated partial breast irradiation: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T. Jonathan; Tao, Randa; Elkhuizen, Paula H.M.; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Li, Guang; Powell, Simon N.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has been considered an alternative to whole breast irradiation for patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy. APBI delivers higher doses of radiation in fewer fractions to the post-lumpectomy tumor bed with a 1–2 cm margin, targeting the area at the highest risk of local recurrence while sparing normal breast tissue. However, there are inherent challenges in defining accurate target volumes for APBI. Studies have shown that significant interobserver variation exists among radiation oncologists defining the lumpectomy cavity, which raises the question of how to improve the accuracy and consistency in the delineation of tumor bed volumes. The combination of standardized guidelines and surgical clips significantly improves an observer’s ability in delineation, and it is the standard in multiple ongoing external-beam APBI trials. However, questions about the accuracy of the clips to mark the lumpectomy cavity remain, as clips only define a few points at the margin of the cavity. This paper reviews the techniques that have been developed so far to improve target delineation in APBI delivered by conformal external beam radiation therapy, including the use of standardized guidelines, surgical clips or fiducial markers, pre-operative computed tomography imaging, and additional imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, and positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Alternatives to post-operative APBI, future directions, and clinical recommendations were also discussed

  12. Commercializing ALURTRONs electron beam irradiation services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aiasah Hashim; Mohd Sidek Othman; Shari Jahar; Sarada Idris; Naurah Mohd Isa; Muhamad Zahidee Taat

    2010-01-01

    ALURTRON has been the nation's sole electron irradiation service provider for research sectors. The main irradiation is done by utilising the EPS 3000 Cockcroft-Walton type 3.0 MeV, 90 k Watts electron beam machine (EBM). With more than 15 years experience in the operation and maintenance of the EPS, the challenge is now to commercialize the service at a larger and profitable scale. Medical products sterilization at commercial level has been ruled out since the energy is insufficient to penetrate dense and non-homogenous items. Recently, the demand for irradiation of wire and heat shrinkable tubes is showing bigger commercial potential. Therefore, prudent planning considerations need to be taken to ensure profitable return to the agency. Calculations were made to estimate ALURTRON service capacity, based on the existing EBM and its auxiliary systems. Details of the calculation including all the variables are presented. Results indicated that Alurtron should be able to process a minimum of 1000 km of small wires per month, running at 150 m/ min, working in two shifts, 5 days a week. The projected revenue is dependent on the charges imposed on the basis of total length delivered. (author)

  13. Diagnostic phosphors for photon beams at the ALS and APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Deming; Warwick, T.; Johnson, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Some tests have been made of phosphors for photon beam diagnosis. Plasma sprayed coatings were checked for damage and decay during a period of several ampere-hours of irradiation from the NSLS Xray ring. Surface temperatures were measured and extrapolated to give an indication of the temperatures expected in more powerful photon beams. Based on our findings we have chosen plasma-sprayed coatings of Europium-doped Yttrium Oxide as the best candidate for use on masks and flags in ''white'' photon beams of the new facilities. 4 refs., 2 figs

  14. Effect of ion beam irradiation on morphological and flowering characteristics of chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakinah Salleh; Zaiton Ahmad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Thohiroh Lee Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important temperate cut flower for Malaysian floriculture industry and the lack of new local owned varieties led to this mutation breeding research. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of ion beam irradiation in generating mutations on ray florets and nodal explants of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Reagan Red. Ion beams has become a new physical mutagens for mutation breeding. The ray florets and nodal explants were irradiated with ion beam at doses 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0, 8.0, 10, 15, 20 and 30 Gy. The 50 % of in vitro shoot regeneration (RD 50 ) for ray florets explants was 2.0 Gy and for nodal explants was 4.0 Gy. Thus, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for ray florets was found 2.0 times higher than the nodal explants. The regenerated plant lets were planted in the greenhouse at MARDI, Cameron Highlands for morphological screening. Overall performance of survival plant lets derived from in vitro nodal and ray florets explants was recorded. The characters studied include plant morphology and flowering characteristic. The ray florets explants were found to be more sensitive to ion beam irradiation and generated more mutations as compared to nodal explants. (author)

  15. Raman Scattering analysis of InGaAs and AlGaAs superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztuerk, N.; Bahceli, S.

    2010-01-01

    InGaAs/GaAs and AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and investigated by X-ray diffraction and micro Raman spectroscopy. Phonon modes are investigated in backscattering from (001) surface. In the measured micro Raman spectrum for both structure, phonon peaks can be resolved for GaAs. These are longitudinal optical (LO) mode at 293 cm - 1 and 294 cm - 1 for InGaAs and AlGaAs, respectively.

  16. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-06-15

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  17. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  18. An experience of electron beam (EB) irradiated gemstones in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idris, Sarada, E-mail: sarada@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hairaldin, Siti Zulaiha, E-mail: sarada@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Tajau, Rida, E-mail: sarada@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Karim, Jamilah, E-mail: sarada@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Jusoh, Suhaimi, E-mail: sarada@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Ghazali, Zulkafli, E-mail: sarada@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, Shamshad [School of Chemicals and Material Engineering, NUST Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-02-12

    In Nuclear Malaysia, a study on gemstone irradiation using beta particle is conducted. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the gemstone colour enhancement by using different kind of precious and non-precious gemstones. By using irradiation technique, selected gemstones are exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate colour centres culminating in the introduction of deeper colours. The colour centres may be stable or unstable depending on the nature of colour centre produced. The colour change of irradiated stones were measured by HunterLab colour measurement. At 50 kGy, Topaz shows changes colour from colourless to golden. Meanwhile pearl shows changes from pale colour to grey. Kunzite and amethyst shows colour changes from colorless to green and pale colour to purple. Gamma survey meter measurement confirmed that irradiation treatment with 3 MeV electron beam machine does not render any activation that activate the gems to become radioactive.

  19. An experience of electron beam (EB) irradiated gemstones in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Sarada; Hairaldin, Siti Zulaiha; Tajau, Rida; Karim, Jamilah; Jusoh, Suhaimi; Ghazali, Zulkafli; Ahmad, Shamshad

    2014-02-01

    In Nuclear Malaysia, a study on gemstone irradiation using beta particle is conducted. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the gemstone colour enhancement by using different kind of precious and non-precious gemstones. By using irradiation technique, selected gemstones are exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate colour centres culminating in the introduction of deeper colours. The colour centres may be stable or unstable depending on the nature of colour centre produced. The colour change of irradiated stones were measured by HunterLab colour measurement. At 50 kGy, Topaz shows changes colour from colourless to golden. Meanwhile pearl shows changes from pale colour to grey. Kunzite and amethyst shows colour changes from colorless to green and pale colour to purple. Gamma survey meter measurement confirmed that irradiation treatment with 3 MeV electron beam machine does not render any activation that activate the gems to become radioactive.

  20. An experience of electron beam (EB) irradiated gemstones in Malaysian nuclear agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, Sarada; Hairaldin, Siti Zulaiha; Tajau, Rida; Karim, Jamilah; Jusoh, Suhaimi; Ghazali, Zulkafli; Ahmad, Shamshad

    2014-01-01

    In Nuclear Malaysia, a study on gemstone irradiation using beta particle is conducted. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the gemstone colour enhancement by using different kind of precious and non-precious gemstones. By using irradiation technique, selected gemstones are exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate colour centres culminating in the introduction of deeper colours. The colour centres may be stable or unstable depending on the nature of colour centre produced. The colour change of irradiated stones were measured by HunterLab colour measurement. At 50 kGy, Topaz shows changes colour from colourless to golden. Meanwhile pearl shows changes from pale colour to grey. Kunzite and amethyst shows colour changes from colorless to green and pale colour to purple. Gamma survey meter measurement confirmed that irradiation treatment with 3 MeV electron beam machine does not render any activation that activate the gems to become radioactive

  1. Application of electron-beam irradiation combined with antioxidants for fermented sausage and its quality characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, D.G.; Seol, K.H.; Jeon, H.J.; Jo, C.; Lee, M.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of various doses of electron-beam irradiation on the changes in microbiological attributes of fermented sausage and the combined effect of electron-beam irradiation and various antioxidants on the oxidative stability and sensory properties during cold storage were investigated. Results indicated that 2 kGy of irradiation was the most effective in manufacturing a fermented sausage, and the addition of rosemary extracts was effective in controlling the production of off-flavor and development of lipid oxidation during cold storage

  2. Application of electron-beam irradiation combined with antioxidants for fermented sausage and its quality characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D. G.; Seol, K. H.; Jeon, H. J.; Jo, C.; Lee, M.

    2008-06-01

    The effects of various doses of electron-beam irradiation on the changes in microbiological attributes of fermented sausage and the combined effect of electron-beam irradiation and various antioxidants on the oxidative stability and sensory properties during cold storage were investigated. Results indicated that 2 kGy of irradiation was the most effective in manufacturing a fermented sausage, and the addition of rosemary extracts was effective in controlling the production of off-flavor and development of lipid oxidation during cold storage.

  3. Studies of electron-beam irradiation on ethylene-styrene interpolymers

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, I C

    2002-01-01

    Electron-beam irradiation-induced structural and properties changes on ethylene-styrene interpolymers (ESI) have been studied at electron doses ranging from 0 to 200 kGy. The amounts of species generated by irradiation such as hydroxyls, hydroperoxides, carbonyls and unsaturated double bonds have been analyzed using ATR-FTIR. While the structural changes are minimal for ESI69 comprising 69 wt.% styrene regardless of the dose level, the changes for ESI40 comprising 40 wt.% styrene are dose dependent and reaches a maximum at a dose of 100 kGy. Gel permeation chromatography analysis indicates that macromolecular chain scission occurs at low irradiation dose and crosslinking dominates at high irradiation doses. The average molecular weights between crosslinks, M sub C 's, have been calculated using the Flory-Rehner equation based on data collected from solvent extraction experiments. The M sub C 's of ESI40 samples are much smaller than those of ESI69 samples. Irradiated ESI samples have higher glass transition t...

  4. Luminescence imaging of water during proton-beam irradiation for range estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi, E-mail: s-yama@met.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Okumura, Satoshi; Komori, Masataka [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan); Toshito, Toshiyuki [Department of Proton Therapy Physics, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center, Nagoya 462-8508 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Proton therapy has the ability to selectively deliver a dose to the target tumor, so the dose distribution should be accurately measured by a precise and efficient method. The authors found that luminescence was emitted from water during proton irradiation and conjectured that this phenomenon could be used for estimating the dose distribution. Methods: To achieve more accurate dose distribution, the authors set water phantoms on a table with a spot scanning proton therapy system and measured the luminescence images of these phantoms with a high-sensitivity, cooled charge coupled device camera during proton-beam irradiation. The authors imaged the phantoms of pure water, fluorescein solution, and an acrylic block. Results: The luminescence images of water phantoms taken during proton-beam irradiation showed clear Bragg peaks, and the measured proton ranges from the images were almost the same as those obtained with an ionization chamber. Furthermore, the image of the pure-water phantom showed almost the same distribution as the tap-water phantom, indicating that the luminescence image was not related to impurities in the water. The luminescence image of the fluorescein solution had ∼3 times higher intensity than water, with the same proton range as that of water. The luminescence image of the acrylic phantom had a 14.5% shorter proton range than that of water; the proton range in the acrylic phantom generally matched the calculated value. The luminescence images of the tap-water phantom during proton irradiation could be obtained in less than 2 s. Conclusions: Luminescence imaging during proton-beam irradiation is promising as an effective method for range estimation in proton therapy.

  5. Luminescence imaging of water during proton-beam irradiation for range estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Okumura, Satoshi; Komori, Masataka; Toshito, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Proton therapy has the ability to selectively deliver a dose to the target tumor, so the dose distribution should be accurately measured by a precise and efficient method. The authors found that luminescence was emitted from water during proton irradiation and conjectured that this phenomenon could be used for estimating the dose distribution. Methods: To achieve more accurate dose distribution, the authors set water phantoms on a table with a spot scanning proton therapy system and measured the luminescence images of these phantoms with a high-sensitivity, cooled charge coupled device camera during proton-beam irradiation. The authors imaged the phantoms of pure water, fluorescein solution, and an acrylic block. Results: The luminescence images of water phantoms taken during proton-beam irradiation showed clear Bragg peaks, and the measured proton ranges from the images were almost the same as those obtained with an ionization chamber. Furthermore, the image of the pure-water phantom showed almost the same distribution as the tap-water phantom, indicating that the luminescence image was not related to impurities in the water. The luminescence image of the fluorescein solution had ∼3 times higher intensity than water, with the same proton range as that of water. The luminescence image of the acrylic phantom had a 14.5% shorter proton range than that of water; the proton range in the acrylic phantom generally matched the calculated value. The luminescence images of the tap-water phantom during proton irradiation could be obtained in less than 2 s. Conclusions: Luminescence imaging during proton-beam irradiation is promising as an effective method for range estimation in proton therapy

  6. Effects of electron beam irradiation on the structural properties of polylactic acid/polyethylene blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bee, Soo-Tueen, E-mail: direct.beest@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ratnam, C.T. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sin, Lee Tin, E-mail: direct.tinsin@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Tee, Tiam-Ting; Wong, Wai-Kien; Lee, Jiuun-Xiang [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahmat, A.R. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: •Electron beam irradiation on polyethylene (LDPE) and polylactic acid (PLA) blends. •Irradiated PLA/LDPE blends exhibit structural rearrangement to highly ordered structure. •Irradiated PLA/LDPE matrix extends continuity of polymer matrix with larger fibrils diameter. -- Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of electron beam irradiation on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) blends. The PLA were compounded with 20–80% LDPE and were exposed to electron beam irradiation dosages of 20–120 kGy. The results from gel content and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the addition of LDPE to PLA effectively increased the gel content and crystallinity. However, an increasing percentage of LDPE reduced the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the PLA/LDPE samples due to the lower intermolecular bonding of LDPE than of PLA. Moreover, an increase in irradiation dosages gradually decreased the mechanical properties of low-LDPE PLA/LDPE. In contrast, the increasing irradiation dosage enhanced the mechanical properties of higher-LDPE PLA/LDPE. These results indicate that higher amounts of LDPE effectively react with the release of free radicals within the amorphous phase if the blends are subjected to irradiation. The higher amounts of free radicals induce the formation of three-dimensional cross-linked networks in the polymer matrix and thus increase the gel content. The irradiation-induced cross-linking in PLA/LDPE samples improves the mechanical properties and crystallinity by promoting a structural rearrangement of the polymer matrix into a highly ordered structure.

  7. Effects of electron beam irradiation on the structural properties of polylactic acid/polyethylene blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bee, Soo-Tueen; Ratnam, C.T.; Sin, Lee Tin; Tee, Tiam-Ting; Wong, Wai-Kien; Lee, Jiuun-Xiang; Rahmat, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Electron beam irradiation on polyethylene (LDPE) and polylactic acid (PLA) blends. •Irradiated PLA/LDPE blends exhibit structural rearrangement to highly ordered structure. •Irradiated PLA/LDPE matrix extends continuity of polymer matrix with larger fibrils diameter. -- Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of electron beam irradiation on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) blends. The PLA were compounded with 20–80% LDPE and were exposed to electron beam irradiation dosages of 20–120 kGy. The results from gel content and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the addition of LDPE to PLA effectively increased the gel content and crystallinity. However, an increasing percentage of LDPE reduced the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the PLA/LDPE samples due to the lower intermolecular bonding of LDPE than of PLA. Moreover, an increase in irradiation dosages gradually decreased the mechanical properties of low-LDPE PLA/LDPE. In contrast, the increasing irradiation dosage enhanced the mechanical properties of higher-LDPE PLA/LDPE. These results indicate that higher amounts of LDPE effectively react with the release of free radicals within the amorphous phase if the blends are subjected to irradiation. The higher amounts of free radicals induce the formation of three-dimensional cross-linked networks in the polymer matrix and thus increase the gel content. The irradiation-induced cross-linking in PLA/LDPE samples improves the mechanical properties and crystallinity by promoting a structural rearrangement of the polymer matrix into a highly ordered structure

  8. Morphological change of self-organized protrusions of fluoropolymer surface by ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akane; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Satoh, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) are typical fluoropolymers displaying several desirable technological properties such as electrical insulation and high chemical resistance. When their surfaces are irradiated with ion beams, dense micro-protrusions formed after the emergence and spread of micropores across the entire irradiated area, allowing culture cells to spread on the top of the protrusions. In this study, we investigate the morphological changes introduced in the fluoropolymer surfaces by ion beams as the energy of the beams is increased. When an FEP sample was irradiated with a nitrogen ion beam with an energy of less than 350 keV at 1.0 μA/cm 2 , protrusions were formed with a density between 2 × 10 7 /cm 2 and 2 × 10 8 /cm 2 . However, at energies higher than 350 keV, the protrusions became sparse, and the density dropped to 5 × 10 2 /cm 2 . Protrusions appeared sporadically during irradiation at high energies, and the top of the protrusions appeared as spots inside the sample, which were difficult to etch and became elongated as the erosion of the surface progressed. Erosion was caused by sputtering of FEP molecules and evaporation at notably elevated temperatures on the surface. Analysis based on attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of C=C bonds as well as –COOH, –C=O, and –OH bonds on all irradiated samples. Their concentration on the surface densely covered with micro-protrusions was higher than that on the surface with sparse protrusions after irradiation at energies exceeding 350 keV. Thus, we determined a suitable range for the ion energy for creating FEP surfaces densely covered with protrusions

  9. Long-term degradation of chemical structures and mechanical properties in polyethylene induced by ion-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, T.; Hama, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term degradation in polyethylene irradiated with ion beams was studied. We found the changes of the chemical structures and the mechanical properties with time storage. S-PE has a good resistance to ion-beam irradiation because the crystallinity and density were very low. (author)

  10. Focused ion beam (FIB) milling of electrically insulating specimens using simultaneous primary electron and ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, D J; Vystavel, T; Morrissey, F

    2007-01-01

    There is currently great interest in combining focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscopy technologies for advanced studies of polymeric materials and biological microstructures, as well as for sophisticated nanoscale fabrication and prototyping. Irradiation of electrically insulating materials with a positive ion beam in high vacuum can lead to the accumulation of charge, causing deflection of the ion beam. The resultant image drift has significant consequences upon the accuracy and quality of FIB milling, imaging and chemical vapour deposition. A method is described for suppressing ion beam drift using a defocused, low-energy primary electron beam, leading to the derivation of a mathematical expression to correlate the ion and electron beam energies and currents with other parameters required for electrically stabilizing these challenging materials

  11. Effects of high energy (MeV) ion beam irradiation on polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nandlal; Sharma, Anita; Avasthi, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation effects of 50 MeV Li 3+ ion beams in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films were studied with respect to their structural and electrical properties by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ac electrical measurement in the frequency range: 50-100 kHz at different temperatures of 30-150 deg. C. It is found that ac resistivity of PET decreases as frequency increases. The temperature dependencies of dielectric loss tangent exhibit a peak (T g ) at 60 deg. C. The capacitance value of irradiated PET is almost temperature independent and ones increases with an increasing of lithium fluence. FTIR spectra show various bands related to C-H, C-O, C-O-C molecular bonds and groups which get modified or break down due to ion beam irradiation

  12. Current state and prospects of industrial application of electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washio, Masakazu

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviewed the low energy, medium energy, and high energy accelerators used for the industrial application of electron beams. Next, it described the absorption of electron beam energy, distribution of the absorbed dose of electron beams in a substance, and the basis of electron beam reaction. Furthermore, as the industrial application examples of electron beams, it briefly described about the reforming and curing of polymers, irradiation effect of inorganic material (characteristic control of semiconductors), and sterilization. Regarding curing, as examples using mainly low energy electron beams (300 keV or below), this paper briefly explained the manufacture of thermosensitive recording materials, electron beam cured silicone for release papers, tunnel metal interior finishing board, high gloss - high smooth paper. Finally, it looked at latest trends and prospects of electron beam generators. (A.O.)

  13. Hydrogel Based on Crosslinked Methylcellulose Prepared by Electron Beam Irradiation for Wound Dressing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambyah Suliwarno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to explore the possibility of methylcellulose polymer to be used as wound dressing material prepared using electron beam technique. The methylcellulose paste solution with various of molecular weight (SM-4, SM-100, SM-400, SM-4000 and SM-8000 at different concentration (15-30% w/v were irradiated by using electron beam on the dose range of 10 kGy up to 40 kGy. Gel fraction and swelling ratio of hydrogels were determined gravimetrically. Tensile strength and elasticity of hydrogels were measured using a universal testing machine. It was found that with the increasing of irradiation dose from 10 up to 40 kGy, gel fraction and tensile strength were increased for all of hydrogels with various of molecular weight. On contrary, the swelling ratio of hydrogels decreased with increasing of irradiation dose. The optimum hydrogels elasticity were obtained from methylcellulose solution with the concentration range of 15-20% with irradiation dose of 20 kGy and showed excellent performance. The hydrogels based on methylcellulose prepared by electron beam irradiation can be considered for wound dressing material.

  14. Contribution of Brazil nut shell fiber and electron-beam irradiation in thermomechanical properties of HDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polato, Pamella; Lorusso, Leandro Alex; Souza, Clecia de Moura; Moura, Esperidiana Augusta Barretos de; Chinellato, Anne; Rosa, Ricardo de

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the influence of electron-beam irradiation on thermo-mechanical properties of HDPE and HDPE/Brazil nut shell fiber composite was investigated. The materials were irradiated at radiation dose 50 kGy using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in presence of air. The irradiated and non-irradiated samples were submitted to thermo-mechanical tests and the correlation between their properties was discussed. The results showed that the incorporation of Brazil nut shell fiber represented a significant gain (p < 0,05) in tensile strength at break, flexural strength, flexural module, Vicat softening temperature and heat distortion temperature (HDT) properties of the HDPE. In addition, the irradiated HDPE/Brazil nut shell fiber composite presented a significant increase (p < 0.05) in this properties compared with irradiated HDPE. (author)

  15. Intensity modulated tangential beam irradiation of the intact breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.; Hunt, M.; Chui, C.; Forster, K.; Lee, H.; Lutz, W.; Yahalom, J.; Kutcher, G.J.; McCormick, B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of intensity modulated tangential beams in the irradiation of the intact breast. The primary goal was to develop an intensity modulated treatment which would substantially decrease the dose to coronary arteries, lung and contralateral breast while still using a standard tangential beam arrangement. Improved target dose homogeneity, within the limits imposed by opposed fields, was also desired. Since a major goal of the study was the development of a technique which was practical for use on a large population of patients, the design of 'standard' intensity profiles analogous in function to conventional wedges was also investigated. Materials and Methods: Three dimensional treatment planning was performed using both conventional and intensity modulated tangential beams. Plans were developed for both the right and left breast for a range of patient sizes and shapes. For each patient, PTV, lung, heart, origin and peripheral branches of the coronary artery, and contralateral breast were contoured. Optimum tangential beam direction and shape were designed using Beams-Eye-View display and then used for both the conventional and intensity modulated plans. For the conventional plan, the optimum wedge combination and beam weighting were chosen based on the dose distribution in a single transverse plane through the field center. Intensity modulated plans were designed using an algorithm which allows the user to specify the prescribed, maximum and minimum acceptable doses and dose volume constraints for each organ of interest. Plans were compared using multiple dose distributions and DVHs. Results: Significant improvements in the doses to critical structures were achieved using the intensity modulated plan. Coronary artery dose decreased substantially for patients treated to the left breast. Ipsilateral lung and contralateral breast doses decreased for all patients. For one patient treated to

  16. Effect of ion beam irradiation on metal particle doped polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and converts polymeric structure into hydrogen depleted carbon network. ... Composite materials; ion beam irradiation; dielectric properties; X-ray diffraction. ..... Coat. Technol. 201 8225. Raja V, Sharma A K and Narasimha V V R 2004 Mater.

  17. Initial oxidation behavior of Ni{sub 3}Al (210) surface induced by supersonic oxygen molecular beam at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ya, E-mail: XU.Ya@nims.go.jp [Hydrogen Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Sakurai, Junya [Hydrogen Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Agency, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Demura, Masahiko; Hirano, Toshiyuki [Hydrogen Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Initial oxidation of Ni{sub 3}Al (210) induced by O{sub 2} beam was investigated. • This was done using real-time synchrotron radiation XPS. • Both the Al and the Ni atoms on the surface were oxidized. • Oxidation of Al progressed much faster than that of Ni. - Abstract: The initial oxidation behavior of a clean Ni{sub 3}Al (210) surface was studied at 300 K using a supersonic O{sub 2} molecular beam (O{sub 2} SSMB) having an O{sub 2} translational energy of 2.3 eV, and real-time photoemission spectroscopy performed with high-brilliance synchrotron radiation. The evolution behaviors of the O 1s, Ni 2p, Al 2p, and Ni 3p spectra were examined during irradiation with the O{sub 2} SSMB. The spectral analysis revealed that both the Al atoms and the Ni atoms on the surface were oxidized; however, the oxidation of Al progressed much faster than that of Ni. The oxidation of Al began to occur and AlO{sub x} was formed at an oxygen coverage of 0.26 monolayer (ML) (1 ML was defined as the atomic density of the Ni{sub 3}Al (210) surface) and saturated at an oxygen coverage of 2.5 ML. In contrast, the oxidation of Ni commenced a little late at an oxygen coverage of 1.6 ML and slowly progressed to saturation, which occurred at an oxygen coverage of 4.89 ML.

  18. Surface nanostructuring of TiO2 thin films by ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Gomez, P.; Palmero, A.; Yubero, F.; Vinnichenko, M.; Kolitsch, A.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports a procedure to modify the surface nanostructure of TiO 2 anatase thin films through ion beam irradiation with energies in the keV range. Irradiation with N + ions leads to the formation of a layer with voids at a depth similar to the ion-projected range. By setting the ion-projected range a few tens of nanometers below the surface of the film, well-ordered nanorods appear aligned with the angle of incidence of the ion beam. Slightly different results were obtained by using heavier (S + ) and lighter (B + ) ions under similar conditions

  19. A set of dosimetry systems for electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Min; Lin Jingwen; Chen Yundong; Li Huazhi; Xiao Zhenhong; Gao Juncheng

    1999-01-01

    To follow the rapid development of radiation processing with electron beams, it is urgent to set up a set of dosimetric standards to provide Quality Assurance (QA) of electron beam irradiation and unify the values of the quality of the absorbed dose measurements for electron beams. This report introduces a set of dosimetry systems established in Radiometrology Center of China Institute of Atomic Energy (RCCIAE), which have been or will be used as dosimetric standards in the Nuclear Industry System (NIS) in China. For instance, the potassium (silver) dichromate and ceric-cerous sulfate dosimetry systems will be used as standard dosimeters, while alanine-ESR dosimetry system as a transfer dosimeter, and FJL-01 CTA as a routine dosimeter. (author)

  20. Radiosensitization by PARP inhibition to proton beam irradiation in cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Takahisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Division of Chemotherapy and Clinical Cancer Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Soichiro; Fujimori, Hiroaki [Division of Chemotherapy and Clinical Cancer Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Matsushita, Keiichiro; Nishio, Teiji [Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima-shi, Hiroshima (Japan); Okayasu, Ryuichi [International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba-shi, Chiba (Japan); Masutani, Mitsuko, E-mail: mmasutan@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Division of Chemotherapy and Clinical Cancer Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Frontier Life Sciences, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2016-09-09

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 regulates DNA damage responses and promotes base excision repair. PARP inhibitors have been shown to enhance the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiation in various cancer cells and animal models. We have demonstrated that the PARP inhibitor (PARPi) AZD2281 is also an effective radiosensitizer for carbon-ion radiation; thus, we speculated that the PARPi could be applied to a wide therapeutic range of linear energy transfer (LET) radiation as a radiosensitizer. Institutes for biological experiments using proton beam are limited worldwide. This study was performed as a cooperative research at heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) in National Institute of Radiological Sciences. HIMAC can generate various ion beams; this enabled us to compare the radiosensitization effect of the PARPi on cells subjected to proton and carbon-ion beams from the same beam line. After physical optimization of proton beam irradiation, the radiosensitization effect of the PARPi was assessed in the human lung cancer cell line, A549, and the pancreatic cancer cell line, MIA PaCa-2. The effect of the PARPi, AZD2281, on radiosensitization to Bragg peak was more significant than that to entrance region. The PARPi increased the number of phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) foci and enhanced G2/M arrest after proton beam irradiation. This result supports our hypothesis that a PARPi could be applied to a wide therapeutic range of LET radiation by blocking the DNA repair response. - Highlights: • Effective radiosensitizers for particle radiation therapy have not been reported. • PARP inhibitor treatment radiosensitized after proton beam irradiation. • The sensitization at Bragg peak was greater than that at entrance region. • DSB induction and G2/M arrest is involved in the sensitization mechanism.

  1. Enhancement of biodegradability of real textile and dyeing wastewater by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Shijun; Sun, Weihua; Wang, Jianlong; Chen, Lvjun; Zhang, Youxue; Yu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    A textile and dyeing wastewater treatment plant is going to be upgraded due to the stringent discharge standards in Jiangsu province, China, and electron beam irradiation is considering to be used. In order to determine the suitable location of the electron accelerator in the process of wastewater treatment plant, the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on the biodegradability of various real wastewater samples collecting from the different stages of the wastewater treatment plant, the values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), and the ratio of BOD 5 and COD (BOD 5 /COD), were compared before and after EB irradiation. During EB irradiation process, color indices and absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV 254 ) of wastewater were also determined. The results showed that EB irradiation pre-treatment cannot improve the biodegradability of raw textile and dyeing wastewater, which contains a large amount of biodegradable organic matters. In contrast, as to the final effluent of biological treatment process, EB irradiation can enhance the biodegradability to 224%. Therefore, the promising way is to apply EB irradiation as a post-treatment of the conventional biological process. - Highlights: • Irradiation pre-treatment did not improve the raw textile wastewater biodegradability. • Irradiation can highly enhance the biodegradability of biological treated effluent. • EB irradiation can be used as a post-treatment after biological process.

  2. Surface amorphization in Al2O3 induced by swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, N.; Ishikawa, N.; Sataka, M.; Jitsukawa, S.

    2013-01-01

    Microstructure in single crystalline Al 2 O 3 developed during irradiation by swift heavy ions has been investigated. The specimens were irradiated by Xe ions with energies from 70 to 160 MeV at ambient temperature. The fluences were in the range from 1.0 × 10 13 to 1.0 × 10 15 ions/cm 2 . After irradiations, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) measurements and cross sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations were conducted. The XRD results indicate that in the initial stage of amorphization in single crystalline Al 2 O 3 , high-density S e causes the formation of new planes and disordering. The new distorted lattice planes formed in the early stage of irradiation around the fluence of 5.0 × 10 13 ions/cm 2 for single crystalline Al 2 O 3 irradiated with 160 MeV-Xe ions. Energy dependence on structural modification was also examined in single crystalline Al 2 O 3 irradiated by swift heavy ions. The XRD results indicate that the swift heavy ion irradiation causes the lattice expansion and the structural modification leading to amorphization progresses above the energy around 100 MeV in this XRD study. The TEM observations demonstrated that amorphization was induced in surface region in single crystalline Al 2 O 3 irradiated by swift heavy ions above the fluence expected from the results of XRD. Obvious boundary was observed in the cross sectional TEM images. The crystal structure of surface region above the boundary was identified to be amorphous and deeper region to be single crystal. The threshold fluence of amorphization was found to be around 1.0 × 10 14 ions/cm 2 in the case over 80 MeV swift heavy ion irradiation and the fluence did not depend on the crystal structures

  3. Surface amorphization in Al2O3 induced by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, N.; Ishikawa, N.; Sataka, M.; Jitsukawa, S.

    2013-11-01

    Microstructure in single crystalline Al2O3 developed during irradiation by swift heavy ions has been investigated. The specimens were irradiated by Xe ions with energies from 70 to 160 MeV at ambient temperature. The fluences were in the range from 1.0 × 1013 to 1.0 × 1015 ions/cm2. After irradiations, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) measurements and cross sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations were conducted. The XRD results indicate that in the initial stage of amorphization in single crystalline Al2O3, high-density Se causes the formation of new planes and disordering. The new distorted lattice planes formed in the early stage of irradiation around the fluence of 5.0 × 1013 ions/cm2 for single crystalline Al2O3 irradiated with 160 MeV-Xe ions. Energy dependence on structural modification was also examined in single crystalline Al2O3 irradiated by swift heavy ions. The XRD results indicate that the swift heavy ion irradiation causes the lattice expansion and the structural modification leading to amorphization progresses above the energy around 100 MeV in this XRD study. The TEM observations demonstrated that amorphization was induced in surface region in single crystalline Al2O3 irradiated by swift heavy ions above the fluence expected from the results of XRD. Obvious boundary was observed in the cross sectional TEM images. The crystal structure of surface region above the boundary was identified to be amorphous and deeper region to be single crystal. The threshold fluence of amorphization was found to be around 1.0 × 1014 ions/cm2 in the case over 80 MeV swift heavy ion irradiation and the fluence did not depend on the crystal structures.

  4. Technical Aspects of Delivering Simultaneous Dual and Triple Ion Beams to a Target at the Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toader, O.; Naab, F.; Uberseder, E.; Kubley, T.; Taller, S.; Was, G.

    The Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory (MIBL) at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, plays a significant role in supporting the mission of the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Energy. MIBL is a charter laboratory of the NSUF (National Scientific User Facility - US DoE) and hosts users worldwide. The laboratory has evolved from a single accelerator laboratory to a highly versatile facility with three accelerators (3 MV Tandem, a 400 kV Ion Implanter and a 1.7 MV Tandem), seven beam lines and five target chambers that together, provide unique capabilities to capture the extreme environment experienced by materials in reactor systems. This capability now includes simultaneous multiple (dual, triple) ion irradiations, an irradiation accelerated corrosion cell, and soon, in-situ dual beam irradiation in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for the study of radiation damage coupled with injection of transmutation elements. The two beam lines that will connect to the 300 kV FEI Tecnai G2 F30 microscope are expected to be operational by the end of 2017. Multiple simultaneous ion beam experiments involving light and heavy ions are already in progress. This paper will outline the current equipment and will focus on the new capability of running dual and triple ion beam experiments.

  5. Investigation of the combined effect of neutron irradiation and electron beam exposure on pure tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Renterghem, W., E-mail: wvrenter@sckcen.be; Uytdenhouwen, I., E-mail: iuytdenh@sckcen.be

    2016-08-15

    Pure tungsten samples were neutron irradiated in the BR2 reactor of SCK·CEN to fluences of 1.47 × 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} and 4.74 × 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} at 300 °C under Helium atmosphere and exposed to the electron beam of the Judith 1 installation The effect of these treatments on the defect structure was studied with transmission electron microscopy. In the irradiated samples the defect structure in the bulk is compared to the structure at the surface. The neutron irradiation created a large amount of a/2‹111› type dislocation loops forming dislocation rafts. The loop density increased from 8.5 × 10{sup 21}/m³ to 9 × 10{sup 22}/m³ with increasing dose, while the loop size decreased from 5.2 nm to 3.5 nm. The electron beam exposure induced significant annealing of the defects and almost all of the dislocation loops were removed. The number of line dislocations in that area increased as a result of the thermal stresses from the thermal shock. - Highlights: • Neutron irradiated and electron beam exposed tungsten samples were studied with transmission electron microscopy. • Neutron irradiation creates dislocation loops and rafts, while voids are created at higher irradiation dose. • No precipitates of transmutation products were found under these low dose irradiation conditions. • Electron beam exposure annihilates the dislocation loops and rafts.

  6. Characterization of blend hydrogels based on plasticized starch/cellulose acetate/carboxymethyl cellulose synthesized by electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Magdy M.; Mostafa, Abo El-Khair B.; Mahdy, Sanna R.; El-Naggar, Abdel Wahab M.

    2016-11-01

    Blend hydrogels based on aqueous solutions of plasticized starch and different ratios of cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were prepared by electron beam irradiation (EB). The blends before and after EB irradiation were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The physico-chemical properties of blend hydrogels prepared by electron beam irradiation were improved compared to unirradiated blends.

  7. Electron beam irradiation of sun-dried apricots for quality maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Ming; Zhou, Linyan; Song, Hongbo; Yi, Jianyong; Wu, Bin; Li, Yaru; Zhang, Le; Che, Fengbin; Wang, Zhidong; Gao, Meixu

    2014-01-01

    The chemical, sensory, and microbial quality parameters of electron beam (EB)-irradiated and non-irradiated sun-dried apricots were periodically evaluated to optimize the EB irradiation of sun-dried apricots for quality maintenance. The sun-dried apricots were treated with 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 kGy of EB and subsequently stored at ambient temperature. EB treatment at 1.0–3.0 kGy proved to be beneficial for retaining high levels of β-carotene, ascorbic acid, titratable acidity, total sugars, and color without any significant effect on sensory properties. Doses of 1.0–3.0 kGy retained the β-carotene content of sun-dried apricots to 8.21%, 9.27%, and 10.43% compared with 6.09% in control samples after 10 months of storage. After 10 months of storage, the maximum losses of ascorbic acid were 37.8% in control samples and 35.5% in 3.0 kGy-irradiated samples. Titratable acidity and total sugars were significantly enhanced immediately after 1.0–3.0 kGy irradiation treatment, and both parameters showed no significant change after 10 months of storage. Samples subjected to EB treatment at 3.0 kGy maintained a high overall acceptability of sun-dried apricots. Decreased number of viable microorganisms to below detection limits were observed after 3.0 kGy irradiation, and compared with the control, the logarithmic reductions after 10 months of storage were 0.98 for yeast and mold count, as well as 1.71 for bacterial count. - Highlights: • Electron beam irradiation was used for sun-dried apricots quality maintenance. • The chemical, sensory, and microbial quality parameters of apricots were evaluated. • 1.0–3.0 kGy proved to be beneficial for retaining high levels of apricots quality. • 3.0 kGy of irradiation maintained a high overall acceptability of sun-dried apricots. • 3.0 kGy of irradiation reduced the viable microorganisms to below detection limits

  8. A comparative study on the effects of electron beam irradiation on imidacloprid-resistant and -susceptible Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Seung-Hwan; Koo, Hyun-Na; Lee, Seon-Woo; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Yuri; Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2015-01-01

    The melon and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, is a polyphagous insect pest. This study compared the development, reproduction, DNA damage, recovery, and gene expression in imidacloprid-resistant (IMI-R) and -susceptible (S) strains of A. gossypii by electron beam irradiation. When 1st instar nymphs were irradiated with 100 Gy, the fecundity (nymphs of F 1 generation) of the resultant adults were completely inhibited. When adults were irradiated with 200 Gy, the number of total 1st instar nymphs produced per adult was 3.0±1.7 and 1.9±1.4 in the S and IMI-R strains, respectively, but adult development was completely suppressed. However, electron beam irradiation did not affect adult longevity in either the S or IMI-R strain. There was no statistically significant difference between the effect of irradiation on the S and IMI-R strains. Therefore, electron beam irradiation at 200 Gy could be used as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment for both S and IMI-R strains of A. gossypii. The DNA damage caused by electron beam irradiation was evaluated by an alkaline comet assay. Exposure to an electron beam (50 Gy) induced DNA damage that was repaired to a similar level as the untreated control group (0 Gy) over time. However, at more than 100 Gy, the DNA damage was not completely repaired. The expression of P450, HSP70, cuticle protein, and elongation factor genes were higher in the IMI-R strain than in the S strain. - Highlights: • Electron beam irradiation induces abnormal development in both the IMI-R and -S strain. • Electron beam irradiation induces DNA damage in both the S and IMI-R strain. • The expression of several specific genes were higher in the IMI-R strain. • 200 Gy could be used as a phytosanitary treatment for both strains of this species

  9. Scintillation screen materials for beam profile measurements of high energy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakumar, Renuka

    2016-06-22

    For the application as a transverse ion beam diagnostics device, various scintillation screen materials were analysed. The properties of the materials such as light output, image reproduction and radiation stability were investigated with the ion beams extracted from heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18. The ion species (C, Ne, Ar, Ta and U) were chosen to cover the large range of elements in the periodic table. The ions were accelerated to the kinetic energies of 200 MeV/u and 300 MeV/u extracted with 300 ms pulse duration and applied to the screens. The particle intensity of the ion beam was varied from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 9} particles per pulse. The screens were irradiated with typically 40 beam pulses and the scintillation light was captured using a CCD camera followed by characterization of the beam spot. The radiation hardness of the screens was estimated with high intensity Uranium ion irradiation. In the study, a linear light output for 5 orders of magnitude of particle intensities was observed from sensitive scintillators and ceramic screens such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Cr and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The highest light output was recorded by CsI:Tl and the lowest one by Herasil. At higher beam intensity saturation of light output was noticed from Y and Mg doped ZrO{sub 2} screens. The light output from the screen depends not only on the particle intensity but also on the ion species used for irradiation. The light yield (i.e. the light intensity normalised to the energy deposition in the material by the ion) is calculated from the experimental data for each ion beam setting. It is shown that the light yield for light ions is about a factor 2 larger than the one of heavy ions. The image widths recorded exhibit a dependence on the screens material and differences up to 50 % were registered. On radiation stability analysis with high particle intensity of Uranium ions of about 6 x 10{sup 8} ppp, a stable performance in light output and image reproduction was documented from Al

  10. Interdiffusion between U-Mo alloys and Al or Al alloys at 340 deg. C. Irradiation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortis, A.M.; Mirandou, M.; Ortiz, M.; Balart, S.; Denis, A.; Moglioni, A.; Cabot, P.

    2005-01-01

    Out of reactor interdiffusion experiments between U-Mo alloys and Al alloys made close to fuel operation temperature are needed to validate the results obtained above 500 deg. C. A study of interdiffusion between U-Mo and Al or Al alloys, out and in reactor, has been initiated. The objective is to characterize the interdiffusion layer around 250 deg. C and study the influence of neutron irradiation. Irradiation experiments will be performed in the Argentine RA3 reactor and chemical diffusion couples will be fabricated by Friction Stir Welding (FSW) technique. In this work out-of-pile diffusion experiments performed at 340 deg. C are presented. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) was used to fabricate some of the samples. One of the results is the presence of Si, in the interaction layer, coming from the Al alloy. This is promising in the sense that the absence of Al rich phases may also be expected at low temperature. (author)

  11. Mechanical and thermal properties of commercial multilayer PET/PP film irradiated with electron-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Angel V.; Nogueira, Beatriz R.; Oliveira, Vitor M.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of electron-beam irradiation on mechanical and thermal properties, for one commercial flexible food packaging multilayer structure, were studied. The laminated poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/ polypropylene (PP) structure was irradiated up to 60 kGy, using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in the presence of air. Mechanical properties showed significant changes (p < 0.05). In addition, the DSC analysis, after treatment, showed that the fusion enthalpy and crystallinity of the PET/PP structure components presented significant changes (p < 0.05) with the electron-beam radiation doses applied. It was observed an increase in PP crystallinity while the PET crystallinity decreases. Such decrease in PET crystallinity indicates the predominance of a cross-linking process on the irradiated PET layer; responsible for the increase in some mechanical properties of the studied film. (author)

  12. Cell survival in spheroids irradiated with heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.; Alpen, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    Biological investigations with accelerated heavy ions have been carried out regularly at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac for the past four years. Most of the cellular investigations have been conducted on cell monolayer and suspension culture systems. The studies to date suggest that heavy charged particle beams may offer some radiotherapeutic advantages over conventional radiotherapy sources. The advantages are thought to lie primarily in an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE), a decrease in the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER), and better tissue distribution dose. Experiments reported here were conducted with 400 MeV/amu carbon ions and 425 MeV/amu neon ions, using a rat brain gliosarcoma cell line grown as multicellular spheroids. Studies have been carried out with x-rays and high-energy carbon and neon ion beams. These studies evaluate high-LET (linear energy transfer) cell survival in terms of RBE and the possible contributions of intercellular communication. Comparisons were made of the post-irradiation survival characteristics for cells irradiated as multicellular spheroids (approximately 100 μm and 300 μm diameters) and for cells irradiated in suspension. These comparisons were made between 225-kVp x-rays, 400 MeV/amu carbon ions, and 425 MeV/amu neon ions

  13. Effect of electron beam-irradiation to b-glucan on its immunomodulating and antitumor activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yeon Hwan; Lee, Jung Lim; Yoo, Yung Choon [Konyand Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    In this study, in order investigated the effect of electron beam irradiation to b-glucan on its biological activities, we compared immunomodulating and antitumor activity between non-irradiated and electron beam-irradiated b-glucan. EB-glucan was irradiated by electron beam with 10, 30 and 50 kGy. Treatment with EB-glucan resulted in a slight increase of the proliferation of ConA-stimulated splenocytes, and the strongest activity was seen in 50 kGy-treated EB-glucan. EB-glucan teated with 50 kGy also showed increased secretion of cytokines such as IL-2 IFN-{gamma} and IL-6 from ConA-stimulated splenocytes. The activity of EB-glucan to enhance the proliferation of splenocytes and cytokine secretion from ConA-stimulated splenocytes was higher than that of NI-glucan. Furthermore, EB-glucan treated with 50 kGy showed higher activity to activate RAW 264.7 macrophages, comparing with that of NI-glucan. In experiments of antitumor activity, EB-glucan treated with 50 kGy prior to tumor inoculation inhibited an experimental lung metastasis produced by B16-BL6 melanoma cells in mice. But NI-glucan did show no effect. In addition, EB-glucan treated with 50 kGy induced a decrease a decrease of tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. Collectivelt, these results indicates that electron beam irradiation {beta}-glucan leads its biological functions to enhance immunomodulating and antitumor activity.

  14. Effect of electron beam-irradiation to b-glucan on its immunomodulating and antitumor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yeon Hwan; Lee, Jung Lim; Yoo, Yung Choon; Kim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Ju Woon

    2010-01-01

    In this study, in order investigated the effect of electron beam irradiation to b-glucan on its biological activities, we compared immunomodulating and antitumor activity between non-irradiated and electron beam-irradiated b-glucan. EB-glucan was irradiated by electron beam with 10, 30 and 50 kGy. Treatment with EB-glucan resulted in a slight increase of the proliferation of ConA-stimulated splenocytes, and the strongest activity was seen in 50 kGy-treated EB-glucan. EB-glucan teated with 50 kGy also showed increased secretion of cytokines such as IL-2 IFN-γ and IL-6 from ConA-stimulated splenocytes. The activity of EB-glucan to enhance the proliferation of splenocytes and cytokine secretion from ConA-stimulated splenocytes was higher than that of NI-glucan. Furthermore, EB-glucan treated with 50 kGy showed higher activity to activate RAW 264.7 macrophages, comparing with that of NI-glucan. In experiments of antitumor activity, EB-glucan treated with 50 kGy prior to tumor inoculation inhibited an experimental lung metastasis produced by B16-BL6 melanoma cells in mice. But NI-glucan did show no effect. In addition, EB-glucan treated with 50 kGy induced a decrease a decrease of tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. Collectivelt, these results indicates that electron beam irradiation β-glucan leads its biological functions to enhance immunomodulating and antitumor activity

  15. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tribological and physico-chemical properties of Polyoxymethylene copolymer (POM-C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Md. Shahinur; Shaislamov, Ulugbek; Yang, Jong-Keun [Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Applications Laboratory, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju 63243 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Kuk [Plasma Processing Laboratory, Division of Surface Technology, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 797 Changwondaero, Sungsan-Gu, Changwon, Kyungnam 641-010 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Young Hun [Department of Physics, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju 63243 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sooseok [Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Applications Laboratory, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju 63243 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heon-Ju, E-mail: hjlee@jejunu.ac.kr [Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Applications Laboratory, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju 63243 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Electron beam dose irradiation effect on tribology of POM-C was investigated. • Raman and FTIR-ATR spectra confirm the chemical structural modification. • 1 MeV, 100 kGy dose irradiation induced well suited carbonization and hydrophobicity. • Well suited carbonization and hydrophobicity reduced friction coefficient. - Abstract: Polyoxymethylene copolymer (POM-C) is an attractive and widely used engineering thermoplastic across many industrial sectors owing to outstanding physical, mechanical, self-lubricating and chemical properties. In this research work, the POM-C blocks were irradiated with 1 MeV electron beam energy in five doses (100, 200, 300, 500 and 700 kGy) in vacuum condition at room temperature. The tribological and physico-chemical properties of electron beam irradiated POM-C blocks have been analyzed using pin on disk tribometer, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR-ATR, gel content analysis, SEM-EDS (scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy), surface profiler and contact angle analyzer. Electron beam irradiation at a dose of 100 kGy resulted in decrease of the friction coefficient of POM-C block due to well suited carbonization, cross-linking, free radicals formation and partial physical modification. It also showed the lowest surface roughness and highest water contact angle among all unirradiated and irradiated POM-C blocks. The irradiation dose at 200 kGy resulted in increase of friction coefficient due to less effective cross-linking, but the irradiation doses at 300, 500 and 700 kGy resulted in increase of the friction coefficient as compared to unirradiated POM-C block due to severe chain scission, chemical and physical structural degradation. The degree of improvement for tribological attribute relies on the electron beam surface dose delivered (energy and dose rate).

  16. A variable electron beam and its irradiation effect on optical and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A low energy electron accelerator has been constructed and tested. The electron beam can operate in low energy mode (100 eV to 10 keV) having a beam diameter of 8–10 mm. Thin films of CdS having thickness of 100 nm deposited on ITO-coated glass substrate by thermal evaporation method have been irradiated by ...

  17. Detection of irradiated fresh fruits treated by e-beam or gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Lamy-Freund, Maria Tereza; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2002-01-01

    Since about 1990, the amount of commercially irradiated food products available worldwide has increased. Commercial irradiation of foods has been allowed in Brazil since 1973 and now more than 20 different food products are approved. Among these products are a number of fresh fruits which may be irradiated for insect disinfestation, to delay ripening and to extend shelf-life. Today, there is a growing interest to apply radiation for the treatment of fruits instead of using fumigation or e.g. vapour-heat treatments, and an increased international trade in irradiated fruits is expected. To ensure free consumer choice, methods to identify irradiated foods are highly desirable. In this work, three detection methods for irradiated fruits have been employed: DNA Comet Assay, the half-embryo test and ESR. Both electron-beam (e-beam) and gamma rays were applied in order to compare the response with these two different kinds of radiation. Fresh fruits such as oranges, lemons, apples, watermelons and tomatoes were irradiated with doses in the range 0, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kGy. For analysis, the seeds of the fruits were utilized. Both DNA Comet Assay and the half-embryo test enabled an easy identification of the radiation treatment. However, under our conditions, ESR measurements were not satisfactory

  18. Mixing of Al into uranium silicides reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, F.R.; Birtcher, R.C.; Kestel, B.J.; Baldo, P.M.

    1996-11-01

    SEM observations have shown that irradiation induced interaction of the aluminum cladding with uranium silicide reactor fuels strongly affects both fission gas and fuel swelling behaviors during fuel burn-up. The authors have used ion beam mixing, by 1.5 MeV Kr, to study this phenomena. RBS and the 27 Al(p, γ) 28 Si resonance nuclear reaction were used to measure radiation induced mixing of Al into U 3 Si and U 3 Si 2 after irradiation at 300 C. Initially U mixes into the Al layer and Al mixes into the U 3 Si. At a low dose, the Al layer is converted into UAl 4 type compound while near the interface the phase U(Al .93 Si .07 ) 3 grows. Under irradiation, Al diffuses out of the UAl 4 surface layer, and the lower density ternary, which is stable under irradiation, is the final product. Al mixing into U 3 Si 2 is slower than in U 3 Si, but after high dose irradiation the Al concentration extends much farther into the bulk. In both systems Al mixing and diffusion is controlled by phase formation and growth. The Al mixing rates into the two alloys are similar to that of Al into pure uranium where similar aluminide phases are formed

  19. Irradiation Effects of Electron Beam on Optical Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Cho, Gyu Seong [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hong Gu; Oh, Kyung Hwan [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Ho Jin [Nucron Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The surveillance or monitoring systems used in space station, nuclear power plant and nuclear waste repository, are often equipped with optical fibers to remotely locating expensive camera systems so as to protect them from direct irradiation. Especially in nuclear power plant and nuclear waste repository, irradiation by gamma-ray and beta-ray are most concerned. The effective life-time of such surveillance system may depend on the soundness of the optical fiber because it is the component to be exposed the high intensity of radiation field by purpose. Though the degradation of mechanical properties such as hardness and elasticity may occur but the degradation of the optical property such as spectral transmittance is the most possible cause of the effective life-time limitation. Generally 30 % reduction of light signal transmittance is considered as the life-time threshold point of such optical systems. In this paper, we studied irradiation effects on spectral transparency of various commonly-used optical fibers with high energy electron beam to conveniently simulate the both gamma-ray and beta-ray irradiation situation.

  20. The relationship between the hardness and the point-defect-density in neutron-irradiated MgO·3.0Al2O3 and AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suematsu, H.; Yatsui, K.; Yano, T.

    2001-01-01

    MgO·3.0Al 2 O 3 single crystals and sintered AlN polycrystals were irradiated with fast neutrons in various conditions and the hardness of the irradiated and unirradiated samples was measured with a Vickers hardness tester. The hardness of as-irradiated MgO·3.0Al 2 O 3 and AlN samples increased by 23 and 51%, respectively. After isochronal annealing, the hardness gradually decreased and mostly recovered to that of the unirradiated one up to 1400degC. Volume of the sample also increased after the irradiation and changed in the same way as the hardness by annealing. A relationship between the hardness and the density of point defects is proposed and the experimental results agree with the relationship. It implies that the point defects generated by the irradiation pin down dislocations and increase the hardness of neutron irradiated MgO·3.0Al 2 O 3 samples. (author)

  1. Effects of proton beam irradiation on seed germination and growth of soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Juhyun; Kim, Woon Ji; Kim, Sang Hun; Ha, Bo-Keun

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the morphological effects of proton beam irradiation on the seed germination, seedling survival, and plant growth of soybean. Seeds of three Korean elite cultivars (Kwangankong, Daepungkong, and Pungsannamulkong) were irradiated with a 57-MeV proton beam in the range of 50 - 400 Gy. The germination rates of all the varieties increased to > 95%; however, the survival rates were significantly reduced. At doses of > 300 Gy irradiation, the Daepungkong, Kwangankong, and Pungsannamulkong cultivars exhibited 39, 75, and 71% survival rates, respectively. In addition, plant height and the fresh weight of shoots and roots were significantly decreased by doses of > 100 Gy irradiation, as were the dry weights of the shoots and roots. However, SPAD values increased with increasing doses of irradiation. Abnormal plants with atypically branched stems, modified leaves, and chlorophyll mutations were observed. Based on the survival rate, plant growth inhibition, and mutation frequency, it appears that the optimum dosage of proton beam irradiation for soybean mutation breeding is between 250 and 300 Gy.

  2. In situ characterization of thermal conductivities of irradiated solids by using ion beam heating and infrared imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondrik, Nicholas; Gigax, Jonathan; Wang, Xuemei; Price, Lloyd [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Wei, Chaochen [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Shao, Lin, E-mail: lshao@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We propose a method to characterize thermal properties of ion irradiated materials. This method uses an ion beam as a heating source to create a hot spot on sample surface. Infrared imaging is used as a surface temperature mapping tool to record hot zone spreading. Since ion energy, ion flux, and ion penetration depth can be precisely controlled, the beam heating data is highly reliable and repeatable. Using a high speed infrared camera to capture lateral spreading of the hot zone, thermal diffusivity can be readily extracted. The proposed method has advantages in studying radiation induced thermal property changes, for which radiation damage can be introduced by using an irradiating beam over a relatively large beam spot and beam heating can be introduced by using a focused testing beam over a relatively small beam spot. These two beams can be switched without breaking vacuum. Thus thermal conductivity changes can be characterized in situ with ion irradiation. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated on a single crystal quartz substrate.

  3. In situ characterization of thermal conductivities of irradiated solids by using ion beam heating and infrared imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondrik, Nicholas; Gigax, Jonathan; Wang, Xuemei; Price, Lloyd; Wei, Chaochen; Shao, Lin

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method to characterize thermal properties of ion irradiated materials. This method uses an ion beam as a heating source to create a hot spot on sample surface. Infrared imaging is used as a surface temperature mapping tool to record hot zone spreading. Since ion energy, ion flux, and ion penetration depth can be precisely controlled, the beam heating data is highly reliable and repeatable. Using a high speed infrared camera to capture lateral spreading of the hot zone, thermal diffusivity can be readily extracted. The proposed method has advantages in studying radiation induced thermal property changes, for which radiation damage can be introduced by using an irradiating beam over a relatively large beam spot and beam heating can be introduced by using a focused testing beam over a relatively small beam spot. These two beams can be switched without breaking vacuum. Thus thermal conductivity changes can be characterized in situ with ion irradiation. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated on a single crystal quartz substrate

  4. Irradiation and beam tests qualification for ATLAS IBL Pixel Modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinskiy, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will have different steps towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (foreseen for 2013–2014). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing Pixel Detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 33 mm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase in the radiation damage and the pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance, which will be achieved by reduction of the pixel size and of the material budget. Two different promising silicon sensor technologies (Planar n-in-n and 3D) are currently under investigation for the Pixel Detector. An overview of the sensor technologies' qualification with particular emphasis on irradiation and beam tests is presented. -- Highlights: ► The ATLAS inner tracker will be extended with a so called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). ► The IBL modules are required to withstand irradiation up to 5×10 15 n eq /cm 2 . ► Two types of silicon pixel detector technologies (Planar and 3D) were tested in beam. ► The irradiated sensor efficiency exceeds 97% both with and without magnetic field. ► The leakage current, power dissipation, module active area ratio requirements are met.

  5. The Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation effects on the Al/HfSiO4/p-Si/Al MOS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, R.; Kaya, S.; Karacali, H.; Yilmaz, E.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the initial interface trap density (Nit) to examine device compability for microelectronics and then the Co-60 gamma irradiation responses of Al/HfSiO4/p-Si/Al (MOS) capacitors were investigated in various dose ranges up to 70 Gy. Pre-irradiation response of the devices was evaluated from high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) capacitance method and the Nit was calculated as 9.91 × 1011 cm-2 which shows that the HfSiO4/p-Si interface quality is convenient for microelectronics applications. The irradiation responses of the devices were carried out from flat-band and mid-gap voltage shifts obtained from stretch of capacitance characteristics prior to and after irradiation. The results show that the flat band voltages very slightly shifted to positive voltage values demonstrating the enhancement of negative charge trapping in device structure. The sensitivity of the Al/HfSiO4/p-Si/Al MOS capacitors was found to be 4.41 mV/Gy for 300 nm-thick HfSiO4 gate dielectrics. This value approximately 6.5 times smaller compared to the same thickness conventional SiO2 based MOS devices. Therefore, HfSiO4 exhibits crucial irradiation tolerance in gamma irradiation environment. Consequently, HfSiO4 dielectrics may have significant usage for microelectronic technology as a radiation hard material where radiation field exists such as in space applications.

  6. Possibility of electron beam irradiation degradation of many pesticides in ginseng oral liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiyong; Liu Yang; Ge Hanguang; Wu Ruoxin

    2013-01-01

    This paper is to explore the technological feasibility in degradation of pesticides in ginseng oral liquid under the irradiation of electron beam. Sixteen residual concentration-restricted pesticides in ginseng oral liquid were experimented under the dose of 0 ∼ 15 kGy. Results showed that, when the dose of the irradiation of electron beam increased, the degradation rates of all the pesticides enhanced, and the electron beam radiation showed the most remarkable effect on the degradation of pesticides such as imidacloprid and fenpropathrinwith degradation rates of more than 90% and 50%, respectively. The degradation rates of fonofos, methidathion, diazinon, phosalone and carbaryl were all higher than 30%. No significant degradation was observed in the other 9 pesticides under the same condition. (authors)

  7. Aspects of space charge theory applied to dielectric under electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.N. de.

    1975-01-01

    Irradiation of solid dielectric with electron beams has been used as a power full tool in investigations of charge storage and transport in such materials. Some of the results that have been obtained in this area are reviewed and the formulation of a transport equation for excess charge in irradiated insulators is dicussed. This equation is subsequently applied to various experimental set-ups. It is found that space charge effects play an essential role in the establishment of stationary currents in samples subject to quasi-penetrating electron beams. Such effects may, however, be neglected for low electron ranges. Theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental findings by Spear (1955)

  8. Dose-effect curves for electron-beam irradiation of some collection microbial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Dumitru, E.; Catargiu, L.; Ferdes, M.; Minea, R.; Oproiu, C.; Niculescu, A.

    1994-01-01

    There were electron-beam irradiated some microbial strains of B.subtilis ICA I-60 both in germination and in sporulated forms. The irradiation were performed at the IPTRD's electron accelerator at 6 MeV, and in the dose range between 0.1-5.0 kGy, at different dose-rate varying from 50 Gy/minute to 100 Gy/minute. The dosimetry was carried out by a PTW medical dosemeter. There were established the dose-effect relationships and curves, the inactivation dose (factor) and the optimum domain for electron-beam mutagenesis. There were obtained some mutant strains with 2-3.5 higher biosynthesis potential, which are in the IFC's collection. (Author)

  9. Fabrication of carbon layer coated FE-nanoparticles using an electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Bin; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Kang, Phil Hyun; Oh, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    A novel synthesis of carbon encapsulated Fe nanoparticles was developed in this study. Fe chloride (III) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were used as precursors. The crosslinking of PAN molecules and the nucleation of Fe nanoparticles were controlled by the electron beam irradiation dose. Stabilization and carbonization processes were carried out using a vacuum furnace at 275 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. Micro structures were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fe nanoparticles were formed with diameters of 100 nm, and the Fe nanoparticles were encapsulated by carbon layers. As the electron beam irradiation dose increased, it was observed that the particle sizes decreased.

  10. Linear Energy Transfer-Dependent Change in Rice Gene Expression Profile after Heavy-Ion Beam Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kotaro; Kazama, Yusuke; Morita, Ryouhei; Hirano, Tomonari; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Usuda, Sachiko; Hayashi, Yoriko; Ohbu, Sumie; Motoyama, Ritsuko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Abe, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    A heavy-ion beam has been recognized as an effective mutagen for plant breeding and applied to the many kinds of crops including rice. In contrast with X-ray or γ-ray, the heavy-ion beam is characterized by a high linear energy transfer (LET). LET is an important factor affecting several aspects of the irradiation effect, e.g. cell survival and mutation frequency, making the heavy-ion beam an effective mutagen. To study the mechanisms behind LET-dependent effects, expression profiling was performed after heavy-ion beam irradiation of imbibed rice seeds. Array-based experiments at three time points (0.5, 1, 2 h after the irradiation) revealed that the number of up- or down-regulated genes was highest 2 h after irradiation. Array-based experiments with four different LETs at 2 h after irradiation identified LET-independent regulated genes that were up/down-regulated regardless of the value of LET; LET-dependent regulated genes, whose expression level increased with the rise of LET value, were also identified. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of LET-independent up-regulated genes showed that some GO terms were commonly enriched, both 2 hours and 3 weeks after irradiation. GO terms enriched in LET-dependent regulated genes implied that some factor regulates genes that have kinase activity or DNA-binding activity in cooperation with the ATM gene. Of the LET-dependent up-regulated genes, OsPARP3 and OsPCNA were identified, which are involved in DNA repair pathways. This indicates that the Ku-independent alternative non-homologous end-joining pathway may contribute to repairing complex DNA legions induced by high-LET irradiation. These findings may clarify various LET-dependent responses in rice.

  11. Nonlinear beam expander for ESNIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusthoi, D.P.; Blind, B.; Garnett, R.W.; Hanna, D.S.; Jason, A.J.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Neri, F.

    1994-01-01

    We describe the design of a beam-redistribution and expansion system for the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) Energy Selective Neutron Irradiation Test Facility (ESNIT). The system tailors the beam exiting a deuteron accelerator at energies from 20 to 35 MeV for deposition on a lithium neutron-production target. A uniform beam-intensity distribution in a well-defined irradiation area is inquired at the target and is achieved by the use of nonlinear elements. The design of the high-energy beam transport (HEBT) for ESNIT includes a 90 degree achromatic bend, a matching section with an energy-compacting cavity, a nonlinear beam expander, a target imager, a shielding dipole, and an rf-cavity system to add energy spread to the beam before it impinges on the target. The system meets performance requirements at multiple energies and currents, and for different spot sizes on target

  12. Application of the in-beam PET therapy monitoring on precision irradiations with helium ions; Anwendung des in-beam PET Therapiemonitorings auf Praezisionsbestrahlungen mit Helium-Ionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, F.

    2008-02-19

    The main goal of the present dissertation was to extend the in-beam PET method to new ion types. It was shown that the in-beam PET method can also be applied for {sup 3}He irradiations. For this experiments on a {sup 3}He beam were performed. The activity yield is at equal applied dose about three times larger than at {sup 12}C irradiations. The reachable range resolution is smaller than 1 mm. At the irradiation of an inhomogeneous phantom it was shown that a contrast between different materials is resolvable. From the experimentally determined reaction rates cross sections for the reactions leading to positron emitters were performed. The data taken in the {sup 3}He experiments were compared those obtained in carbon-ion experiments as well as literature data for proton irradiations. A comparison with the calculations of the simulation program SHIELD-HIT was performed. A collection of cross-section models and the established requirements for a simulation program applicable for in-beam PET are preparing for further work.

  13. Effect of electron beam irradiation on conidial germination activity and pathogenicity of Botrytis cinerea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ting; Qiao Yongjin; Chen Zhaoliang

    2011-01-01

    Conidia of Botrytis cinerea were irradiated by electron beam at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy. The influence of electron beam on the activities of conidial germination and pathogenicity at the temperatures of 5 ℃ and 25 ℃ were tested, respectively. The results showed that the electron beam could inhibit germination of conidia and the length of germ tube of Botrytis cinerea, and delay the germination time. It could also decrease the pathogenicity obviously and higher irradiation dose showed stronger effects. Compared with control, the complete germination time of conidia extended to 5 and 9 d at the cultivate temperatures of 25 ℃ and 5 ℃, after 2 kGy of irradiation, and the germination rate was reduced 46.57% and 33.68%, respectively. The inhibition rates of germ tube were 25.12% and 74.29% when cultured 24 h. The pathogenicity of Botrytis cinerea to strawberry was reduced significantly. After 2.0 kGy irradiation and cultivate at 25 ℃ for 2 d, the disease index was 4.17 and it decreased to 15.28 after cultivation of 5 ℃ for 15 d. Electron beam treatment could inhibit the spore germination and germ tube elongation of Botrytis cinerea significantly, delayed the germination time, and reduced its pathogenicity, the higher the dose, the effect was more obvious. (authors)

  14. Enhanced electromagnetic properties of nickel nanoparticiles dispersed carbon fiber via electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeong Ju; Kim, Hyun Bin; Lee, Seung Jun; Kang, Phil Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Carbon fiber has received much attention owing to its properties, including a large surface-to-volume ratio, chemical and thermal stability, high thermal and electrical conductivity, and high mechanical strengths. In particular, magnetic nanopowder dispersed carbon fiber has been attractive in technological applications such as the electrochemical capacitor and electromagnetic wave shielding. In this study, the nickel-oxide-nanoparticle dispersed polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers were prepared through an electrospinning method. Electron beam irradiation was carried out with a 2.5 MeV beam energy to stabilize the materials. The samples were then heat treated for stabilization and carbonization. The nanofiber surface was analyzed using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The crystal structures of the carbon matrix and nickel nanopowders were analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the magnetic and electrical properties were analyzed using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and 4 point probe. As the irradiation dose increases, the density of the carbon fiber was increased. In addition, the electrical properties of the carbon fiber improved through electron beam irradiation. This is because the amorphous region of the carbon fiber decreases. This electron beam effect of PAN fibers containing nickel nanoparticles confirmed their potential as a high performance carbon material for various applications

  15. Effect of e-beam irradiation on graphene layer grown by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M. Z.; Kumar Singh, Arun; Iqbal, M. W.; Seo, Sunae; Eom, Jonghwa

    2012-01-01

    We have grown graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and transferred it onto Si/SiO 2 substrates to make tens of micron scale devices for Raman spectroscopy study. The effect of electron beam (e-beam) irradiation of various doses (600 to 12 000 μC/cm 2 ) on CVD grown graphene has been examined by using Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the radiation exposures result in the appearance of the strong disorder D band attributed the damage to the lattice. The evolution of peak frequencies, intensities, and widths of the main Raman bands of CVD graphene is analyzed as a function of defect created by e-beam irradiation. Especially, the D and G peak evolution with increasing radiation dose follows the amorphization trajectory, which suggests transformation of graphene to the nanocrystalline and then to amorphous form. We have also estimated the strain induced by e-beam irradiation in CVD graphene. These results obtained for CVD graphene are in line with previous findings reported for the mechanically exfoliated graphene [D. Teweldebrhan and A. A. Balandin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013101 (2009)]. The results have important implications for CVD graphene characterization and device fabrication, which rely on the electron microscopy.

  16. Enhanced electromagnetic properties of nickel nanoparticiles dispersed carbon fiber via electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Ju; Kim, Hyun Bin; Lee, Seung Jun; Kang, Phil Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Carbon fiber has received much attention owing to its properties, including a large surface-to-volume ratio, chemical and thermal stability, high thermal and electrical conductivity, and high mechanical strengths. In particular, magnetic nanopowder dispersed carbon fiber has been attractive in technological applications such as the electrochemical capacitor and electromagnetic wave shielding. In this study, the nickel-oxide-nanoparticle dispersed polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers were prepared through an electrospinning method. Electron beam irradiation was carried out with a 2.5 MeV beam energy to stabilize the materials. The samples were then heat treated for stabilization and carbonization. The nanofiber surface was analyzed using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The crystal structures of the carbon matrix and nickel nanopowders were analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the magnetic and electrical properties were analyzed using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and 4 point probe. As the irradiation dose increases, the density of the carbon fiber was increased. In addition, the electrical properties of the carbon fiber improved through electron beam irradiation. This is because the amorphous region of the carbon fiber decreases. This electron beam effect of PAN fibers containing nickel nanoparticles confirmed their potential as a high performance carbon material for various applications.

  17. Irradiation effects of 6 MeV electron on electrical properties of Al/Al2O3/n-Si MOS capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laha, P.; Banerjee, I.; Bajaj, A.; Chakraborty, P.; Barhai, P.K.; Dahiwale, S.S.; Das, A.K.; Bhoraskar, V.N.; Kim, D.; Mahapatra, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of 6 MeV electron irradiation on the electrical properties of Al/Al 2 O 3 /n-Si metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) capacitors has been investigated. Using rf magnetron sputtering deposition technique, Al/Al 2 O 3 /n-Si MOS capacitors were fabricated and such twelve capacitors were divided into four groups. The first group of MOS capacitors was not irradiated with 6 MeV electrons and treated as virgin. The second group, third group and fourth group of MOS capacitors were irradiated with 6 MeV electrons at 10 kGy, 20 kGy, and 30 kGy doses, respectively, keeping the dose rate ∼1 kGy/min. The variations in crystallinity of the virgin and irradiated MOS capacitors have been compared from GIXRD (Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction) spectra. Thickness and in-depth elemental distributions of individual layers were performed using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The device parameters like flat band voltage (V FB ) and interface trap density (D it ) of virgin and irradiated MOS capacitors have been calculated from C vs V and G/ω vs V curve, respectively. The electrical properties of the capacitors were investigated from the tan δ vs V graph. The device parameters were estimated using C–V and G/ω–V measurements. Poole–Frenkel coefficient (β PF ) of the MOS capacitors was determined from leakage current (I)–voltage (V) measurement. The leakage current mechanism was proposed from the β PF value. - Highlights: ► The electron irradiation effects make variation in the device parameters. ► The device parameters changes due to percentage of defects and charge trapping. ► Leakage current of Al/Al 2 O 3 /n-Si changes due to interface dangling bonds. ► The leakage current mechanism of MOS structures is due to Poole-Frenkel effect.

  18. Preparation of PbSe nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A novel method has been developed by electron beam irradiation to prepare PbSe nanoparticles. 2 MeV 10mA GJ-2-II electronic accelerator was used as radiation source. Nanocrystalline PbSe was prepared rapidly at room temperature under atmospheric pressure without any kind of toxic reagents. The structure and ...

  19. Electron beam irradiation effects on xanthan gum. Rheological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, F.F.; Del Mastro, N.L.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the application of electron beam irradiation to xanthum gum as used as ingredient by the food or cosmetics industry in order to establish their radiosensitivity. The edible powder of xanthum gum samples were irradiated in 1mm thick layers of Petri dishes covered by a transparent PVC of films using an EB accelerator Dynamitron (Radiation Dynamics Inc.) model JOB 188, dose rate 11.17 kGy/s, 0.637 MeV, 1.78 mA, 5 kGy per passage, 3.36 m min -1 with doses of 5, 10, 20 and 50kGy. One % aqueous solutions from irradiated and non-irradiated xanthum gum were prepared and the radiation effects were measured following viscosity changes at 25 deg. C using a Brookfield viscometer; model DVIII, spindel L, with Rheocalc software. Viscosity measurements were performed according to our previous experience and the results are the mean of at least 3 experiments

  20. Electron irradiation effect on short-range ordering in Cu-Al and Ag-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulish, N.P.; Mel'nikova, N.A.; Petrenko, P.V.; Ryabishchuk, A.L.; Tatarov, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Method of X-ray diffuse scattering is used to study short-range order variation in Cu-Al and Ag-Al alloys under radiation effect and the following heat treatment. Irradiation was carried out at -40 deg C by 1.6 MeV electrons, fluence of 5x10 7 cm -2 and 0.5 MeV gamma-rays, the dose being 10 7 pH

  1. Water swelling properties of the electron beam irradiated PVA-g-AAc hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qingguo, E-mail: qwang@qust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Rubber-Plastics of Ministry of Education, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Rubber-Plastics, Qingdao 266042 (China); Zhou, Xue; Zeng, Jinxia; Wang, Jizeng [Key Laboratory of Rubber-Plastics of Ministry of Education, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the electron beam irradiation technology being more suitable for the industry application is explored to fabricate the acrylic acid (AAc) monomer-grafted polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-g-AAc) hydrogels. ATR-IR spectra of the PVA-g-AAc hydrogels shows an obvious absorption peak of the −C=O group at 1701 cm{sup −1}, indicating that the AAc monomers were grafted onto the PVA macromolecules. This paper also studied some effects of the mass ratio of PVA/AAc, pH of buffer solution and irradiation dosage on the water swelling properties of the electron beam irradiated PVA-g-AAc hydrogels. The water swelling ratio of PVA-g-AAc hydrogels decreases with increased irradiation dosage and mass ratio of PVA/AAc, whereas swelling ratio increases with increased pH of buffer solution and soaking time. The water-swelling behavior of PVA-g-AAc hydrogels occurred easily in an alkaline environment, particularly in a buffer solution with pH 9.2. Both PVA-g-AAc hydrogels (PVA/AAc = 1/5, w/w) irradiated with 5 kilogray (kGy) and PVA-g-AAc hydrogels (PVA/AAc = 1/1, w/w) irradiated with 15 kGy could easily absorb water and lead to high water swelling ratios (up to about 600%), which are potential candidates to meet the requirements for some biomedical applications.

  2. Effectiveness of proton-beam irradiation of the pituitary gland in children with Itsenko-Cushing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukovskij, M.A.; Bukhman, A.I.; Levshina, R.B.; Kirpatovskaya, L.E.; Kolesnikova, G.S.; Pankova, S.S.; Lisovets, S.P.; Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow

    1990-01-01

    The results of the treatment of 20 children with Icenko-Cushing disease (ICD) by proton-beam irradiation of the pituitary glandare presented. The use of the medical proton beam of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics found to be effective for the treatment of children with mild and average forms of ICD. Irradiation of the pituitary gland at a dose of 70-100 Gy is accompanied by general and local radiation reactions which are not dangerous for children. The time of development of remission after irradiation depends on a degree of severity and features of a course of disease

  3. Ion beam irradiation of ceramics at fusion relevant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Ceramic materials are required at a variety of locations in proposed fusion reactors where significant ionizing and displacive fields may be present. Energetic ion beams are a useful tool for probing the effects of irradiation on the structure and electrical properties of ceramics over a wide range of experimental conditions. The advantages and disadvantages of using ion beams to provide information on anticipated ceramic radiation effects in a fusion reactor environment are discussed. In this paper particular emphasis is placed on microstructural changes and how the high helium generation rates associated with DT fusion neutrons affect cavity swelling

  4. Irradiation behavior of U{sub 6}Mn-Al dispersion fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.K. E-mail: mitchell.meyer@anl.gov; Wiencek, T.C.; Hayes, S.L.; Hofman, G.L

    2000-04-01

    Irradiation testing of U{sub 6}Mn-Al dispersion fuel miniplates was conducted in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR). Post-irradiation examination showed that U{sub 6}Mn in an unrestrained plate configuration performs similarly to U{sub 6}Fe under irradiation, forming extensive and interlinked fission gas bubbles at a fission density of approximately 3x10{sup 27} m{sup -3}. Fuel plate failure occurs by fission gas pressure driven 'pillowing' on continued irradiation.

  5. Modifications in the structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline CaWO4 induced by 8 MeV electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloysius Sabu, N.; Priyanka, K.P.; Ganesh, Sanjeev; Varghese, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report the post irradiation effects in the structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline calcium tungstate synthesized by chemical precipitation and heat treatment. The samples were subjected to different doses of high-energy electron beam obtained from an 8 MeV Microton. Investigations using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra confirmed changes in particle size and structural parameters. However, no phase change was detected for irradiated samples. The stretching/compressive strain caused by high energy electrons is responsible for the slight shift in the XRD peaks of irradiated samples. Modifications in the morphology of different samples were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Ultraviolet-visible absorption studies showed variations in the optical band gap (4.08–4.25 eV) upon electron-beam irradiation. New photoluminescence behaviour in electron beam irradiated nanocrystalline CaWO 4 was evidenced. A blue shift of the PL peak with increase in intensity was observed in all the irradiated samples. - Highlights: • Calcium tungstate nanocrystals are synthesized by simple chemical precipitation method. • Electron beam induced modifications in the structural and optical properties are investigated. • New photoluminescence behaviour is evidenced due to beam irradiation.

  6. A GIF++ Gamma Irradiation Facility at the SPS H4 Beam Line

    CERN Document Server

    Capéans-Garrido, M; Linssen, L; Moll, M; Rembser, C

    2009-01-01

    The current document describes a proposal to implement a new gamma irradiation facility, combined with a high-energy particle beam in the SPS H4 beam line in hall EHN1. This new GIF++ facility is motivated by strong needs from the LHC and sLHC detector and accelerator communities for the tests of LHC components and systems.

  7. Development of abiotic-stress resistant warm season trufgrasses by proton-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. W.; Kim, J. Y.; Jeong, S. H. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The direct use of mutation is a valuable approach to generate genetic variation in crop species by altering agronomically useful major traits. The proton beam, as a mutagen, was applied to improve resistance traits of Zoysia grass under various abiotic stresses. Proton beam was irradiated to mature dry seeds of Zenith (Zoysia grass), which is well-adapted to Korean climate, using a proton- accelerator with seven different doses (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 400 Gy). Individual seedling of M1 plant was transplanted from the seed bed and allowed to reach appropriate plant mass. Clones that showed superior growth were chosen and transplanted to pots for further clone propagation and field evaluation. Growth characteristics of turfgrass, such as plant height, leaf length, leaf width, number of tiller were evaluated ninety days after sowing. Although large variation within each dose, noticeable differences were found among different irradiated doses. Most of the mutant clones derived from the irradiation treatment showed more vigorous growth than the control plants. RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) methods were conducted to analyze genomic variations associated with proton beam irradiation. In order to establish selection criteria for selection of salt-stress resistance plants, an in vitro method that is able to select salt-stress resistant mutants in liquid media without ambient disturbances. Total 647 predominance clones that were considered as abiotic stress resistant mutants were transplanted to the field for further evaluation.

  8. CEMS and XRD studies on changing shape of iron nano-particles by irradiation of Au ions of Fe-implanted Al2O3 granular layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, T.; Wakabayashi, H.; Hashimoto, M.; Toriyama, T.; Taniguchi, S.; Hayashi, N.; Sakamoto, I.

    2007-01-01

    In order to observe an inverse Ostwald ripening of Fe nano-particles in Fe-implanted Al 2 O 3 granular layers, 3 MeV Au ions were irradiated to Fe nano-particles in these layers with doses of 0.5x and 1.5x10 16 ions/cm 2 . It was found by Conversion Electron Mossbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS) that the inverse Ostwald ripening occurred by fractions of percentages and the magnetic anisotropy of Fe nano-particles was induced to the direction of Au ion beam, i.e. perpendicular to the granular plane. The average crystallite diameters of Fe nano-particles for Au ions unirradiated and irradiated samples were measured using Scherrer's formula from FWHM of Fe (110) X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns obtained by 2θ and 2θ/θ methods. It was confirmed that the average crystallite diameters of Fe nano-particles in Fe-implanted Al 2 O 3 granular layers were extended by Au ions irradiation. (author)

  9. Database on Performance of Neutron Irradiated FeCrAl Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Briggs, Samuel A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Littrell, Ken [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parish, Chad M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The present report summarizes and discusses the database on radiation tolerance for Generation I, Generation II, and commercial FeCrAl alloys. This database has been built upon mechanical testing and microstructural characterization on selected alloys irradiated within the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) up to doses of 13.8 dpa at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 550°C. The structure and performance of these irradiated alloys were characterized using advanced microstructural characterization techniques and mechanical testing. The primary objective of developing this database is to enhance the rapid development of a mechanistic understanding on the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys, thereby enabling informed decisions on the optimization of composition and microstructure of FeCrAl alloys for application as an accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding. This report is structured to provide a brief summary of critical results related to the database on radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys.

  10. The LBL multiple beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Meuth, H.; Warwick, A.

    1987-01-01

    The multiple-beam induction linac approach to a heavy ion driver for inertial confinement fusion features continuous current amplification along the accelerator and a minimum of beam manipulations from source to pellet. Current amplification and bunch length control require careful shaping of the accelerating voltages. MBE-4 is designed as a four-beam induction linac that models much of the accelerator physics of the electrostatically focused section of a significantly longer induction accelerator. Four space-charge-dominated Cs + beams, initially about one meter in length at a current of 13 mA, are focused by electrostatic quadrupoles and accelerated in parallel from 200 to nearly 600 keV. The energy will reach approximately one MeV when the accelerator is complete. Experiments have proceeded in parallel with the construction of the apparatus which began in FY 85 and is now more than half complete. The results show a current amplification, so far, by a factor of 2.8 in good agreement with the longitudinal acceleration calculations. 9 refs

  11. Predicted irradiation behavior of U3O8-Al dispersion fuels for production reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronenberg, A.W.; Rest, J.

    1990-01-01

    Candidate fuels for the new heavy-water production reactor include uranium/aluminum alloy and U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion fuels. The U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion fuel would make possible higher uranium loadings and would facilitate uranium recycle. Research efforts on U 3 O 8 -Al fuel include in-pile irradiation studies and development of analytical tools to characterize the behavior of dispersion fuels at high-burnup. In this paper the irradiation performance of U 3 O 8 -Al is assessed using the mechanistic Dispersion Analysis Research Tool (DART) code. Predictions of fuel swelling and alteration of thermal conductivity are presented and compared with experimental data. Calculational results indicate good agreement with available data where the effects of as-fabricated porosity and U 3 O 8 -Al oxygen exchange reactions are shown to exert a controlling influence on irradiation behavior. The DART code is judged to be a useful tool for assessing U 3 O 8 -Al performance over a wide range of irradiation conditions

  12. Degradation in tensile properties of aromatic polymers by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasuga, T.; Hayakawa, N.; Yoshida, K.; Hagiwara, M.

    1985-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation effects of ten kinds of polymers containing various aromatic rings linked by functional groups in the main chain (aromatic polymer) were studied with reference to change in tensile properties. The polymers studied were polyimides 'Kapton H', and 'UPILEX', polyetherimide 'ULTEM', polyamides 'A-Film' and 'APH-50 (nomex type paper)', poly-ether-ether-ketone 'PEEK', polyarylate 'U-Polymer', polysulphones 'Udel-Polysulphone' and 'PES', and modified poly(phenylene oxide) 'NORYL'. Irradiation was carried out by use of electron beam at a dose rate of 5 x 10 3 Gy s -1 at room temperature. The elongation at break was the most severely influenced by the irradiation and it decreased with increasing dose. The order of radiation resistivity which was evaluated from the dose required for the elongation to become 50% and 20% of the initial value was as follows: Polyimide > PEEK > polyamide > polyetherimide > polyarylate > polysulphone, poly(phenylene oxide). Based on the above experimental results, an order is proposed for the radiation stability of the aromatic repeating units composing the main chain. (author)

  13. Dosimetry study for electron beam irradiation in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaga, Hiromi; Haruyama, Yasuyuki; Takizawa, Haruki; Kojima, Takuji; Yotsumoto, Keiichi

    1995-01-01

    For certain critical applications such as medical device sterilization and food irradiation, accurate calibration of electron energy and absorbed dose is required to assure the quality of irradiated products. To meet this requirement, TRCRE, JAERI has carried out research and development on high dose radiation dosimetry for electron beams in the energy range used in radiation processing (0.15 - 3.0 MeV). JAERI has developed a simultaneous electron beam energy and dosimeter calibration system that consist of a total absorption calorimeter, an electron current density meter, and a stacked thin-film dosimeter set. For low energy electrons, where it is important to measure the depth-dose profile in materials with high depth resolution, we studied the feasibility of a method using Gafchromic film dosimeters. This film, which has an 8-μm thick sensitive layer, is combined with a stepped array of absorber films of the same thickness to produce a high-resolution depth-dose profile on the Gafchromic film. The depth-dose profile obtained in this manner has about five times greater resolution than conventional radiochromic film dosimetry. (author)

  14. Electron beam irradiation to the allogeneic, xenogenic and synthetic bone materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soung Min; Park, Min Woo; Jeong, Hyun Oh [School of Dentistry Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-07-01

    For the development of the biocompatible bony regeneration materials, allogenic, xenogenic and synthetic bone were irradiated by electron beam to change the basic components and structures. For the efficient electron beam irradiating condition of these allogenic, xenogenic and artificial bone substitutes, the optimal electron beam energy and their individual dose were established, to maximize the bony regeneration capacity. Commercial products of four allogenic bones, such as Accell (ISOTIS OrthogBiologics Co., USA), Allotis (Korea Bone Bank Co., Korea), Oragraft (LifeNet Co., USA), and Orthoblast (Integra Orthobiologics Inc., USA), six xenogenic bones, such as BBP (OscoTec Co., Korea), Bio-cera (OscoTec Co., Korea), Bio-oss (Geistlich Pharma AG, Switzerland), Indu-cera (OscoTec Co., Korea), OCS-B (Nibec Co., Korea), and OCS-H (Nibec Co., Korea), and six synthetic bones, such as BMP (Couellmedi Co., Korea), BoneMedik (Meta Biomed Co., Korea), Bone plus (Megagen Co., Korea), MBCP (Biomatlante Co., France), Osteon (Genoss Co., Korea), and Osteogen (Impladent LTD., USA), were used. We used 1.0 and 2.0 MeV superconduction accelerator, and/or microtrone with different individual 60, 120 kGy irradiation dose. Different dose irradiated specimens were divided 6 portions each, so total 360 groups were prepared. 4 portions were analyzed each by elementary analysis using FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Microscopy) and another 2 portions were grafted to the calvarial defect of Sprague-Dawley rat, following histologic, immunohistochemical analysis and TEM study were processed at the 8th and 16th weeks, in vivo. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MEST)

  15. Positron annihilation and thermally stimulated current of electron beam irradiated polyetheretherketone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Shigetaka; Shinyama, Katsuyoshi; Baba, Makoto [Hachinohe Inst. of Tech., Hachinohe, Aomori (Japan); Suzuki, Takenori

    1997-03-01

    Positron lifetime measurements were applied to electron beam irradiated poly(ether-ether-ketone). The lifetime, {tau}{sub 3}, of the ortho-positronium of unirradiated and 5 MGy irradiated specimen became rapidly longer above about 150degC. {tau}{sub 3} of 50 MGy and 100 MGy irradiated specimen was shorter than that of unirradiated one. Thermally stimulated current (TSC) decreased with increasing the dose before voltage application. In the case of voltage application, a TSC peak appeared and the peak value decreased with increased the dose. The correlation between the results of positron annihilation and TSC was investigated. (author)

  16. Linear Energy Transfer-Dependent Change in Rice Gene Expression Profile after Heavy-Ion Beam Irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Ishii

    Full Text Available A heavy-ion beam has been recognized as an effective mutagen for plant breeding and applied to the many kinds of crops including rice. In contrast with X-ray or γ-ray, the heavy-ion beam is characterized by a high linear energy transfer (LET. LET is an important factor affecting several aspects of the irradiation effect, e.g. cell survival and mutation frequency, making the heavy-ion beam an effective mutagen. To study the mechanisms behind LET-dependent effects, expression profiling was performed after heavy-ion beam irradiation of imbibed rice seeds. Array-based experiments at three time points (0.5, 1, 2 h after the irradiation revealed that the number of up- or down-regulated genes was highest 2 h after irradiation. Array-based experiments with four different LETs at 2 h after irradiation identified LET-independent regulated genes that were up/down-regulated regardless of the value of LET; LET-dependent regulated genes, whose expression level increased with the rise of LET value, were also identified. Gene ontology (GO analysis of LET-independent up-regulated genes showed that some GO terms were commonly enriched, both 2 hours and 3 weeks after irradiation. GO terms enriched in LET-dependent regulated genes implied that some factor regulates genes that have kinase activity or DNA-binding activity in cooperation with the ATM gene. Of the LET-dependent up-regulated genes, OsPARP3 and OsPCNA were identified, which are involved in DNA repair pathways. This indicates that the Ku-independent alternative non-homologous end-joining pathway may contribute to repairing complex DNA legions induced by high-LET irradiation. These findings may clarify various LET-dependent responses in rice.

  17. Effect of e-beam irradiation and microwave heating on the fatty acid composition and volatile compound profile of grass carp surimi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongfei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Haiyan; Ye, Qingfu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of e-beam irradiationпј€1–7 kGyпј‰ and irradiation coupled to microwave heating (e-I-MC, 70 °C internal temperature) on the fatty acid composition and volatile compound profile of grass carp surimi. Compared to control samples, e-beam irradiation generated three novel volatile compounds (heptane, 2,6-dimethyl-nonane, and dimethyl disulfide) and increased the relative proportions of alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. Meanwhile, e-I-MC significantly increased aldehyde levels and generated five heterocyclic compounds along with these three novel compounds. No significant difference in volatile compounds were detected in e-I-MC samples with increasing irradiation dose (p>0.05), comparing to the control group. E-beam irradiation at 5 and 7 kGy increased the levels of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and decreased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids (p≤0.05), but did not affect the content of trans fatty acid levels (p>0.05). Irradiation, which had no significant effects on (Eicosapentaenoic acid) EPA, decreased (Docose Hexaenoie Acid) DHA levels. In the e-I-MC group, SFA levels increased and PUFA levels decreased. Additionally, MUFA levels were unaffected and trans fatty acid levels increased slightly following e-I-MC. - Highlights: • E-beam irradiation generated three novel volatile compounds. • E-beam irradiation increased the relative proportions of alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. • E-beam irradiation coupled to microwave heating increased aldehyde levels and generated five heterocyclic compounds. • E-beam irradiation at 5 and 7 kGy decreased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids, but did not affect trans fatty acid levels.

  18. Polymerization of polyethers initiated by irradiation with high power pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, V.D.; Tolkachev, V.S.; Chmukh, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    Air oxygen effect on thin-layer polymerization of polyethers, initiated by irradiation with powerful pulse electron beams is studied using the method of IR-spectrophotometry. The analysis of experimental data has shown that in polyether surface layer polymerization is suppressed by oxygen, concentration of which in the layer remains stable at the expense of diffusion from air during two consequent irradiation pulses

  19. Effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the control of some soilborne pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlikowski, L.B.; Ptaszek, M.; Migdal, W.; Gryczka, U.

    2011-01-01

    Electron beam (EB) irradiation was tested against Botrytis cinerea, Pythium ultimum and Phytophthora citricola the most dangerous pathogens causing stem and root rot of seedlings, cuttings and older plants. In the laboratory trials cultures of 3 species were irradiated with doses 0 (control), 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 kGy whereas peat was treated with 10, 15 and 25 kGy. P. citricola was the most sensitive species for irradiation. In greenhouse trials 15 kGy irradiation of peat protected chrysanthemum cuttings against B. cinerea and P. ultimum as well as rhododendron young plants against P. citricola. Irradiation of peat did not influence the growth and development of the tested plants. (authors)

  20. Beam Loss Simulation Studies for ALS Top-Off Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Nishimura, Hiroshi; Robin, David; Steier, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    The ALS is planning to operate with top-off injection at higher beam currents and smaller vertical beam size. As part of a radiation safety study for top-off, we carried out two kinds of tracking studies: (1) to confirm that the injected beam cannot go into users' photon beam lines, and (2) to control the location of beam dump when the storage ring RF is tripped. (1) is done by tracking electrons from a photon beam line to the injection sector inversely by including the magnetic field profiles, varying the field strength with geometric aperture limits to conclude that it is impossible. (2) is done by tracking an electron with radiation in the 6-dim space for different combinations of vertical scrapers for the realistic lattice with errors.

  1. Study of Si wafer surfaces irradiated by gas cluster ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isogai, H.; Toyoda, E.; Senda, T.; Izunome, K.; Kashima, K.; Toyoda, N.; Yamada, I.

    2007-01-01

    The surface structures of Si (1 0 0) wafers subjected to gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) irradiation have been analyzed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). GCIB irradiation is a promising technique for both precise surface etching and planarization of Si wafers. However, it is very important to understand the crystalline structure of Si wafers after GCIB irradiation. An Ar-GCIB used for the physically sputtering of Si atoms and a SF 6 -GCIB used for the chemical etching of the Si surface are also analyzed. The GCIB irradiation increases the surface roughness of the wafers, and amorphous Si layers are formed on the wafer surface. However, when the Si wafers are annealed in hydrogen at a high temperature after the GCIB irradiation, the surface roughness decreases to the same level as that before the irradiation. Moreover, the amorphous Si layers disappear completely

  2. Beam irradiation pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hah Young; Choi, Han Suk; Yang, Soo Jeong; Lee, Ja Hyun; Kim, Sung Bong; Jung, Da Un; Kim, Seung Wook

    2013-01-01

    As a renewable energy resource, lignocellulosic biomass has become great attention these days. Miscanthus is considered as one of the best feed stock for sugar production due to its high carbohydrate conversion, more efficient pretreatment process was necessary for removal of enzymatic hydrolysis barriers. In this study, electron beam irradiation pretreatment was utilized to Miscanthus straw for the enhancement of sugar conversion. The prepared samples were exposed 20 ∼ 500 kGy of doses and 5 ∼ 100 kGy of dose rate under 1 MeV of energy. Optimum irradiation conditions were 300 kGy of doses, 10 kGy of doses rate and 7.4 mA of current. Finally, compared with untreated Miscanthus, the glucose conversion was 2 fold increased under optimal conditions

  3. Electron beam irradiation of fluoropolymers containing polyethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucio, E.; Burillo, G.; Tapia, F.; Adem, E.; Cedillo, G.; Cassidy, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    A highly fluorinated monomer, 1,3-bis(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-pentafluorophenyl methoxy-2-propyl)benzene (12F-FBE) was polymerized with some diphenols by polycondensation and then was electron beam irradiated between 100 and 1000 kGy to determine degradation radiochemistry yield (G s ) by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The samples were characterized after irradiation by DSC, FTIR, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The fluoropolymers show apparent degradation in mechanical properties at 300 kGy, except 12F-FBE polymerized with biphenol and bisphenol A, when they did not show any apparent physical change up to 300 kGy; and continue to be flexible and transparent, with a radiochemical yield scission (G s ) of 0.75, 0.53, 0.88, and 0.38 for 12F-FBE/SDL aliphatic, 12F-FBE/biphenol, 12F-FBE/bisphenol A, and 12F-FBE/bisphenol O, respectively. The number average molecular weights for three of the polymers decrease upon 1000 kGy irradiation to 10% of their original values; however, the polymer from bisphenol A is much more stable and its M n decreases to only 24% of original

  4. Electron beam irradiation of fluoropolymers containing polyethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucio, E.; Burillo, G.; Tapia, F.; Adem, E.; Cedillo, G.; Cassidy, P. E.

    2009-02-01

    A highly fluorinated monomer, 1,3-bis(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-pentafluorophenyl methoxy-2-propyl)benzene (12F-FBE) was polymerized with some diphenols by polycondensation and then was electron beam irradiated between 100 and 1000 kGy to determine degradation radiochemistry yield ( Gs) by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The samples were characterized after irradiation by DSC, FTIR, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The fluoropolymers show apparent degradation in mechanical properties at 300 kGy, except 12F-FBE polymerized with biphenol and bisphenol A, when they did not show any apparent physical change up to 300 kGy; and continue to be flexible and transparent, with a radiochemical yield scission ( Gs) of 0.75, 0.53, 0.88, and 0.38 for 12F-FBE/SDL aliphatic, 12F-FBE/biphenol, 12F-FBE/bisphenol A, and 12F-FBE/bisphenol O, respectively. The number average molecular weights for three of the polymers decrease upon 1000 kGy irradiation to 10% of their original values; however, the polymer from bisphenol A is much more stable and its Mn decreases to only 24% of original.

  5. Influence of electron beam Irradiation on PP/Piassava fiber composite prepared by melt extrusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Michelle G.; Ferreira, Maiara S.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Silva, Valquiria A.; Teixeira, Jaciele G.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B.

    2013-01-01

    In the latest years, the interest for the use of natural fibers in materials composites polymeric has increased significantly due to their environmental and technological advantages. Piassava fibers (Attalea funifera) have been used as reinforcement in the matrix of thermoplastic and thermoset polymers. In the present work (20%, in mass), piassava fibers with particle sizes equal or smaller than 250 μm were incorporated in the polypropylene matrix (PP) no irradiated and polypropylene matrix containing 10 % and 30 % of polypropylene treated by electron-beam radiation at 40 kGy (PP/PPi/Piassava). The composites PP/Piassava and PP/PPi/Piassava were prepared by using a twin screw extruder, followed by injection molding. The composite material samples obtained were treated by electron-beam radiation at 40 kGy, using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, at room temperature, in presence of air. After irradiation treatment, the irradiated and non-irradiated specimens tests samples were submitted to thermo-mechanical tests, melt flow index (MFI), sol-gel analysis, X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (author)

  6. A comparative study on the effects of electron beam irradiation on imidacloprid-resistant and -susceptible Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seung-Hwan; Koo, Hyun-Na; Lee, Seon-Woo; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Yuri; Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2015-07-01

    The melon and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, is a polyphagous insect pest. This study compared the development, reproduction, DNA damage, recovery, and gene expression in imidacloprid-resistant (IMI-R) and -susceptible (S) strains of A. gossypii by electron beam irradiation. When 1st instar nymphs were irradiated with 100 Gy, the fecundity (nymphs of F1 generation) of the resultant adults were completely inhibited. When adults were irradiated with 200 Gy, the number of total 1st instar nymphs produced per adult was 3.0±1.7 and 1.9±1.4 in the S and IMI-R strains, respectively, but adult development was completely suppressed. However, electron beam irradiation did not affect adult longevity in either the S or IMI-R strain. There was no statistically significant difference between the effect of irradiation on the S and IMI-R strains. Therefore, electron beam irradiation at 200 Gy could be used as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment for both S and IMI-R strains of A. gossypii. The DNA damage caused by electron beam irradiation was evaluated by an alkaline comet assay. Exposure to an electron beam (50 Gy) induced DNA damage that was repaired to a similar level as the untreated control group (0 Gy) over time. However, at more than 100 Gy, the DNA damage was not completely repaired. The expression of P450, HSP70, cuticle protein, and elongation factor genes were higher in the IMI-R strain than in the S strain.

  7. Identification of Degradation Products of Lincomycin and Iopromide by Electron Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Yongbyoung; Ham, Hyunsun; Myung, Seungwoon

    2013-01-01

    Lincomycin and Iopromide are major species among the Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) from four major rivers in Korea. The structure characterization of six lincomycin's and two iopromide's degradation products formed under the irradiation of electron beam was performed, and the degradation efficiency as a function of the various irradiation dose and sample concentration was investigated. Electron beam (10 MeV, 0.5 mA and 5 kW) experiments for the structural characterization of the degradation products, which is fortified with lincomycin, were performed at the dose of 10 kGy. The separation of its degradation products and lincomycin was carried by C18 column (2.1 Χ 100 mm, 3.5 μm), using gradient elution with 20 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. The structures of degradation products of lincomycin and iopromide were proposed by interpretation of mass spectra and chromatograms by LC/MS/MS, and also the mass fragmentation pathways of mass spectra in tandem mass spectrometry were proposed. The experiments of the degradation efficiency as a function of the irradiation dose intensity and the initial concentration of lincomycin in aqueous environment were performed, and higher dose of electron beam and lower concentration was observed the increased degradation efficiency

  8. LC/MS/MS identification of some folic acid degradation products after E-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, M.M.; Marchioni, E.; Zhao, M.; Kuntz, F.; Di Pascoli, T.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Bergaentzle, M.

    2012-01-01

    Folates belong to the B vitamin group based on the parental compound folic acid (FA). They are involved in important biochemical processes like DNA synthesis and repair. FA is composed of a pteridine ring, p-aminobenzoic acid and glutamate moieties. The human metabolism is not able to synthesize folates and therefore obtain them from diet. FA, a synthetic vitamin, is used as a food fortificant because of its low price, relative stability and increased bioavailability compared to natural folate forms. FA is known to be a sensitive compound easily degradable in aqueous solution by ultraviolet and visible light towards various by-products. Irradiation is a process for preservation of foods that uses accelerated electrons, gamma rays or X-rays. Irradiation is proposed for the treatment of various food products, eliminating or reducing pathogens and insects, increasing the storage time and replacing chemical fumigants. This study concerns the identification of degradation products of FA after E-beam irradiation. FA aqueous solutions were irradiated with a Van de Graaff electrons beam accelerator (2 MeV, 100 μA current, 20 cm scan width, dose rate about 2 kGy/s). Applied doses were between 0 (control) and 10.0 kGy. Absorbed doses were monitored with FWT 60.00 radiochromic dosimeters. - Highlights: ► We investigated the degradation of folic acid aqueous solution after electron beam treatment. ► Radiation doses over 5 kGy promote huge folic acid degradation and appearance of several degradation products. ► PCA, PABA and pABGA, already known folic acid degradation products, are formed due to E-beam treatment. ► Xanthopterin, a new radio-induced breakdown product, is formed after irradiation treatment.

  9. Mode Shape Analysis of Multiple Cracked Functionally Graded Timoshenko Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Van Lien

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper addresses free vibration of multiple cracked Timoshenko beams made of Functionally Graded Material (FGM. Cracks are modeled by rotational spring of stiffness calculated from the crack depth and material properties vary according to the power law throughout the beam thickness. Governing equations for free vibration of the beam are formulated with taking into account actual position of the neutral plane. The obtained frequency equation and mode shapes are used for analysis of the beam mode shapes in dependence on the material and crack parameters. Numerical results validate usefulness of the proposed herein theory and show that mode shapes are good indication for detecting multiple cracks in Timoshenko FGM beams.

  10. Optimization of the irradiation beam in the BNCT research facility at IEA-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Vinicius Alexandre de

    2014-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapeutic technique for the treatment of some types of cancer whose useful energy comes from a nuclear reaction that occurs when thermal neutron impinges upon a Boron-10 atom. In Brazil there is a research facility built along the beam hole number 3 of the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN, which was designed to perform BNCT research experiments. For a good performance of the technique, the irradiation beam should be mostly composed of thermal neutrons with a minimum as possible gamma and above thermal neutron components. This work aims to monitor and evaluate the irradiation beam on the sample irradiation position through the use of activation detectors (activation foils) and also to propose, through simulation using the radiation transport code, MCNP, new sets of moderators and filters which shall deliver better irradiation fields at the irradiation sample position In this work, a simulation methodology, based on a MCNP card, known as wwg (weight window generation) was studied, and the neutron energy spectrum has been experimentally discriminated at 5 energy ranges by using a new set o activation foils. It also has been concluded that the BNCT research facility has the required thermal neutron flux to perform studies in the area and it has a great potential for improvement for tailoring the irradiation field. (author)

  11. Effectiveness of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate for the electron-beam-irradiation-induced cross-linking of polylactic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Hon-Meng [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Bee, Soo-Tueen, E-mail: beest@utar.edu.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ratnam, C.T. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sin, Lee Tin; Phang, Yee-Yao; Tee, Tiam-Ting [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahmat, A.R. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Investigation of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on electron beam irradiated PLA. • Irradiated PLA blends were weakened by incorporation of high amount of TMPTMA. • TMPTMA interacts with polymer free radicals to build crosslinking network. -- Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of various loading levels of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) cross-linked via electron-beam irradiation. PLA was compounded with 3–5 wt.% of TMPTMA to induce cross-linking upon subjection to electron-beam irradiation doses of 25–250 kGy. The physical properties of the PLA samples were characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, gel fraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses on fractured surfaces after tensile tests. The presence of TMPTMA in PLA was found to effectively increase the crystallite size and gel fraction. However, higher loading levels of TMPTMA could compromise the properties of the PLA/TMPTMA samples, indicating that a larger amount of monomer free radicals might promote degradation within the substantially cross-linked amorphous phase. Irradiation-induced cross-linking in the samples could improve the cross-linking density while decreasing the elongation and interfering with the crystallisation. These effects are caused by the intensive irradiation-induced chain scission that is responsible for the deterioration of the mechanical and crystalline properties of the samples.

  12. Effectiveness of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate for the electron-beam-irradiation-induced cross-linking of polylactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Hon-Meng; Bee, Soo-Tueen; Ratnam, C.T.; Sin, Lee Tin; Phang, Yee-Yao; Tee, Tiam-Ting; Rahmat, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on electron beam irradiated PLA. • Irradiated PLA blends were weakened by incorporation of high amount of TMPTMA. • TMPTMA interacts with polymer free radicals to build crosslinking network. -- Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of various loading levels of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) cross-linked via electron-beam irradiation. PLA was compounded with 3–5 wt.% of TMPTMA to induce cross-linking upon subjection to electron-beam irradiation doses of 25–250 kGy. The physical properties of the PLA samples were characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, gel fraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses on fractured surfaces after tensile tests. The presence of TMPTMA in PLA was found to effectively increase the crystallite size and gel fraction. However, higher loading levels of TMPTMA could compromise the properties of the PLA/TMPTMA samples, indicating that a larger amount of monomer free radicals might promote degradation within the substantially cross-linked amorphous phase. Irradiation-induced cross-linking in the samples could improve the cross-linking density while decreasing the elongation and interfering with the crystallisation. These effects are caused by the intensive irradiation-induced chain scission that is responsible for the deterioration of the mechanical and crystalline properties of the samples

  13. HiRadMat: A high‐energy, pulsed beam, material irradiation facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Charitonidis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    HiRadMat is a facility constructed in 2011, designed to provide high-intensity pulsed beams to an irradiation area where different material samples or accelerator components can be tested. The facility, located at the CERN SPS accelerator complex, uses a 440 GeV proton beam with a pulse length up to 7.2 μs and a maximum intensity up to 1E13 protons / pulse. The facility, a unique place for performing state-of-the art beam-to-material experiments, operates under transnational access and welcomes and financially supports, under certain conditions, experimental teams to perform their experiments.

  14. Electron beam irradiation: novel technology for phytosanitary purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, Shashi; Srinivasan, K.; Dwivedi, J.; Gautam, S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    In the WTO regime, flow of agricultural commodities has increased, posing risk of inadvertent introduction of exotic pests. This can be minimized by undertaking quarantine measures. Quarantine/phytosanitary disinfestation treatments demand a very high level of security as the pest tolerance in quarantine is zero. Methyl bromide, a potent fumigant has been restricted in its use due to ozone depleting effect. Also, the conventional chemicals/fumigants being used world over are being restricted globally because of the various associated problems. Therefore, there is a need for an alternative ecofriendly strategy for controlling the pests. Irradiation, an approved technology by International Plant Protection Convention, appears to be a viable, nonchemical, residue-free strategy. Disinfestation of pulses with low energy electron irradiation potentially will have less deleterious effects on commodity quality than irradiation with other sources. Internationally, new radiation generating sources as Electron beam (EB) are being explored to meet import standards of quality and quarantine. The EB has a machine source and can be simply switched on or off. Irradiation of legume seeds viz., blackgram, greengram and soybean infested with pulse beetles (Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis) at different doses at an energy level of 500 keV using the Accelerator facility at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore revealed the dose-dependent effects on the insect growth parameters. Adult emergence from seeds infested with different stages was negligible and eggs laid by beetles that survived treatment did not develop into adults at higher doses. The lower doses viz., 170, 340 and 510 Gy on the other hand caused sterility effect on the insect but showed stimulatory effect on the physiological seed parameters . viz., seedling vigour and vigour index. Electron beam irradiation has a great potential for use in the disinfestation for phytosanitary purposes. Nevertheless

  15. Mutagenic effects of carbon ion beam irradiations on dry Lotus japonicus seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shanwei [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, Libin, E-mail: libinzhou@impcas.ac.cn [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Wenjian; Du, Yan [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, Lixia; Feng, Hui; Mu, Jinhu [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Yuze [College of Life Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, No. 1 Yingmen Village, Anning District, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730070 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Carbon ion beam irradiation is a powerful method for creating mutants and has been used in crop breeding more and more. To investigate the effects of carbon ion beams on Lotus japonicus, dry seeds were irradiated by 80 MeV/u carbon ion beam at dosages of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy. The germination rate, survival rate and root length of M{sub 1} populations were explored and the dose of 400 Gy was selected as the median lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) for a large-scale mutant screening. Among 2472 M{sub 2} plants, 127 morphological mutants including leaf, stem, flower and fruit phenotypic variation were found, and the mutation frequency was approximately 5.14%. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) assays were utilized to investigate the DNA polymorphism between seven mutants and eight plants without phenotypic variation from M{sub 2} populations. No remarkable differences were detected between these two groups, and the total polymorphic rate was 0.567%.

  16. Issues for Bringing Electron Beam Irradiators On-Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, R.J.; Turman, B.N.

    1999-01-01

    Irradiation of red meat and poultry has been approved by the U.S. FDA, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's rule for processing red meat is out for comment. Looking beyond the current issues of packaging materials, labeling, and consumer acceptance, this paper reviews the next step of implementation and how to remove, or at least reduce, the barriers to utilization. Polls of the user community identified their requirements for electron beam or x-ray processing of meat or poultry and their concerns about implementation for on-line processing. These needs and issues are compared to the capabilities of the accelerator industry. The critical issues of beam utilization and dose uniformity, factors affecting floor space requirements, and treatment costs are examined

  17. Issues for Bringing Electron Beam Irradiators On-Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, R.J.; Turman, B.N.

    1999-04-20

    Irradiation of red meat and poultry has been approved by the U.S. FDA, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's rule for processing red meat is out for comment. Looking beyond the current issues of packaging materials, labeling, and consumer acceptance, this paper reviews the next step of implementation and how to remove, or at least reduce, the barriers to utilization. Polls of the user community identified their requirements for electron beam or x-ray processing of meat or poultry and their concerns about implementation for on-line processing. These needs and issues are compared to the capabilities of the accelerator industry. The critical issues of beam utilization and dose uniformity, factors affecting floor space requirements, and treatment costs are examined.

  18. Influence of electron beam irradiation on the impact properties of polystyrene/EPDM rubber blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gisbergen, van J.G.M.; Sanden, van der M.C.M.; Haan, de J.W.; Ven, van de L.J.M.; Lemstra, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of electron beam (EB) irradiation on the impact properties of compatibilized polystyrene/ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer (PSIEPDM) blends was studied. The change in impact value upon irradiation proved to be strongly dependent on the type of compatibilizer used. Using a

  19. Irradiation of diffusion couples U-Mo/Al. Thermal calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortis, Ana M.; Mirandou, Monica; Denis, Alicia C.

    2004-01-01

    The development of new low enrichment fuel elements for research reactors has lead to obtaining a number of compounds and alloys where the decrease in the enrichment is compensated by a higher uranium density in the fuel material. This has been achieved in particular with the uranium silicides dispersed in an aluminum matrix, where uranium densities about 4.8 g/cm 3 have been reached. Among the diverse candidate alloys, those of U-Mo with molybdenum content in the range 6 to 10 w % can yield, upon dispersion, to uranium densities of about 8 g/cm 3 . The first irradiation experiments employing these alloys in fuel plates, either dispersed in Al or monolithic revealed certain phenomena which are worthy of further studies. Failures have been detected apparently due to the formation of reaction products between the fissile material and the aluminum matrix, which exhibit a poor irradiation behavior. An experiment was designed which final purpose is to irradiate diffusion couples U-Mo/Al in the RA-3 reactor and to analyze the interaction zone at the working temperatures of the fuel elements. A simple device was built consisting of two Al 6063 blocks which press the U-Mo sample in between, located in an Al capsule. The ensemble is placed in a tube, which can be filled with different gases and introduced in the reactor. For safety reasons temperature predictions are necessary before performing the experiment. To this end, the COSMOS code was used. As a preliminary step and in order to test to exactness of the numerical estimations, two irradiations were performed in the RA-1 reactor with He and N 2 as transference gases. The agreement between the measured and calculated temperatures was good, particularly in the case of He and, along with the numerical predictions for the RA-3 reactor, provides a reliable basis to proceed with the following steps. (author)

  20. Immediate remediation of heavy metal (Cr(VI)) contaminated soil by high energy electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guilong; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An immediate remediation method for Cr(VI) contaminated soil (CCS) was developed. • High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation could reduce Cr(VI) in CCS to Cr(III). • This effect was attributed to electrons, hydrated electrons, and reductive radicals. • This remediation method was effective, environmentally friendly, and low-cost. - Abstract: This work developed an immediate and high-performance remediation method for Cr(VI) contaminated soil (CCS) using high energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation. The result indicated that, compared with γ-ray irradiation, HEEB irradiation displayed a significant reduction efficiency on Cr(VI) in CCS to Cr(III) with substantially lower toxicity, which was mainly attributed to the reduction effects of electrons, hydrated electrons, and reductive radicals generated in the irradiation process of HEEB. This work could provide a one-step and effective method for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil (HMCS)

  1. Immediate remediation of heavy metal (Cr(VI)) contaminated soil by high energy electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guilong [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Cai, Dongqing, E-mail: dqcai@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Zhengyan, E-mail: zywu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • An immediate remediation method for Cr(VI) contaminated soil (CCS) was developed. • High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation could reduce Cr(VI) in CCS to Cr(III). • This effect was attributed to electrons, hydrated electrons, and reductive radicals. • This remediation method was effective, environmentally friendly, and low-cost. - Abstract: This work developed an immediate and high-performance remediation method for Cr(VI) contaminated soil (CCS) using high energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation. The result indicated that, compared with γ-ray irradiation, HEEB irradiation displayed a significant reduction efficiency on Cr(VI) in CCS to Cr(III) with substantially lower toxicity, which was mainly attributed to the reduction effects of electrons, hydrated electrons, and reductive radicals generated in the irradiation process of HEEB. This work could provide a one-step and effective method for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil (HMCS)

  2. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the thermal properties of polycarbonate / polyester blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarie, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of electron beam irradiation on the thermal properties of Bayfol (polycarbonate/polyester blend) solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) was investigated. Non-isothermal studies were carried out using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) to obtain the activation energy of thermal decomposition for Bayfol detector. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the Bayfol samples were decomposed in one main break down stage. Samples of 250 μm thickness sheets were exposed to electron beam irradiations in the dose range 20-600 KGy. The variation of melting temperatures with the electron dose was determined using differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results indicated that the electron irradiation in the dose range 200-600 KGy decreases the melting temperature of the Bayfol samples and this is most suitable for applications requiring the molding of this polymer at lower temperatures

  3. Low temperature electron beam irradiation effects on the lactate dehydrogenase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catana, D.; Hategan, Alina; Oproiu, C.; Popescu, Alina; Hategan, Dora; Morariu, V. V.

    1998-01-01

    The direct and indirect effects of 5 MeV electron beam irradiation in the range 0-400 Gy at 20 deg. C, -3 deg. C and -196 deg. C on the global enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) have been studied. Our results showed a monoexponential decrease in the enzymatic activity of irradiated LDH at all irradiation temperatures independently of direct or indirect action of radiation. The temperature gradient used to lower the temperature of the samples to -196 deg. C drastically influences the results. Our data suggest that freeze-thawing in two steps down to -196 deg. C make LDH insensitive to irradiation, while one step freeze-thawing procedure results in a gradual activity loss with increasing dose irradiation. This data can be interpreted in terms of different conformational changes during the particular freeze-thawing process. (authors)

  4. Thermoluminescence response of Ge-, Al- and Nd- doped optical fibers by 6 MeV - electron and 6 MeV - photon irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, I.; Moburak, A. A.; Saeed, M.A.; Wagiran, H.; Hida, N.; Yaakob, H.N.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the prediction of thermoluminescence responses of Neodymium-doped SiO 2 optical fibre with various dose ranges from 0.5 Gy to 4.0 Gy by 6 MeV - electron irradiations without requirement for experimental measurements. A technique has been developed to calculate prediction of 6 MeV - electron response of Neodymium-doped SiO 2 optical fibre by observing the measured TL response of 6 MV - photon and the ratio of known measured photon/electron yield ratio distribution for Ge-doped, Al-doped optical fibre and standard TLD 100 dosimeter. The samples were kept in gelatin capsule an irradiated with 6 MV - photon at the dose range from 0.5 Gy to 4.0 Gy. Siemens model Primus 3368 linear accelerator located at Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru has been used to deliver the photon beam to the samples. We found the average response ratio of 6 MV - photon and 6 MeV - electron in Ge-doped, Al-doped optical fibre and standard TLD-100 dosimeter are 0.83(3). Observing the measured value of 6 MV - photon irradiation this average ratio is useful to find the prediction of thermoluminescence responses by 6 MeV - electron irradiation of Neodymium-doped SiO 2 optical fibre by the requirement for experimental measurements with various dose ranges from 0.5 Gy to 4.0 Gy by 6 MV - photon irradiations.

  5. Intense particle beam and multiple applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, M.; Machida, M.

    1988-01-01

    The Multiple Application Intense Particle Beam project is an experiment in which an injector of high energy neutral or ionized particles will be used to diagnose high density and high temperature plasmas. The acceleration of the particles will be carried out feeding a diode with a high voltage pulse produced by a Marx generator. Other apllications of intense particle beam generated by this injector that could be explored in the future include: heating and stabilization of compact toroids, treatment of metallic surfaces and ion implantation. (author) [pt

  6. Size Control Technology of Silver Nanoparticles Using Electron Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Suk; Kim, Byungnam; Kim, Hye Won; Koo, Yong Hwan; Lee, Byung Cheol; Park, Ji Hyun; Bae, Hyung Bin; Park, Changmoon

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing of silver nanoparticles using an electron beam is easy, fast, and highly productive, and it is possible at room temperature with no chemical residuals. Its various advantages therefore make this an important method for manufacturing nanoparticles such as silver, copper, and platinum. In particular, despite the use of electron beam irradiation, the results show that this method makes it possible to produce silver nanoparticles at low cost since low beam energy and low doses are used. This means that middle and high-energy electron beam accelerators are very expensive, but a low-energy electron beam accelerator has a relatively low cost of around 4-5 times, and mass production for a flow reaction without the need for extra radiation shielding is possible. Silver nanoparticles are of great interest to many researchers owing to their ability to be used in many applications such as catalysis, nanoelectronics, optical filters, electromagnetic interference shielding, surface Raman scattering, medical supplies, fabrics, cosmetics, hygiene and kitchen supplies, and electric home appliances

  7. Size Control Technology of Silver Nanoparticles Using Electron Beam Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Suk; Kim, Byungnam; Kim, Hye Won; Koo, Yong Hwan; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Hyun [Univ. of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Hyung Bin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Changmoon [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The manufacturing of silver nanoparticles using an electron beam is easy, fast, and highly productive, and it is possible at room temperature with no chemical residuals. Its various advantages therefore make this an important method for manufacturing nanoparticles such as silver, copper, and platinum. In particular, despite the use of electron beam irradiation, the results show that this method makes it possible to produce silver nanoparticles at low cost since low beam energy and low doses are used. This means that middle and high-energy electron beam accelerators are very expensive, but a low-energy electron beam accelerator has a relatively low cost of around 4-5 times, and mass production for a flow reaction without the need for extra radiation shielding is possible. Silver nanoparticles are of great interest to many researchers owing to their ability to be used in many applications such as catalysis, nanoelectronics, optical filters, electromagnetic interference shielding, surface Raman scattering, medical supplies, fabrics, cosmetics, hygiene and kitchen supplies, and electric home appliances.

  8. Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on the Structure and Optical Properties of Poly (vinyl alcohol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abutalib, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Samples from of the polymeric material poly (vinyl alcohol) PVA have been exposed to electron beam in the dose range 5-100 kGy. The modifications induced in PVA samples due to electron beam irradiation have been studied through different characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy FTIR and color difference studies. The FTIR spectroscopy indicated that the degradation is the dominant mechanism at the dose range 5-60 kGy. Above 60 and up to 100 kGy, crosslinking is achieved. The crosslinking reported by FTIR spectroscopy destroyed the degree of ordering in the PVA samples as revealed by XRD. Additionally, the non irradiated PVA samples showed significant color sensitivity towards electron beam irradiation that appeared in the increase of the green and blue color components. This was accompanied by a net increase in the darkness of the samples

  9. Dose Response of Alanine Detectors Irradiated with Carbon Ion Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Rochus; Jäkel, Oliver; Palmans, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The dose response of the alanine detector shows a dependence on particle energy and type, when irradiated with ion beams. The purpose of this study is to investigate the response behaviour of the alanine detector in clinical carbon ion beams and compare the results with model predictions......-dose curves deviate from predictions in the peak region, most pronounced at the distal edge of the peak. Conclusions: The used model and its implementation show a good overall agreement for quasi mono energetic measurements. Deviations in depth-dose measurements are mainly attributed to uncertainties...

  10. Ti-6Al-4V electron beam weld qualification using laser scanning confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanjara, P.; Brochu, M.; Jahazi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Processing conditions for manufacturing Ti-6Al-4V components by welding using an electron beam source are known to influence the transformation microstructure in the narrow fusion and heat-affected zones of the weld region. This work examined the effect of multiple-sequence welding on the characteristics of the transformed beta microstructure, using laser scanning confocal microscopy to resolve the Widmanstaetten alpha-beta structure in the fusion zone. The evolution in the alpha interlamellar spacing and plate thickness with processing was then related to microhardness measurements in the weld region

  11. Irradiation of Wrought FeCrAl Tubes in the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linton, Kory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petrie, Christian M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign within the Nuclear Technology Research and Development program of the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is seeking to improve the accident tolerance of light water reactors. Alumina-forming ferritic alloys (e.g., FeCrAl) are one of the leading candidate materials for fuel cladding to replace traditional zirconium alloys because of the superior oxidation resistance of FeCrAl. However, there are still some unresolved questions regarding irradiation effects on the microstructure and mechanical properties of FeCrAl at end-of-life dose levels. In particular, there are concerns related to irradiation-induced embrittlement of FeCrAl alloys due to secondary phase formation. To address this issue, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed a new experimental design to irradiate shortened cladding tube specimens with representative 17×17 array pressurized water reactor diameter and thickness in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) under relevant temperatures (300–350°C). Post-irradiation examination will include studies of dimensional change, microstructural changes, and mechanical performance. This report briefly summarizes the capsule design concept and the irradiation test matrix for six rabbit capsules. Each rabbit contains two FeCrAl alloy tube specimens. The specimens include Generation I and Generation II FeCrAl alloys with varying processing conditions, Cr concentrations, and minor alloying elements. The rabbits were successfully assembled, welded, evaluated, and delivered to the HFIR along with a complete quality assurance fabrication package. Pictures of the rabbit assembly process and detailed dimensional inspection of select specimens are included in this report. The rabbits were inserted into HFIR starting in cycle 472 (May 2017).

  12. In-beam PET measurement of $^{7}Li^{3+}$ irradiation induced $\\beta^+}$-activity

    CERN Document Server

    Priegnitz, M; Parodi, K; Sommerer, F; Fiedler, F; Enghardt, W

    2008-01-01

    At present positron emission tomography (PET) is the only feasible method of an in situ and non-invasive monitoring of patient irradiation with ions. At the experimental carbon ion treatment facility of the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) Darmstadt an in-beam PET scanner has been integrated into the treatment site and lead to a considerable quality improvement of the therapy. Since ions other than carbon are expected to come into operation in future patient treatment facilities, it is highly desirable to extend in-beam PET also to other therapeutic relevant ions, e.g. 7Li. Therefore, by means of the in-beam PET scanner at GSI the β+-activity induced by 7Li3+ ions has been investigated for the first time. Targets of PMMA, water, graphite and polyethylene were irradiated with monoenergetic, pencil-like beams of 7Li3+ with energies between 129.1 A MeV and 205.3 A MeV and intensities ranging from 3.0 × 107 to 1.9 × 108 ions s−1. This paper presents the measured β+-activity profiles as well as d...

  13. Irradiation effects of GaAlAs (λ=830 nm) laser on oral traumatic ulceration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senna, Andre Machado de

    2003-01-01

    Low intensity GaAlAs (λ=830 nm) laser irradiation effects on oral traumatic ulceration were evaluated. For this purpose, twenty patients presenting orthodontic appliance - induced oral traumatic ulceration were randomly distributed in two groups. Patients in group 1 were submitted to the irradiation procedure and group 2 was the control one. The irradiation parameters employed were the following: wavelength 830 nm, one single application of 4 J/cm 2 , punctual in the contact mode and 30 mW power. The control group received the conventional treatment, consisting on topical application of Triancinolon based ointment four times a day. For both groups the agent responsible for the trauma was removed or covered with utility wax whenever removal was impossible. The results were evaluated concerning the wounds size reduction and pain relief. The time of laser irradiation was considered the starting time (time zero) and analysis were done 24 hours, 48 hours and seven days after that. The statistical analysis showed an acceleration in the healing process as well accentuated pain reduction for the irradiated group compared to the control one. These evidences allows us to indicate this protocol of one single application of 4 J/cm 2 as therapy when patients with oral traumatic ulceration can not attend several sessions for a multiple application procedure. (author)

  14. Effect of electron beam irradiation on viscosity/temperature characteristics of cellulose derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastro, N.L. del; Villavicencio, A.L.C.; Yamasaki, M.C.R.

    1991-11-01

    The direct relationship between intrinsic viscosity and molecular weight of polymers allowed to attend the aggregation, cross-linking and degradation processes induced by electron beam irradiation on carboxymethylcellulose and hydroxiethylcellulose in aqueous solutions. The changes in viscosity were related to irradiation doses from 2.5x10 4 Gy to 25x10 4 Gy at 5 0 C, 25 0 C, 50 0 C and 75 0 C measured at different intervals after irradiation. The results showed the viscosity decrease characteristics as a function of those parameters for each one of the polymers. (author)

  15. Effect of electron beam irradiation on post harvest quality of Agaricus bisporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Juanpin; Xing Zengtao; Bai Bing; Song Weiguo

    2011-01-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on fresh-keeping of Agaricus bisporus was studied after sporecarp samples were irradiated at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 kGy and then stored at 4 degree C for 14d. The contents of water-soluble vitamins, amino acids and sugars were measured. Results showed that the contents of water-soluble sugars, amino acids, and aneurin, lactochrome, nicotinic acid in sporecarp did not significantly change after irradiation. However, asoribic acid was sensitive to irradiation, and the content was significantly reduced 31.1% at the dose of 4.0 kGy. It is concluded that 2 kGy irradiation can effectively prolong the shelf life, and almost no significant effect on the nutrient components of Agaricus bisporus. (authors)

  16. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the properties of natural rubber (NR)/styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manshaie, R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nouri Khorasani, S., E-mail: saied@cc.iut.ac.i [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahanbani Veshare, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei Abadchi, M. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this study, physico-mechanical properties of NR/SBR blends cured by electron beam irradiation and sulfur were compared. The NR/SBR blends were prepared using a two-roll mill. Electron beam irradiations of 100-400 kGy were applied to cure the blends and changes in physico-mechanical properties were studied as a function of irradiation. Also, oil resistance and the effect of thermal ageing on mechanical properties of the blends were investigated. The results show that the irradiated blends have better mechanical properties than those cured by sulfur system. The irradiation cured samples also exhibited better heat stability than the sulfur cured samples. The blend cured by the highest dose shows the lowest swelling and high oil resistance compared with the other samples cured by irradiation.

  17. Effect of Neutron Irradiation on Beam-Column Interaction of Reinforced Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Tae-Hyun; Park, Jiho; Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, HyungTae; Park, Kyoungsoo; Kim, Sang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Age-related effects on such RC structures have been extensively studied in detail. However, the effect of neutron irradiation requires further studies from its limited database. Most of RC structures have been regarded as sound as the neutron fluence below 1.0x10 19 n/cm 2 . The reduction of strength is not considered in a periodic inspection program at aging NPPs. However, RC structures, such as biological shields and supports for a reactor vessel, could be exposed to see the critical level of neutron fluence at years of operation. In this regard, beam-column interaction of a typical RC member is numerically investigated as a result of neutron irradiation. The effect of neutron irradiation on beam-column interaction is evaluated. ACI318 requires the strength reduction factor, ϕ=0.70, for the compression controlled area and the higher up to 0.9 as the tensile strain in steel reinforcement goes higher. This concept works well with this example. However, this does not take into account the energy dissipation capacity of the member but it only expresses the ultimate strength. Therefore, the current strength evaluation concept may be misleading when the material behavior of steel reinforcement becomes brittle due to the neutron irradiation. In such case, even for the transient and tension controlled area, the strength reduction factor needs to be modified to account for the potential ductility loss

  18. Elevated temperature characterization of electron beam freeform fabricated Ti-6Al-4V and dispersion strengthened Ti-8Al-1Er

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, R.W., E-mail: ralph.bush@usafa.edu [Department of Engineering Mechanics, 2354 Fairchild Dr., U.S. Air Force Academy, USAF Academy, CO 80840 (United States); Brice, C.A. [Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Co., Fort Worth, TX (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron beam freeform fabrication process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti-6Al-4V and rare-earth dispersion Ti alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tensile, creep, and oxidation properties comparable to alloys made with conventional fabrication methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication process allows use of rare-earth dispersion Ti alloy. - Abstract: Electron beam freeform fabrication is an additive manufacturing process that can be used to build fully dense, structural metallic parts directly from a three-dimensional computer model. This technique can replace conventional fabrication methods, such as forging or machining from plate, and enable significant cost, time, and tool savings. Additionally, this method enables the fabrication of alloys with novel compositions that are not well suited to production via ingot metallurgy processes. Ti-8Al-1Er is an experimental dispersion strengthened titanium alloy composition that requires rapid cooling to achieve optimal properties and thus is not amenable to ingot metallurgy production methods. Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, such as Ti-8Al-1Er are known to have excellent thermal stability and improved high temperature properties. In this work, the room temperature tensile, elevated temperature tensile, creep properties and oxidation resistance of electron beam additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-8Al-1Er were measured and compared to those of laser beam additive manufactured Ti-8Al-1Er and wrought Ti-6Al-4V. Elevated temperature tensile properties were measured between 93 Degree-Sign and 538 Degree-Sign C. Creep tests were performed between 425 Degree-Sign and 455 Degree-Sign C at stresses between 345 and 483 MPa. It was found that the elevated temperature properties of the electron beam additive manufactured products are comparable to those of wrought forms. The elevated temperature strengths of Ti-8Al-1Er are comparable to those of Ti-6Al-4V in percentage of room

  19. Outline of irradiation service equipment and properties of its electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagehira, K.; Shakudo, T.

    2002-01-01

    Current ethylene oxide sterilization becomes a subject of discussion on the safety for workers' health. On the other hand, demands for sterilization of disposable health care products and food packaging materials are increasing. On this situation, it is progressing to switch to radiation sterilization witch is easy to adapt to requirements of ISO validation, in particular to electron beam sterilization using electron accelerator, which is safer and easier to control. Our company started electron beam treatment service such as pasteurization, disinfestation, and improvement of polymers as well as sterilization, with introducing a high energy and high power electron accelerator. In this paper, basics of e-beam sterilization, outline of the irradiation service plant and the electron accelerator, and the properties of its electron beam are described. (author)

  20. Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one

  1. IFMIF [International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility], an accelerator-based neutron source for fusion components irradiation testing: Materials testing capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    1988-08-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is proposed as an advanced accelerator-based neutron source for high-flux irradiation testing of large-sized fusion reactor components. The facility would require only small extensions to existing accelerator and target technology originally developed for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility. At the extended facility, neutrons would be produced by a 0.1-A beam of 35-MeV deuterons incident upon a liquid lithium target. The volume available for high-flux (>10/sup 15/ n/cm/sup 2/-s) testing in IFMITF would be over a liter, a factor of about three larger than in the FMIT facility. This is because the effective beam current of 35-MeV deuterons on target can be increased by a factor of ten to 1A or more. Such an increase can be accomplished by funneling beams of deuterium ions from the radio-frequency quadruple into a linear accelerator and by taking advantage of recent developments in accelerator technology. Multiple beams and large total current allow great variety in available testing. For example, multiple simultaneous experiments, and great flexibility in tailoring spatial distributions of flux and spectra can be achieved. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the microbial quality of steamed tofu rolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Qian; Gao, Meixu; Li, Shurong; Wang, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of two kinds of radiation processing, gamma and electron beam (ebeam) irradiation, for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria innocua which were inoculated in pre-sterilised steamed tofu rolls was studied. The corresponding effects of both irradiation types on total bacterial counts (TBCs) in commercial steamed tofu rolls available in the market were also examined. The microbiological results demonstrated that gamma irradiation yielded D 10 values of 0.20, 0.24 and 0.22 kGy for S. aureus, S. enteritidis and L. innocua, respectively. The respective D 10 values for ebeam irradiation were 0.31, 0.35 and 0.27 kGy. Gamma and ebeam irradiation yielded D 10 values of 0.48 and 0.43 kGy for total bacterial counts in commercial steamed tofu rolls, respectively. The results suggest that ebeam irradiation has similar effect on decreasing TBCs in steamed tofu rolls, and gamma irradiation is slightly more effective than ebeam irradiation in reducing the populations of pathogenic bacteria. The observed differences in D 10 -values between them might be due to the significant differences in dose rate applied, and radiation processing of soybean products to improve their microbial quality could be available for other sources of protein. - Highlights: ► Our research material is steamed tofu rolls, a kind of soybean products. ► We compared the effects of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation. ► Total bacterial and three strains of pathogens are studied in our research. ► We reported electron beam has similar decontamination effect as gamma ray. ► Radiation processing of soybean products to improve their microbial quality could be available for other sources of protein.

  3. Effect of electron beam irradiation on quality of fresh chilled pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yibin; Gao Meixu; Li Shurong; Pei Ying; Wang Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on nutrient quality, lipid oxidation and sensory quality of fresh chilled pork were investigated. Fresh chilled pork whose fat to muscle ratio was 1 : 6 was grounded and packaged, and then irradiated at doses of 0, 2.0, 3.8, 6.2, 8.3 and 10.5 kGy. The contents of fat andprotein, chromaticity, sensory characteristics, lipid oxidation index of TBARS value, POV, diene value of irradiated and unirradiated samples were measured. The results showed that there were no significant differences (5% level) in content of proteinand fat between irradiated and control samples, but irradiation could significantly increase TBARS value and POV. EB irradiation enhanced the increase of total diene value. The samples treated with 3.8 and 6.2 kGy showed good color during storage. There were no significant differences in sensory characteristics among different EB doses. It is concluded that 4-6 kGy EB irradiation, which is effective for decontamination, shows no significant effect on qualities of fresh chilled pork. (authors)

  4. Irradiation of aluminium alloy materials with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Osamu; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi

    1982-01-01

    It is a theme with a room for discussion to employ the stainless steel composed of longer half-life materials for the vacuum system of accelerators, from the viewpoint of radiation exposure. Therefore, it is desirable to use aluminium of shorter half-life in place of stainless steel. As a result of investigation on the above theme in the 1.2 GeV electron linac project in Tohoku University, it has been concluded that aluminium alloy vacuum chambers can reduce exposure dose by about one or two figures as compared with stainless steel ones. Of course, aluminium alloy contains trace amounts of Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu and others. Therefore, four kinds of aluminium alloy considered to be usable have been examined for induced radioactivity by electron beam irradiation. Stainless steel SUS 304 has been also irradiated for comparison. Radiation energy has been 30 MeV and 200 MeV. When stainless steel and aluminium alloy were compared, aluminium alloy was very effective for reducing surface dose in low energy irradiation. In 200 MeV irradiation, the dose ratio of aluminium alloy to stainless steel became 1/30 to 1/100 after one week, though the dose difference between these two materials became smaller in 100 days or more after irradiation. If practical inspection and repair are implemented during the period from a few days to one week after shutdown, the aluminium alloy is preferable for exposure dose reduction even in high energy irradiation. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. Nanopore formation on Au coated pyramid under electron beam irradiations (plasmonic nanopore on pyramid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Soo Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been tremendous interests about the single molecule analysis using a sold-state nanopore. The solid-state nanopore can be fabricated either by drilling technique, or diffusion technique by using electron beam irradiations. The solid-state SiN nanopore device with electrical detection technique recently fabricated, however, the solid-state Au nanopore with optical detection technique can be better utilized as the next generation single molecule sensor. In this report, the nanometer size openings with its size less than 10 nm on the diffused membrane on the 200 nm Au pyramid were fabricated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM electron beam irradiations, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, etc. After the sample was being kept under a room environment for several months, several Au (111 clusters with ~6 nm diameter formed via Ostwald ripening are observed using a high resolution TEM imaging. The nanopore with Au nanoclusters on the diffused membrane can be utilized as an optical nanopore device. Keywords: Electron beam irradiation, Surface diffusion, Carbon contamination, Au cluster, Ostwald ripening

  6. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium in powdered weaning food by electron-beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yun-Hee; Park, Ji-Yong; Park, Jong-Hyun; Chung, Myong-Soo; Kwon, Ki-Sung; Chung, Kyungsook; Won, Misun; Song, Kyung-Bin

    2008-09-01

    Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated in powdered weaning food using electron-beam irradiation. E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium were eliminated by irradiation at 16, 8, and 8 kGy, respectively. The D10-vlaues of E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium inoculated on powdered weaning food were 4.83, 1.22, and 0.98 kGy, respectively. The results suggest that electron-beam irradiation should inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria on baby food without impairing qualities.

  7. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium in powdered weaning food by electron-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yun-Hee [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Yong [Department of Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Hyun [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungwon University, Sungnam 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myong-Soo [Department of Food Science, Ehwa Women' s University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ki-Sung [Center for Food safety Evaluation, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyungsook; Won, Misun [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyung-Bin [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kbsong@cnu.ac.kr

    2008-09-15

    Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated in powdered weaning food using electron-beam irradiation. E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium were eliminated by irradiation at 16, 8, and 8 kGy, respectively. The D{sub 10}-vlaues of E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium inoculated on powdered weaning food were 4.83, 1.22, and 0.98 kGy, respectively. The results suggest that electron-beam irradiation should inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria on baby food without impairing qualities.

  8. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium in powdered weaning food by electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yun-Hee; Park, Ji-Yong; Park, Jong-Hyun; Chung, Myong-Soo; Kwon, Ki-Sung; Chung, Kyungsook; Won, Misun; Song, Kyung-Bin

    2008-01-01

    Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated in powdered weaning food using electron-beam irradiation. E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium were eliminated by irradiation at 16, 8, and 8 kGy, respectively. The D 10 -vlaues of E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium inoculated on powdered weaning food were 4.83, 1.22, and 0.98 kGy, respectively. The results suggest that electron-beam irradiation should inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria on baby food without impairing qualities

  9. A permanent magnet electron beam spread system used for a low energy electron irradiation accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jiang; Xiong Yongqian; Chen Dezhi; Liu Kaifeng; Yang Jun; Li Dong; Yu Tiaoqin; Fan Mingwu; Yang Bo

    2014-01-01

    The development of irradiation processing industry brings about various types of irradiation objects and expands the irradiation requirements for better uniformity and larger areas. This paper proposes an innovative design of a permanent magnet electron beam spread system. By clarifying its operation principles, the author verifies the feasibility of its application in irradiation accelerators for industrial use with the examples of its application in electron accelerators with energy ranging from 300 keV to 1 MeV. Based on the finite element analyses of electromagnetic fields and the charged particle dynamics, the author also conducts a simulation of electron dynamics in magnetic field on a computer. The results indicate that compared with the traditional electron beam scanning system, this system boosts the advantages of a larger spread area, non-power supply, simple structure and low cost, etc., which means it is not only suitable for the irradiation of objects with the shape of tubes, strips and panels, but can also achieve a desirable irradiation performance on irregular constructed objects of large size. (authors)

  10. Effect of electron beam irradiation on bacterial and Ascaris ova loads and volatile organic compounds in municipal sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engohang-Ndong, Jean; Uribe, R.M.; Gregory, Roger; Gangoda, Mahinda; Nickelsen, Mike G.; Loar, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of biosolids that can be utilized for land applications. However, prior to their use, these biosolids must be treated to eliminate risks of infections and to reduce upsetting odors. In this study, microbiological and chemical analyzes were performed before and after treatment of sewage sludge with 3 MeV of an electron beam accelerator in a pilot processing plant. Thus, we determined that dose 4.5 kGy was required to reduce fecal coliform counts to safe levels for land applications of sludge while, 14.5 kGy was necessary to decrease Ascaris ova counts to safe levels. Furthermore, at low doses, electron beam irradiation showed little effect on the concentrations of volatile organic compounds, while some increase were recorded at high doses. The concentration of dimethyl sulfide was reduced by 50–70% at irradiation doses of 25.7 kGy and 30.7 kGy respectively. By contrast, electron beam irradiation increased dimethyl disulfide concentrations. We also showed that electron beam treatment was less energy-consuming with shorter processing times than conventional techniques used to decontaminate sludge. Hence opening new avenues for large urban agglomerations to save money and time when treating biosolids for land application. - Highlights: • Use of electron beam irradiation for the treatment of municipal sewage sludge. • Irradiation at 4.5 kGy is required to eliminate risks of bacterial infection. • Irradiation at 14.5 kGy is required to eliminate risks of helminth infection. • Electron beam technology is not effective for controlling volatile organic compounds. • Electron beam treatment of sludge is less expensive than traditional techniques

  11. DNA comet assay as a rapid detection method of irradiated bovine meat by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Huachaca, Nelida Simona; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The presence in food of pathogenic microorganisms, such as Salmonella species, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Listeria Monocytogenes or Yersinia enterolitica, is a problem of growing concern to public health authorities all over the world. Thus, irradiation of certain prepackaged meat products such as ground beef, minced meat, and hamburgers may help in controlling meatborne pathogens and parasites. Pathogenic microorganisms and parasites in meat products, which are commonly consumed raw, are of particular importance, Up to now, only electron-beam accelerators and gamma-ray cells have been used for commercial applications. At the international conference on 'The Acceptance, Control of, and Trade in Irradiated Food', it was recommended that governments should encourage research into detection methods (Anon, 1989), Already five international standards are available to food control agencies. A number of physical, chemical, and biological techniques of detection of irradiated foods have been discussed in the literature. A rapid and inexpensive screening test employing DNA Comet Assay to identify radiation treatment of food has been described by Cerda et al. (1997). This method is restricted to foods that have not been subjected to heat or other treatments, which also induce DNA fragmentation. Advantages are its simplicity, low cost and speed of measurement. This method was proposed to the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) as a screening protocol (presumptive) and not as a proof (definitive). The DNA comet assay have been yielded good results with chicken, pork, fish meat, exotic meat, hamburgers, fruits and cereals. In this work we studied a DNA fragmentation of bovine meat irradiated by electron beam. Experimental: Bovine meat was purchased in local shops in Sao Paulo. Irradiation was performed with electron beam of accelerator facility of Radiation Dynamics Inc., USA (E=1,5 MeV, l=25 mA). The irradiation doses were 3,5; 4,5, 5,5, and 7

  12. Radiation synthesis of chitosan stabilized gold nanoparticles comparison between e− beam and γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Khoa Dang Nguyen; Kowandy, Christelle; Dupont, Laurent; Coqueret, Xavier; Hien, Nguyen Quoc

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized via radiolytic reduction of Au(III) salts induced by e − beam or γ-irradiation, using chitosan as a stabilizer. The effect of irradiation dose, chitosan concentration and the conditioning of HAuCl 4 –chitosan solutions were studied. UV–visible absorption measurements reveal that the size of Au clusters formed immediately after irradiation is correlated with the extent of chitosan scission chain of chitosan and fall with the increase of dose absorbed. This effect is more pronounced with solution conditioned under Argon (Ar). Au clusters coalesce to form stable nanoparticles after two weeks. - Highlights: • This paper underlines the potential of ionizing radiations in the synthesis of AuNps. • The size of the nanoparticles, and their stability are controlled by the ratio [GLA]/[Au(III)] • This paper compares results obtained with e − beam and γ irradiation for the AuNps synthesis. • This paper points the influence of dose rate on the size of preformed Au clusters

  13. In situ MeV ion beam analysis of ceramic surfaces modified by 100-400 keV ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.; Yu, N.; Sickafus, K.E.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes use of the in situ ion beam analysis facility developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the study of irradiation effects in ceramic materials. In this facility, an analytical beamline of 3 MV tandem accelerator and an irradiation bean-dine of 200 kV ion implanter are connected at 60 degrees to a common target chamber. This facility provides a fast, efficient, and quantitative measurement tool to monitor changes of composition and crystallinity of materials irradiated by 100-400 keV ions, through sequential measurement of backscattering events of MeV ions combined with ion channeling techniques. We will describe the details of the in situ ion beam analysis and ion irradiation and discuss some of the important issues and their solutions associated with the in situ experiment. These issues include (1) the selection of axial ion channeling direction for the measurement of radiation damage; (2) surface charging and charge collection for data acquisition; (3) surface sputtering during ion irradiation; (4) the effects of MeV analytical beam on the materials; and (5) the sample heating effect on ion beam analysis

  14. Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Physicochemical and Sensory characteristics of Traditional Ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hoseinpour Ganjaroudy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the increasing use of irradiation in food safety as an efficient and supplement method, it is needed to investigate effects of this new technology on the apparent and organoleptic characteristics of different products. Because primarily thing that attracts the attention of the customer to buy a food product is its appearance characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of electron beam irradiation on traditional ice cream. Methods: Ice cream samples were shopped in the city and were moved to the laboratory in defined conditions into the cool box to keep sample frozen. In keeping with freezing conditions, samples were irradiated by electron beam in -18at doses of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 kGy. And after one week of storage at -18℃, physicochemical tests including moisture, fat, sugar, pH and sensory tests including color, odor, taste and overall acceptability, were done on it. Results: Results showed that there was no significant difference between irradiated and non-irradiated in the amount of sugar, fat and pH. However, it can be seen significant differences in the moisture content measured in the treated samples with electron beam and untreated one (p<0.05 Also, although the doses of 1 and 2 kGy had no significant effect on the organoleptic characteristics of the product, but with increasing irradiation dose up to 2 kGy, overall acceptability  ​​and color significantly decreased (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to the result,  it can be concluded that the maximum recommended dose is 2 kGy for irradiation traditional ice cream product and  higher doses caused a decline in quality of product.

  15. Distribution of products in polymer materials induced by ion-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Masaki; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Sasuga, Tsuneo; Seguchi, Tadao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Hama, Yoshimasa; Hamanaka, Ken-ichi; Matsumoto, Hideya

    1997-03-01

    The depth profile of double bond formed in low density polyethylene (LDPE) sheet by ion beams irradiation was observed by a micro FT-IR spectrometer in order to investigate the linear energy transfer (LET) dependency on radiation effects to polymer materials. The distribution of double bond formation in LDPE by irradiation of light ions as H+ was found to be same with the dose distribution calculated from TRIM code, and the yield was also same with that by gamma-rays irradiation, which means that the LET dependency is very small. However, the distribution of double bond to depth was much different from the calculated depth-dose in heavy ions irradiation as Ar and Kr. Then, the dose evaluation was difficult from the TRIM code calculation for heavy ions. (author)

  16. Observation of laser multiple filamentation process and multiple electron beams acceleration in a laser wakefield accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wentao; Liu, Jiansheng; Wang, Wentao; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Hui; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Zhijun; Qi, Rong; Wang, Cheng; Leng, Yuxin; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2013-01-01

    The multiple filaments formation process in the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) was observed by imaging the transmitted laser beam after propagating in the plasma of different density. During propagation, the laser first self-focused into a single filament. After that, it began to defocus with energy spreading in the transverse direction. Two filaments then formed from it and began to propagate independently, moving away from each other. We have also demonstrated that the laser multiple filamentation would lead to the multiple electron beams acceleration in the LWFA via ionization-induced injection scheme. Besides, its influences on the accelerated electron beams were also analyzed both in the single-stage LWFA and cascaded LWFA

  17. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam and Recent Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, Ibrahim; Andreas, Afshin; Dooraghi, Mike; Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Kutchenreiter, Mark

    2016-12-14

    Solar and atmospheric science radiometers such as pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and photovoltaic cells are calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference which is maintained by Absolute Cavity Radiometers (ACRs). An ACR is an open cavity with no window, developed to measure the extended broadband spectrum of the terrestrial direct solar beam irradiance that extends beyond the ultraviolet and infrared bands; i.e. below 0.2 um and above 50 um, respectively. On the other hand, the pyranometers and pyrheliometers were developed to measure broadband shortwave irradiance from approximately 0.3 um to 3 um, while the present photovoltaic cells are limited to the spectral range of approximately 0.3 um to 1 um. The broadband mismatch of ACR versus such radiometers causes discrepancy in radiometers' calibration methods that has not been discussed or addressed in the solar and atmospheric science literature. Pyrgeometers, which measure the atmospheric longwave irradiance, are also used for solar and atmospheric science applications and calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference, yet they are calibrated during nighttime only, because no consensus reference has been established for the daytime longwave irradiance. This poster describes a method to measure the broadband longwave irradiance in the terrestrial direct solar beam from 3 um to 50 um, as a first step that might be used to help develop calibration methods to address the mismatch between broadband ACR and shortwave radiometers, and the lack of a daytime reference for pyrgeometers. The described method is used to measure the irradiance from sunrise to sunset; the irradiance varied from approximately 1 Wm-2 to 16 Wm-2 with an estimated uncertainty of 1.5 Wm-2, for a solar zenith angle range from 80 degrees to 16 degrees, respectively. Recent development shows that there is greater than 1.1 percent bias in measuring shortwave solar irradiance.

  18. Measurement of volatile evolution from polyurethane induced by accelerated ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation of polymer samples using an accelerated beam of He 2+ ions passed through a 10μm thick window of havar foil has been performed. Such irradiation simulates the effects of large α radiation doses, on a vastly reduced time-scale. Analysis of volatiles evolved during irradiation is performed by a residual gas analyser (RGA), which is located close to the sample chamber. Presented in this paper are the results obtained during a radiation study on polyester/MDI based polyurethane materials. During high dose rate irradiation a number of high mass species were observed. A comparison between two similar polyurethanes formulated with slightly different polyesters indicated some differences. They were, however, too minor to link to specific degradation mechanisms. The dominant degradation products evident to the RGA at low dose rates were H 2 , CO and CO 2 . A series of polyurethane samples previously conditioned by γ irradiation at doses between 0 and 5MGy were irradiated in the ion beam. Identification of differences in trends in the rates of volatile evolution between these samples indicated the precise vacuum conditions at the time of irradiation had a major influence. There was also an indication that the surface of the sample had a small effect on rates of volatile evolution. Comparative plots of CO and CO 2 evolution for a series of 1MGy irradiations indicated variations in behaviour between samples with different γ doses. Evolution during the first 1MGy was inhibited for the unirradiated sample, the extent of inhibition diminished with increasing γ dose and was no longer evident in a sample with 1.5MGy γ dose. H 2 does not show an equivalent inhibition. Evidence for a low dose crosslinking reaction is put forward as a reason for the inhibition. Chemical reaction mechanisms are postulated and used to explain differences in the behaviour observed

  19. Target volume delineation in external beam partial breast irradiation: less inter-observer variation with preoperative- compared to postoperative delineation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leij, F. van der; Elkhuizen, P.H.M.; Janssen, T.M.; Poortmans, P.M.P.; Sangen, M. van der; Scholten, A.N.; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, C. van; Boersma, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The challenge of adequate target volume definition in external beam partial breast irradiation (PBI) could be overcome with preoperative irradiation, due to less inter-observer variation. We compared the target volume delineation for external beam PBI on preoperative versus postoperative CT scans of

  20. Effects of accelerated electron beam irradiation on surface hardening and fatigue properties in an AISI 4140 steel used for automotive crankshaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, S.-H.; Lee, S. [Pohang Univ. of Sci. and Technol. (Korea). Center for Adv. Aerospace Mater.; Golkovski, M.G. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    2000-11-30

    This study is concerned with the effects of high-energy accelerated electron beam irradiation on surface hardening and improvement of fatigue properties in an AISI 4140 steel currently used for automotive crankshaft. The 4140 steel specimens were irradiated in air by using a high-energy electron beam accelerator, and then microstructure, hardness, and fatigue properties were examined. Beam power was varied in the range of 5.2{proportional_to}7.7 kW by changing beam current. Upon irradiation, the unirradiated microstructure containing band structure was changed to martensite and bainite in the carbon-rich zone or ferrite, bainite, and martensite in the carbon-depleted zone. This microstructural modification improved greatly surface hardness and fatigue properties due to transformation of martensite whose amount and type were determined by heat input during irradiation. Thus, high-energy electron beam irradiation can be effectively applied to the surface hardening process of automotive parts. In order to investigate the thermal cycle during electron beam irradiation of quickly rotating specimens, the thermal analysis was also carried out using an analytical computer simulation. Analytical solutions gave information about the peak temperature, heating and cooling rate, and hardened depth to correlate with the overall microstructural modification. (orig.)

  1. Electron beam application in industrial polymer processing - Review and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielenz, G.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The various established industrial electron beam (EB) applications as related to polymers, their corresponding material and process fundamentals are discussed in this paper. The basics of nowadays most common irradiation processes, which are for continuous stranded products: Single Beam, Rotary Technique; Single Beam, Multiple Pass Technique; Dual Beam, Multiple Pass Technique; and Single Beam, Single (Multiple) Pass Technique by means of a conveyor belt or cart system for discontinuous goods are briefly addressed together with some typical examples for illustration. Some comments on the (dis)advantages and the future economic optimization potential which EB processing technologies could provide to the respective polymer processing industries are presented with respect to material, accelerator equipment and related product handling hardware. The future competitiveness of irradiation crosslinking technologies, which offer numerous advantages in comparison to conventional CV curing and silane crosslinking technologies, only can be maintained by increasing their economic attractiveness, which is: high processing speeds, high material throughput at low production costs and comparatively low capital investment of the hardware involved. Other, more sophisticated irradiation process proposals found in the literature and respective patent publications will be briefly presented, although all of which lack more or less practical evidence for industrial economic and reliable application. Finally, the authors vision of a more efficient, economical EB-process design, by combining quasi state of the art EB-equipment components with a novel beam deflection system to practically achieve a 'Dual Beam, Four Side Crossfiring Process' for continuous strand-products, will be presented. (author)

  2. Status report on the irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination of low-enriched U3O8-Al and UAlsub(x)-Al fuel element by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruimboom, H.; Lijbrink, E.; Otterdijk, K. von; Swanenburg de Veye, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of the RERTR-programme four low-enriched (20%) MTR-type fuel elements have been irradiated in the High Flux Reactor at Petten (The Netherlands) and are presently subjected to postirradiation examination. Two of the elements contain UAlsub(x)-Al and two contain U 3 O 8 -Al fuel. The test irradiation has been completed up to the target burn-up values of 50% and 75% respectively. An extensive surveillance programme carried out during the test period has confirmed the excellent in-reactor behaviour of both types. Post-irradiation examination of the 50% burn-up test elements, comprising of dimensional measurements, burn-up determination, fuel metallography and blister testing, has sofar confirmed the irradiation experiences. Good agreement between calculated and measured power and burn-up characteristics has been found. A survey of the test element characteristics, their irradiation history, the irradiation tests and the preliminary PIE results is given in the paper. (author)

  3. Surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Mohsin; Chae, San; Kim, Yong-Soo, E-mail: yongskim@hanyang.ac.kr

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated pure zirconium (99.8%). The Zr samples were irradiated by 3.5 MeV protons using MC-50 cyclotron accelerator at different doses ranging from 1 × 10{sup 13} to 1 × 10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2}. Both un-irradiated and irradiated samples were characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The average surface roughness of the specimens was determined by using Nanotech WSxM 5.0 develop 7.0 software. The FESEM results revealed the formation of bubbles, cracks and black spots on the samples’ surface at different doses whereas the XRD results indicated the presence of residual stresses in the irradiated specimens. Williamson–Hall analysis of the diffraction peaks was carried out to investigate changes in crystallite size and lattice strain in the irradiated specimens. The tensile properties such as the yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and percentage elongation exhibited a decreasing trend after irradiation in general, however, an inconsistent behavior was observed in their dependence on proton dose. The changes in tensile properties of Zr were associated with the production of radiation-induced defects including bubbles, cracks, precipitates and simultaneous recovery by the thermal energy generated with the increase of irradiation dose.

  4. Surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Mohsin; Chae, San; Kim, Yong-Soo

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated pure zirconium (99.8%). The Zr samples were irradiated by 3.5 MeV protons using MC-50 cyclotron accelerator at different doses ranging from 1 × 1013 to 1 × 1016 protons/cm2. Both un-irradiated and irradiated samples were characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The average surface roughness of the specimens was determined by using Nanotech WSxM 5.0 develop 7.0 software. The FESEM results revealed the formation of bubbles, cracks and black spots on the samples' surface at different doses whereas the XRD results indicated the presence of residual stresses in the irradiated specimens. Williamson-Hall analysis of the diffraction peaks was carried out to investigate changes in crystallite size and lattice strain in the irradiated specimens. The tensile properties such as the yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and percentage elongation exhibited a decreasing trend after irradiation in general, however, an inconsistent behavior was observed in their dependence on proton dose. The changes in tensile properties of Zr were associated with the production of radiation-induced defects including bubbles, cracks, precipitates and simultaneous recovery by the thermal energy generated with the increase of irradiation dose.

  5. Irradiation effects of Ar cluster ion beams on Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Masahiro; Sugahara, Gaku; Takaoka, G.H.; Yamada, Isao

    1993-01-01

    Gas-cluster ion beams can be applied to new surface modification techniques such as surface cleaning, low damage sputtering and shallow junction formation. The effects of energetic Ar cluster impacts on solid surface were studied for cluster energies of 10-30keV. Irradiation effects were studied by RBS. For Si(111) substrates, irradiated with Ar ≥500 clusters to a dose of 1x10 15 ion/cm 2 at acceleration voltage 15kV, 2x10 14 atoms/cm 2 implanted Ar atoms were detected. In this case, the energy per cluster atom was smaller than 30eV; at this energy, no significant implantation occurs in the case of monomer ions. Ar cluster implantation into Si substrates occurred due to the high energy density irradiation. (author)

  6. Multiple-beam LDV system for buried landmine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Amit K.; Zhang, Hansheng; Aranchuk, Vyacheslav; Hurtado, Ernesto; Hess, Cecil F.; Burgett, Richard D.; Sabatier, James M.

    2003-09-01

    This paper discusses the performance and experimental results of a multiple beam laser Doppler vibrometer designed to locate buried landmines with the laser-acoustic technique. The device increases the speed of landmine detection by simultaneously probing 16 positions on the ground over a span of 1 meter, and measuring the ground velocity at each of these positions. Experimental results are presented from controlled laboratory experiments as well as from landmine test lanes at the University of Mississippi. In the mine lanes, the multiple beam system is raised to a height of 2.5 meters with a forklift, with the 16 beams spread over a 1 meter line along the mine lane. A motor system then allows the 16 beams to be translated across the mine lane, enabling the system to scan a 1 x 1 meter area in a much shorter time than with previous scanning techniques. The effects of experimental parameters such as platform motion, angle of incidence, speckle dropout, and system depth-of-field will be presented and discussed.

  7. Statistical spatial properties of speckle patterns generated by multiple laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cain, A.; Sajer, J. M.; Riazuelo, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates hot spot characteristics generated by the superposition of multiple laser beams. First, properties of speckle statistics are studied in the context of only one laser beam by computing the autocorrelation function. The case of multiple laser beams is then considered. In certain conditions, it is shown that speckles have an ellipsoidal shape. Analytical expressions of hot spot radii generated by multiple laser beams are derived and compared to numerical estimates made from the autocorrelation function. They are also compared to numerical simulations performed within the paraxial approximation. Excellent agreement is found for the speckle width as well as for the speckle length. Application to the speckle patterns generated in the Laser MegaJoule configuration in the zone where all the beams overlap is presented. Influence of polarization on the size of the speckles as well as on their abundance is studied.

  8. Analysis of target implosion irradiated by proton beam, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamba, Moritake; Nagata, Norimasa; Kawata, Shigeo; Niu, Keishiro.

    1982-10-01

    Numerical simulation and analysis were performed for the implosion of a hollow shell target driven by proton beam. The target consists of three layers of Pb, Al and DT. As the Al layer is heated by proton beam, the layer expands and pushes the DT layer toward the target center. To obtain the optimal velocity of DT implosion, the optimal target size and optimal layer thickness were determined. The target size is determined by, for example, the instability of the implosion or beam focusing on the target surface. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the unstable implosion due to the inhomogeneity were investigated. Dissipation, nonlinear effects and density gradient at the boundary were expected to reduce the growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability during the implosion. In order that the deviation of the boundary surface during the implosion is less than the thickness of fuel, the inhomogeneity of the temperature and the density of the target should be less than ten percent. The amplitude of the boundary surface roughness is required to be less than 4 micrometer. (Kato, T.)

  9. Uniform irradiation using rotational-linear scanning method for narrow synchrotron radiation beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariyama, N.; Ohnishi, S.; Odano, N.

    2004-01-01

    At SPring-8, photon intensity monitors for synchrotron radiation have been developed. Using these monitors, the responses of radiation detectors and dosimeters to monoenergetic photons can be measured. In most cases, uniform irradiation to the sample is necessary. Here, two scanning methods are proposed. One is an XZ-linear scanning method, which moves the sample simultaneously in both the X and Z direction, that is, in zigzag fashion. The other is a rotational-linear scanning method, which rotates the sample moving in the X direction. To investigate the validity of the two methods, thermoluminescent dosimeters were irradiated with a broad synchrotron-radiation beam, and the readings from the two methods were compared with that of the dosimeters fixed in the beam. The results for both scanning methods virtually agreed with that of the fixed method. The advantages of the rotational-linear scanning method are that low- and medium-dose irradiation is possible, uniformity is excellent and the load to the scanning equipment is light: hence, this method is superior to the XZ-linear scanning method for most applications. (author)

  10. Electron-beam irradiation as a quarantine treatment against red mite on exported cut flower of Chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Thi The; Nguyen Thi Ly; Vo Thi Kim Lang; Cao Van Chung

    2016-01-01

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. In this study, red mites (Tetranychus sp) isolated from cut Chrysanthemums were treated by electron beam irradiation at doses of 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy. After irradiation, they were kept at room temperature to determine the effects of electron beam irradiation on red mite at different developmental stages (eggs, nymphs and adults) and the reproduction of female adults. The results showed that the pattern of tolerance to irradiation in red mite was eggs < 2nd instars < adults, in which the adults were the most tolerance stage. The number of eggs laid by the irradiated female mites and the hatching rate significantly decreased when the irradiation dose increased. The hatching rate of eggs at 300 Gy was 4.25% and no larvae F_1 survived during observation time. It could be concluded that 300 Gy is the effective quarantine dose for red mite infesting on cut chrysanthemums. (author)

  11. New electron beam facility for irradiated plasma facing materials testing in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, N.; Kawamura, H.; Akiba, M.

    1995-01-01

    Since plasma facing components such as the first wall and the divertor for the next step fusion reactors are exposed to high heat loads and high energy neutron flux generated by the plasma, it is urgent to develop of plasma facing components which can resist these. Then, we have established electron beam heat facility (open-quotes OHBISclose quotes, Oarai Hot-cell electron Beam Irradiating System) at a hot cell in JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) hot laboratory in order to estimate thermal shock resistivity of plasma facing materials and heat removal capabilities of divertor elements under steady state heating. In this facility, irradiated plasma facing materials (beryllium, carbon based materials and so on) and divertor elements can be treated. This facility consists of an electron beam unit with the maximum beam power of 50kW and the vacuum vessel. The acceleration voltage and the maximum beam current are 30kV (constant) and 1.7A, respectively. The loading time of electron beam is more than 0.1ms. The shape of vacuum vessel is cylindrical, and the mainly dimensions are 500mm in inner diameter, 1000mm in height. The ultimate vacuum of this vessel is 1 x 10 -4 Pa. At present, the facility for thermal shock test has been established in a hot cell. And performance estimation on the electron beam is being conducted. Presently, the devices for heat loading tests under steady state will be added to this facility

  12. New electron beam facility for irradiated plasma facing materials testing in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakawa, S.; Akiba, M.; Kawamura, H.

    1996-01-01

    Since plasma facing components such as the first wall and the divertor for the next step fusion reactors are exposed to high heat loads and high energy neutron flux generated by the plasma, it is urgent to develop plasma facing components which can resist these. We have established electron beam heat facility ('OHBIS', Oarai hot-cell electron beam irradiating system) at a hot cell in JMTR (Japan materials testing reactor) hot laboratory in order to estimate thermal shock resistivity of plasma facing materials and heat removal capabilities of divertor elements under steady state heating. In this facility, irradiated plasma facing materials (beryllium, carbon based materials and so on) and divertor elements can be treated. This facility consists of an electron beam unit with the maximum beam power of 50 kW and the vacuum vessel. The acceleration voltage and the maximum beam current are 30 kV (constant) and 1.7 A, respectively. The loading time of the electron beam is more than 0.1 ms. The shape of vacuum vessel is cylindrical, and the main dimensions are 500 mm in inside diameter, 1000 mm in height. The ultimate vacuum of this vessel is 1 x 10 -4 Pa. At present, the facility for the thermal shock test has been established in a hot cell. The performance of the electron beam is being evaluated at this time. In the future, the equipment for conducting static heat loadings will be incorporated into the facility. (orig.)

  13. Reaction of congo red in water after irradiation by pulsed intense relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Kondo, Hironobu; Sasaki, Toru; Harada, Nob.; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Hiromitsu; Imada, Go

    2011-01-01

    The reaction of congo red, a well-known toxic azo dye, occurred after irradiation by a pulsed intense relativistic electron beam (PIREB). An aquation of congo red was irradiated by PIREB (2 MeV, 0.36 kA, 140 ns). After PIREB irradiation, the solution was measured by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. It was found that congo red underwent a reaction (77% conversion after five shots of PIREB irradiation) and the hydroxylated compounds of the dye were observed as reaction products. (author)

  14. Inhibition of potential lethal damage repair and related gene expression after carbon-ion beam irradiation to human lung cancer grown in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Tomoyasu; Fujisawa, Takehiko; Koyama-Saegusa, Kumiko; Imai, Takashi; Miyamoto, Tadaaki

    2007-01-01

    Using cultured and nude mouse tumor cells (IA) derived from a human lung cancer, we previously demonstrated their radiosensitivity by focusing attention on the dynamics of tumor clonogens and the early and rapid survival recovery (potential lethal damage repair: PLD repair) occurring after X-ray irradiation. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating gene expression in association with PLD repair after carbon-ion beam or X-ray irradiation to cancer cells. In this study we tried to detect the mechanism of DNA damage and repair of the clonogens after X-ray or carbon-ion beam irradiation. At first, colony assay method was performed after irradiation of 12 Gy of X-ray or 5 Gy of carbon-ion beam to compare the time dependent cell survival of the IA cells after each irradiation pass. Second, to search the genes causing PLD repair after irradiation of X-ray or carbon-ion beam, we evaluated gene expressions by using semi-quantitative RT-PCR with the selected 34 genes reportedly related to DNA repair. The intervals from the irradiation were 0, 6, 12 and 24 hr for colony assay method, and 0, 3, 18 hr for RT-PCR method. From the result of survival assays, significant PLD repair was not observed in carbon-ion beam as compared to X-ray irradiation. The results of RT-PCR were as follows. The gene showing significantly higher expressions after X-ray irradiation than after carbon-ion beam irradiation was PCNA. The genes showing significantly lower expressions after X-ray irradiation rather than after carbon-ion beam irradiation were RAD50, BRCA1, MRE11A, XRCC3, CHEK1, MLH1, CCNB1, CCNB2 and LIG4. We conclude that PCNA could be a likely candidate gene for PLD repair. (author)

  15. Inorganic-organic hybrid polymer for preparation of affiliating material using electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jaeseung; Kim, Seongeun; Kim, Byounggak; Lee, Jongchan; Park, Jihyun; Lee, Byeongcheol

    2011-01-01

    Recently, silver nano materials have gained a lot of attentions in a variety of applications due to the unique biological, optical, and electrical properties. Especially, the antifouling property of these material is considered to be an important character for biomedical field, marine coatings industry, biosensor, and drug delivery. In this study, we design and synthesize the inorganic-organic hybrid polymer for preparation of affiliating materials. Silver nano materials having antifouling property with different shapes are prepared by control the electron beam irradiation conditions. Inorganic-organic hybrid polymer was synthesized and characterized. → Morphology and size controlled nano materials are prepared using electron beam irradiation. → Silver nano materials having various shapes can be used for antifouling material

  16. Evaluation of degradation of antibiotic tetracycline in pig manure by electron beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Young

    2010-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the degradation efficiency and intermediate products of the tetracycline from artificially contaminated pig manure using of electron beam irradiation as a function of the absorbed dose. The degradation efficiency of tetracycline was 42.77% at 1 kGy, 64.20% at 3 kGy, 77.83% at 5 kGy, and 90.50% at 10 kGy. The initial concentration of tetracycline (300 mg kg(-1)) in pig manure decreased significantly to 24.2 +/- 5.3 mg kg(-1) after electron beam irradiation at 10 kGy. The radiolytic degradation products of tetracycline were 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, hexadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenamide, 11-octadecenamide, and octadecanoic acid.

  17. The reactivity of plant, murine and human genome to electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrila, L.; Usurelu, D.; Radu, I.; Timus, D.

    2005-01-01

    A broad spectrum of chromosomal rearrangements is described in plants (Allium cepa), mouse (Mus musculus domestics) and in humans (Homo sapiens sapiens), following in vivo and in vitro beta irradiation. Irradiations were performed at EAL, using a 2.998 GHz traveling-wave electron accelerator. The primary effect of electron beam irradiation is chromosomal breakage followed up by a variety of chromosomal rearrangements i.e. chromosomal aberrations represented mainly by chromatid gaps, deletions, ring chromosomes, dicentrics, translocations, complex chromosomal interchanges, acentric fragments and double minutes (DM). The clastogenic effects were associated in some instances with cell sterilization (i.e. cell death)

  18. Effects of ion beam irradiation on Oncidium lanceanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiton Ahmad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Nurul Aliaa Idris; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2006-01-01

    Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of an orchid (Oncidium lanceanum) were irradiated using 220 MeV 12 C 5+ ion, accelerated by AVF cyclotron at JAEA, Japan in 2005. Five different doses were applied to the PLBs; 0, 1.0, 2.0, 6.0 and 12.0 Gy. Following irradiation, these PLBs were maintained in cultures for germination and multiplication. Irradiation effects on growth and seedling regeneration patterns as well as morphological characteristics of the in vitro cultures were monitored and recorded. In general, average fresh weights of the irradiated PLBs increased progressively by irradiating the explants at 1.0, 2.0 and reached the maximum at 6.0 Gy. The figure however dropped when the explants were irradiated at 12 Gy. Surprisingly, although the highest average fresh weight was recorded on PLBs irradiated at 6.0 Gy, most of these PLBs were not able to regenerate into complete shoots. On average, only 21 seedlings were successfully regenerated from each gram of these PLBs. The highest shoot regeneration was recorded on cultures irradiated at 2.0 Gy in which 102 seedlings were obtained from one gram of the PLBs. Most of the regenerated seedlings have been transferred to glass house for morphological screening. Molecular analysis showed the presence of DNA polymorphisms among the seedlings from different doses

  19. Crystallinity changes of electron-beam irradiated ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) as a function of radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Beatriz R.; Martins, Joao F.T.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B.

    2011-01-01

    The treatment with electron-beam radiation is a promising approach to the controllable modification of the properties of the polymeric materials, in order to adjust their properties. In recent years, electron-beam irradiation have been efficiently applied in the flexible packaging industry to promote cross-linking and scission of the polymeric chains in order to improve material mechanical properties. On the other hand, ionizing irradiation can also affect the polymeric materials itself leading to a production of free radicals. These free radicals can in turn lead to degradation and or cross-linking phenomena. In the present work the changes in thermal properties of electron-beam irradiated ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) resin were investigated. The EVOH resin was irradiated up to 500 kGy using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in presence of air. The EVOH samples irradiated from 300 kGy presented increases in melting temperature, except for 350 kGy. The changes in properties of the EVOH resin after irradiation were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-Rays Diffraction (XRD). The correlation between the properties of EVOH non-irradiated and irradiated EVOH samples were discussed. The XRD results showed a slight shift of diffraction peaks, as well as an increase of width, DSC results also showed differences on crystallinity degree, for irradiated EVOH samples, which suggests that a decrease or an increase in degree crystallinity of EVOH will depends on radiation dose applied. These results are very important because shows a slight decrease in crystallinity of irradiated EVOH, a decrease in the crystallinity degree usually is related with an increase of the amorphous phase due to, probably, the predominance of molecular chain cross-linking of EVOH over the molecular chain scission and degradation process, caused by ionizing radiation, and a consequent improvement of their properties, such as thermal, mechanical

  20. Outline of irradiation service equipment and properties of its electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagehira, K.; Shakudo, T. [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Current ethylene oxide sterilization becomes a subject of discussion on the safety for workers' health. On the other hand, demands for sterilization of disposable health care products and food packaging materials are increasing. On this situation, it is progressing to switch to radiation sterilization witch is easy to adapt to requirements of ISO validation, in particular to electron beam sterilization using electron accelerator, which is safer and easier to control. Our company started electron beam treatment service such as pasteurization, disinfestation, and improvement of polymers as well as sterilization, with introducing a high energy and high power electron accelerator. In this paper, basics of e-beam sterilization, outline of the irradiation service plant and the electron accelerator, and the properties of its electron beam are described. (author)

  1. Dose rate distribution of the GammaBeam: 127 irradiator using MCNPX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gual, Maritza Rodriguez; Batista, Adriana de Souza Medeiros; Pereira, Claubia; Faria, Luiz O. de; Grossi, Pablo Andrade

    2013-01-01

    The GammaBeam - 127 Irradiator is widely used for biological, chemical and medical applications of the gamma irradiation technology using Cobalt 60 radioactive at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The source has maximum activity of 60.000Ci, which is composed by 16 double encapsulated radioactive pencils placed in a rack. The facility is classified by the IAEA as Category II (dry storage facility). The aim of this work is to present a modelling developed to evaluate the dose rates at the irradiation room and the dose distribution at the irradiated products. In addition, the simulations could be used as a predictive tool of dose evaluation in the irradiation facility helping benchmark experiments in new similar facilities. The MCNPX simulated results were compared and validated with radiometric measurements using Fricke and TLDs dosimeters along several positions inside the irradiation room. (author)

  2. Dosimetric evaluation of multi-sided irradiation on HDPE pipes under 2 MeV electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benny, P.G., E-mail: bennypg@yahoo.com; Khader, S.A.; Sarma, K.S.S.

    2014-03-01

    The use of electron beam technology has enabled the production of heat resistant pipe for hot water circulation. One of the difficulties in the irradiation of pipe products is the uneven penetration of electrons. Quality of the radiation process depends on radiation dose and homogeneity of the dose distribution, which becomes a major concern when treatments of circular objects like pipes are performed. One method to achieve uniformity in the absorbed dose in the product is to use multi-sided irradiation. The paper discusses the importance of dosimetry mapping in industrial electron beam radiation processing and outlines the challenges in delivering a uniform dose to cylindrical objects. In this study, HDPE pipe of 5 mm thickness of homogeneous material (40 mm outer diameter and 30 mm inner diameter) has been chosen for multi-sided irradiation under 2 MeV scanned electron beam from the ILU-6 accelerator. - Highlights: • The paper outlines the challenges in delivering uniform dose to cylindrical objects at 2 MeV industrial electron beam facility. • HDPE pipe of 40 mm outer diameter and 30 mm inner diameter has been chosen for the study. • The circumferential dose distribution inside and outside of the pipes were evaluated by using calibrated CTA dosimeter strips. • Using stack of dosimeter strips, changes in circumferential dose distribution in the annular region of the pipe was evaluated. • Optimization of multi-sided irradiation on the HDPE pipes for better dose homogeneity is reported in the paper.

  3. Dosimetric evaluation of multi-sided irradiation on HDPE pipes under 2 MeV electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benny, P.G.; Khader, S.A.; Sarma, K.S.S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of electron beam technology has enabled the production of heat resistant pipe for hot water circulation. One of the difficulties in the irradiation of pipe products is the uneven penetration of electrons. Quality of the radiation process depends on radiation dose and homogeneity of the dose distribution, which becomes a major concern when treatments of circular objects like pipes are performed. One method to achieve uniformity in the absorbed dose in the product is to use multi-sided irradiation. The paper discusses the importance of dosimetry mapping in industrial electron beam radiation processing and outlines the challenges in delivering a uniform dose to cylindrical objects. In this study, HDPE pipe of 5 mm thickness of homogeneous material (40 mm outer diameter and 30 mm inner diameter) has been chosen for multi-sided irradiation under 2 MeV scanned electron beam from the ILU-6 accelerator. - Highlights: • The paper outlines the challenges in delivering uniform dose to cylindrical objects at 2 MeV industrial electron beam facility. • HDPE pipe of 40 mm outer diameter and 30 mm inner diameter has been chosen for the study. • The circumferential dose distribution inside and outside of the pipes were evaluated by using calibrated CTA dosimeter strips. • Using stack of dosimeter strips, changes in circumferential dose distribution in the annular region of the pipe was evaluated. • Optimization of multi-sided irradiation on the HDPE pipes for better dose homogeneity is reported in the paper

  4. Transmutants and its behaviors in heavy irradiated AlN by reactor neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atobe, Kozo; Tashiro, Tomonori; Honda, Makoto; Fukuoka, Noboru; Matsukawa, Tokuo; Okada, Moritami; Nakagawa, Masuo.

    1997-01-01

    Transmutant production effects on the sintered aluminum nitride have been studied by neutron heavy irradiation using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The specimens are irradiated with fast neutrons in the ranges of 1.0x10 17 - 1.2x10 20 n/cm 2 . For high fluences (>10 18 n/cm 2 ), XPS observations show Si2s (153.8 eV) and Si2p (103.3 eV) peaks in XPS spectrum. The depth profiles using Ar-ion sputtering and the chemical shift of the peak indicate that 28 Si induced by 27 Al (n,γ) 28 Al reaction and β-decay of 28 Al precipitates near surface as oxidized silicon. (author)

  5. Characterization of blend hydrogels based on plasticized starch/cellulose acetate/carboxymethyl cellulose synthesized by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senna, Magdy M., E-mail: magdysenna@hotmail.com [Radiation Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Mostafa, Abo El-Khair B. [Chemistry Department, College for Girls, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Mahdy, Sanna R.; El-Naggar, Abdel Wahab M. [Radiation Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Semi-interpenetrating (IPN) blend hydrogels were synthesized by EB irradiation. • The hydrogels were based on starch/cellulose acetate/carboxymethyl cellulose blends. • The gelation, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties of hydrogels were studied. • The thermal stability was studied by determining kinetic energy by different methods. - Abstract: Blend hydrogels based on aqueous solutions of plasticized starch and different ratios of cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were prepared by electron beam irradiation (EB). The blends before and after EB irradiation were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The physico-chemical properties of blend hydrogels prepared by electron beam irradiation were improved compared to unirradiated blends.

  6. Characterization of blend hydrogels based on plasticized starch/cellulose acetate/carboxymethyl cellulose synthesized by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senna, Magdy M.; Mostafa, Abo El-Khair B.; Mahdy, Sanna R.; El-Naggar, Abdel Wahab M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Semi-interpenetrating (IPN) blend hydrogels were synthesized by EB irradiation. • The hydrogels were based on starch/cellulose acetate/carboxymethyl cellulose blends. • The gelation, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties of hydrogels were studied. • The thermal stability was studied by determining kinetic energy by different methods. - Abstract: Blend hydrogels based on aqueous solutions of plasticized starch and different ratios of cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were prepared by electron beam irradiation (EB). The blends before and after EB irradiation were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The physico-chemical properties of blend hydrogels prepared by electron beam irradiation were improved compared to unirradiated blends.

  7. Neutron irradiation damage in Al2O3 and Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Bunch, J.M.; Ranken, W.A.

    1975-01-01

    Two ceramics under consideration for use in fusion reactors, Al 2 O 3 and Y 2 O 3 , were irradiated in the EBR-II fission reactor at 650, 875, and 1025 0 K to fluences between 2 and 6 x 10 21 n/cm 2 (E greater than 0.1 MeV). Samples evaluated include sapphire, Lucalox, alumina, Y 2 O 3 , and Y 2 O 3 -10 percent ZrO 2 (Yttralox). All Al 2 O 3 specimens swelled significantly (1 to 3 percent), with most of the growth observed in sapphire along the c-axis at the higher temperatures. Al 2 O 3 samples irradiated at 875 to 1025 0 K contained a high density of small aligned ''pores''. Irradiated Y 2 O 3 -based ceramics exhibited dimensional stability and a defect content consisting primarily of unresolved damage and/or dislocation loops. The behavior of these ceramics under irradiation is discussed, and the relevance of fission neutron damage studies to fusion reactor applications is considered. (auth)

  8. Whole bone marrow irradiation for the treatment of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, M.; Saletan, S.; Wolf, D.; Nisce, L.; Wasser, J.; McIntyre, O.R.; Tulloh, M.

    1982-01-01

    Nine patients with multiple myeloma were treated with whole bone marrow irradiation. Six had heavily pretreated disease refractory to chemotherapy. Three had stable disease lightly pretreated by chemotherapy. A modification of the ''three and two'' total nodal radiation technique was employed. Although varying and often severe treatment related cytopenia occurred, infectious complications, clinical bleeding, and nonhematalogic complications were minimal. Five of nine patients showed a decrease in monoclonal protein components, and one showed an increase during treatment. These preliminary results indicate that a reduction of tumor cell burden may occur in patients following whole bone marrow irradiation and that the technique is feasible. Whole bone marrow irradiation combined with chemotherapy represents a new conceptual therapeutic approach for multiple myeloma

  9. A study on the influence of High-energy Electron Beam Irradiation on Stabilities of IGZO Based TTFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hye Ji; Oh, Hye Ran; Jung, So Hyun; Bae, Byung Seong; Yun, Eui Jung; Ryu, Min Ki; Cho, Kyoung Ik

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Ionizing has been used as an active layer in applications of transparent thin film transistors and the stabilities of TTFTs become the curricula issue. High-performance, stable IGZO-based TTFTsare also required in a high radiation environment, such as X-rays, gamma-rays, electron beams, etc., which suggests that studies on the variations in the electrical properties in a radiation environment are of critical importance for space applications of IGZO-based materials and devices. Hence, in this study we investigated the influence of high-energy electron beam irradiation on optical and gate-bias stabilities of IGZO-based TTFTs. The TTFTs has a top gate structure, which used IGZO and Al 2 O 3 films for the active layer and the gate dielectric, respectively. The W/L of the TTFTs was 10μm/10μm. The TTFTs were treated with Hubbub in air at room temperature at an electron beam energy of 0.8 MeV and a dose for 1 Χ 10 14 electrons/cm 2 . We developed TTFTs with excellent device properties and conclude that the Hubbub can improve the stabilities of IGZO-based TTFTs

  10. Dynamic rheology behavior of electron beam-irradiated cellulose pulp/NMMO solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ruimin; Deng Bangjun; Hao Xufeng; Zhou Fei; Wu Xinfeng; Chen Yongkang

    2008-01-01

    The rheological behavior of irradiated cellulose pulp solution by electron beam was investigated. Storage modulus G', loss modulus G'', the dependence of complex viscosity η* and frequency ω of cellulose solutions were measured by DSR-200 Rheometer (Rheometrics co., USA). The molecular weight of irradiated cellulose was measured via the intrinsic viscosity measurement using an Ubbelohde capillary viscometer. The crystalline structure was studied by FTIR Spectroscopy. The results congruously showed that the molecular weight of pulp cellulose decrease and the molecular weight distribution of cellulose become narrow with increase in the irradiation dose. Moreover, the crystalline structure of the cellulose was destroyed, the force of the snarl between the cellulose molecules weakens and the accessibility of pulp spinning is improved. The study supplies some useful data for spinnability of irradiated cellulose and technical data to the filature industry

  11. AlGaN nanocolumns and AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN nanostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristic, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Ulloa, J.M.; Calleja, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Paramo, J.; Calleja, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Jahn, U.; Trampert, A.; Ploog, K.H. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    This work reports on the characterization of hexagonal, single crystal AlGaN nanocolumns with diameters in the range of 30 to 100 nm grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. The change of the flux ratio between the Al and the total III-element controls the alloy composition. The Al composition trend versus the Al flux is consistent both with the E{sub 2} phonon energy values measured by inelastic light scattering and the luminescence emission peaks position. High quality low dimensional AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN heterostructures with five GaN quantum discs, 2 and 4 nm thick, embedded into the AlGaN columns, were designed in order to study the quantum confinement effects. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Behavioral changes induced by single and multiple electron beam pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, V.P.; McNulty, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of single, and low-dose, high-dose-rate and multiple electron beam pulses on passive avoidance behavior in mice were studied. Passive avoidance was measured by recording the time that an animal took to enter a chamber from a narrow platform. There were four conditions in the experiment: (1) no shock no radiation-control, (2) radiation only, (3) shock only, and (4) radiation plus shock. Forty animals were run for each data point. Dose rate was held constant at 9 x 10/sup 7/ rads/sec. Average doses for the two single pulses were 7.18 and 8.72 rads. The average total dose for a 25 pulse per second condition was 324.0 rads. The differences between the single versus multiple pulse radiation-only conditions were significant with longer avoidance latencies in the multiple pulse condition. Avoidance latencies were also significantly longer in the shock plus radiation condition for the multiple beam pulse than the single pulse. It is concluded that single and multiple electron beam pulses significantly effect behavior, in this case producing avoidance

  13. Color formation study of irradiated polymers by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, Daniela Teves

    2004-01-01

    Color formation on national and commercial polymers (polymethyl methacrylate, polystyrene and polycarbonate) irradiated by electrons beam was investigated by colorimetry (CIELab), electron spectroscopy resonance (ESR), photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) and differential exploratory calorimetry (DSC). The heat effect on colorimetric properties was investigated after heating (110 deg C for 1 hour) of irradiated polymers at 150 kGy. The rule of oxygen in colorimetric properties of irradiated polycarbonate was investigated in the air presence and absence (p = 10 -3 mmHg). The visual aspect did not agree with colorimetric parameters only for polycarbonate. Yellow color and darkness were induced by radiation for all studied polymers varying only the intensity and behavior in function of post-irradiation time and heating. Polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene ESR spectra showed that radicals could be responsible by yellow color centers. Wherever, in polycarbonate, color centers were not due radical species. The nature of color centers for any studied polymer was not study by FTIR-PAS because there were no changes in FTIR-PAS spectra neither in function of dose nor heating. Polycarbonate was the most radiosensible and polystyrene was the most radioresistant of all studied polymers in concern of colorimetric properties. (author)

  14. A comparison of large-scale electron beam and bench-scale 60Co irradiations of simulated aqueous waste streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurucz, Charles N.; Waite, Thomas D.; Otaño, Suzana E.; Cooper, William J.; Nickelsen, Michael G.

    2002-11-01

    The effectiveness of using high energy electron beam irradiation for the removal of toxic organic chemicals from water and wastewater has been demonstrated by commercial-scale experiments conducted at the Electron Beam Research Facility (EBRF) located in Miami, Florida and elsewhere. The EBRF treats various waste and water streams up to 450 l min -1 (120 gal min -1) with doses up to 8 kilogray (kGy). Many experiments have been conducted by injecting toxic organic compounds into various plant feed streams and measuring the concentrations of compound(s) before and after exposure to the electron beam at various doses. Extensive experimentation has also been performed by dissolving selected chemicals in 22,700 l (6000 gal) tank trucks of potable water to simulate contaminated groundwater, and pumping the resulting solutions through the electron beam. These large-scale experiments, although necessary to demonstrate the commercial viability of the process, require a great deal of time and effort. This paper compares the results of large-scale electron beam irradiations to those obtained from bench-scale irradiations using gamma rays generated by a 60Co source. Dose constants from exponential contaminant removal models are found to depend on the source of radiation and initial contaminant concentration. Possible reasons for observed differences such as a dose rate effect are discussed. Models for estimating electron beam dose constants from bench-scale gamma experiments are presented. Data used to compare the removal of organic compounds using gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation are taken from the literature and a series of experiments designed to examine the effects of pH, the presence of turbidity, and initial concentration on the removal of various organic compounds (benzene, toluene, phenol, PCE, TCE and chloroform) from simulated groundwater.

  15. A comparison of large-scale electron beam and bench-scale 60Co irradiations of simulated aqueous waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurucz, Charles N.; Waite, Thomas D.; Otano, Suzana E.; Cooper, William J.; Nickelsen, Michael G.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of using high energy electron beam irradiation for the removal of toxic organic chemicals from water and wastewater has been demonstrated by commercial-scale experiments conducted at the Electron Beam Research Facility (EBRF) located in Miami, Florida and elsewhere. The EBRF treats various waste and water streams up to 450 l min -1 (120 gal min -1 ) with doses up to 8 kilogray (kGy). Many experiments have been conducted by injecting toxic organic compounds into various plant feed streams and measuring the concentrations of compound(s) before and after exposure to the electron beam at various doses. Extensive experimentation has also been performed by dissolving selected chemicals in 22,700 l (6000 gal) tank trucks of potable water to simulate contaminated groundwater, and pumping the resulting solutions through the electron beam. These large-scale experiments, although necessary to demonstrate the commercial viability of the process, require a great deal of time and effort. This paper compares the results of large-scale electron beam irradiations to those obtained from bench-scale irradiations using gamma rays generated by a 60 Co source. Dose constants from exponential contaminant removal models are found to depend on the source of radiation and initial contaminant concentration. Possible reasons for observed differences such as a dose rate effect are discussed. Models for estimating electron beam dose constants from bench-scale gamma experiments are presented. Data used to compare the removal of organic compounds using gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation are taken from the literature and a series of experiments designed to examine the effects of pH, the presence of turbidity, and initial concentration on the removal of various organic compounds (benzene, toluene, phenol, PCE, TCE and chloroform) from simulated groundwater

  16. Target volume delineation in external beam partial breast irradiation: Less inter-observer variation with preoperative- compared to postoperative delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leij, Femke van der; Elkhuizen, Paula H.M.; Janssen, Tomas M.; Poortmans, Philip; Sangen, Maurice van der; Scholten, Astrid N.; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Boersma, Liesbeth J.

    2014-01-01

    The challenge of adequate target volume definition in external beam partial breast irradiation (PBI) could be overcome with preoperative irradiation, due to less inter-observer variation. We compared the target volume delineation for external beam PBI on preoperative versus postoperative CT scans of twenty-four breast cancer patients

  17. Decomposition of organic pollutants in industrial Effluent induced by advanced oxidation process with Electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Oikawa, H.; Silveira, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) by electron beam irradiation induce the decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluent. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 Kew power. Experiments were conducted using samples from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of use the electrons beam technology to destroy the refractory organic pollutants. Samples from WTP main Industrial Receiver Unit influent (IRU), Coarse Bar Screens effluent (CBS), Medium Bar Screens effluent (MBS), Primary Sedimentation effluent (PS) and Final Effluent (FE), were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system. The delivered doses were 5.0kGy, 10.0kGy and 20.0kGy. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol. The necessary dose to remove 90% of the most organic compounds from industry effluent was 20 kGy. The removal of organic compounds from this complex mixture were described by the destruction G value (Gd) that were obtained for those compounds in different initial concentration and compared with literature

  18. Robust modal curvature features for identifying multiple damage in beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostachowicz, Wiesław; Xu, Wei; Bai, Runbo; Radzieński, Maciej; Cao, Maosen

    2014-03-01

    Curvature mode shape is an effective feature for damage detection in beams. However, it is susceptible to measurement noise, easily impairing its advantage of sensitivity to damage. To deal with this deficiency, this study formulates an improved curvature mode shape for multiple damage detection in beams based on integrating a wavelet transform (WT) and a Teager energy operator (TEO). The improved curvature mode shape, termed the WT - TEO curvature mode shape, has inherent capabilities of immunity to noise and sensitivity to damage. The proposed method is experimentally validated by identifying multiple cracks in cantilever steel beams with the mode shapes acquired using a scanning laser vibrometer. The results demonstrate that the improved curvature mode shape can identify multiple damage accurately and reliably, and it is fairly robust to measurement noise.

  19. Shift of localized surface plasmon resonance by Ar-ion irradiation of Ag–Au bimetallic films deposited on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xuan [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Shibayama, Tamaki, E-mail: shiba@qe.eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Yu, Ruixuan; Takayanagi, Shinya [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Watanabe, Seiichi [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Effects of Ar-ion induced surface nanostructuring were studied using 100 keV Ar-ion irradiation of 30 nm Ag–Au bimetallic films deposited on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals, under irradiation fluences ranging from 5.0 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2} to 6.3 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}. Scanning electron microscope was used to study the ion-beam-induced surface nanostructuring. As the irradiation fluence increased, dewetting of the bimetallic films on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate was observed, and formation of isolated Ag–Au nanostructures sustained on the substrate were obtained. Next, thermal annealing was performed under high vacuum at 1073 K for 2 h; a layer of photosensitive Ag–Au alloy nanoballs partially embedded in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate was obtained when higher fluence irradiation (>3.8 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}) was used. The microstructures of the nanoballs were investigated using a transmission electron microscope, and the nanoballs were found to be single crystals with a FCC structure. In addition, photoabsorption spectra were measured, and localized surface plasmon resonance peaks were observed. With increase in the irradiation fluence, the size of the Ag–Au nanoballs on the substrate decreased, and a blue-shift of the LSPR peaks was observed. Further control of the LSPR frequency over a wide range was achieved by modifying the chemical components, and a red-shift of the LSPR peaks was observed as the Au concentration increased. In summary, ion irradiation is an effective approach toward surface nanostructuring, and the nanocomposites obtained have potential applications in optical devices.

  20. Improvement in properties of plastic teeth by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuko; Ishikawa, Shun-ichi; Seguchi, Tadao

    2011-01-01

    Improvement of the comfort and esthetics of artificial plastic teeth is desirable for the recently increasing numbers of elderly in society. Plastic teeth made of polycarbonate (PC) were modified by electron beam (EB) irradiation under specific conditions, and the change in the chemical properties of the PC was investigated. The water absorption, glucose attachment, level of bis-phenol-A (BPA) extraction, maltose adhesion, and mucin adhesion on the PC teeth were measured before and after EB irradiation. EB irradiation to a dose of 3.5 kGy at 150 o C in a nitrogen gas atmosphere reduced the water absorption by 20%, glucose absorption by 40%, maltose adhesion by 20%, and the amount of various amino acids, formed as the hydrolysis products of mucin, adhering on the PC teeth were reduced by 60-99%. The BPA content was lower than the detection limit for analysis of both the original and the EB irradiated PC teeth. - Highlights: → Radiation improvement of polycarbonate for plastic teeth by EB irradiation 3.5 kGy at 150 o C in inert gas. → Water and glucose absorption and maltose adhesion on PC teeth were much reduced. → Bis-phenol-A content from PC teeth was lower than the detection limit after irradiation.

  1. First application of hemi-body electron beam irradiation for Kaposi sarcoma at the lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platoni, Kalliopi; Diamantopoulos, Stefanos; Dilvoi, Maria; Delinikolas, Panagiotis; Kypraiou, Efrosyni; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios; Kouloulias, Vassilis

    2018-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a systemic neoplastic disease that can present cutaneous symptoms and is usually treated with a systematic approach due to its extent. Due to its radiosensitivity, radiotherapy is considered one of its main treatments, for palliation and local control of the skin and mucosal lesions. The aim of this paper was to report the first case of KS treated by hemi-body electron irradiation protocol in Greece. A fractionated 40 Gy hemi-body electron irradiation was prescribed to a 60-year-old male patient with KS at his legs. Dose uniformity was verified on a daily basis by thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). The treatment resulted to complete clinical response. Limited irradiation-derived side effects appeared. This is the first case ever to be treated with hemi-body electron irradiation protocol in Greece. To the best of our knowledge, this is also the first time that a single field hemi-body electron beam irradiation at a total skin electron beam (TSEB)-like configuration is reported to be used for KS.

  2. Structural changes in graphene oxide thin film by electron-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Chetna, E-mail: tchetna91@gmail.com [Materials Science Group, Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi 67 (India); Lakshmi, G.B.V.S.; Kumar, Sunil; Tripathi, Ambuj [Materials Science Group, Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi 67 (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Amity University, Noida 201313, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-07-15

    Although we have a whole class of 2D materials, graphene has drawn much attention for its excellent electronic, optical, thermal and mechanical properties. Recent researches have shown its large scale production by the reduction of graphene oxide either thermally, chemically or electrochemically. Although the structure of graphene oxide is inhomogeneous and hence complicated due to the presence of organic moieties e.g. epoxy, carboxylic acid, hydroxyl groups etc., its properties can be tuned by reduction according to desired application. The aim of this work is to synthesize continuous thin film of graphene oxide using commercially available graphene oxide solution and to study its reduction by 25 keV electron beam irradiation at fluences varying from 2 × 10{sup 11} to 2 × 10{sup 13} e{sup −}/cm{sup 2}. Our studies using X-ray diffraction, Raman microscopy and UV–Vis spectroscopy showed that electron-beam irradiation is an effective tool for reduction of graphene oxide and for tuning its band gap.

  3. Surface chemistry and catalytic activity of Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} irradiated with high-energy electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jin [Department of Optometry and Optic Science, Dongshin University, 252 Daeho-Dong, Naju 520-714 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jinjun@dsu.ac.kr; Dhayal, Marshal [Liquid Crystal and Self Assembled Monolayer Section, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. KS Krisnan Marg, New Delhi 120011 (India); Shin, Joong-Hyeok [Department of Environmental Engineering, Dongshin University, 252 Daeho-Dong, Naju 520-714 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Young Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Getoff, Nikola [Department of Nutrition, Section Radiation Biology, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-05-30

    The radiation effects induced effects by electron beam (EB) treatment on the catalytic activity of Ni/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were studied for the carbon dioxide reforming of methane with different EB energy and absorbed radiation dose. Transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the change in structure and surface states of Ni/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst before and after the EB treatment. Higher energy EB treatment is useful for increasing the proportion of the active sites (such as Ni{sup 0} and NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}-phase) on the surface. The increase of Ni/Al-ratio indicates that the Ni dispersion on the surface increased with the EB-treatment, resulting in an increase of the active sites, which leads to improving the catalytic activity. XPS measurement also showed a decrease of the surface carbon with EB dose. The maximum 20% increase in the conversion of CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}-mixture into CO/H{sub 2} gas was observed for the catalyst treated with 2 MeV energy and 600 kGy dose of EB relative to untreated.

  4. Lifetime of Macroradicals in UHMWPE Irradiated with Electron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L.

    2006-01-01

    Interaction of high energy radiation with UHMWPE leads to the scission of C-C and C-H bonds both in the amorphous and in the criystalline phase, giving H radicals, macroradicals and trans vinylene double bonds. If oxygen is present, alkyl macroradicals react immediately with it and the oxidation chain process begins. In this case the main products are hydroperoxides. In our laboratory ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (medical grade GUR 1050) has been irradiated with electron beam in vacuum and in presence of oxygen at room temperature. Electron beam irradiation has been considered in order to neglect irradiation time, that is shorter (maximum 2 minutes) than gamma irradiation time and negligible compared to the following observation time. UHMWPE irradiated has been examined with two different techniques, FTIR and EPR spectroscopy. Micro FTIR Spectroscopy has been carried out on UHMWPE to evaluate hydroperoxide concentration in samples irradiated in presence of oxygen. Hydroperoxides and their distribution inside samples can be observed very well with FTIR microscopy after a derivatization process (with NO). The obtained hydroperoxide profile decreases when distance from the outer surface increases till it achieves a plateau. The first decrease can be attributed to macroradicals reaction with oxygen, that can diffuse only in the amorphous phase. Value obtained in the centre of block is correlated only with oxygen dissolved in UHMWPE before irradiation. If radicals live for some hours, oxygen can diffuse into UHMWPE during the macroradicals lifetime and the hydroperoxides profile is a curve similar to that obtained. Comparing the oxygen diffusion curve, calculated in the function of Fick's law, with the hydroperoxide profile, we have obtained a good agreement when oxygen diffusion is calculated over two hours. This means that the macroradicals must survive at least for two hours in the amorphous phase. EPR Spectroscopy was undertaken to explore the nature of

  5. Surface modification and adhesion improvement of PTFE film by ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.W.; Hong, J.W.; Wye, M.Y.; Kim, J.H.; Kang, H.J.; Lee, Y.S.

    2004-01-01

    The polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surfaces, modified by 1 kV Ar + or O 2 + ion beam irradiation, was investigated with in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron micrographs (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The surface of PTFE films modified by Ar + ion irradiation was carbonized and the surface roughness increased with increasing ion doses. The surface of PTFE films modified by both Ar + ion in O 2 atmosphere and O 2 + ion irradiation formed the oxygen function group on PTFE surface, and the surface roughness change was relatively small. The adhesion improvement in Ar + ion irradiated PTFE surface is attributed to mechanical interlocking due to the surface roughness and -CF-radical, but that in Ar + ion irradiation in an O 2 atmosphere was contributed by the C-O complex and -CF-radical with mechanical interlocking. The C-O complex and -CF-radical in O 2 + ion irradiated surface contributed to the adhesion

  6. Effect of electronic beam irradiation on last instar larvae of lasioderma serricorne fabricius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuntang; Guo Dongquan; Lu Xiaohua; Zhang Jianwei; Yang Baoan; Du Yueguang; Liu Jiangyu; Tian Zhanjun; Zhang Xiaoyan

    2010-01-01

    The electronic beam irradiation effects on the last instar larvae of cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne Fabricius) in tobacco were studied, and the mortality in 42 days, lethal time, pupation rate, emergence rate and reproductive capacity after irradiation were measured. The results showed that the mortality increased with the increase of irradiation dosage, but the larvae did not dead immediately. The last instar larvae irradiated by the dosages higher than 480 Gy could prevent the development of larvae to adults. No new generation was found after 300 Gy treatment of the last instar larvae. So 300 Gy irradiation could be considered as a s