WorldWideScience

Sample records for multiple stressor assessment

  1. Tools and perspectives for assessing chemical mixtures and multiple stressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans; Ragas, Ad M. J.; Holmstrup, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the most important insights and findings of the EU NoMiracle project with a focus on (1) risk assessment of chemical mixtures, (2) combinations of chemical and natural stressors, and (3) the receptor-oriented approach in cumulative risk assessment. The project aimed...... is suggested. The results are discussed in the light of recent developments in risk assessment of mixtures and multiple stressors....

  2. Assessing the influence of multiple stressors on stream diatom metrics in the upper Midwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Mark D.; Waite, Ian R.; Konrad, Christopher P.

    2018-01-01

    Water resource managers face increasing challenges in identifying what physical and chemical stressors are responsible for the alteration of biological conditions in streams. The objective of this study was to assess the comparative influence of multiple stressors on benthic diatoms at 98 sites that spanned a range of stressors in an agriculturally dominated region in the upper Midwest, USA. The primary stressors of interest included: nutrients, herbicides and fungicides, sediment, and streamflow; although the influence of physical habitat was incorporated in the assessment. Boosted Regression Tree was used to examine both the sensitivity of various diatom metrics and the relative importance of the primary stressors. Percent Sensitive Taxa, percent Highly Motile Taxa, and percent High Phosphorus Taxa had the strongest response to stressors. Habitat and total phosphorous were the most common discriminators of diatom metrics, with herbicides as secondary factors. A Classification and Regression Tree (CART) model was used to examine conditional relations among stressors and indicated that fine-grain streams had a lower percentage of Sensitive Taxa than coarse-grain streams, with Sensitive Taxa decreasing further with increased water temperature (>30 °C) and triazine concentrations (>1500 ng/L). In contrast, streams dominated by coarse-grain substrate contained a higher percentage of Sensitive Taxa, with relative abundance increasing with lower water temperatures (water depth (water temperature appears to be a major limiting factor in Midwest streams; whereas both total phosphorus and percent fines showed a slight subsidy-stress response. While using benthic algae for assessing stream quality can be challenging, field-based studies can elucidate stressor effects and interactions when the response variables are appropriate, sufficient stressor resolution is achieved, and the number and type of sites represent a gradient of stressor conditions and at least a quasi

  3. Assessing Risks to Wildlife Populations from Multiple Stressors: Overview of the Problem and Research Needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne R. Munns, Jr.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife populations are experiencing increasing pressure from human-induced changes in the landscape. Stressors including agricultural and urban land use, introduced invasive and exotic species, nutrient enrichment, direct human disturbance, and toxic chemicals directly or indirectly influence the quality and quantity of habitat used by terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. Governmental agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are required to assess risks to wildlife populations, in its broadest definition, that result from exposure to these stressors, yet considerable uncertainty exists with respect to how such assessments should be conducted. This uncertainty is compounded by questions concerning the interactive effects of co-occurring stressors, appropriate spatial scales of analysis, extrapolation of response data among species and from organisms to populations, and imperfect knowledge and use of limited data sets. Further, different risk problems require varying degrees of sophistication, methodological refinement, and data quality. These issues suggest a number of research needs to improve methods for wildlife risk assessments, including continued development of population dynamics models to evaluate the effects of multiple stressors at varying spatial scales, methods for extrapolating across endpoints and species with reasonable confidence, stressor-response relations and methods for combining them in predictive and diagnostic assessments, and accessible data sets describing the ecology of terrestrial and aquatic species. Case study application of models and methods for assessing wildlife risk will help to demonstrate their strengths and limitations for solving particular risk problems.

  4. An assessment of the influence of multiple stressors on the Vaal River, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepener, V.; van Dyk, C.; Bervoets, L.; O'Brien, G.; Covaci, A.; Cloete, Y.

    The Vaal River is situated in the mining and industrial heartland of South Africa. It is regarded as a “work horse” river in South Africa and as a consequence it receives treated waste water from the largest metropolitain area in South Africa. It is only with the more frequent occurance of fish kills in the Vaal Barrage area during the past few years that public attention has been drawn towards the decreasing water quality and subsequent deterioration in the aquatic health of the Vaal River system. The aim of this study was to apply a multi-metric approach to assessing the risk of the multiple stressors to fish populations of the Vaal River system. A relative risk assessment approach was applied to divide the Vaal River Barrage into four risk regions. Field sampling was undertaken to validate the predicted risks in each region. The sampling included abiotic (i.e. water and sediment quality) and biotic (fish components) assessment. General water quality parameters (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen) together with nutrient, bacteriological and metal concentrations were measured in the four regions. Sediment quality was determined through physical (particle size distribution) and chemical (metal and organic pollutant) analyses. The fish assessment was undertaken at different levels of biological organisation ranging from biomarkers at subcellular levels (cytochrome P450-EROD, metallothionein, acetycholine esterase, antioxidant enzymes, cellular energy), tissue (histopathology), whole organism (fish health index), population and community level. These biological responses were related to environmental exposure through bioaccumulation analyses of metals and organic pollutants in fish tissues. Multivariate statistical analyses were applied to integrate the environmental exposure and effects. The results indicated that those regions that were predicted to be at greatest risk to exposure of multiple stressors did indeed display the greatest disturbance in fish

  5. An improved null model for assessing the net effects of multiple stressors on communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patrick L; MacLennan, Megan M; Vinebrooke, Rolf D

    2018-01-01

    Ecological stressors (i.e., environmental factors outside their normal range of variation) can mediate each other through their interactions, leading to unexpected combined effects on communities. Determining whether the net effect of stressors is ecologically surprising requires comparing their cumulative impact to a null model that represents the linear combination of their individual effects (i.e., an additive expectation). However, we show that standard additive and multiplicative null models that base their predictions on the effects of single stressors on community properties (e.g., species richness or biomass) do not provide this linear expectation, leading to incorrect interpretations of antagonistic and synergistic responses by communities. We present an alternative, the compositional null model, which instead bases its predictions on the effects of stressors on individual species, and then aggregates them to the community level. Simulations demonstrate the improved ability of the compositional null model to accurately provide a linear expectation of the net effect of stressors. We simulate the response of communities to paired stressors that affect species in a purely additive fashion and compare the relative abilities of the compositional null model and two standard community property null models (additive and multiplicative) to predict these linear changes in species richness and community biomass across different combinations (both positive, negative, or opposite) and intensities of stressors. The compositional model predicts the linear effects of multiple stressors under almost all scenarios, allowing for proper classification of net effects, whereas the standard null models do not. Our findings suggest that current estimates of the prevalence of ecological surprises on communities based on community property null models are unreliable, and should be improved by integrating the responses of individual species to the community level as does our

  6. Reconceptualizing synergism and antagonism among multiple stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Piggott, Jeremy J; Townsend, Colin R; Matthaei, Christoph D

    2015-01-01

    The potential for complex synergistic or antagonistic interactions between multiple stressors presents one of the largest uncertainties when predicting ecological change but, despite common use of the terms in the scientific literature, a consensus on their operational definition is still lacking. The identification of synergism or antagonism is generally straightforward when stressors operate in the same direction, but if individual stressor effects oppose each other, the definition of syner...

  7. INCORPORATING NONCHEMICAL STRESSORS INTO CUMMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The risk assessment paradigm has begun to shift from assessing single chemicals using "reasonable worst case" assumptions for individuals to considering multiple chemicals and community-based models. Inherent in community-based risk assessment is examination of all stressors a...

  8. Integrated presentation of ecological risk from multiple stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Goussen, Benoit Regis Marc; Price, Oliver R.; Rendal, Cecilie; Ashauer, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Current environmental risk assessments (ERA) do not account explicitly for ecological factors (e.g. species composition, temperature or food availability) and multiple stressors. Assessing mixtures of chemical and ecological stressors is needed as well as accounting for variability in environmental conditions and uncertainty of data and models. Here we propose a novel probabilistic ERA framework to overcome these limitations, which focusses on visualising assessment outcomes by construct-ing ...

  9. Response of secondary production and its components to multiple stressors in nematode field populations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doroszuk, A.; Brake, te E.; Crespo-Gonzalez, D.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Realistic measures of the impact of individual or multiple stressors are important for ecological risk assessment. Although multiple anthropogenic stressors are common in human-dominated environments, knowledge of their influence on functional population parameters such as secondary production (P)

  10. Vulnerability to air pollution: a building block in assessing vulnerability to multiple stressors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matooane, M

    2010-08-30

    Full Text Available security Mental conditions Some practical examples Many people: • dependent on grants •illiterate •jobless •with HIV/AIDS, TB •AIDS orphans •affected by crime and violence •use dirty fuels Many sewage plants don’t function properly... and the overall quality of the assessment Exposure to Air Pollution © CSIR 2009 www.csir.co.za Air pollution PM, SOx, NOx, O3, VOCs,etc. Measured/Modelled Urban development Land use distribution Meteorology Cultural practices...

  11. Reconceptualizing synergism and antagonism among multiple stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggott, Jeremy J; Townsend, Colin R; Matthaei, Christoph D

    2015-04-01

    The potential for complex synergistic or antagonistic interactions between multiple stressors presents one of the largest uncertainties when predicting ecological change but, despite common use of the terms in the scientific literature, a consensus on their operational definition is still lacking. The identification of synergism or antagonism is generally straightforward when stressors operate in the same direction, but if individual stressor effects oppose each other, the definition of synergism is paradoxical because what is synergistic to one stressor's effect direction is antagonistic to the others. In their highly cited meta-analysis, Crain et al. (Ecology Letters, 11, 2008: 1304) assumed in situations with opposing individual effects that synergy only occurs when the cumulative effect is more negative than the additive sum of the opposing individual effects. We argue against this and propose a new systematic classification based on an additive effects model that combines the magnitude and response direction of the cumulative effect and the interaction effect. A new class of "mitigating synergism" is identified, where cumulative effects are reversed and enhanced. We applied our directional classification to the dataset compiled by Crain et al. (Ecology Letters, 11, 2008: 1304) to determine the prevalence of synergistic, antagonistic, and additive interactions. Compared to their original analysis, we report differences in the representation of interaction classes by interaction type and we document examples of mitigating synergism, highlighting the importance of incorporating individual stressor effect directions in the determination of synergisms and antagonisms. This is particularly pertinent given a general bias in ecology toward investigating and reporting adverse multiple stressor effects (double negative). We emphasize the need for reconsideration by the ecological community of the interpretation of synergism and antagonism in situations where

  12. Integrated presentation of ecological risk from multiple stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussen, Benoit; Price, Oliver R.; Rendal, Cecilie; Ashauer, Roman

    2016-10-01

    Current environmental risk assessments (ERA) do not account explicitly for ecological factors (e.g. species composition, temperature or food availability) and multiple stressors. Assessing mixtures of chemical and ecological stressors is needed as well as accounting for variability in environmental conditions and uncertainty of data and models. Here we propose a novel probabilistic ERA framework to overcome these limitations, which focusses on visualising assessment outcomes by construct-ing and interpreting prevalence plots as a quantitative prediction of risk. Key components include environmental scenarios that integrate exposure and ecology, and ecological modelling of relevant endpoints to assess the effect of a combination of stressors. Our illustrative results demonstrate the importance of regional differences in environmental conditions and the confounding interactions of stressors. Using this framework and prevalence plots provides a risk-based approach that combines risk assessment and risk management in a meaningful way and presents a truly mechanistic alternative to the threshold approach. Even whilst research continues to improve the underlying models and data, regulators and decision makers can already use the framework and prevalence plots. The integration of multiple stressors, environmental conditions and variability makes ERA more relevant and realistic.

  13. Integrated presentation of ecological risk from multiple stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussen, Benoit; Price, Oliver R; Rendal, Cecilie; Ashauer, Roman

    2016-10-26

    Current environmental risk assessments (ERA) do not account explicitly for ecological factors (e.g. species composition, temperature or food availability) and multiple stressors. Assessing mixtures of chemical and ecological stressors is needed as well as accounting for variability in environmental conditions and uncertainty of data and models. Here we propose a novel probabilistic ERA framework to overcome these limitations, which focusses on visualising assessment outcomes by construct-ing and interpreting prevalence plots as a quantitative prediction of risk. Key components include environmental scenarios that integrate exposure and ecology, and ecological modelling of relevant endpoints to assess the effect of a combination of stressors. Our illustrative results demonstrate the importance of regional differences in environmental conditions and the confounding interactions of stressors. Using this framework and prevalence plots provides a risk-based approach that combines risk assessment and risk management in a meaningful way and presents a truly mechanistic alternative to the threshold approach. Even whilst research continues to improve the underlying models and data, regulators and decision makers can already use the framework and prevalence plots. The integration of multiple stressors, environmental conditions and variability makes ERA more relevant and realistic.

  14. Considering Environmental and Occupational Stressors in Cumulative Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    While definitions vary across the global scientific community, cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) typically are described as exhibiting a population focus and analyzing the combined risks posed by multiple stressors. CRAs also may consider risk management alternatives as an anal...

  15. Rating impacts in a multi-stressor world: a quantitative assessment of 50 stressors affecting the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sigrid D P; Mcintyre, Peter B; Halpern, Benjamin S; Cooke, Roger M; Marino, Adrienne L; Boyer, Gregory L; Buchsbaum, Andy; Burton, G A; Campbell, Linda M; Ciborowski, Jan J H; Doran, Patrick J; Infante, Dana M; Johnson, Lucinda B; Read, Jennifer G; Rose, Joan B; Rutherford, Edward S; Steinman, Alan D; Allan, J David

    2015-04-01

    Ecosystems often experience multiple environmental stressors simultaneously that can differ widely in their pathways and strengths of impact. Differences in the relative impact of environmental stressors can guide restoration and management prioritization, but few studies have empirically assessed a comprehensive suite of stressors acting on a given ecosystem. To fill this gap in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where considerable restoration investments are currently underway, we used expert elicitation via a detailed online survey to develop ratings of the relative impacts of 50 potential stressors. Highlighting the multiplicity of stressors in this system, experts assessed all 50 stressors as having some impact on ecosystem condition, but ratings differed greatly among stressors. Individual stressors related to invasive and nuisance species (e.g., dreissenid mussels and ballast invasion risk) and climate change were assessed as having the greatest potential impacts. These results mark a shift away from the longstanding emphasis on nonpoint phosphorus and persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances in the Great Lakes. Differences in impact ratings among lakes and ecosystem zones were weak, and experts exhibited surprisingly high levels of agreement on the relative impacts of most stressors. Our results provide a basin-wide, quantitative summary of expert opinion on the present-day influence of all major Great Lakes stressors. The resulting ratings can facilitate prioritizing stressors to achieve management objectives in a given location, as well as providing a baseline for future stressor impact assessments in the Great Lakes and elsewhere.

  16. Benthic macroinvertebrates and multiple stressors : quantification of the effects of multiple stressors in field, laboratory and model settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Organisms are always exposed to several simultaneously operating stressors in nature. It appears that the combined effects of multiple stressors cannot be understood as a simple product of their individual effects. To understand how multiple stressors affect the composition and functioning

  17. Evidence for multiple stressor interactions and effects on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Stephen S; Graham, Nicholas A J; Connolly, Sean R

    2014-03-01

    Concern is growing about the potential effects of interacting multiple stressors, especially as the global climate changes. We provide a comprehensive review of multiple stressor interactions in coral reef ecosystems, which are widely considered to be one of the most sensitive ecosystems to global change. First, we synthesized coral reef studies that examined interactions of two or more stressors, highlighting stressor interactions (where one stressor directly influences another) and potentially synergistic effects on response variables (where two stressors interact to produce an effect that is greater than purely additive). For stressor-stressor interactions, we found 176 studies that examined at least 2 of the 13 stressors of interest. Applying network analysis to analyze relationships between stressors, we found that pathogens were exacerbated by more costressors than any other stressor, with ca. 78% of studies reporting an enhancing effect by another stressor. Sedimentation, storms, and water temperature directly affected the largest number of other stressors. Pathogens, nutrients, and crown-of-thorns starfish were the most-influenced stressors. We found 187 studies that examined the effects of two or more stressors on a third dependent variable. The interaction of irradiance and temperature on corals has been the subject of more research (62 studies, 33% of the total) than any other combination of stressors, with many studies reporting a synergistic effect on coral symbiont photosynthetic performance (n = 19). Second, we performed a quantitative meta-analysis of existing literature on this most-studied interaction (irradiance and temperature). We found that the mean effect size of combined treatments was statistically indistinguishable from a purely additive interaction, although it should be noted that the sample size was relatively small (n = 26). Overall, although in aggregate a large body of literature examines stressor effects on coral reefs and coral

  18. Multiple stressors for oceanic primary production

    KAUST Repository

    Agusti, Susana

    2015-12-15

    Marine ecosystems are increasingly exposed to stress factors of anthropogenic origin that change their function, structure and services they deliver society. Climate change occurs simultaneously with other changes in the environment acting jointly in a context of global environmental change. For oceanic phytoplankton communities, the research conducted so far has identified stress factors associated with global change and their impact individually (warming, acidification, increased UVB radiation, pollutants). But when several stressors act simultaneously interactions and responses are not equal to the sum of individual impacts, but may have synergistic effects (the effects are multiplied) or antagonistic (cancel out the effects) that hinder predictions of the vulnerability of ecosystems to global change. Here we will examine the vulnerability of oceanic primary producers to the accumulation of different stressors associated with global change. The trend for autotrophic picoplankton to increase with temperature in the ocean has led to predictions that autotrophic picoplankton abundance will increase with warming. However, it is documented a trend towards a decline in productivity, due to declined autotroph biomass and production with warming and the associated stratification in the subtropical ocean. Models predicting an increase in abundance are in contradiction with the reported decrease in productivity in several oceanic areas, and associate oligotrophication. Here we perform a global study to analyze the relationships of autotrophic picoplankton with oceanic temperature, nutrients, underwater light and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, and productivity. We built a model to project the future changes of autotrophic picoplankton considering multiple environmental changes in future climate scenarios for the subtropical gyres. We considered increased water temperature, and associated changes in productivity and underwater light and UVB. The model show that warming and

  19. Multiple stressors for oceanic primary production

    KAUST Repository

    Agusti, Susana; Llabré s, Moira; Lubiá n, Luis M.; Moreno-Ostos, Enrique; Estrada, Marta; Duarte, Carlos M.; Cerezo, Maria I.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are increasingly exposed to stress factors of anthropogenic origin that change their function, structure and services they deliver society. Climate change occurs simultaneously with other changes in the environment acting jointly in a context of global environmental change. For oceanic phytoplankton communities, the research conducted so far has identified stress factors associated with global change and their impact individually (warming, acidification, increased UVB radiation, pollutants). But when several stressors act simultaneously interactions and responses are not equal to the sum of individual impacts, but may have synergistic effects (the effects are multiplied) or antagonistic (cancel out the effects) that hinder predictions of the vulnerability of ecosystems to global change. Here we will examine the vulnerability of oceanic primary producers to the accumulation of different stressors associated with global change. The trend for autotrophic picoplankton to increase with temperature in the ocean has led to predictions that autotrophic picoplankton abundance will increase with warming. However, it is documented a trend towards a decline in productivity, due to declined autotroph biomass and production with warming and the associated stratification in the subtropical ocean. Models predicting an increase in abundance are in contradiction with the reported decrease in productivity in several oceanic areas, and associate oligotrophication. Here we perform a global study to analyze the relationships of autotrophic picoplankton with oceanic temperature, nutrients, underwater light and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, and productivity. We built a model to project the future changes of autotrophic picoplankton considering multiple environmental changes in future climate scenarios for the subtropical gyres. We considered increased water temperature, and associated changes in productivity and underwater light and UVB. The model show that warming and

  20. Multiple stressor effects on water quality in Poplar Bay, Lake of the Woods, Canada: a midge-based assessment of hypolimnetic oxygen conditions over the last two centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie C. Summers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chironomid and Chaoborus (midge remains preserved in a dated sediment core from Poplar Bay, Lake of the Woods (LOW, Ontario, Canada, were used to assess the effects of multiple stressors (e.g., recent warming and shoreline development on water quality over the past ~200 years. As monitoring data for LOW do not extend beyond recent decades, paleolimnological methods are used to reconstruct long-term limnological trends and to establish pre-disturbance conditions. The effects of recent warming and shoreline development on Poplar Bay water quality are examined using an index of hypolimnetic oxygen (O2 status based on the ratio of Chaoborus to chironomid remains (chaob:chir and a midge-inferred volume-weighted hypolimnetic oxygen (VWHO model. Our paleolimnological data indicate that hypolimnetic [O2] in Poplar Bay have been historically hypoxic (1-4 mg O2 L-1 but have declined further (generally <2 mg O2 L-1 over the last few decades. Significant relationships between air temperature and midge data indicate that substantial warming starting in the late-1970s has triggered a marked response in the midge assemblages that pre-dates the onset of cottage development (mid-1990s. These findings complement a diatom-based study on the same sediment core, likewise suggesting that recent warming has played a prominent role in structuring limnetic communities. However, it is likely that the full, compounded effects of recent warming and shoreline development have not yet been realized. Our study highlights the complexity of multiple stressor systems, such as Poplar Bay, and emphasizes the benefits of using multiple, independent lines of paleoenvironmental evidence in gaining a more complete understanding of historical water quality.

  1. A Review of Non-Chemical Stressors and Their Importance in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative exposure/risk assessments need to include non-chemical stressors as well as human activities and chemical data. Multiple stressor research can offer information on the interactions between chemical and non-chemical stressors needed for cumulative risk assessment resea...

  2. Tolerance to multiple climate stressors: a case study of Douglas-fir drought and cold hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel Bansal; Connie Harrington; Brad St. Clair

    2016-01-01

    1. Drought and freeze events are two of the most common forms of climate extremes which result in tree damage or death, and the frequency and intensity of both stressors may increase with climate change. Few studies have examined natural covariation in stress tolerance traits to cope with multiple stressors among wild plant populations. 2. We assessed the...

  3. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Introduction and Problem Formulation for a Multiple Stressor Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Peterson, Mark J.; Jones, Daniel Steven; Suter, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    An ecological risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF). The focus of the assessment was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. The problem formulation for the assessment included conceptual models for three component activities of the test, helicopter overflight, missile firing, and tracked vehicle movement, and two ecological endpoint entities, woody desert wash communities and desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) populations. An activity-specific risk assessment framework was available to provide guidance for assessing risks associated with aircraft overflights. Key environmental features of the study area include barren desert pavement and tree-lined desert washes. The primary stressors associated with helicopter overflights were sound and the view of the aircraft. The primary stressor associated with Hellfire missile firing was sound. The principal stressor associated with tracked vehicle movement was soil disturbance, and a resulting, secondary stressor was hydrological change. Water loss to washes and wash vegetation was expected to result from increased ponding, infiltration and/or evaporation associated with disturbances to desert pavement. A plan for estimating integrated risks from the three military activities was included in the problem formulation

  4. An integrated ecological modeling system for assessing impacts of multiple stressors on stream and riverine ecosystem services within river basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — We demonstrate a novel, spatially explicit assessment of the current condition of aquatic ecosystem services, with limited sensitivity analysis for the atmospheric...

  5. Combined chemical (fluoranthene) and drought effects on Lumbricus rubellus demonstrate the applicability of the independent action model for multiple stressor assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sara M; Reichenberg, Fredrik; Lister, Lindsay J; Hankard, Peter K; Townsend, Joanna; Mayer, Philipp; Wright, Julian; Holmstrup, Martin; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J

    2009-03-01

    The combined effect of a chemical (fluoranthene) and a nonchemical stress (reduced soil moisture content) to the widely distributed earthworm Lumbricus rubellus were investigated in a laboratory study. Neither fluoranthene (up to 500 microg/g) nor low soil moisture (15% below optimal) had a significant effect on the survival of the exposed worms, but a significant effect on reproduction (cocoon production rate) was found for both stressors (p IA) model that is widely used in pharmacology and chemical mixture risk assessment. Fitting of the IA model provided a good description of the combined stressor data (accounting for 53.7% of total variation) and was the most parsimonious model describing joint effect (i.e., the description of the data was not improved by addition of further parameters accounting for synergism or antagonism). Thus, the independent action of the two responses was further supported by measurement of internal fluoranthene exposure. The chemical activity of fluoranthene in worm tissue was correlated only with soil fluoranthene concentration and not with soil moisture content. Taken together these results suggest that the IA model can help interpret the joint effects of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Such analyses should, however, be done with caution since the literature data set suggests that there may be cases where interactions between stressors result in joint effects that differ significantly from IA predictions.

  6. Implications for environmental health of multiple stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose effects of ionising radiation have revealed that similar mechanisms can be induced by chemical stressors in the environment. This means that interactions between radiation and chemicals are likely and that the outcomes following mixed exposures to radiation and chemicals may not be predictable for human health, by consideration of single agent effects. Our understanding of the biological effects of low dose exposure has undergone a major paradigm shift. We now possess technologies which can detect very subtle changes in cells due to small exposures to radiation or other pollutants. We also understand much more now about cell communication, systems biology and the need to consider effects of low dose exposure at different hierarchical levels of organisation from molecules up to and including ecosystems. Furthermore we understand, at least in part, some of the mechanisms which drive low dose effects and which perpetuate these not only in the exposed organism but also in its progeny and in certain cases, its kin. This means that previously held views about safe doses or lack of harmful effects cannot be sustained. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and all national radiation and environmental protection organisations have always accepted a theoretical risk and have applied the precautionary principle and the LNT (linear-non-threshold) model which basically says that there is no safe dose of radiation. Therefore even in the absence of visible effects, exposure of people to radiation is strictly limited. This review will consider the historical context and the new discoveries and will focus on evidence for emergent effects after mixed exposures to combined stressors which include ionising radiation. The implications for regulation of low dose exposures to protect human health and environmental security will be discussed.

  7. Statement on the suitability of the BEEHAVE model for its potential use in a regulatory context and for the risk assessment of multiple stressors in honeybees at the landscape level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA PPR Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues); Topping, Christopher John

    2015-01-01

    The Panel has interpreted the Terms of Reference by carrying out a stepwise evaluation of the BEEHAVE simulation model with a view to assessing its suitability for use in a regulatory context and for risk assessment of multiple stressors at the landscape level. The EFSA opinion on good modelling...... practice was used to evaluate the model and its documentation systematically. The overall conclusion is that BEEHAVE performs well in modelling honeybee colony dynamics, and the supporting documentation is generally good but does not fully meet the criteria of the good modelling opinion. BEEHAVE is not yet...... of the effects of interactions of pesticides with multiple stressors. BEEHAVE currently uses a very simple representation of a landscape and this should be extended. There is only one environmental scenario in the present version of BEEHAVE (European central zone—weather scenarios for Germany and the UK...

  8. Eco-SpaCE: An object-oriented, spatially explicit model to assess the risk of multiple environmental stressors on terrestrial vertebrate populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, Mark; Ragas, Ad M.J.; Plasmeijer, Rinus; Schipper, Aafke M.; Hendriks, A. Jan

    2010-01-01

    Wildlife organisms are exposed to a combination of chemical, biological and physical stressors. Information about the relative impact of each stressor can support management decisions, e.g., by the allocation of resources to counteract those stressors that cause most harm. The present paper introduces Eco-SpaCE; a novel receptor-oriented cumulative exposure model for wildlife species that includes relevant ecological processes such as spatial habitat variation, food web relations, predation, and life history. A case study is presented in which the predicted mortality due to cadmium contamination is compared with the predicted mortality due to flooding, starvation, and predation for three small mammal species (Wood mouse, Common vole, and European mole) and a predator (Little owl) living in a lowland floodplain along the river Rhine in The Netherlands. Results indicated that cadmium is the principal stressor for European mole and Little owl populations. Wood mouse and Common vole population densities were mainly influenced by flooding and food availability. Their estimated population sizes were consistent with numbers reported in literature. Predictions for cadmium accumulation and flooding stress were in agreement with field data. The large uncertainty around cadmium toxicity for wildlife leads to the conclusion that more species-specific ecotoxicological data is required for more realistic risk assessments. The predictions for starvation were subject to the limited quantitative information on biomass obtainable as food for vertebrates. It is concluded that the modelling approach employed in Eco-SpaCE, combining ecology with ecotoxicology, provides a viable option to explore the relative contribution of contamination to the overall stress in an ecosystem. This can help environmental managers to prioritize management options, and to reduce local risks.

  9. The impacts of multiple stressors to model ecological structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, W.G.; Kelly, S.A.; Markiewicz, A.J.; Matthews, R.A.; Matthews, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    The basis of the community conditioning hypothesis is that ecological structures are the result of their unique etiology. Systems that have been exposed to a variety of stressors should reflect this history. The authors how conducted a series of microcosm experiments that can compare the effects of multiple stressors upon community dynamics. The microcosm protocols are derived from the Standardized Aquatic Microcosm (SAM) and have Lemma and additional protozoan species. Two multiple stressor experiments have been conducted. In an extended length SAM (ELSAM), two of four treatments were dosed with the turbine fuel JP-8 one week into the experiment. Two treatments were later exposed to the heat stress, one that had received jet fuel and one that had not. Similarly, an ELSAM was conducted with the second stressor being the further addition of JP-8 replacing the heat shock. Biological, physical and chemical data were analyzed with multivariate techniques including nonmetric clustering and association analysis. Space-time worms and phase diagrams were also employed to ascertain the dynamic relationships of variables identified as important by the multivariate techniques. The experiments do not result in a simple additive linear response to the additional stressor. Examination of the relative population dynamics reveal alterations in trajectories that suggest treatment related effects. As in previous single stressor experiments, recovery does not occur even after extended experimental periods. The authors are now attempting to measure the resulting trajectories, changes in similarity vectors and overall dynamics. However, community conditioning does appear to be an important framework in understanding systems with a heterogeneous array of stressors

  10. A review of multiple stressor studies that include ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Real, Almudena; Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    Studies were reviewed that investigated the combined effects of ionising radiation and other stressors on non-human biota. The aim was to determine the state of research in this area of science, and determine if a review of the literature might permit a gross generalization as to whether the combined effects of multi-stressors and radiation are fundamentally additive, synergistic or antagonistic. A multiple stressor database was established for different organism groups. Information was collected on species, stressors applied and effects evaluated. Studies were mostly laboratory based and investigated two-component mixtures. Interactions declared positive occurred in 58% of the studies, while 26% found negative interactions. Interactions were dependent on dose/concentration, on organism's life stage and exposure time and differed among endpoints. Except for one study, none of the studies predicted combined effects following Concentration Addition or Independent Action, and hence, no justified conclusions can be made about synergism or antagonism. - This review on multiple stressor studies involving radiation, highlights that most experimental designs used did not allow to deduce the nature of the interactive effects.

  11. Controls of Multiple Stressors on the Black Sea Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Oguz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Black Sea is one of the most severely degraded and exploited large marine ecosystems in the world. For the last 50 years after the depletion of large predatory fish stocks, anchovy (with the partial contribution of sprat has been acting as the main top predator species and experienced a major stock collapse at the end of 1990s. After the collapse, eastern part of the southern Black Sea became the only region sustaining relatively high anchovy catch (400,000 tons whereas the total catch within the rest of the sea was reduced to nearly its one-third. The lack of recovery of different fish stocks under a slow ecosystem rehabilitation may be attributed, on the one hand, to inappropriate management measures and the lack of harmonized fishery policy among the riparian countries. On the other hand, impacts of multiple stressors (eutrophication, alien species invasions, natural climatic variations on the food web may contribute to resilience of the system toward its recovery. The overfishing/recovery problem therefore cannot be isolated from rehabilitation efforts devoted to the long-term chronic degradation of the food web structure, and alternative fishery-related management measures must be adopted as a part of a comprehensive ecosystem-based management strategy. The present study provides a data-driven ecosystem assessment, underlines the key environmental issues and threats, and points to the critical importance of holistic approach to resolve the fishery-ecosystem interactions. It also stresses the transboundary nature of the problem.

  12. Ranking ecological risks of multiple chemical stressors on amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenkova, Anastasia; Vonk, J Arie; Lenders, H J Rob; Creemers, Raymond C M; Breure, Anton M; Hendriks, A Jan

    2012-06-01

    Populations of amphibians have been declining worldwide since the late 1960s. Despite global concern, no studies have quantitatively assessed the major causes of this decline. In the present study, species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were developed to analyze the sensitivity of anurans for ammonium, nitrate, heavy metals (cadmium, copper), pesticides (18 compounds), and acidification (pH) based on laboratory toxicity data. Ecological risk (ER) was calculated as the probability that a measured environmental concentration of a particular stressor in habitats where anurans were observed would exceed the toxic effect concentrations derived from the species sensitivity distributions. The assessment of ER was used to rank the stressors according to their potential risk to anurans based on a case study of Dutch freshwater bodies. The derived ERs revealed that threats to populations of anurans decreased in the sequence of pH, copper, diazinon, ammonium, and endosulfan. Other stressors studied were of minor importance. The method of deriving ER by combining field observation data and laboratory data provides insight into potential threats to species in their habitats and can be used to prioritize stressors, which is necessary to achieve effective management in amphibian conservation. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  13. Assessing and managing stressors in a changing marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Peter M

    2017-11-30

    We are facing a dynamic future in the face of multiple stressors acting individually and in combination: climate change; habitat change/loss; overfishing; invasive species; harmful algal blooms/eutrophication; and, chemical contaminants. Historic assessment and management approaches will be inadequate for addressing risks from climate change and other stressors. Wicked problems (non-linear, complex, competing risks and benefits, not easily solvable), will become increasingly common. We are facing irreversible changes to our planetary living conditions. Agreed protection goals and considering both the negatives (risks) and the positives (benefits) of all any and all actions are required, as is judicious and appropriate use of the Precautionary Principle. Researchers and managers need to focus on: determining tipping points (alternative stable points); maintaining ecosystem services; and, managing competing ecosystem services. Marine (and other) scientists are urged to focus their research on wicked problems to allow for informed decision-making on a planetary basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing the effects of multiple stressors on the recruitment of fruit harvested trees in a tropical dry forest, Western Ghats, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Varghese

    Full Text Available The harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFPs, together with other sources of anthropogenic disturbance, impact plant populations greatly. Despite this, conservation research on NTFPs typically focuses on harvest alone, ignoring possible confounding effects of other anthropogenic and ecological factors. Disentangling anthropogenic disturbances is critical in regions such as India's Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot with high human density. Identifying strategies that permit both use and conservation of resources is essential to preserving biodiversity while meeting local needs. We assessed the effects of NTFP harvesting (fruit harvest from canopy and lopping of branches for fruit in combination with other common anthropogenic disturbances (cattle grazing, fire frequency and distance from village, in order to identify which stressors have greater effects on recruitment of three tropical dry forest fruit tree species. Specifically, we assessed the structure of 54 populations of Phyllanthus emblica, P. indofischeri and Terminalia chebula spread across the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats to ask: (1 How are populations recruiting? and (2 What anthropogenic disturbance and environmental factors, specifically forest type and elevation, are the most important predictors of recruitment status? We combined participatory research with an information-theoretic model-averaging approach to determine which factors most affect population structure and recruitment status. Our models illustrate that for T. chebula, high fire frequency and high fruit harvest intensity decreased the proportion of saplings, while lopping branches or stems to obtain fruit increased it. For Phyllanthus spp, recruitment was significantly lower in plots with more frequent fire. Indices of recruitment of both species were significantly higher for plots in more open-canopy environments of savanna woodlands than in dry forests. Our research illustrates an approach for

  15. Assessing the effects of multiple stressors on the recruitment of fruit harvested trees in a tropical dry forest, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Anita; Ticktin, Tamara; Mandle, Lisa; Nath, Snehlata

    2015-01-01

    The harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), together with other sources of anthropogenic disturbance, impact plant populations greatly. Despite this, conservation research on NTFPs typically focuses on harvest alone, ignoring possible confounding effects of other anthropogenic and ecological factors. Disentangling anthropogenic disturbances is critical in regions such as India's Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot with high human density. Identifying strategies that permit both use and conservation of resources is essential to preserving biodiversity while meeting local needs. We assessed the effects of NTFP harvesting (fruit harvest from canopy and lopping of branches for fruit) in combination with other common anthropogenic disturbances (cattle grazing, fire frequency and distance from village), in order to identify which stressors have greater effects on recruitment of three tropical dry forest fruit tree species. Specifically, we assessed the structure of 54 populations of Phyllanthus emblica, P. indofischeri and Terminalia chebula spread across the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats to ask: (1) How are populations recruiting? and (2) What anthropogenic disturbance and environmental factors, specifically forest type and elevation, are the most important predictors of recruitment status? We combined participatory research with an information-theoretic model-averaging approach to determine which factors most affect population structure and recruitment status. Our models illustrate that for T. chebula, high fire frequency and high fruit harvest intensity decreased the proportion of saplings, while lopping branches or stems to obtain fruit increased it. For Phyllanthus spp, recruitment was significantly lower in plots with more frequent fire. Indices of recruitment of both species were significantly higher for plots in more open-canopy environments of savanna woodlands than in dry forests. Our research illustrates an approach for identifying which

  16. Mapping vulnerability to multiple stressors: climate change and globalization in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Karen; Aandahl, Guro; Tompkins, Heather [CICERO, Oslo (NO)] (and others)

    2004-12-01

    There is growing recognition in the human dimensions research community that climate change impact studies must take into account the effects of other ongoing global changes. Yet there has been no systematic methodology to study climate change vulnerability in the context of multiple stressors. Using the example of Indian agriculture, this paper presents a methodology for investigating regional vulnerability to climate change in combination with other global stressors. This method, which relies on both vulnerability mapping and local- level case studies, may be used to assess differential vulnerability for any particular sector within a nation or region, and it can serve as a basis for targeting policy interventions. (Author)

  17. Quantitative assessment of workload and stressors in clinical radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Lukasz M; Mosaly, Prithima R; Jackson, Marianne; Chang, Sha X; Burkhardt, Katharin Deschesne; Adams, Robert D; Jones, Ellen L; Hoyle, Lesley; Xu, Jing; Rockwell, John; Marks, Lawrence B

    2012-08-01

    Workload level and sources of stressors have been implicated as sources of error in multiple settings. We assessed workload levels and sources of stressors among radiation oncology professionals. Furthermore, we explored the potential association between workload and the frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the World Health Organization (WHO). Data collection was aimed at various tasks performed by 21 study participants from different radiation oncology professional subgroups (simulation therapists, radiation therapists, physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians). Workload was assessed using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task-Load Index (NASA TLX). Sources of stressors were quantified using observational methods and segregated using a standard taxonomy. Comparisons between professional subgroups and tasks were made using analysis of variance ANOVA, multivariate ANOVA, and Duncan test. An association between workload levels (NASA TLX) and the frequency of radiotherapy incidents (WHO incidents) was explored (Pearson correlation test). A total of 173 workload assessments were obtained. Overall, simulation therapists had relatively low workloads (NASA TLX range, 30-36), and physicists had relatively high workloads (NASA TLX range, 51-63). NASA TLX scores for physicians, radiation therapists, and dosimetrists ranged from 40-52. There was marked intertask/professional subgroup variation (P<.0001). Mental demand (P<.001), physical demand (P=.001), and effort (P=.006) significantly differed among professional subgroups. Typically, there were 3-5 stressors per cycle of analyzed tasks with the following distribution: interruptions (41.4%), time factors (17%), technical factors (13.6%), teamwork issues (11.6%), patient factors (9.0%), and environmental factors (7.4%). A positive association between workload and frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the WHO was found (r = 0.87, P value=.045). Workload level and sources of stressors vary

  18. Quantitative Assessment of Workload and Stressors in Clinical Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, Lukasz M.; Mosaly, Prithima R.; Jackson, Marianne; Chang, Sha X.; Burkhardt, Katharin Deschesne; Adams, Robert D.; Jones, Ellen L.; Hoyle, Lesley; Xu, Jing; Rockwell, John; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Workload level and sources of stressors have been implicated as sources of error in multiple settings. We assessed workload levels and sources of stressors among radiation oncology professionals. Furthermore, we explored the potential association between workload and the frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods and Materials: Data collection was aimed at various tasks performed by 21 study participants from different radiation oncology professional subgroups (simulation therapists, radiation therapists, physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians). Workload was assessed using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task-Load Index (NASA TLX). Sources of stressors were quantified using observational methods and segregated using a standard taxonomy. Comparisons between professional subgroups and tasks were made using analysis of variance ANOVA, multivariate ANOVA, and Duncan test. An association between workload levels (NASA TLX) and the frequency of radiotherapy incidents (WHO incidents) was explored (Pearson correlation test). Results: A total of 173 workload assessments were obtained. Overall, simulation therapists had relatively low workloads (NASA TLX range, 30-36), and physicists had relatively high workloads (NASA TLX range, 51-63). NASA TLX scores for physicians, radiation therapists, and dosimetrists ranged from 40-52. There was marked intertask/professional subgroup variation (P<.0001). Mental demand (P<.001), physical demand (P=.001), and effort (P=.006) significantly differed among professional subgroups. Typically, there were 3-5 stressors per cycle of analyzed tasks with the following distribution: interruptions (41.4%), time factors (17%), technical factors (13.6%), teamwork issues (11.6%), patient factors (9.0%), and environmental factors (7.4%). A positive association between workload and frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the WHO was found (r = 0.87, P value=.045

  19. Quantitative Assessment of Workload and Stressors in Clinical Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, Lukasz M., E-mail: lukasz_mazur@ncsu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Industrial Extension Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Mosaly, Prithima R. [Industrial Extension Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Jackson, Marianne; Chang, Sha X.; Burkhardt, Katharin Deschesne; Adams, Robert D.; Jones, Ellen L.; Hoyle, Lesley [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Xu, Jing [Industrial Extension Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Rockwell, John; Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Workload level and sources of stressors have been implicated as sources of error in multiple settings. We assessed workload levels and sources of stressors among radiation oncology professionals. Furthermore, we explored the potential association between workload and the frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods and Materials: Data collection was aimed at various tasks performed by 21 study participants from different radiation oncology professional subgroups (simulation therapists, radiation therapists, physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians). Workload was assessed using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task-Load Index (NASA TLX). Sources of stressors were quantified using observational methods and segregated using a standard taxonomy. Comparisons between professional subgroups and tasks were made using analysis of variance ANOVA, multivariate ANOVA, and Duncan test. An association between workload levels (NASA TLX) and the frequency of radiotherapy incidents (WHO incidents) was explored (Pearson correlation test). Results: A total of 173 workload assessments were obtained. Overall, simulation therapists had relatively low workloads (NASA TLX range, 30-36), and physicists had relatively high workloads (NASA TLX range, 51-63). NASA TLX scores for physicians, radiation therapists, and dosimetrists ranged from 40-52. There was marked intertask/professional subgroup variation (P<.0001). Mental demand (P<.001), physical demand (P=.001), and effort (P=.006) significantly differed among professional subgroups. Typically, there were 3-5 stressors per cycle of analyzed tasks with the following distribution: interruptions (41.4%), time factors (17%), technical factors (13.6%), teamwork issues (11.6%), patient factors (9.0%), and environmental factors (7.4%). A positive association between workload and frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the WHO was found (r = 0.87, P value=.045

  20. Biotic interactions modify multiple-stressor effects on juvenile brown trout in an experimental stream food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Andreas; Salis, Romana K; Jones, Peter E; Matthaei, Christoph D

    2017-09-01

    Agricultural land use results in multiple stressors affecting stream ecosystems. Flow reduction due to water abstraction, elevated levels of nutrients and chemical contaminants are common agricultural stressors worldwide. Concurrently, stream ecosystems are also increasingly affected by climate change. Interactions among multiple co-occurring stressors result in biological responses that cannot be predicted from single-stressor effects (i.e. synergisms and antagonisms). At the ecosystem level, multiple-stressor effects can be further modified by biotic interactions (e.g. trophic interactions). We conducted a field experiment using 128 flow-through stream mesocosms to examine the individual and combined effects of water abstraction, nutrient enrichment and elevated levels of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on survival, condition and gut content of juvenile brown trout and on benthic abundance of their invertebrate prey. Flow velocity reduction decreased fish survival (-12% compared to controls) and condition (-8% compared to initial condition), whereas effects of nutrient and DCD additions and interactions among these stressors were not significant. Negative effects of flow velocity reduction on fish survival and condition were consistent with effects on fish gut content (-25% compared to controls) and abundance of dominant invertebrate prey (-30% compared to controls), suggesting a negative metabolic balance driving fish mortality and condition decline, which was confirmed by structural equation modelling. Fish mortality under reduced flow velocity increased as maximal daily water temperatures approached the upper limit of their tolerance range, reflecting synergistic interactions between these stressors. Our study highlights the importance of indirect stressor effects such as those transferred through trophic interactions, which need to be considered when assessing and managing fish populations and stream food webs in multiple-stressor situations

  1. Ecologically relevant levels of multiple, common marine stressors suggest antagonistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rolanda; Marshall, Dustin

    2017-07-24

    Stressors associated with global change will be experienced simultaneously and may act synergistically, so attempts to estimate the capacity of marine systems to cope with global change requires a multi-stressor approach. Because recent evidence suggests that stressor effects can be context-dependent, estimates of how stressors are experienced in ecologically realistic settings will be particularly valuable. To enhance our understanding of the interplay between environmental effects and the impact of multiple stressors from both natural and anthropogenic sources, we conducted a field experiment. We explored the impact of multiple, functionally varied stressors from both natural and anthropogenic sources experienced during early life history in a common sessile marine invertebrate, Bugula neritina. Natural spatial environmental variation induced differences in conspecific densities, allowing us to test for density-driven context-dependence of stressor effects. We indeed found density-dependent effects. Under high conspecific density, individual survival increased, which offset part of the negative effects of experiencing stressors. Experiencing multiple stressors early in life history translated to a decreased survival in the field, albeit the effects were not as drastic as we expected: our results are congruent with antagonistic stressor effects. We speculate that when individual stressors are more subtle, stressor synergies become less common.

  2. Using a spatially structured life cycle model to assess the influence of multiple stressors on an exploited coastal-nursery-dependent population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, B.; Rivot, E.; Savina, M.; Le Pape, O.

    2018-02-01

    Exploited coastal-nursery-dependent fish species are subject to various stressors occurring at specific stages of the life cycle: climate-driven variability in hydrography determines the success of the first eggs/larvae stages; coastal nursery habitat suitability controls juvenile growth and survival; and fisheries target mostly adults. A life cycle approach was used to quantify the relative influence of these stressors on the Eastern English Channel (EEC) population of the common sole (Solea solea), a coastal-nursery-dependent flatfish population which sustains important fisheries. The common sole has a complex life cycle: after eggs hatch, larvae spend several weeks drifting in open water. Survivors go on to metamorphose into benthic fish. Juveniles spend the first two years of their life in coastal and estuarine nurseries. Close to maturation, they migrate to deeper areas, where different subpopulations supplied by different nurseries reproduce and are exploited by fisheries. A spatially structured age-and stage-based hierarchical Bayesian model integrating various aspects of ecological knowledge, data sources and expert knowledge was built to quantitatively describe this complex life cycle. The model included the low connectivity among three subpopulations in the EEC, the influence of hydrographic variability, the availability of suitable juvenile habitat and fisheries. Scenarios were designed to quantify the effects of interacting stressors on population renewal. Results emphasized the importance of coastal nursery habitat availability and quality for the population renewal. Realistic restoration scenarios of the highly degraded Seine estuary produced a two-third increase in catch potential for the adjacent subpopulation. Fisheries, however, remained the main source of population depletion. Setting fishing mortality to the maximum sustainable yield led to substantial increases in biomass (+100%) and catch (+33%) at the EEC scale. The approach also showed how

  3. Analysing the impact of multiple stressors in aquatic biomonitoring data: A 'cookbook' with applications in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Christian K; Segurado, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Cayetano

    2016-12-15

    Multiple stressors threaten biodiversity and ecosystem integrity, imposing new challenges to ecosystem management and restoration. Ecosystem managers are required to address and mitigate the impact of multiple stressors, yet the knowledge required to disentangle multiple-stressor effects is still incomplete. Experimental studies have advanced the understanding of single and combined stressor effects, but there is a lack of a robust analytical framework, to address the impact of multiple stressors based on monitoring data. Since 2000, the monitoring of Europe's waters has resulted in a vast amount of biological and environmental (stressor) data of about 120,000 water bodies. For many reasons, this data is rarely exploited in the multiple-stressor context, probably because of its rather heterogeneous nature: stressors vary and are mixed with broad-scale proxies of environmental stress (e.g. land cover), missing values and zero-inflated data limit the application of statistical methods and biological indicators are often aggregated (e.g. taxon richness) and do not respond stressor-specific. Here, we present a 'cookbook' to analyse the biological response to multiple stressors using data from biomonitoring schemes. Our 'cookbook' includes guidance for the analytical process and the interpretation of results. The 'cookbook' is accompanied by scripts, which allow the user to run a stepwise analysis based on his/her own data in R, an open-source language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. Using simulated and real data, we show that the recommended procedure is capable of identifying stressor hierarchy (importance) and interaction in large datasets. We recommend a minimum number of 150 independent observations and a minimum stressor gradient length of 75% (of the most relevant stressor's gradient in nature), to be able to reliably rank the stressor's importance, detect relevant interactions and estimate their standardised effect size. We conclude with

  4. Additive effects prevail: The response of biota to multiple stressors in an intensively monitored watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieswein, Alexander; Hering, Daniel; Feld, Christian K

    2017-09-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are impacted by a range of stressors arising from diverse human-caused land and water uses. Identifying the relative importance of single stressors and understanding how multiple stressors interact and jointly affect biology is crucial for River Basin Management. This study addressed multiple human-induced stressors and their effects on the aquatic flora and fauna based on data from standard WFD monitoring schemes. For altogether 1095 sites within a mountainous catchment, we used 12 stressor variables covering three different stressor groups: riparian land use, physical habitat quality and nutrient enrichment. Twenty-one biological metrics calculated from taxa lists of three organism groups (fish, benthic invertebrates and aquatic macrophytes) served as response variables. Stressor and response variables were subjected to Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) analysis to identify stressor hierarchy and stressor interactions and subsequently to Generalised Linear Regression Modelling (GLM) to quantify the stressors standardised effect size. Our results show that riverine habitat degradation was the dominant stressor group for the river fauna, notably the bed physical habitat structure. Overall, the explained variation in benthic invertebrate metrics was higher than it was in fish and macrophyte metrics. In particular, general integrative (aggregate) metrics such as % Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa performed better than ecological traits (e.g. % feeding types). Overall, additive stressor effects dominated, while significant and meaningful stressor interactions were generally rare and weak. We concluded that given the type of stressor and ecological response variables addressed in this study, river basin managers do not need to bother much about complex stressor interactions, but can focus on the prevailing stressors according to the hierarchy identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. US exposure to multiple landscape stressors and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky K. Kerns; John B. Kim; Jeffrey D. Kline; Michelle A. Day

    2016-01-01

    We examined landscape exposure to wildfire potential, insects and disease risk, and urban and exurban development for the conterminous US (CONUS). Our analysis relied on spatial data used by federal agencies to evaluate these stressors nationally. We combined stressor data with a climate change exposure metric to identify when temperature is likely to depart from...

  6. The multiple stressor effect in zebrafish embryos from simultaneous exposure to ionising radiation and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C Y P; Choi, V W Y; Lam, A C L; Yu, K N; Cheng, S H

    2013-01-01

    Living organisms are exposed to a mixture of environmental stressors, and the resultant effects are referred to as multiple stressor effects. In the present work, we studied the multiple stressor effect in embryos of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) from simultaneous exposure to ionising radiation (alpha particles) and cadmium through quantification of apoptotic signals at 24 h postfertilisation (hpf) revealed by vital dye acridine orange staining. For each set of experiments, 32–40 dechorionated embryos were deployed, which were divided into four groups each having 8–10 embryos. The four groups of embryos were referred to as (1) the control group (C), which received no further treatments after dechorionation; (2) the Cd-dosed and irradiated group (CdIr), which was exposed to 100 μM Cd from 5 to 24 hpf, and also received about 4.4 mGy from alpha particles at 5 hpf; (3) the irradiated group (Ir), which received about 4.4 mGy from alpha particles at 5 hpf; and (4) the Cd-dosed group (Cd), which was exposed to 100 μM Cd from 5 to 24 hpf. In general, the CdIr, Ir and Cd groups had more apoptotic signals than the C group. Within the 12 sets of experimental results, two showed significant synergistic effects, one showed a weakly synergistic effect and nine showed additive effects. The multiple stressor effect of 100 μM Cd with ∼4.4 mGy alpha-particle radiation resulted in an additive or synergistic effect, but no antagonistic effect. The failure to identify significant synergistic effects for some sets of data, and thus their subsequent classification as additive effects, might be a result of the relatively small magnitude of the synergistic effects. The results showed that the radiation risk could be perturbed by another environmental stressor such as a heavy metal, and as such a realistic human radiation risk assessment should in general take into account the multiple stressor effects. (paper)

  7. Amphibian decline: an integrated analysis of multiple stressor effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linder, G.; Krest, S.K.; Sparkling, D.W. (eds.)

    2003-07-01

    Environmental effects of stressors on amphibians have received increased attention but little is known about the effects of these stressors on amphibian populations. The workshop addressed this issue. The proceedings contain 15 chapters, two of which mention effects of coal combustion wastes. These are: Chapter 4: Chemical stressors, by J.H. Burkhart, J.R. Bidwell, D.J. Fort, S.R. Sheffield, and Chapter 8E: Anthropogenic activities producing sink habitats for amphibians in the local landscape: a case study of lethal and sublethal effects of coal combustion residues in the aquatic environment by C.L. Rose and W.A. Hopkins.

  8. Climate change, multiple stressors, and the decline of ectotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R; Palmer, Brent D

    2013-08-01

    Climate change is believed to be causing declines of ectothermic vertebrates, but there is little evidence that climatic conditions associated with declines have exceeded critical (i.e., acutely lethal) maxima or minima, and most relevant studies are correlative, anecdotal, or short-term (hours). We conducted an 11-week factorial experiment to examine the effects of temperature (22 °C or 27 °C), moisture (wet or dry), and atrazine (an herbicide; 0, 4, 40, 400 μg/L exposure as embryos and larvae) on the survival, growth, behavior, and foraging rates of postmetamorphic streamside salamanders (Ambystoma barbouri), a species of conservation concern. The tested climatic conditions were between the critical maxima and minima of streamside salamanders; thus, this experiment quantified the long-term effects of climate change within the noncritical range of this species. Despite a suite of behavioral adaptations to warm and dry conditions (e.g., burrowing, refuge use, huddling with conspecifics, and a reduction in activity), streamside salamanders exhibited significant loss of mass and significant mortality in all but the cool and moist conditions, which were closest to the climatic conditions in which they are most active in nature. A temperature of 27 °C represented a greater mortality risk than dry conditions; death occurred rapidly at this temperature and more gradually under cool and dry conditions. Foraging decreased under dry conditions, which suggests there were opportunity costs to water conservation. Exposure to the herbicide atrazine additively decreased water-conserving behaviors, foraging efficiency, mass, and time to death. Hence, the hypothesis that moderate climate change can cause population declines is even more plausible under scenarios with multiple stressors. These results suggest that climate change within the noncritical range of species and pollution may reduce individual performance by altering metabolic demands, hydration, and foraging effort

  9. Mapping the future: U.S. exposure to multiple landscape stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Becky Kerns; John Kim; Jeff. Kline

    2017-01-01

    Landscape exposure to multiple stressors can pose risks to human health, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. Attempts to study, control, or mitigate these stressors can strain public and private budgets. An interdisciplinary team of Pacific Northwest Research Station and Oregon State University scientists created maps of the conterminous United States that indicate...

  10. Responses of stream microbes to multiple anthropogenic stressors in a mesocosm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuy, Julia K; Lange, Anja; Beermann, Arne J; Jensen, Manfred; Elbrecht, Vasco; Röhl, Oliver; Peršoh, Derek; Begerow, Dominik; Leese, Florian; Boenigk, Jens

    2018-08-15

    Stream ecosystems are affected by multiple anthropogenic stressors worldwide. Even though effects of many single stressors are comparatively well studied, the effects of multiple stressors are difficult to predict. In particular bacteria and protists, which are responsible for the majority of ecosystem respiration and element flows, are infrequently studied with respect to multiple stressors responses. We conducted a stream mesocosm experiment to characterize the responses of single and multiple stressors on microbiota. Two functionally important stream habitats, leaf litter and benthic phototrophic rock biofilms, were exposed to three stressors in a full factorial design: fine sediment deposition, increased chloride concentration (salinization) and reduced flow velocity. We analyzed the microbial composition in the two habitat types of the mesocosms using an amplicon sequencing approach. Community analysis on different taxonomic levels as well as principle component analyses (PCoAs) based on realtive abundances of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed treatment specific shifts in the eukaryotic biofilm community. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that Bacillariophyta responded positively salinity and sediment increase, while the relative read abundance of chlorophyte taxa decreased. The combined effects of multiple stressors were mainly antagonistic. Therefore, the community composition in multiply stressed environments resembled the composition of the unstressed control community in terms of OTU occurrence and relative abundances. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A geospatial modelling approach to predict seagrass habitat recovery under multiple stressor regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of estuarine seagrass habitats requires a clear understanding of the modes of action of multiple interacting stressors including nutrients, climate change, coastal land-use change, and habitat modification. We have developed and demonstrated a geospatial modeling a...

  12. Relations Between Stressors and Job Performance: An Aggregate-Level Investigation Using Multiple Criterion Measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    .... Army Combat Brigades. Unlike previous studies that have focused exclusively on in-role performance, we examined relations between stressors and multiple performance criterion measures, which corresponded to in-role...

  13. Assessing life stressors and social resources: applications to alcoholic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, R H; Fenn, C B; Billings, A G; Moos, B S

    A growing body of evidence points to the importance of life stressors and social resources in the development and course of alcoholism and other substance abuse disorders. This article describes the Life Stressors and Social Resources Inventory (LISRES), which provides an integrated assessment of life stressors and social resources in eight domains: physical health, home/neighborhood, financial, work, spouse/partner, children, extended family, and friends. The indices were developed on data obtained at two points in time 18 months apart from four demographically comparable groups: alcoholic patients, depressed patients, arthritic patients, and non-problem-drinking adults. As expected, alcoholic patients reported more acute and chronic stressors and fewer social resources than did non-problem-drinking adults. More important, the indices were predictively related to changes in alcohol consumption, drinking problems, depression, and self-confidence. Procedures such as the LISRES have some potential clinical and research applications and may be helpful in examining the process of recovery and relapse in substance abuse disorders.

  14. Problem formulation for risk assessment of combined exposures to chemicals and other stressors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Wilks, Martin F; Bachman, Ammie; Boobis, Alan; Moretto, Angelo; Pastoor, Timothy P; Phillips, Richard; Embry, Michelle R

    2016-11-01

    When the human health risk assessment/risk management paradigm was developed, it did not explicitly include a "problem formulation" phase. The concept of problem formulation was first introduced in the context of ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the pragmatic reason to constrain and focus ERAs on the key questions. However, this need also exists for human health risk assessment, particularly for cumulative risk assessment (CRA), because of its complexity. CRA encompasses the combined threats to health from exposure via all relevant routes to multiple stressors, including biological, chemical, physical and psychosocial stressors. As part of the HESI Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) Project, a framework for CRA was developed in which problem formulation plays a critical role. The focus of this effort is primarily on a chemical CRA (i.e., two or more chemicals) with subsequent consideration of non-chemical stressors, defined as "modulating factors" (ModFs). Problem formulation is a systematic approach that identifies all factors critical to a specific risk assessment and considers the purpose of the assessment, scope and depth of the necessary analysis, analytical approach, available resources and outcomes, and overall risk management goal. There are numerous considerations that are specific to multiple stressors, and proper problem formulation can help to focus a CRA to the key factors in order to optimize resources. As part of the problem formulation, conceptual models for exposures and responses can be developed that address these factors, such as temporal relationships between stressors and consideration of the appropriate ModFs.

  15. Tolerance to multiple climate stressors: A case study of Douglas-fir drought and cold hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sheel; Harrington, Constance A; St. Clair, John Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Summary: 1. Drought and freeze events are two of the most common forms of climate extremes which result in tree damage or death, and the frequency and intensity of both stressors may increase with climate change. Few studies have examined natural covariation in stress tolerance traits to cope with multiple stressors among wild plant populations. 2. We assessed the capacity of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii), an ecologically and economically important species in the northwestern USA, to tolerate both drought and cold stress on 35 populations grown in common gardens. We used principal components analysis to combine drought and cold hardiness trait data into generalized stress hardiness traits to model geographic variation in hardiness as a function of climate across the Douglas-fir range. 3. Drought and cold hardiness converged among populations along winter temperature gradients and diverged along summer precipitation gradients. Populations originating in regions with cold winters had relatively high tolerance to both drought and cold stress, which is likely due to overlapping adaptations for coping with winter desiccation. Populations from regions with dry summers had increased drought hardiness but reduced cold hardiness, suggesting a trade-off in tolerance mechanisms. 4. Our findings highlight the necessity to look beyond bivariate trait–climate relationships and instead consider multiple traits and climate variables to effectively model and manage for the impacts of climate change on widespread species.

  16. Untangling the effects of multiple human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages in European running waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinegger, Rafaela; Palt, Martin; Segurado, Pedro; Schmutz, Stefan

    2016-12-15

    This work addresses human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages at pan-European scale by analysing single and multiple stressors and their interactions. Based on an extensive dataset with 3105 fish sampling sites, patterns of stressors, their combination and nature of interactions, i.e. synergistic, antagonistic and additive were investigated. Geographical distribution and patterns of seven human stressor variables, belonging to four stressor groups (hydrological-, morphological-, water quality- and connectivity stressors), were examined, considering both single and multiple stressor combinations. To quantify the stressors' ecological impact, a set of 22 fish metrics for various fish assemblage types (headwaters, medium gradient rivers, lowland rivers and Mediterranean streams) was analysed by comparing their observed and expected response to different stressors, both acting individually and in combination. Overall, investigated fish sampling sites are affected by 15 different stressor combinations, including 4 stressors acting individually and 11 combinations of two or more stressors; up to 4 stressor groups per fish sampling site occur. Stressor-response analysis shows divergent results among different stressor categories, even though a general trend of decreasing ecological integrity with increasing stressor quantity can be observed. Fish metrics based on density of species 'intolerant to water quality degradation' and 'intolerant to oxygen depletion" responded best to single and multiple stressors and their interactions. Interactions of stressors were additive (40%), synergistic (30%) or antagonistic (30%), emphasizing the importance to consider interactions in multi-stressor analyses. While antagonistic effects are only observed in headwaters and medium-gradient rivers, synergistic effects increase from headwaters over medium gradient rivers and Mediterranean streams to large lowland rivers. The knowledge gained in this work provides a basis for

  17. Density dependence governs when population responses to multiple stressors are magnified or mitigated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Emma E; Essington, Timothy E; Halpern, Benjamin S

    2017-10-01

    Population endangerment typically arises from multiple, potentially interacting anthropogenic stressors. Extensive research has investigated the consequences of multiple stressors on organisms, frequently focusing on individual life stages. Less is known about population-level consequences of exposure to multiple stressors, especially when exposure varies through life. We provide the first theoretical basis for identifying species at risk of magnified effects from multiple stressors across life history. By applying a population modeling framework, we reveal conditions under which population responses from stressors applied to distinct life stages are either magnified (synergistic) or mitigated. We find that magnification or mitigation critically depends on the shape of density dependence, but not the life stage in which it occurs. Stressors are always magnified when density dependence is linear or concave, and magnified or mitigated when it is convex. Using Bayesian numerical methods, we estimated the shape of density dependence for eight species across diverse taxa, finding support for all three shapes. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Multiple Stressors and Ecological Complexity Require A New Approach to Coral Reef Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linwood Hagan Pendleton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification, climate change, and other environmental stressors threaten coral reef ecosystems and the people who depend upon them. New science reveals that these multiple stressors interact and may affect a multitude of physiological and ecological processes in complex ways. The interaction of multiple stressors and ecological complexity may mean that the negative effects on coral reef ecosystems will happen sooner and be more severe than previously thought. Yet, most research on the effects of global change on coral reefs focus on one or few stressors and pathways or outcomes (e.g. bleaching. Based on a critical review of the literature, we call for a regionally targeted strategy of mesocosm-level research that addresses this complexity and provides more realistic projections about coral reef impacts in the face of global environmental change. We believe similar approaches are needed for other ecosystems that face global environmental change.

  19. Impact of multiple stressors on juvenile fish in estuaries of the northeast Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Jason D; Munsch, Stuart H; Cordell, Jeffery R; Siitari, Kiira; Hare, Van C; Holycross, Brett M; DeBruyckere, Lisa A; Greene, Correigh M; Hughes, Brent B

    2018-05-01

    A key step in identifying global change impacts on species and ecosystems is to quantify effects of multiple stressors. To date, the science of global change has been dominated by regional field studies, experimental manipulation, meta-analyses, conceptual models, reviews, and studies focusing on a single stressor or species over broad spatial and temporal scales. Here, we provide one of the first studies for coastal systems examining multiple stressor effects across broad scales, focused on the nursery function of 20 estuaries spanning 1,600 km of coastline, 25 years of monitoring, and seven fish and invertebrate species along the northeast Pacific coast. We hypothesized those species most estuarine dependent and negatively impacted by human activities would have lower presence and abundances in estuaries with greater anthropogenic land cover, pollution, and water flow stress. We found significant negative relationships between juveniles of two of seven species (Chinook salmon and English sole) and estuarine stressors. Chinook salmon were less likely to occur and were less abundant in estuaries with greater pollution stress. They were also less abundant in estuaries with greater flow stress, although this relationship was marginally insignificant. English sole were less abundant in estuaries with greater land cover stress. Together, we provide new empirical evidence that effects of stressors on two fish species culminate in detectable trends along the northeast Pacific coast, elevating the need for protection from pollution, land cover, and flow stressors to their habitats. Lack of response among the other five species could be related to differing resistance to specific stressors, type and precision of the stressor metrics, and limitations in catch data across estuaries and habitats. Acquiring improved measurements of impacts to species will guide future management actions, and help predict how estuarine nursery functions can be optimized given anthropogenic

  20. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunović, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-15

    Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunović, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th.; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA. PMID:25005236

  2. Life stressors and social resources: an integrated assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, R H; Fenn, C B; Billings, A G

    1988-01-01

    The Life Stressors and Social Resources Inventory (LISRES) is described. The inventory provides an integrated assessment of an individual's life context. It taps both relatively stable and new aspects of life stressors and social resources in eight domains: physical health, home/neighborhood, financial, work, spouse/partner, children, extended family, and friends. The indices were developed on data obtained at two points in time from groups of depressed patients, alcoholic patients, arthritic patients, and healthy adults. The indices are internally consistent, moderately intercorrelated, and relatively stable over time. In addition, they are predictably related to changes in respondents' functioning. Although more developmental work is needed, the LISRES has some potential clinical and research applications and may be helpful in examining the process of stress and coping.

  3. Multiple stressor effects on marine infauna: responses of estuarine taxa and functional traits to sedimentation, nutrient and metal loading

    KAUST Repository

    Ellis, Joanne; Clark, D.; Atalah, J.; Jiang, W.; Taiapa, C.; Patterson, M.; Sinner, J.; Hewitt, J.

    2017-01-01

    loading and the documented interaction effects between multiple stressors have important implications for understanding and managing the ecological consequences of eutrophication, sedimentation and contaminants on coastal ecosystems.

  4. Effects of Multiple Stressors on Red Abalone (Haliotis rufescens) Fertilization Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boch, C. A.; Aalto, E.; De Leo, G.; Litvin, S.; Lovera, C.; Micheli, F.; Woodson, C. B.; Monismith, S. G.; Barry, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    Acidification, hypoxia, and ocean warming are escalating threats in the world's coastal waters, with potentially severe consequences for marine life and ocean-based economies. In particular, eastern boundary current ecosystems, including the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), are experiencing large-scale declines in pH and dissolved oxygen (DO)—with the latter linked to changes in thermal stratification and shoaling of the oxygen minimum zone. To examine the consequences of ocean acidification and other climate-related changes in oceanographic conditions on nearshore marine populations within the CCLME, we are assessing the potential effects of current and future upwelling-type conditions on the population dynamics of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens), with a focus on sensitive early life history phases (e.g., fertilization, larval development, and juvenile growth and survival) expected to be important determinants of population dynamics. Here, we present the first experimental results on the impacts of combined exposures of low pH and low DO on abalone fertilization success. Our results show that abalone fertilization success is significantly reduced when the gametes are exposed to a decrease in seawater pH from 8.0 to 7.2. Furthermore, low pH in combination with hypoxic exposure—e.g., a decrease in dissolved oxygen from 6 mg/L DO to 1 mg/L DO—does not further decrease fertilization rates, suggesting a lack of synergistic or additive effects of these multiple stressors on the reduction of fertilization success. Although the focus of this study is to characterize the effects of multiple stressors on the early life history of abalone, the implications of these results are expected to be relevant for a variety of marine taxa with similar reproductive modes.

  5. Stressors and anxiety in dementia caregiving: multiple mediation analysis of rumination, experiential avoidance, and leisure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Moreno, R; Losada, A; Márquez-González, M; Mausbach, B T

    2016-11-01

    Despite the robust associations between stressors and anxiety in dementia caregiving, there is a lack of research examining which factors contribute to explain this relationship. This study was designed to test a multiple mediation model of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and anxiety that proposes higher levels of rumination and experiential avoidance and lower levels of leisure satisfaction as potential mediating variables. The sample consisted of 256 family caregivers. In order to test a simultaneously parallel multiple mediation model of the BPSD to anxiety pathway, a PROCESS method was used and bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrapping method was used to test confidence intervals. Higher levels of stressors significantly predicted anxiety. Greater stressors significantly predicted higher levels of rumination and experiential avoidance, and lower levels of leisure satisfaction. These three coping variables significantly predicted anxiety. Finally, rumination, experiential avoidance, and leisure satisfaction significantly mediated the link between stressors and anxiety. The explained variance for the final model was 47.09%. Significant contrasts were found between rumination and leisure satisfaction, with rumination being a significantly higher mediator. The results suggest that caregivers' experiential avoidance, rumination, and leisure satisfaction may function as mechanisms through which BPSD influence on caregivers' anxiety. Training caregivers in reducing their levels of experiential avoidance and rumination by techniques that foster their ability of acceptance of their negative internal experiences, and increase their level of leisure satisfaction, may be helpful to reduce their anxiety symptoms developed by stressors.

  6. Development and initial validation of an instrument to assess stressors among South African sports coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubayi, Alliance; Toriola, Abel; Didymus, Faye

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this series of studies was to develop and initially validate an instrument to assess stressors among South African sports coaches. In study one, a preliminary pool of 45 items was developed based on existing literature and an expert panel was employed to assess the content validity and applicability of these items. In study two, the 32 items that were retained after study one were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA). The resultant factorial structure comprised four components: environmental stressors, performance stressors, task-related stressors, and athlete stressors. These four components were made up of 26 items and, together, the components and items comprised the provisional Stressors in Sports Coaching Questionnaire (SSCQ). The results show that the SSCQ demonstrates acceptable internal consistency (.73-.89). The findings provide preliminary evidence that SSCQ is a valid tool to assess stressors among South African sports coaches.

  7. The prospective relationship between work stressors and cardiovascular disease, using a comprehensive work stressor measure for exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerencsi, Karolina; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic; Prins, Martin; Kant, Ijmert

    2014-02-01

    The currently used instruments which measure the psychosocial work environment have been criticized. We analyzed the association between work stressors and cardiovascular disease, using the Maastricht Cohort Study Work Stressor Score (MCS-WSS), a comprehensive measure which has been associated with work strain. At baseline 11,489 employees of the Maastricht Cohort Study were participating. This prospective cohort study started in 1998 in the Netherlands and includes a heterogeneous population of employees. The psychosocial work environment, cardiovascular risk factors and the occurrence of cardiovascular disease were measured with questionnaires at various time points during follow-up, the last follow-up was in 2008. For a subsample of employees, CVD extracted from medical records was available. The MCS-WSS consists of items from emotional demands, psychological demands, role clarity, career possibilities, working overtime, job insecurity, cognitive demands, skills discretion and decision authority. Each item has its own contribution in inducing work strain, represented by its own weighting factor. The association between a high exposure to work stressors at baseline and cardiovascular morbidity was assessed with Cox regression analyses. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, educational level, smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption and leisure physical activity. During a median follow-up of 49 months, 309 employees developed incident cardiovascular disease. Overall, no significant associations were found between a high exposure to work stressors at baseline and cardiovascular morbidity. The results of this study indicate that high exposure to work stressors has no considerable impact on cardiovascular disease.

  8. Multiple stressors and amphibian declines: dual impacts of pesticides and fish on yellow-legged frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Carlos; Knapp, Roland A

    2007-03-01

    More than 40% of Earth's 5700+ amphibian species have undergone recent declines. Despite the likely involvement of multiple factors in driving these declines, most studies continue to focus on single stressors. In California (USA), separate studies have implicated either introduced fish or pesticides as causal agents. To date, however, no study has simultaneously evaluated the respective roles of these two potential stressors nor attempted to assess their relative importance, information critical for the development of effective conservation efforts and environmental policies. We examined the role and relative effect of fish and pesticides on the mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) using unusually detailed data sets for a large portion of R. muscosa's historic range in California's Sierra Nevada. Habitat characteristics and presence/absence of R. muscosa and fish were quantified at each of 6831 sites during field surveys. Pesticide use upwind of each site was calculated from pesticide application records and predominant wind directions. Using generalized additive models, we found that, after accounting for habitat effects, the probability of R. muscosa presence was significantly reduced by both fish and pesticides, with the landscape-scale effect of pesticides much stronger than that of fish. The degree to which a site was sheltered from the predominant wind (and associated pesticides) was also a significant predictor of R. muscosa presence. Taken together, these results represent the strongest evidence to date that windborne pesticides are contributing to amphibian declines in pristine locations. Our results suggest that amphibian declines may have complex multi-factorial causes, and caution that single-factor studies that demonstrate the importance of one factor should not be used as evidence against the importance of other factors.

  9. Configuration of multiple human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages in Alpine river basins of Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinegger, Rafaela; Pucher, Matthias; Aschauer, Christiane; Schmutz, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    This work addresses multiple human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages of the Drava and Mura rivers in southern Austria. The impacts of single and multiple human stressors on riverine fish assemblages in these basins were disentangled, based on an extensive dataset. Stressor configuration, i.e. various metrics of multiple stressors belonging to stressor groups hydrology, morphology, connectivity and water quality were investigated for the first time at river basin scale in Austria. As biological response variables, the Fish Index Austria (FIA) and its related single as well as the WFD biological- and total state were investigated. Stressor-response analysis shows divergent results, but a general trend of decreasing ecological integrity with increasing number of stressors and maximum stressor is observed. Fish metrics based on age structure, fish region index and biological status responded best to single stressors and/or their combinations. The knowledge gained in this work provides a basis for advanced investigations in Alpine river basins and beyond, supports WFD implementation and helps prioritizing further actions towards multi-stressor restoration- and management. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-Chemical Stressors and Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Current Initiatives and Potential Air Pollutant Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ari S.; Sax, Sonja N.; Wason, Susan C.; Campleman, Sharan L.

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. Specifically, cumulative risk assessment initiatives have stressed the importance of considering both chemical and non-chemical stressors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and related psychosocial stress, in evaluating health risks. The integration of non-chemical stressors into a cumulative risk assessment framework has been largely driven by evidence of health disparities across different segments of society that may also bear a disproportionate risk from chemical exposures. This review will discuss current efforts to advance the field of cumulative risk assessment, highlighting some of the major challenges, discussed within the construct of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. The results from these studies, while suggestive of possible interactions, are mixed and hindered by inconsistent application of social stress indicators. Overall, while there have been significant advances, further developments across all of the risk assessment stages (i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization) are necessary to provide a scientific basis for regulatory actions and effective community interventions, particularly when considering non-chemical stressors. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of social stress on disease and implications for chemical-based dose-response relationships is needed. Furthermore, when considering non-chemical stressors, an appropriate metric, or series of metrics, for risk characterization is also needed. Cumulative risk assessment research will benefit

  11. The role of multiple negative social relationships in inflammatory cytokine responses to a laboratory stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmi Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the unique impact of perceived negativity in multiple social relationships on endocrine and inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor. Via hierarchical cluster analysis, those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with a romantic partner, family, and their closest friend had higher mean IL-6 across time and a greater increase in TNF-α from 15 min to 75 min post stress. Those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with roommates, family, and their closest friend showed greater IL-6 responses to stress. Differences in mean IL-6 were accounted for by either depressed mood or hostility, whereas differences in the cytokine stress responses remained significant after controlling for those factors. Overall, this research provides preliminary evidence to suggest that having multiple negative relationships may exacerbate acute inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor independent of hostility and depressed mood.

  12. The role of multiple negative social relationships in inflammatory cytokine responses to a laboratory stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sunmi; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E; Corwin, Elizabeth J; Ceballos, Rachel M; Taylor, Shelley E; Seeman, Teresa; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the unique impact of perceived negativity in multiple social relationships on endocrine and inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor. Via hierarchical cluster analysis, those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with a romantic partner, family, and their closest friend had higher mean IL-6 across time and a greater increase in TNF-α from 15 min to 75 min post stress. Those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with roommates, family, and their closest friend showed greater IL-6 responses to stress. Differences in mean IL-6 were accounted for by either depressed mood or hostility, whereas differences in the cytokine stress responses remained significant after controlling for those factors. Overall, this research provides preliminary evidence to suggest that having multiple negative relationships may exacerbate acute inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor independent of hostility and depressed mood.

  13. Risk assessment of pesticides and other stressors in bees: Principles, data gaps and perspectives from the European Food Safety Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rortais, Agnès; Arnold, Gérard; Dorne, Jean-Lou; More, Simon J; Sperandio, Giorgio; Streissl, Franz; Szentes, Csaba; Verdonck, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Current approaches to risk assessment in bees do not take into account co-exposures from multiple stressors. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is deploying resources and efforts to move towards a holistic risk assessment approach of multiple stressors in bees. This paper describes the general principles of pesticide risk assessment in bees, including recent developments at EFSA dealing with risk assessment of single and multiple pesticide residues and biological hazards. The EFSA Guidance Document on the risk assessment of plant protection products in bees highlights the need for the inclusion of an uncertainty analysis, other routes of exposures and multiple stressors such as chemical mixtures and biological agents. The EFSA risk assessment on the survival, spread and establishment of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, an invasive alien species, is provided with potential insights for other bee pests such as the Asian hornet, Vespa velutina. Furthermore, data gaps are identified at each step of the risk assessment, and recommendations are made for future research that could be supported under the framework of Horizon 2020. Finally, the recent work conducted at EFSA is presented, under the overarching MUST-B project ("EU efforts towards the development of a holistic approach for the risk assessment on MUltiple STressors in Bees") comprising a toolbox for harmonised data collection under field conditions and a mechanistic model to assess effects from pesticides and other stressors such as biological agents and beekeeping management practices, at the colony level and in a spatially complex landscape. Future perspectives at EFSA include the development of a data model to collate high quality data to calibrate and validate the model to be used as a regulatory tool. Finally, the evidence collected within the framework of MUST-B will support EFSA's activities on the development of a holistic approach to the risk assessment of multiple stressors in bees. In

  14. When things don't add up: quantifying impacts of multiple stressors from individual metabolism to ecosystem processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galic, Nika; Sullivan, Lauren L; Grimm, Volker; Forbes, Valery E

    2018-04-01

    Ecosystems are exposed to multiple stressors which can compromise functioning and service delivery. These stressors often co-occur and interact in different ways which are not yet fully understood. Here, we applied a population model representing a freshwater amphipod feeding on leaf litter in forested streams. We simulated impacts of hypothetical stressors, individually and in pairwise combinations that target the individuals' feeding, maintenance, growth and reproduction. Impacts were quantified by examining responses at three levels of biological organisation: individual-level body sizes and cumulative reproduction, population-level abundance and biomass and ecosystem-level leaf litter decomposition. Interactive effects of multiple stressors at the individual level were mostly antagonistic, that is, less negative than expected. Most population- and ecosystem-level responses to multiple stressors were stronger than expected from an additive model, that is, synergistic. Our results suggest that across levels of biological organisation responses to multiple stressors are rarely only additive. We suggest methods for efficiently quantifying impacts of multiple stressors at different levels of biological organisation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  15. Extension of the Si:C Stressor Thickness by Using Multiple ClusterCarbon Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekar, Karuppanan; Krull, Wade

    2011-01-01

    ClusterCarbon implantation is now well established as an attractive alternative for producing stress in advanced NMOS devices. ClusterCarbon has the advantage over monomer carbon implant in it's self-amorphization feature, eliminating the need for PAI implantation while producing highly substitutional carbon incorporation. To date, the limitation of this approach has been the high energy limit, due to the extraction limit of the available production tools for the preferred carbon species, which has been the C7Hx molecule. It is noted that the C7 species is produced by the breakup of the parent C14H14 molecule in the ion source. It is further noted that the preferred method of producing the Si:C stress layer is a multiple implant sequence with ClusterCarbon implants at various energies and doses designed to produce a carbon profile which is constant in-depth. The stressor thickness limit using C7 is known to be about 40 nm, which is less than the stressor thickness used in the conventional SiGe process for PMOS. In this work, it is shown that utilizing the C5 molecule which is also available from the breakup of C14H14 enables the stressor layer thickness to be extended to at least 60 nm, which is consistent with the conventional SiGe process. It will be shown that one additional C5 implant, performed after a standard C7 multiple implant sequence, can produce the extension of the stressor thickness while maintaining the flat depth profile. A detailed process characterization will be shown for this new process sequence.

  16. Multiple stressor effects in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii – Toward understanding mechanisms of interaction between effects of ultraviolet radiation and chemical pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkaric, Muris [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Behra, Renata; Fischer, Beat B. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Junghans, Marion [Swiss Center for Applied Ecotoxicology Eawag-EPFL, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Eggen, Rik I.L., E-mail: rik.eggen@eawag.ch [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Systematic study of multiple stressor effects of UVR and chemicals in C. reinhardtii. • UVR and chemicals did not act independently on algal photosynthesis and reproduction. • Multiple stressor effects of UVR and chemicals depended on chemical MOA. • Synergistic effect interactions not limited to oxidative stress inducing chemicals. • Multiple MOAs of UVR may limit applicability of current prediction models. - Abstract: The effects of chemical pollutants and environmental stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), can interact when organisms are simultaneously exposed, resulting in higher (synergistic) or lower (antagonistic) multiple stressor effects than expected based on the effects of single stressors. Current understanding of interactive effects is limited due to a lack of mechanism-based multiple stressor studies. It has been hypothesized that effect interactions may generally occur if chemical and non-chemical stressors cause similar physiological effects in the organism. To test this hypothesis, we exposed the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to combinations of UVR and single chemicals displaying modes of action (MOA) similar or dissimilar to the impact of UVR on photosynthesis. Stressor interactions were analyzed based on the independent action model. Effect interactions were found to depend on the MOA of the chemicals, and also on their concentrations, the exposure time and the measured endpoint. Indeed, only chemicals assumed to cause effects on photosynthesis similar to UVR showed interactions with UVR on photosynthetic yield: synergistic in case of Cd(II) and paraquat and antagonistic in case of diuron. No interaction on photosynthesis was observed for S-metolachlor, which acts dissimilarly to UVR. However, combined effects of S-metolachlor and UVR on algal reproduction were synergistic, highlighting the importance of considering additional MOA of UVR. Possible mechanisms of stressor effect interactions are

  17. Multiple stressor effects in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii – Toward understanding mechanisms of interaction between effects of ultraviolet radiation and chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkaric, Muris; Behra, Renata; Fischer, Beat B.; Junghans, Marion; Eggen, Rik I.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Systematic study of multiple stressor effects of UVR and chemicals in C. reinhardtii. • UVR and chemicals did not act independently on algal photosynthesis and reproduction. • Multiple stressor effects of UVR and chemicals depended on chemical MOA. • Synergistic effect interactions not limited to oxidative stress inducing chemicals. • Multiple MOAs of UVR may limit applicability of current prediction models. - Abstract: The effects of chemical pollutants and environmental stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), can interact when organisms are simultaneously exposed, resulting in higher (synergistic) or lower (antagonistic) multiple stressor effects than expected based on the effects of single stressors. Current understanding of interactive effects is limited due to a lack of mechanism-based multiple stressor studies. It has been hypothesized that effect interactions may generally occur if chemical and non-chemical stressors cause similar physiological effects in the organism. To test this hypothesis, we exposed the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to combinations of UVR and single chemicals displaying modes of action (MOA) similar or dissimilar to the impact of UVR on photosynthesis. Stressor interactions were analyzed based on the independent action model. Effect interactions were found to depend on the MOA of the chemicals, and also on their concentrations, the exposure time and the measured endpoint. Indeed, only chemicals assumed to cause effects on photosynthesis similar to UVR showed interactions with UVR on photosynthetic yield: synergistic in case of Cd(II) and paraquat and antagonistic in case of diuron. No interaction on photosynthesis was observed for S-metolachlor, which acts dissimilarly to UVR. However, combined effects of S-metolachlor and UVR on algal reproduction were synergistic, highlighting the importance of considering additional MOA of UVR. Possible mechanisms of stressor effect interactions are

  18. Multiple stressor effects in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii--toward understanding mechanisms of interaction between effects of ultraviolet radiation and chemical pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkaric, Muris; Behra, Renata; Fischer, Beat B; Junghans, Marion; Eggen, Rik I L

    2015-05-01

    The effects of chemical pollutants and environmental stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), can interact when organisms are simultaneously exposed, resulting in higher (synergistic) or lower (antagonistic) multiple stressor effects than expected based on the effects of single stressors. Current understanding of interactive effects is limited due to a lack of mechanism-based multiple stressor studies. It has been hypothesized that effect interactions may generally occur if chemical and non-chemical stressors cause similar physiological effects in the organism. To test this hypothesis, we exposed the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to combinations of UVR and single chemicals displaying modes of action (MOA) similar or dissimilar to the impact of UVR on photosynthesis. Stressor interactions were analyzed based on the independent action model. Effect interactions were found to depend on the MOA of the chemicals, and also on their concentrations, the exposure time and the measured endpoint. Indeed, only chemicals assumed to cause effects on photosynthesis similar to UVR showed interactions with UVR on photosynthetic yield: synergistic in case of Cd(II) and paraquat and antagonistic in case of diuron. No interaction on photosynthesis was observed for S-metolachlor, which acts dissimilarly to UVR. However, combined effects of S-metolachlor and UVR on algal reproduction were synergistic, highlighting the importance of considering additional MOA of UVR. Possible mechanisms of stressor effect interactions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrated assessment of chemical stressors and ecological impact in mixed land use stream systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne Thobo

    activities, including contaminated sites. To determine potential impacts, the chemical quality of both organic (i.e. pharmaceuticals, gasoline constituents, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides) and inorganic (i.e. metals, general water chemistry and macroions) compounds was assessed in all three stream...... multiple compounds (i.e. organic and inorganic chemical stressors) and stream compartments to locate key sources and risk drivers. The approaches and findings in this thesis could truly be helpful for management and future remediation of mixed land use stream systems....... of the different stream compartments thus comprises both temporal and spatial variation. Despite the growing understanding of the complexity, approaches for a holistic risk assessment of the potential impacts in the three stream compartments of a mixed land use stream system are still missing. To investigate...

  20. A catchment scale evaluation of multiple stressor effects in headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jes J; McKnight, Ursula S; Loinaz, Maria C; Thomsen, Nanna I; Olsson, Mikael E; Bjerg, Poul L; Binning, Philip J; Kronvang, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation activities to improve water quality and quantity in streams as well as stream management and restoration efforts are conducted in the European Union aiming to improve the chemical, physical and ecological status of streams. Headwater streams are often characterised by impairment of hydromorphological, chemical, and ecological conditions due to multiple anthropogenic impacts. However, they are generally disregarded as water bodies for mitigation activities in the European Water Framework Directive despite their importance for supporting a higher ecological quality in higher order streams. We studied 11 headwater streams in the Hove catchment in the Copenhagen region. All sites had substantial physical habitat and water quality impairments due to anthropogenic influence (intensive agriculture, urban settlements, contaminated sites and low base-flow due to water abstraction activities in the catchment). We aimed to identify the dominating anthropogenic stressors at the catchment scale causing ecological impairment of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and provide a rank-order of importance that could help in prioritising mitigation activities. We identified numerous chemical and hydromorphological impacts of which several were probably causing major ecological impairments, but we were unable to provide a robust rank-ordering of importance suggesting that targeted mitigation efforts on single anthropogenic stressors in the catchment are unlikely to have substantial effects on the ecological quality in these streams. The SPEcies At Risk (SPEAR) index explained most of the variability in the macroinvertebrate community structure, and notably, SPEAR index scores were often very low (<10% SPEAR abundance). An extensive re-sampling of a subset of the streams provided evidence that especially insecticides were probably essential contributors to the overall ecological impairment of these streams. Our results suggest that headwater streams should be considered in

  1. Ecological risk assessment of mixtures of radiological and chemical stressors: Methodology to implement an msPAF approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumelle, Léa; Della Vedova, Claire; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Gilbin, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    A main challenge in ecological risk assessment is to account for the impact of multiple stressors. Nuclear facilities can release both radiological and chemical stressors in the environment. This study is the first to apply species sensitivity distribution (SSD) combined with mixture models (concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA)) to derive an integrated proxy of the ecological impact of combined radiological and chemical stressors: msPAF (multisubstance potentially affected fraction of species). The approach was tested on the routine liquid effluents from nuclear power plants that contain both radioactive and stable chemicals. The SSD of ionising radiation was significantly flatter than the SSD of 8 stable chemicals (namely Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, B, chlorides and sulphates). This difference in shape had strong implications for the selection of the appropriate mixture model: contrarily to the general expectations the IA model gave more conservative (higher msPAF) results than the CA model. The msPAF approach was further used to rank the relative potential impact of radiological versus chemical stressors. - Highlights: • msPAF methodology was applied on mixtures of radiological and chemical stressors. • A consistent set of chronic SSDs was collected for ionising radiation and 8 stable chemicals. • The SSD of ionising radiation had lower steepness than the SSD of stable chemicals. • This resulted in higher msPAF values based on the IA than on the CA mixture model. - The msPAF approach combining SSD and mixture models was used for the first time on mixtures of radiological and chemical stressors.

  2. Embracing interactions in ocean acidification research: confronting multiple stressor scenarios and context dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Kristy J; Kordas, Rebecca L; Harley, Christopher D G

    2017-03-01

    Changes in the Earth's environment are now sufficiently complex that our ability to forecast the emergent ecological consequences of ocean acidification (OA) is limited. Such projections are challenging because the effects of OA may be enhanced, reduced or even reversed by other environmental stressors or interactions among species. Despite an increasing emphasis on multifactor and multispecies studies in global change biology, our ability to forecast outcomes at higher levels of organization remains low. Much of our failure lies in a poor mechanistic understanding of nonlinear responses, a lack of specificity regarding the levels of organization at which interactions can arise, and an incomplete appreciation for linkages across these levels. To move forward, we need to fully embrace interactions. Mechanistic studies on physiological processes and individual performance in response to OA must be complemented by work on population and community dynamics. We must also increase our understanding of how linkages and feedback among multiple environmental stressors and levels of organization can generate nonlinear responses to OA. This will not be a simple undertaking, but advances are of the utmost importance as we attempt to mitigate the effects of ongoing global change. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. The Interactive Effect of Multiple Stressors on Crustacean Zooplankton Communities in Montane Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Jeffrey T.; Strecker, Angela L.

    2018-02-01

    Nonnative fish introductions have altered thousands of naturally fishless montane lakes, resulting in cascading food web repercussions. Nitrogen deposition has been recognized as an anthropogenic contributor to acidification and eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, which may affect the abundance and composition of planktonic communities. This study identified responses of zooplankton communities from two lakes (fish present versus absent) in Mount Rainier National Park to manipulations simulating an episodic disturbance of acidification and eutrophication via nitrogen addition in mesocosms. Zooplankton communities from lakes with different food web structure (i.e., fish present or absent) responded differently to the singular effects of acid and nitrogen addition. For instance, zooplankton biomass decreased in the acid treatment of the fishless lake experiment, but increased in response to acid in the fish-present experiment. In contrast, the combination of acid and nitrogen often resulted in weak responses for both lake types, resulting in nonadditive effects, i.e., the net effect of the stressors was in the opposite direction than predicted, which is known as a reversal or "ecological surprise." This experiment demonstrates the difficulty in predicting the interactive effects of multiple stressors on aquatic communities, which may pose significant challenges for habitat restoration through fish removal.

  4. Comparison of lipid peroxidation and catalase response in invasive dreissenid mussels exposed to single and multiple stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Carly J; Kashian, Donna R

    2018-02-14

    Dreissenid mussels Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel) and Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) are prolific invasive species to the freshwaters of the United States and Western Europe. In the Great Lakes, D. polymorpha has initially dominated the system since its invasion in the mid-1980s; however, recently D. bugensis has displaced D. polymorpha as the dominant species. Dreissena bugensis has several competitive advantages over D. polymorpha, including greater tolerances to deeper and colder waters and lower respiration rates. Nevertheless, physiological differences between the species remain largely unknown. The oxidative stress response is a mechanism used by all organisms to mitigate environmental stress by reducing oxygen radicals in the body, and comparing this mechanism between similar species can be useful for understanding how different species compete in aquatic environments. We compared oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation [LPO] and catalase [CAT] activity) in mussels after exposure to 4 stressors (i.e., high densities, temperature, hypoxia, and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]) independently and in combinations of 2 stressors. Overall, D. bugensis had lower LPO and CAT activity than D. polymorpha when exposed to single stressors; however, in multiple stressor treatments D. bugensis had increased LPO, especially with high temperatures and PCBs. The lower lipid damage in D. bugensis compared with D. polymorpha under single stressor conditions may come at the cost of the ability to respond to multiple stressors. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;9999:1-12. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  5. Large-scale recovery of an endangered amphibian despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Roland A.; Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A. W.; Vrendenburg, Vance T.; Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Briggs, Cheryl J.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are one of the most threatened animal groups, with 32% of species at risk for extinction. Given this imperiled status, is the disappearance of a large fraction of the Earth’s amphibians inevitable, or are some declining species more resilient than is generally assumed? We address this question in a species that is emblematic of many declining amphibians, the endangered Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog (Rana sierrae). Based on >7,000 frog surveys conducted across Yosemite National Park over a 20-y period, we show that, after decades of decline and despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors, including introduced fish, the recently emerged disease chytridiomycosis, and pesticides, R. sierrae abundance increased sevenfold during the study and at a rate of 11% per year. These increases occurred in hundreds of populations throughout Yosemite, providing a rare example of amphibian recovery at an ecologically relevant spatial scale. Results from a laboratory experiment indicate that these increases may be in part because of reduced frog susceptibility to chytridiomycosis. The disappearance of nonnative fish from numerous water bodies after cessation of stocking also contributed to the recovery. The large-scale increases in R. sierrae abundance that we document suggest that, when habitats are relatively intact and stressors are reduced in their importance by active management or species’ adaptive responses, declines of some amphibians may be partially reversible, at least at a regional scale. Other studies conducted over similarly large temporal and spatial scales are critically needed to provide insight and generality about the reversibility of amphibian declines at a global scale.

  6. Quantitative analysis of oyster larval proteome provides new insights into the effects of multiple climate change stressors

    KAUST Repository

    Dineshram, Ramadoss; Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli; Ko, Ginger Wai Kuen; Zhang, Huoming; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2016-01-01

    might be affected in a future ocean, we examined changes in the proteome of metamorphosing larvae under multiple stressors: decreased pH (pH 7.4), increased temperature (30 °C), and reduced salinity (15 psu). Quantitative protein expression profiling

  7. APPROACHES FOR INCORPORATING NON-CHEMICAL STRESSORS INTO CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past twenty years, the risk assessment paradigm has gradually shifted from an individual chemical approach to a community-based model. Inherent in community-based risk assessment is consideration of the totality of stressors affecting a defined population including both ...

  8. Preliminary investigation of the effects of exposure to multiple health stressors using the physiological strain index

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available stressors and various combinations of stressors. The results indicated that noise exposure caused a statistically significant increase in PSI scores. None of the results for exposure to heat alone, physical work alone or the two in combination showed a...

  9. Quantitative analysis of oyster larval proteome provides new insights into the effects of multiple climate change stressors

    KAUST Repository

    Dineshram, Ramadoss

    2016-03-19

    The metamorphosis of planktonic larvae of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) underpins their complex life-history strategy by switching on the molecular machinery required for sessile life and building calcite shells. Metamorphosis becomes a survival bottleneck, which will be pressured by different anthropogenically induced climate change-related variables. Therefore, it is important to understand how metamorphosing larvae interact with emerging climate change stressors. To predict how larvae might be affected in a future ocean, we examined changes in the proteome of metamorphosing larvae under multiple stressors: decreased pH (pH 7.4), increased temperature (30 °C), and reduced salinity (15 psu). Quantitative protein expression profiling using iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS identified more than 1300 proteins. Decreased pH had a negative effect on metamorphosis by down-regulating several proteins involved in energy production, metabolism, and protein synthesis. However, warming switched on these down-regulated pathways at pH 7.4. Under multiple stressors, cell signaling, energy production, growth, and developmental pathways were up-regulated, although metamorphosis was still reduced. Despite the lack of lethal effects, significant physiological responses to both individual and interacting climate change related stressors were observed at proteome level. The metamorphosing larvae of the C. gigas population in the Yellow Sea appear to have adequate phenotypic plasticity at the proteome level to survive in future coastal oceans, but with developmental and physiological costs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Multiple stressor effects on marine infauna: responses of estuarine taxa and functional traits to sedimentation, nutrient and metal loading

    KAUST Repository

    Ellis, Joanne

    2017-09-14

    Sedimentation, nutrients and metal loading to coastal environments are increasing, associated with urbanization and global warming, hence there is a growing need to predict ecological responses to such change. Using a regression technique we predicted how maximum abundance of 20 macrobenthic taxa and 22 functional traits separately and interactively responded to these key stressors. The abundance of most taxa declined in response to sedimentation and metal loading while a unimodal response was often associated with nutrient loading. Optimum abundances for both taxa and traits occurred at relatively low stressor levels, highlighting the vulnerability of estuaries to increasing stressor loads. Individual taxa were more susceptible to stress than traits, suggesting that functional traits may be less sensitive for detecting changes in ecosystem health. Multiplicative effects were more common than additive interactions. The observed sensitivity of most taxa to increasing sedimentation and metal loading and the documented interaction effects between multiple stressors have important implications for understanding and managing the ecological consequences of eutrophication, sedimentation and contaminants on coastal ecosystems.

  11. Assessing vulnerability to climate change and socioeconomic stressors in the Reef Islands group, Solomon Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    aims at critically re-assessing this view by placing climate in the context of a range of other internal and external stressors affecting local livelihoods, including population growth, inadequate land use practices, and lack of economic potential, as well as external factors such as poorly developed...

  12. Multiple diagnosis in posttraumatic stress disorder. The role of war stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B L; Lindy, J D; Grace, M C; Gleser, G C

    1989-06-01

    Prior studies have shown that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Vietnam veterans is associated with various aspects of war stressors and that other diagnoses often co-occur with PTSD in this population. The present report examines the prediction of other diagnoses, in combination with PTSD, from a variety of war stressor experiences in a broad sample of veterans recruited from clinical and nonclinical sources. The results show that PTSD with panic disorder is better explained by war stressors than other diagnostic combinations and that high-risk assignments and exposure to grotesque deaths were more salient than other stressor experiences in accounting for different diagnostic combinations. Implications of the findings for PTSD's placement in the DSM-III-R and for psychological and pharmacological treatments were discussed.

  13. Interactions between chemical and climate stressors: A role for mechanistic toxicology in assessing climate change risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael J.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Cristol, Daniel A.; Maryoung, Lindley A.; Noyes, Pamela D.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2013-01-01

    Incorporation of global climate change (GCC) effects into assessments of chemical risk and injury requires integrated examinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Environmental variables altered by GCC (temperature, precipitation, salinity, pH) can influence the toxicokinetics of chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion as well as toxicodynamic interactions between chemicals and target molecules. In addition, GCC challenges processes critical for coping with the external environment (water balance, thermoregulation, nutrition, and the immune, endocrine, and neurological systems), leaving organisms sensitive to even slight perturbations by chemicals when pushed to the limits of their physiological tolerance range. In simplest terms, GCC can make organisms more sensitive to chemical stressors, while alternatively, exposure to chemicals can make organisms more sensitive to GCC stressors. One challenge is to identify potential interactions between nonchemical and chemical stressors affecting key physiological processes in an organism. We employed adverse outcome pathways, constructs depicting linkages between mechanism-based molecular initiating events and impacts on individuals or populations, to assess how chemical- and climate-specific variables interact to lead to adverse outcomes. Case examples are presented for prospective scenarios, hypothesizing potential chemical–GCC interactions, and retrospective scenarios, proposing mechanisms for demonstrated chemical–climate interactions in natural populations. Understanding GCC interactions along adverse outcome pathways facilitates extrapolation between species or other levels of organization, development of hypotheses and focal areas for further research, and improved inputs for risk and resource injury assessments.

  14. Using gene transcription to assess ecological and anthropological stressors in brown bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Waters, Shannon C.; Gustine, Dave; Joly, Kyle; Hilderbrand, Grant V.

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, population- and ecosystem-level health assessments are performed using sophisticated molecular tools. Advances in molecular technology enable the identification of synergistic effects of multiple stressors on the individual physiology of different species. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are an apex predator; thus, they are ideal candidates for detecting potentially ecosystem-level systemic perturbations using molecular-based tools. We used gene transcription to analyze 130 brown bear samples from three National Parks and Preserves in Alaska. Although the populations we studied are apparently stable in abundance and exist within protected and intact environments, differences in transcript profiles were noted. The most prevalent differences were among locations. The transcript patterns among groups reflect the influence of environmental factors, such as nutritional status, disease, and xenobiotic exposure. However, these profiles also likely represent baselines for each unique environment by which future measures can be made to identify early indication of population-level changes due to, for example, increasing Arctic temperatures. Some of those environmental changes are predicted to be potentially positive for brown bears, but other effects such as the manifestation of disease or indirect effects of oceanic acidification may produce negative impacts.

  15. Stressors and Caregivers’ Depression: Multiple Mediators of Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Problem-solving Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyan; Jang, Heejung; Lingler, Jennifer; Tamres, Lisa K.; Erlen, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Caring for an older adult with memory loss is stressful. Caregiver stress could produce negative outcomes such as depression. Previous research is limited in examining multiple intermediate pathways from caregiver stress to depressive symptoms. This study addresses this limitation by examining the role of self-efficacy, social support, and problem-solving in mediating the relationships between caregiver stressors and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 91 family caregivers, we tested simultaneously multiple mediators between caregiver stressors and depression. Results indicate that self-efficacy mediated the pathway from daily hassles to depression. Findings point to the importance of improving self-efficacy in psychosocial interventions for caregivers of older adults with memory loss. PMID:26317766

  16. Stressors and Caregivers' Depression: Multiple Mediators of Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Problem-Solving Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyan; Jang, Heejung; Lingler, Jennifer; Tamres, Lisa K; Erlen, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Caring for an older adult with memory loss is stressful. Caregiver stress could produce negative outcomes such as depression. Previous research is limited in examining multiple intermediate pathways from caregiver stress to depressive symptoms. This study addresses this limitation by examining the role of self-efficacy, social support, and problem solving in mediating the relationships between caregiver stressors and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 91 family caregivers, we tested simultaneously multiple mediators between caregiver stressors and depression. Results indicate that self-efficacy mediated the pathway from daily hassles to depression. Findings point to the importance of improving self-efficacy in psychosocial interventions for caregivers of older adults with memory loss.

  17. Stressors and Caregivers’ Depression: Multiple Mediators of Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Problem-solving Skill

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Fengyan; Jang, Heejung; Lingler, Jennifer; Tamres, Lisa K.; Erlen, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Caring for an older adult with memory loss is stressful. Caregiver stress could produce negative outcomes such as depression. Previous research is limited in examining multiple intermediate pathways from caregiver stress to depressive symptoms. This study addresses this limitation by examining the role of self-efficacy, social support, and problem-solving in mediating the relationships between caregiver stressors and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 91 family caregivers, we tested simul...

  18. Oxidative responsiveness to multiple stressors in the key Antarctic species, Adamussium colbecki: Interactions between temperature, acidification and cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Maura; Lanzoni, Ilaria; Nardi, Alessandro; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Di Carlo, Marta; Fattorini, Daniele; Nigro, Marco; Regoli, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    High-latitude marine ecosystems are ranked to be among the most sensitive regions to climate change since highly stenothermal and specially adapted organisms might be seriously affected by global warming and ocean acidification. The present investigation was aimed to provide new insights on the sensitivity to such environmental stressors in the key Antarctic species, Adamussium colbecki, focussing also on their synergistic effects with cadmium exposure, naturally abundant in this area for upwelling phenomena. Scallops were exposed for 2 weeks to various combinations of Cd (0 and 40 μgL-1), pH (8.05 and 7.60) and temperature (-1 and +1 °C). Beside Cd bioaccumulation, a wide panel of early warning biomarkers were analysed in digestive glands and gills including levels of metallothioneins, individual antioxidants and total oxyradical scavenging capacity, onset of oxidative cell damage like lipid peroxidation, lysosomal stability, DNA integrity and peroxisomal proliferation. Results indicated reciprocal interactions between multiple stressors and their elaboration by a quantitative hazard model based on the relevance and magnitude of effects, highlighted a different sensitivity of analysed tissues. Due to cellular adaptations to high basal Cd content, digestive gland appeared more tolerant toward other prooxidant stressors, but sensitive to variations of the metal. On the other hand, gills were more affected by various combinations of stressors occurring at higher temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. INPRO Methodology for Sustainability Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems: Environmental Impact of Stressors. INPRO Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides guidance on assessing of sustainability of a nuclear energy system (NES) in the area of environmental impact of stressors. The INPRO methodology is a comprehensive tool for the assessment of sustainability of an NES. Basic principles, user requirements and criteria have been defined in different areas of INPRO methodology. These include economics, infrastructure, waste management, proliferation resistance, environmental impact of stressors, environmental impact from depletion of resources, and safety of nuclear reactors and fuel cycle facilities. The ultimate goal of the application of the INPRO methodology is to check whether the assessed NES fulfils all the criteria, and hence the user requirements and basic principles, and therefore presents a system for a Member State that is sustainable in the long term

  20. Estimating the effect of multiple environmental stressors on coral bleaching and mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Welle

    Full Text Available Coral cover has been declining in recent decades due to increased temperatures and environmental stressors. However, the extent to which different stressors contribute both individually and in concert to bleaching and mortality is still very uncertain. We develop and use a novel regression approach, using non-linear parametric models that control for unobserved time invariant effects to estimate the effects on coral bleaching and mortality due to temperature, solar radiation, depth, hurricanes and anthropogenic stressors using historical data from a large bleaching event in 2005 across the Caribbean. Two separate models are created, one to predict coral bleaching, and the other to predict near-term mortality. A large ensemble of supporting data is assembled to control for omitted variable bias and improve fit, and a significant improvement in fit is observed from univariate linear regression based on temperature alone. The results suggest that climate stressors (temperature and radiation far outweighed direct anthropogenic stressors (using distance from shore and nearby human population density as a proxy for such stressors in driving coral health outcomes during the 2005 event. Indeed, temperature was found to play a role ~4 times greater in both the bleaching and mortality response than population density across their observed ranges. The empirical models tested in this study have large advantages over ordinary-least squares-they offer unbiased estimates for censored data, correct for spatial correlation, and are capable of handling more complex relationships between dependent and independent variables. The models offer a framework for preparing for future warming events and climate change; guiding monitoring and attribution of other bleaching and mortality events regionally and around the globe; and informing adaptive management and conservation efforts.

  1. Estimating the effect of multiple environmental stressors on coral bleaching and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Paul D; Small, Mitchell J; Doney, Scott C; Azevedo, Inês L

    2017-01-01

    Coral cover has been declining in recent decades due to increased temperatures and environmental stressors. However, the extent to which different stressors contribute both individually and in concert to bleaching and mortality is still very uncertain. We develop and use a novel regression approach, using non-linear parametric models that control for unobserved time invariant effects to estimate the effects on coral bleaching and mortality due to temperature, solar radiation, depth, hurricanes and anthropogenic stressors using historical data from a large bleaching event in 2005 across the Caribbean. Two separate models are created, one to predict coral bleaching, and the other to predict near-term mortality. A large ensemble of supporting data is assembled to control for omitted variable bias and improve fit, and a significant improvement in fit is observed from univariate linear regression based on temperature alone. The results suggest that climate stressors (temperature and radiation) far outweighed direct anthropogenic stressors (using distance from shore and nearby human population density as a proxy for such stressors) in driving coral health outcomes during the 2005 event. Indeed, temperature was found to play a role ~4 times greater in both the bleaching and mortality response than population density across their observed ranges. The empirical models tested in this study have large advantages over ordinary-least squares-they offer unbiased estimates for censored data, correct for spatial correlation, and are capable of handling more complex relationships between dependent and independent variables. The models offer a framework for preparing for future warming events and climate change; guiding monitoring and attribution of other bleaching and mortality events regionally and around the globe; and informing adaptive management and conservation efforts.

  2. The Quechua manta pouch: a caretaking practice for buffering the Peruvian infant against the multiple stressors of high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronick, E Z; Thomas, R B; Daltabuit, M

    1994-08-01

    The manta pouch--a caretaking practice of tightly swaddling and enclosing the infant in a set of cloths and blankets--and other caretaking practices are described for high-altitude resident (> 4,000 m) Quechua mother-infant pairs (N = 14). The manta pouch modifies the microenvironment inside the pouch so that, compared to the ambient environment, the temperature is higher and more stable, the humidity is higher, the partial pressure of O2 is lower, and stimulation levels are reduced. As the infant gets older, the characteristics of the pouch are modified such that the infant is increasingly exposed to ambient conditions. These caretaking practices may benefit the infant by buffering the infant from the multiple ecological stressors of high altitude, but they may also incur costs by exposing the infant to additional microenvironmental stressors (e.g., higher CO2 levels) and by reducing stimulation and limiting infant movement.

  3. Accounting for multiple stressors in regional stream ecosystem analysis: A demonstration with riparian invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Questions/Methods: Large cross-sectional data sets allow testing of hypotheses about how one part of an ecosystem relates to other parts. Tests such as these are of interest for many reasons, one of which is to gain insight into the role of stressors, such as land co...

  4. Assessing Children's Multiplicative Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Chris; Hurrell, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Multiplicative thinking is a "big idea" of mathematics that underpins much of the mathematics learned beyond the early primary school years. This paper reports on a current study that utilises an interview tool and a written quiz to gather data about children's multiplicative thinking. The development of the tools and some of the…

  5. The interactive effects of multiple stressors on physiological stress responses and club cell investment in fathead minnows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manek, Aditya K.; Ferrari, Maud C.O.; Niyogi, Som; Chivers, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have dramatically increased over the past decades, with the consequence that many organisms are simultaneously exposed to multiple stressors. Understanding how organisms respond to these stressors is a key focus for scientists from many disciplines. Here we investigated the interactive effects of two stressors, UV radiation (UVR) and cadmium (Cd) exposure on a common freshwater fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). UVR is known to influence the density of epidermal club cells (ECCs), which are not only a key component of the innate immune system of fishes, but are also the source of chemical alarm cues that serve to warn other fishes of nearby predators. In contrast, Cd impairs the physiological stress response and ability of fish to respond to alarm cues. We used an integrative approach to examine physiological stress response as well as investment in ECCs. Fish exposed to UVR had higher levels of cortisol than non-exposed controls, but Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UVR. Fish exposed to UVR, either in the presence or absence of Cd, showed consistent decreases in ECC investment compared to non-exposed controls. Despite differences in ECC number, there was no difference in the potency of alarm cues prepared from the skin of UVR and Cd exposed or non-exposed fish indicating that UVR and Cd exposure combined may have little influence on chemically-mediated predator–prey interactions. - Highlights: • UV radiation caused a physiological stress response (cortisol release) in fish. • Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UV. • Fish exposed to UV, with or without Cd, showed decreases in club cell investment. • There was no difference in alarm cues potency from UV and Cd exposed fish. • Our work highlights the difficulty of untangling effects of multiple stressors

  6. The interactive effects of multiple stressors on physiological stress responses and club cell investment in fathead minnows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manek, Aditya K., E-mail: aditya.manek@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada); Ferrari, Maud C.O. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, WCVM, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4 (Canada); Niyogi, Som; Chivers, Douglas P. [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities have dramatically increased over the past decades, with the consequence that many organisms are simultaneously exposed to multiple stressors. Understanding how organisms respond to these stressors is a key focus for scientists from many disciplines. Here we investigated the interactive effects of two stressors, UV radiation (UVR) and cadmium (Cd) exposure on a common freshwater fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). UVR is known to influence the density of epidermal club cells (ECCs), which are not only a key component of the innate immune system of fishes, but are also the source of chemical alarm cues that serve to warn other fishes of nearby predators. In contrast, Cd impairs the physiological stress response and ability of fish to respond to alarm cues. We used an integrative approach to examine physiological stress response as well as investment in ECCs. Fish exposed to UVR had higher levels of cortisol than non-exposed controls, but Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UVR. Fish exposed to UVR, either in the presence or absence of Cd, showed consistent decreases in ECC investment compared to non-exposed controls. Despite differences in ECC number, there was no difference in the potency of alarm cues prepared from the skin of UVR and Cd exposed or non-exposed fish indicating that UVR and Cd exposure combined may have little influence on chemically-mediated predator–prey interactions. - Highlights: • UV radiation caused a physiological stress response (cortisol release) in fish. • Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UV. • Fish exposed to UV, with or without Cd, showed decreases in club cell investment. • There was no difference in alarm cues potency from UV and Cd exposed fish. • Our work highlights the difficulty of untangling effects of multiple stressors.

  7. Momentary Assessment of Psychosocial Stressors, Context, and Asthma Symptoms in Hispanic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve; Dzubur, Eldin; Li, Marilyn; Huh, Jimi; Intille, Stephen; McConnell, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a novel real-time data capture strategy, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), to examine whether within-day variability in stress and context leads to exacerbations in asthma symptomatology in the everyday lives of ethnic minority adolescents. Low-income Hispanic adolescents (N = 20; 7th-12th grade; 54% male) with chronic asthma completed 7 days of EMA on smartphones, with an average of five assessments per day during non-school time. EMA surveys queried about where (e.g., home, outdoors) and with whom (e.g., alone, with friends) participants were at the time of the prompt. EMA surveys also assessed over the past few hours whether participants had experienced specific stressors (e.g., being teased, arguing with anyone), asthma symptoms (e.g., wheezing, coughing), or used an asthma inhaler. Multilevel models tested the independent relations of specific stressors and context to subsequent asthma symptoms adjusting for age, gender, and chronological day in the study. Being outdoors, experiencing disagreements with parents, teasing, and arguing were associated with more severe self-reported asthma symptoms in the next few hours (ps time data capture strategy, results provide preliminary evidence that being outdoors and experiencing social stressors may induce asthma symptoms in low-income Hispanic children and adolescents with chronic asthma. The results of this preliminary study can serve as a basis for larger epidemiological and intervention studies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Integrated assessment of the impact of chemical stressors on surface water ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S; Rasmussen, Jes J; Kronvang, Brian

    2012-01-01

    of chemical stressors on stream ecosystems are evaluated for a stream in Denmark where the effects of major physical habitat degradation can be disregarded. The methods are: (i) the Danish Stream Fauna Index, (ii) Toxic Units (TU), (iii) SPEAR indices, (iv) Hazard Quotient (HQ) index and (v) AQUATOX...... of this case study, the HQ index and AQUATOX were extended for additional compounds, not only partly to identify potential compounds of concern, but also to determine thresholds where ecological impacts could be expected to occur. The results demonstrate that some commonly used methods for the assessment...... of ecological impact are not sufficient for capturing - and ideally separating - the effects of all anthropogenic stressors affecting ecosystems. Predictive modelling techniques can be especially useful in supporting early decisions on prioritising hot spots, serving to identify knowledge gaps and thereby...

  9. A catchment scale evaluation of multiple stressor effects in headwater streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J. J.; McKnight, Ursula S.; Loinaz, Maria Christina

    2013-01-01

    studied 11 headwater streams in the Hove catchment in the Copenhagen region. All sites had substantial physical habitat and water quality impairments due to anthropogenic influence (intensive agriculture, urban settlements, contaminated sites and low base-flow due to water abstraction activities...... insecticides were probably essential contributors to the overall ecological impairment of these streams. Our results suggest that headwater streams should be considered in future management and mitigation plans. Catchment-based management is necessary because several anthropogenic stressors exceeded...

  10. Multiple stressors, nonlinear effects and the implications of climate change impacts on marine coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Judi E; Ellis, Joanne I; Thrush, Simon F

    2016-08-01

    Global climate change will undoubtedly be a pressure on coastal marine ecosystems, affecting not only species distributions and physiology but also ecosystem functioning. In the coastal zone, the environmental variables that may drive ecological responses to climate change include temperature, wave energy, upwelling events and freshwater inputs, and all act and interact at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. To date, we have a poor understanding of how climate-related environmental changes may affect coastal marine ecosystems or which environmental variables are likely to produce priority effects. Here we use time series data (17 years) of coastal benthic macrofauna to investigate responses to a range of climate-influenced variables including sea-surface temperature, southern oscillation indices (SOI, Z4), wind-wave exposure, freshwater inputs and rainfall. We investigate responses from the abundances of individual species to abundances of functional traits and test whether species that are near the edge of their tolerance to another stressor (in this case sedimentation) may exhibit stronger responses. The responses we observed were all nonlinear and some exhibited thresholds. While temperature was most frequently an important predictor, wave exposure and ENSO-related variables were also frequently important and most ecological variables responded to interactions between environmental variables. There were also indications that species sensitive to another stressor responded more strongly to weaker climate-related environmental change at the stressed site than the unstressed site. The observed interactions between climate variables, effects on key species or functional traits, and synergistic effects of additional anthropogenic stressors have important implications for understanding and predicting the ecological consequences of climate change to coastal ecosystems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Vulnerability, risk perception, and health profile of marginalized people exposed to multiple built-environment stressors in Worcester, Massachusetts: a pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Timothy J; Ross, Laurie; Goble, Robert; Subedi, Rajendra; Greenberg, Sara; Taylor, Octavia

    2011-04-01

    Millions of low-income people of diverse ethnicities inhabit stressful old urban industrial neighborhoods. Yet we know little about the health impacts of built-environment stressors and risk perceptions in such settings; we lack even basic health profiles. Difficult access is one reason (it took us 30 months to survey 80 households); the lack of multifaceted survey tools is another. We designed and implemented a pilot vulnerability assessment tool in Worcester, Massachusetts. We answer: (1) How can we assess vulnerability to multiple stressors? (2) What is the nature of complex vulnerability-including risk perceptions and health profiles? (3) How can findings be used by our wider community, and what lessons did we learn? (4) What implications arise for science and policy? We sought a holistic picture of neighborhood life. A reasonably representative sample of 80 respondents captured data for 254 people about: demographics, community concerns and resources, time-activity patterns, health information, risk/stress perceptions, and resources/capacities for coping. Our key findings derive partly from the survey data and partly from our experience in obtaining those data. Data strongly suggest complex vulnerability dominated by psychosocial stress. Unexpected significant gender and ethnic disease disparities emerged: notably, females have twice the disease burden of males, and white females twice the burden of females of color (p Risk Analysis.

  12. Multiple stressors threaten the imperiled coastal foundation species eelgrass (Zostera marina) in Chesapeake Bay, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefcheck, Jonathan S; Wilcox, David J; Murphy, Rebecca R; Marion, Scott R; Orth, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    Interactions among global change stressors and their effects at large scales are often proposed, but seldom evaluated. This situation is primarily due to lack of comprehensive, sufficiently long-term, and spatially extensive datasets. Seagrasses, which provide nursery habitat, improve water quality, and constitute a globally important carbon sink, are among the most vulnerable habitats on the planet. Here, we unite 31 years of high-resolution aerial monitoring and water quality data to elucidate the patterns and drivers of eelgrass (Zostera marina) abundance in Chesapeake Bay, USA, one of the largest and most valuable estuaries in the world, with an unparalleled history of regulatory efforts. We show that eelgrass area has declined 29% in total since 1991, with wide-ranging and severe ecological and economic consequences. We go on to identify an interaction between decreasing water clarity and warming temperatures as the primary drivers of this trend. Declining clarity has gradually reduced eelgrass cover the past two decades, primarily in deeper beds where light is already limiting. In shallow beds, however, reduced visibility exacerbates the physiological stress of acute warming, leading to recent instances of decline approaching 80%. While degraded water quality has long been known to influence underwater grasses worldwide, we demonstrate a clear and rapidly emerging interaction with climate change. We highlight the urgent need to integrate a broader perspective into local water quality management, in the Chesapeake Bay and in the many other coastal systems facing similar stressors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Novel energy-saving strategies to multiple stressors in birds: the ultradian regulation of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Roussel, Damien; Voituron, Yann; Teulier, Loïc

    2016-09-28

    This study aimed to examine thermoregulatory responses in birds facing two commonly experienced stressors, cold and fasting. Logging devices allowing long-term and precise access to internal body temperature were placed within the gizzards of ducklings acclimated to cold (CA) (5°C) or thermoneutrality (TN) (25°C). The animals were then examined under three equal 4-day periods: ad libitum feeding, fasting and re-feeding. Through the analysis of daily as well as short-term, or ultradian, variations of body temperature, we showed that while ducklings at TN show only a modest decline in daily thermoregulatory parameters when fasted, they exhibit reduced surface temperatures from key sites of vascular heat exchange during fasting. The CA birds, on the other hand, significantly reduced their short-term variations of body temperature while increasing long-term variability when fasting. This phenomenon would allow the CA birds to reduce the energetic cost of body temperature maintenance under fasting. By analysing ultradian regulation of body temperature, we describe a means by which an endotherm appears to lower thermoregulatory costs in response to the combined stressors of cold and fasting. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Functional trait composition of aquatic plants can serve to disentangle multiple interacting stressors in lowland streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette, E-mail: abp@bios.au.dk [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, P.O. Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Göthe, Emma [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, P.O. Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Riis, Tenna [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Ole Worms Allé 1, Building 1135, Room 217, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); O' Hare, Matthew T. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-01

    stress. The ability to disentangle several stressors is particularly important in lowland stream environments where several stressors act in concert since the impact of the most important stressor can be targeted first, which is essential to improve the ecological status. - Highlights: • Functional trait composition of aquatic plants can distinguish hydromorphological degradation from eutrophication in streams • A conceptual framework on how eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation interact on functional trait composition • Weed cutting can set aside light as a factor controlling trait-abundance pattern in eutrophic lowland streams.

  15. Functional trait composition of aquatic plants can serve to disentangle multiple interacting stressors in lowland streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Göthe, Emma; Riis, Tenna; O'Hare, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    stress. The ability to disentangle several stressors is particularly important in lowland stream environments where several stressors act in concert since the impact of the most important stressor can be targeted first, which is essential to improve the ecological status. - Highlights: • Functional trait composition of aquatic plants can distinguish hydromorphological degradation from eutrophication in streams • A conceptual framework on how eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation interact on functional trait composition • Weed cutting can set aside light as a factor controlling trait-abundance pattern in eutrophic lowland streams.

  16. Using macroinvertebrate assemblages and multiple stressors to infer urban stream system condition: A case study in the central US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, John W.; Hubbart, Jason A.; Poulton, Barry C.

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the impacts of hydrologic alterations, pollutants, and habitat degradation on macroinvertebrate species assemblages is of critical value for managers wishing to categorize stream ecosystem condition. A combination of approaches including trait-based metrics and traditional bioassessments provides greater information, particularly in anthropogenic stream ecosystems where traditional approaches can be confounded by variously interacting land use impacts. Macroinvertebrates were collected from two rural and three urban nested study sites in central Missouri, USA during the spring and fall seasons of 2011. Land use responses of conventional taxonomic and trait-based metrics were compared to streamflow indices, physical habitat metrics, and water quality indices. Results show that biotic index was significantly different (p habitats in urban reaches contained 21 % more (p = 0.03) multivoltine organisms, which was positively correlated to the magnitude of peak flows (r2 = 0.91, p = 0.012) suggesting that high flow events may serve as a disturbance in those areas. Results support the use of macroinvertebrate assemblages and multiple stressors to characterize urban stream system condition and highlight the need to better understand the complex interactions of trait-based metrics and anthropogenic aquatic ecosystem stressors.

  17. Multiple Stressors in a Top Predator Seabird: Potential Ecological Consequences of Environmental Contaminants, Population Health and Breeding Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan O Bustnes

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminants may have impacts on reproduction and survival in wildlife populations suffering from multiple stressors. This study examined whether adverse effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs increased with poor population health and breeding conditions in three colonies (60-74°N of great skua (Stercorarius skua in the north-eastern Atlantic (Shetland, Iceland and Bjørnøya [Bear Island]. POPs (organochlorines [OCs] and polybrominated diphenyl ethers [BDEs] were measured in plasma of incubating birds (n = 222, concentrations differing nearly tenfold among colonies: Bjørnøya (2009 > Bjørnøya (2010 > Iceland (2009 > Shetland (2009. Reproductive success (hatching success and chick survival showed that breeding conditions were favourable in Shetland and at Bjørnøya (2010, but were very poor in Iceland and at Bjørnøya (2009. Biomarkers indicated that health was poor in the Shetland population compared to the other populations. Females whose chicks hatched late had high POP concentrations in all colonies except at Bjørnøya (2010, and females losing their eggs at Bjørnøya (2009 tended to have higher concentrations than those hatching. Moreover, there was a negative relationship between female POP concentrations and chick body condition at hatching in Iceland and at Bjørnøya (2010. Supplementary feeding experiments were conducted, and in Iceland where feeding conditions were poor, significant negative relationships were found between female POP concentrations and daily growth-rate in first-hatched chicks of control nests, but not in food supplemented nests. This suggests that negative impacts of POPs were mitigated by improved feeding conditions. For second-chicks, there was a strong negative relationship between the female POP concentrations and growth-rate, but no effects of supplementary feeding. Lowered adult return-rate between breeding seasons with increasing POP loads were found both at Bjørnøya (2009 and

  18. Stressors may compromise medication adherence among adults with diabetes and low socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y; Mayberry, Lindsay Satterwhite; Wagner, Julie A; Welch, Garry W

    2014-10-01

    Studies examining the impact of stressors on diabetes self-care have focused on a single stressor or have been largely qualitative. Therefore, we assessed the stressors experienced by a high-risk population with type 2 diabetes, and tested whether having more stressors was associated with less adherence to multiple self-care behaviors. Participants were recruited from a Federally Qualified Health Center and 192 completed a stressors checklist. Experiencing more stressors was associated with less adherence to diet recommendations and medications among participants who were trying to be adherent, but was not associated with adherence to other self-care behaviors. Because having more stressors was also associated with more depressive symptoms, we further adjusted for depressive symptoms. Stressors remained associated with less adherence to medications, but not to diet recommendations. For adults engaged in adherence, experiencing an accumulation of stressors presents barriers to adherence that are distinct from associated depressive symptoms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Stressors May Compromise Medication Adherence among Adults with Diabetes and Low Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Mayberry, Lindsay S.; Wagner, Julie A.; Welch, Garry W.

    2014-01-01

    Studies examining the impact of stressors on diabetes self-care have been limited by focusing on a single stressor or have been largely qualitative. Therefore, we assessed the stressors experienced by a high-risk population with type 2 diabetes, and tested whether having more stressors was associated with less adherence to multiple self-care behaviors. Participants were recruited from a Federally Qualified Health Center and 192 completed a stressors checklist. Experiencing more stressors was associated with less adherence to diet recommendations and medications among participants who were trying to be adherent, but was not associated with adherence to other self-care behaviors. Because having more stressors was also associated with more depressive symptoms, we further adjusted for depressive symptoms; stressors remained associated with less adherence to medications, but not to diet recommendations. For adults engaged in adherence, experiencing numerous chronic stressors presents barriers to adherence that are distinct from associated depressive symptoms. PMID:24569697

  20. An Integrated Modeling Framework Forecasting Ecosystem Exposure-- A Systems Approach to the Cumulative Impacts of Multiple Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater habitats provide fishable, swimmable and drinkable resources and are a nexus of geophysical and biological processes. These processes in turn influence the persistence and sustainability of populations, communities and ecosystems. Climate change and landuse change encompass numerous stressors of potential exposure, including the introduction of toxic contaminants, invasive species, and disease in addition to physical drivers such as temperature and hydrologic regime. A systems approach that includes the scientific and technologic basis of assessing the health of ecosystems is needed to effectively protect human health and the environment. The Integrated Environmental Modeling Framework 'iemWatersheds' has been developed as a consistent and coherent means of forecasting the cumulative impact of co-occurring stressors. The Framework consists of three facilitating technologies: Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) that automates the collection and standardization of input data; the Framework for Risk Assessment of Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) that manages the flow of information between linked models; and the Supercomputer for Model Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation (SuperMUSE) that provides post-processing and analysis of model outputs, including uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. Five models are linked within the Framework to provide multimedia simulation capabilities for hydrology and water quality processes: the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) predicts surface water and sediment runoff and associated contaminants; the Watershed Mercury Model (WMM) predicts mercury runoff and loading to streams; the Water quality Analysis and Simulation Program (WASP) predicts water quality within the stream channel; the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model scores physicochemical habitat quality for individual fish species; and the Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator (BASS) predicts fish growth, population dynamics and bioaccumulation

  1. Characterizing Risks of Exposures to Combined Stressors: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) addresses the impacts of multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors on communities, resulting from complex exposures for populations with a variety of vulnerabilities. These efforts focus on real world exposure scenarios and applications that ra...

  2. Ecological Production Functions Linking Multiple Stressors to Ecosystem Services – A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ecosystem services concept is being used to frame environmental protection goals that guide management of the risks of chemicals. Ecosystem services link changes in ecological systems to the benefits received by people. The use of ecosystem services in risk assessments and th...

  3. Forest processes and global environmental change: predicting the effects of individual and multiple stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Aber; Ronald P. Neilson; Steve McNulty; James M. Lenihan; Dominque Bachelet; Raymond J. Drapek

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the state of prediction of forest ecosystem response to envisioned changes in the physical and chemical climate. These results are offered as one part of the forest sector analysis of the National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change. This article has three sections. The first offers a very...

  4. Predominant Non-additive Effects of Multiple Stressors on Autotroph C:N:P Ratios Propagate in Freshwater and Marine Food Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Argaiz, Manuel; Medina-Sánchez, Juan M.; Biddanda, Bopaiah A.; Carrillo, Presentación

    2018-01-01

    A continuing challenge for scientists is to understand how multiple interactive stressor factors affect biological interactions, and subsequently, ecosystems–in ways not easily predicted by single factor studies. In this review, we have compiled and analyzed available research on how multiple stressor pairs composed of temperature (T), light (L), ultraviolet radiation (UVR), nutrients (Nut), carbon dioxide (CO2), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and salinity (S) impact the stoichiometry of autotrophs which in turn shapes the nature of their ecological interactions within lower trophic levels in streams, lakes and oceans. Our analysis from 66 studies with 320 observations of 11 stressor pairs, demonstrated that non-additive responses predominate across aquatic ecosystems and their net interactive effect depends on the stressor pair at play. Across systems, there was a prevalence of antagonism in freshwater (60–67% vs. 47% in marine systems) compared to marine systems where synergism was more common (49% vs. 33–40% in freshwaters). While the lack of data impeded comparisons among all of the paired stressors, we found pronounced system differences for the L × Nut interactions. For this interaction, our data for C:P and N:P is consistent with the initial hypothesis that the interaction was primarily synergistic in the oceans, but not for C:N. Our study found a wide range of variability in the net effects of the interactions in freshwater systems, with some observations supporting antagonism, and others synergism. Our results suggest that the nature of the stressor pairs interactions on C:N:P ratios regulates the “continuum” commensalistic-competitive-predatory relationship between algae and bacteria and the food chain efficiency at the algae-herbivore interface. Overall, the scarce number of studies with even more fewer replications in each study that are available for freshwater systems have prevented a more detailed, insightful analysis. Our findings

  5. Predominant Non-additive Effects of Multiple Stressors on Autotroph C:N:P Ratios Propagate in Freshwater and Marine Food Webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Villar-Argaiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuing challenge for scientists is to understand how multiple interactive stressor factors affect biological interactions, and subsequently, ecosystems–in ways not easily predicted by single factor studies. In this review, we have compiled and analyzed available research on how multiple stressor pairs composed of temperature (T, light (L, ultraviolet radiation (UVR, nutrients (Nut, carbon dioxide (CO2, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and salinity (S impact the stoichiometry of autotrophs which in turn shapes the nature of their ecological interactions within lower trophic levels in streams, lakes and oceans. Our analysis from 66 studies with 320 observations of 11 stressor pairs, demonstrated that non-additive responses predominate across aquatic ecosystems and their net interactive effect depends on the stressor pair at play. Across systems, there was a prevalence of antagonism in freshwater (60–67% vs. 47% in marine systems compared to marine systems where synergism was more common (49% vs. 33–40% in freshwaters. While the lack of data impeded comparisons among all of the paired stressors, we found pronounced system differences for the L × Nut interactions. For this interaction, our data for C:P and N:P is consistent with the initial hypothesis that the interaction was primarily synergistic in the oceans, but not for C:N. Our study found a wide range of variability in the net effects of the interactions in freshwater systems, with some observations supporting antagonism, and others synergism. Our results suggest that the nature of the stressor pairs interactions on C:N:P ratios regulates the “continuum” commensalistic-competitive-predatory relationship between algae and bacteria and the food chain efficiency at the algae-herbivore interface. Overall, the scarce number of studies with even more fewer replications in each study that are available for freshwater systems have prevented a more detailed, insightful analysis. Our

  6. Assessment of exposure to chemical agents and ergonomic stressors in tanneries in Kanpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, F G; Rahman, F U; Katagade, V; Shukla, A; Burdorf, A

    1997-10-01

    In developing countries qualitative assessment of exposure at the workplace may be an essential tool in evaluating hazardous working conditions. This survey reports on qualitative assessment of exposure to chemicals, dust, and ergonomic stressors among 298 workers in 15 tanneries in Kanpur, India. In general, chemical exposure and dermal exposure were highest among beamhouse workers, less for workers involved in dry finishing activities, and lowest for those performing the wet finishing of hides. Dermal exposure was rated as high to very high during beamhouse activities, reflecting direct contact with wet hides and manual handling of hides in soak tanks. Relevant dust exposure was observed only during dry finishing activities. Most workers experienced severe postural load due to working in trunk flexion and rotation for more than 50% of their daily work time. In addition, manual materials handling with loads over 20 kg frequently occurred. The size of the tannery, in general a reflection of state of technology, showed no systematic influence on exposure profiles. The survey suggested that mechanization of material transfer and application of trolleys reduced the work time with trunk flexion and rotation and implied less manual lifting. The presence of local exhaust ventilation in large tanneries seemed to reduce the chemical exposure. This survey has demonstrated the importance of rapid appraisal techniques for evaluating hazardous conditions at the workplace. In developing countries this approach may facilitate occupational hygiene research and practice.

  7. Expression of multiple resistance genes enhances tolerance to environmental stressors in transgenic poplar (Populus × euramericana 'Guariento'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Su

    Full Text Available Commercial and non-commercial plants face a variety of environmental stressors that often cannot be controlled. In this study, transgenic hybrid poplar (Populus × euramericana 'Guariento' harboring five effector genes (vgb, SacB, JERF36, BtCry3A and OC-I were subjected to drought, salinity, waterlogging and insect stressors in greenhouse or laboratory conditions. Field trials were also conducted to investigate long-term effects of transgenic trees on insects and salt tolerance in the transformants. In greenhouse studies, two transgenic lines D5-20 and D5-21 showed improved growth, as evidenced by greater height and basal diameter increments and total biomass relative to the control plants after drought or salt stress treatments. The improved tolerance to drought and salt was primarily attributed to greater instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi in the transgenic trees. The chlorophyll concentrations tended to be higher in the transgenic lines under drought or saline conditions. Transformed trees in drought conditions accumulated more fructan and proline and had increased Fv/Fm ratios (maximum quantum yield of photosystem II under waterlogging stress. Insect-feeding assays in the laboratory revealed a higher total mortality rate and lower exuviation index of leaf beetle [Plagiodera versicolora (Laicharting] larvae fed with D5-21 leaves, suggesting enhanced insect resistance in the transgenic poplar. In field trials, the dominance of targeted insects on 2-year-old D5-21 transgenic trees was substantially lower than that of the controls, indicating enhanced resistance to Coleoptera. The average height and DBH (diameter at breast height of 2.5-year-old transgenic trees growing in naturally saline soil were 3.80% and 4.12% greater than those of the control trees, but these increases were not significant. These results suggested that multiple stress-resistance properties in important crop tree species could be simultaneously improved, although

  8. Stressor Diversity: Introduction and Empirical Integration into the Daily Stress Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffer, Rachel E.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Almeida, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined if and how stressor diversity, the extent to which one’s stressor events are spread across multiple types of stressors, contributes to daily affective well-being through the adult life span. Stressor diversity was examined as a unique predictor of daily affect and as a moderator of stressor exposure and stressor reactivity effects. Analyses span two independent studies of daily stress: the National Study of Daily Experiences with N=2,022 adults, aged 33–85, assessed over T=8 days, and the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health, and Interpersonal Behavior with N=150 adults, aged 18–89, assessed over T=63 days. Across both studies, older age was associated with less stressor diversity. Additionally, multivariate multilevel models indicated higher stressor diversity was linked with better affective well-being. Age, however, was not a consistent moderator of such associations. The combination of low stressor diversity and high stressor exposure is discussed as an operationalization of chronic stressors, and this combination was associated with particularly high negative affect and low positive affect. We believe further work will benefit from including both the frequency and diversity of stressor experiences in analyses in order to better characterize individuals’ stressor experiences. PMID:27294713

  9. Stressor diversity: Introduction and empirical integration into the daily stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffer, Rachel E; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E; Pincus, Aaron L; Almeida, David M

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined whether and how stressor diversity, the extent to which stressor events are spread across multiple types of stressors, contributes to daily affective well-being through the adult life span. Stressor diversity was examined as a unique predictor of daily affect and as a moderator of stressor exposure and stressor reactivity effects. Analyses span 2 independent studies of daily stress: the National Study of Daily Experiences with N = 2,022 adults, aged 33 to 85 years, assessed over T = 8 days, and the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health, and Interpersonal Behavior with N = 150 adults, aged 18 to 89 years, assessed over T = 63 days. Across both studies, older age was associated with less stressor diversity. Additionally, multivariate multilevel models indicated higher stressor diversity was linked with better affective well-being. Age, however, was not a consistent moderator of such associations. The combination of low stressor diversity and high stressor exposure is discussed as an operationalization of chronic stressors, and this combination was associated with particularly high negative affect and low positive affect. We believe further work will benefit from including both the frequency and diversity of stressor experiences in analyses in order to better characterize individuals' stressor experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Acute stress evokes sexually dimorphic, stressor-specific patterns of neural activation across multiple limbic brain regions in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Ankit; Chaudhari, Karina; Vaidya, Vidita A

    2018-03-01

    Stress enhances the risk for psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Stress responses vary across sex and may underlie the heightened vulnerability to psychopathology in females. Here, we examined the influence of acute immobilization stress (AIS) and a two-day short-term forced swim stress (FS) on neural activation in multiple cortical and subcortical brain regions, implicated as targets of stress and in the regulation of neuroendocrine stress responses, in male and female rats using Fos as a neural activity marker. AIS evoked a sex-dependent pattern of neural activation within the cingulate and infralimbic subdivisions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), lateral septum (LS), habenula, and hippocampal subfields. The degree of neural activation in the mPFC, LS, and habenula was higher in males. Female rats exhibited reduced Fos positive cell numbers in the dentate gyrus hippocampal subfield, an effect not observed in males. We addressed whether the sexually dimorphic neural activation pattern noted following AIS was also observed with the short-term stress of FS. In the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the amygdala, FS similar to AIS resulted in robust increases in neural activation in both sexes. The pattern of neural activation evoked by FS was distinct across sexes, with a heightened neural activation noted in the prelimbic mPFC subdivision and hippocampal subfields in females and differed from the pattern noted with AIS. This indicates that the sex differences in neural activation patterns observed within stress-responsive brain regions are dependent on the nature of stressor experience.

  11. Proceedings of the Combined Effects of Multiple Stressors on Operational Performance Held in San Diego, California on 4-5 April 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-05

    organization, the social interpersonal environment, and the person -system of the organizational member. Now, most of the research in the civilian sector is...Individual Differences/ Dr. Vickers, NHRC Group Charateristics Dr. Palinkas, NHRC 1500 - Multiple Stressors LCDR Banta, NHRC 1525 - Data Integralion for...necessary to take people over there and return if you wish. This evening, we have a social hour planned at the Submarine Base at Point Loma, which is about 10

  12. Impact assessment modelling of matter-less stressors in the context of Life Cycle Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucurachi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In the last three decades, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework has grown to establish itself as the leading tool for the assessment of the environmental impacts of product systems.LCA studies are now conducted globally both in and outside the academia and also used as a basis for policy

  13. Adult exposure to ocean acidification is maladaptive for larvae of the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata in the presence of multiple stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Laura M; O'Connor, Wayne A; Byrne, Maria; Coleman, Ross A; Virtue, Patti; Dove, Michael; Gibbs, Mitchell; Spohr, Lorraine; Scanes, Elliot; Ross, Pauline M

    2017-02-01

    Parental effects passed from adults to their offspring have been identified as a source of rapid acclimation that may allow marine populations to persist as our surface oceans continue to decrease in pH. Little is known, however, whether parental effects are beneficial for offspring in the presence of multiple stressors. We exposed adults of the oyster Saccostrea glomerata to elevated CO 2 and examined the impacts of elevated CO 2 (control = 392; 856 µatm) combined with elevated temperature (control = 24; 28°C), reduced salinity (control = 35; 25) and reduced food concentration (control = full; half diet) on their larvae. Adult exposure to elevated CO 2 had a positive impact on larvae reared at elevated CO 2 as a sole stressor, which were 8% larger and developed faster at elevated CO 2 compared with larvae from adults exposed to ambient CO 2 These larvae, however, had significantly reduced survival in all multistressor treatments. This was particularly evident for larvae reared at elevated CO 2 combined with elevated temperature or reduced food concentration, with no larvae surviving in some treatment combinations. Larvae from CO 2 -exposed adults had a higher standard metabolic rate. Our results provide evidence that parental exposure to ocean acidification may be maladaptive when larvae experience multiple stressors. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. The influence of multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors on benthic communities in a mid-west agricultural stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lenwood W; Killen, Willian D; Anderson, Ronald D; Alden, Raymond W

    2017-08-24

    The objective of this 3-year study was to characterize benthic communities and physical habitat in an agricultural stream in the mid-west area of the United States (Big Bureau Creek, Illinois). Concurrent basic water quality parameters and seven nutrients were measured in the water column. Sediment measurements from depositional areas were conducted for bifenthrin, Total Organic Carbon, grain size, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and eight metals. All parameters were measured at 12 sites annually during the late summer for a 3-year period (2014, 2015 and 2016). Univariate regressions, stepwise multiple regressions and canonical correlation statistical analyses were used to determine the relationship between various benthic metrics (i.e., taxa richness and abundance) and all the measured parameters for the 3-year database. Benthic communities comprising 108-110 taxa were collected annually, and were generally dominated by sensitive caddisflies and mayflies. These communities were rated as good to exceptional using the Ohio Invertebrate Community Index. Physical habitat for the various sites was rated as good using the Ohio Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index, thus suggesting that habitat is not a significant stressor that would likely impact resident benthic communities. Based on a comparison of measured in-stream total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations and criterion value exceedances, it appears that the in-stream nutrient concentrations could be potentially stressful to resident benthic biota. Metal concentrations were below established NOAA Threshold Effects Levels at all sites. Measured PCB concentrations were below levels of detection at all sites. Toxic units' (TUs) calculations based on using sensitive laboratory strains of Hyalella were less than 0.1 for bifenthrin, thus suggesting that bifenthrin sediment toxicity was unlikely. Thirty significant relationships reported between benthic metrics and the various environmental variables based on the

  15. Responses of Spartina alterniflora to Multiple Stressors: Changing Precipitation Patterns, Accelerated Sea Level Rise, and Nutrient Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal wetlands, well recognized for their ecosystem services, have faced many threats throughout the United States and elsewhere. Managers require good information on responses of wetlands to the combined stressors that these habitats experience, or may in the future as a resul...

  16. Stressors in Multiple Life-Domains and the Risk for Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors among African Americans during Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martanez, Lorena M.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral and mental health outcomes have been associated with experiencing high levels of stress. Yet, little is known about the link between the nature of stressors, their accumulation over time, and the risk for externalizing and internalizing outcomes. Compared to the general population, African Americans are exposed to a disproportionate…

  17. Multiple stressors in agricultural streams: a mesocosm study of interactions among raised water temperature, sediment addition and nutrient enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy J Piggott

    Full Text Available Changes to land use affect streams through nutrient enrichment, increased inputs of sediment and, where riparian vegetation has been removed, raised water temperature. We manipulated all three stressors in experimental streamside channels for 30 days and determined the individual and pair-wise combined effects on benthic invertebrate and algal communities and on leaf decay, a measure of ecosystem functioning. We added nutrients (phosphorus+nitrogen; high, intermediate, natural and/or sediment (grain size 0.2 mm; high, intermediate, natural to 18 channels supplied with water from a nearby stream. Temperature was increased by 1.4°C in half the channels, simulating the loss of upstream and adjacent riparian shade. Sediment affected 93% of all biological response variables (either as an individual effect or via an interaction with another stressor generally in a negative manner, while nutrient enrichment affected 59% (mostly positive and raised temperature 59% (mostly positive. More of the algal components of the community responded to stressors acting individually than did invertebrate components, whereas pair-wise stressor interactions were more common in the invertebrate community. Stressors interacted often and in a complex manner, with interactions between sediment and temperature most common. Thus, the negative impact of high sediment on taxon richness of both algae and invertebrates was stronger at raised temperature, further reducing biodiversity. In addition, the decay rate of leaf material (strength loss accelerated with nutrient enrichment at ambient but not at raised temperature. A key implication of our findings for resource managers is that the removal of riparian shading from streams already subjected to high sediment inputs, or land-use changes that increase erosion or nutrient runoff in a landscape without riparian buffers, may have unexpected effects on stream health. We highlight the likely importance of intact or restored buffer

  18. Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final document, Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for Coral Reef Management in American Samoa. This report provides a synthesis of information on the interactive effects of climate change and other stressors on the reefs of American Samoa as well as an assessment of potential management responses. This report provides the coral reef managers of American Samoa, as well as other coral reef managers in the Pacific region, with some management options to help enhance the capacity of local coral reefs to resist the negative effects of climate change. This report was designed to take advantage of diverse research and monitoring efforts that are ongoing in American Samoa to: analyze and compile the results of multiple research projects that focus on understanding climate-related stressors and their effects on coral reef ecosystem degradation and recovery; and assess implications for coral reef managment of the combined information, including possible response options.

  19. Integrated Assessment of the impact of Aqueous Contaminant Stressors on Surface Water Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Kronvang, Brian

    2011-01-01

    ecosystems. Traditional approaches for managing aquatic resources have often failed to account for the potential effects of anthropogenic disturbances on biota. To fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive will be challenging, as it is difficult to successfully separate and evaluate all...... pressures stressing an ecosystem. Here, methods for determining ecological status in streams are evaluated to see if they are capable of capturing the effects of stressors potentially affecting ecosystems. Specifically, they are tested on a case study where the effects of physical habitat degradation can...... be ruled out as a stressor on stream ecological conditions (Rasmussen et al., 2011). This study follows earlier work conducted on a Danish case study involving a TCE groundwater plume discharging into a small stream, located in an area with protected drinking water interests (McKnight et al., 2010...

  20. Vulnerability, Risk Perception, and Health Profile of Marginalized People Exposed to Multiple Built-Environment Stressors in Worcester, Massachusetts: A Pilot Project

    OpenAIRE

    Downs, Timothy J.; Ross, Laurie; Goble, Robert; Subedi, Rajendra; Greenberg, Sara; Taylor, Octavia

    2010-01-01

    Millions of low-income people of diverse ethnicities inhabit stressful old urban industrial neighborhoods. Yet we know little about the health impacts of built-environment stressors and risk perceptions in such settings; we lack even basic health profiles. Difficult access is one reason (it took us 30 months to survey 80 households); the lack of multifaceted survey tools is another. We designed and implemented a pilot vulnerability assessment tool in Worcester, Massachusetts. We answer: (1) H...

  1. Quantitative analysis of oyster larval proteome provides new insights into the effects of multiple climate change stressors, supplement to: Dineshram, R; Chandramouli, K; Ko, W K Ginger; Zhang, Huoming; Qian, Pei Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen (2016): Quantitative analysis of oyster larval proteome provides new insights into the effects of multiple climate change stressors. Global Change Biology, 22(6), 2054-2068

    KAUST Repository

    Dineshram, R

    2016-01-01

    The metamorphosis of planktonic larvae of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) underpins their complex life-history strategy by switching on the molecular machinery required for sessile life and building calcite shells. Metamorphosis becomes a survival bottleneck, which will be pressured by different anthropogenically induced climate change-related variables. Therefore, it is important to understand how metamorphosing larvae interact with emerging climate change stressors. To predict how larvae might be affected in a future ocean, we examined changes in the proteome of metamorphosing larvae under multiple stressors: decreased pH (pH 7.4), increased temperature (30 °C), and reduced salinity (15 psu). Quantitative protein expression profiling using iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS identified more than 1300 proteins. Decreased pH had a negative effect on metamorphosis by down-regulating several proteins involved in energy production, metabolism, and protein synthesis. However, warming switched on these down-regulated pathways at pH 7.4. Under multiple stressors, cell signaling, energy production, growth, and developmental pathways were up-regulated, although metamorphosis was still reduced. Despite the lack of lethal effects, significant physiological responses to both individual and interacting climate change related stressors were observed at proteome level. The metamorphosing larvae of the C. gigas population in the Yellow Sea appear to have adequate phenotypic plasticity at the proteome level to survive in future coastal oceans, but with developmental and physiological costs.

  2. Assessing and managing multiple risks in a changing world ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskilde University (Denmark) hosted a November 2015 workshop, Environmental Risk—Assessing and Managing Multiple Risks in a Changing World. This Focus article presents the consensus recommendations of 30 attendees from 9 countries regarding implementation of a common currency (ecosystem services) for holistic environmental risk assessment and management; improvements to risk assessment and management in a complex, human-modified, and changing world; appropriate development of protection goals in a 2-stage process; dealing with societal issues; risk-management information needs; conducting risk assessment of risk management; and development of adaptive and flexible regulatory systems. The authors encourage both cross-disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to address their 10 recommendations: 1) adopt ecosystem services as a common currency for risk assessment and management; 2) consider cumulative stressors (chemical and nonchemical) and determine which dominate to best manage and restore ecosystem services; 3) fully integrate risk managers and communities of interest into the risk-assessment process; 4) fully integrate risk assessors and communities of interest into the risk-management process; 5) consider socioeconomics and increased transparency in both risk assessment and risk management; 6) recognize the ethical rights of humans and ecosystems to an adequate level of protection; 7) determine relevant reference conditions and the proper ecological c

  3. PROFILE: Integrating Stressor and Response Monitoring into a Resource-Based Water-Quality Assessment Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROUX; KEMPSTER; KLEYNHANS; VAN; DU

    1999-01-01

    / South African water law as well as the country's water resource management policies are currently under review. The Water Law Principles, which were established as part of this review process, indicate a commitment to sustainable development of water resources and the protection of an ecological "reserve." Such policy goals highlight the limitations of traditional and current water-quality management strategies, which rely on stressor monitoring and associated regulation of pollution. The concept of an assimilative capacity is central to the implementation of the current water-quality management approach. Weaknesses inherent in basing water management on the concept of assimilative capacity are discussed. Response monitoring is proposed as a way of addressing some of the weaknesses. Following a global trend, the new policy goals emphasize the need to protect rather than to use the ability of ecosystems to recover from disturbances. This necessitates the adoption of response measurements to quantify ecological condition and monitor ecological change. Response monitoring focuses on properties that are essential to the sustainability of the ecosystem. These monitoring tools can be used to establish natural ranges of ecological change within ecosystems, as well as to quantify conceptually acceptable and unacceptable ranges of change. Through a framework of biological criteria and biological impairment standards, the results of response monitoring can become an integral part of future water resource management strategies in South Africa. KEY WORDS: Stressor monitoring; Response monitoring; Assimilative capacity; Ecosystem stability; Resilience; Biocriteria

  4. Does a 20-week aerobic exercise training programme increase our capabilities to buffer real-life stressors? A randomized, controlled trial using ambulatory assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Haaren, Birte; Ottenbacher, Joerg; Muenz, Julia; Neumann, Rainer; Boes, Klaus; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    The cross-stressor adaptation hypothesis suggests that regular exercise leads to adaptations in the stress response systems that induce decreased physiological responses to psychological stressors. Even though an exercise intervention to buffer the detrimental effects of psychological stressors on health might be of utmost importance, empirical evidence is mixed. This may be explained by the use of cross-sectional designs and non-personally relevant stressors. Using a randomized controlled trial, we hypothesized that a 20-week aerobic exercise training does reduce physiological stress responses to psychological real-life stressors in sedentary students. Sixty-one students were randomized to either a control group or an exercise training group. The academic examination period (end of the semester) served as a real-life stressor. We used ambulatory assessment methods to assess physiological stress reactivity of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate variability: LF/HF, RMSSD), physical activity and perceived stress during 2 days of everyday life and multilevel models for data analyses. Aerobic capacity (VO2max) was assessed pre- and post-intervention via cardiopulmonary exercise testing to analyze the effectiveness of the intervention. During real-life stressors, the exercise training group showed significantly reduced LF/HF (β = -0.15, t = -2.59, p = .01) and increased RMSSD (β = 0.15, t = 2.34, p = .02) compared to the control group. Using a randomized controlled trial and a real-life stressor, we could show that exercise appears to be a useful preventive strategy to buffer the effects of stress on the autonomic nervous system, which might result into detrimental health outcomes.

  5. Persistent and contemporaneous effects of job stressors on mental health: a study testing multiple analytic approaches across 13 waves of annually collected cohort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Aitken, Zoe; Kavanagh, Anne; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Petrie, Dennis

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the extent that psychosocial job stressors had lasting effects on a scaled measure of mental health. We applied econometric approaches to a longitudinal cohort to: (1) control for unmeasured individual effects; (2) assess the role of prior (lagged) exposures of job stressors on mental health and (3) the persistence of mental health. We used a panel study with 13 annual waves and applied fixed-effects, first-difference and fixed-effects Arellano-Bond models. The Short Form 36 (SF-36) Mental Health Component Summary score was the outcome variable and the key exposures included: job control, job demands, job insecurity and fairness of pay. Results from the Arellano-Bond models suggest that greater fairness of pay (β-coefficient 0.34, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.45), job control (β-coefficient 0.15, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.20) and job security (β-coefficient 0.37, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.42) were contemporaneously associated with better mental health. Similar results were found for the fixed-effects and first-difference models. The Arellano-Bond model also showed persistent effects of individual mental health, whereby individuals' previous reports of mental health were related to their reporting in subsequent waves. The estimated long-run impact of job demands on mental health increased after accounting for time-related dynamics, while there were more minimal impacts for the other job stressor variables. Our results showed that the majority of the effects of psychosocial job stressors on a scaled measure of mental health are contemporaneous except for job demands where accounting for the lagged dynamics was important. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Toward a conceptual approach for assessing risks from chemical mixtures and other stressors to coastal ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Backhaus, Thomas; Banta, Gary Thomas

    2017-01-01

    in Costa Rica) are provided; one focuses on chemicals that affect human food supply and the other addresses pesticide runoff and trade-offs among ES. The 2 cases are used to highlight challenges of such risk assessments, including use of standardized versus ES-relevant test species, data completeness......, translate impacts into ES units; step F, assess cumulative risk in ES units; step G, rank stressors based on their contribution to adverse effects on ES; and step H, implement regulation and management as appropriate and necessary. Two illustrative case studies (Swedish coastal waters and a coastal lagoon......, and trade-offs among ES. Lessons learned from the 2 case studies are discussed in relation to environmental risk assessment and management of chemical mixtures....

  7. Multiple Stressors at the Land-Sea Interface: Cyanotoxins at the Land-Sea Interface in the Southern California Bight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatters, Avery O; Howard, Meredith D A; Nagoda, Carey; Busse, Lilian; Gellene, Alyssa G; Caron, David A

    2017-03-09

    Blooms of toxic cyanobacteria in freshwater ecosystems have received considerable attention in recent years, but their occurrence and potential importance at the land-sea interface has not been widely recognized. Here we present the results of a survey of discrete samples conducted in more than fifty brackish water sites along the coastline of southern California. Our objectives were to characterize cyanobacterial community composition and determine if specific groups of cyanotoxins (anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, microcystins, nodularins, and saxitoxins) were present. We report the identification of numerous potentially harmful taxa and the co-occurrence of multiple toxins, previously undocumented, at several locations. Our findings reveal a potential health concern based on the range of organisms present and the widespread prevalence of recognized toxic compounds. Our results raise concerns for recreation, harvesting of finfish and shellfish, and wildlife and desalination operations, highlighting the need for assessments and implementation of monitoring programs. Such programs appear to be particularly necessary in regions susceptible to urban influence.

  8. Management of Local Stressors Can Improve the Resilience of Marine Canopy Algae toGlobal Stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strain, E.M.A.; van Belzen, J.; van Dalen, J.; Bouma, T.J.; Airoldi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal systems are increasingly threatened by multiple local anthropogenic and global climatic stressors. With the difficulties in remediating global stressors, management requires alternative approaches that focus on local scales. We used manipulative experiments to test whether reducing local

  9. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Gawlik, Dale E.; Beerens, James M.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate), and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index) and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term) were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  10. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Herring

    Full Text Available The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba and white ibises (Eudocimus albus to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate, and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  11. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Gawlik, Dale E; Beerens, James M; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2014-01-01

    The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate), and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index) and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term) were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  12. Consequences of climate change, eutrophication, and other anthropogenic impacts to coastal salt marshes: multiple stressors reduce resiliency and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, E. B.; Wigand, C.; Nelson, J.; Davey, E.; Van Dyke, E.; Wasson, K.

    2011-12-01

    Coastal salt marshes provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, including habitat for protected vertebrates and ecologically valuable invertebrate fauna, flood protection, and improvements in water quality for adjacent marine and estuarine environments. Here, we consider the impacts of future sea level rise combined with other anthropogenic stressors to salt marsh sustainability through the implementation of field and laboratory mesocosms, manipulative experiments, correlative studies, and predictive modeling conducted in central California and southern New England salt marshes. We report on measurements of soil respiration, decomposition, sediment accumulation, and marsh elevation, which considered jointly suggest an association between nitrate input and marsh elevation loss resulting from mineralization of soil organic matter. Furthermore, use of imaging techniques (CT scans) has shown differences in belowground root and rhizome structure associated with fertilization, resulting in a loss of sediment cohesion promoted by fine root structure. Additionally, field and greenhouse mesocosm experiments have provided insight into the specific biogeochemical processes responsible for plant mortality at high immersion or salinity levels. In conclusion, we have found that poor water quality (i.e. eutrophication) leads to enhanced respiration and decomposition of soil organic matter, which ultimately contributes to a loss of salt marsh sustainability. However, marsh deterioration studied at field sites (Jamaica Bay, NY and Elkhorn Slough, CA) is associated not only with enhanced nutrient loads, but also increased immersion due to tidal range increases resulting from dredging. To ensure the continuation of the ecosystem services provided by tidal wetlands and to develop sustainable management strategies that provide favorable outcomes under a variety of future sea level rise and land use scenarios, we need to develop a better understanding of the relative impacts of the

  13. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  14. A perfect storm: multiple stressors interact to drive postfire regeneration failure of lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir forests in Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W. D.; Braziunas, K. H.; Rammer, W.; Seidl, R.; Turner, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Twenty-first century forests will experience increased stress as environmental conditions and disturbance regimes change. Whether forests retain their structure or transitions to alternate states, particularly when affected by multiple stressors, remains unresolved. Subalpine forests in Yellowstone National Park, WY experience large severe wildfires, and postfire-tree regeneration is necessary to assure resilience. Drying is projected, causing frequent larger wildfires that could reduce seed supply and drought that could constrain postfire-seedling establishment. We asked what combinations of warming-drying conditions, increased fire frequency, and increased burned-patch size cause postfire tree-regeneration failure in Yellowstone? We conducted a simulation experiment to identify combinations of fire frequency, fire size, postfire climate, substrate type, and elevation where lodgepole-pine and Douglas-fir regeneration failed. We expected postfire densities to be reduced if burned-patch sizes exceeded effective dispersal distance, sequential fires burned before trees reached reproductive maturity, or drought occurred after fire. We also expected regeneration failure only where multiple stressors occurred simultaneously at low elevation or on poor substrates.Douglas-fir stands were most vulnerable to regeneration failure. 98% of simulated Douglas-fir stands located in the middle of large burned patches failed to regenerate 30 years post fire. Lodgepole-pine stands in the middle of large burned patches failed to regenerate if they were also located at low elevations (93%) or at higher elevations on soils with poor water retention (73%). Stands of serotinous lodgepole (i.e., trees with closed cones that open when heated) also failed to regenerate if fire recurred before trees were reproductively mature (82%). Drought constrained postfire regeneration, yet, enhanced establishment due to release from cold-temperatures during mid-to-late 21st century often outweighed

  15. [Assessment of otoacustic emissions efficiency in diagnosis of hearing loss in workers exposed to airport stressors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, T; Piccoli, F; Rosati, M V; Cancanelli, G; Trovè, L; Marrocco, M; Schifano, M P; Giubilati, R; De Sio, S; Tomei, G; Caciari, T; Tomei, F

    2013-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions are signals that originate from the cochlea, measuring them can be considered an objective method in the assessment of auditory function. In our study we wanted to examine their efficiency among normal audiological exams. We examined 14 workers exposed to continuous aircraft noise. They underwent ENT examination, metric eardrum test, hearing test tone audiometry system powered by 1 dB, spontaneous otoacoustic emissions and evoked otoacoustic emissions. For inclusion in the study the patients had to show bilateral normoacusia at the audiometry. The variation of the audiometric tracks was statistically significant (p workers and provides objective results, so it is a more effective and objective method then the tone audiometry.

  16. Assessment of uncertainties in Neutron Multiplicity Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peerani, P.; Marin Ferrer, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for a complete and correct assessment of the errors coming from the uncertainty of each individual component on the final result. A general methodology accounting for all the main sources of error (both type-A and type-B) will be outlined. In order to better illustrate the method, a practical example applying it to the uncertainty estimation for a special case of multiplicity counter, the SNMC developed at JRC, will be given

  17. Chemical and natural stressors combined:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergs, André; Zenker, Armin; Grimm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    In addition to natural stressors, populations are increasingly exposed to chemical pollutants released into the environment. We experimentally demonstrate the loss of resilience for Daphnia magna populations that are exposed to a combination of natural and chemical stressors even though effects...... demonstrates that population size can be a poor endpoint for risk assessments of chemicals and that ignoring disturbance interactions can lead to severe underestimation of extinction risk...

  18. Therapy assessment in multiple myeloma with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, Cristina [Medicina Nucleare Metropolitana di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Zamagni, Elena [Bologna University School of Medicine, Seragnoli Institute of Hematology, Bologna (Italy)

    2017-08-15

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell dyscrasia producing bone lytic lesions. In recent years, a wide spectrum of therapeutic approaches are available to treat the disease: an accurate therapy assessment has, therefore, become of utmost importance. In this field, imaging is becoming a cornerstone, especially in association with clinical parameters. Among imaging procedures, FDG PET/CT is recognized to provide reliable information, achieved in a very safe and fast procedure. The literature has produced very concordant results from different groups assessing the value of FDG PET/CT as a prognostic factor in general and in therapy assessment, but some issues remain regarding a standardization of image interpretation especially in borderline cases. So far, no data regarding nor other imaging compounds and the use of hybrid tomographs PET/MR are available to define therapy assessment in PET. (orig.)

  19. Agreeableness, Extraversion, Stressor and Physiological Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyuan Chu; Zhentao Ma; Yuan Li; Jing Han

    2015-01-01

    Based on the theoretical analysis, with first-hand data collection and using multiple regression models, this study explored the relationship between agreeableness, extraversion, stressor and stress response and figured out interactive effect of agreeableness, extraversion, and stressor on stress response. We draw on the following conclusions: (1) the interaction term of stressor (work) and agreeableness can negatively predict physiological stress response; (2) the interaction term of stresso...

  20. An assessment of meaning in life-threatening illness: development of the Healing Experience in All Life Stressors (HEALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Danetta Hendricks; BrintzenhofeSzoc, Karlynn; Kichline, Tiffany; Baker, Karen; Pinzon, Jean-Paul; Tafe, Christina; Li, Lingsheng; Cheng, M Jennifer; Berger, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Patients with life-threatening or chronic illness report an experience of increased positive psychological, social, and/or spiritual change during diagnosis and/or treatment of their illness, even in the face of unfavorable prognosis. This transformation begins through the ability to make their life meaningful by forming meaningful connections that emerge through self-introspection and relationships with a divine entity, nature, and other people. The Healing Experience in All Life Stressors (HEALS) assessment provides a way to identify distress-causing changes that may interfere with the development of meaning and psycho-social-spiritual homeostasis. Preliminary examination of responses to items on the HEALS and examination of the factor structure. The 48-item HEALS questionnaire was developed using a multistep process: literature review for concept development, item generation from qualitative data, and face and content validity by expert panel. In the current study, HEALS was completed by 100 patients diagnosed with life-limiting disease and seen by the palliative care team at a large research institution in the US. Exploratory factor analysis techniques were used to determine scale structure of the instrument. Outcome testing of sample adequacy using Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin statistic was 0.75, which exceeds the recommended value of 0.60. The HEALS show very good internal consistency with a Cronbach's a of 0.94. Overall results of the exploratory factor analysis established a four-factor questionnaire: 1) religion; 2) spirituality, demonstrated by a) interaction with a religious community and b) belief in higher power; 3) intrapersonal; and 4) interpersonal relationships expressed through psychological changes resulting in enhanced outlook and improvement in relationships with family and friends. This study involved the initial step to commence the process of scale validation, with promising outcomes identifying subscales as an effective way to assess the construct of

  1. An assessment of meaning in life-threatening illness: development of the Healing Experience in All Life Stressors (HEALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloan DH

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Danetta Hendricks Sloan,1 Karlynn BrintzenhofeSzoc,2 Tiffany Kichline,1 Karen Baker,1 Jean-Paul Pinzon,1 Christina Tafe,1 Lingsheng Li,1 M Jennifer Cheng,1 Ann Berger1 1Pain and Palliative Care, National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD, 2School of Social Work, College of Allied Health Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA Context: Patients with life-threatening or chronic illness report an experience of increased positive psychological, social, and/or spiritual change during diagnosis and/or treatment of their illness, even in the face of unfavorable prognosis. This transformation begins through the ability to make their life meaningful by forming meaningful connections that emerge through self-introspection and relationships with a divine entity, nature, and other people. The Healing Experience in All Life Stressors (HEALS assessment provides a way to identify distress-causing changes that may interfere with the development of meaning and psycho–social–spiritual homeostasis.Objective: Preliminary examination of responses to items on the HEALS and examination of the factor structure.Method: The 48-item HEALS questionnaire was developed using a multistep process: literature review for concept development, item generation from qualitative data, and face and content validity by expert panel. In the current study, HEALS was completed by 100 patients diagnosed with life-limiting disease and seen by the palliative care team at a large research institution in the US. Exploratory factor analysis techniques were used to determine scale structure of the instrument.Results: Outcome testing of sample adequacy using Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin statistic was 0.75, which exceeds the recommended value of 0.60. The HEALS show very good internal consistency with a Cronbach’s a of 0.94. Overall results of the exploratory factor analysis established a four-factor questionnaire: 1 religion; 2 spirituality, demonstrated by a

  2. Chronic stressors and trauma: prospective influences on the course of bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, A.; Johnson, S. L.; Miller, I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to life stress is known to adversely impact the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have disentangled the effects of multiple types of stressors on the longitudinal course of bipolar I disorder. This study examines whether severity of chronic stressors and exposure to trauma are prospectively associated with course of illness among bipolar patients. Method One hundred and thirty-one participants diagnosed with bipolar I disorder were recruited through treatment centers, support groups and community advertisements. Severity of chronic stressors and exposure to trauma were assessed at study entry with in-person interviews using the Bedford College Life Event and Difficulty Schedule (LEDS). Course of illness was assessed by monthly interviews conducted over the course of 24 months (over 3000 assessments). Results Trauma exposure was related to more severe interpersonal chronic stressors. Multiple regression models provided evidence that severity of overall chronic stressors predicted depressive but not manic symptoms, accounting for 7.5% of explained variance. Conclusions Overall chronic stressors seem to be an important determinant of depressive symptoms within bipolar disorder, highlighting the importance of studying multiple forms of life stress. PMID:23419615

  3. Chronic stressors and trauma: prospective influences on the course of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, A; Johnson, S L; Miller, I

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to life stress is known to adversely impact the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have disentangled the effects of multiple types of stressors on the longitudinal course of bipolar I disorder. This study examines whether severity of chronic stressors and exposure to trauma are prospectively associated with course of illness among bipolar patients. One hundred and thirty-one participants diagnosed with bipolar I disorder were recruited through treatment centers, support groups and community advertisements. Severity of chronic stressors and exposure to trauma were assessed at study entry with in-person interviews using the Bedford College Life Event and Difficulty Schedule (LEDS). Course of illness was assessed by monthly interviews conducted over the course of 24 months (over 3000 assessments). Trauma exposure was related to more severe interpersonal chronic stressors. Multiple regression models provided evidence that severity of overall chronic stressors predicted depressive but not manic symptoms, accounting for 7.5% of explained variance. Overall chronic stressors seem to be an important determinant of depressive symptoms within bipolar disorder, highlighting the importance of studying multiple forms of life stress.

  4. Assessing land use, sedimentation, and water quality stressors as predictors of coral reef condition in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, L M; Fisher, W S; Fore, L; Smith, A; Bradley, P

    2018-03-13

    Coral reef condition on the south shore of St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, was assessed at various distances from Charlotte Amalie, the most densely populated city on the island. Human influence in the area includes industrial activity, wastewater discharge, cruise ship docks, and impervious surfaces throughout the watershed. Anthropogenic activity was characterized using a landscape development intensity (LDI) index, sedimentation threat (ST) estimates, and water quality (WQ) impairments in the near-coastal zone. Total three-dimensional coral cover, reef rugosity, and coral diversity had significant negative coefficients for LDI index, as did densities of dominant species Orbicella annularis, Orbicella franksi, Montastraea cavernosa, Orbicella faveolata, and Porites porites. However, overall stony coral colony density was not significantly correlated with stressors. Positive relationships between reef rugosity and ST, between coral diversity and ST, and between coral diversity and WQ were unexpected because these stressors are generally thought to negatively influence coral growth and health. Sponge density was greater with higher disturbance indicators (ST and WQ), consistent with reports of greater resistance by sponges to degraded water quality compared to stony corals. The highest FoRAM (Foraminifera in Reef Assessment and Monitoring) indices indicating good water quality were found offshore from the main island and outside the harbor. Negative associations between stony coral metrics and LDI index have been reported elsewhere in the Caribbean and highlight LDI index potential as a spatial tool to characterize land-based anthropogenic stressor gradients relevant to coral reefs. Fewer relationships were found with an integrated stressor index but with similar trends in response direction.

  5. Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Chapter 1: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 1 of “Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” provides an introduction to the document. /meta name=DC.title content=Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Chapter 1: Introduction

  6. ASSESSING UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PERFORMANCE WITH MULTIPLE CONSTITUENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Liang Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research performance of the university is critical to the national competitiveness. Previous research has established that research performance is based on scholarly publishing. Several studies suggested that journal ranking is the important research quality indicator. However, unilateral measurement for the research performance will seriously corrode the development of university research work. Assessing university research performance with multiple constituencies is a better to enhance the university research. Although substantial studies have been performed on the critical factors that affect knowledge exploration in the university, those in knowledge exploitation are still lacking. With the multiple constituencies, a fully understanding of research performance can be gained. In the research model, knowledge exploration represents the academic research and knowledge exploitation represents the university–industry collaboration. Data collected from 124 university data in online database. The study shows that knowledge exploration and exploitation both are significant positive predictors of university competitiveness. University resources play important roles to affect both knowledge exploration and exploitation in the university. The study also shows that higher knowledge exploration will enhance knowledge exploitation. Implications for theory and practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  7. Managing for interactions between local and global stressors of ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher J; Saunders, Megan I; Possingham, Hugh P; Richardson, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Global stressors, including climate change, are a major threat to ecosystems, but they cannot be halted by local actions. Ecosystem management is thus attempting to compensate for the impacts of global stressors by reducing local stressors, such as overfishing. This approach assumes that stressors interact additively or synergistically, whereby the combined effect of two stressors is at least the sum of their isolated effects. It is not clear, however, how management should proceed for antagonistic interactions among stressors, where multiple stressors do not have an additive or greater impact. Research to date has focussed on identifying synergisms among stressors, but antagonisms may be just as common. We examined the effectiveness of management when faced with different types of interactions in two systems--seagrass and fish communities--where the global stressor was climate change but the local stressors were different. When there were synergisms, mitigating local stressors delivered greater gains, whereas when there were antagonisms, management of local stressors was ineffective or even degraded ecosystems. These results suggest that reducing a local stressor can compensate for climate change impacts if there is a synergistic interaction. Conversely, if there is an antagonistic interaction, management of local stressors will have the greatest benefits in areas of refuge from climate change. A balanced research agenda, investigating both antagonistic and synergistic interaction types, is needed to inform management priorities.

  8. Managing for interactions between local and global stressors of ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Brown

    Full Text Available Global stressors, including climate change, are a major threat to ecosystems, but they cannot be halted by local actions. Ecosystem management is thus attempting to compensate for the impacts of global stressors by reducing local stressors, such as overfishing. This approach assumes that stressors interact additively or synergistically, whereby the combined effect of two stressors is at least the sum of their isolated effects. It is not clear, however, how management should proceed for antagonistic interactions among stressors, where multiple stressors do not have an additive or greater impact. Research to date has focussed on identifying synergisms among stressors, but antagonisms may be just as common. We examined the effectiveness of management when faced with different types of interactions in two systems--seagrass and fish communities--where the global stressor was climate change but the local stressors were different. When there were synergisms, mitigating local stressors delivered greater gains, whereas when there were antagonisms, management of local stressors was ineffective or even degraded ecosystems. These results suggest that reducing a local stressor can compensate for climate change impacts if there is a synergistic interaction. Conversely, if there is an antagonistic interaction, management of local stressors will have the greatest benefits in areas of refuge from climate change. A balanced research agenda, investigating both antagonistic and synergistic interaction types, is needed to inform management priorities.

  9. Multiple Intelligences: Current Trends in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Marsha J.; Kordinak, S. Thomas; Bruce, A. Jerry

    2009-01-01

    With his theory of multiple intelligences, Howard Gardner challenged the presumption that intelligence is a single innate entity. He maintained that multiple intelligences exist and are related to specific brain areas and symbol systems. Each of the intelligences has its merits and limits, but by using a multiple intelligences approach, more…

  10. The EBD Teacher Stressors Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, David B.; Steventon, Candace

    2001-01-01

    Two studies examined the validity of a self-report instrument that assesses occupational stressors in teachers of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Differences were found in the stress management resources of low and high scoring EBD teachers on the measure and between scores of EBD and general education teachers, although…

  11. Timing of stressors alters interactive effects on a coastal foundation species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jillian M; Cheng, Brian S; Chang, Andrew L; Ferner, Matthew C; Wasson, Kerstin; Zabin, Chela J; Latta, Marilyn; Sanford, Eric; Deck, Anna; Grosholz, Edwin D

    2017-09-01

    The effects of climate-driven stressors on organismal performance and ecosystem functioning have been investigated across many systems; however, manipulative experiments generally apply stressors as constant and simultaneous treatments, rather than accurately reflecting temporal patterns in the natural environment. Here, we assessed the effects of temporal patterns of high aerial temperature and low salinity on survival of Olympia oysters (Ostrea lurida), a foundation species of conservation and restoration concern. As single stressors, low salinity (5 and 10 psu) and the highest air temperature (40°C) resulted in oyster mortality of 55.8, 11.3, and 23.5%, respectively. When applied on the same day, low salinity and high air temperature had synergistic negative effects that increased oyster mortality. This was true even for stressor levels that were relatively mild when applied alone (10 psu and 35°C). However, recovery times of two or four weeks between stressors eliminated the synergistic effects. Given that most natural systems threatened by climate change are subject to multiple stressors that vary in the timing of their occurrence, our results suggest that it is important to examine temporal variation of stressors in order to more accurately understand the possible biological responses to global change. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Quantitative analysis of oyster larval proteome provides new insights into the effects of multiple climate change stressors, supplement to: Dineshram, R; Chandramouli, K; Ko, W K Ginger; Zhang, Huoming; Qian, Pei Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen (2016): Quantitative analysis of oyster larval proteome provides new insights into the effects of multiple climate change stressors. Global Change Biology, 22(6), 2054-2068

    KAUST Repository

    Dineshram, R; Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli; Ko, W K Ginger; Zhang, Huoming; Qian, Pei Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2016-01-01

    survival bottleneck, which will be pressured by different anthropogenically induced climate change-related variables. Therefore, it is important to understand how metamorphosing larvae interact with emerging climate change stressors. To predict how larvae

  13. The Micronesia Challenge: Assessing the Relative Contribution of Stressors on Coral Reefs to Facilitate Science-to-Management Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Peter; Camacho, Rodney; Johnson, Steven; McLean, Matthew; Maxin, Selino; Anson, Jorg; Joseph, Eugene; Nedlic, Osamu; Luckymis, Marston; Adams, Katrina; Hess, Don; Kabua, Emma; Yalon, Anthony; Buthung, Eva; Graham, Curtis; Leberer, Trina; Taylor, Brett; van Woesik, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Fishing and pollution are chronic stressors that can prolong recovery of coral reefs and contribute to ecosystem decline. While this premise is generally accepted, management interventions are complicated because the contributions from individual stressors are difficult to distinguish. The present study examined the extent to which fishing pressure and pollution predicted progress towards the Micronesia Challenge, an international conservation strategy initiated by the political leaders of 6 nations to conserve at least 30% of marine resources by 2020. The analyses were rooted in a defined measure of coral-reef-ecosystem condition, comprised of biological metrics that described functional processes on coral reefs. We report that only 42% of the major reef habitats exceeded the ecosystem-condition threshold established by the Micronesia Challenge. Fishing pressure acting alone on outer reefs, or in combination with pollution in some lagoons, best predicted both the decline and variance in ecosystem condition. High variances among ecosystem-condition scores reflected the large gaps between the best and worst reefs, and suggested that the current scores were unlikely to remain stable through time because of low redundancy. Accounting for the presence of marine protected area (MPA) networks in statistical models did little to improve the models' predictive capabilities, suggesting limited efficacy of MPAs when grouped together across the region. Yet, localized benefits of MPAs existed and are expected to increase over time. Sensitivity analyses suggested that (i) grazing by large herbivores, (ii) high functional diversity of herbivores, and (iii) high predator biomass were most sensitive to fishing pressure, and were required for high ecosystem-condition scores. Linking comprehensive fisheries management policies with these sensitive metrics, and targeting the management of pollution, will strengthen the Micronesia Challenge and preserve ecosystem services that coral

  14. The Micronesia Challenge: Assessing the Relative Contribution of Stressors on Coral Reefs to Facilitate Science-to-Management Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Houk

    Full Text Available Fishing and pollution are chronic stressors that can prolong recovery of coral reefs and contribute to ecosystem decline. While this premise is generally accepted, management interventions are complicated because the contributions from individual stressors are difficult to distinguish. The present study examined the extent to which fishing pressure and pollution predicted progress towards the Micronesia Challenge, an international conservation strategy initiated by the political leaders of 6 nations to conserve at least 30% of marine resources by 2020. The analyses were rooted in a defined measure of coral-reef-ecosystem condition, comprised of biological metrics that described functional processes on coral reefs. We report that only 42% of the major reef habitats exceeded the ecosystem-condition threshold established by the Micronesia Challenge. Fishing pressure acting alone on outer reefs, or in combination with pollution in some lagoons, best predicted both the decline and variance in ecosystem condition. High variances among ecosystem-condition scores reflected the large gaps between the best and worst reefs, and suggested that the current scores were unlikely to remain stable through time because of low redundancy. Accounting for the presence of marine protected area (MPA networks in statistical models did little to improve the models' predictive capabilities, suggesting limited efficacy of MPAs when grouped together across the region. Yet, localized benefits of MPAs existed and are expected to increase over time. Sensitivity analyses suggested that (i grazing by large herbivores, (ii high functional diversity of herbivores, and (iii high predator biomass were most sensitive to fishing pressure, and were required for high ecosystem-condition scores. Linking comprehensive fisheries management policies with these sensitive metrics, and targeting the management of pollution, will strengthen the Micronesia Challenge and preserve ecosystem

  15. Individual and Neighborhood Stressors, Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Marnie F.; Nurius, Paula S.; Hajat, Anjum

    2018-01-01

    Psychosocial and environmental stress exposures across the life course have been shown to be relevant in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Assessing more than one stressor from different domains (e.g., individual and neighborhood) and across the life course moves us towards a more integrated picture of how stress affects health and well-being. Furthermore, these individual and neighborhood psychosocial stressors act on biologic pathways, including immune function and inflammatory response, which are also impacted by ubiquitous environmental exposures such as air pollution. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between psychosocial stressors, at both the individual and neighborhood level, and air pollution on CVD. This study used data from the 2009–2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from Washington State. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) measured at the individual level, and neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) measured at the zip code level, were the psychosocial stressors of interest. Exposures to three air pollutants—particulate matter (both PM2.5 and PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)—were also calculated at the zip code level. Outcome measures included several self-reported CVD-related health conditions. Both multiplicative and additive interaction quantified using the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), were evaluated. This study included 32,151 participants in 502 unique zip codes. Multiplicative and positive additive interactions were observed between ACEs and PM10 for diabetes, in models adjusted for NDI. The prevalence of diabetes was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.40, 1.79) times higher among those with both high ACEs and high PM10 compared to those with low ACEs and low PM10 (p-value = 0.04 for interaction on the multiplicative scale). Interaction was also observed between neighborhood-level stressors (NDI) and air pollution (NO2) for the stroke and diabetes outcomes on both multiplicative and

  16. Individual and Neighborhood Stressors, Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Marnie F; Nurius, Paula S; Hajat, Anjum

    2018-03-08

    Psychosocial and environmental stress exposures across the life course have been shown to be relevant in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Assessing more than one stressor from different domains (e.g., individual and neighborhood) and across the life course moves us towards a more integrated picture of how stress affects health and well-being. Furthermore, these individual and neighborhood psychosocial stressors act on biologic pathways, including immune function and inflammatory response, which are also impacted by ubiquitous environmental exposures such as air pollution. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between psychosocial stressors, at both the individual and neighborhood level, and air pollution on CVD. This study used data from the 2009-2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from Washington State. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) measured at the individual level, and neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) measured at the zip code level, were the psychosocial stressors of interest. Exposures to three air pollutants-particulate matter (both PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂)-were also calculated at the zip code level. Outcome measures included several self-reported CVD-related health conditions. Both multiplicative and additive interaction quantified using the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), were evaluated. This study included 32,151 participants in 502 unique zip codes. Multiplicative and positive additive interactions were observed between ACEs and PM 10 for diabetes, in models adjusted for NDI. The prevalence of diabetes was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.40, 1.79) times higher among those with both high ACEs and high PM 10 compared to those with low ACEs and low PM 10 ( p -value = 0.04 for interaction on the multiplicative scale). Interaction was also observed between neighborhood-level stressors (NDI) and air pollution (NO₂) for the stroke and diabetes outcomes on both

  17. A dyadic multiple mediation model of patient and spouse stressors predicting patient dietary and exercise adherence via depression symptoms and diabetes self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jared R; Novak, Joshua R; Johnson, Matthew D; Deitz, Sharon L; Walker, Ann; Wilcox, Allison; Lewis, Virginia L; Robbins, David C

    2016-12-01

    Using dyadic data from 117 married couples in which one partner was diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a number of specific patient and spouse stressors (chronic life stress, diabetes-specific stress, and physical health stress in the form of the number of comorbidities) were associated with Type 2 diabetes patients' dietary and exercise adherence through two potentially modifiable patient and spouse factors-depression symptoms and diabetes self-efficacy. We found that patient and spouse stressors, particularly patient and spouse diabetes stress and the number of patient comorbidities, were related to patient dietary and exercise adherence through patient depression symptoms and both patient and spouse diabetes self-efficacy. These conclusions were strengthened by incorporating a number of relevant control variables in our models and by testing four alternative models which supported our proposed model. These results are important because they provide further evidence of the significant role spouses' play in managing diabetes and they provide diabetes educators and clinicians with specific targets for intervention programming.

  18. When Natural Disaster Follows Economic Downturn: The Incremental Impact of Multiple Stressor Events on Trajectories of Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandavia, Amar D; Bonanno, George A

    2018-04-29

    To determine whether there were incremental mental health impacts, specifically on depression trajectories, as a result of the 2008 economic crisis (the Great Recession) and subsequent Hurricane Sandy. Using latent growth mixture modeling and the ORANJ BOWL dataset, we examined prospective trajectories of depression among older adults (mean age, 60.67; SD, 6.86) who were exposed to the 2 events. We also collected community economic and criminal justice data to examine their impact upon depression trajectories. Participants (N=1172) were assessed at 3 times for affect, successful aging, and symptoms of depression. We additionally assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology after Hurricane Sandy. We identified 3 prospective trajectories of depression. The majority (83.6%) had no significant change in depression from before to after these events (resilience), while 7.2% of the sample increased in depression incrementally after each event (incremental depression). A third group (9.2%) went from high to low depression symptomology following the 2 events (depressive-improving). Only those in the incremental depression group had significant PTSD symptoms following Hurricane Sandy. We identified a small group of individuals for whom the experience of multiple stressful events had an incremental negative effect on mental health outcomes. These results highlight the importance of understanding the perseveration of depression symptomology from one event to another. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 10).

  19. Integrating multiple stressors across life stages and latitudes: Combined and delayed effects of an egg heat wave and larval pesticide exposure in a damselfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniegula, Szymon; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2017-05-01

    To understand the effects of pollutants in a changing world we need multistressor studies that combine pollutants with other stressors associated with global change such as heat waves. We tested for the delayed and combined impact of a heat wave during the egg stage and subsequent sublethal exposure to the pesticide esfenvalerate during the larval stage on life history and physiology in the larval and adult stage of the damselfly Lestes sponsa. We studied this in a common garden experiment with replicated central- and high latitude populations to explore potential effects of local thermal adaptation and differences in life history shaping the multistressor responses. Exposure of eggs to the heat wave had no effect on larval traits, yet had delayed costs (lower fat and flight muscle mass) in the adult stage thereby crossing two life history transitions. These delayed costs were only present in central-latitude populations potentially indicating their lower heat tolerance. Exposure of larvae to the pesticide reduced larval growth rate and prolonged development time, and across metamorphosis reduced the adult fat content and the flight muscle mass, yet did not affect the adult heat tolerance. The pesticide-induced delayed emergence was only present in the slower growing central-latitude larvae, possibly reflecting stronger selection to keep development fast in the more time-constrained high-latitude populations. We observed no synergistic interactions between the egg heat wave and the larval pesticide exposure. Instead the pesticide-induced reduction in fat content was only present in animals that were not exposed to the egg heat wave. Our results based on laboratory conditions highlight that multistressor studies should integrate across life stages to fully capture cumulative effects of pollutants with other stressors related to global change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Developing a multi-stressor gradient for coral reefs | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are often found near coastal waters where multiple anthropogenic stressors co-occur at areas of human disturbance. Developing coral reef biocriteria under the U.S. Clean Water Act requires relationships between anthropogenic stressors and coral reef condition to be established. Developing stressor gradients presents challenges including: stressors which co-occur but operate at different or unknown spatial and temporal scales, inconsistent data availability measuring stressor levels, and unknown effects on exposed reef biota. We are developing a generalized stressor model using Puerto Rico as case study location, to represent the cumulative spatial/temporal co-occurrence of multiple anthropogenic stressors. Our approach builds on multi-stressor research in streams and rivers, and focuses on three high-priority stressors identified by coral reef experts: land-based sources of pollution (LBSP), global climate change (GCC) related temperature anomalies, and fishing pressure. Landscape development intensity index, based on land use/land cover data, estimates human impact in watersheds adjacent to coral reefs and is proxy for LBSP. NOAA’s retrospective daily thermal anomaly data is used to determine GCC thermal anomalies. Fishing pressure is modeled using gear-specific and fishery landings data. Stressor data was adjusted to a common scale or weighted for relative importance, buffered to account for diminished impact further from source, and compared wit

  1. Psychological vulnerability to daily stressors in old age: Results of short-term longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver Karl; Diehl, Manfred

    2015-08-01

    A growing numbers of intensive longitudinal studies examine the short-term variability of behavior in response to daily stressors. Collectively, these studies address the vulnerability for stress-related emotional burden as assessed in terms of the intraindividual association between daily stressors and negative affect (NA). This article provides a brief overview of the relevant research on so-called affective reactivity to daily stressors and focuses on findings on development of age-related stressor reactivity across the adult lifespan. Two theoretical propositions have been put forward. Firstly, it has been postulated that aging should be associated with increased affective reactivity, i.e. it has been assumed that the vulnerability in terms of physiological stress reactivity increases across the adult life span and, thus, a higher stress-induced emotional reactivity should result with increasing age. Secondly, it has been argued that due to the continued development of emotional self-regulation skills, there should be an age-related decrease in stress reactivity and, hence, an increased resilience. Findings on age differences in NA reactivity to daily stressors, however, have been inconsistent. A possible explanation for the inconsistent findings may lie in the fact that the postulated dynamics of increased vulnerability or resilience imply different time-related reactions to stressors. In particular, the activation and effectiveness of emotional self-regulation strategies increase with increasing time intervals from the stressors. This leads to the conclusion that with increasing age the resilience for longer periods of stress and accumulated stress should increase. Results from our own research support this hypothesis, where older adults reacted to multiple stressors in a more adaptive way than younger adults.

  2. Discrimination, Other Psychosocial Stressors, and Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To advance understanding of the relationship between discrimination and sleep duration and difficulties, with consideration of multiple dimensions of discrimination, and attention to concurrent stressors; and to examine the contribution of discrimination and other stressors to racial/ ethnic differences in these outcomes. Design: Cross-sectional probability sample. Setting: Chicago, IL. Participants: There were 2,983 black, Hispanic, and white adults. Measurements and Results: Outcomes included self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. Discrimination, including racial and nonracial everyday and major experiences of discrimination, workplace harassment and incivilities, and other stressors were assessed via questionnaire. In models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, greater exposure to racial (β = -0.14)) and nonracial (β = -0.08) everyday discrimination, major experiences of discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity (β = -0.17), and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = -0.14) were associated with shorter sleep (P stressors (i.e., acute events, childhood adversity, and financial, community, employment, and relationship stressors). Racial (β = 0.04) and non-racial (β = 0.05) everyday discrimination and racial (β = 0.04) and nonracial (β = 0.04) major experiences of discrimination, and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = 0.04) were also associated with more (log) sleep difficulties, and associations between racial and nonracial everyday discrimination and sleep difficulties remained after adjustment for other stressors (P 0.05). Conclusions: Discrimination was associated with shorter sleep and more sleep difficulties, independent of socioeconomic status and other stressors, and may account for some of the racial/ethnic differences in sleep. Citation: Slopen N; Williams DR. Discrimination, other psychosocial stressors, and self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. SLEEP 2014;37(1):147-156. PMID:24381373

  3. The relationship between stressors and burnout in college athletes

    OpenAIRE

    木村, 彩; 手塚, 洋介; 杉山, 佳生; Kimura, Aya; Tezuka, Yosuke; Sugiyama, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between stressors and burnout (in terms of stress response) in college athletes. Participants comprised 233 college athletes (84 males and 149 females; M_ = 20.0 years and SD = 1.2 years) who completed the daily and competitive stressor scale and the Athletic Burnout Inventory. Multiple regression analysis showed that almost all the observed factors of stressors tended to be associated with each burnout factor. It also showed that not only ...

  4. Assessing the Impacts of Multiple Breadbasket Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas Connors, J. P.; Janetos, A.

    2016-12-01

    A relatively small area of the world accounts for a large proportion of total global cereal production, with most of the area devoted to the production of the world's three major cereal crops, rice, wheat and maize. An extensive literature of the sensitivity of agricultural productivity of these crops, and many others, has arisen over the past 25 years, with a general consensus that continued change in the physical climate system will very likely increase the difficulty of agricultural production in areas of the world that are already marginal with respect to production. But what this research only rarely does is assess the influence of extreme events in shocking agricultural production, and how the rest of the agricultural system reacts, in terms of prices, food insecurity, subsequent land-use change, and terrestrial carbon emissions, among many other possible responses. Because the agricultural system is interlinked with energy systems, food distribution and transportation systems, and economic systems, models that focus only on agricultural productivity can only provide a unidimensional view of the magnitude of potential impacts. We know such impacts can occur as a consequence of extreme climatic events, because they have - the impact of the severe regional drought and heat wave on the Russian and Ukrainian wheat harvests in 2010 had global consequences for food prices, just as one example. In this paper, we use an Integrated Assessment Model, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), to investigate the potential outcomes of both moderate and severe shocks to agricultural productivity in the major breadbaskets of the world - both singly and in combination. The results demonstrate clearly that there are likely to be multidimensional consequences from the kinds of shocks that are possible from a rapidly changing climate system, especially when combined with other demographic and economic trends in the coming decades. These results are only one aspect of

  5. Assessment of SMART Capability for Multiple Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Han Ok; Kim, Young In; Kim, Keung Koo; Zee, Sung Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Cogeneration has become an attractive for a wide range of non-electric application, including seawater desalination, district heating, district cooling, and other industrial process heat applications. From 2009 to 2012, the SMART Technology Validation and the Standard Design Approval Project was carried out. After one and half years of intensive licensing review, the SDA for SMART was officially issued on July 4{sup th}, 2012 by the NSSC, in compliance with Article 12 of the Nuclear Safety Act. This is the first license for an integral reactor in the world. SMART has beneficial advantages of a reactor safety and economics by an easy implementation of advanced design concepts and technology. Owing to its native characteristics, the SMART can be easily applicable not only to a small scale electricity generation but also to non-electricity applications such as sea water desalination and a district heating. The capability of SMART for the application of sea water desalination and a district heating are assessed through modifying the existing secondary system for electricity generation in this study. SMART can be a good engine for seawater desalination and district heating. Power generation system can be safely and effectively coupled with MEDTVC desalination system using steam transformer. District heating application will increase the cycle efficiency of SMART significantly. Introduction of desalination system doesn't have adverse effect on reactor safety.

  6. Diagnosis of potential stressors adversely affecting benthic invertebrate communities in Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwich Bay is an urbanized embayment of Narragansett Bay potentially impacted by multiple stressors. The present study identified the important stressors affecting Greenwich Bay benthic fauna. First, existing data and information were used to confirm that the waterbody was imp...

  7. Assessing and managing multiple risks in a changing world-The Roskilde recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selck, Henriette; Adamsen, Peter B; Backhaus, Thomas; Banta, Gary T; Bruce, Peter K H; Burton, G Allen; Butts, Michael B; Boegh, Eva; Clague, John J; Dinh, Khuong V; Doorn, Neelke; Gunnarsson, Jonas S; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Hazlerigg, Charles; Hunka, Agnieszka D; Jensen, John; Lin, Yan; Loureiro, Susana; Miraglia, Simona; Munns, Wayne R; Nadim, Farrokh; Palmqvist, Annemette; Rämö, Robert A; Seaby, Lauren P; Syberg, Kristian; Tangaa, Stine R; Thit, Amalie; Windfeld, Ronja; Zalewski, Maciej; Chapman, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    Roskilde University (Denmark) hosted a November 2015 workshop, Environmental Risk-Assessing and Managing Multiple Risks in a Changing World. This Focus article presents the consensus recommendations of 30 attendees from 9 countries regarding implementation of a common currency (ecosystem services) for holistic environmental risk assessment and management; improvements to risk assessment and management in a complex, human-modified, and changing world; appropriate development of protection goals in a 2-stage process; dealing with societal issues; risk-management information needs; conducting risk assessment of risk management; and development of adaptive and flexible regulatory systems. The authors encourage both cross-disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to address their 10 recommendations: 1) adopt ecosystem services as a common currency for risk assessment and management; 2) consider cumulative stressors (chemical and nonchemical) and determine which dominate to best manage and restore ecosystem services; 3) fully integrate risk managers and communities of interest into the risk-assessment process; 4) fully integrate risk assessors and communities of interest into the risk-management process; 5) consider socioeconomics and increased transparency in both risk assessment and risk management; 6) recognize the ethical rights of humans and ecosystems to an adequate level of protection; 7) determine relevant reference conditions and the proper ecological context for assessments in human-modified systems; 8) assess risks and benefits to humans and the ecosystem and consider unintended consequences of management actions; 9) avoid excessive conservatism or possible underprotection resulting from sole reliance on binary, numerical benchmarks; and 10) develop adaptive risk-management and regulatory goals based on ranges of uncertainty. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:7-16. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  8. Complexities of holistic community-based participatory research for a low income, multi-ethnic population exposed to multiple built-environment stressors in Worcester, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Timothy J; Ross, Laurie; Patton, Suzanne; Rulnick, Sarah; Sinha, Deb; Mucciarone, Danielle; Calvache, Maria; Parmenter, Sarah; Subedi, Rajendra; Wysokenski, Donna; Anderson, Erin; Dezan, Rebecca; Lowe, Kate; Bowen, Jennifer; Tejani, Amee; Piersanti, Kelly; Taylor, Octavia; Goble, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Low income, multi-ethnic communities in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts are exposed to cumulative, chronic built-environment stressors, and have limited capacity to respond, magnifying their vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. "Neighborhood STRENGTH", our community-based participatory research (CBPR) project, comprised four partners: a youth center; an environmental non-profit; a community-based health center; and a university. Unlike most CBPR projects that are single topic-focused, our 'holistic', systems-based project targeted five priorities. The three research-focused/action-oriented components were: (1) participatory monitoring of indoor and outdoor pollution; (2) learning about health needs and concerns of residents through community-based listening sessions; (3) engaging in collaborative survey work, including a household vulnerability survey and an asthma prevalence survey for schoolchildren. The two action-focused/research-informed components were: (4) tackling persistent street trash and illegal dumping strategically; and (5) educating and empowering youth to promote environmental justice. We used a coupled CBPR-capacity building approach to design, vulnerability theory to frame, and mixed methods: quantitative environmental testing and qualitative surveys. Process and outcomes yielded important lessons: vulnerability theory helps frame issues holistically; having several topic-based projects yielded useful information, but was hard to manage and articulate to the public; access to, and engagement with, the target population was very difficult and would have benefited greatly from having representative residents who were paid at the partners' table. Engagement with residents and conflict burden varied highly across components. Notwithstanding, we built enabling capacity, strengthened our understanding of vulnerability, and are able to share valuable experiential knowledge.

  9. Developing a multi-stressor gradient for coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are often found near coastal waters where multiple anthropogenic stressors co-occur at areas of human disturbance. Developing coral reef biocriteria under the U.S. Clean Water Act requires relationships between anthropogenic stressors and coral reef condition to be es...

  10. Automatic, Multiple Assessment Options in Undergraduate Meteorology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2017-01-01

    Since 2008, automatic, multiple assessment options have been utilised in selected undergraduate meteorology courses at the University of Wisconsin--Milwaukee. Motivated by a desire to reduce stress among students, the assessment methodology includes examination-heavy and homework-heavy alternatives, differing by an adjustable 15% of the overall…

  11. Modular risk analysis for assessing multiple waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Nazarali, A.

    1994-06-01

    Human-health impacts, especially to the surrounding public, are extremely difficult to assess at installations that contain multiple waste sites and a variety of mixed-waste constituents (e.g., organic, inorganic, and radioactive). These assessments must address different constituents, multiple waste sites, multiple release patterns, different transport pathways (i.e., groundwater, surface water, air, and overland soil), different receptor types and locations, various times of interest, population distributions, land-use patterns, baseline assessments, a variety of exposure scenarios, etc. Although the process is complex, two of the most important difficulties to overcome are associated with (1) establishing an approach that allows for modifying the source term, transport, or exposure component as an individual module without having to re-evaluate the entire installation-wide assessment (i.e., all modules simultaneously), and (2) displaying and communicating the results in an understandable and useable maimer to interested parties. An integrated, physics-based, compartmentalized approach, which is coupled to a Geographical Information System (GIS), captures the regional health impacts associated with multiple waste sites (e.g., hundreds to thousands of waste sites) at locations within and surrounding the installation. Utilizing a modular/GIS-based approach overcomes difficulties in (1) analyzing a wide variety of scenarios for multiple waste sites, and (2) communicating results from a complex human-health-impact analysis by capturing the essence of the assessment in a relatively elegant manner, so the meaning of the results can be quickly conveyed to all who review them

  12. Assessing choice making among children with multiple disabilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Sigafoos, J; Dempsey, R

    1992-01-01

    Some learners with multiple disabilities display idiosyncratic gestures that are interpreted as a means of making choices. In the present study, we assessed the validity of idiosyncratic choice-making behaviors of 3 children with multiple disabilities. Opportunities for each child to choose between food and drink were provided under two conditions. In one condition, the children were given the food or drink item corresponding to their prior choice. In the other condition, the teacher delivere...

  13. Assessing genotoxic effects in fish from a marine protected area influenced by former mining activities and other stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusso-Choueri, Paloma Kachel; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Santos, Gustavo Souza; Seraphim de Araújo, Giuliana; Feitosa Cruz, Ana Carolina

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to evaluate different genotoxicity tools in order to assess a marine protected area (MPA) affected by former mining activities and urban settlements. A catfish (Cathorops spixii) was analyzed for genotoxic effects at the (i) molecular and at the (ii) chromosomal levels. Through factor analysis, genotoxicity was found to be linked to levels of metals bioaccumulated and PAH metabolites in the bile. Micronucleus and nuclear alteration were less vulnerable to the effects of confounding factors in mildly contaminated areas since they were more frequently associated with bioaccumulated metals than the DNA analysis. The different genotoxicity responses allowed for the identification of sources of pollution in the MPA. This approach was important for detecting environmental risks related to genotoxic contaminants in a mildly contaminated MPA. -- Highlights: •We assessed genotoxicity and bioaccumulation in catfish from a marine protected area. •The area is under the influence of past mining activities and urban settlements. •Cellular level responses were highly associated with body burdens of metals and As. •Responses at the molecular level were less associated with body burdens. •Genotoxicity in different organs helped identify pollution sources in MPA.

  14. Assessing multiple intelligences in elementary-school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Catherine Hunt

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to gain a clear understanding of the manner in which fourth-grade students attending a Kansas elementary school learn when engaged in science activities grounded in H. Gardner's book, Frames of mind the theory of multiple intelligences (1983). The significance of this research lies in the discovery of the difference between teaching practice grounded in multiple intelligences versus that based upon traditional theory. Teacher self-perceptions with regard to the effectiveness of their instruction and student assessment within the classroom were also explored. The research evaluated the overall effectiveness of both traditional curriculum delivery and that rooted in the concept of multiple intelligences.

  15. Data linkage between the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to assess workplace physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura J; Symanski, Elaine; Lupo, Philip J; Tinker, Sarah C; Razzaghi, Hilda; Pompeii, Lisa A; Hoyt, Adrienne T; Canfield, Mark A; Chan, Wenyaw

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of the prevalence of work-related physical activities, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors among pregnant women is limited, and the extent to which these exposures vary by maternal characteristics remains unclear. Data on mothers of 6,817 infants without major birth defects, with estimated delivery during 1997 through 2009 who worked during pregnancy were obtained from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Information on multiple domains of occupational exposures was gathered by linking mother's primary job to the Occupational Information Network Version 9.0. The most frequent estimated physical activity associated with jobs during pregnancy was standing. Of 6,337 mothers, 31.0% reported jobs associated with standing for ≥75% of their time. There was significant variability in estimated occupational exposures by maternal age, race/ethnicity, and educational level. Our findings augment existing literature on occupational physical activities, sedentary behaviors, emotional stressors, and occupational health disparities during pregnancy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA): transforming the way we assess health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela R D; Dotson, G Scott; Maier, Andrew

    2012-10-16

    Human health risk assessments continue to evolve and now focus on the need for cumulative risk assessment (CRA). CRA involves assessing the combined risk from coexposure to multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors for varying health effects. CRAs are broader in scope than traditional chemical risk assessments because they allow for a more comprehensive evaluation of the interaction between different stressors and their combined impact on human health. Future directions of CRA include greater emphasis on local-level community-based assessments; integrating environmental, occupational, community, and individual risk factors; and identifying and implementing common frameworks and risk metrics for incorporating multiple stressors.

  17. Entrepreneurial stressors as predictors of entrepreneurial burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xueyan; Cang, Shuangxin; Hisrich, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Research on the effects of entrepreneurial stressors is limited, especially regarding its relation to the burnout that frequently occurs in the process of starting and growing a venture. The effect of the role of entrepreneurial stressors (workload, competitive comparison, demands-of-knowledge, managing responsibility, and resource requirements) on burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) was examined in a Chinese sample of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial stressors emerged as a significant predictor of burnout in the process of entrepreneurship in a sample of 289 entrepreneurs (63.8% men; M age = 26.2 yr.; 39.6% of their parents have been self-employed). The findings clarify the functional relationship between entrepreneurial stressors and burnout. Entrepreneurial stressors played multiple roles. Managing responsibility was an active contributor to the sense of achievement and to emotional exhaustion. Workload was an active contributor to emotional exhaustion. Demands-of-knowledge negatively affected three of the dimensions of burnout. Theoretical and practical implications for management of the effect of these relationships are discussed.

  18. Discrimination, other psychosocial stressors, and self-reported sleep duration and difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R

    2014-01-01

    To advance understanding of the relationship between discrimination and sleep duration and difficulties, with consideration of multiple dimensions of discrimination, and attention to concurrent stressors; and to examine the contribution of discrimination and other stressors to racial/ ethnic differences in these outcomes. Cross-sectional probability sample. Chicago, IL. There were 2,983 black, Hispanic, and white adults. Outcomes included self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. Discrimination, including racial and nonracial everyday and major experiences of discrimination, workplace harassment and incivilities, and other stressors were assessed via questionnaire. In models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, greater exposure to racial (β = -0.14)) and nonracial (β = -0.08) everyday discrimination, major experiences of discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity (β = -0.17), and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = -0.14) were associated with shorter sleep (P discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity and sleep duration (β = -0.09, P discrimination and racial (β = 0.04) and nonracial (β = 0.04) major experiences of discrimination, and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = 0.04) were also associated with more (log) sleep difficulties, and associations between racial and nonracial everyday discrimination and sleep difficulties remained after adjustment for other stressors (P discrimination (P > 0.05). Discrimination was associated with shorter sleep and more sleep difficulties, independent of socioeconomic status and other stressors, and may account for some of the racial/ethnic differences in sleep.

  19. Assessment and longitudinal analysis of health impacts and stressors perceived to result from unconventional shale gas development in the Marcellus Shale region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Kyle J; Kriesky, Jill; Christen, Charles L; Marshall, Lynne P; Malone, Samantha L; Sharma, Ravi K; Michanowicz, Drew R; Goldstein, Bernard D

    2013-01-01

    Concerns for health and social impacts have arisen as a result of Marcellus Shale unconventional natural gas development. Our goal was to document the self-reported health impacts and mental and physical health stressors perceived to result from Marcellus Shale development. Two sets of interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of community members living proximal to Marcellus Shale development, session 1 March-September 2010 (n = 33) and session 2 January-April 2012 (n = 20). Symptoms of health impacts and sources of psychological stress were coded. Symptom and stressor counts were quantified for each interview. The counts for each participant were compared longitudinally. Participants attributed 59 unique health impacts and 13 stressors to Marcellus Shale development. Stress was the most frequently-reported symptom. Over time, perceived health impacts increased (P = 0·042), while stressors remained constant (P = 0·855). Exposure-based epidemiological studies are needed to address identified health impacts and those that may develop as unconventional natural gas extraction continues. Many of the stressors can be addressed immediately.

  20. Holistic needs assessment in advanced, intensively treated multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, E G; Boland, J W; Ezaydi, Y; Greenfield, D M; Ahmedzai, S H; Snowden, J A

    2014-10-01

    It is recommended that patients with multiple myeloma should be assessed for unmet holistic needs at key times in their disease trajectory. The aim of this exploratory study was to characterise the holistic needs of advanced, intensively treated multiple myeloma using a structured assessment tool. Patients with multiple myeloma who had undergone a haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and subsequent treatment for at least one episode of progressive disease but were in stable plateau phase were included in the study. Patients' holistic needs were assessed using the self-reporting tool, Sheffield Profile for Assessment and Referral for Care (SPARC). Thirty-two patients with a median age of 60 years at assessment and a median of 5.5 years from diagnosis were recruited. Using the SPARC, half of the patients reported tiredness as 'quite a bit/very much,' while one third complained that daytime somnolence and insomnia were 'quite a bit/very much.' Forty-four percent of patients reported pain. One third of patients were bothered and distressed by the side effects from their treatment and were worried about long-term effects of their treatment. Thirty-one percent of patients felt that the effect of their condition had an impact on their sexual life, and 40 % were worried about the effect that their illness was having on their family or other people. This is the first study to use a self-reported holistic needs assessment tool in multiple myeloma. A multidimensional structured questionnaire like the SPARC could provide a useful first step in the effective delivery of supportive and palliative care for patients with multiple myeloma.

  1. Prioritizing ecological restoration among sites in multi-stressor landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeson, Thomas M; Smith, Sigrid D P; Allan, J David; McIntyre, Peter B

    2016-09-01

    Most ecosystems are impacted by multiple local and long-distance stressors, many of which interact in complex ways. We present a framework for prioritizing ecological restoration efforts among sites in multi-stressor landscapes. Using a simple model, we show that both the economic and sociopolitical costs of restoration will typically be lower at sites with a relatively small number of severe problems than at sites with numerous lesser problems. Based on these results, we propose using cumulative stress and evenness of stressor impact as complementary indices that together reflect key challenges of restoring a site to improved condition. To illustrate this approach, we analyze stressor evenness across the world's rivers and the Laurentian Great Lakes. This exploration reveals that evenness and cumulative stress are decoupled, enabling selection of sites where remediating a modest number of high-intensity stressors could substantially reduce cumulative stress. Just as species richness and species evenness are fundamental axes of biological diversity, we argue that cumulative stress and stressor evenness constitute fundamental axes for identifying restoration opportunities in multi-stressor landscapes. Our results highlight opportunities to boost restoration efficiency through strategic use of multi-stressor datasets to identify sites that maximize ecological response per stressor remediated. This prioritization framework can also be expanded to account for the feasibility of remediation and the expected societal benefits of restoration projects. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. Intensity ratio to improve black hole assessment in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adusumilli, Gautam; Trinkaus, Kathryn; Sun, Peng; Lancia, Samantha; Viox, Jeffrey D; Wen, Jie; Naismith, Robert T; Cross, Anne H

    2018-01-01

    Improved imaging methods are critical to assess neurodegeneration and remyelination in multiple sclerosis. Chronic hypointensities observed on T1-weighted brain MRI, "persistent black holes," reflect severe focal tissue damage. Present measures consist of determining persistent black holes numbers and volumes, but do not quantitate severity of individual lesions. Develop a method to differentiate black and gray holes and estimate the severity of individual multiple sclerosis lesions using standard magnetic resonance imaging. 38 multiple sclerosis patients contributed images. Intensities of lesions on T1-weighted scans were assessed relative to cerebrospinal fluid intensity using commercial software. Magnetization transfer imaging, diffusion tensor imaging and clinical testing were performed to assess associations with T1w intensity-based measures. Intensity-based assessments of T1w hypointensities were reproducible and achieved > 90% concordance with expert rater determinations of "black" and "gray" holes. Intensity ratio values correlated with magnetization transfer ratios (R = 0.473) and diffusion tensor imaging metrics (R values ranging from 0.283 to -0.531) that have been associated with demyelination and axon loss. Intensity ratio values incorporated into T1w hypointensity volumes correlated with clinical measures of cognition. This method of determining the degree of hypointensity within multiple sclerosis lesions can add information to conventional imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple choice questiones as a tool for assessment in medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods For this review, a PuBMed online search was carried out for English language ... Advantages and disadvantages of MCQs in medical education are ... multiple-choice question meets many of the educational requirements for an assessment method. The use of automation for grading and low costs makes it a viable ...

  4. Stress and multiple sclerosis: A systematic review considering potential moderating and mediating factors and methods of assessing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Buixassa, Laia; Milà, Raimon; Mª Aragonès, Josep; Bufill, Enric; Olaya, Beatriz; Arrufat, Francesc Xavier

    2015-07-01

    Research about the effects of stress on multiple sclerosis has yielded contradictory results. This study aims to systematically review the evidence focusing on two possible causes: the role of stress assessment and potential moderating and mediating factors. The Web of Knowledge (MEDLINE and Web of Science), Scopus, and PsycINFO databases were searched for relevant articles published from 1900 through December 2014 using the terms "stress*" AND "multiple sclerosis." Twenty-three articles were included. Studies focused on the effect of stress on multiple sclerosis onset ( n  = 9) were mostly retrospective, and semi-structured interviews and scales yielded the most consistent associations. Studies focused on multiple sclerosis progression ( n  = 14) were mostly prospective, and self-reported diaries yielded the most consistent results. The most important modifying factors were stressor duration, severity, and frequency; cardiovascular reactivity and heart rate; and social support and escitalopram intake. Future studies should consider the use of prospective design with self-reported evaluations and the study of moderators and mediators related to amount of stress and autonomic nervous system reactivity to determine the effects of stress on multiple sclerosis.

  5. Stress and multiple sclerosis: A systematic review considering potential moderating and mediating factors and methods of assessing stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Briones-Buixassa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research about the effects of stress on multiple sclerosis has yielded contradictory results. This study aims to systematically review the evidence focusing on two possible causes: the role of stress assessment and potential moderating and mediating factors. The Web of Knowledge (MEDLINE and Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases were searched for relevant articles published from 1900 through December 2014 using the terms “stress*” AND “multiple sclerosis.” Twenty-three articles were included. Studies focused on the effect of stress on multiple sclerosis onset ( n  = 9 were mostly retrospective, and semi-structured interviews and scales yielded the most consistent associations. Studies focused on multiple sclerosis progression ( n  = 14 were mostly prospective, and self-reported diaries yielded the most consistent results. The most important modifying factors were stressor duration, severity, and frequency; cardiovascular reactivity and heart rate; and social support and escitalopram intake. Future studies should consider the use of prospective design with self-reported evaluations and the study of moderators and mediators related to amount of stress and autonomic nervous system reactivity to determine the effects of stress on multiple sclerosis.

  6. Stressors and reactions to stressors among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaideh, Shaher H

    2011-01-01

    University students are prone to stressors due to the transitional nature of university life. High levels of stress are believed to affect students' health as well as their academic performance. The aims of this study were to identify stressors and reactions to stressors among university students, and to examine the correlations between student stressors and study variables. A correlational descriptive design was used. Student-life Stress Inventory (SSI) was used to measure the stressors and reactions to stressors. Stratified random sampling was employed to recruit participants. The final sample consisted of 877 participants (students). s indicated that the highest group of stressors experienced by students were 'self-imposed' stressors followed by 'pressures'. Cognitive responses were found to be the highest responses to stressors experienced by students. Negative correlations were found with student's perception of health, and father's and mother's level of education. This study revealed that stressors among university students come from 'self-imposed' stressors and 'pressures'. Stress management, assertiveness skills, time management and counselling sessions will be effective in reducing stress experienced by students.

  7. Evaluación de la inestabilidad laboral como estresor psicosocial en el trabajo Assessment Of Job Instability As A Psychosocial Stressor In Work Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Leibovich de Figueroa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La inestabilidad laboral se presenta como un estresor psicosocial en los contextos laborales y se hace imprescindible evaluar su impacto en los trabajadores. Se presentan los resultados obtenidos del análisis factorial exploratorio del Inventario de Malestar Percibido en la Inestabilidad Laboral (IMPIL. Se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio (método de componentes principales, rotación promax para examinar cómo se agrupaban los ítems. Se comenzó con una solución forzada de ocho factores para ver si se mantenía la agrupación conceptual original del inventario. Se descartaron los ítems con cargas inferiores a .40 y con doble pesaje. Esto dejó un total de 44 ítems, con los que se llegó a una solución forzada de ocho factores que describen el 64.11% de la varianza de las puntuaciones. Los ítems agrupados en los 8 factores reproducen pensamientos positivos y negativos del trabajador y su relación con el contexto laboral.Job Instability appears as a psychosocial stressor in work contexts and it is imperative to assess its impact among workers. Results of an exploratory factor analysis of the Inventory of Perceived Uneasiness in an Unstable Work Setting (IMPIL are presented. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted (method of principal components, promax rotation, to discuss how the items were grouped. To see if original grouping maintained, an eight factors solution was forced. Items with loads less than .40 and dual weighing were discarded. This left a total of 44 items, and we arrived at a forced eight factors solution that describes the 64.11% of the variance. The items grouped in the eight factors reproduced positive and negative thoughts of the workers and their relationship to the employment context.

  8. Emotional Competence and Stressors of Female School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeyannavar, P. G.; Itagi, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    A study on emotional competence and stressors of 105 primary school teachers was conducted in Dharwad in 2009. Emotional competence was assessed using EC- scale and stressors by stress inventory for teachers (SIT). Results revealed that majority of the teachers (89.5%) showed average to competent levels of emotional competence, followed by 6.7 and…

  9. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6 and 13…

  10. Stressors affecting nursing students in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R; Rehman, S; Ali, P A

    2017-12-01

    To determine factors contributing to stress experienced by preregistration nursing students in Pakistan, using the Stressors in Nursing Students scale. The aim was to explore the psychometric properties of this instrument and to investigate the effect of a range of demographic variables on the perception of stressors in nursing students. Nursing is a stressful profession, and nursing students may experience more stress due to competing demands and challenges of nursing education, assessment, placements and worries about employment prospects. In this cross-sectional survey, data from 726 nursing students from 11 schools of nursing in Karachi, Pakistan, were collected using a questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive as well inferential statistics. An exploratory factor analysis was also conducted. There was no apparent factor structure to the Stressors in Nursing Students scale, unlike in previous studies. The total score on the Stressors in Nursing Students scale was related to gender with males scoring higher. The score generally increased over 4 years of the programme, and students in private schools of nursing scored higher than those in public schools of nursing. Nursing students in Pakistan do not appear to differentiate between different stressors, and this may be due to cultural differences in the students and to the structure of the programme and the articulation between the academic and clinical aspects. Likewise, cultural reasons may account for differences between stress experienced by male and female students. The fact that scores on the Stressors in Nursing Students scale increased over 4 years of the programme and males scored higher than females should alert nursing schools and policymakers related to nursing education and workforce to pay attention to prevent attrition from nursing programmes. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  11. Resilience of Soil Microbial Communities to Metals and Additional Stressors: DNA-Based Approaches for Assessing “Stress-on-Stress” Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Azarbad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many microbial ecology studies have demonstrated profound changes in community composition caused by environmental pollution, as well as adaptation processes allowing survival of microbes in polluted ecosystems. Soil microbial communities in polluted areas with a long-term history of contamination have been shown to maintain their function by developing metal-tolerance mechanisms. In the present work, we review recent experiments, with specific emphasis on studies that have been conducted in polluted areas with a long-term history of contamination that also applied DNA-based approaches. We evaluate how the “costs” of adaptation to metals affect the responses of metal-tolerant communities to other stress factors (“stress-on-stress”. We discuss recent studies on the stability of microbial communities, in terms of resistance and resilience to additional stressors, focusing on metal pollution as the initial stress, and discuss possible factors influencing the functional and structural stability of microbial communities towards secondary stressors. There is increasing evidence that the history of environmental conditions and disturbance regimes play central roles in responses of microbial communities towards secondary stressors.

  12. Using Performance in Multiple Simulated Scenarios to Assess Bronchoscopy Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Arendrup, Henrik; Buchwald, Christian von

    2011-01-01

    using a standardized scoring form. Methods: The test was administered on a virtual reality bronchoscopy simulator to a total of 42 test subjects (14 senior consultants, 14 trainees and 14 medical students). The inter-rater reliability of the test procedure was explored according to examination of test......Background: International guidelines suggest that trainees should perform at least 100 flexible bronchoscopies in a supervised setting, but this number is not evidence based. An objective assessment method could provide educational feedback to trainees and help supervisors decide when basic...... competency is established. No former assessment instrument has been able to distinguish between trainees and experts. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the validity and reliability of a new assessment procedure relating to testing operators across multiple tasks with increasing difficulty...

  13. Stressors in Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilla, Steven; Felix, Kayla; Jorizzo, Joseph L

    2017-01-01

    As with other inflammatory skin disorders, atopic dermatitis has a tendency to cause stress and also be exacerbated by it. Patients with atopic dermatitis have several disease-associated stressors, some of which include physical discomfort due to itching and altered appearance due to flare-ups. These stressors have been shown to effect patients psychosocially by altering sleep patterns, decreasing self-esteem and interfering with interpersonal relationships. In combination with its direct effect on patients, atopic dermatitis also causes stress for parents and caregivers. Studies suggest that atopic dermatitis is strongly correlated with co-sleeping habits, which can negatively impact the health and mood of parents or caregivers. It has also been reported to interfere with the formation of a strong mother-child relationship. In order to optimize treatment for patients with atopic dermatitis, it is important to note the impact that it has on quality of life. By implementing patient counseling, sleep-targeted therapies, and the use of quality of life (QoL) indices, atopic dermatitis patients and caregivers have the potential to experience greater satisfaction with treatment.

  14. Occupational stressors in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nikpeyma

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsNursing provides a wide range of potential workplace stressors as it is  a profession that requires a high level of skill, teamworking in a variety of situations and provision  of 24-hour delivery of care .Occupational stress is a major factor of Staff sickness an  absenteeism.This study investigates the main occupational stressors in nursing profession in the  hope of identification and reducing it.MethodsIn this study a questionnaire consisting of three parts:demoghraphic data,the nurses  background and questions about occupational stress from Revised index fulfilled by 140 nurses.ResultsLack of reward for work well done(48/6%, Heavy workload(46/4% ,lack of Participation in decisions (39/3% , poor Control of work place(38/4%and lack of job  development (36/4% have been the main sources of Occupational stress for nurses.chronic  diseases, Night Shift working and working hours were positively associated with occupstional  stress.Conclusion Analysis indicated that effects of work factors on occupational stress are more than demoghraphic data. The findings of this study can assist health service organisations to provide an attractive working climate in order to decrease side effects and consequences of occupational stress. Furthermore, understanding this situation can help to develop coping strategies in order to reduce work-related stress.

  15. Water Quality Stressor Information from Clean Water Act Statewide Statistical Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Stressors assessed by statewide statistical surveys and their state and national attainment categories. Statewide statistical surveys are water quality assessments...

  16. Urban development results in stressors that degrade stream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Amanda H.; Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Woodside, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, eighty-three percent of Americans lived in metropolitan areas, and considerable population increases are predicted within the next 50 years. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic biota. Every stream is connected downstream to other water bodies, and inputs of contaminants and (or) sediments to streams can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism. Understanding how algal, invertebrate, and fish communities respond to physical and chemical stressors associated with urban development can provide important clues on how multiple stressors may be managed to protect stream health as a watershed becomes increasingly urbanized. This fact sheet highlights selected findings of a comprehensive assessment by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas.

  17. Financial satisfaction and financial stressors in marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Kristy L; Britt, Sonya L; Tonn, Teresa J; Grable, John E

    2011-04-01

    Using a sample of 310 married respondents from one U.S. Midwestern state, a test was conducted to examine the association of financial satisfaction and financial stressors in a spouse's decision to stay married to the same person or leave the relationship. The role of demographic and socioeconomic variables, religiosity, psychological constructs, financial satisfaction, and financial stressors as factors influencing marital satisfaction was tested. Financial stressors were measured using a list of financial stressors adapted from the literature. Financial satisfaction was measured with a one-item scale. The Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale was used as a validation tool to assess whether individuals would marry or not marry again. Religiosity and financial satisfaction were positively associated with marital satisfaction. A negative interaction between financial satisfaction and financial stressors was also noted. Findings suggest that respondents who are financially satisfied tend to be more stable in their marriages.

  18. Hemodialysis: stressors and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muayyad M; Al Nazly, Eman K

    2015-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an irreversible and life-threatening condition. In Jordan, the number of ESRD patients treated with hemodialysis is on the rise. Identifying stressors and coping strategies used by patients with ESRD may help nurses and health care providers to gain a clearer understanding of the condition of these patients and thus institute effective care planning. The purpose of this study was to identify stressors perceived by Jordanian patients on hemodialysis, and the coping strategies used by them. A convenience sample of 131 Jordanian men and women was recruited from outpatients' dialysis units in four hospitals. Stressors perceived by participants on hemodialysis and the coping strategies were measured using Hemodialysis Stressor Scale, and Ways of Coping Scale-Revised. Findings showed that patients on hemodialysis psychosocial stressors scores mean was higher than the physiological stressors mean. Positive reappraisal coping strategy had the highest mean among the coping strategies and the lowest mean was accepting responsibility. Attention should be focused towards the psychosocial stressors of patients on hemodialysis and also helping patients utilize the coping strategies that help to alleviate the stressors. The most used coping strategy was positive reappraisal strategy which includes faith and prayer.

  19. A framework for assessing hydrogen management strategies involving multiple decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.D.; Suh, K.Y.; Park, G.C.; Jae, M.

    2000-01-01

    An accident management framework consisting of multiple and sequential decisions is developed and applied to a hydrogen control strategy for a reference plant. The compact influence diagrams including multiple decisions are constructed and evaluated with MAAP4 calculations. Each decision variable, represented by a node in the influence diagrams, has an uncertainty distribution. Using the values from the IPE (Individual Plant Examinations) report for the reference plant (UCN 3 and 4), the hydrogen control and accident management strategies are assessed. In this paper, a problem with two decisions is modeled for a simple illustration of the process involved. One decision is whether or not to actuate igniters at the time of core uncovery. Another decision is whether or not to turn on the containment sprays. We chose a small-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) sequence, which was one of the dominant accident sequences in the reference plant. The framework involves the modeling of the decision problem by using decision-making tools, data analysis, and the MAAP4 calculations. It is shown that the proposed framework with a new measure for assessing hydrogen control is flexible enough to be applied to various accident management strategies. (author)

  20. Assessment of multiple frequency ELF electric and magnetic field exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N

    2008-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields both in daily life and at workplaces exhibit increasingly complex frequency spectra. Present spectral assessment rules proved to be too conservative for health risk assessment. This is because they are based on the assumption that cells would react like linear systems in terms of responding to a sum of frequencies by a sum of independent responses to each individual frequency. Based on numerical investigations with the Hodgkin-Huxley and the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley nerve cell models, it could be shown that accounting for the nonlinear behaviour of cellular excitation processes avoids considerable overestimation of simultaneous exposures to multiple frequency ELF electric and magnetic fields. Besides this, it could be shown that the role of phase relationships is less important than that assumed so far. The present assessment rules lead to non-compliances of marketed electric appliances. For general application, a nonlinear biology-based assessment (NBBA) rule has been proposed, validated and proven advantageous compared with ICNIRP's rule. While staying conservative it avoids unnecessary overestimation and demonstrates compliance even in cases of suspected non-conformities. It is up to responsible bodies to decide upon the adoption of this proposal and the potential need for implementing additional or reducing the already incorporated safety factors

  1. Super heroes and lucky duckies: Racialized stressors among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Lauren; Wilson, Bianca D M

    2017-04-01

    This article explores the complex relationships between race and occupational stressors among an ethnically diverse sample of high school teachers and their implications for women's mental health. Interviews with Black, White, and Mexican American teachers suggest that workplaces are organized by subtle forms of gender and racial discrimination as well as White racial privilege; this context shapes women's experiences of occupational stressors. The data indicate that teachers experience racially specific stressors at work and make racially specific appraisals about common stressors among all teachers. Black and Mexican American women report chronic strains, such as differential workloads, perceptions of incompetence, and lack of support from administrators, whereas White teachers report, yet minimize, sexual harassment from male colleagues. Student misbehavior, a stressor shared by all teachers, is experienced and understood as a personal failing by White teachers and as a manifestation of systemic racism by teachers of color. The interviews offer important insights into the ways professional workplaces remain an arena marked by racial inequality and White privilege and that racialized stressors are differentially distributed among women. Findings support claims from intersectionality in that race, racism, and racial privilege operate in multiplicative ways that create different constellations of occupational stressors among women, which in turn have implications for wellbeing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Organisational stressors, coping, and outcomes in competitive sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Rachel; Fletcher, David; Daniels, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Organisational stressors are associated with positive and negative outcomes in extant literature; however, little is known about which demands predict which outcomes. Extant theory and literature also suggests that coping style may influence an individual's resilience or vulnerability to stressors and, subsequently, their psychological responses and outcomes. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to examine the main effects of organisational stressors and coping styles on various outcomes (e.g., positive and negative affect, performance satisfaction). Sport performers (n = 414) completed measures of organisational stressors, coping styles, positive and negative affect, and performance satisfaction. Multiple regression analyses revealed positive relationships of both goals and development stressors (duration and intensity) and team and culture stressors (frequency and intensity) on negative affect. Furthermore, problem-focused coping was positively related to positive affect, and emotion-focused coping was positively related to negative affect. This study furthers theoretical knowledge regarding the associations that both organisational stressors (and their dimensions) and coping styles can have with various outcomes, and practical understanding regarding the optimal design of stress management interventions.

  3. Stressors of caregivers of school-age children with epilepsy and use of community resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saburi, Gladys

    2011-06-01

    Childhood epilepsy causes multiple stressors, difficulty in adjustment, and disruptions in family relations. This study sought to identify stressors of caregivers of school-age children and to assess whether use of community resources alleviates or contributes to caregiver stress. Stressors refer to concern about the child, communication with healthcare providers, changes in family relationships, interaction with school, and support within the community. A caregiver refers to the person who had looked after the child for the past 6-12 months. Support groups, religious or worship groups, counseling services, and traditional and spiritual faith healers were the community resources that were addressed. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on a convenience sample of 46 caregivers. A three-part structured interview schedule was used to describe demographic data, stressors of caregivers, and use of community resources. The top 6 stressors were the inability to get antiepileptic drugs, the deep pain or sadness caused by the child's seizures, caregiving (which was predominantly by mothers), limited help from the extended family, inadequate information on side effects of drugs, and inadequate information on seizures. The most commonly used community resource was religious or worship groups, with epilepsy support groups being least used. To alleviate caregiver stress, it is important that healthcare providers routinely assess the effect of seizures on caregivers and refer those requiring counseling, advocate for more male and extended family involvement in caregiving and provide adequate information on side effects of drugs and on seizures as standard practice. Nurses in developed countries should incorporate religious activities among complementary and alternative medicine interventions to reduce caregiver stress. Spiritual faith healers should be encouraged to refer clients with epilepsy for drug therapy and counseling.

  4. Quality of life assessment in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisić-Tepavčević Darija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of central nervous system. The main physiopatological feature of MS is demyelination. Multiple sclerosis is one of three most common causes of severe disability in youngest people. In patients with MS, apart from complete psychophysical status and objective neurologic status, a subjective perception of symptoms and signs, known as quality of life, must be considered, too. The aim of this study was to estimate a health related quality of life (HRQoL in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS and to investigate the correlations between scores of HRQoL and selected demographic and clinical parameters. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in patients meeting following inclusion criteria: MS diagnosis (McDonald's criteria, age 18-60 years, the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS < 8, and written informed consent. Exclusion criteria were exacerbation of MS in the last month, any preexisting major chronic illness and/or psychiatric disorders and antidepressive and/or corticosteroid therapy in the last month. The quality of life was measured by a disease specific instrument, MSQoL-54 (The Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life. The neurological impairment was assessed using the Expended Disability Status Scale (EDSS and Mini Mental Scale (MMS. The presence and severity of depression was estimated by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS. The presence and severity of fatigue was assessed by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. Results. The higher HRQoL score was registered for mental health (56.3 ± 19.5 than for physical one(51.3 ± 17.9, which means that physical disability had more important influence on quality of life deterioration comparing to mental health. The highest values of HRQoL were observed in domains of Cognitive Functioning (77.4 ± 22.5 and Pain (75.7 ± 25.5. The lowest scores of

  5. Immediate and Longer-Term Stressors and the Mental Health of Hurricane Ike Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Tracy, Melissa; Cerdá, Magdalena; Norris, Fran H.; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented that individuals exposed to more stressors during disasters and their immediate aftermath (immediate stressors) are at risk of experiencing longer-term postdisaster stressors. Longer-term stressors, in turn, have been found to play a key role in shaping postdisaster psychological functioning. Few studies have simultaneously explored the links from immediate to longer-term stressors, and from longer-term stressors to psychological functioning, however. Additionally, studies have inadequately explored whether postdisaster psychological symptoms influence longer-term stressors. In the current study, we aimed to fill these gaps. Participants (N = 448) were from population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors and completed assessments 2–5 months (Wave 1), 5–9 months (Wave 2) and 14–18 months (Wave 3) postdisaster. Through path analysis, we found that immediate stressors, assessed at Wave 1, were positively associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 stressors, which in turn were positively associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms. Wave 2 posttraumatic stress symptoms were positively associated with Wave 3 stressors, and Wave 1 depressive symptoms were positively associated with Wave 2 stressors. The findings suggest that policies and interventions can reduce the impact of disasters on mental health by preventing and alleviating both immediate and longer-term postdisaster stressors. PMID:24343752

  6. Hepatic transcriptomic profiles from barramundi, Lates calcarifer, as a means of assessing organism health and identifying stressors in rivers in northern Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Sharon E; Kroon, Frederieke J; Greenfield, Paul A; Warne, Michael St J; Smith, Rachael A; Turner, Ryan D

    2017-08-01

    Resource managers need to differentiate between sites with and without contaminants and those where contaminants cause impacts. Potentially, transcriptomes could be used to evaluate sites where contaminant-induced effects may occur, to identify causative stressors of effects and potential adverse outcomes. To test this hypothesis, the hepatic transcriptomes in Barramundi, a perciforme teleost fish, (Lates calcarifer) from two reference sites, two agriculturally impacted sites sampled during the dry season, and an impacted site sampled during the wet season were compared. The hepatic transcriptome was profiled using RNA-Seq. Multivariate analysis showed that transcriptomes were clustered based on site and by inference water quality, but not sampling time. The largest differences in transcriptomic profile were between reference sites and a site sampled during high run-off, showing that impacted sites can be identified via RNA-Seq. Transcripts with altered abundance were linked to xenobiotic metabolism, peroxisome proliferation and stress responses, indicating putative stressors with the potential for adverse outcomes in barramundi. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Advances in the management of multiple sclerosis symptoms: pathophysiology and assessment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintoré, Mar

    2015-01-01

    Spasticity is a prevalent and troublesome symptom for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Common instruments to measure MS spasticity include the clinician-rated (modified) Ashworth scale and the patient-rated 0-10 spasticity Numerical Rating Scale (NRS). Current opinion is that measurement of MS spasticity should incorporate the patient's perspective. Other instruments to assess spasticity-associated symptoms such as the Penn spasms frequency scale, sleep quality NRS and pain NRS can assist in tracking MS spasticity evolution and inform management choices. Worsening spasticity reduces patient autonomy, impacts negatively on quality of life and increases health resource utilization and costs. Despite the wide range of issues associated with MS spasticity, undertreatment is common and standard treatment options (physiotherapy and classical oral therapies) often fail to provide adequate symptomatic control.

  8. Multiple criteria decision analysis for health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thokala, Praveen; Duenas, Alejandra

    2012-12-01

    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) has been suggested by some researchers as a method to capture the benefits beyond quality adjusted life-years in a transparent and consistent manner. The objectives of this article were to analyze the possible application of MCDA approaches in health technology assessment and to describe their relative advantages and disadvantages. This article begins with an introduction to the most common types of MCDA models and a critical review of state-of-the-art methods for incorporating multiple criteria in health technology assessment. An overview of MCDA is provided and is compared against the current UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence health technology appraisal process. A generic MCDA modeling approach is described, and the different MCDA modeling approaches are applied to a hypothetical case study. A comparison of the different MCDA approaches is provided, and the generic issues that need consideration before the application of MCDA in health technology assessment are examined. There are general practical issues that might arise from using an MCDA approach, and it is suggested that appropriate care be taken to ensure the success of MCDA techniques in the appraisal process. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sample size determination for equivalence assessment with multiple endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Anna; Dong, Xiaoyu; Tsong, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Equivalence assessment between a reference and test treatment is often conducted by two one-sided tests (TOST). The corresponding power function and sample size determination can be derived from a joint distribution of the sample mean and sample variance. When an equivalence trial is designed with multiple endpoints, it often involves several sets of two one-sided tests. A naive approach for sample size determination in this case would select the largest sample size required for each endpoint. However, such a method ignores the correlation among endpoints. With the objective to reject all endpoints and when the endpoints are uncorrelated, the power function is the production of all power functions for individual endpoints. With correlated endpoints, the sample size and power should be adjusted for such a correlation. In this article, we propose the exact power function for the equivalence test with multiple endpoints adjusted for correlation under both crossover and parallel designs. We further discuss the differences in sample size for the naive method without and with correlation adjusted methods and illustrate with an in vivo bioequivalence crossover study with area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) as the two endpoints.

  10. A conceptual model for the analysis of multi-stressors in linked groundwater-surface water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaandorp, Vince P; Molina-Navarro, Eugenio; Andersen, Hans E; Bloomfield, John P; Kuijper, Martina J M; de Louw, Perry G B

    2018-06-15

    Groundwater and surface water are often closely coupled and are both under the influence of multiple stressors. Stressed groundwater systems may lead to a poor ecological status of surface waters but to date no conceptual framework to analyse linked multi-stressed groundwater - surface water systems has been developed. In this paper, a framework is proposed showing the effect of groundwater on surface waters in multiple stressed systems. This framework will be illustrated by applying it to four European catchments, the Odense, Denmark, the Regge and Dinkel, Netherlands, and the Thames, UK, and by assessing its utility in analysing the propagation or buffering of multi-stressors through groundwater to surface waters in these catchments. It is shown that groundwater affects surface water flow, nutrients and temperature, and can both propagate stressors towards surface waters and buffer the effect of stressors in space and time. The effect of groundwater on drivers and states depends on catchment characteristics, stressor combinations, scale and management practises. The proposed framework shows how groundwater in lowland catchments acts as a bridge between stressors and their effects within surface waters. It shows water managers how their management areas might be influenced by groundwater, and helps them to include this important, but often overlooked part of the water cycle in their basin management plans. The analysis of the study catchments also revealed a lack of data on the temperature of both groundwater and surface water, while it is an important parameter considering future climate warming. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Longitudinal associations between stressors and work ability in hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmen Martinez, Maria; da Silva Alexandre, Tiago; Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria do Rosario; Marina Fischer, Frida

    This study sought to assess associations between work stressors and work ability in a cohort (2009-2012) of 498 hospital workers. Time-dependent variables associated with the Work Ability Index (WAI) were evaluated using general linear mixed models. Analyses included effects of individual and work characteristics. Except for work demands, the work stressors (job control, social support, effort-reward imbalance, overcommitment and work-related activities that cause pain/injury) were associated with WAI (p work and morning shift work were associated with decreased WAI (p Work stressors negatively affected work ability over time independently of other variables.

  12. Toxicity assessment of unintentional exposure to multiple chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, M.M.; Ruiz, P.; De Rosa, C.T.

    2007-01-01

    Typically exposure to environmental chemicals is unintentional, and often the exposure is to chemical mixtures, either simultaneously or sequentially. When exposure occurs, in public health practice, it is prudent to ascertain if thresholds for harmful health effects are exceeded, whether by individual chemicals or by chemicals in combination. Three alternative approaches are available for assessing the toxicity of chemical mixtures. Each approach, however, has shortcomings. As the procedures of each approach are described in this paper, at various steps research needs are identified. Recently, reliance has increased on computational toxicology methods for predicting toxicological effects when data are limited. Advances in molecular biology, identification of biomarkers, and availability of accurate and sensitive methods allow us to more precisely define the relationships between multiple chemical exposures and health effects, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Key research needs are best fulfilled through collaborative research. It is through such collaborations that resources are most effectively leveraged to further develop and apply toxicity assessment methods that advance public health practices in vulnerable communities

  13. Assessment of patients with multiple sclerosis according to tests of the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Ineu Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC is a scale that evaluates the functional and cognitive aspects of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Objective: To compare the performance of individuals with the relapsing-remitting form of MS (RRMS with a group of healthy subjects using the MSFC. Methods: Twenty subjects were investigated in this study, consisting of 10 patients with clinical diagnosis of RRMS and 10 controls with similar gender and age to the group with the disease. The three tests that comprise the MSFC were used for the evaluation of gait, upper limb motor function and cognition (memory and processing speed. Student's t-test was used to assess data with normal distribution and data with skewed distribution were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: The results showed that the patients with RRMS took longer to perform the locomotion test (6.91 ± 2.35 compared to the control group (5.16 ± 1.28. The MS group (22.06 ± 5.44 also showed greater difficulty in performing a task with the dominant upper limb compared to the healthy subjects (17.79 ± 2.96. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups in the performance of cognitive tasks (p = .65. Conclusion: The use of the MSFC tests proved valuable for measuring possible motor and cognitive impairments in patients with RRMS. Thus, it is suggested that this scale is adopted in clinical practice, improving therapies for the treatment of MS patients and thereby providing them a better quality of life.

  14. The Combined Effects of Daily Stressors and Major Life Events on Daily Subjective Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingtier, Jennifer A; Neupert, Shevaun D; Kotter-Grühn, Dana

    2017-07-01

    Stressors may be a contributing factor in determining how old an individual feels, looks, or would like to be. Currently, little research has been devoted to understanding the relationship between stressors and subjective age in older adults. We focus on the combined impact of major life-event stressors and daily stressors on multiple indicators of subjective age: felt age, ideal age, and look age. Furthermore, we examine the process by which daily stressors relate to subjective ages by testing whether positive affect, control, and negative affect mediate this relationship. Using a daily-diary design, the current study measured older adults' (60-96 years old) stressors, subjective ages, personal control, and affect. Felt, ideal, and look ages each demonstrated a unique pattern of interactions between daily stressors and major life-event stressors. Furthermore, our findings suggest that on the daily level, the relationship between stressors and felt age is mediated by negative affect but not by control and positive affect. Findings indicate the need to consider the broader contextual picture of stressors, as well as their differential impact on multiple indicators of subjective age. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Multiple Attempts for Online Assessments in an Operations Management Course: An Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Ryan K.

    2016-01-01

    In learning management systems, tools for online homework assessments include a number of alternatives for the assessment settings, including the ability to permit students to attempt an assessment multiple times, with options for how the multiple attempts are administered. A specific implementation of online assessments in an introductory…

  16. Oxygen sensors and energy sensors act synergistically to achieve a graded alteration in gene expression: consequences for assessing the level of neuroprotection in response to stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Gillian M C; Warburton, Joshua; Girjes, Adeeb

    2004-01-01

    Changes in gene expression are associated with switching to an autoprotected phenotype in response to environmental and physiological stress. Ubiquitous molecular chaperones from the heat shock protein (HSP) superfamily confer neuronal protection that can be blocked by antibodies. Recent research has focused on the interactions between the molecular sensors that affect the increased expression of neuroprotective HSPs above constitutive levels. An examination of the conditions under which the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was up regulated in a hypoxia and anoxia tolerant tropical species, the epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum), revealed that up-regulation was dependent on exceeding a stimulus threshold for an oxidative stressor. While hypoxic-preconditioning confers neuroprotective changes, there was no increase in the level of Hsp70 indicating that its increased expression was not associated with achieving a neuroprotected state in response to hypoxia in the epaulette shark. Conversely, there was a significant increase in Hsp70 in response to anoxic-preconditioning, highlighting the presence of a stimulus threshold barrier and raising the possibility that, in this species, Hsp70 contributes to the neuroprotective response to extreme crises, such as oxidative stress. Interestingly, there was a synergistic effect of coincident stressors on Hsp70 expression, which was revealed when metabolic stress was superimposed upon oxidative stress. Brain energy charge was significantly lower when adenosine receptor blockade, provided by treatment with aminophylline, was present prior to the final anoxic episode, under these circumstances, the level of Hsp70 induced was significantly higher than in the pair-matched saline treated controls. An understanding of the molecular and metabolic basis for neuroprotective switches, which result in an up-regulation of neuroprotective Hsp70 expression in the brain, is needed so that intervention strategies can be devised

  17. Geomorphological and Geoelectric Techniques for Kwoi's Multiple Tremor Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikedi, P. N.

    2017-12-01

    This work epicentres on geomorphological and geoelectric techniques for multiple tremor assessment in Kwoi, Nigeria. Earth tremor occurrences have been noted by Akpan and Yakubu (2010) within the last 70 years, in nine regions in Nigeria; on September 11,12,20,22, 23 and 24, 2016, additional earth tremors rocked the village of Kwoi eleven times. Houses cracked and collapsed, a rock split and slid and smoke evolved at N9027''5.909''', E800'44.951'', from an altitude of 798m. By employing the Ohmega Meter and Schlumberger configuration, four VES points are sounded for subsurface structure characterisation. Thereafter, a cylindrical steel ring is hammered into the ground at the first point (VES 1) and earth samples are scooped from this location; this procedure is repeated for other points (VES 2, 3 and 4). Winresist, Geo-earth, and Surfer version 12.0.626 software are employed to generate geo-sections, lithology, resistivity profile, Iso resistivity and Isopach maps, of the region. Outcome of results reveal some lithological formations of lateritic topsoil, fractured basement and fresh basement; additionally, results reveal 206.6m, 90.7m, 73.2m and 99.4m fractured basement thicknesses for four points. Scooped samples are transferred to the specimen stage of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). SEM images show rounded inter-granular boundaries—the granular structures act like micro-wheels making the upper crustal mass susceptible to movement at the slightest vibration. Collapsed buildings are sited around VES1 location; samples from VES 1 are the most well fragmented sample owing to multiple microfractures—this result explains why VES 1 has the thickest fractured basement. Abrupt frictional sliding occurs between networks of fault lines; there is a likelihood that friction is most intense at the rock slide site on N9027'21.516'' and E800'44.9993'', VES 1 at N9027'5.819'' and E8005'3.1120'' and smoke sites—holo-centres are suspected below these locations. The

  18. An idiographic and nomothetic approach to the study of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' socio-cultural stressors and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal relations of socio-cultural stressors (i.e., acculturative stressors, enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination) and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' depressive symptoms and risk-taking behaviors. Utilizing an idiographic and nomothetic approach, we conducted lagged analyses to examine how individuals' fluctuations in stressors predicted subsequent adjustment. Further, we investigated potential threshold effects by examining if the impact of fluctuations in stressors differed at varying levels of stressors. Mexican-origin adolescent females (N = 184) participated in yearly in-home assessments across 5 years and reported on their experiences of acculturative and enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination, depressive symptoms, and risk-taking behaviors. Findings revealed that within-person fluctuations in acculturative stressors and, to a lesser extent, perceived discrimination related to youths' depressive symptoms. For risk-taking behaviors, however, only within-person fluctuations in enculturative stressors emerged as significant. Further, a threshold effect emerged in the link between enculturative stressors and risk-taking behaviors, suggesting that fluctuations in enculturative stressors predicted changes in risk-taking behaviors at high levels of enculturative stressors but not low levels. Our findings highlight the differential relations between socio-cultural stressors and adolescent females' adjustment and suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing depressive symptoms should attend to any degree of change in socio-cultural stressors, whereas programs focused on risk-taking behaviors should be especially attuned to levels of enculturative stress.

  19. An Idiographic and Nomothetic Approach to the Study of Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers’ Socio-Cultural Stressors and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal relations of socio-cultural stressors (i.e., acculturative stressors, enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination) and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ depressive symptoms and risk-taking behaviors. Utilizing an idiographic and nomothetic approach, we conducted lagged analyses to examine how individuals’ fluctuations in stressors predicted subsequent adjustment. Further, we investigated potential threshold effects by examining if the impact of fluctuations in stressors differed at varying levels of stressors. Mexican-origin adolescent females (N = 184) participated in yearly in-home assessments across 5 years and reported on their experiences of acculturative and enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination, depressive symptoms, and risk-taking behaviors. Findings revealed that within-person fluctuations in acculturative stressors, and to a lesser extent, perceived discrimination, related to youths’ depressive symptoms. For risk-taking behaviors, however, only within-person fluctuations in enculturative stressors emerged as significant. Further, a threshold effect emerged in the link between enculturative stressors and risk-taking behaviors, suggesting that fluctuations in enculturative stressors predicted changes in risk-taking behaviors at high levels of enculturative stressors, but not low levels. Our findings highlight the differential relations between socio-cultural stressors and adolescent females’ adjustment, and suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing depressive symptoms should attend to any degree of change in socio-cultural stressors, whereas programs focused on risk-taking behaviors should be especially attuned to levels of enculturative stress. PMID:25099084

  20. Association between work role stressors and sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, S; Deguchi, Y; Inoue, K

    2018-05-17

    Work-related stressors are associated with low sleep quality. However, few studies have reported an association between role stressors and sleep quality. To elucidate the association between role stressors (including role conflict and ambiguity) and sleep quality. Cross-sectional study of daytime workers whose sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Work-related stressors, including role stressors, were assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ). The association between sleep quality and work-related stressors was investigated by logistic regression analysis. A total of 243 participants completed questionnaires were received (response rate 71%); 86 participants reported poor sleep quality, based on a global PSQI score ≥6. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that higher role ambiguity was associated with global PSQI scores ≥6, and that role conflict was significantly associated with sleep problems, including sleep disturbance and daytime dysfunction. These results suggest that high role stress is associated with low sleep quality, and that this association should be considered an important determinant of the health of workers.

  1. Radiography student perceptions of clinical stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Starla L

    2006-01-01

    Technological change and the increasingly rapid pace of life in the United States and globally have contributed to increased levels of stress and burnout experienced by workers and their families. Although studies are available on the levels of workplace stress and burnout affecting radiographers, little to no research has been conducted to assess the stressors encountered by radiography students in the clinical environment. This study was designed to pinpoint the primary sources of stress for radiography students and to determine the most effective measures to alleviate the stress that students experience in the clinical environment. It also sought to identify the clinical activities and practices that enhance learning. A convenience sample of radiography students attending an Association of Collegiate Educators in Radiologic Technology meeting was surveyed. Students were asked to rank their greatest stressors in the clinical environment, the most desired qualities in a clinical instructor and clinical environment, and the clinical practices and activities that best enhance their learning. Descriptive statistics were used to report the results. Data were collected for 82 first-year and second-year students. Students identified 7 primary clinical stressors: fear of making a mistake/repeat, feeling unprepared/inexperienced, intimidation by staff and by instructors, difficult/critical patients, hurtful criticism, too much supervision and negative responses to questions/requests for help. Students indicated that more frequent feedback, availability of the clinical instructor and other staff, assurance that mistakes happen and the opportunity to make mistakes were clinical practices that eased stress. The majority of students cited hands-on learning and repetition as the clinical activities that most reinforced their learning. Summary Radiography students in this survey experience some of the same clinical stressors as radiographers and other allied health workers

  2. Daily Emotional and Physical Reactivity to Stressors Among Widowed and Married Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Widowhood may result in declines in health and potentially stressful changes to daily routines. However, little research has examined how daily stressors contribute to physical and emotional well-being in widowhood. The objectives of the current study were to examine daily stressor exposure and reactivity in widowed versus married older adults. Method. Participants included all 100 widowed and 342 married adults aged 65 and older from the National Study of Daily Experiences, a daily diary study from the second wave of the Midlife in the United States. Daily stressors were measured using the Daily Inventory of Stressful Events; multilevel modeling assessed daily reactivity to stressors using daily negative affect (emotional reactivity) and daily physical symptoms (physical reactivity) as outcomes. Results. Married participants reported more stressors in general, and specifically more interpersonal stressors (e.g., arguments). Both married and widowed participants were reactive to daily stressors. Married participants were physically and emotionally reactive to interpersonal stressors. Widowed participants were more physically reactive to home-related stressors. Discussion. Attention to the types of daily stressors that widowed older adults experience in daily life and the potential physical effects of daily stressors during widowhood may help to alleviate some of the physical distress that widowed older adults may experience. PMID:23685921

  3. Daily emotional and physical reactivity to stressors among widowed and married older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Elizabeth A; Cichy, Kelly E; Small, Brent J; Almeida, David M

    2014-01-01

    Widowhood may result in declines in health and potentially stressful changes to daily routines. However, little research has examined how daily stressors contribute to physical and emotional well-being in widowhood. The objectives of the current study were to examine daily stressor exposure and reactivity in widowed versus married older adults. Participants included all 100 widowed and 342 married adults aged 65 and older from the National Study of Daily Experiences, a daily diary study from the second wave of the Midlife in the United States. Daily stressors were measured using the Daily Inventory of Stressful Events; multilevel modeling assessed daily reactivity to stressors using daily negative affect (emotional reactivity) and daily physical symptoms (physical reactivity) as outcomes. Married participants reported more stressors in general, and specifically more interpersonal stressors (e.g., arguments). Both married and widowed participants were reactive to daily stressors. Married participants were physically and emotionally reactive to interpersonal stressors. Widowed participants were more physically reactive to home-related stressors. Attention to the types of daily stressors that widowed older adults experience in daily life and the potential physical effects of daily stressors during widowhood may help to alleviate some of the physical distress that widowed older adults may experience.

  4. Quantitative assessment of finger motor impairment in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bonzano

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To address the disability impact on fine hand motor functions in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS by quantitatively measuring finger opposition movements, with the aim of providing a new "score" integrating current methods for disability assessment. METHODS: 40 MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS: 0-7 and 80 healthy controls (HC performed a repetitive finger-to-thumb opposition sequence with their dominant hand at spontaneous and maximal velocity, and uni- and bi-manually metronome-paced. A sensor-engineered glove was used to measure finger motor performance. Twenty-seven HC were tested twice, one month apart, to assess test-retest reliability. RESULTS: The motor parameters showed a good reproducibility in HC and demonstrated significantly worse performance in MS patients with respect to HC. A multivariate model revealed that rate of movement in the spontaneous velocity condition and inter-hand interval (IHI, indicating bimanual coordination, contributed independently to differentiate the two groups. A finger motor impairment score based on these two parameters was able to discriminate HC from MS patients with very low EDSS scores (p<0.001: a significant difference was already evident for patients with EDSS = 0. Further, in the MS group, some motor performance parameters correlated with the clinical scores. In particular, significant correlations were found between IHI and EDSS (r = 0.56; p<0.0001, MS Functional Composite (r = -0.40; p = 0.01, Paced Auditory Serial Addition (r = -0.38; p = 0.02. No motor performance parameter correlated with Timed 25-Foot Walk. CONCLUSIONS: A simple, quantitative, objective method measuring finger motor performance could be used to define a score discriminating healthy controls and MS patients, even with very low disability. This sensitivity might be of crucial importance for monitoring the disease course and the treatment effects in early MS patients, when

  5. WCDMA Uplink Interference Assessment from Multiple High Altitude Platform Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohammed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the possibility of multiple high altitude platform (HAP coverage of a common cell area using a wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA system. In particular, we study the uplink system performance of the system. The results show that depending on the traffic demand and the type of service used, there is a possibility of deploying 3–6 HAPs covering the same cell area. The results also show the effect of cell radius on performance and the position of the multiple HAP base stations which give the worst performance.

  6. WCDMA Uplink Interference Assessment from Multiple High Altitude Platform Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the possibility of multiple high altitude platform (HAP coverage of a common cell area using a wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA system. In particular, we study the uplink system performance of the system. The results show that depending on the traffic demand and the type of service used, there is a possibility of deploying 3–6 HAPs covering the same cell area. The results also show the effect of cell radius on performance and the position of the multiple HAP base stations which give the worst performance.

  7. Assessment of Multiple Scattering Errors of Laser Diffraction Instruments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strakey, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The accuracy of two commercial laser diffraction instruments was compared under conditions of multiple scattering designed to simulate the high droplet number densities encountered in liquid propellant rocket combustors...

  8. The Southern Ocean ecosystem under multiple climate change stresses--an integrated circumpolar assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutt, Julian; Bertler, Nancy; Bracegirdle, Thomas J; Buschmann, Alexander; Comiso, Josefino; Hosie, Graham; Isla, Enrique; Schloss, Irene R; Smith, Craig R; Tournadre, Jean; Xavier, José C

    2015-04-01

    A quantitative assessment of observed and projected environmental changes in the Southern Ocean (SO) with a potential impact on the marine ecosystem shows: (i) large proportions of the SO are and will be affected by one or more climate change processes; areas projected to be affected in the future are larger than areas that are already under environmental stress, (ii) areas affected by changes in sea-ice in the past and likely in the future are much larger than areas affected by ocean warming. The smallest areas (Changes in iceberg impact resulting from further collapse of ice-shelves can potentially affect large parts of shelf and ephemerally in the off-shore regions. However, aragonite undersaturation (acidification) might become one of the biggest problems for the Antarctic marine ecosystem by affecting almost the entire SO. Direct and indirect impacts of various environmental changes to the three major habitats, sea-ice, pelagic and benthos and their biota are complex. The areas affected by environmental stressors range from 33% of the SO for a single stressor, 11% for two and 2% for three, to changes, and together cover almost 86% of the SO ecosystem. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Efficient Adoption and Assessment of Multiple Process Improvement Reference Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Jeners

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A variety of reference models such as CMMI, COBIT or ITIL support IT organizations to improve their processes. These process improvement reference models (IRMs cover different domains such as IT development, IT Services or IT Governance but also share some similarities. As there are organizations that address multiple domains and need to coordinate their processes in their improvement we present MoSaIC, an approach to support organizations to efficiently adopt and conform to multiple IRMs. Our solution realizes a semantic integration of IRMs based on common meta-models. The resulting IRM integration model enables organizations to efficiently implement and asses multiple IRMs and to benefit from synergy effects.

  10. Multiple rotation assessment through isothetic fringes in speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel, Luciano; Tebaldi, Myrian; Bolognini, Nestor

    2007-01-01

    The use of different pupils for storing each speckled image in speckle photography is employed to determine multiple in-plane rotations. The method consists of recording a four-exposure specklegram where the rotations are done between exposures. This specklegram is then optically processed in a whole field approach rendering isothetic fringes, which give detailed information about the multiple rotations. It is experimentally demonstrated that the proposed arrangement permits the depiction of six isothetics in order to measure either six different angles or three nonparallel components for two local general in-plane displacements

  11. Diagnostik der Fatigue bei Multipler Sklerose [Assessment of fatigue in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sander, C.; Voelter, H.U.; Schlake, H.P.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hildebrandt, H.

    2017-01-01

    Hintergrund: Fatigue ist eines der häufigsten Symptome bei Multipler Sklerose (MS) und hat deutliche Auswirkungen auf die Lebensqualität sowie die Berufstätigkeit. Die adäquate Messung der erlebten Fatigue ist aber auch heutzutage noch mit erheblicher Unsicherheit behaftet. Ziel der Arbeit: In dem

  12. Social and environmental stressors in the home and childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Franco Suglia, Shakira; Duarte, Cristiane S; Sandel, Megan T; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-07-01

    Both physical environmental factors and chronic stress may independently increase susceptibility to asthma; however, little is known on how these different risks may interact. The authors examined the relationship between maternal intimate partner violence (IPV), housing quality and asthma among children in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2013). Maternal reports of IPV were obtained after the child's birth and at 12 and 36 months. At the 36-month assessment, interviewers rated indoor housing conditions, regarding housing deterioration (ie, peeling paint, holes in floor, broken windows) and housing disarray (ie, dark, cluttered, crowded or noisy house). At the same time, mothers reported on housing hardships (ie, moving repeatedly, and hardships in keeping house warm). Maternal-report of physician-diagnosed asthma by age 36 months which was active in the past year was the outcome. Asthma was diagnosed in 10% of the children. In an adjusted analysis, an increased odds of asthma was observed in children of mothers experiencing IPV chronically (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.5) and in children experiencing housing disarray (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) compared with those not exposed to these risks. In stratified analyses, a greater effect of IPV on asthma was noted among children living in disarrayed or deteriorated housing or among children whose mothers were experiencing housing hardship. IPV and housing disarray are associated with increased early childhood asthma. Exposure to cumulative or multiple stressors (ie, IPV and poor housing quality) may increase children's risk of developing asthma more than a single stressor.

  13. Intelligence Assessment: Gardner Multiple Intelligence Theory as an Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Leandro S.; Prieto, Maria Dolores; Ferreira, Aristides I.; Bermejo, Maria Rosario; Ferrando, Mercedes; Ferrandiz, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    In the multiple intelligence framework, newer and more contextualized cognitive tasks are suggested as alternative to more traditional psychometric tests. The purpose of this article is to examine whether or not these two types of instruments converge into a general factor of cognitive performance. Thus, the Battery of General and Differential…

  14. DEVELOPING STANDARDS FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL STRESSORS THROUGH ASTM COMMITTEE E47: A PAST FOUNDATION OF PROVEN STANDARDS, A FUTURE OF GREAT POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of standards associated with assessing the bioavailability of contaminants in sediment will be used as a case study for how standards have been developed through Committee E47. In 1987, Committee E47 established Subcommittee E47.03 on Sediment Assessment and Toxicity....

  15. Work stressors, Chinese coping strategies, and job performance in Greater China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo; Kao, Shu-Fang; Siu, Oi-Ling; Lu, Chang-Qin

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this research was to jointly test effects of work stressors and coping strategies on job performance among employees in the Greater China region. A self-administered survey was conducted to collect data from three major cities in the region, namely Beijing, Hong Kong, and Taipei (N = 380). Four important work stressors were assessed: heavy workload, organizational constraints, lack of work autonomy, and interpersonal conflict. We used a four-factor model of Chinese coping strategies composed of hobbies/relaxation, active action, seeking social support, and passive adaptation. Job performance was indicated by both task performance (quantity of work, quality of work, job knowledge) and contextual performance (attendance, getting along with others). We found that: (1) work stressors were related to job performance. Specifically, workload had a positive relation with quantity of work, whereas organizational constraints had negative relations with quantity of work and attendance. In addition, interpersonal conflict had a negative relation with getting along with others. (2) Chinese positive coping strategies were positively related to job performance. Specifically, seeking social support had positive relations with quantity of work and getting along with others, whereas active action had positive relations with attendance and job knowledge. (3) Chinese passive adaptation coping behaviors were negatively related to job performance. Specifically, passive adaptation had negative relations with quantity of work, quality of work, and getting along with others. The present study thus found joint effects of work stressors and coping behaviors among Chinese employees in the Greater China region, encompassing three sub-societies of mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. Differential effects of Chinese positive and passive coping strategies were also noted. Most importantly, all these effects were demonstrated on multiple indicators of job performance, a rarely studied

  16. Exploring the Stressors of New Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrivee, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the different stressors and anxieties facing new librarians. It also addresses the various ways that new librarians can cope with location, emotional, and work-related stressors. The article is broken into four different categories of stress; some stressors have been more explored than others. The research is based on an…

  17. Environmental Assessment: Multiple Projects at Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-17

    Publico sobre el La Evaluation de lmpacto Ambiental de MUltiples Proyectos en Ia Base de Ia Fuerza Aerea Laughlin De acuerdo con el Acta Nacional de 1...which emphasizes frequencies in the middle of the audible spectrum and de -emphasizes low and high frequencies in a manner corresponding to the way the...feet from the source. Assuming that noise from the heavy equipment radiates equally in all directions, the sound intensity diminishes inversely as the

  18. Synergistic interactions of biotic and abiotic environmental stressors on gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Ianina; McLeod, Anne M; Colbourne, John K; Yan, Norman D; Cristescu, Melania E

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the response of organisms to multiple stressors is critical for predicting if populations can adapt to rapid environmental change. Natural and anthropogenic stressors often interact, complicating general predictions. In this study, we examined the interactive and cumulative effects of two common environmental stressors, lowered calcium concentration, an anthropogenic stressor, and predator presence, a natural stressor, on the water flea Daphnia pulex. We analyzed expression changes of five genes involved in calcium homeostasis - cuticle proteins (Cutie, Icp2), calbindin (Calb), and calcium pump and channel (Serca and Ip3R) - using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in a full factorial experiment. We observed strong synergistic interactions between low calcium concentration and predator presence. While the Ip3R gene was not affected by the stressors, the other four genes were affected in their transcriptional levels by the combination of the stressors. Transcriptional patterns of genes that code for cuticle proteins (Cutie and Icp2) and a sarcoplasmic calcium pump (Serca) only responded to the combination of stressors, changing their relative expression levels in a synergistic response, while a calcium-binding protein (Calb) responded to low calcium stress and the combination of both stressors. The expression pattern of these genes (Cutie, Icp2, and Serca) were nonlinear, yet they were dose dependent across the calcium gradient. Multiple stressors can have complex, often unexpected effects on ecosystems. This study demonstrates that the dominant interaction for the set of tested genes appears to be synergism. We argue that gene expression patterns can be used to understand and predict the type of interaction expected when organisms are exposed simultaneously to natural and anthropogenic stressors.

  19. The Range and Impact of Postmigration Stressors During Treatment of Trauma-Affected Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Maja; Rees, Susan; Mohsin, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    . Postmigration stressors were deemed to impact on 39.1% of treatment sessions with medical personnel. Issues related to work, finances, and family were the most frequently identified stressors. Postmigration stressors interfering with treatment were more common among male refugees, those living alone, those from...... for trauma-related mental distress. A total of 116 patients completed 6 months of multidisciplinary treatment. Clinician-rated postmigration stressors were registered at each session. Outcome measures were Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Global Assessment of Functioning, function (GAF-F) and symptom...

  20. Language as a Stressor in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Albert, Martin L.; Pyun, Sung-Bom; Westwood, Andrew; Jenkins, Theodore; Wolford, Sarah; Finley, Mallory

    2012-01-01

    Background Persons with aphasia often report feeling anxious when using language while communicating. While many patients, caregivers, clinicians and researchers would agree that language may be a stressor for persons with aphasia, systematic empirical studies of stress and/or anxiety in aphasia remain scarce. Aim The aim of this paper is to review the existing literature discussing language as a stressor in aphasia, identify key issues, highlight important gaps, and propose a program for future study. In doing so, we hope to underscore the importance of understanding aspects of the emotional aftermath of aphasia, which plays a critical role in the process of recovery and rehabilitation. Main Contribution Post stroke emotional dysregulation in persons with chronic aphasia clearly has adverse effects for language performance and prospects of recovery. However, the specific role anxiety might play in aphasia has yet to be determined. As a starting point, we propose to view language in aphasia as a stressor, linked to an emotional state we term “linguistic anxiety.” Specifically, a person with linguistic anxiety is one in whom the deliberate, effortful production of language involves anticipation of an error, with the imminence of linguistic failure serving as the threat. Since anticipation is psychologically linked to anxiety and also plays an important role in the allostatic system, we suggest that examining physiologic stress responses in persons with aphasia when they are asked to perform a linguistic task would be a productive tool for assessing the potential relation of stress to “linguistic anxiety.” Conclusion Exploring the putative relationship between anxiety and language in aphasia, through the study of physiologic stress responses, could establish a platform for investigating language changes in the brain in other clinical populations, such as in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease or persons with post traumatic stress disorder, or even with

  1. Connected Classroom Technology Facilitates Multiple Components of Formative Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Melissa L.; Irving, Karen E.

    2015-02-01

    Formative assessment has been demonstrated to result in increased student achievement across a variety of educational contexts. When using formative assessment strategies, teachers engage students in instructional tasks that allow the teacher to uncover levels of student understanding so that the teacher may change instruction accordingly. Tools that support the implementation of formative assessment strategies are therefore likely to enhance student achievement. Connected classroom technologies (CCTs) include a family of devices that show promise in facilitating formative assessment. By promoting the use of interactive student tasks and providing both teachers and students with rapid and accurate data on student learning, CCT can provide teachers with necessary evidence for making instructional decisions about subsequent lessons. In this study, the experiences of four middle and high school science teachers in their first year of implementing the TI-Navigator™ system, a specific type of CCT, are used to characterize the ways in which CCT supports the goals of effective formative assessment. We present excerpts of participant interviews to demonstrate the alignment of CCT with several main phases of the formative assessment process. CCT was found to support implementation of a variety of instructional tasks that generate evidence of student learning for the teacher. The rapid aggregation and display of student learning evidence provided teachers with robust data on which to base subsequent instructional decisions.

  2. Clinical and imaging assessment of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocca, Maria A; Amato, Maria P; De Stefano, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), grey matter damage is widespread and might underlie many of the clinical symptoms, especially cognitive impairment. This relation between grey matter damage and cognitive impairment has been lent support by findings from clinical and MRI studies. However...... that causes clinical symptoms to trigger. Findings on cortical reorganisation support the contribution of brain plasticity and cognitive reserve in limiting cognitive deficits. The development of clinical and imaging biomarkers that can monitor disease development and treatment response is crucial to allow...

  3. Assessing Information Needs for a Personal Multiple Sclerosis Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonheim, Aleksander Nygård; Babic, Ankica

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype of a mobile application for patient self-management within the field of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Five study subjects provided information needs by suggesting functionalities and evaluating three existing MS applications. Prominent functionalities were to collect data about symptoms, physical activities, mood and goals in a form of a mobile diary. Collected data would be visually presented in a graph to support self-management and motivation. A low-fidelity prototype relies in first hand on four selected modules, two Diary modules, one Visualisation module and a Physical activity module. A high-fidelity prototype is being implemented and will be further evaluated by the experts.

  4. Association of Emotional Labor and Occupational Stressors with Depressive Symptoms among Women Sales Workers at a Clothing Shopping Mall in the Republic of Korea: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Jin Chung

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the distribution service industry, sales people often experience multiple occupational stressors such as excessive emotional labor, workplace mistreatment, and job insecurity. The present study aimed to explore the associations of these stressors with depressive symptoms among women sales workers at a clothing shopping mall in Korea. A cross sectional study was conducted on 583 women who consist of clothing sales workers and manual workers using a structured questionnaire to assess demographic factors, occupational stressors, and depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analyses were performed to explore the association of these stressors with depressive symptoms. Scores for job stress subscales such as job demand, job control, and job insecurity were higher among sales workers than among manual workers (p < 0.01. The multiple regression analysis revealed the association between occupation and depressive symptoms after controlling for age, educational level, cohabiting status, and occupational stressors (sβ = 0.08, p = 0.04. A significant interaction effect between occupation and social support was also observed in this model (sβ = −0.09, p = 0.02. The multiple regression analysis stratified by occupation showed that job demand, job insecurity, and workplace mistreatment were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in both occupations (p < 0.05, although the strength of statistical associations were slightly different. We found negative associations of social support (sβ = −0.22, p < 0.01 and emotional effort (sβ = −0.17, p < 0.01 with depressive symptoms in another multiple regression model for sales workers. Emotional dissonance (sβ = 0.23, p < 0.01 showed positive association with depressive symptoms in this model. The result of this study indicated that reducing occupational stressors would be effective for women sales workers to prevent depressive symptoms. In particular, promoting social support could be the most

  5. Stressors in elite sport: a coach perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwell, Richard C; Weston, Neil J V; Greenlees, Iain A; Hutchings, Nicholas V

    2008-07-01

    We examined the varying performance and organizational stressors experienced by coaches who operate with elite athletes. Following interviews with eleven coaches, content analysis of the data revealed coaches to experience comparable numbers of performance and organizational stressors. Performance stressors were divided between their own performance and that of their athletes, while organizational stressors included environmental, leadership, personal, and team factors. The findings provide evidence that coaches experience a variety of stressors that adds weight to the argument that they should be labelled as "performers" in their own right. A variety of future research topics and applied issues are also discussed.

  6. Assessing the use of multiple sources in student essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Peter; Hughes, Simon; Magliano, Joseph P; Goldman, Susan R; Lawless, Kimberly

    2012-09-01

    The present study explored different approaches for automatically scoring student essays that were written on the basis of multiple texts. Specifically, these approaches were developed to classify whether or not important elements of the texts were present in the essays. The first was a simple pattern-matching approach called "multi-word" that allowed for flexible matching of words and phrases in the sentences. The second technique was latent semantic analysis (LSA), which was used to compare student sentences to original source sentences using its high-dimensional vector-based representation. Finally, the third was a machine-learning technique, support vector machines, which learned a classification scheme from the corpus. The results of the study suggested that the LSA-based system was superior for detecting the presence of explicit content from the texts, but the multi-word pattern-matching approach was better for detecting inferences outside or across texts. These results suggest that the best approach for analyzing essays of this nature should draw upon multiple natural language processing approaches.

  7. Personality and Stressor-Related Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Kate A.; Charles, Susan T.; Turiano, Nicholas A.; Almeida, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Greater increases in negative affect and greater decreases in positive affect on days stressors occur portend poorer mental and physical health years later. Although personality traits influence stressor-related affect, only neuroticism and extraversion among the Big Five personality traits have been examined in any detail. Moreover, personality traits may shape how people appraise daily stressors, yet few studies have examined how stressor-related appraisals may account for associations between personality and stressor-related affect. Two studies used participants (N=2022, age 30–84) from the National Study of Daily Experiences II (NSDE II) to examine the associations between Big Five personality traits and stressor-related affect, in addition to how appraisals may account for these relationships. Results from Study 1 indicate that higher levels of extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience, and lower levels of neuroticism, are related to less stressor-related negative affect. Only agreeableness was associated with stressor-related positive affect, such that higher levels were related to greater decreases in positive affect on days stressors occur. The second study found that stressor-related appraisals partially accounted for the significant associations between stressor-related negative affect and personality. Implications for these findings in relation to how personality may influence physical and emotional health are discussed. PMID:26796984

  8. USING delta15N OF CHIRONOMIDAE TO HELP ASSESS CONDITION AND STRESSORS IN LAKES, RIVERS AND STREAMS OF THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess large-scale ecological conditions efficiently, indicators that can be collected quickly at many sites need to be developed. We explore the utility of delta 15N from basal food chain organisms to provide information on N loading and processing in lakes, rivers and stream...

  9. A standardized tritrophic small-scale system (TriCosm) for the assessment of stressor-induced effects on aquatic community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Verena; Agatz, Annika; Benstead, Rachel; Ashauer, Roman

    2018-04-01

    Chemical impacts on the environment are routinely assessed in single-species tests. They are employed to measure direct effects on nontarget organisms, but indirect effects on ecological interactions can only be detected in multispecies tests. Micro- and mesocosms are more complex and environmentally realistic, yet they are less frequently used for environmental risk assessment because resource demand is high, whereas repeatability and statistical power are often low. Test systems fulfilling regulatory needs (i.e., standardization, repeatability, and replication) and the assessment of impacts on species interactions and indirect effects are lacking. In the present study we describe the development of the TriCosm, a repeatable aquatic multispecies test with 3 trophic levels and increased statistical power. High repeatability of community dynamics of 3 interacting aquatic populations (algae, Ceriodaphnia, and Hydra) was found with an average coefficient of variation of 19.5% and the ability to determine small effect sizes. The TriCosm combines benefits of both single-species tests (fulfillment of regulatory requirements) and complex multispecies tests (ecological relevance) and can be used, for instance, at an intermediate tier in environmental risk assessment. Furthermore, comparatively quickly generated population and community toxicity data can be useful for the development and testing of mechanistic effect models. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:1051-1060. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  10. Nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickie A Lambert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has suggested that nurses, regardless of workplace or culture, are confronted with a variety of stressors. As the worldwide nursing shortage increases, the aged population becomes larger, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic illnesses and technology continues to advance, nurses continually will be faced with numerous workplace stressors. Thus, nurses, especially palliative care nurses, need to learn how to identify their workplace stressors and to cope effectively with these stressors to attain and maintain both their physical and mental health. This article describes workplace stressors and coping strategies, compares and contrasts cross-cultural literature on nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies, and delineates a variety of stress management activities that could prove helpful for contending with stressors in the workplace.

  11. Assessing Natural Direct and Indirect Effects Through Multiple Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, T; Rasmussen, M; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2014-01-01

    . The approach is an extension of the natural effect models proposed by Lange et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(3):190-195). By allowing the analysis of distinct multiple pathways, the suggested approach adds to the capabilities of modern mediation techniques. Furthermore, the approach can be implemented using......Within the fields of epidemiology, interventions research and social sciences researchers are often faced with the challenge of decomposing the effect of an exposure into different causal pathways working through defined mediator variables. The goal of such analyses is often to understand...... the mechanisms of the system or to suggest possible interventions. The case of a single mediator, thus implying only 2 causal pathways (direct and indirect) from exposure to outcome, has been extensively studied. By using the framework of counterfactual variables, researchers have established theoretical...

  12. The Influence of Work-Related Stressors on Clergy Husbands and Their Wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael Lane; Blanton, Priscilla White

    1994-01-01

    Assessed predictive power of 5 work-related stressors identified in clergy family literature on criterion variables of marital, parent, and life satisfaction among 272 clergy husbands and their wives from 6 denominations. Findings supported hypotheses that work-related stressors were inversely related to marital, parental, and life satisfaction…

  13. Stressors and Enhancers in the Marital/Family Life of Family Professionals and Their Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Stephen F.; Goddard, H. Wallace

    1993-01-01

    Assessed how work as family professional is uniquely enhancing and stressful and whether enhancers and stressors are correlated with marital and family quality. Findings from 59 family professionals and their spouses strengthen idea that there are marital and family life enhancers and stressors uniquely associated with work as family professional.…

  14. Psychometric Issues in Organizational Stressor Research: A Review and Implications for Sport Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Rachel; Fletcher, David

    2012-01-01

    Organizational stressors can potentially elicit a number of undesirable consequences for sport performers. It is, therefore, imperative that psychologists better understand the demands that athletes encounter via their exploration and assessment. However, although researchers have identified a wide range of organizational stressors in competitive…

  15. Cumulative Risk and Impact Modeling on Environmental Chemical and Social Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongtai; Wang, Aolin; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Lam, Juleen; Sirota, Marina; Padula, Amy; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this review is to identify cumulative modeling methods used to evaluate combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors. The specific review question is: What are the existing quantitative methods used to examine the cumulative impacts of exposures to environmental chemical and social stressors on health? There has been an increase in literature that evaluates combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors on health using regression models; very few studies applied other data mining and machine learning techniques to this problem. The majority of studies we identified used regression models to evaluate combined effects of multiple environmental and social stressors. With proper study design and appropriate modeling assumptions, additional data mining methods may be useful to examine combined effects of environmental and social stressors.

  16. Activity changes of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus during stressor exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, David M; Poe, Gina R

    2004-01-01

    Dorso-medial paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) activity was assessed by light scattering procedures in freely behaving cats during auditory stressor exposure. Acoustic noise (> 95dB) raised plasma ACTH concentrations, somatic muscle tonus, respiratory frequency and cardiac rates; PVH activity...

  17. Burnout and hopelessness among farmers: The Farmers Stressors Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchot, Didier; Andela, Marie

    2018-05-03

    Farming is a stressful occupation with a high rate of suicide. However, there have been relatively few studies that have examined the antecedents of stress and suicide in farmers. We also lack methodologically sound scales aimed at assessing the stressors faced by farmers. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to develop an instrument assessing the stressors met by farmers, The Farmers Stressors Inventory, and to test its factorial structure, internal consistency and criterion validity. First, based on the existing literature and interviews with farmers, we designed a scale containing 37 items. Then a sample of 2142 French farmers completed a questionnaire containing the 37 items along with two measures: The MBIGS that assesses burnout and the BHS that assesses hopelessness. The statistical analyses (EFA and CFA) revealed eight factors in accordance with different aspects of farmers job stressors: workload and lack of time, incertitude toward the future and the financial market, agricultural legislation pressure, social and geographical isolation, financial worry, conflicts with associates or family members, family succession of the farm, and unpredictable interference with farm work. The internal consistency of the eight subscales was satisfactory. Correlation between these eight dimensions and burnout on the one side and hopelessness on the other side support the criterion-related validity of the scale.

  18. Stance disturbance in multiple sclerosis: brainstem lesions and posturographic assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schalek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background. Balance disorders are commonly evidenced during the course of multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study is to report characteristics of MS patient stance control disorders, measured by means of posturography and related to the brainstem lesions.

    Methods. Thirty-eight patients affected by MS, mildly to moderately disable according to Kurtzke’s Expanded Disability Status Scale, underwent a complete clinical neurological and vestibular evaluation and brain MRI scanning. All patients were then tested on a static posturography platform (Tetrax, Israel in four conditions: eyes open and closed standing on a firm surface and on a foam pad.

    Results. Clinical and/or MRI evidence of brainstem involvement was observed in 55.3 % of patients. When brainstem lesion was detected, Fourier analysis showed a typical pattern characterized by inversion of the  0- 0.1 Hz and  0.1 - 0.25 Hz. frequency bands.

    Conclusions. MS leads to pervasive postural disturbances in the majority of subjects, including the visuo-vestibular loops and proprioception involving vestibulo-spinal pathways in at least 55.3 % of patients. Our results may also suggest the presence of Fourier inversion in patients with brainstem lesions.


  19. The relative importance of ingestion for multiple pathway dose assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicker, W.; Grogan, H.; Bergstroem, U.; Hoffman, O.

    1991-01-01

    The general purpose of this report is to examine the relative importance of ingestion pathways, and particularly food chain transport in overall dose assessment. The importance of ingestion pathways is examined for various release scenarios and radionuclides because the findings are expected to differ with circumstances. The degree to which contaminated food products contribute to the total dose will affect the importance of accuracy and uncertainty of food chain model predictions, which is the main thrust of the Biospheric Model Validation Study (BIOMOVS). This analysis requires that all modes of radiation exposure be examined, including inhalation, external exposure, and the various ingestion pathways. (2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  20. A Rich Assessment Task as a Window into Students' Multiplicative Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downton, Ann; Wright, Vince

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the potential of a rich assessment task to reveal students' multiplicative thinking in respect to a hypothetical learning trajectory. Thirty pairs of students in grades 5 and 6 attempted the task. Twenty-two pairs applied multiplicative structure to find the number of items in arrays. However counting and computational errors…

  1. Evaluation of a Multiple-Stimulus Presentation Format for Assessing Reinforcer Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Iwata, Brian A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of seven adults with profound developmental disabilities compared methods for presenting stimuli during reinforcer-preference assessments. It found that a multiple-stimulus format in which selections were made without replacement may share the advantages of a paired-stimulus format and a multiple-stimulus format with replacement, while…

  2. Restoring fish ecological quality in estuaries: Implication of interactive and cumulative effects among anthropogenic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Nils; Borja, Angel; Chust, Guillem; Uriarte, Ainhize; Lepage, Mario

    2016-01-15

    Estuaries are subjected to multiple anthropogenic stressors, which have additive, antagonistic or synergistic effects. Current challenges include the use of large databases of biological monitoring surveys (e.g. the European Water Framework Directive) to help environmental managers prioritizing restoration measures. This study investigated the impact of nine stressor categories on the fish ecological status derived from 90 estuaries of the North East Atlantic countries. We used a random forest model to: 1) detect the dominant stressors and their non-linear effects; 2) evaluate the ecological benefits expected from reducing pressure from stressors; and 3) investigate the interactions among stressors. Results showed that largest restoration benefits were expected when mitigating water pollution and oxygen depletion. Non-additive effects represented half of pairwise interactions among stressors, and antagonisms were the most common. Dredged sediments, flow changes and oxygen depletion were predominantly implicated in non-additive interactions, whereas the remainder stressors often showed additive impacts. The prevalence of interactive impacts reflects a complex scenario for estuaries management; hence, we proposed a step-by-step restoration scheme focusing on the mitigation of stressors providing the maximum of restoration benefits under a multi-stress context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple Resource Host Architecture (MRHA) for the Mobile Detection Assessment Response System (MDARS) Revision A

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Everett, H

    2000-01-01

    The Mobile Detection Assessment and Response System (MDARS) program employs multiple robotic security platforms operating under the high level control of a remote host, with the direct supervision of a human operator...

  4. Whole-Body MRI versus PET in assessment of multiple myeloma disease activity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shortt, Conor P

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare FDG PET; whole-body MRI; and the reference standard, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, to determine the best imaging technique for assessment of disease activity in multiple myeloma.

  5. An assessment of anthropogenic and climatic stressors on estuaries using a spatio-temporal GIS-modelling approach for sustainability: Towamba estuary, southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nasrawi, Ali K M; Hamylton, Sarah M; Jones, Brian G

    2018-06-03

    Monitoring estuarine ecological-geomorphological dynamics has become a crucial aspect of studying the impacts of climate change and worldwide infrastructure development in coastal zones. Together, these factors have changed the natural eco-geomorphic processes that affect estuarine regimes and comprehensive modelling of coastal resources can assist managers to make appropriate decisions about their sustainable use. This study has utilised Towamba estuary (southeastern NSW, Australia), to demonstrate the value and priority of modelling estuarine dynamism as a measure of the rates and consequences of eco-geomorphic changes. This research employs several geoinformatic modelling approaches over time to investigate and assess how climate change and human activities have altered this estuarine eco-geomorphic setting. Multitemporal trend/change analysis of sediment delivery, shoreline positions and land cover, determined from fieldwork and GIS analysis of remote sensing datasets, shows significant spatio-temporal changes to the elevation and areal extent of sedimentary facies in the Towamba estuary over the past 65 years. Geomorphic growth (~ 2600 m 2 annually) has stabilised the estuarine habitats, particularly within native vegetation, salt marsh and mangrove areas. Geomorphic changes have occurred because of a combination of sediment runoff from the mostly unmodified terrestrial catchment, nearshore processes (ocean dynamics) and human activities. The construction of GIS models, verified with water and sediment samples, can characterise physical processes and quantify changes within the estuarine ecosystem. Such robust models will allow resource managers to evaluate the potential effects of changes to the current coastal ecosystems.

  6. Cumulative Human Impacts on Coral Reefs: Assessing Risk and Management Implications for Brazilian Coral Reefs

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael A. Magris; Alana Grech; Robert L. Pressey

    2018-01-01

    Effective management of coral reefs requires strategies tailored to cope with cumulative disturbances from human activities. In Brazil, where coral reefs are a priority for conservation, intensifying threats from local and global stressors are of paramount concern to management agencies. Using a cumulative impact assessment approach, our goal was to inform management actions for coral reefs in Brazil by assessing their exposure to multiple stressors (fishing, land-based activities, coastal de...

  7. Multiple flood vulnerability assessment approach based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method and coordinated development degree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weichao; Xu, Kui; Lian, Jijian; Bin, Lingling; Ma, Chao

    2018-05-01

    Flood is a serious challenge that increasingly affects the residents as well as policymakers. Flood vulnerability assessment is becoming gradually relevant in the world. The purpose of this study is to develop an approach to reveal the relationship between exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity for better flood vulnerability assessment, based on the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method (FCEM) and coordinated development degree model (CDDM). The approach is organized into three parts: establishment of index system, assessment of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity, and multiple flood vulnerability assessment. Hydrodynamic model and statistical data are employed for the establishment of index system; FCEM is used to evaluate exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity; and CDDM is applied to express the relationship of the three components of vulnerability. Six multiple flood vulnerability types and four levels are proposed to assess flood vulnerability from multiple perspectives. Then the approach is applied to assess the spatiality of flood vulnerability in Hainan's eastern area, China. Based on the results of multiple flood vulnerability, a decision-making process for rational allocation of limited resources is proposed and applied to the study area. The study shows that multiple flood vulnerability assessment can evaluate vulnerability more completely, and help decision makers learn more information about making decisions in a more comprehensive way. In summary, this study provides a new way for flood vulnerability assessment and disaster prevention decision. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. What Form of Mathematics Are Assessments Assessing? The Case of Multiplication and Division in Fourth Grade NAEP Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosko Karl W.; Singh, Rashmi

    2018-01-01

    Multiplicative reasoning is a key concept in elementary school mathematics. Item statistics reported by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assessment provide the best current indicator for how well elementary students across the U.S. understand this, and other concepts. However, beyond expert reviews and statistical analysis,…

  9. The stressors of being young and Black: Cardiovascular health and Black young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anna K; Corneille, Maya A; Hall, Naomi M; Yancu, Cecile N; Myers, Micha

    2016-05-01

    To examine the impact of stressors relevant to the lives of Black young adults including racial, financial, occupational, and general stress and psychological distress on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Specifically, this study examined the relationship between multiple psychosocial stressors and two CVD risk indicators (i.e. obesity and blood pressure). This study used a quantitative design which included surveys, the collection of anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) measures. Participants were 124 Black college students aged 18 to 27 years old. Participants completed measures to assess psychological distress, general, occupational, financial and racial stress. Measures of body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and BP were collected to assess CVD risk. Findings indicated a significant effect of internalised racism on BMI and a significant effect of individual racial stress on diastolic BP. Also, depression was significantly associated with systolic BP. There were no significant results for WHR. Findings suggested that the relationship among racial stress, psychological distress and CVD be further explored.

  10. Stressors and resources mediate the association of socioeconomic position with health behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Ameijden Erik JC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability in health behaviours is an important cause of socioeconomic health disparities. Socioeconomic differences in health behaviours are poorly understood. Previous studies have examined whether (single stressors or psychosocial resources mediate the relationship between socioeconomic position and health or mortality. This study examined: 1 whether the presence of stressors and the absence of resources can be represented by a single underlying factor, and co-occur among those with lower education, 2 whether stressors and resources mediated the relation between education and health behaviours, and 3 addressed the question whether an aggregate measure of stressors and resources has an added effect over the use of individual measures. Methods Questionnaire data on sociodemographic variables, stressors, resources, and health behaviours were collected cross-sectionally among inhabitants (n = 3050 of a medium-sized Dutch city (Utrecht. Descriptive statistics and bootstrap analyses for multiple-mediator effects were used to examine the role of stressors and resources in mediating educational associations with health behaviours. Results Higher levels of stressors and lower levels of resources could be represented by a single underlying factor, and co-occurred among those with lower educational levels. Stressors and resources partially mediated the relationship between education and four health- behaviours (exercise, breakfast frequency, vegetable consumption and smoking. Financial stress and poor perceived health status were mediating stressors, and social support a strong mediating resource. An aggregate measure of the stressors and resources showed similar associations with health behaviours compared to the summed individual measures. Conclusions Lower educated groups are simultaneously affected by the presence of various stressors and absence of multiple resources, which partially explain socioeconomic differences in health

  11. Safety assessment of pipes with multiple local wall thinning defects under pressure and bending moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jian; Zhou Changyu; Xue Jilin; Dai Qiao; He Xiaohua

    2011-01-01

    The safety assessment of pipes with local wall thinning defects is highly important in engineering. Most attention has been paid on the safety assessment of pipe with single local wall thinning defect, while the studies about multiple local wall thinning defects are not nearly enough. However, the interaction of multiple local wall thinning defects in some conditions is great, and may have a great impact on the safety assessment. In the present standard API 579/ASME FFS, the safety assessment of pipes with multiple local wall thinning defects is given, while as well as the influence of load condition, the influences of arrangement and relative depth of defects are ignored, which may influence the safety assessment considerably. In this paper, the influence of the interaction between multiple local wall thinning defects on the remaining strength of pipes at different arrangements and depths of defects under different load conditions (pressure, tension-bending moment and compression-bending moment) are studied. A quantified index is defined to describe the interaction between defects quantitatively. For different arrangements and relative depths of defects, based on a limit value 0.05 of the quantified index of the interaction between defects, a relatively systematic safety assessment of pipes with multiple local wall thinning defects under different load conditions has been proposed.

  12. Protracted effects of juvenile stressor exposure are mitigated by access to palatable food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Christine MacKay

    Full Text Available Stressor experiences during the juvenile period may increase vulnerability to anxiety and depressive-like symptoms in adulthood. Stressors may also promote palatable feeding, possibly reflecting a form of self-medication. The current study investigated the short- and long-term consequences of a stressor applied during the juvenile period on anxiety- and depressive-like behavior measured by the elevated plus maze (EPM, social interaction and forced swim test (FST. Furthermore, the effects of stress on caloric intake, preference for a palatable food and indices of metabolic syndrome and obesity were assessed. Male Wistar rats exposed to 3 consecutive days of variable stressors on postnatal days (PD 27-29, displayed elevated anxiety-like behaviors as adults, which could be attenuated by consumption of a palatable high-fat diet. However, consumption of a palatable food in response to a stressor appeared to contribute to increased adiposity.

  13. How general practitioners perceive and assess self-care in patients with multiple chronic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Aage Toft; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is not known how general practitioners (GPs) perceive the concept of self-care and how they assess self-care ability in patients with multiple chronic conditions. As a part of the strategy to improve the care of people living with chronic conditions, disease management programs...... in Denmark require GPs and other health care workers to assess and support patients' self-care ability. The aim of the present study was to explore GPs' perceptions and assessment of self-care ability in patients with multiple chronic conditions who have difficulty following a given treatment. Methods...

  14. Abiotic stressors and stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulmon, Cecile; Van Baaren, Joan; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we...... review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact...... life history traits of stressed organisms, and ii) to what extent trait responses influence individual and population responses. Common response mechanisms are evident at molecular and cellular scales but become rather difficult to define at higher levels due to evolutionary distance and environmental...

  15. The Nature and Outcomes for Women of Stressors Associated With Military Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    The study of The Nature and Outcomes for Women of Stressors Associated with Military Life will obtain data that will enable us to assess the distribution of stress exposure across women in the major...

  16. The Nature and Outcomes for Women of Stressors Associated with Military Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan, B

    1998-01-01

    The study of The Na turn and Outcomes for Women of Stressors Associated with Military Life will obtain data that will enable us to assess the distribution of stress exposure across women in the major...

  17. Older adults display concurrent but not delayed associations between life stressors and depressive symptoms: a microlongitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautovich, Natalie D; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Gum, Amber M

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigated the temporal association between life event stressors relevant to older adults and depressive symptoms using a micro-longitudinal design (i.e., monthly increments over a six-month period). Existing research on stress and depressive symptoms has not examined this association over shorter time periods (e.g., monthly), over multiple time increments, or within-persons. An in-person initial interview was followed by six monthly interviews conducted by telephone. Community. Data were drawn from a study of 144 community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms. Stressful life events were measured using the Geriatric Life Events Scale (GALES), and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Short - Geriatric Depression Scale (S-GDS). Using multilevel modeling, 31% of the S-GDS' and 39% of the GALES' overall variance was due to within-person variability. Females and persons with worse health reported more depressive symptoms. Stressful life events predicted concurrent depressive symptoms, but not depressive symptoms one month later. The lack of a time-lagged relationship suggests that older adults with depressive symptoms may recover more quickly from life stressors than previously thought, although additional research using varying time frames is needed to pinpoint the timing of this recovery as well as to identify older adults at risk of long-term effects of life stressors. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  18. Teaching Practice generated stressors and coping mechanisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching Practice generated stressors and coping mechanisms among student teachers in Zimbabwe. ... South African Journal of Education ... We sought to establish stressors and coping mechanisms for student teachers on Teaching Practice from a Christian-related university and a government-owned teachers' college ...

  19. Stressor sensor and stress management system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A stressor detection system (100) comprises sensor means (101) arranged for being attached to a person for obtaining a time-varying signal representing a physical quantity relating to an environment of the person, and processing means (102) for deriving a stressor value from the obtained signal

  20. Southern Nevada ecosystem stressors [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton K. Pendleton; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada ecosystems and their associated resources are subject to a number of global and regional/local stressors that are affecting the sustainability of the region. Global stressors include elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and associated changes in temperature and precipitation patterns and amounts, solar radiation, and nutrient cycles (Smith and...

  1. Association of Emotional Labor and Occupational Stressors with Depressive Symptoms among Women Sales Workers at a Clothing Shopping Mall in the Republic of Korea: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yuh-Jin; Jung, Woo-Chul; Kim, Hyunjoo; Cho, Seong-Sik

    2017-11-23

    In the distribution service industry, sales people often experience multiple occupational stressors such as excessive emotional labor, workplace mistreatment, and job insecurity. The present study aimed to explore the associations of these stressors with depressive symptoms among women sales workers at a clothing shopping mall in Korea. A cross sectional study was conducted on 583 women who consist of clothing sales workers and manual workers using a structured questionnaire to assess demographic factors, occupational stressors, and depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analyses were performed to explore the association of these stressors with depressive symptoms. Scores for job stress subscales such as job demand, job control, and job insecurity were higher among sales workers than among manual workers ( p support was also observed in this model (sβ = -0.09, p = 0.02). The multiple regression analysis stratified by occupation showed that job demand, job insecurity, and workplace mistreatment were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in both occupations ( p support (sβ = -0.22, p women sales workers to prevent depressive symptoms. In particular, promoting social support could be the most effective way to promote women sales workers' mental health.

  2. Joint analysis of stressors and ecosystem services to enhance restoration effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, J David; McIntyre, Peter B; Smith, Sigrid D P; Halpern, Benjamin S; Boyer, Gregory L; Buchsbaum, Andy; Burton, G A; Campbell, Linda M; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Ciborowski, Jan J H; Doran, Patrick J; Eder, Tim; Infante, Dana M; Johnson, Lucinda B; Joseph, Christine A; Marino, Adrienne L; Prusevich, Alexander; Read, Jennifer G; Rose, Joan B; Rutherford, Edward S; Sowa, Scott P; Steinman, Alan D

    2013-01-02

    With increasing pressure placed on natural systems by growing human populations, both scientists and resource managers need a better understanding of the relationships between cumulative stress from human activities and valued ecosystem services. Societies often seek to mitigate threats to these services through large-scale, costly restoration projects, such as the over one billion dollar Great Lakes Restoration Initiative currently underway. To help inform these efforts, we merged high-resolution spatial analyses of environmental stressors with mapping of ecosystem services for all five Great Lakes. Cumulative ecosystem stress is highest in near-shore habitats, but also extends offshore in Lakes Erie, Ontario, and Michigan. Variation in cumulative stress is driven largely by spatial concordance among multiple stressors, indicating the importance of considering all stressors when planning restoration activities. In addition, highly stressed areas reflect numerous different combinations of stressors rather than a single suite of problems, suggesting that a detailed understanding of the stressors needing alleviation could improve restoration planning. We also find that many important areas for fisheries and recreation are subject to high stress, indicating that ecosystem degradation could be threatening key services. Current restoration efforts have targeted high-stress sites almost exclusively, but generally without knowledge of the full range of stressors affecting these locations or differences among sites in service provisioning. Our results demonstrate that joint spatial analysis of stressors and ecosystem services can provide a critical foundation for maximizing social and ecological benefits from restoration investments.

  3. Assessing Neurocognition via Gamified Experimental Logic: A novel approach to simultaneous acquisition of multiple ERPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar eNair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the development of a neurocognitive paradigm: ‘Assessing Neurocognition via Gamified Experimental Logic’ (ANGEL, for performing the parametric evaluation of multiple neurocognitive functions simultaneously. ANGEL employs an audiovisual sensory motor design for the acquisition of multiple event related potentials (ERPs - the C1, P50, MMN, N1, N170, P2, N2pc, LRP, P300 and ERN. The ANGEL paradigm allows assessment of ten neurocognitive variables over the course of three ‘game’ levels of increasing complexity ranging from simple passive observation to complex discrimination and response in the presence of multiple distractors. The paradigm allows assessment of several levels of rapid decision making: speeded up response vs response-inhibition; responses to easy vs difficult tasks; responses based on gestalt perception of clear vs ambiguous stimuli; and finally, responses with set shifting during challenging tasks. The paradigm has been tested using 18 healthy participants from both sexes and the possibilities of varied data analyses have been presented in this paper. The ANGEL approach provides an ecologically valid assessment (as compared to existing tools that quickly yields a very rich dataset and helps to assess multiple ERPs that can be studied extensively to assess cognitive functions in health and disease conditions.

  4. Assessing Neurocognition via Gamified Experimental Logic: A Novel Approach to Simultaneous Acquisition of Multiple ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ajay K; Sasidharan, Arun; John, John P; Mehrotra, Seema; Kutty, Bindu M

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a neurocognitive paradigm: "Assessing Neurocognition via Gamified Experimental Logic" (ANGEL), for performing the parametric evaluation of multiple neurocognitive functions simultaneously. ANGEL employs an audiovisual sensory motor design for the acquisition of multiple event related potentials (ERPs)-the C1, P50, MMN, N1, N170, P2, N2pc, LRP, P300, and ERN. The ANGEL paradigm allows assessment of 10 neurocognitive variables over the course of three "game" levels of increasing complexity ranging from simple passive observation to complex discrimination and response in the presence of multiple distractors. The paradigm allows assessment of several levels of rapid decision making: speeded up response vs. response-inhibition; responses to easy vs. difficult tasks; responses based on gestalt perception of clear vs. ambiguous stimuli; and finally, responses with set shifting during challenging tasks. The paradigm has been tested using 18 healthy participants from both sexes and the possibilities of varied data analyses have been presented in this paper. The ANGEL approach provides an ecologically valid assessment (as compared to existing tools) that quickly yields a very rich dataset and helps to assess multiple ERPs that can be studied extensively to assess cognitive functions in health and disease conditions.

  5. Secondary stressors and extreme events and disasters: a systematic review of primary research from 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Sarah; Rubin, G. James; Murray, Virginia; Rogers, M. Brooke; Amlôt, Richard; Williams, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Extreme events and disasters, such as earthquakes and floods, cause distress and are associated with some people developing mental disorders. Primary stressors inherent in many disasters can include injuries sustained or watching someone die. The literature recognises the distress which primary stressors cause and their association with mental disorders. Secondary stressors such as a lack of financial assistance, the gruelling process of submitting an insurance claim, parents’ worries about their children, and continued lack of infrastructure can manifest their effects shortly after a disaster and persist for extended periods of time. Secondary stressors, and their roles in affecting people’s longer-term mental health, should not be overlooked. We draw attention in this review to the nature of secondary stressors that are commonly identified in the literature, assess how they are measured, and develop a typology of these stressors that often affect people after extreme events. Methods We searched for relevant papers from 2010 and 2011 using MEDLINE®, Embase and PsycINFO®. We selected primary research papers that evaluated the associations between secondary stressors and distress or mental disorders following extreme events, and were published in English. We extracted information on which secondary stressors were assessed, and used thematic analysis to group the secondary stressors into a typology. Results Thirty-two relevant articles published in 2010 and 2011 were identified. Many secondary stressors were poorly defined and difficult to differentiate from primary stressors or other life events. We identified 11 categories of secondary stressors, though some extend over more than one category. The categories include: economic stressors such as problems with compensation, recovery of and rebuilding homes; loss of physical possessions and resources; health-related stressors; stress relating to education and schooling; stress arising from media

  6. Gender differences in stressors and reactions to stressors among Jordanian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaideh, Shaher H

    2012-01-01

    Stress among university students has been a topic of interest for researchers and teachers for many years because it affects not only their academic performance but also their physiological and psychological health. Male and female students perceive and react to stressors differently due to their differences in appraising stressful situations. The aims of this study were to examine differences in the perception of stressors and reactions to stressors between male and female Jordanian university students, and to identify the best predictors of stressors among them. Descriptive cross-sectional design was employed. The Student-Life Stress Inventory was used to measure stressors and reactions to stressors of 465 male and 485 female Jordanian university students recruited through stratified random sampling. There were statistical differences between male and female students regarding their perception and reactions to stressors. Female students reported a higher perception of stressors in frustrations, conflict, pressures and changes, as well as emotional reactions to stressors. Male students reported higher behavioural and cognitive reactions to stressors than female students. Participation in stress workshops, perception of general health, and perception of stress level in general were found to predict stressors among male students, while mother's educational level, perception of general health, and perception of stress level in general were found to predict stressors among female students. This study showed that gender differences in perception of stressors and reactions to stressors are similar to previous studies conducted all over the world. Interventions can be developed to help students better cope with stress. Conducting specific stress-training programmes for male and female students will help in reducing stress levels.

  7. The Range and Impact of Postmigration Stressors During Treatment of Trauma-Affected Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Maja; Rees, Susan; Mohsin, Mohammed; Silove, Derrick; Carlsson, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Trauma-affected refugees commonly experience postmigration stressors, which can compound conflict-related emotional distress. Our study aimed to assess clinician-rated frequency and types of postmigration stressors deemed to be interfering with the treatment of refugees attending a service for trauma-related mental distress. A total of 116 patients completed 6 months of multidisciplinary treatment. Clinician-rated postmigration stressors were registered at each session. Outcome measures were Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Global Assessment of Functioning, function (GAF-F) and symptom. Postmigration stressors were deemed to impact on 39.1% of treatment sessions with medical personnel. Issues related to work, finances, and family were the most frequently identified stressors. Postmigration stressors interfering with treatment were more common among male refugees, those living alone, those from Middle Eastern origin, and persons with low baseline GAF-F. Explicitly identifying and, where possible, dealing with postmigration stressors may assist in averting their interference with the treatment of distress in refugees.

  8. Molecular crosstalk between a chemical and a biological stressor and consequences on disease manifestation in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burki, Richard; Krasnov, Aleksei; Bettge, Kathrin; Rexroad, Caird E.; Afanasyev, Sergey; Antikainen, Miia; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Wahli, Thomas; Segner, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the molecular and organism reaction of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to the combined impact of two environmental stressors. The two stressors were the myxozoan parasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which is the etiological agent of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) and a natural stressor to salmonid populations, and 17β-estradiol (E2) as prototype of estrogen-active chemical stressors in the aquatic environment. Both stressors, the parasite and estrogenic contaminants, co-exist in Swiss rivers and are discussed as factors contributing to the decline of Swiss brown trout populations over the last decades. Using a microarray approach contrasting parasite-infected and non-infected rainbow trout at low or high estrogen levels, it was observed that molecular response patterns under joint exposure differed from those to the single stressors. More specifically, three major response patterns were present: (i) expression responses of gene transcripts to one stressor are weakened by the presence of the second stressor; (ii) expression responses of gene transcripts to one stressor are enhanced by the presence of the second stressor; (iii) expression responses of gene transcripts at joint treatment are dominated by one of the two stressors. Organism-level responses to concurrent E2 and parasite treatment – assessed through measuring parasite loads in the fish host and cumulative mortalities of trout – were dominated by the pathogen, with no modulating influence of E2. The findings reveal function- and level-specific responses of rainbow trout to stressor combinations, which are only partly predictable from the response to the single stressors.

  9. Molecular crosstalk between a chemical and a biological stressor and consequences on disease manifestation in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burki, Richard [Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, University of Bern, Laenggassstrasse 122, CH-3001 Bern (Switzerland); Krasnov, Aleksei [NOFIMA Marin, Postboks. 5010, 1432As (Norway); Bettge, Kathrin [Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, University of Bern, Laenggassstrasse 122, CH-3001 Bern (Switzerland); Rexroad, Caird E. [National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture, USDA-ARS, 11876 Leetown Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430 (United States); Afanasyev, Sergey [Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, M. Toreza av. 44, Peterburg 194223 (Russian Federation); Antikainen, Miia [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Kuopio (Finland); Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia [Man-Society-Environment, University of Basel, Vesalgasse 1, CH-4051 Basel (Switzerland); Wahli, Thomas [Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, University of Bern, Laenggassstrasse 122, CH-3001 Bern (Switzerland); Segner, Helmut, E-mail: helmut.segner@vetsuisse.unibe.ch [Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, University of Bern, Laenggassstrasse 122, CH-3001 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the molecular and organism reaction of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to the combined impact of two environmental stressors. The two stressors were the myxozoan parasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which is the etiological agent of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) and a natural stressor to salmonid populations, and 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) as prototype of estrogen-active chemical stressors in the aquatic environment. Both stressors, the parasite and estrogenic contaminants, co-exist in Swiss rivers and are discussed as factors contributing to the decline of Swiss brown trout populations over the last decades. Using a microarray approach contrasting parasite-infected and non-infected rainbow trout at low or high estrogen levels, it was observed that molecular response patterns under joint exposure differed from those to the single stressors. More specifically, three major response patterns were present: (i) expression responses of gene transcripts to one stressor are weakened by the presence of the second stressor; (ii) expression responses of gene transcripts to one stressor are enhanced by the presence of the second stressor; (iii) expression responses of gene transcripts at joint treatment are dominated by one of the two stressors. Organism-level responses to concurrent E2 and parasite treatment - assessed through measuring parasite loads in the fish host and cumulative mortalities of trout - were dominated by the pathogen, with no modulating influence of E2. The findings reveal function- and level-specific responses of rainbow trout to stressor combinations, which are only partly predictable from the response to the single stressors.

  10. A review of hydrological and chemical stressors in the Adige catchment and its ecological status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Majone, Bruno; Cano Paoli, Karina; Diamantini, Elena; Stella, Elisa; Mallucci, Stefano; Lencioni, Valeria; Zandonai, Fabiana; Bellin, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the effects of multiple stressors on Alpine freshwater ecosystems is challenging, due to the lack of tailored field campaigns for the contemporaneous measurement of hydrological, chemical and ecological parameters. Conducting exhaustive field campaigns is costly and hence most of the activities so far have been performed addressing specific environmental issues. An accurate analysis of existing information is therefore useful and necessary, to identify stressors that may act in synergy and to design new field campaigns. We present an extended review of available studies and datasets concerning the hydrological, chemical and ecological status of the Adige, which is the second longest river and the third largest river basin in Italy. The most relevant stressors are discussed in the light of the information extracted from a large number of studies. The detailed analysis of these studies identified that hydrological alterations caused by hydropower production are the main source of stress for the freshwater ecosystems in the Adige catchment. However, concurrent effects with other stressors, such as the release of pollutants from waste water treatment plants or from agricultural and industrial activities, have not been explored at depth, so far. A wealth of available studies address a single stressor separately without exploring their concurrent effect. It is concluded that a combination of extended experimental field campaigns, focusing on the coupled effects of multiple stressors, and modeling activities is highly needed in order to quantify the impact of the multifaceted human pressures on freshwater ecosystems in the Adige river. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Identification of psychobiological stressors among HIV-positive women. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center (HNRC) Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, S J; Patterson, T L; Temoshok, L R; McCutchan, J A; Straits-Tröster, K A; Chandler, J L; Grant, I

    1993-01-01

    This research describes major stressors in the lives of women who have been infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Thirty-one HIV antibody positive (HIV+) women infected primarily through heterosexual contact participated in a two hour semi-structured interview detailing the circumstances, context, and consequences of all stressful life events and difficulties experienced within the preceding six months. Qualitative methods of data analyses were utilized (Miles & Huberman, 1984). HIV-related life events and difficulties were classified into primary and secondary stressors based on the stress process model (Pearlin et al., 1981). Problems arising directly from one's seropositivity were defined as primary stressors. Stressful life events and difficulties occurring in other role areas were defined as secondary stressors. Six categories of HIV-related stressors were identified and quantified. Primary stressors were health-related, and included both gynecological problems (e.g., amenorrhea) and general symptoms of HIV infection (e.g., fatigue). Secondary stressors related to child and family (e.g., future guardianship of children), marital/partner relations (e.g., disclosure of HIV+ status), occupation (e.g., arranging time-off for medical appointments), economic problems (e.g., insurance "hassles"), and social network events (e.g., death of friends from AIDS). This research indicates that HIV-positive women are exposed to multiple stressors; some may be viewed as unique to women, whereas others may be considered common to both sexes. Identification of stressors has implications for the design of medical and psychiatric interventions for women.

  12. Environmental stressors as a driver of the trait composition of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in polluted Iberian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanovic, Maja; Dolédec, Sylvain; de Castro-Catala, Nuria; Ginebreda, Antoni; Sabater, Sergi; Muñoz, Isabel; Barceló, Damià

    2017-07-01

    We used the trait composition of macroinvertebrate communities to identify the effects of pesticides and multiple stressors associated with urban land use at different sites of four rivers in Spain. Several physical and chemical stressors (high metal pollution, nutrients, elevated temperature and flow alterations) affected the urban sites. The occurrence of multiple stressors influenced aquatic assemblages at 50% of the sites. We hypothesized that the trait composition of macroinvertebrate assemblages would reflect the strategies that the assemblages used to cope with the respective environmental stressors. We used RLQ and fourth corner analysis to address the relationship between stressors and the trait composition of benthic macroinvertebrates. We found a statistically significant relationship between the trait composition and the exposure of assemblages to environmental stressors. The first RLQ dimension, which explained most of the variability, clearly separated sites according to the stressors. Urban-related stressors selected taxa that were mainly plurivoltine and fed on deposits. In contrast, pesticide impacted sites selected taxa with high levels of egg protection (better egg survival), indicating a potentially higher risk for egg mortality. Moreover, the trait diversity of assemblages at urban sites was low compared to that observed in pesticide impacted sites, suggesting the homogenization of assemblages in urban areas. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of assessment in enhancing the vocational success of people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, R T

    1996-01-01

    The person/environment or ecological perspective on vocational evaluation provides a comprehensive assessment strategy for people with multiple sclerosis. The ecological model requires assessment of both personal variables such as rehabilitation outlook and MS symptoms and environmental variables such as barriers to workplace accessibility and performance of essential job functions. Measures of person and environment constructs are presented as are applications of the resulting information in vocational counseling and disability management services.

  14. Assessment of the Needs of People With Multiple Sclerosis in Khuzestan Province, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Gohar Pey

    2016-09-01

    Discussion: In order to meet the needs of people with multiple sclerosis in Khuzestan province, attempts should be made by planners and authorities to fix the therapeutic, rehabilitation, and financial issues at first, followed by the issues of affordable housing. Appropriate measures should be implemented for the success of these programs, and proper assessments of its functionality should be done in a periodic manner.

  15. Integration and Assessment of Multiple Mobile Manipulators in a Real-World Industrial Production Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Simon; Schou, Casper; Rühr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale research experiment carried out within the TAPAS project, where multiple mobile manipulators were integrated and assessed in an industrial context. We consider an industrial scenario in which mobile manipulators naturally extend automation of logistic tasks towar...

  16. A Particle Swarm Optimization Approach to Composing Serial Test Sheets for Multiple Assessment Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng-Yeng; Chang, Kuang-Cheng; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hwang, Gwo-Haur; Chan, Ying

    2006-01-01

    To accurately analyze the problems of students in learning, the composed test sheets must meet multiple assessment criteria, such as the ratio of relevant concepts to be evaluated, the average discrimination degree, difficulty degree and estimated testing time. Furthermore, to precisely evaluate the improvement of student's learning performance…

  17. Transgenerational exposure of North Atlantic bivalves to ocean acidification renders offspring more vulnerable to low pH and additional stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Andrew W; Gobler, Christopher J

    2017-09-12

    While early life-stage marine bivalves are vulnerable to ocean acidification, effects over successive generations are poorly characterized. The objective of this work was to assess the transgenerational effects of ocean acidification on two species of North Atlantic bivalve shellfish, Mercenaria mercenaria and Argopecten irradians. Adults of both species were subjected to high and low pCO 2 conditions during gametogenesis. Resultant larvae were exposed to low and ambient pH conditions in addition to multiple, additional stressors including thermal stress, food-limitation, and exposure to a harmful alga. There were no indications of transgenerational acclimation to ocean acidification during experiments. Offspring of elevated pCO 2 -treatment adults were significantly more vulnerable to acidification as well as the additional stressors. Our results suggest that clams and scallops are unlikely to acclimate to ocean acidification over short time scales and that as coastal oceans continue to acidify, negative effects on these populations may become compounded and more severe.

  18. Interactions among ecosystem stressors and their importance in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Emily S.; Brown, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between multiple ecosystem stressors are expected to jeopardize biological processes, functions and biodiversity. The scientific community has declared stressor interactions—notably synergies—a key issue for conservation and management. Here, we review ecological literature over the past four decades to evaluate trends in the reporting of ecological interactions (synergies, antagonisms and additive effects) and highlight the implications and importance to conservation. Despite increasing popularity, and ever-finer terminologies, we find that synergies are (still) not the most prevalent type of interaction, and that conservation practitioners need to appreciate and manage for all interaction outcomes, including antagonistic and additive effects. However, it will not be possible to identify the effect of every interaction on every organism's physiology and every ecosystem function because the number of stressors, and their potential interactions, are growing rapidly. Predicting the type of interactions may be possible in the near-future, using meta-analyses, conservation-oriented experiments and adaptive monitoring. Pending a general framework for predicting interactions, conservation management should enact interventions that are robust to uncertainty in interaction type and that continue to bolster biological resilience in a stressful world. PMID:26865306

  19. The Effects of Daily Co-Occurrence of Affect on Older Adults’ Reactivity to Health Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer L.; Neupert, Shevaun D.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Spiro, Avron

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study examined age differences among older adults in the daily co-occurrence of affect and its potential role in buffering the negative effects of health stressors. Design Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (NAS) and included 249 young-old adults (age = 60–79 years, M=71.6) and 64 old-old adults (age = 80–89, M = 82.9) who completed questionnaires assessing stressors, physical health symptoms, and positive and negative affect on eight consecutive days. Results An independent samples t-test showed young-old and old-old adults did not significantly differ in their mean levels of daily co-occurrence of affect. The between-person relationships among stressors, health, and daily co-occurrence of affect revealed that neither stressors nor health were significantly related to daily co-occurrence of affect. However, results from a multilevel model revealed a three-way cross-level interaction (Health Stressor X Age Group X Co-Occurrence of Affect) where old-old adults with higher levels of co-occurrence of affect were less emotionally reactive to health stressors than young-old adults. Conclusion These findings provide support for the assertion that co-occurrence of affect functions in an adaptive capacity and highlight the importance of examining domain specific stressors. PMID:26518259

  20. The effects of daily co-occurrence of affect on older adults' reactivity to health stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer L; Neupert, Shevaun D; Mroczek, Daniel K; Spiro, Avron

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined age differences among older adults in the daily co-occurrence of affect and its potential role in buffering the negative effects of health stressors. Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study and included 249 young-old adults (age = 60-79 years, M = 71.6) and 64 old-old adults (age = 80-89, M = 82.9) who completed questionnaires assessing stressors, physical health symptoms, and positive and negative affect for eight consecutive days. An independent samples t-test showed young-old and old-old adults did not significantly differ in their mean levels of daily co-occurrence of affect. The between-person relationships among stressors, health and daily co-occurrence of affect revealed that neither stressors nor health were significantly related to daily co-occurrence of affect. However, results from a multilevel model revealed a three-way cross-level interaction (health stressor × age group × co-occurrence of affect) where old-old adults with higher levels of co-occurrence of affect were less emotionally reactive to health stressors than young-old adults. These findings provide support for the assertion that co-occurrence of affect functions in an adaptive capacity and highlight the importance of examining domain-specific stressors.

  1. Advanced digital I ampersand C systems in nuclear power plants: Risk- sensitivities to environmental stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.; Vesely, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Microprocessor-based advanced digital systems are being used for upgrading analog instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. A concern with using such advanced systems for safety-related applications in NPPs is the limited experience with this equipment in these environments. In this study, we investigate the risk effects of environmental stressors by quantifying the plant's risk-sensitivities to them. The risk- sensitivities are changes in plant risk caused by the stressors, and are quantified by estimating their effects on I ampersand C failure occurrences and the consequent increase in risk in terms of core damage frequency (CDF). We used available data, including military and NPP operating experience, on the effects of environmental stressors on the reliability of digital I ampersand C equipment. The methods developed are applied to determine and compare risk-sensitivities to temperature, humidity, vibration, EMI (electromagnetic interference) from lightning and smoke as stressors in an example plant using a PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment). Uncertainties in the estimates of the stressor effects on the equipment's reliability are expressed in terms of ranges for risk-sensitivities. The results show that environmental stressors potentially can cause a significant increase in I ampersand C contributions to the CDF. Further, considerable variations can be expected in some stressor effects, depending on where the equipment is located

  2. Psychosocial stressors at work and musculoskeletal problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.; Smulders, P.G.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Objectives - This paper examines the relationship between work stressors and the following health indicators: psychosomatic complaints, health behavior, and musculoskeletal problems. Methods - Secondary analyses were performed on data from the National Work and Living Condition Survey, which

  3. Interaction of 5-HTTLPR and Idiographic Stressors Predicts Prospective Depressive Symptoms Specifically among Youth in a Multiwave Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Jenness, Jessica; Abela, John R. Z.; Smolen, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    5-HTTLPR, episodic stressors, depressive and anxious symptoms were assessed prospectively (child and parent report) every 3 months over 1 year (5 waves of data) among community youth ages 9 to 15 (n = 220). Lagged hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed 5-HTTLPR interacted with idiographic stressors (increases relative to the child's own…

  4. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors - Stressors in ERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  5. Comparison between Two Assessment Methods; Modified Essay Questions and Multiple Choice Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assadi S.N.* MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims Using the best assessment methods is an important factor in educational development of health students. Modified essay questions and multiple choice questions are two prevalent methods of assessing the students. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of modified essay questions and multiple choice questions in occupational health engineering and work laws courses. Materials & Methods This semi-experimental study was performed during 2013 to 2014 on occupational health students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The class of occupational health and work laws course in 2013 was considered as group A and the class of 2014 as group B. Each group had 50 students.The group A students were assessed by modified essay questions method and the group B by multiple choice questions method.Data were analyzed in SPSS 16 software by paired T test and odd’s ratio. Findings The mean grade of occupational health and work laws course was 18.68±0.91 in group A (modified essay questions and was 18.78±0.86 in group B (multiple choice questions which was not significantly different (t=-0.41; p=0.684. The mean grade of chemical chapter (p<0.001 in occupational health engineering and harmful work law (p<0.001 and other (p=0.015 chapters in work laws were significantly different between two groups. Conclusion Modified essay questions and multiple choice questions methods have nearly the same student assessing value for the occupational health engineering and work laws course.

  6. The contribution of work and non-work stressors to common mental disorders in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C.; Pike, C.; McManus, S.; Harris, J.; Bebbington, P.; Brugha, T.; Jenkins, R.; Meltzer, H.; Weich, S.; Stansfeld, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence for an effect of work stressors on common mental disorders (CMD) has increased over the past decade. However, studies have not considered whether the effects of work stressors on CMD remain after taking co-occurring non-work stressors into account. Method Data were from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a national population survey of participants ⩾16 years living in private households in England. This paper analyses data from employed working age participants (N=3383: 1804 males; 1579 females). ICD-10 diagnoses for depressive episode, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, panic or mixed anxiety and depression in the past week were derived using a structured diagnostic interview. Questionnaires assessed self-reported work stressors and non-work stressors. Results The effects of work stressors on CMD were not explained by co-existing non-work stressors. We found independent effects of work and non-work stressors on CMD. Job stress, whether conceptualized as job strain or effort–reward imbalance, together with lower levels of social support at work, recent stressful life events, domestic violence, caring responsibilities, lower levels of non-work social support, debt and poor housing quality were all independently associated with CMD. Social support at home and debt did not influence the effect of work stressors on CMD. Conclusions Non-work stressors do not appear to make people more susceptible to work stressors; both contribute to CMD. Tackling workplace stress is likely to benefit employee psychological health even if the employee's home life is stressful but interventions incorporating non-work stressors may also be effective. PMID:21896237

  7. The contribution of work and non-work stressors to common mental disorders in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C; Pike, C; McManus, S; Harris, J; Bebbington, P; Brugha, T; Jenkins, R; Meltzer, H; Weich, S; Stansfeld, S

    2012-04-01

    Evidence for an effect of work stressors on common mental disorders (CMD) has increased over the past decade. However, studies have not considered whether the effects of work stressors on CMD remain after taking co-occurring non-work stressors into account. Data were from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a national population survey of participants 6 years living in private households in England. This paper analyses data from employed working age participants (N=3383: 1804 males; 1579 females). ICD-10 diagnoses for depressive episode, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, panic or mixed anxiety and depression in the past week were derived using a structured diagnostic interview. Questionnaires assessed self-reported work stressors and non-work stressors. The effects of work stressors on CMD were not explained by co-existing non-work stressors. We found independent effects of work and non-work stressors on CMD. Job stress, whether conceptualized as job strain or effort-reward imbalance, together with lower levels of social support at work, recent stressful life events, domestic violence, caring responsibilities, lower levels of non-work social support, debt and poor housing quality were all independently associated with CMD. Social support at home and debt did not influence the effect of work stressors on CMD. Non-work stressors do not appear to make people more susceptible to work stressors; both contribute to CMD. Tackling workplace stress is likely to benefit employee psychological health even if the employee's home life is stressful but interventions incorporating non-work stressors may also be effective.

  8. Shift work as an oxidative stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasalar Parvin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some medical disorders have higher prevalence in shift workers than others. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of night-shift-working on total plasma antioxidant capacity, with respect to the causative role of oxidative stress in induction of some of these disorders. Methods Two blood samples were taken from 44 workers with a rotational shift schedule, one after their day shift and one after their night shift. The total plasma antioxidant capacity of each worker was measured through the FRAP method. The impacts of age and weight were also assessed. Results The total plasma antioxidant capacity was measured in 44 shift-workers with a mean age of 36.57 years (SD: 10.18 and mean BMI of 26.06 (SD: 4.37 after their day and night shifts. The mean reduction of total plasma antioxidant capacity after the night shift was 105.8 μmol/L (SD: 146.39. Also, a significant correlation was shown between age and weight and total plasma antioxidant capacity. Age and weight were found to be inversely related to total plasma antioxidant capacity; as age and weight increased, the total plasma antioxidant capacity decreased. Conclusion Shift work can act as an oxidative stressor and may induce many medical disorders. Aging and obesity in shift workers makes them more sensitive to this hazardous effect.

  9. Are Leadership Fairness, Psychological Distress, and Role Stressors Interrelated? A Two-Wave Prospective Study of Forward and Reverse Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten B. Nielsen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available While previous research has mainly considered leadership as an antecedent to psychological distress and role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict among subordinates, a reverse relationship where these variables influence reports of leadership is also possible. To determine the directionality of the associations this two-wave prospective study assesses bidirectional relationships between fair leadership and role stressors and examines whether psychological distress mediates the reciprocal associations between fair leadership and the role stressors. Analyses were conducted in a sample of 6,790 Norwegian employees with a 2-year time-lag between measurement points. Fair leadership was associated with lower stability adjusted role ambiguity, but not role conflict, over time. Role conflict, but not role ambiguity, was related to subsequent reports of the immediate leader as less fair. Psychological distress did neither mediate the relationship between fair leadership and subsequent reports of role stressors, nor the association between role stressors and subsequent reports of fair leadership. The findings suggest that the fair leadership – role stressor association is not a one-directional process, but that exposure to role stressors also influence subordinates’ perceptions of leadership. An implication of the findings is that theoretical models of organizational leadership should include this reverse impact of role stressors. To reduce the effects of role stressors, organizations could set consistent, clear and attractive goals and provide employees with necessary information for conducting their work tasks in order to help workers understand and master their roles at the workplace.

  10. Are Leadership Fairness, Psychological Distress, and Role Stressors Interrelated? A Two-Wave Prospective Study of Forward and Reverse Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten B; Christensen, Jan O; Finne, Live B; Knardahl, Stein

    2018-01-01

    While previous research has mainly considered leadership as an antecedent to psychological distress and role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) among subordinates, a reverse relationship where these variables influence reports of leadership is also possible. To determine the directionality of the associations this two-wave prospective study assesses bidirectional relationships between fair leadership and role stressors and examines whether psychological distress mediates the reciprocal associations between fair leadership and the role stressors. Analyses were conducted in a sample of 6,790 Norwegian employees with a 2-year time-lag between measurement points. Fair leadership was associated with lower stability adjusted role ambiguity, but not role conflict, over time. Role conflict, but not role ambiguity, was related to subsequent reports of the immediate leader as less fair. Psychological distress did neither mediate the relationship between fair leadership and subsequent reports of role stressors, nor the association between role stressors and subsequent reports of fair leadership. The findings suggest that the fair leadership - role stressor association is not a one-directional process, but that exposure to role stressors also influence subordinates' perceptions of leadership. An implication of the findings is that theoretical models of organizational leadership should include this reverse impact of role stressors. To reduce the effects of role stressors, organizations could set consistent, clear and attractive goals and provide employees with necessary information for conducting their work tasks in order to help workers understand and master their roles at the workplace.

  11. Are Leadership Fairness, Psychological Distress, and Role Stressors Interrelated? A Two-Wave Prospective Study of Forward and Reverse Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten B.; Christensen, Jan O.; Finne, Live B.; Knardahl, Stein

    2018-01-01

    While previous research has mainly considered leadership as an antecedent to psychological distress and role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) among subordinates, a reverse relationship where these variables influence reports of leadership is also possible. To determine the directionality of the associations this two-wave prospective study assesses bidirectional relationships between fair leadership and role stressors and examines whether psychological distress mediates the reciprocal associations between fair leadership and the role stressors. Analyses were conducted in a sample of 6,790 Norwegian employees with a 2-year time-lag between measurement points. Fair leadership was associated with lower stability adjusted role ambiguity, but not role conflict, over time. Role conflict, but not role ambiguity, was related to subsequent reports of the immediate leader as less fair. Psychological distress did neither mediate the relationship between fair leadership and subsequent reports of role stressors, nor the association between role stressors and subsequent reports of fair leadership. The findings suggest that the fair leadership – role stressor association is not a one-directional process, but that exposure to role stressors also influence subordinates’ perceptions of leadership. An implication of the findings is that theoretical models of organizational leadership should include this reverse impact of role stressors. To reduce the effects of role stressors, organizations could set consistent, clear and attractive goals and provide employees with necessary information for conducting their work tasks in order to help workers understand and master their roles at the workplace. PMID:29467702

  12. The impact of sport related stressors on immunity and illness risk in team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaney, Lauren C; Kilding, Andrew E; Merien, Fabrice; Dulson, Deborah K

    2018-06-19

    Elite team-sport athletes are frequently exposed to stressors that have the potential to depress immunity and increase infection risk. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to describe how team-sport stressors impact upon immune responses, along with exploring whether alterations in these markers have the potential to predict upper respiratory tract illness symptoms. Narrative review. Salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and T-cell markers have been shown to predict infection risk in individual endurance athletes. Papers discussing the impact of team-sport stressors on SIgA and T-cells were discussed in the review, studies discussing other aspects of immunity were excluded. Journal articles were sourced from PubMed, Web of science and Scopus. Key search terms included team-sport athletes, stressors, immunity, T-cells, cytokines, SIgA and upper respiratory illness. Most team-sport stressors appear to increase risk for illness. An association between reduced SIgA and increased illness incidence has been demonstrated. Intensive training and competition periods have been shown to reduce SIgA, however, it is less clear how additional stressors including extreme environmental conditions, travel, psychological stress, sleep disturbance and poor nutrition affect immune responses. Monitoring SIgA may provide an assessment of a team-sport athletes risk status for developing upper respiratory tract symptoms, however there is currently not enough evidence to suggest SIgA alone can predict illness. Team-sport stressors challenge immunity and it is possible that the combination of stressors could have a compounding effect on immunodepression and infection risk. Given that illness can disrupt training and performance, further research is required to better elucidate how stressors individually and collectively influence immunity and illness. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cumulative health risk assessment: integrated approaches for multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, Glenn; Teuschler, Linda; MacDonel, Margaret; Butler, Jim; Finster, Molly; Hertzberg, Rick; Harou, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: As information about environmental contamination has increased in recent years, so has public interest in the combined effects of multiple contaminants. This interest has been highlighted by recent tragedies such as the World Trade Center disaster and hurricane Katrina. In fact, assessing multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects has long been an issue for contaminated sites, including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) legacy waste sites. Local citizens have explicitly asked the federal government to account for cumulative risks, with contaminants moving offsite via groundwater flow, surface runoff, and air dispersal being a common emphasis. Multiple exposures range from ingestion and inhalation to dermal absorption and external gamma irradiation. Three types of concerns can lead to cumulative assessments: (1) specific sources or releases - e.g., industrial facilities or accidental discharges; (2) contaminant levels - in environmental media or human tissues; and (3) elevated rates of disease - e.g., asthma or cancer. The specific initiator frames the assessment strategy, including a determination of appropriate models to be used. Approaches are being developed to better integrate a variety of data, extending from environmental to internal co-location of contaminants and combined effects, to support more practical assessments of cumulative health risks. (authors)

  14. Stressor experience negatively affects life satisfaction in adolescents: the positive role of sense of coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moksnes, Unni K; Haugan, G

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between different normative stressors, sense of coherence and life satisfaction separately for gender in Norwegian adolescents. The interaction effect of stress by sense of coherence in relation to life satisfaction was also investigated. The data are based on a cross-sectional sample of 1239 adolescents (13-18 years) from public elementary and secondary schools in Central Norway. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between stressors, sense of coherence and life satisfaction, separately for gender. The results showed significant differences between genders, where boys reported higher scores than girls on sense of coherence and life satisfaction, whereas girls scored higher than boys on five of seven stressor domains. All stressors were significantly and inversely associated with life satisfaction in both genders; however, all associations were stronger for girls compared to boys. Sense of coherence showed a significant strong and positive association with life satisfaction, controlled for age and each individual stressor. A significant although weak interaction effect of stress related to romantic relationships by sense of coherence was found in association with life satisfaction for boys; the other interaction effects were nonsignificant in both genders. The results give support for a significant unique role of stressor experience and sense of coherence in relation to life satisfaction in both genders during adolescence, where the associations were especially strong in girls.

  15. Identifying Perceived Neighborhood Stressors Across Diverse Communities in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmool, Jessie L C; Yonas, Michael A; Newman, Ogonnaya Dotson; Kubzansky, Laura D; Joseph, Evelyn; Parks, Ana; Callaway, Charles; Chubb, Lauren G; Shepard, Peggy; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-09-01

    There is growing interest in the role of psychosocial stress in health disparities. Identifying which social stressors are most important to community residents is critical for accurately incorporating stressor exposures into health research. Using a community-academic partnered approach, we designed a multi-community study across the five boroughs of New York City to characterize resident perceptions of key neighborhood stressors. We conducted 14 community focus groups; two to three in each borough, with one adolescent group and one Spanish-speaking group per borough. We then used systematic content analysis and participant ranking data to describe prominent neighborhood stressors and identify dominant themes. Three inter-related themes regarding the social and structural sources of stressful experiences were most commonly identified across neighborhoods: (1) physical disorder and perceived neglect, (2) harassment by police and perceived safety and (3) gentrification and racial discrimination. Our findings suggest that multiple sources of distress, including social, political, physical and economic factors, should be considered when investigating health effects of community stressor exposures and psychological distress. Community expertise is essential for comprehensively characterizing the range of neighborhood stressors that may be implicated in psychosocial exposure pathways.

  16. Comparing strategies to assess multiple behavior change in behavioral intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bettina F; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Sapp, Amy L; Li, Yi; Harley, Amy E; Emmons, Karen M; Sorensen, Glorian

    2013-03-01

    Alternatives to individual behavior change methods have been proposed, however, little has been done to investigate how these methods compare. To explore four methods that quantify change in multiple risk behaviors targeting four common behaviors. We utilized data from two cluster-randomized, multiple behavior change trials conducted in two settings: small businesses and health centers. Methods used were: (1) summative; (2) z-score; (3) optimal linear combination; and (4) impact score. In the Small Business study, methods 2 and 3 revealed similar outcomes. However, physical activity did not contribute to method 3. In the Health Centers study, similar results were found with each of the methods. Multivitamin intake contributed significantly more to each of the summary measures than other behaviors. Selection of methods to assess multiple behavior change in intervention trials must consider study design, and the targeted population when determining the appropriate method/s to use.

  17. Robustness Assessment of Urban Road Network with Consideration of Multiple Hazard Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaoming; Sheu, Jiuh-Biing; Wang, Junwei

    2017-08-01

    Robustness measures a system's ability of being insensitive to disturbances. Previous studies assessed the robustness of transportation networks to a single disturbance without considering simultaneously happening multiple events. The purpose of this article is to address this problem and propose a new framework to assess the robustness of an urban transportation network. The framework consists of two layers. The upper layer is to define the robustness index based on the impact evaluation in different scenarios obtained from the lower layer, whereas the lower layer is to evaluate the performance of each hypothetical disrupted road network given by the upper layer. The upper layer has two varieties, that is, robustness against random failure and robustness against intentional attacks. This robustness measurement framework is validated by application to a real-world urban road network in Hong Kong. The results show that the robustness of a transport network with consideration of multiple events is quite different from and more comprehensive than that with consideration of only a single disruption. We also propose a Monte Carlo method and a heuristic algorithm to handle different scenarios with multiple hazard events, which is proved to be quite efficient. This methodology can also be applied to conduct risk analysis of other systems where multiple failures or disruptions exist. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Effects on alcohol use and anxiety of the September 11, 2001, attacks and chronic work stressors: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Judith A; Wislar, Joseph S; Flaherty, Joseph A; Fendrich, Michael; Rospenda, Kathleen M

    2004-11-01

    We hypothesized that chronic stressors associated with an everyday social role (work) would interact with a traumatic macrosocial stressor (the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001) in predicting mental health status (during the fall of 2001). We used mail surveys returned as part of wave 3 of a workplace cohort study, both before and after September 11, 2001, to assess decision latitude, sexual harassment, generalized workplace abuse, psychological distress, and alcohol use. We also used regression analyses to assess the main effect of September 11 and interactions between September 11 and stressors, after control for baseline mental health. The main effect of September 11 on elevated alcohol use was significant for women but not for men. For women, work stressors significantly interacted with experiencing the events of September 11 to affect alcohol use and anxiety outcomes. Women experiencing chronic work stressors were most vulnerable to elevated psychological distress and alcohol use after September 11, 2001.

  19. Police work stressors and cardiac vagal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Michael E; Violanti, John M; Gu, Ja K; Fekedulegn, Desta; Li, Shengqiao; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Miller, Diane B; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2017-09-10

    This study examines relationships between the frequency and intensity of police work stressors and cardiac vagal control, estimated using the high frequency component of heart rate variability (HRV). This is a cross-sectional study of 360 officers from the Buffalo New York Police Department. Police stress was measured using the Spielberger police stress survey, which includes exposure indices created as the product of the self-evaluation of how stressful certain events were and the self-reported frequency with which they occurred. Vagal control was estimated using the high frequency component of resting HRV calculated in units of milliseconds squared and reported in natural log scale. Associations between police work stressors and vagal control were examined using linear regression for significance testing and analysis of covariance for descriptive purposes, stratified by gender, and adjusted for age and race/ethnicity. There were no significant associations between police work stressor exposure indices and vagal control among men. Among women, the inverse associations between the lack of support stressor exposure and vagal control were statistically significant in adjusted models for indices of exposure over the past year (lowest stressor quartile: M = 5.57, 95% CI 5.07 to 6.08, and highest stressor quartile: M = 5.02, 95% CI 4.54 to 5.51, test of association from continuous linear regression of vagal control on lack of support stressor β = -0.273, P = .04). This study supports an inverse association between lack of organizational support and vagal control among female but not male police officers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Development and validity of mathematical learning assessment instruments based on multiple intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmiah Suryani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to develop and produce an assessment instrument of mathematical learning results based on multiple intelligence. The methods in this study used Borg & Gall-Research and Development approach (Research & Development. The subject of research was 289 students. The results of research: (1 Result of Aiken Analysis showed 58 valid items were between 0,714 to 0,952. (2 Result of the Exploratory on factor analysis indicated the instrument consist of three factors i.e. mathematical logical intelligence-spatial intelligence-and linguistic intelligence. KMO value was 0.661 df 0.780 sig. 0.000 with valid category. This research succeeded to developing the assessment instrument of mathematical learning results based on multiple intelligence of second grade in elementary school with characteristics of logical intelligence of mathematics, spatial intelligence, and linguistic intelligence.

  1. Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preacher, Kristopher J; Hayes, Andrew F

    2008-08-01

    Hypotheses involving mediation are common in the behavioral sciences. Mediation exists when a predictor affects a dependent variable indirectly through at least one intervening variable, or mediator. Methods to assess mediation involving multiple simultaneous mediators have received little attention in the methodological literature despite a clear need. We provide an overview of simple and multiple mediation and explore three approaches that can be used to investigate indirect processes, as well as methods for contrasting two or more mediators within a single model. We present an illustrative example, assessing and contrasting potential mediators of the relationship between the helpfulness of socialization agents and job satisfaction. We also provide SAS and SPSS macros, as well as Mplus and LISREL syntax, to facilitate the use of these methods in applications.

  2. An Assessment of "Sustainable Competitive Advantage" for Artex Limited, within the UK DIY Multiple Market Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Craig Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Synopsis This dissertation critically examines the business of Artex Limited and the industry that it operates within, in the context of serving the UK DIY multiple market, a sector that the company is highly reliant on from a turnover and profit perspective. Through the practical application of a number of strategic assessment frameworks, and in conjunction with a study of the relevant literature, the principle objective is to test for empirical evidence of competitive advantage within ...

  3. [Assessment of the pain patients with the multiple sclerosis after applying the physiotherapy treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubsik, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Robert; Klimkiewicz, Paulina; Janczewska, Katarzyna; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Łukasiak, Adam; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis is one of the most common demyelinating disease of the CNS connected with the autoimmune action. The effect of the disease is progressive disability, and one of the symptoms is pain. In relieving pain in the course of MS physical procedures and exercises of physiotherapy are used. The aim of the study was assessment of the pain in patients with the multiple sclerosis after applying laser radiation, magnetostimulation and kinesiotherapy. The studied material was consisted of 120 patients with multiple sclerosis of both sexes (82 women and 38 men) aged 21-81 years. Patients were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups and the assesment was performed three times. In the first group laser therapy, in the group II laser and magnetostimulation, in the third group kinesiotherapy, in the fourth group magnetostimulation was used. The same program of physiotherapy in all groups was used. All patients were performed the following tests to assess of the pain: The Laitinen Modified Questionnaire Indicators of Pain of and the Visual- Analogue Scale (VAS). In all treatment groups was observed tends to decrease a result of a point in The Laitinen Modified Questionnaire Indicators of Pain and the Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS). Correlation between groups demonstrated statistically significant result on the level ptreatment was applied towards group II assessed with parameter of the Questionnaire of Pain according to Laitinen, as well as towards group II and III assessed with parameter - of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The good result, i.e. the reduction of the spot value, after the III examination towards the preliminary examination were got in the group II. Laser radiation is an effective method which has an analgesisc action. The combination of laser radiation and magnetostimulation reduces pain in patients with multiple sclerosis, and also allows to maintain a therapeutic effect even after the cessation of the application of these procedures, which indicates

  4. Identifying Stressors and Reactions to Stressors in Gifted and Non-Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Marzieh

    2005-01-01

    Using the Student Life Stress Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, stressors and reactions to stressors were identified in gifted high school students and compared with non-gifted students. Altogether, 340 boys and girls (156 gifted and 184 non-gifted students) from four high schools in Shiraz (two high schools for gifted and two…

  5. Assessment and monitoring of patients receiving chemotherapy for multiple myeloma: strategies to improve outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiman B

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Beth Faiman, Jason Valent Department of Hematologic Oncology and Blood Disorders, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: Improved understanding as to the biology of multiple myeloma (MM and the bone marrow microenvironment has led to the development of new drugs to treat MM. This explosion of new and highly effective drugs has led to dramatic advances in the management of MM and underscores the need for supportive care. Impressive and deep response rates to chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, and small molecule drugs provide hope of a cure or prolonged remission for the majority of individuals. For most patients, long-term, continuous therapy is often required to suppress the malignant plasma cell clone, thus requiring clinicians to become more astute in assessment, monitoring, and intervention of side effects as well as monitoring response to therapy. Appropriate diagnosis and monitoring strategies are essential to ensure that patients receive the appropriate chemotherapy and supportive therapy at relapse, and that side effects are appropriately managed to allow for continued therapy and adherence to the regimen. Multiple drugs with complex regimens are currently available with varying side effect profiles. Knowledge of the drugs used to treat MM and the common adverse events will allow for preventative strategies to mitigate adverse events and prompt intervention. The purpose of this paper is to review updates in the diagnosis and management of MM, and to provide strategies for assessment and monitoring of patients receiving chemotherapy for MM. Keywords: multiple myeloma, treatment, symptoms, assessment, monitoring, symptom management, targeted therapies

  6. A method of risk assessment for a multi-plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.F.

    1983-06-01

    A model is presented which can be used in conjunction with probabilistic risk assessment to estimate whether a site on which there are several plants (reactors or chemical plants containing radioactive materials) meets whatever risk acceptance criteria or numerical risk guidelines are applied at the time of the assessment in relation to various groups of people and for various sources of risk. The application of the multi-plant site model to the direct and inverse methods of risk assessment is described. A method is proposed by which the potential hazard rating associated with a given plant can be quantified so that an appropriate allocation can be made when assessing the risks associated with each of the plants on a site. (author)

  7. Life cycle based dynamic assessment coupled with multiple criteria decision analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohn, Joshua; Kalbar, Pradip; Birkved, Morten

    2017-01-01

    the service life of the building. This case study uses both the established and the coupled MCDA assessment methods to quantify and assess the balance of impacts between the production of mineral wool insulation versus the production of space heat. The use of TOPSIS method for calculating single scores......This work looks at coupling Life cycle assessment (LCA) with a dynamic inventory and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to improve the validity and reliability of single score results for complex systems. This is done using the case study of a representative Danish single family home over...... not matter which impact assessment is applied. However, for the scenarios where other impact categories vary inversely or independently from the climate change impact indicator, such as with renewable energy production, there is need for a more unconventional method, such as the TOPSIS method...

  8. How general practitioners perceive and assess self-care in patients with multiple chronic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Aage Toft; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2017-01-01

    in Denmark require GPs and other health care workers to assess and support patients' self-care ability. The aim of the present study was to explore GPs' perceptions and assessment of self-care ability in patients with multiple chronic conditions who have difficulty following a given treatment. METHODS...... text condensation. RESULTS: Most GPs in our study had a health-related perception of self-care, but some had a broader perception encompassing the situational context of the patient's life. The GPs' assessments of patients' self-care ability were based on information from the ongoing and often long...... and do not consider whether a relationship with the patient is established. If GPs' perceptions and assessments of self-care ability are not included in chronic disease management models, there is a risk that they vill be insufficiently implemented in general practice....

  9. Multiple-stressor impacts on Spartina alterniflora and Distichlis spicata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt marshes are subject to an array of environmental changes that have the potential to alter community structure and function. Manipulative experiments often study environmental changes in isolation, although changes may interactively affect plant and ecosystem response. We rep...

  10. Assessing regional groundwater stress for nations using multiple data sources with the groundwater footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater is a critical resource for agricultural production, ecosystems, drinking water and industry, yet groundwater depletion is accelerating, especially in a number of agriculturally important regions. Assessing the stress of groundwater resources is crucial for science-based policy and management, yet water stress assessments have often neglected groundwater and used single data sources, which may underestimate the uncertainty of the assessment. We consistently analyze and interpret groundwater stress across whole nations using multiple data sources for the first time. We focus on two nations with the highest national groundwater abstraction rates in the world, the United States and India, and use the recently developed groundwater footprint and multiple datasets of groundwater recharge and withdrawal derived from hydrologic models and data synthesis. A minority of aquifers, mostly with known groundwater depletion, show groundwater stress regardless of the input dataset. The majority of aquifers are not stressed with any input data while less than a third are stressed for some input data. In both countries groundwater stress affects agriculturally important regions. In the United States, groundwater stress impacts a lower proportion of the national area and population, and is focused in regions with lower population and water well density compared to India. Importantly, the results indicate that the uncertainty is generally greater between datasets than within datasets and that much of the uncertainty is due to recharge estimates. Assessment of groundwater stress consistently across a nation and assessment of uncertainty using multiple datasets are critical for the development of a science-based rationale for policy and management, especially with regard to where and to what extent to focus limited research and management resources. (letter)

  11. Managing aquatic ecosystems and water resources under multiple stress--an introduction to the MARS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Daniel; Carvalho, Laurence; Argillier, Christine; Beklioglu, Meryem; Borja, Angel; Cardoso, Ana Cristina; Duel, Harm; Ferreira, Teresa; Globevnik, Lidija; Hanganu, Jenica; Hellsten, Seppo; Jeppesen, Erik; Kodeš, Vit; Solheim, Anne Lyche; Nõges, Tiina; Ormerod, Steve; Panagopoulos, Yiannis; Schmutz, Stefan; Venohr, Markus; Birk, Sebastian

    2015-01-15

    Water resources globally are affected by a complex mixture of stressors resulting from a range of drivers, including urban and agricultural land use, hydropower generation and climate change. Understanding how stressors interfere and impact upon ecological status and ecosystem services is essential for developing effective River Basin Management Plans and shaping future environmental policy. This paper details the nature of these problems for Europe's water resources and the need to find solutions at a range of spatial scales. In terms of the latter, we describe the aims and approaches of the EU-funded project MARS (Managing Aquatic ecosystems and water Resources under multiple Stress) and the conceptual and analytical framework that it is adopting to provide this knowledge, understanding and tools needed to address multiple stressors. MARS is operating at three scales: At the water body scale, the mechanistic understanding of stressor interactions and their impact upon water resources, ecological status and ecosystem services will be examined through multi-factorial experiments and the analysis of long time-series. At the river basin scale, modelling and empirical approaches will be adopted to characterise relationships between multiple stressors and ecological responses, functions, services and water resources. The effects of future land use and mitigation scenarios in 16 European river basins will be assessed. At the European scale, large-scale spatial analysis will be carried out to identify the relationships amongst stress intensity, ecological status and service provision, with a special focus on large transboundary rivers, lakes and fish. The project will support managers and policy makers in the practical implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), of related legislation and of the Blueprint to Safeguard Europe's Water Resources by advising the 3rd River Basin Management Planning cycle, the revision of the WFD and by developing new tools for

  12. Impacts of pesticides and natural stressors on leaf litter decomposition in agricultural streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    shredding activity was governed by the density of shredders, and the density of shredders was not correlated to pesticide contamination mainly due to high abundances of the amphipod Gammarus pulex at all sites. Our study provides the ¿rst ¿eld based results on the importance of multiple stressors...

  13. Work Social Supports, Role Stressors, and Work-Family Conflict: The Moderating Effect of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Russell A.; Bulger, Carrie A.; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined whether important distinctions are masked if participant age is ignored when modeling relationships among constructs associated with the work-family interface. An initial omnibus model of social support, work role stressors, and work-family conflict was tested. Multiple groups analyses were then conducted to investigate…

  14. Base Isolation for Seismic Retrofitting of a Multiple Building Structure: Design, Construction, and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Ferraioli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the seismic retrofit of a multiple building structure belonging to the Hospital Centre of Avellino (Italy. At first, the paper presents the preliminary investigations, the in situ measurements and laboratory tests, and the seismic assessment of the existing fixed-base structures. Having studied different strategies, base isolation proved to be the more appropriate, also for the possibility offered by the geometry of the building to easily create an isolation interface at the ground level. The paper presents the design project, the construction process, and the details of the isolation intervention. Some specific issues of base isolation for seismic retrofitting of multiple building structures were lightened. Finally, the seismic assessment of the base-isolated building was carried out. The seismic response was evaluated through nonlinear time-history analysis, using the well-known Bouc-Wen model as the constitutive law of the isolation bearings. For reliable dynamic analyses, a suite of natural accelerograms compatible with acceleration spectra of Italian Code was first selected and then applied along both horizontal directions. The results were finally used to address some of the critical issues of the seismic response of the base-isolated multiple building structure: accidental torsional effects and potential poundings during strong earthquakes.

  15. Assessment of Early Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Clinically Isolated Syndromes and Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Baysal Kıraç

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency and pattern of cognitive impairment in patients with clinically isolated syndromes and definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis within the last 2 years. Methods. We assessed the cognitive status of 46 patients aged 18–49 years with clinically isolated syndromes or definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis who have onset of their symptoms within the last 2 years. Patients were matched with 40 healthy participants for age, sex, and educational level. Neuropsychological assessment was performed by stroop test, paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT, controlled oral word association test (COWAT, clock drawing test, trail making test (TMT, faces symbol test (FST. Hamilton Depression Scale and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale were used to quantify the severity of any depression and fatigue the subjects might suffer. Results. 19.6% of early MS/CIS group failed at 4 and more tests and had significant cognitive impairment focused on attention, executive functions, memory, and learning. No significant relationship was found between cognitive impairment and disability and fatigue scores. Discussion. Cognitive impairment can be present from the earliest stage of multiple sclerosis. It should be considered among the main manifestations of MS even in the earliest stages of the disease.

  16. Assessment of Different Metal Screw Joint Parameters by Using Multiple Criteria Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Čereška

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compares screw joints made of different materials, including screws of different diameters. For that purpose, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 mm diameter steel screws and various parts made of aluminum (Al, steel (Stl, bronze (Brz, cast iron (CI, copper (Cu and brass (Br are considered. Multiple criteria decision making (MCDM methods such as evaluation based on distance from average solution (EDAS, simple additive weighting (SAW, technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS and complex proportional assessment (COPRAS are utilized to assess reliability of screw joints also considering cost issues. The entropy, criterion impact loss (CILOS and integrated determination of objective criteria weights (IDOCRIW methods are utilized to assess weights of decision criteria and find the best design alternative. Numerical results confirm the validity of the proposed approach.

  17. Statistical approaches to assessing single and multiple outcome measures in dry eye therapy and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Alan; Hair, Mario; McFadyen, Angus

    2013-10-01

    Dry eye is a multifactorial disease which would require a broad spectrum of test measures in the monitoring of its treatment and diagnosis. However, studies have typically reported improvements in individual measures with treatment. Alternative approaches involve multiple, combined outcomes being assessed by different statistical analyses. In order to assess the effect of various statistical approaches to the use of single and combined test measures in dry eye, this review reanalyzed measures from two previous studies (osmolarity, evaporation, tear turnover rate, and lipid film quality). These analyses assessed the measures as single variables within groups, pre- and post-intervention with a lubricant supplement, by creating combinations of these variables and by validating these combinations with the combined sample of data from all groups of dry eye subjects. The effectiveness of single measures and combinations in diagnosis of dry eye was also considered. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Acute thermal stressor increases glucocorticoid response but minimizes testosterone and locomotor performance in the cane toad (Rhinella marina.

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    Edward J Narayan

    Full Text Available Climatic warming is a global problem and acute thermal stressor in particular could be considered as a major stressor for wildlife. Cane toads (Rhinella marina have expanded their range into warmer regions of Australia and they provide a suitable model species to study the sub-lethal impacts of thermal stressor on the endocrine physiology of amphibians. Presently, there is no information to show that exposure to an acute thermal stressor could initiate a physiological stress (glucocorticoid response and secondly, the possible effects on reproductive hormones and performance. Answering these questions is important for understanding the impacts of extreme temperature on amphibians. In this study, we experimented on cane toads from Queensland, Australia by acclimating them to mildly warm temperature (25°C and then exposing to acute temperature treatments of 30°, 35° or 40°C (hypothetical acute thermal stressors. We measured acute changes in the stress hormone corticosterone and the reproductive hormone testosterone using standard capture and handling protocol and quantified the metabolites of both hormones non-invasively using urinary enzyme-immunoassays. Furthermore, we measured performance trait (i.e. righting response score in the control acclimated and the three treatment groups. Corticosterone stress responses increased in all toads during exposure to an acute thermal stressor. Furthermore, exposure to a thermal stressor also decreased testosterone levels in all toads. The duration of the righting response (seconds was longer for toads that were exposed to 40°C than to 30°, 35° or 25°C. The increased corticosterone stress response with increased intensity of the acute thermal stressor suggests that the toads perceived this treatment as a stressor. Furthermore, the results also highlight a potential trade-off with performance and reproductive hormones. Ultimately, exposure acute thermal stressors due to climatic variability could impact

  19. Acute thermal stressor increases glucocorticoid response but minimizes testosterone and locomotor performance in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Climatic warming is a global problem and acute thermal stressor in particular could be considered as a major stressor for wildlife. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) have expanded their range into warmer regions of Australia and they provide a suitable model species to study the sub-lethal impacts of thermal stressor on the endocrine physiology of amphibians. Presently, there is no information to show that exposure to an acute thermal stressor could initiate a physiological stress (glucocorticoid) response and secondly, the possible effects on reproductive hormones and performance. Answering these questions is important for understanding the impacts of extreme temperature on amphibians. In this study, we experimented on cane toads from Queensland, Australia by acclimating them to mildly warm temperature (25°C) and then exposing to acute temperature treatments of 30°, 35° or 40°C (hypothetical acute thermal stressors). We measured acute changes in the stress hormone corticosterone and the reproductive hormone testosterone using standard capture and handling protocol and quantified the metabolites of both hormones non-invasively using urinary enzyme-immunoassays. Furthermore, we measured performance trait (i.e. righting response score) in the control acclimated and the three treatment groups. Corticosterone stress responses increased in all toads during exposure to an acute thermal stressor. Furthermore, exposure to a thermal stressor also decreased testosterone levels in all toads. The duration of the righting response (seconds) was longer for toads that were exposed to 40°C than to 30°, 35° or 25°C. The increased corticosterone stress response with increased intensity of the acute thermal stressor suggests that the toads perceived this treatment as a stressor. Furthermore, the results also highlight a potential trade-off with performance and reproductive hormones. Ultimately, exposure acute thermal stressors due to climatic variability could impact amphibians at

  20. Usability and Acceptability of ASSESS MS: Assessment of Motor Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis Using Depth-Sensing Computer Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Cecily; D'Souza, Marcus; Huckvale, Kit; Dorn, Jonas F; Burggraaff, Jessica; Kamm, Christian Philipp; Steinheimer, Saskia Marie; Kontschieder, Peter; Criminisi, Antonio; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Dahlke, Frank; Kappos, Ludwig; Sellen, Abigail

    2015-06-24

    Sensor-based recordings of human movements are becoming increasingly important for the assessment of motor symptoms in neurological disorders beyond rehabilitative purposes. ASSESS MS is a movement recording and analysis system being developed to automate the classification of motor dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) using depth-sensing computer vision. It aims to provide a more consistent and finer-grained measurement of motor dysfunction than currently possible. To test the usability and acceptability of ASSESS MS with health professionals and patients with MS. A prospective, mixed-methods study was carried out at 3 centers. After a 1-hour training session, a convenience sample of 12 health professionals (6 neurologists and 6 nurses) used ASSESS MS to capture recordings of standardized movements performed by 51 volunteer patients. Metrics for effectiveness, efficiency, and acceptability were defined and used to analyze data captured by ASSESS MS, video recordings of each examination, feedback questionnaires, and follow-up interviews. All health professionals were able to complete recordings using ASSESS MS, achieving high levels of standardization on 3 of 4 metrics (movement performance, lateral positioning, and clear camera view but not distance positioning). Results were unaffected by patients' level of physical or cognitive disability. ASSESS MS was perceived as easy to use by both patients and health professionals with high scores on the Likert-scale questions and positive interview commentary. ASSESS MS was highly acceptable to patients on all dimensions considered, including attitudes to future use, interaction (with health professionals), and overall perceptions of ASSESS MS. Health professionals also accepted ASSESS MS, but with greater ambivalence arising from the need to alter patient interaction styles. There was little variation in results across participating centers, and no differences between neurologists and nurses. In typical

  1. Prenatal stressors in rodents: Effects on behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Weinstock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current review focuses on studies in rodents published since 2008 and explores possible reasons for any differences they report in the effects of gestational stress on various types of behavior in the offspring. An abundance of experimental data shows that different maternal stressors in rodents can replicate some of the abnormalities in offspring behavior observed in humans. These include, anxiety, in juvenile and adult rats and mice, assessed in the elevated plus maze and open field tests and depression, detected in the forced swim and sucrose-preference tests. Deficits were reported in social interaction that is suggestive of pathology associated with schizophrenia, and in spatial learning and memory in adult rats in the Morris water maze test, but in most studies only males were tested. There were too few studies on the novel object recognition test at different inter-trial intervals to enable a conclusion about the effect of prenatal stress and whether any deficits are more prevalent in males. Among hippocampal glutamate receptors, NR2B was the only subtype consistently reduced in association with learning deficits. However, like in humans with schizophrenia and depression, prenatal stress lowered hippocampal levels of BDNF, which were closely correlated with decreases in hippocampal long-term potentiation. In mice, down-regulation of BDNF appeared to occur through the action of gene-methylating enzymes that are already increased above controls in prenatally-stressed neonates. In conclusion, the data obtained so far from experiments in rodents lend support to a physiological basis for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and depression.

  2. Neuronal Activation After Prolonged Immobilization: Do the Same or Different Neurons Respond to a Novel Stressor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Blasco, Ignacio; Muñoz-Abellán, Cristina; Andero, Raül; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Despite extensive research on the impact of emotional stressors on brain function using immediate-early genes (e.g., c-fos), there are still important questions that remain unanswered such as the reason for the progressive decline of c-fos expression in response to prolonged stress and the neuronal populations activated by different stressors. This study tackles these 2 questions by evaluating c-fos expression in response to 2 different emotional stressors applied sequentially, and performing a fluorescent double labeling of c-Fos protein and c-fos mRNA on stress-related brain areas. Results were complemented with the assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. We showed that the progressive decline of c-fos expression could be related to 2 differing mechanisms involving either transcriptional repression or changes in stimulatory inputs. Moreover, the neuronal populations that respond to the different stressors appear to be predominantly separated in high-level processing areas (e.g., medial prefrontal cortex). However, in low-hierarchy areas (e.g., paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus) neuronal populations appear to respond unspecifically. The data suggest that the distinct physiological and behavioral consequences of emotional stressors, and their implication in the development of psychopathologies, are likely to be closely associated with neuronal populations specifically activated by each stressor.

  3. Parenting-Related Stressors and Self-Reported Mental Health of Mothers With Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Ritesh; Stevens, Gregory D.; Sareen, Harvinder; De Vogli, Roberto; Halfon, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether there were associations between maternal mental health and individual and co-occurring parenting stressors related to social and financial factors and child health care access. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from the 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health. The 5-item Mental Health Inventory was used to measure self-reported mental health. Results. After we controlled for demographic covariates, we found that the following stressors increased the risk of poor maternal mental health: lack of emotional (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0, 5.9) or functional (OR=2.2; 95% CI=1.3, 3.7) social support for parenting, too much time spent with child (OR=3.5; 95% CI=2.0, 6.1), and difficulty paying for child care (OR=2.3; 95% CI=1.4, 3.9). In comparison with mothers without any parenting stressors, mothers reporting 1 stressor had 3 times the odds of poor mental health (OR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.1, 4.8), and mothers reporting 2 or more stressors had nearly 12 times the odds (OR = 11.7; 95% CI = 7.1, 19.3). Conclusions. If parenting stressors such as those examined here are to be addressed, changes may be required in community support systems, and improvements in relevant social policies may be needed. PMID:17538058

  4. The influence of maternal life stressors on breastfeeding outcomes: a US population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsantas, Panagiota; Gaffney, Kathleen F; Nirmalraj, Lavanya; Sari, Mehmet

    2018-01-08

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of maternal financial, emotional, traumatic, and partner-associated stressors on breastfeeding initiation and duration. Data (216,756 records) from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System surveys were used in the analysis. Logistic regressions were conducted to estimate the magnitude and direction of associations between maternal stressors occurring in the 12 months prior to infant birth and both breastfeeding initiation and duration up to 4 weeks infant age. A substantial proportion of mothers (42%) reported having experienced one or two major stressors during the 12 months prior to the birth of their infant. Mothers who reported at least one major life stressor in the year before their baby was born were less likely to initiate breastfeeding and more likely to cease by 4 weeks infant age. Emotional and traumatic stressors were found to have the greatest impact on breastfeeding outcomes. Findings support the design and implementation of screening protocols for major maternal life stressors during regularly scheduled prenatal and newborn visits. Screening for at-risk mothers may lead to more targeted anticipatory guidance and referral with positive effects on breastfeeding outcomes and overall well-being of the mothers and their families.

  5. Psychosocial stressors and cigarette smoking among African American adults in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Lewis, Tené T; Bennett, Gary G; Ryff, Carol D; Albert, Michelle A

    2012-10-01

    Psychosocial stress is a significant risk factor for smoking, and Blacks experience higher levels of psychosocial stress relative to other racial/ethnic groups. Limited research has comprehensively examined psychosocial stressors in relation to smoking among Blacks. We examined psychosocial stressors in relation to smoking status (current, previous, and never) in middle-aged Blacks (34-85 years, n = 592) from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, a subset of the Midlife in the United States Study II (2004-2006). Eleven stressor domains were assessed, including psychological and physical work stress, work-family conflict, perceived inequality, relationship stress, neighborhood stress, discrimination, financial stress, recent problems, stressful events, and childhood adversity. We also calculated a cumulative score. Multinomial models were adjusted for age, gender, education, and income. Seven of the 11 stressors and the cumulative score were associated with higher odds of being a current smoker compared with a never-smoker: neighborhood, financial, relationship, and psychological work stress, perceived inequality, stressful events, childhood adversity (p values <.05; ORs ranged from 1.28 to 1.77). Three stressors and the cumulative score were associated with higher odds of being a previous smoker versus a never-smoker (p < .05). Individuals who scored in the top quartile on 5 or more stressors were 3.74 (95% CI = 2.09-6.71) times as likely to be current smokers, and more than twice as likely to be previous smokers, compared with individuals with no high stressors. These results demonstrate a strong relationship between stress and smoking among urban middle-aged Blacks and suggest that cessation programs should address modifiable individual and community-level stressors.

  6. Assessing the quality of websites providing information on multiple sclerosis: evaluating tools and comparing sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Juliet; Bath, Peter

    2007-09-01

    The quality of health information available on the Internet has proved difficult to assess objectively. The Internet's growing popularity as a source of health information, accompanied by the lack of regulation of websites, has resulted in research that has developed and tested tools to evaluate health website quality. However, only a few studies have tested the validity and reliability of these tools. There is a lack of consensus about appropriate indicators with which to operationalize the concept of quality health information. This study aimed to contribute to this research by testing the validity and reliability of existing tools, through their application to websites that provided information about multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, a specific tool for evaluating multiple sclerosis information was developed, contributing to the debate about suitable criteria for measuring the ;quality' of health information on the web.

  7. Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty in impact assessments: The example of the BRACE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing climate change impacts often requires the use of multiple scenarios, types of models, and data sources, leading to a large number of potential sources of uncertainty. For example, a single study might require a choice of a forcing scenario, climate model, bias correction and/or downscaling method, societal development scenario, model (typically several) for quantifying elements of societal development such as economic and population growth, biophysical model (such as for crop yields or hydrology), and societal impact model (e.g. economic or health model). Some sources of uncertainty are reduced or eliminated by the framing of the question. For example, it may be useful to ask what an impact outcome would be conditional on a given societal development pathway, forcing scenario, or policy. However many sources of uncertainty remain, and it is rare for all or even most of these sources to be accounted for. I use the example of a recent integrated project on the Benefits of Reduced Anthropogenic Climate changE (BRACE) to explore useful approaches to uncertainty across multiple components of an impact assessment. BRACE comprises 23 papers that assess the differences in impacts between two alternative climate futures: those associated with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. It quantifies difference in impacts in terms of extreme events, health, agriculture, tropical cyclones, and sea level rise. Methodologically, it includes climate modeling, statistical analysis, integrated assessment modeling, and sector-specific impact modeling. It employs alternative scenarios of both radiative forcing and societal development, but generally uses a single climate model (CESM), partially accounting for climate uncertainty by drawing heavily on large initial condition ensembles. Strengths and weaknesses of the approach to uncertainty in BRACE are assessed. Options under consideration for improving the approach include the use of perturbed physics

  8. Assessment level of anxiety and depression in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnetsova D.E.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In patients with multiple sclerosis observed polymorphism of the emergency psychiatric disorders with a wide range of psychopathological phenomena — from neurotic and personality disorders to psychotic states and epileptiform syndrome. However, the problems of mental health problems in people with MS for a long time little attention was paid. The aim of our study was to analyze the level of anxiety and depression severity in patients with multiple sclerosis. According to this objective have been identifed objectives of the study: to determine the level of depression and anxiety in MS patients according to sex, age, course, duration of disease. For our work was selected group of patients with documented diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, Charles Poser criteria, consisting of 79 persons, with a disease duration of more than 2 years. We used a specially designed questionnaire, which included a table to assess complaints, anamnesis, the neurological status of the patient, and standard questionnaires (test anxiety, Taylor Depression Scale Research psychoneurology them. Spondylitis, the index of overall psychological well-being. The study found that mood disorders such as anxiety, depression, often occurs in patients with multiple sclerosis. However, they are expressed in groups of patients receiving and not receiving DMD, in many ways. Thus, it should be recommended  Vat practical neurologists in the treatment of multiple sclerosis patients to pay attention to whether or not they have a certain range of mental disorders, and above all, anxious-depressive syndrome, which is in need of medical and non-pharmacological correction.

  9. AGE-RAGE Stress, Stressors, and Antistressors in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kailash; Mishra, Manish

    2018-03-01

    Adverse effects of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on the tissues are through nonreceptor- and receptor-mediated mechanisms. In the receptor-mediated mechanism, interaction of AGEs with its cell-bound receptor of AGE (RAGE) increases generation of oxygen radicals, activates nuclear factor-kappa B, and increases expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in the cellular damage. The deleterious effects of AGE and AGE-RAGE interaction are coined as "AGE-RAGE stress." The body is equipped with defense mechanisms to counteract the adverse effects of AGE and RAGE through endogenous enzymatic (glyoxalase 1, glyoxalase 2) and AGE receptor-mediated (AGER1, AGER2) degradation of AGE, and through elevation of soluble receptor of AGE (sRAGE). Exogenous defense mechanisms include reduction in consumption of AGE, prevention of AGE formation, and downregulation of RAGE expression. We have coined AGE and RAGE as "stressors" and the defense mechanisms as "anti-stressors." AGE-RAGE stress is defined as a shift in the balance between stressors and antistressors in the favor of stressors. Measurements of stressors or antistressors alone would not assess AGE-RAGE stress. For true assessment of AGE-RAGE stress, the equation should include all the stressors and antistressors. The equation for AGE-RAGE stress, therefore, would be the ratio of AGE + RAGE/sRAGE + glyoxalase1 + glyoxalase 2 + AGER1 +AGER2. This is, however, not practical in patients. AGE-RAGE stress may be assessed simply by the ratio of AGE/sRAGE. A high ratio of AGE/sRAGE indicates a relative shift in stressors from antistressors, suggesting the presence of AGE-RAGE stress, resulting in tissue damage, initiation, and progression of the diseases and their complications.

  10. A Case Study in Support of Multiple Post Mortem Assessments (Invited Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Creative projects in various fields are often subjected to afterthe- fact 'post-mortem' assessments to better understand their successes and failures. Names for these include project retrospectives or post occupancy evaluations (POEs depending on their field of origin. This case study from the architecture field will show the utility of engaging in multiple rounds of post-mortem activities in order to assess the solution from multiple stakeholder perspectives and in doing so, more fully recognize its strengths and weaknesses. The design of a homeless shelter bedroom was subjected to two POE analyses: a 'demand side' focused study that analyzed user accommodation, and a 'supply side' study that addressed issues including budget and funding. The two POEs yielded both corroborative and contrasting findings that sometimes worked at cross purposes. Three evaluation tactics emerged that could be extended to other fields' post mortem assessment activities: 1 conduct two or more POEs; 2 vary the POE criteria so that one is deep and focused 'demand side' user analysis and the other is 'supply side' operational and installation issues; and 3 conduct the POEs over a broad time period.

  11. Taking Multiple Exposure Into Account Can Improve Assessment of Chemical Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Frédéric; Bertrand, Nicolas Jean Hyacinthe; La Rocca, Bénédicte

    2017-12-15

    During work, operators may be exposed to several chemicals simultaneously. Most exposure assessment approaches only determine exposure levels for each substance individually. However, such individual-substance approaches may not correctly estimate the toxicity of 'cocktails' of chemicals, as the toxicity of a cocktail may differ from the toxicity of substances on their own. This study presents an approach that can better take into account multiple exposure when assessing chemical risks. Almost 30000 work situations, monitored between 2005 and 2014 and recorded in two French databases, were analysed using MiXie software. The algorithms employed in MiXie can identify toxicological classes associated with several substances, based on the additivity of the selected effects of each substance. The results of our retrospective analysis show that MiXie was able to identify almost 20% more potentially hazardous situations than identified using a single-substance approach. It therefore appears essential to review the ways in which multiple exposure is taken into account during risk assessment. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  12. Assessments of Future Maize Yield Potential Changes in the Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Crop Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Lim, C. H.; Kim, J.; Lee, W. K.; Kafatos, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula has unique agricultural environment due to the differences of political and socio-economical system between Republic of Korea (SK, hereafter) and Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (NK, hereafter). NK has been suffering lack of food supplies caused by natural disasters, land degradation and political failure. The neighboring developed country SK has better agricultural system but very low food self-sufficiency rate. Maize is an important crop in both countries since it is staple food for NK and SK is No. 2 maize importing country in the world after Japan. Therefore, evaluating maize yield potential (Yp) in the two distinct regions is essential to assess food security under climate change and variability. In this study, we utilized multiple process-based crop models, having ability of regional scale assessment, to evaluate maize Yp and assess the model uncertainties -EPIC, GEPIC, DSSAT, and APSIM model that has capability of regional scale expansion (apsimRegions). First we evaluated each crop model for 3 years from 2012 to 2014 using reanalysis data (RDAPS; Regional Data Assimilation and Prediction System produced by Korea Meteorological Agency) and observed yield data. Each model performances were compared over the different regions in the Korean Peninsula having different local climate characteristics. To quantify of the major influence of at each climate variables, we also conducted sensitivity test using 20 years of climatology in historical period from 1981 to 2000. Lastly, the multi-crop model ensemble analysis was performed for future period from 2031 to 2050. The required weather variables projected for mid-century were employed from COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX) East Asia. The high-resolution climate data were obtained from multiple regional climate models (RCM) driven by multiple climate scenarios projected from multiple global climate models (GCMs) in conjunction with multiple greenhouse gas

  13. Workplace and security stressors and mental health among migrant workers on the Thailand-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah R; Decker, Michele R; Tol, Wietse A; Abshir, Nada; Mar, Aye Aye; Robinson, W Courtland

    2016-05-01

    Migrant workers in low-resource settings may experience multiple types of workplace and security-related stressors. This study explores the relationship between these stressors and adverse mental health outcomes, through a study of migrant workers from Myanmar, working in agriculture, factory, and sex industries in and around Mae Sot, Thailand. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit a total sample of 589 male and female migrants. Trained data collectors administered a survey, which included measures of workplace and security-related stressors, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Multivariate regression models were conducted separately for depression and anxiety symptoms. For male agricultural workers, security stressors (β = 1.9, p = .001) are associated with an increase in depression symptoms and coercive working conditions are associated with an increase in anxiety symptoms (β = .8, p = .000). For female agricultural workers, daily hassles and stressors were associated with both depression (β = 1.5, p = .000) and anxiety (β = .5, p = .027), and barriers to exit (β = 3.0, p = .005) and security stressors (β = .9, p = .010) were significantly associated with increased depression symptoms. In the factory subsample, sexual assault and abuse (depression: β = 2.7, p = .009; anxiety: β = 2.8, p = .002) and daily hassles and stressors (depression: β = .7, p = .007; anxiety: β = .7, p = .001) were both significantly associated with increased depression and anxiety symptoms for males. Other categories of stressors similarly showed different associations with mental health outcomes between occupational groups, and between male and female migrant workers. The differing influences of stressors on mental health between the three occupational groups, and between males and females, indicate the need for targeted and tailored approaches to reduce specific stressors and improve services to address mental health needs

  14. Harmonic resonance assessment of multiple paralleled grid-connected inverters system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an eigenvalue-based impedance stability analytical method of multiple paralleled grid-connected inverter system. Different from the conventional impedance-based stability criterion, this work first built the state-space model of paralleled grid-connected inverters. On the basis...... of this, a bridge between the state-space-based modelling and impedance-based stability criterion is presented. The proposed method is able to perform stability assessment locally at the connection points of the component. Meanwhile, the eigenvalue-based sensitivity analysis is adopted to identify...

  15. Childhood Stress : Stressors, Coping, and Factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Burnout is a matter of imbalance in life very often (Nijboer, 2006). In order to know more about imbalance and exhaustion in children, stress and coping in children will be investigated in this literature study. The goal is to identify common childhood stressors, the ways children cope with stress,

  16. Habituation to a stressor predicts adolescents' adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objectives: Stress is associated with gains in adiposity. One factor that determines how much stress is experienced is how quickly an adolescent reduces responding (habituates) across repeated stressors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of body mass index pe...

  17. Overview of Atherosclerosis and Chemical Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Cascio’s presentation at the workshop titled, “titled “Understanding the Combined Effects of Environmental Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors: Atherosclerosis as a Model” will highlight atherosclerosis’s rapidly growing role as a cause of increa...

  18. District Stressors and Teacher Evaluation Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhoff, Sarah Winchell; Pogodzinski, Ben; Mayrowetz, David; Superfine, Benjamin Michael; Umpstead, Regina R.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Federal and state policymakers in the USA have sought to better differentiate the performance of K-12 teachers by enacting more rigorous evaluation policies. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether these policies are working as intended and explore whether district stressors such as funding, enrollment, and governance are…

  19. Patients' and Health Care Providers' Perception of Stressors in the Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuatiq, Alham

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study is first, to investigate intensive care patients' perceptions of stressors; second, to investigate the health care provider's perception of what constitutes a stressor from the patient's perspective; and third, to describe how health care providers manage their patients' stressors. This was a mixed-methods study; the quantitative section replicated Cornock's 1998 study of stress in the intensive care unit (ICU), with difference in sampling to include all health care providers in the ICU, in addition to nurses. The qualitative section added information to the current literature by describing how health care providers manage their patient's stressors. This article reports the quantitative findings of this study, as the qualitative section is presented in a separate article. It is important to describe ICU patients' stressful experiences to assess patient's stressors, provide holistic care to eliminate stressors, and provide feedback to health care providers. There is a need to describe the clinical practice related to stress perception and management of stressors in the critical care environment. A mixed-methods comparative descriptive design was used for the quantitative section, and a phenomenological approach guided the qualitative section. Lazarus and Folkman's theory formed the bases for integrating all variables investigated in this study. The sample included 70 ICU patients and 70 ICU health care providers. After consenting to participate in this study, subjects were given a demographic form and a paper-based tool, the Environmental Stressors graphic data form Questionnaire. Questionnaires were filled out by subjects anonymously in the ICU and returned to the researcher in the same setting. Descriptive statistics were analyzed using SPSS data analysis software. The top 3 most stressful items ranked by the patients included "being in pain," followed by "not being able to sleep" and "financial worries"; on the other hand, health care

  20. A case study to illustrate the utility of the Aggregate Exposure Pathway and Adverse Outcome Pathway frameworks for integrating human health and ecological data into cumulative risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) methods, which evaluate the risk of multiple adverse outcomes (AOs) from multiple chemicals, promote the use of a conceptual site model (CSM) to integrate risk from relevant stressors. The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework can inform these r...

  1. Modelling coral reef futures to inform management: can reducing local-scale stressors conserve reefs under climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Geronimo, Rollan C; Aliño, Perry M; Johnson, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has emerged as a principal threat to coral reefs, and is expected to exacerbate coral reef degradation caused by more localised stressors. Management of local stressors is widely advocated to bolster coral reef resilience, but the extent to which management of local stressors might affect future trajectories of reef state remains unclear. This is in part because of limited understanding of the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. Models are ideal tools to aid understanding of future reef state under alternative management and climatic scenarios, but to date few have been sufficiently developed to be useful as decision support tools for local management of coral reefs subject to multiple stressors. We used a simulation model of coral reefs to investigate the extent to which the management of local stressors (namely poor water quality and fishing) might influence future reef state under varying climatic scenarios relating to coral bleaching. We parameterised the model for Bolinao, the Philippines, and explored how simulation modelling can be used to provide decision support for local management. We found that management of water quality, and to a lesser extent fishing, can have a significant impact on future reef state, including coral recovery following bleaching-induced mortality. The stressors we examined interacted antagonistically to affect reef state, highlighting the importance of considering the combined impact of multiple stressors rather than considering them individually. Further, by providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, such as which course of management action will most likely to be effective over what time scales and at which sites, we demonstrated the utility of simulation models for supporting management. Aside from providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, our study offers insights which could inform reef management more broadly, as well as general understanding of reef

  2. Modelling coral reef futures to inform management: can reducing local-scale stressors conserve reefs under climate change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina G Gurney

    Full Text Available Climate change has emerged as a principal threat to coral reefs, and is expected to exacerbate coral reef degradation caused by more localised stressors. Management of local stressors is widely advocated to bolster coral reef resilience, but the extent to which management of local stressors might affect future trajectories of reef state remains unclear. This is in part because of limited understanding of the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. Models are ideal tools to aid understanding of future reef state under alternative management and climatic scenarios, but to date few have been sufficiently developed to be useful as decision support tools for local management of coral reefs subject to multiple stressors. We used a simulation model of coral reefs to investigate the extent to which the management of local stressors (namely poor water quality and fishing might influence future reef state under varying climatic scenarios relating to coral bleaching. We parameterised the model for Bolinao, the Philippines, and explored how simulation modelling can be used to provide decision support for local management. We found that management of water quality, and to a lesser extent fishing, can have a significant impact on future reef state, including coral recovery following bleaching-induced mortality. The stressors we examined interacted antagonistically to affect reef state, highlighting the importance of considering the combined impact of multiple stressors rather than considering them individually. Further, by providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, such as which course of management action will most likely to be effective over what time scales and at which sites, we demonstrated the utility of simulation models for supporting management. Aside from providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, our study offers insights which could inform reef management more broadly, as well as general

  3. Modelling Coral Reef Futures to Inform Management: Can Reducing Local-Scale Stressors Conserve Reefs under Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G.; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Geronimo, Rollan C.; Aliño, Perry M.; Johnson, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has emerged as a principal threat to coral reefs, and is expected to exacerbate coral reef degradation caused by more localised stressors. Management of local stressors is widely advocated to bolster coral reef resilience, but the extent to which management of local stressors might affect future trajectories of reef state remains unclear. This is in part because of limited understanding of the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. Models are ideal tools to aid understanding of future reef state under alternative management and climatic scenarios, but to date few have been sufficiently developed to be useful as decision support tools for local management of coral reefs subject to multiple stressors. We used a simulation model of coral reefs to investigate the extent to which the management of local stressors (namely poor water quality and fishing) might influence future reef state under varying climatic scenarios relating to coral bleaching. We parameterised the model for Bolinao, the Philippines, and explored how simulation modelling can be used to provide decision support for local management. We found that management of water quality, and to a lesser extent fishing, can have a significant impact on future reef state, including coral recovery following bleaching-induced mortality. The stressors we examined interacted antagonistically to affect reef state, highlighting the importance of considering the combined impact of multiple stressors rather than considering them individually. Further, by providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, such as which course of management action will most likely to be effective over what time scales and at which sites, we demonstrated the utility of simulation models for supporting management. Aside from providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's reef system, our study offers insights which could inform reef management more broadly, as well as general understanding of reef

  4. The stressor criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder: Does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Dohrenwend, Bruce P.; Aiello, Allison; Wright, Rosalind J.; Maercker, Andreas; Galea, Sandro; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The definition of the stressor criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder (“Criterion A1”) is hotly debated with major revisions being considered for DSM-V. We examine whether symptoms, course, and consequences of PTSD vary predictably with the type of stressful event that precipitates symptoms. Method We used data from the 2009 PTSD diagnostic subsample (N=3,013) of the Nurses Health Study II. We asked respondents about exposure to stressful events qualifying under 1) DSM-III, 2) DSM-IV, or 3) not qualifying under DSM Criterion A1. Respondents selected the event they considered worst and reported subsequent PTSD symptoms. Among participants who met all other DSM-IV PTSD criteria, we compared distress, symptom severity, duration, impairment, receipt of professional help, and nine physical, behavioral, and psychiatric sequelae (e.g. physical functioning, unemployment, depression) by precipitating event group. Various assessment tools were used to determine fulfillment of PTSD Criteria B through F and to assess these 14 outcomes. Results Participants with PTSD from DSM-III events reported on average 1 more symptom (DSM-III mean=11.8 symptoms, DSM-IV=10.7, non-DSM=10.9) and more often reported symptoms lasted one year or longer compared to participants with PTSD from other groups. However, sequelae of PTSD did not vary systematically with precipitating event type. Conclusions Results indicate the stressor criterion as defined by the DSM may not be informative in characterizing PTSD symptoms and sequelae. In the context of ongoing DSM-V revision, these results suggest that Criterion A1 could be expanded in DSM-V without much consequence for our understanding of PTSD phenomenology. Events not considered qualifying stressors under the DSM produced PTSD as consequential as PTSD following DSM-III events, suggesting PTSD may be an aberrantly severe but nonspecific stress response syndrome. PMID:22401487

  5. A Microsoft Kinect-Based Point-of-Care Gait Assessment Framework for Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Farnood; Trojan, Daria A; Kovecses, Jozsef; Haddad, Wassim M; Gholami, Behnood

    2017-09-01

    Gait impairment is a prevalent and important difficulty for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a common neurological disorder. An easy to use tool to objectively evaluate gait in MS patients in a clinical setting can assist clinicians to perform an objective assessment. The overall objective of this study is to develop a framework to quantify gait abnormalities in MS patients using the Microsoft Kinect for the Windows sensor; an inexpensive, easy to use, portable camera. Specifically, we aim to evaluate its feasibility for utilization in a clinical setting, assess its reliability, evaluate the validity of gait indices obtained, and evaluate a novel set of gait indices based on the concept of dynamic time warping. In this study, ten ambulatory MS patients, and ten age and sex-matched normal controls were studied at one session in a clinical setting with gait assessment using a Kinect camera. The expanded disability status scale (EDSS) clinical ambulation score was calculated for the MS subjects, and patients completed the Multiple Sclerosis walking scale (MSWS). Based on this study, we established the potential feasibility of using a Microsoft Kinect camera in a clinical setting. Seven out of the eight gait indices obtained using the proposed method were reliable with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.61 to 0.99. All eight MS gait indices were significantly different from those of the controls (p-values less than 0.05). Finally, seven out of the eight MS gait indices were correlated with the objective and subjective gait measures (Pearson's correlation coefficients greater than 0.40). This study shows that the Kinect camera is an easy to use tool to assess gait in MS patients in a clinical setting.

  6. Probabilistic risk assessment framework for structural systems under multiple hazards using Bayesian statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwag, Shinyoung; Gupta, Abhinav

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This study presents the development of Bayesian framework for probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of structural systems under multiple hazards. • The concepts of Bayesian network and Bayesian inference are combined by mapping the traditionally used fault trees into a Bayesian network. • The proposed mapping allows for consideration of dependencies as well as correlations between events. • Incorporation of Bayesian inference permits a novel way for exploration of a scenario that is likely to result in a system level “vulnerability.” - Abstract: Conventional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodologies (USNRC, 1983; IAEA, 1992; EPRI, 1994; Ellingwood, 2001) conduct risk assessment for different external hazards by considering each hazard separately and independent of each other. The risk metric for a specific hazard is evaluated by a convolution of the fragility and the hazard curves. The fragility curve for basic event is obtained by using empirical, experimental, and/or numerical simulation data for a particular hazard. Treating each hazard as an independently can be inappropriate in some cases as certain hazards are statistically correlated or dependent. Examples of such correlated events include but are not limited to flooding induced fire, seismically induced internal or external flooding, or even seismically induced fire. In the current practice, system level risk and consequence sequences are typically calculated using logic trees to express the causative relationship between events. In this paper, we present the results from a study on multi-hazard risk assessment that is conducted using a Bayesian network (BN) with Bayesian inference. The framework can consider statistical dependencies among risks from multiple hazards, allows updating by considering the newly available data/information at any level, and provide a novel way to explore alternative failure scenarios that may exist due to vulnerabilities.

  7. Probabilistic risk assessment framework for structural systems under multiple hazards using Bayesian statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwag, Shinyoung [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Gupta, Abhinav, E-mail: agupta1@ncsu.edu [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • This study presents the development of Bayesian framework for probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of structural systems under multiple hazards. • The concepts of Bayesian network and Bayesian inference are combined by mapping the traditionally used fault trees into a Bayesian network. • The proposed mapping allows for consideration of dependencies as well as correlations between events. • Incorporation of Bayesian inference permits a novel way for exploration of a scenario that is likely to result in a system level “vulnerability.” - Abstract: Conventional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodologies (USNRC, 1983; IAEA, 1992; EPRI, 1994; Ellingwood, 2001) conduct risk assessment for different external hazards by considering each hazard separately and independent of each other. The risk metric for a specific hazard is evaluated by a convolution of the fragility and the hazard curves. The fragility curve for basic event is obtained by using empirical, experimental, and/or numerical simulation data for a particular hazard. Treating each hazard as an independently can be inappropriate in some cases as certain hazards are statistically correlated or dependent. Examples of such correlated events include but are not limited to flooding induced fire, seismically induced internal or external flooding, or even seismically induced fire. In the current practice, system level risk and consequence sequences are typically calculated using logic trees to express the causative relationship between events. In this paper, we present the results from a study on multi-hazard risk assessment that is conducted using a Bayesian network (BN) with Bayesian inference. The framework can consider statistical dependencies among risks from multiple hazards, allows updating by considering the newly available data/information at any level, and provide a novel way to explore alternative failure scenarios that may exist due to vulnerabilities.

  8. Daily Stressor Reactivity during Adolescence: The Buffering Role of Parental Warmth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Buxton, Orfeu; Almeida, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined youth stressor reactivity in the form of links between daily stressors and adolescents’ negative affect, physical health symptoms, and cortisol patterns. We also tested whether youth gender and parental warmth moderated these linkages. Method Participants were the children of employees in the Information Technology division of a large company (N = 132, mean age = 13.39 years, 55% female). Youth completed daily diary telephone interviews on 8 consecutive evenings and provided saliva samples at 4 time points over 4 days to assess daily stressors and youth physiological and affective functioning. Parental warmth was assessed during in-home interviews. Multi-level modeling was used to account for interdependencies in the data. Results Youth who experienced more daily stressors, on average, reported more negative affect and physical health symptoms, on average. Further, on days youth reported more stressors than usual (compared to their own across-day average), they also exhibited more physical health symptoms, reduced evening cortisol decline (e.g., flatter slopes), higher bedtime cortisol, and more negative affect. Girls had stronger within-person linkages between daily stressors and daily negative affect than boys. Parental warmth moderated these within-person linkages: Youth who experienced more parental warmth had lower negative affect and steeper cortisol decline than usual on less stressful days. Yet, youth who experienced less parental warmth had higher negative affect and their cortisol levels declined less, even on days with lower-than-usual stress. Conclusions Daily stressors are associated with youth's affective and physiological functioning, but parental warmth can support youth's stress recovery. PMID:27175577

  9. Organizational stressors associated with job stress and burnout in correctional officers: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finney Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In adult correctional facilities, correctional officers (COs are responsible for the safety and security of the facility in addition to aiding in offender rehabilitation and preventing recidivism. COs experience higher rates of job stress and burnout that stem from organizational stressors, leading to negative outcomes for not only the CO but the organization as well. Effective interventions could aim at targeting organizational stressors in order to reduce these negative outcomes as well as COs’ job stress and burnout. This paper fills a gap in the organizational stress literature among COs by systematically reviewing the relationship between organizational stressors and CO stress and burnout in adult correctional facilities. In doing so, the present review identifies areas that organizational interventions can target in order to reduce CO job stress and burnout. Methods A systematic search of the literature was conducted using Medline, PsycINFO, Criminal Justice Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. All retrieved articles were independently screened based on criteria developed a priori. All included articles underwent quality assessment. Organizational stressors were categorized according to Cooper and Marshall’s (1976 model of job stress. Results The systematic review yielded 8 studies that met all inclusion and quality assessment criteria. The five categories of organizational stressors among correctional officers are: stressors intrinsic to the job, role in the organization, rewards at work, supervisory relationships at work and the organizational structure and climate. The organizational structure and climate was demonstrated to have the most consistent relationship with CO job stress and burnout. Conclusions The results of this review indicate that the organizational structure and climate of correctional institutions has the most consistent relationship with COs’ job stress and burnout. Limitations of the

  10. Coupled Multiple-Response versus Free-Response Conceptual Assessment: An Example from Upper-Division Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Free-response research-based assessments, like the Colorado Upper-division Electrostatics Diagnostic (CUE), provide rich, fine-grained information about students' reasoning. However, because of the difficulties inherent in scoring these assessments, the majority of the large-scale conceptual assessments in physics are multiple choice. To increase…

  11. Stressors and their Influence on Job Performance of Career ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stressors and their Influence on Job Performance of Career Administrative Staff in ... African Research Review ... Abstract. The purpose of this study was to determine stressors and how they influence university career administrative staff in the ...

  12. Community Level Stressors and Their Impacts on Food Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research is needed to understand a community’s food resources, utilization of those resources, and how the built and natural environment impact access to resources and potential chemical exposures. This research will identify stressors, relationships between those stressors...

  13. Work environment stressors and personnel efficacy in Nigeria's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Work environment stressors and personnel efficacy in Nigeria's maritime industry. ... Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2017) > ... employees and corporate organizations need to manage stress by identifying the stressors and stress levels.

  14. A multiple biomarker assay for quality assessment of botanical drugs using a versatile microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Hao; Ai, Ni; Yu, Lawrence X; Qian, Zhong-Zhi; Cheng, Yi-Yu

    2017-09-25

    Quality control is critical for ensuring the safety and effectiveness of drugs. Current quality control method for botanical drugs is mainly based on chemical testing. However, chemical testing alone may not be sufficient as it may not capture all constituents of botanical drugs. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a bioassay correlating with the drug's known mechanism of action to ensure its potency and activity. Herein we developed a multiple biomarker assay to assess the quality of botanicals using microfluidics, where enzyme inhibition was employed to indicate the drug's activity and thereby evaluate biological consistency. This approach was exemplified on QiShenYiQi Pills using thrombin and angiotensin converting enzyme as "quality biomarkers". Our results demonstrated that there existed variations in potency across different batches of the intermediates and preparations. Compared with chromatographic fingerprinting, the bioassay provided better discrimination ability for some abnormal samples. Moreover, the chip could function as "affinity chromatography" to identify bioactive phytochemicals bound to the enzymes. This work proposed a multiple-biomarker strategy for quality assessment of botanical drugs, while demonstrating for the first time the feasibility of microfluidics in this field.

  15. Making assessments while taking repeated risks: a pattern of multiple response pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleskac, Timothy J; Wershbale, Avishai

    2014-02-01

    Beyond simply a decision process, repeated risky decisions also require a number of cognitive processes including learning, search and exploration, and attention. In this article, we examine how multiple response pathways develop over repeated risky decisions. Using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) as a case study, we show that 2 different response pathways emerge over the course of the task. The assessment pathway is a slower, more controlled pathway where participants deliberate over taking a risk. The 2nd pathway is a faster, more automatic process where no deliberation occurs. Results imply the slower assessment pathway is taken as choice conflict increases and that the faster automatic response is a learned response. Based on these results, we modify an existing formal cognitive model of decision making during the BART to account for these dual response pathways. The slower more deliberative response process is modeled with a sequential sampling process where evidence is accumulated to a threshold, while the other response is given automatically. We show that adolescents with conduct disorder and substance use disorder symptoms not only evaluate risks differently during the BART but also differ in the rate at which they develop the more automatic response. More broadly, our results suggest cognitive models of judgment decision making need to transition from treating observed decisions as the result of a single response pathway to the result of multiple response pathways that change and develop over time.

  16. Optical coherence tomography angiography retinal vascular network assessment in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzillo, Roberta; Cennamo, Gilda; Criscuolo, Chiara; Carotenuto, Antonio; Velotti, Nunzio; Sparnelli, Federica; Cianflone, Alessandra; Moccia, Marcello; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo

    2017-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography is a new method to assess the density of the vascular networks. Vascular abnormalities are considered involved in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. To assess the presence of vascular abnormalities in MS and to evaluate their correlation to disease features. A total of 50 MS patients with and without history of optic neuritis (ON) and 46 healthy subjects were included. All underwent spectral domain (SD)-OCT and OCT angiography. Clinical history, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) and disease duration were collected. Angio-OCT showed a vessel density reduction in eyes of MS patients when compared to controls. A statistically significant reduction in all SD-OCT and OCT angiography parameters was noticed both in eyes with and without ON when compared with control eyes. We found an inverse correlation between SD-OCT parameters and MSSS ( p = 0.003) and between vessel density parameters and EDSS ( p = 0.007). We report a vessel density reduction in retina of MS patients. We highlight the clinical correlation between vessel density and EDSS, suggesting that angio-OCT could be a good marker of disease and of disability in MS.

  17. Reactivity to Daily Stressors in Adulthood: The Importance of Stressor Type in Characterizing Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Elizabeth L.; Diehl, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    This study examined daily stressors in adults aged 18 to 89 years (M = 49.6 years) over 30 days. We examined the role of individual factors (i.e., age, self-concept differentiation, perceived control) in physical and psychological reactivity to interpersonal, network, home, and health stressors. Findings were consistent with the perspective that adults were less reactive to stress on days they felt in control and that younger adults and adults with high self-concept differentiation (SCD) were...

  18. A multi-disciplinary approach for the integrated assessment of multiple risks in delta areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperotto, Anna; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The assessment of climate change related risks is notoriously difficult due to the complex and uncertain combinations of hazardous events that might happen, the multiplicity of physical processes involved, the continuous changes and interactions of environmental and socio-economic systems. One important challenge lies in predicting and modelling cascades of natural and man -made hazard events which can be triggered by climate change, encompassing different spatial and temporal scales. Another regard the potentially difficult integration of environmental, social and economic disciplines in the multi-risk concept. Finally, the effective interaction between scientists and stakeholders is essential to ensure that multi-risk knowledge is translated into efficient adaptation and management strategies. The assessment is even more complex at the scale of deltaic systems which are particularly vulnerable to global environmental changes, due to the fragile equilibrium between the presence of valuable natural ecosystems and relevant economic activities. Improving our capacity to assess the combined effects of multiple hazards (e.g. sea-level rise, storm surges, reduction in sediment load, local subsidence, saltwater intrusion) is therefore essential to identify timely opportunities for adaptation. A holistic multi-risk approach is here proposed to integrate terminology, metrics and methodologies from different research fields (i.e. environmental, social and economic sciences) thus creating shared knowledge areas to advance multi risk assessment and management in delta regions. A first testing of the approach, including the application of Bayesian network analysis for the assessment of impacts of climate change on key natural systems (e.g. wetlands, protected areas, beaches) and socio-economic activities (e.g. agriculture, tourism), is applied in the Po river delta in Northern Italy. The approach is based on a bottom-up process involving local stakeholders early in different

  19. Characterizing the Life Stressors of Children of Alcoholic Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Huang, Wenjing; Chassin, Laurie; Sher, Kenneth J.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined differences between children of alcoholic (COAs) and non-alcoholic parents in their experience of negative life events across three, longitudinal studies together spanning the first three decades of life. We posited that COAs would differ from their peers in the life domains in which they are vulnerable to stressors, in the recurrence of stressors, and in the severity of stressors. Scale- and item-level analyses of adjusted odds-ratios based on stressors across seve...

  20. Language profiles in young children with autism spectrum disorder: A community sample using multiple assessment instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Rose; Hedley, Darren; Uljarević, Mirko; Sahin, Ensu; Zadek, Johanna; Butter, Eric; Mulick, James A

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated language profiles in a community-based sample of 104 children aged 1-3 years who had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) diagnostic criteria. Language was assessed with the Mullen scales, Preschool Language Scale, fifth edition, and Vineland-II parent-report. The study aimed to determine whether the receptive-to-expressive language profile is independent from the assessment instrument used, and whether nonverbal cognition, early communicative behaviors, and autism spectrum disorder symptoms predict language scores. Receptive-to-expressive language profiles differed between assessment instruments and reporters, and Preschool Language Scale, fifth edition profiles were also dependent on developmental level. Nonverbal cognition and joint attention significantly predicted receptive language scores, and nonverbal cognition and frequency of vocalizations predicted expressive language scores. These findings support the administration of multiple direct assessment and parent-report instruments when evaluating language in young children with autism spectrum disorder, for both research and in clinical settings. Results also support that joint attention is a useful intervention target for improving receptive language skills in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Future research comparing language profiles of young children with autism spectrum disorder to children with non-autism spectrum disorder developmental delays and typical development will add to our knowledge of early language development in children with autism spectrum disorder.

  1. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of multiple environmental factors for swine building assessment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiuju; Ni, Ji-Qin; Su, Zhongbin

    2017-10-15

    In confined swine buildings, temperature, humidity, and air quality are all important for animal health and productivity. However, the current swine building environmental control is only based on temperature; and evaluation and control methods based on multiple environmental factors are needed. In this paper, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) theory was adopted for multi-factor assessment of environmental quality in two commercial swine buildings using real measurement data. An assessment index system and membership functions were established; and predetermined weights were given using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) combined with knowledge of experts. The results show that multi-factors such as temperature, humidity, and concentrations of ammonia (NH 3 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) can be successfully integrated in FCE for swine building environment assessment. The FCE method has a high correlation coefficient of 0.737 compared with the method of single-factor evaluation (SFE). The FCE method can significantly increase the sensitivity and perform an effective and integrative assessment. It can be used as part of environmental controlling and warning systems for swine building environment management to improve swine production and welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Using multiple lines of evidence to assess the risk of ecosystem collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Lucie M; Regan, Tracey J; Dinh, Minh Ngoc; Ferrari, Renata; Keith, David A; Lester, Rebecca; Mouillot, David; Murray, Nicholas J; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Nicholson, Emily

    2017-09-27

    Effective ecosystem risk assessment relies on a conceptual understanding of ecosystem dynamics and the synthesis of multiple lines of evidence. Risk assessment protocols and ecosystem models integrate limited observational data with threat scenarios, making them valuable tools for monitoring ecosystem status and diagnosing key mechanisms of decline to be addressed by management. We applied the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems criteria to quantify the risk of collapse of the Meso-American Reef, a unique ecosystem containing the second longest barrier reef in the world. We collated a wide array of empirical data (field and remotely sensed), and used a stochastic ecosystem model to backcast past ecosystem dynamics, as well as forecast future ecosystem dynamics under 11 scenarios of threat. The ecosystem is at high risk from mass bleaching in the coming decades, with compounding effects of ocean acidification, hurricanes, pollution and fishing. The overall status of the ecosystem is Critically Endangered (plausibly Vulnerable to Critically Endangered), with notable differences among Red List criteria and data types in detecting the most severe symptoms of risk. Our case study provides a template for assessing risks to coral reefs and for further application of ecosystem models in risk assessment. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Traumatic events, other operational stressors and physical and mental health reported by Australian Defence Force personnel following peacekeeping and war-like deployments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waller Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between stressful events on warlike deployments and subsequent mental health problems has been established. Less is known about the effects of stressful events on peacekeeping deployments. Methods Two cross sectional studies of the Australian Defence Force were used to contrast the prevalence of exposures reported by a group deployed on a peacekeeping operation (Bougainville, n = 1704 and those reported by a group deployed on operations which included warlike and non-warlike exposures (East Timor, n = 1333. A principal components analysis was used to identify groupings of non-traumatic exposures on deployment. Multiple regression models were used to assess the association between self-reported objective and subjective exposures, stressors on deployment and subsequent physical and mental health outcomes. Results The principal components analysis produced four groups of non-traumatic stressors which were consistent between the peacekeeping and more warlike deployments. These were labelled ‘separation’, ‘different culture’, ‘other people’ and ‘work frustration’. Higher levels of traumatic and non-traumatic exposures were reported by veterans of East Timor compared to Bougainville. Higher levels of subjective traumatic exposures were associated with increased rates of PTSD in East Timor veterans and more physical and psychological health symptoms in both deployed groups. In Bougainville and East Timor veterans some non-traumatic deployment stressors were also associated with worse health outcomes. Conclusion Strategies to best prepare, identify and treat those exposed to traumatic events and other stressors on deployment should be considered for Defence personnel deployed on both warlike and peacekeeping operations.

  4. Temporal Assessment of the Impact of Exposure to Cow Feces in Two Watersheds by Multiple Host-Specific PCR Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to feces in two watersheds with different management histories was assessed by tracking cattle feces bacterial populations using multiple host-specific PCR assays. In addition, environmental factors affecting the occurrence of these markers were identified. Each assay wa...

  5. In multiple situational light settings, visual observation for skin colour assessment is comparable with colorimeter measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C Y; Wilkes, M; du Plessis, J L; Reeder, A I; Albers, P N

    2016-08-01

    Finding inexpensive and reliable techniques for assessing skin colour is important, given that it is related to several adverse human health outcomes. Visual observation is considered a subjective approach assessment and, even when made by trained assessor, concern has been raised about the need for controlled lighting in the study venue. The aim of this study is to determine whether visual skin colour assessments correlate with objective skin colour measurements in study venues with different lighting types and configurations. Two trained investigators, with confirmed visual acuity, visually classified the inner, upper arm skin colour of 556 adults using Munsell(®) colour classifications converted to Individual Typology Angle (°ITA) values based on published data. Skin colour at the same anatomic site was also measured using a colorimeter. Each participant was assessed in one of 10 different buildings, each with a different study day. Munsell(®) -derived °ITA values were compared to colorimeter °ITA values for the full sample and by building/day. We found a strong positive, monotonic correlation between Munsell(®) derived °ITA values and colorimeter °ITA values for all participants (Spearman ρ = 0.8585, P colorimeter °ITA values were compared for participants assessed in the same building for all 10 buildings (Spearman ρ values ranged from 0.797 to 0.934, all correlations were statistically significant at P < 0.001). It is possible to visually assess individual skin colour in multiple situational lighting settings and retrieve results that are comparable with objective measurements of skin colour. This was true for individuals of varying population groups and skin pigmentation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Job Stressors, Organizational Innovation Climate, and Employees' Innovative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feifei; Zhang, Jinghuan

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the influence of job stressors and organizational innovation climate on employees' innovative behavior. Data were obtained from 282 employees in 4 cities of China. Results indicated that the nature of stressors matters in predicting employees' idea generation. Specifically, stressors that employees tend to appraise…

  7. Offshore Wind Resources Assessment from Multiple Satellite Data and WRF Modeling over South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using accurate inputs of wind speed is crucial in wind resource assessment, as predicted power is proportional to the wind speed cubed. This study outlines a methodology for combining multiple ocean satellite winds and winds from WRF simulations in order to acquire the accurate reconstructed offshore winds which can be used for offshore wind resource assessment. First, wind speeds retrieved from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR and Scatterometer ASCAT images were validated against in situ measurements from seven coastal meteorological stations in South China Sea (SCS. The wind roses from the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS and ASCAT agree well with these observations from the corresponding in situ measurements. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based (ASCAT-based wind speed for the whole co-located samples show a standard deviation (SD of 2.09 m/s (1.83 m/s and correlation coefficient of R 0.75 (0.80. When the offshore winds (i.e., winds directed from land to sea are excluded, the comparison results for wind speeds show an improvement of SD and R, indicating that the satellite data are more credible over the open ocean. Meanwhile, the validation of satellite winds against the same co-located mast observations shows a satisfactory level of accuracy which was similar for SAR and ASCAT winds. These satellite winds are then assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF Model by WRF Data Assimilation (WRFDA system. Finally, the wind resource statistics at 100 m height based on the reconstructed winds have been achieved over the study area, which fully combines the offshore wind information from multiple satellite data and numerical model. The findings presented here may be useful in future wind resource assessment based on satellite data.

  8. Attitudes of Special Education Teachers and School Psychologists toward Individualized Education Plan IEPs Developed Using Traditional Assessments versus IEPs Developed Using a Multiple Intelligence Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhajri, Meshari A SH A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the usefulness of Multiple Intelligence for educational planning for students in special education. More specifically, this study applied the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS) to a sample of students receiving special education services who had IEPs developed using…

  9. High level of work stressors increase the risk of mental-emotional disturbances among airline pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah S. Widyahening

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Civilian airline pilots have one of the most stressful occupations. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of work stressors and other factors on mental-emotional disturbances among airline pilots. A cross-sectional study was done by interviewing selected pilots of an airline using appropriate questionnaires, during their routine medical examination from May to July 1999 in Jakarta. Five aspects of work stressor were assessed: working conditions, physical conditions of working environment, career development, organization and interpersonal relationship. Mental-emotional disturbances were determined by using the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL 90 questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using relative risk by Cox regression with constant time. From 128 subjects interviewed, 109 could be analyzed. Most of the subjects were married (73.4% and college graduates (91.7%. The number of captains and first officers were almost equal. The prevalence of mental-emotional disturbances was 39.4%. Mental-emotional disturbances were significantly related to work stressors and moderately related to household tension (P = 0.184. Compared to pilots with low levels of work stressors, those with high or very high levels of work stressors had a risk of 4.6 times of mental-emotional disturbances [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 4.64; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.01 – 19.65]. Adequate guides to cope work stressors and household tension which related to mental-emotional disturbance is recommended. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:117-21Keywords: mental-emotional disturbance, work stressors, household tension, airline pilots

  10. Traumatic stressors and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in headache patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Reny; Schmidt, John E; Carlson, Charles R

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of significant traumatic stressors and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a headache population. Several recent publications have emphasized the relationship between life stressors and/or daily hassles and recurrent headaches. However, little is known about the prevalence and impact of major traumatic stressors in patients with recurrent headaches. Eighty patients with either migraine or tension-type headache completed a PTSD checklist. Data were compared with those from patients with chronic masticatory muscle pain of similar intensity and duration. Almost 64% of the headache patients reported one or more major traumatic stressors. This percentage was not significantly different from that of the comparison group, and fell within the broad range reported for exposure to traumatic stressors in epidemiologic studies with nonpatient populations. One out of 6 patients in the total headache sample, and 1 out of 4 of those reporting a traumatic stressor, reported symptoms suggestive of current PTSD. The prevalence of current PTSD-like symptomatology reported by the headache patients was comparable to that of the comparison group of the present study, but higher than that reported for the general population in the available literature printed in English. Traumatic stressors most often reported were not related to direct physical trauma, but rather associated with loss or serious illness of a loved one. Exposure to traumatic events in patients with a primary diagnosis of recurrent headaches is similar to that reported for chronic masticatory muscle pain patients or nonpatient populations. However, symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of current PTSD appear to be more frequent in patients with recurrent headaches than reported in the scientific literature printed in English for nonpatient populations. Screening for PTSD symptomatology is recommended as part of the routine clinical evaluation of headache.

  11. Assessment of hydrogen fuel cell applications using fuzzy multiple-criteria decision making method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Pao-Long; Hsu, Chiung-Wen; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study uses the fuzzy MCDM method to assess hydrogen fuel cell applications. ► We evaluate seven different hydrogen fuel cell applications based on 14 criteria. ► Results show that fuel cell backup power systems should be chosen for development in Taiwan. -- Abstract: Assessment is an essential process in framing government policy. It is critical to select the appropriate targets to meet the needs of national development. This study aimed to develop an assessment model for evaluating hydrogen fuel cell applications and thus provide a screening tool for decision makers. This model operates by selecting evaluation criteria, determining criteria weights, and assessing the performance of hydrogen fuel cell applications for each criterion. The fuzzy multiple-criteria decision making method was used to select the criteria and the preferred hydrogen fuel cell products based on information collected from a group of experts. Survey questionnaires were distributed to collect opinions from experts in different fields. After the survey, the criteria weights and a ranking of alternatives were obtained. The study first defined the evaluation criteria in terms of the stakeholders, so that comprehensive influence criteria could be identified. These criteria were then classified as environmental, technological, economic, or social to indicate the purpose of each criterion in the assessment process. The selected criteria included 14 indicators, such as energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions, as well as seven hydrogen fuel cell applications, such as forklifts and backup power systems. The results show that fuel cell backup power systems rank the highest, followed by household fuel cell electric-heat composite systems. The model provides a screening tool for decision makers to select hydrogen-related applications.

  12. MAPPING AND ASSESSING MULTIPLE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN AN ALPINE REGION: A STUDY IN TRENTINO, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferrari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify ecosystem services relevant for Trentino (a region in the Italian Alps, and to assess them through spatial indicators. 51 experts were involved in the identification of relevant ecosystem services and appropriate indicators to represent them. Indicators were computed using the database available at administrative level. Indicators represent the actual or the potential supply of ecosystem services, expressed in terms of either stock or flow. Moreover, indicators may refer to biophysical, economic or socio-cultural values. In total, the experts selected 25 ecosystem services and 57 assessment indicators. Accordingly, the selected indicators were mapped over different spatial units of ecosystem services representation, including land use and forest types. This research was the first attempt to assess a multiple set of ecosystem services for Trentino. The results provide new information that can be used to achieve the objectives of the EU Biodiversity Strategy by 2014. The proposed approach can be reasonably extended to other Alpine areas with similar morphology, land cover and land use.

  13. Fostering dental student self-assessment of knowledge by confidence scoring of multiple-choice examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, C Alex; Pinckard, R Neal; Jones, Anne Cale; Hendricson, William D

    2014-12-01

    Creating a learning environment that fosters student acquisition of self-assessment behaviors and skills is critically important in the education and training of health professionals. Self-assessment is a vital component of competent practice and lifelong learning. This article proposes applying a version of confidence scoring of multiple-choice questions as one avenue to address this crucial educational objective for students to be able to recognize and admit what they do not know. The confidence scoring algorithm assigns one point for a correct answer, deducts fractional points for an incorrect answer, but rewards students fractional points for leaving the question unanswered in admission that they are unsure of the correct answer. The magnitude of the reward relative to the deduction is selected such that the expected gain due to random guessing, even after elimination of all but one distractor, is never greater than the reward. Curricular implementation of this confidence scoring algorithm should motivate health professions students to develop self-assessment behaviors and enable them to acquire the skills necessary to critically evaluate the extent of their current knowledge throughout their professional careers. This is a professional development competency that is emphasized in the educational standards of the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA).

  14. Evaluating Sativex® in Neuropathic Pain Management: A Clinical and Neurophysiological Assessment in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Margherita; Naro, Antonino; Leo, Antonino; Sessa, Edoardo; D'Aleo, Giangaetano; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    The aim of our study was to better investigate the role of Sativex(®) in improving pain in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients by means of either clinical or neurophysiological assessment. Pain is a common symptom of MS, affecting up to 70% of patients. Pain treatment is often unsatisfactory, although emerging drugs (including cannabinoids) are giving encouraging results. Clinical pain assessment in MS is very difficult, and more objective tools are necessary to better quantify this symptom and its potential response to the treatments. We enrolled 20 MS patients (10 with and 10 without neuropathic pain), who underwent a specific clinical (such as visual analog scale) and neurophysiological assessment (by means of laser-evoked potentials and transcranial magnetic stimulation), before and after 4 weeks of Sativex administration. One month of drug administration in MS patients with neuropathic pain successfully reduced pain rating and improved quality of life. Interestingly, such effects were paralleled by an increase of fronto-central γ-band oscillation and of pain-motor integration strength. Our data suggest that Sativex may be effective in improving MS-related neuropathic pain, maybe through its action on specific cortical pathways. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Environmental assessment and planning theory: four short stories about power, multiple rationality, and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This paper engages with recent debates in the environmental assessment (EA) literature about the lessons that can be learned from planning theory. It argues that the current communicative turn in EA, echoing a similar shift in planning thought in the 1990s, has failed to benefit from this earlier experience. Instead of following this trend, the paper examines EA from a perspective which is more closely aligned with some of the critics of the communicative approach, and which combines concepts of power, rationality, value and ethics in a different way. First, the paper briefly sets out how planning theory has engaged with these concepts. It then argues that EA needs to engage with competing multiple rationalities, and the inescapable presence of value conflicts within EA. It then turns to recent debates in EA to show how the question of value has become a very difficult issue for EA theorists. These issues are then explored by looking at four cases where environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) become dramatic sites of struggle, in very different ways: where the boundaries between facts, boundaries, and opinions are defined through power struggles; where SEA is used as a process of brokerage between a fragile coalition of interests; where power defines rationality in the construction of an SEA instrument; and where EIA is challenged from the outside by civil society. The paper closes by discussing how EA practitioners can operate reflexively and ethically in a world of contested rationality

  16. Global and 3D spatial assessment of neuroinflammation in rodent models of Multiple Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Gupta

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a progressive autoimmune inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. T cells play a key role in the progression of neuroinflammation in MS and also in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE animal models for the disease. A technology for quantitative and 3 dimensional (3D spatial assessment of inflammation in this and other CNS inflammatory conditions is much needed. Here we present a procedure for 3D spatial assessment and global quantification of the development of neuroinflammation based on Optical Projection Tomography (OPT. Applying this approach to the analysis of rodent models of MS, we provide global quantitative data of the major inflammatory component as a function of the clinical course. Our data demonstrates a strong correlation between the development and progression of neuroinflammation and clinical disease in several mouse and a rat model of MS refining the information regarding the spatial dynamics of the inflammatory component in EAE. This method provides a powerful tool to investigate the effect of environmental and genetic forces and for assessing the therapeutic effects of drug therapy in animal models of MS and other neuroinflammatory/neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. Feasibility study for remote assessment of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Michaela F; Holingue, Calliope B; Briggs, Farren B S; Shao, Xiaorong; Bellesis, Kalliope H; Whitmer, Rachel A; Schaefer, Catherine; Benedict, Ralph Hb; Barcellos, Lisa F

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and affects employment and quality of life. Large studies are needed to identify risk factors for cognitive decline. Currently, a MS-validated remote assessment for cognitive function does not exist. Studies to determine feasibility of large remote cognitive function investigations in MS have not been published. To determine whether MS patients would participate in remote cognitive studies. We utilized the Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-M), a previously validated phone assessment for cognitive function in healthy elderly populations to detect mild cognitive impairment. We identified factors that influenced participation rates. We investigated the relationship between MS risk factors and TICS-M score in cases, and score differences between cases and control individuals. The TICS-M was administered to MS cases and controls. Linear and logistic regression models were utilized. 11.5% of eligible study participants did not participate in cognitive testing. MS cases, females and individuals with lower educational status were more likely to refuse (pTICS-M score among cases (pTICS-M score was significantly lower in cases compared to controls (p=0.007). Our results demonstrate convincingly that a remotely administered cognitive assessment is quite feasible for conducting large epidemiologic studies in MS, and lay the much needed foundation for future work that will utilize MS-validated cognitive measures.

  18. Glucometabolic effects of single and repeated exposure to forced-swimming stressor in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakinyo, Ayodele Olufemi; Iranloye, Bolanle Olubusola; Ogunsola, Oluseyi Abimbola

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of a single (acute) and repeated (chronic) exposure to forced-swimming stressor on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and glycogen content in male rats. Thirty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (12 weeks old) were divided randomly into five groups: control group, single exposure (SE) to forced-swim stressor, repeated exposure to forced-swim stressor for 7 days (RE7), 14 days (RE14) and 28 days (RE28). Glucose tolerance test and Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were undertaken on fasting rats to obtain glucose and insulin profiles. ELISA was performed to assess plasma insulin and corticosterone levels. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, high- and low-density lipoproteins, hepatic and skeletal glycogen content were also determined. Repeated exposure to stressor induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in the experimental rats. Results showed that all RE groups exhibited a significantly higher area under the curve compared with others (p=0.0001); similarly, HOMA-IR increased (p=0.0001) in all RE groups compared with control. Prolonged exposure to stressor significantly increased the plasma insulin and corticosterone levels but decreased the glycogen content in the liver and skeletal muscle when compared with the control group. Additionally, chronic stressor significantly increased the total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, however, acute stressor produced significantly elevated high-density lipoproteins level. In conclusion, repeated exposure to forced-swimming stressor induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats by disrupting the insulin sensitivity as well as heightening the glycogenolysis in the liver and skeletal muscle. Acute stressor was unable to cause glucose intolerance and insulin resistance but it appears that may have a positive effect on the lipid metabolism.

  19. Does the Assessment of Recovery Capital scale reflect a single or multiple domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Stephan; Sahker, Ethan; Hedden, Suzy

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the 50-item Assessment of Recovery Capital scale represents a single general measure or whether multiple domains might be psychometrically useful for research or clinical applications. Data are from a cross-sectional de-identified existing program evaluation information data set with 1,138 clients entering substance use disorder treatment. Principal components and iterated factor analysis were used on the domain scores. Multiple group factor analysis provided a quasi-confirmatory factor analysis. The solution accounted for 75.24% of the total variance, suggesting that 10 factors provide a reasonably good fit. However, Tucker's congruence coefficients between the factor structure and defining weights (0.41-0.52) suggested a poor fit to the hypothesized 10-domain structure. Principal components of the 10-domain scores yielded one factor whose eigenvalue was greater than one (5.93), accounting for 75.8% of the common variance. A few domains had perceptible but small unique variance components suggesting that a few of the domains may warrant enrichment. Our findings suggest that there is one general factor, with a caveat. Using the 10 measures inflates the chance for Type I errors. Using one general measure avoids this issue, is simple to interpret, and could reduce the number of items. However, those seeking to maximally predict later recovery success may need to use the full instrument and all 10 domains.

  20. Influences on cocaine tolerance assessed under a multiple conjunctive schedule of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin Ho; Branch, Marc N

    2009-11-01

    Under multiple schedules of reinforcement, previous research has generally observed tolerance to the rate-decreasing effects of cocaine that has been dependent on schedule-parameter size in the context of fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, but not under the context of fixed-interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement. The current experiment examined the effects of cocaine on key-pecking responses of White Carneau pigeons maintained under a three-component multiple conjunctive FI (10 s, 30 s, & 120 s) FR (5 responses) schedule of food presentation. Dose-effect curves representing the effects of presession cocaine on responding were assessed in the context of (1) acute administration of cocaine (2) chronic administration of cocaine and (3) daily administration of saline. Chronic administration of cocaine generally resulted in tolerance to the response-rate decreasing effects of cocaine, and that tolerance was generally independent of relative FI value, as measured by changes in ED50 values. Daily administration of saline decreased ED50 values to those observed when cocaine was administered acutely. The results show that adding a FR requirement to FI schedules is not sufficient to produce schedule-parameter-specific tolerance. Tolerance to cocaine was generally independent of FI-parameter under the present conjunctive schedules, indicating that a ratio requirement, per se, is not sufficient for tolerance to be dependent on FI parameter.

  1. On the Application of Joint-Domain Dictionary Mapping for Multiple Power Disturbance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Cai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a joint-domain dictionary mapping method to obtain high assessment accuracy of multiple power disturbances. Firstly, in order to achieve resolutions in both the time and frequency domains, a joint-domain dictionary is proposed which consists of a discrete Hartley base and an identity matrix. Due to the low correlation between the discrete Hartley base and the identity matrix, the joint-domain dictionary mapping can separately capture the approximations of the sinusoidal components and transients. Since the mapping coefficients contain the physical quantities, the eigenvalues of each component can be effectively estimated. A quantified eigenvalue classifier was designed for identifying power disturbances using the estimated eigenvalues. The proposed method was compared with several advanced methods through simulated power disturbances under different noise conditions, and actual data from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Power and Energy Society database. The results reveal that the joint-domain dictionary mapping technique shows good performance on parameter estimation and recognition precision, even dealing with complicated multiple power disturbances.

  2. Multiple Impulse Therapy in the Assessment of Paraspinal Muscle Tone in Patients with Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haładaj, Robert; Topol, Mirosław

    2016-11-30

    Back pain is quite common in contemporary society, whose expectations of an effective analgesic therapy in conservative treatment lead to a necessity of searching for new diagnostic and therapeutic methods in physiotherapy. Out of the numerous physical therapy methods, Multiple Impulse Therapy (MIT) deserves special consideration. This paper aims to present and analyse the outcomes of MIT concerning paraspinal muscle tone and pain intensity in patients with low back pain. The study enrolled 117 patients (50 women and 67 men; average age of 45.3 yrs) with lumbar conditions confirmed by imaging studies. The participants received five MIT sessions within 14 days. Moreover, both before and after the therapy all the patients underwent bilateral assessment of the paraspinal muscle tone by surface electromyography (sEMG) with the NoraxonMyoTrace 400 system and an interactive head of the PulStarFRAS device. A VAS was used for evaluation of pain severity. The analysis of significance of differences between scores before and after treatment showed that all the parameters changed significantly (MIT: 11.11 Ibf before and 8.89 Ibf after the therapy; VAS: 6.04 before and 3.38 afterwards; sEMG: 9.29uV before and 7.51uV afterwards). 1. Multiple Impulse Therapy (MIT) is an effective and non-invasive method of back pain treatment. 2. MIT significantly reduces paraspinal muscle tone, as confirmed by sEMG results, and shows a strong analgesic effect.

  3. Assessment of Personality Types and Locus of Control in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Mazaheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease with unknown cause. MS is one of the disabling neurologic diseases in adult especially young range that myelin part of central nervous system (CNS is destructed. The aim of this study was assessment of types A and B personality and internal and external locus of control in multiple sclerosis (MS patients and comparison of the results with control group.Materials & Methods: In a case-control study, 30 patients with MS and 30 normal persons as control group evaluated with neurological examination, Rotter locus of control test and Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire for detection of types A and B personality. We employed to analyze the results.Results: 43 percent and 57 percent of MS patients had internal and external locus of control respectively. 63 percent and 37 percent of MS patients had type A and B personality respectively. 60 percent and 40 percent of control group had internal and external locus of control respectively. 20 percent and 80 percent of control group had type A and B personality respectively. Difference between personality type in two groups was significant (P<0.01.Conclusions: In this study, MS patients had more type A personality in comparison to control group.

  4. Hotel housekeeping occupational stressors in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Matthew H. T.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is evident in the Norwegian hotel industry and requires urgent attention as portrayed in Annbjørg’s housekeeping managerial occupation. Annbjørg’s occupational stressors derived from weak control of and support for demanding jobs in the housekeeping department and possibly under-reward in comparison to her tireless efforts. Hence, this case study provides a platform for educators, trainers, managers, students and learners to critically examine, discuss and argue managerial occupational...

  5. Distal Stressors and Depression among Homeless Men

    OpenAIRE

    Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common problem among homeless men that may interfere with functional tasks, such as securing stable housing, obtaining employment, and accessing health services. Previous research on depression among homeless men has largely focused on current psychosocial resources, substance abuse, and past victimization. Guided by Ensel and Lin’s life course stress process model, the authors examined whether distal stressors, including victimization and exposure to parent problems in childh...

  6. Application of X-ray methods to assess grain vulnerability to damage resulting from multiple loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlobecki, A.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the work is to describe wheat grain behavior under multiple dynamic loads with various multipliers. The experiments were conducted on Almari variety grain. Grain moisture was 11, 16, 21 and 28%. A special ram stand was used for loading the grain. The experiments were carried out using an 8 g weight, equivalent to impact energy of 4,6 x 10 -3 [J]. The X-ray method was used to assess damage. The exposure time was 8 minutes with X-ray lamp voltage equal to 15 kV. The position index was used as the measure of the damage. The investigation results were elaborated statistically. Based on the results of analysis of variance, regression analysis, the d-Duncan test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the damage number was shown to depend greatly on the number of impacts for the whole range of moisture of the grain loaded. (author)

  7. Reliability-based assessment of deteriorating ship structures operating in multiple sea loading climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moan, Torgeir [Centre for Ships and Ocean Structures, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Marine Technology Centre, Tyholt, N 7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: tormo@marin.ntnu.no; Ayala-Uraga, Efren [Department of Marine Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Marine Technology Centre, Tyholt, N 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2008-03-15

    A reliability-based model for assessment of deteriorating ships subjected to multiple environmental conditions is established. Deterioration due to combined crack growth and corrosion in structural components of a ship hull is accounted for based on a fracture mechanics formulation. The model enables to take into account the corrosion-induced increased crack growth rate in two ways: (1) the increased stress range produced by the plate thinning (wastage) effect and (2) corrosion fatigue itself. Sensitivity studies are carried out to evaluate the effect of inspection updating on a production ship subjected to two different climate conditions. The hazard rate concept is adopted as a measure of reliability and emphasized throughout the different case studies.

  8. Fast assessment of the critical principal stress direction for multiple separated multiaxial loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The critical plane calculation for multiaxial damage assessment is often a demanding task, particularly for large FEM models of real components. Anyway, in actual engineering requests, sometime, it is possible to take advantage of the specific properties of the investigated case. This paper deals with the problem of a mechanical component loaded by multiple, but “time-separated”, multiaxial external loads. The specific material damage is dependent from the max principal stress variation with a significant mean stress sensitivity too. A specifically fitted procedure was developed for a fast computation, at each node of a large FEM model, of the direction undergoing the maximum fatigue damage; the procedure is defined according to an effective stress definition based on the max principal stress amplitude and mean value. The procedure is presented in a general form, applicable to the similar cases.

  9. A longitudinal, mixed methods investigation of newly qualified nurses' workplace stressors and stress experiences during transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Yvonne; Terry, Louise M; Curzio, Joan

    2017-11-01

    To investigate transition in newly qualified nurses through an exploration of their stressors and stress experiences during their first 12 months postqualifying. Globally, thousands of new nurses qualify annually. They are crucial for the profession and healthcare service delivery. Work-related stress has multiple serious consequences, yet there is a lack of robust, empirical evidence that directly analyses newly qualified nurses and the stress they feel and experience in the workplace. Understanding what causes newly qualified nurses' stress is vital to retaining and nurturing this vital component of the workforce. Longitudinal, explanatory sequential mixed methods, cohort study. At the point of qualification (n = 288), 6 months postqualifying (n = 107) and 12 months postqualifying (n = 86), newly qualified nurses completed the Nursing Stress Scale, with 14 completing a one-to-one interview at 12 months postqualifying. Data were collected from 2010 - 2012. Inferential statistics, "thematic analysis" and "side-by-side comparisons in a discussion" were used for analysis. Workload was consistently the highest reported stressor with inadequate staffing and managing multiple role demands given as explanations. Incivility within the workplace was a noted stressor. Conversely, being part of "a good team" provided a civil, supportive, facilitative work environment. Entering nurse education with previous healthcare experience had a mediating effect on the reported frequency of stressors. Newly qualified nurses encounter multiple work-related stressors over their first 12 months postqualifying, which are intrinsically entwined with their transition. Employing organizations need to be more proactive in managing their workload and addressing workplace incivility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A Case Study Application of the Aggregate Exposure Pathway (AEP) and Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Frameworks to Facilitate the Integration of Human Health and Ecological End Points for Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) methods promote the use of a conceptual site model (CSM) to apportion exposures and integrate risk from multiple stressors. While CSMs may encompass multiple species, evaluating end points across taxa can be challenging due to data availability an...

  11. Cation interdependency in acute stressor states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Usman; Komolafe, Babatunde O; Weber, Karl T

    2013-05-01

    Acute stressor states are inextricably linked to neurohormonal activation which includes the adrenergic nervous system. Consequent elevations in circulating epinephrine and norepinephrine unmask an interdependency that exists between K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+. Catecholamines, for example, regulate the large number of Mg2+-dependent Na/K ATPase pumps present in skeletal muscle. A hyperadrenergic state accounts for a sudden translocation of K+ into muscle and rapid appearance of hypokalemia. In the myocardium, catecholamines promote Mg2+ efflux from cardiomyocytes, whereas intracellular Ca2+ influx and overloading account for the induction of oxidative stress and necrosis of these cells with leakage of their contents, including troponins. Accordingly, acute stressor states can be accompanied by nonischemic elevations in serum troponins, together with the concordant appearance of hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and ionized hypocalcemia, causing a delay in myocardial repolarization and electrocardiographic QTc prolongation raising the propensity for arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. In this review, we focus on the interdependency between K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ which are clinically relevant to acute stressor states.

  12. Distal Stressors and Depression among Homeless Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D

    2016-05-01

    Depression is a common problem among homeless men that may interfere with functional tasks, such as securing stable housing, obtaining employment, and accessing health services. Previous research on depression among homeless men has largely focused on current psychosocial resources, substance abuse, and past victimization. Guided by Ensel and Lin's life course stress process model, the authors examined whether distal stressors, including victimization and exposure to parent problems in childhood, contributed to men's depression above and beyond current (or proximal) stressors, such as substance abuse and health problems, and social resources. The sample consisted of 309 homeless men who had entered a federally funded emergency shelter. Using the Burns Depression Checklist, the authors found that one out of three men met the threshold for moderate to severe depression during the past week. The logistic regression showed that past exposure to parent problems was related to depression after accounting for current stressors and social resources (number of close adult relationships and whether their emotional support needs were met). Past victimization was not related to depression. To address men's depression, workers should concurrently provide services that meet men's basic needs (for example, housing) and address their relationship needs, including their need for emotional support.

  13. Stressor controllability modulates fear extinction in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Catherine A.; Gorun, Alyson; Reddan, Marianne C.; Ramirez, Franchesca; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic events are proposed to play a role in the development of anxiety disorders, however not all individuals exposed to extreme stress experience a pathological increase in fear. Recent studies in animal models suggest that the degree to which one is able to control an aversive experience is a critical factor determining its behavioral consequences. In this study, we examined whether stressor controllability modulates subsequent conditioned fear expression in humans. Participants were randomly assigned to an escapable stressor condition, a yoked inescapable stressor condition, or a control condition involving no stress exposure. One week later, all participants underwent fear conditioning, fear extinction, and a test of extinction retrieval the following day. Participants exposed to inescapable stress showed impaired fear extinction learning and increased fear expression the following day. In contrast, escapable stress improved fear extinction and prevented the spontaneous recovery of fear. Consistent with the bidirectional controllability effects previously reported in animal models, these results suggest that one's degree of control over aversive experiences may be an important factor influencing the development of psychological resilience or vulnerability in humans. PMID:24333646

  14. Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations from Ovarian Stimulation (AMIGOS) Trial: Baseline Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Michael P.; Legro, Richard S.; Coutifaris, Christos; Alvero, Ruben; Robinson, Randal D.; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M.; Ager, Joel; Huang, Hao; Hansen, Karl R.; Baker, Valerie; Usadi, Rebecca; Seungdamrong, Aimee; Bates, G. Wright; Rosen, R. Mitchell; Haisonleder, Daniell; Krawetz, Stephen A.; Barnhart, Kurt; Trussell, J.C.; Jin, Yufeng; Santoro, Nanette; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify baseline characteristics of women with unexplained infertility to determine whether treatment with an aromatase inhibitor will result in a lower rate of multiple gestations than current standard ovulation induction medications. Design Randomized, prospective clinical trial Patients 900 couples with unexplained infertility Interventions: Ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins, clomiphene citrate, or letrozole in conjunction with intrauterine insemination. Setting Multicenter University based clinical practices. Main Outcome Measures Demographic, laboratory, imaging, and survey characteristics. Interventions Collection of baseline demographics, blood samples, and ultrasonographic assessments. Results Demographic characteristics of women receiving clomiphene citrate, letrozole, or gonadotropins for ovarian stimulation were very consistent. Their mean age was 32.2 ± 4.4 years and infertility duration was 34.7± 25.7 months, with 59% primary infertility. More than 1/3 of the women were current or past smokers. The mean BMI was 27 and mean AMH level was 2.6; only 11 women (1.3%) had antral follicle counts of less than 5. Similar observations were identified for hormonal profiles, ultrasound characterization of the ovaries, semen parameters, and quality of life assessments in both male and female partners. Conclusion The cause of infertility in the couples recruited to this treatment trial is elusive, as the women were regularly ovulating and had evidence of good ovarian reserve both by basal FSH, AMH levels, and antral follicle counts; the male partners had normal semen parameters. The three treatment subgroups have common baseline characteristics, thereby providing comparable patient populations for testing the hypothesis that use of letrozole for ovarian stimulation can reduce the rates of multiples from that observed with gonadotropin and clomiphene citrate treatment. PMID:25707331

  15. Assessment set for evaluation of clinical outcomes in multiple sclerosis: psychometric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasova K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kamila Rasova,1 Patricia Martinkova,2 Jana Vyskotova,3 Michaela Sedova21Department of Rehabilitation, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and Faculty Hospital Královské Vinohrady, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Center of Biomedical Informatics and Department of Medical Informatics and Biostatistics, Institute of Computer Science, AS CR, Prague, Czech Republic; 3Faculty of Medicine, Ostrava University, Ostrava, Czech RepublicPurpose: Multiple sclerosis (MS manifests itself in a wide range of symptoms. Physiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of those symptoms connected with mobility. For this therapy to be at its most effective it should be based on a systematic examination that is able to describe and classify damaged clinical functions meaningfully. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a battery of tests and composite tests that can be used to systematically evaluate clinical features of MS treatable by physiotherapy.Methods: The authors assembled a proposed battery of tests comprising known, standard, and validated assessments (low-contrast letter acuity testing; the Motricity Index; the Modified Ashworth Scale; the Berg Balance Scale; scales of postural reactions, tremor, dysdiadochokinesia, and dysmetria; the Nine-Hole Peg Test; the Timed 25-Foot Walk; and the 3-minute version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and one test (knee hyperextension of the authors’ own. Normalization was calculated and six composite assessments were measured. Seventeen ambulatory subjects with MS were tested twice with the assessment set before undergoing physiotherapy, and 12 were also tested with the assessment set after the physiotherapy. The test–retest reliability, stability, internal consistency of composite measurements, sensitivity to changes after therapy, and correlation between measurements and the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale score were evaluated for all tests in the assessment set

  16. The effects of working conditions and financial state as job stressors : A comparison of the chronic job stressors and job event stressors of two companies

    OpenAIRE

    Kosugi, Shoutaro; Otsuka, Yasumasa

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the effects of working conditions and the financial state as chronic job stressors and job event stressors. In study 1, the Job Stress Scale was applied to a total of 6,312 employees in an industrial research institute and a construction company to measure chronic job stressors. In study 2, 1,423 employees of these companies filled out the Job Events Checklist to measure job event stressors. Result: Employees in the industrial research institute had more chronic job stress...

  17. Carbon balance assessment of a natural steppe of southern Siberia by multiple constraint approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Belelli Marchesini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Steppe ecosystems represent an interesting case in which the assessment of carbon balance may be performed through a cross validation of the eddy covariance measurements against ecological inventory estimates of carbon exchanges (Ehman et al., 2002; Curtis et al., 2002.

    Indeed, the widespread presence of ideal conditions for the applicability of the eddy covariance technique, as vast and homogeneous grass vegetation cover over flat terrains (Baldocchi, 2003, make steppes a suitable ground to ensure a constrain to flux estimates with independent methodological approaches.

    We report about the analysis of the carbon cycle of a true steppe ecosystem in southern Siberia during the growing season of 2004 in the framework of the TCOS-Siberia project activities performed by continuous monitoring of CO2 fluxes at ecosystem scale by the eddy covariance method, fortnightly samplings of phytomass, and ingrowth cores extractions for NPP assessment, and weekly measurements of heterotrophic component of soil CO2 effluxes obtained by an experiment of root exclusion.

    The carbon balance of the monitored natural steppe was, according to micrometeorological measurements, a sink of carbon of 151.7±36.9 g C m−2, cumulated during the growing season from May to September. This result was in agreement with the independent estimate through ecological inventory which yielded a sink of 150.1 g C m−2 although this method was characterized by a large uncertainty (±130% considering the 95% confidence interval of the estimate. Uncertainties in belowground process estimates account for a large part of the error. Thus, in particular efforts to better quantify the dynamics of root biomass (growth and turnover have to be undertaken in order to reduce the uncertainties in the assessment of NPP. This assessment should be preferably based on the application of multiple methods, each one characterized by its

  18. Detailed assessment of gene activation levels by multiple hypoxia-responsive elements under various hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yasuto; Inubushi, Masayuki; Jin, Yong-Nan; Murai, Chika; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Hata, Hironobu; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2014-12-01

    HIF-1/HRE pathway is a promising target for the imaging and the treatment of intractable malignancy (HIF-1; hypoxia-inducible factor 1, HRE; hypoxia-responsive element). The purposes of our study are: (1) to assess the gene activation levels resulting from various numbers of HREs under various hypoxic conditions, (2) to evaluate the bidirectional activity of multiple HREs, and (3) to confirm whether multiple HREs can induce gene expression in vivo. Human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells were transiently transfected by the constructs containing a firefly luciferase reporter gene and various numbers (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of HREs (nHRE+, nHRE-). The relative luciferase activities were measured under various durations of hypoxia (6, 12, 18, and 24 h), O2 concentrations (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 %), and various concentrations of deferoxamine mesylate (20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 µg/mL growth medium). The bidirectional gene activation levels by HREs were examined in the constructs (dual-luc-nHREs) containing firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes at each side of nHREs. Finally, to test whether the construct containing 12HRE and the NIS reporter gene (12HRE-NIS) can induce gene expression in vivo, SPECT imaging was performed in a mouse xenograft model. (1) gene activation levels by HREs tended to increase with increasing HRE copy number, but a saturation effect was observed in constructs with more than 6 or 8 copies of an HRE, (2) gene activation levels by HREs increased remarkably during 6-12 h of hypoxia, but not beyond 12 h, (3) gene activation levels by HREs decreased with increasing O2 concentrations, but could be detected even under mild hypoxia at 16 % O2, (4) the bidirectionally proportional activity of the HRE was confirmed regardless of the hypoxic severity, and (5) NIS expression driven by 12 tandem copies of an HRE in response to hypoxia could be visualized on in vivo SPECT imaging. The results of this study will help in the understanding and assessment of

  19. Assessing multiple goods and services derived from livestock farming on a nation-wide gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryschawy, J; Disenhaus, C; Bertrand, S; Allaire, G; Aznar, O; Plantureux, S; Josien, E; Guinot, C; Lasseur, J; Perrot, C; Tchakerian, E; Aubert, C; Tichit, M

    2017-10-01

    Livestock farming is an essential activity in many rural areas, where it contributes to the maintenance of soil fertility and farmland biodiversity, as well as to a set of social public goods including food security, rural vitality and culture. However, livestock sustainability assessments tend to focus primarily on environmental and economic dimensions; therefore, these valuations might be limited because they do not consider the complete set of associated goods and services (GS). Hence, a need exists to recognise the multiple contributions provided by livestock to human well-being and society. The objective of this study was to analyse the provision of multiple GS derived from livestock across regions in France and empirically demonstrate sets of GS that repeatedly appeared together. We designated these multiple GS provided by livestock as contributions to productive, environmental, rural vitality and cultural benefits that human populations derive directly or indirectly from livestock agroecosystems. First, we combined expert knowledge with results of a literature review to define a bundle of GS provided by livestock. We then described indicators that quantified each good or service and screened national databases to determine the availability of supporting data. Finally, we assessed the GS and their relationships (synergies or trade-offs) on a nation-wide gradient in France at the department level (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics 3). Four main categories of GS were considered: provisioning (e.g. food quantity and quality), environmental quality (e.g. biodiversity, landscape heterogeneity, water quality), rural vitality (e.g. employment, rural dynamism) and culture (e.g. gastronomy and landscape heritage). Four major types of GS bundles were identified, which suggested strong contrasts among French rural areas in terms of the nature of the GS that occurred together and their levels of provision. GS bundles in France had a non-random spatial

  20. A cohort study of psychosocial work stressors on work ability among Brazilian hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2015-07-01

    Hospital work is characterized by stressors that can influence work ability. The present study aims to assess the association between psychosocial work stressors and changes in work ability in a group of Brazilian hospital employees. From 1,022 workers included in a 3-year cohort started in 2009, 423 (41.4%) returned the applied questionnaires in 2012. Changes in work ability were considered as the dependent variable and the investigated psychosocial work stressors as independent variables. Logistic regression models adjusted for potential con-founders (demographic, occupational features, social support, overcommitment, and situations liable to cause pain/injury). High levels of exposure to psychosocial work stressors were significantly associated with decreased work ability: job strain (OR = 2.81), effort-reward imbalance (OR = 3.21). Strategies to reduce psychosocial work stressors should be considered to maintain hospital employees' work ability. Such strategies have implications for institutional and social policies and might be included in quality management programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Sensory mediation of memory blocking stressors in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalesman, Sarah; Karnik, Vikram; Lukowiak, Ken

    2011-08-01

    The great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is commonly used as a model species to study how stress affects the ability to form long-term memory (LTM); however, we still have little information about how the snail senses stressful stimuli. The osphradium is an external sensory organ that demonstrates electrophysiological responses to a variety of external chemical stimuli. We examined the role, if any, played by the osphradium in sensing two environmental stressors, crowding and low environmental calcium, both known to block LTM in intact animals. We severed the osphradial nerve, blocking external sensory input from this organ to the central nervous system, and then exposed the snails to low environmental calcium or crowding stress to assess whether these stressors continued to block LTM formation. When exposed to low environmental calcium, snails with their osphradial nerve severed responded as if they were maintained in our standard calcium environment. That is, they did not respond to low calcium as a stressor blocking LTM; therefore, the osphradium plays a crucial role in mediating how snails respond to this stressor. However, following crowding, LTM formation was blocked in both control groups and snails that had the osphradial nerve severed, indicating that sensory information from the osphradium is not required to sense crowded conditions. Together these data show that two stressors that result in the same behavioural phenotype, blocking LTM formation, do so via two distinct sensory pathways.

  2. Healthcare managers' leadership profiles in relation to perceptions of work stressors and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lornudd, Caroline; Bergman, David; Sandahl, Christer; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2016-05-03

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between leadership profiles and differences in managers' own levels of work stress symptoms and perceptions of work stressors causing stress. Design/methodology/approach Cross-sectional data were used. Healthcare managers ( n = 188) rated three dimensions of their leadership behavior and levels of work stressors and stress. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to identify leadership profiles based on leadership behaviors. Differences in stress-related outcomes between profiles were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. Findings Four distinct clusters of leadership profiles were found. They discriminated in perception of work stressors and stress: the profile distinguished by the lowest mean in all behavior dimensions, exhibited a pattern with significantly more negative ratings compared to the other profiles. Practical implications This paper proposes that leadership profile is an individual factor involved in the stress process, including work stressors and stress, which may inform targeted health promoting interventions for healthcare managers. Originality/value This is the first study to investigate the relationship between leadership profiles and work stressors and stress in healthcare managers.

  3. Are Leadership Fairness, Psychological Distress, and Role Stressors Interrelated? A Two-Wave Prospective Study of Forward and Reverse Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Morten B. Nielsen; Jan O. Christensen; Live B. Finne; Stein Knardahl

    2018-01-01

    While previous research has mainly considered leadership as an antecedent to psychological distress and role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) among subordinates, a reverse relationship where these variables influence reports of leadership is also possible. To determine the directionality of the associations this two-wave prospective study assesses bidirectional relationships between fair leadership and role stressors and examines whether psychological distress mediates the r...

  4. The Effects of Multiple-Step and Single-Step Directions on Fourth and Fifth Grade Students' Grammar Assessment Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerik, Matthew B.

    2006-01-01

    The mean scores of English Language Learners (ELL) and English Only (EO) students in 4th and 5th grade (N = 110), across the teacher-administered Grammar Skills Test, were examined for differences in participants' scores on assessments containing single-step directions and assessments containing multiple-step directions. The results indicated no…

  5. An Australian Study Comparing the Use of Multiple-Choice Questionnaires with Assignments as Interim, Summative Law School Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    To the author's knowledge, this is the first Australian study to empirically compare the use of a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ) with the use of a written assignment for interim, summative law school assessment. This study also surveyed the same student sample as to what types of assessments are preferred and why. In total, 182 undergraduate…

  6. Metal stressors consistently modulate bacterial conjugal plasmid uptake potential in a phylogenetically conserved manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli; Dechesne, Arnaud; Riber, Leise

    2017-01-01

    The environmental stimulants and inhibitors of conjugal plasmid transfer in microbial communities are poorly understood. Specifically, it is not known whether exposure to stressors may cause a community to alter its plasmid uptake ability. We assessed whether metals (Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn) and one metal...... that community permissiveness is sensitive to metal(loid) stress in a manner that is both partially consistent across stressors and phylogenetically conserved.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 2 August 2016; doi:10.1038/ismej.2016.98....

  7. An in vitro lung model to assess true shunt fraction by multiple inert gas elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan Varadarajan

    Full Text Available The Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique, based on Micropore Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry, (MMIMS-MIGET has been designed as a rapid and direct method to assess the full range of ventilation-to-perfusion (V/Q ratios. MMIMS-MIGET distributions have not been assessed in an experimental setup with predefined V/Q-distributions. We aimed (I to construct a novel in vitro lung model (IVLM for the simulation of predefined V/Q distributions with five gas exchange compartments and (II to correlate shunt fractions derived from MMIMS-MIGET with preset reference shunt values of the IVLM. Five hollow-fiber membrane oxygenators switched in parallel within a closed extracorporeal oxygenation circuit were ventilated with sweep gas (V and perfused with human red cell suspension or saline (Q. Inert gas solution was infused into the perfusion circuit of the gas exchange assembly. Sweep gas flow (V was kept constant and reference shunt fractions (IVLM-S were established by bypassing one or more oxygenators with perfusate flow (Q. The derived shunt fractions (MM-S were determined using MIGET by MMIMS from the retention data. Shunt derived by MMIMS-MIGET correlated well with preset reference shunt fractions. The in vitro lung model is a convenient system for the setup of predefined true shunt fractions in validation of MMIMS-MIGET.

  8. Improved assessment of multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation agreement via detection and outline error estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wack David S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presented is the method “Detection and Outline Error Estimates” (DOEE for assessing rater agreement in the delineation of multiple sclerosis (MS lesions. The DOEE method divides operator or rater assessment into two parts: 1 Detection Error (DE -- rater agreement in detecting the same regions to mark, and 2 Outline Error (OE -- agreement of the raters in outlining of the same lesion. Methods DE, OE and Similarity Index (SI values were calculated for two raters tested on a set of 17 fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR images of patients with MS. DE, OE, and SI values were tested for dependence with mean total area (MTA of the raters' Region of Interests (ROIs. Results When correlated with MTA, neither DE (ρ = .056, p=.83 nor the ratio of OE to MTA (ρ = .23, p=.37, referred to as Outline Error Rate (OER, exhibited significant correlation. In contrast, SI is found to be strongly correlated with MTA (ρ = .75, p  Conclusions The DE and OER indices are proposed as a better method than SI for comparing rater agreement of ROIs, which also provide specific information for raters to improve their agreement.

  9. Technologies for Advanced Gait and Balance Assessments in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille J. Shanahan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Subtle gait and balance dysfunction is a precursor to loss of mobility in multiple sclerosis (MS. Biomechanical assessments using advanced gait and balance analysis technologies can identify these subtle changes and could be used to predict mobility loss early in the disease. This update critically evaluates advanced gait and balance analysis technologies and their applicability to identifying early lower limb dysfunction in people with MS. Non-wearable (motion capture systems, force platforms, and sensor-embedded walkways and wearable (pressure and inertial sensors biomechanical analysis systems have been developed to provide quantitative gait and balance assessments. Non-wearable systems are highly accurate, reliable and provide detailed outcomes, but require cumbersome and expensive equipment. Wearable systems provide less detail but can be used in community settings and can provide real-time feedback to patients and clinicians. Biomechanical analysis using advanced gait and balance analysis technologies can identify changes in gait and balance in early MS and consequently have the potential to significantly improve monitoring of mobility changes in MS.

  10. Examining the Psychometric Quality of Multiple-Choice Assessment Items using Mokken Scale Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Stefanie A

    The concept of invariant measurement is typically associated with Rasch measurement theory (Engelhard, 2013). Concerned with the appropriateness of the parametric transformation upon which the Rasch model is based, Mokken (1971) proposed a nonparametric procedure for evaluating the quality of social science measurement that is theoretically and empirically related to the Rasch model. Mokken's nonparametric procedure can be used to evaluate the quality of dichotomous and polytomous items in terms of the requirements for invariant measurement. Despite these potential benefits, the use of Mokken scaling to examine the properties of multiple-choice (MC) items in education has not yet been fully explored. A nonparametric approach to evaluating MC items is promising in that this approach facilitates the evaluation of assessments in terms of invariant measurement without imposing potentially inappropriate transformations. Using Rasch-based indices of measurement quality as a frame of reference, data from an eighth-grade physical science assessment are used to illustrate and explore Mokken-based techniques for evaluating the quality of MC items. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  11. Coping with Work Stressors in Nursing. Effects of Adaptive versus Maladaptive Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Saroj; Hansen, Donna

    1987-01-01

    The effect of coping behaviors on nurses' affective reactions to work-generated stressors was assessed, using data gathered from 215 nurses in a medical center hospital in the Midwest. Adaptive coping, reflecting problem-solving behaviors, was found to moderate the relationships of work overload and resource inadequacy with felt stress. (Author/CH)

  12. Dual Diathesis-Stressor Model of Emotional and Linguistic Contributions to Developmental Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Tedra A.; Frankel, Carl B.; Buhr, Anthony P.; Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Karrass, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed emotional and speech-language contributions to childhood stuttering. A dual diathesis-stressor framework guided this study, in which both linguistic requirements and skills, and emotion and its regulation, are hypothesized to contribute to stuttering. The language diathesis consists of expressive and receptive language skills.…

  13. Role Stressors, Engagement and Work Behaviours: A Study of Higher Education Professional Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Tara M.; Prottas, David J.

    2017-01-01

    The study used data provided by 349 professional staff employees from 17 different US higher education institutions to assess aspects of their working conditions that could influence their own work engagement and the work-related behaviours of their colleagues. Relationships among three role stressors (role ambiguity, role conflict and role…

  14. Interpersonal Stressors and Resources as Predictors of Parental Adaptation Following Pediatric Traumatic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Drotar, Dennis; Yeates, Keith Owen; Minish, Nori M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship of preinjury interpersonal resources and stressors to parental adaptation following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) and orthopedic injury. Parents of children with severe TBI (n = 53), moderate TBI (n = 56), and orthopedic injuries (n = 80) were assessed soon after injury, 6 and 12 months after the…

  15. Exploring the Associations between Coping Patterns for Everyday Stressors and Mental Health in Young Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, Solveig; Lervag, Arne; Waaktaar, Trine; Ystgaard, Mette

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore the structure of coping with everyday stressors in a young nonclinical population and examine the relationship between coping and mental health. A total of 1324 children from 91 second-grade classes in 35 schools participated. Mental health was assessed using the parent and teacher forms of the Strengths…

  16. Physiological Reactivity to Cognitive Stressors: Variations by Age and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, Shevaun D.; Miller, Lisa M. Soederberg; Lachman, Margie E.

    2006-01-01

    The present study focused on age and SES differences in stress reactivity in response to cognitively challenging tasks. Specifically, we assessed within-person trajectories of cortisol, a steroid hormone released by the adrenal gland in response to stressors, before, during, and after exposure to cognitively challenging tasks. We extend the…

  17. Local scale multiple quantitative risk assessment and uncertainty evaluation in a densely urbanised area (Brescia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic risks is necessary for quantitative risk assessment in areas affected by active natural processes, high population density and strong economic activities.

    We present a multiple quantitative risk assessment on a 420 km2 high risk area (Brescia and surroundings, Lombardy, Northern Italy, for flood, seismic and industrial accident scenarios. Expected economic annual losses are quantified for each scenario and annual exceedance probability-loss curves are calculated. Uncertainty on the input variables is propagated by means of three different methodologies: Monte-Carlo-Simulation, First Order Second Moment, and point estimate.

    Expected losses calculated by means of the three approaches show similar values for the whole study area, about 64 000 000 € for earthquakes, about 10 000 000 € for floods, and about 3000 € for industrial accidents. Locally, expected losses assume quite different values if calculated with the three different approaches, with differences up to 19%.

    The uncertainties on the expected losses and their propagation, performed with the three methods, are compared and discussed in the paper. In some cases, uncertainty reaches significant values (up to almost 50% of the expected loss. This underlines the necessity of including uncertainty in quantitative risk assessment, especially when it is used as a support for territorial planning and decision making. The method is developed thinking at a possible application at a regional-national scale, on the basis of data available in Italy over the national territory.

  18. Quantitative assessment of multiple sclerosis lesion load using CAD and expert input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Wong, Alexis; Sangnil, Alan; Liu, Brent J.

    2008-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a frequently encountered neurological disease with a progressive but variable course affecting the central nervous system. Outline-based lesion quantification in the assessment of lesion load (LL) performed on magnetic resonance (MR) images is clinically useful and provides information about the development and change reflecting overall disease burden. Methods of LL assessment that rely on human input are tedious, have higher intra- and inter-observer variability and are more time-consuming than computerized automatic (CAD) techniques. At present it seems that methods based on human lesion identification preceded by non-interactive outlining by CAD are the best LL quantification strategies. We have developed a CAD that automatically quantifies MS lesions, displays 3-D lesion map and appends radiological findings to original images according to current DICOM standard. CAD is also capable to display and track changes and make comparison between patient's separate MRI studies to determine disease progression. The findings are exported to a separate imaging tool for review and final approval by expert. Capturing and standardized archiving of manual contours is also implemented. Similarity coefficients calculated from quantities of LL in collected exams show a good correlation of CAD-derived results vs. those incorporated as expert's reading. Combining the CAD approach with an expert interaction may impact to the diagnostic work-up of MS patients because of improved reproducibility in LL assessment and reduced time for single MR or comparative exams reading. Inclusion of CAD-generated outlines as DICOM-compliant overlays into the image data can serve as a better reference in MS progression tracking.

  19. Phenology Data Products to Support Assessment and Forecasting of Phenology on Multiple Spatiotemporal Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerst, K.; Enquist, C.; Rosemartin, A.; Denny, E. G.; Marsh, L.; Moore, D. J.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and environmental change. The National Phenology Database maintained by USA-NPN now has over 3.7 million records for plants and animals for the period 1954-2014, with the majority of these observations collected since 2008 as part of a broad, national contributory science strategy. These data have been used in a number of science, conservation and resource management applications, including national assessments of historical and potential future trends in phenology, regional assessments of spatio-temporal variation in organismal activity, and local monitoring for invasive species detection. Customizable data downloads are freely available, and data are accompanied by FGDC-compliant metadata, data-use and data-attribution policies, vetted and documented methodologies and protocols, and version control. While users are free to develop custom algorithms for data cleaning, winnowing and summarization prior to analysis, the National Coordinating Office of USA-NPN is developing a suite of standard data products to facilitate use and application by a diverse set of data users. This presentation provides a progress report on data product development, including: (1) Quality controlled raw phenophase status data; (2) Derived phenometrics (e.g. onset, duration) at multiple scales; (3) Data visualization tools; (4) Tools to support assessment of species interactions and overlap; (5) Species responsiveness to environmental drivers; (6) Spatially gridded phenoclimatological products; and (7) Algorithms for modeling and forecasting future phenological responses. The prioritization of these data products is a direct response to stakeholder needs related to informing management and policy decisions. We anticipate that these products will contribute to broad understanding of plant

  20. Does the Assessment of Recovery Capital scale reflect a single or multiple domains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stephan Arndt,1–3 Ethan Sahker,1,4 Suzy Hedden1 1Iowa Consortium for Substance Abuse Research and Evaluation, 2Department of Psychiatry, Carver College of Medicine, 3Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, 4Department of Psychological and Quantitative Foundations, Counseling Psychology Program College of Education, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Objective: The goal of this study was to determine whether the 50-item Assessment of Recovery Capital scale represents a single general measure or whether multiple domains might be psychometrically useful for research or clinical applications. Methods: Data are from a cross-sectional de-identified existing program evaluation information data set with 1,138 clients entering substance use disorder treatment. Principal components and iterated factor analysis were used on the domain scores. Multiple group factor analysis provided a quasi-confirmatory factor analysis. Results: The solution accounted for 75.24% of the total variance, suggesting that 10 factors provide a reasonably good fit. However, Tucker’s congruence coefficients between the factor structure and defining weights (0.41–0.52 suggested a poor fit to the hypothesized 10-domain structure. Principal components of the 10-domain scores yielded one factor whose eigenvalue was greater than one (5.93, accounting for 75.8% of the common variance. A few domains had perceptible but small unique variance components suggesting that a few of the domains may warrant enrichment. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there is one general factor, with a caveat. Using the 10 measures inflates the chance for Type I errors. Using one general measure avoids this issue, is simple to interpret, and could reduce the number of items. However, those seeking to maximally predict later recovery success may need to use the full instrument and all 10 domains. Keywords: social support, psychometrics, quality of life

  1. The socioeconomic profile of a Barrett's oesophagus cohort assessed by the 2010 Index of Multiple Deprivation.

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    Bhattacharjee, Santanu; Caygill, Christine P J; Charlett, Andre; Fox, Anthony J; Gatenby, Piers A C; Watson, Anthony; Royston, Christine; Bardhan, Karna D

    2016-02-01

    Several reports have described the relationship between socioeconomic status and oesophageal adenocarcinoma but only one with its precursor condition, Barrett's oesophagus. We therefore investigated such an association. The majority (88%) of patients diagnosed with Barrett's at Rotherham District General Hospital between 28 April 1978 and 31 August 2012 consented to inclusion in the UK Barrett's Oesophagus Registry. Those residing within Rotherham form the basis of this study. We assessed socioeconomic status using the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2010 scores which can be assigned to every English postcode. The scores for the whole of England were divided into five equal groups; those of the 6257 postcodes within Rotherham (including those of Barrett's patients) were compared against the national quintile relevant to their score. We examined the ratio of observed against expected numbers of Barrett's in each quintile before and since 2001, the median year of diagnosis. The study group comprised 1076 patients with Barrett's oesophagus. Before 2001 their distribution across the deprivation quintiles was similar to that expected. Since then it has changed significantly, with 37% more Barrett's patients than expected among the two least deprived quintiles, but 11% fewer than expected in the larger population comprising the two most deprived quintiles (P=0.0001). There was no significant difference in the distribution of sex (P=0.27), nor the mean age at diagnosis between the two time periods (P=0.92). Since 2001, there has been a major change in the distribution of Barrett's in relation to socioeconomic status, measured by the Index of Multiple Deprivation.

  2. Relevance of quality of life assessment for multiple sclerosis patients with memory impairment.

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    Karine Baumstarck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Memory disturbances, in particular episodic verbal memory dysfunction, are the most frequent cognitive impairment observed in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. The use of self-reported outcomes for evaluating treatment and managing care of these subjects has been questioned. The aim of this study was to provide new evidence about the suitability of self-reported outcomes for use in this impaired population by exploring the internal structure, reliability and external validity of a specific quality of life (QoL instrument, the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life questionnaire (MusiQoL. METHODS: DESIGN: cross-sectional study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: MS patients of any disease subtype. DATA COLLECTION: sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, education level, and occupational activity and clinical data (MS subtype, Expanded Disability Status Scale, disease duration; QoL (MusiQoL and SF36; and memory performance (Grober and Buschke test. In accordance with the French norms of the memory test, non-impaired and impaired populations were defined for short- and long-delay free composites and for short- and long-delay total composites. For the 8 populations, psychometric properties were compared to those reported from the reference population assessed in the validation study. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and twenty-four consecutive patients were enrolled. The analysis performed in the impaired populations showed that the questionnaire structure adequately matched the initial structure of the MusiQoL. The unidimensionality of the dimensions was preserved, and the internal/external validity indices were close to those of the reference population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that memory dysfunction did not compromise the reliability or validity of the self-reported QoL questionnaires.

  3. A Framework for Spatial Risk Assessments: Potential Impacts of Nonindigenous Invasive Species on Native Species

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    Craig R. Allen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Many populations of wild animals and plants are declining and face increasing threats from habitat fragmentation and loss as well as exposure to stressors ranging from toxicants to diseases to invasive nonindigenous species. We describe and demonstrate a spatially explicit ecological risk assessment that allows for the incorporation of a broad array of information that may influence the distribution of an invasive species, toxicants, or other stressors, and the incorporation of landscape variables that may influence the spread of a species or substances. The first step in our analyses is to develop species models and quantify spatial overlap between stressor and target organisms. Risk is assessed as the product of spatial overlap and a hazard index based on target species vulnerabilities to the stressor of interest. We illustrate our methods with an example in which the stressor is the ecologically destructive nonindigenous ant, Solenopsis invicta, and the targets are two declining vertebrate species in the state of South Carolina, USA. A risk approach that focuses on landscapes and that is explicitly spatial is of particular relevance as remaining undeveloped lands become increasingly uncommon and isolated and more important in the management and recovery of species and ecological systems. Effective ecosystem management includes the control of multiple stressors, including invasive species with large impacts, understanding where those impacts may be the most severe, and implementing management strategies to reduce impacts.

  4. Cumulative Human Impacts on Coral Reefs: Assessing Risk and Management Implications for Brazilian Coral Reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Magris

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective management of coral reefs requires strategies tailored to cope with cumulative disturbances from human activities. In Brazil, where coral reefs are a priority for conservation, intensifying threats from local and global stressors are of paramount concern to management agencies. Using a cumulative impact assessment approach, our goal was to inform management actions for coral reefs in Brazil by assessing their exposure to multiple stressors (fishing, land-based activities, coastal development, mining, aquaculture, shipping, and global warming. We calculated an index of the risk to cumulative impacts: (i assuming uniform sensitivity of coral reefs to stressors; and (ii using impact weights to reflect varying tolerance levels of coral reefs to each stressor. We also predicted the index in both the presence and absence of global warming. We found that 16% and 37% of coral reefs had high to very high risk of cumulative impacts, without and with information on sensitivity respectively, and 42% of reefs had low risk to cumulative impacts from both local and global stressors. Our outputs are the first comprehensive spatial dataset of cumulative impact on coral reefs in Brazil, and show that areas requiring attention mostly corresponded to those closer to population centres. We demonstrate how the relationships between risks from local and global stressors can be used to derive strategic management actions.

  5. Pulse Jet Mixer Overblow Testing for Assessment of Loadings During Multiple Overblows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfund, David M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Michener, Thomas E.; Nigl, Franz; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Leigh, Richard J.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Baumann, Aaron W.; Kurath, Dean E.; Hoza, Mark; Combs, William H.; Fort, James A.; Bredt, Ofelia P.

    2009-07-20

    contents for PJM operation, and maximum and minimum rheological properties). Test data collected from the PJM overblow tests were provided to Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) for assessing hydrostatic, dynamic, and acoustic pressure loadings on in-tank structures during 1) single overblows; 2) multiple overlapping overblows of two to four PJMs; 3) simultaneous overblows of pairs of PJMs.

  6. Pulse Jet Mixer Overblow Testing for Assessment of Loadings During Multiple Overblows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfund, David M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Michener, Thomas E.; Nigl, Franz; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Leigh, Richard J.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Baumann, Aaron W.; Kurath, Dean E.; Hoza, Mark; Combs, William H.; Fort, James A.; Bredt, Ofelia P.

    2008-03-03

    contents for PJM operation, and maximum and minimum rheological properties). Test data collected from the PJM overblow tests were provided to Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) for assessing hydrostatic, dynamic, and acoustic pressure loadings on in-tank structures during 1) single overblows; 2) multiple overlapping overblows of two to four PJMs; 3) simultaneous overblows of pairs of PJMs.

  7. Interactive effects of three pervasive marine stressors in a post-disturbance coral reef

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    Gil, Michael A.; Goldenberg, Silvan U.; Ly Thai Bach, Anne; Mills, Suzanne C.; Claudet, Joachim

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystems are commonly affected by natural, episodic disturbances that can abruptly and drastically alter communities. Although it has been shown that resilient ecosystems can eventually recover to pre-disturbed states, the extent to which communities in early stages of recovery could be affected by multiple anthropogenic stressors is poorly understood. Pervasive and rising anthropogenic stressors in coastal marine systems that could interactively affect the recovery of these systems following natural disturbances include high sedimentation, nutrient enrichment, and overfishing. Using a 6-month field experiment, we examined the effects of all combinations of these three stressors on key functional groups in the benthic community growing on simulated, post-disturbance reef patches within a system recovering from large-scale natural disturbances (corallivorous seastar outbreak and cyclone). Our study revealed that sedimentation, nutrient enrichment, and overfishing (simulated using exclusion cages) interactively affected coral survival and algal growth, with taxon-specific effects at multiple scales. First, our treatments affected corals and algae differently, with sedimentation being more detrimental to macroalgal growth but less detrimental to coral ( Porites rus) survival in caged plots, driving significant interactions between sedimentation and caging for both taxa. We also observed distinct responses between coral species and between algal functional groups, with the most extensive responses from algal turf biomass, for which sedimentation suppressed the synergistic (positive) combined effect of nutrient enrichment and caging. Our findings suggest that different combinations of ubiquitous anthropogenic stressors, related to either sea- or land-based activities, interactively influence community recovery from disturbance and may alter species compositions in the resulting community. Our findings further suggest that anthropogenic stressors could promote further

  8. Where's the impairment: an examination of factors that impact sustained attention following a stressor.

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    Banks, Jonathan B; Tartar, Jaime L; Welhaf, Matthew S

    2014-01-01

    The impact of stress on cognitive functioning has been examined across multiple domains. However, few studies investigate both physical and psychological factors that impact cognitive performance. The current study examined the impact of a physical and psychosocial stressor on sustained attention and identified factors related to sustained attention, including cortisol, salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and mind wandering. A total of 53 participants completed either the socially evaluated cold pressor task or a control task followed by the sustained attention to response task with mind wandering measures. Participants also provided saliva samples following the attention task. Results indicate the stressor task did not impact mind wandering or sustained attention but increased cortisol and sAA. Mind wandering was negatively related to sustained attention and mediated the relationship between cortisol and sustained attention. The findings highlight the importance of examining multiple sources of stress-related cognitive impairments.

  9. Gender Differences in Stressors Related to Migration and Acculturation in Patients with Psychiatric Disorders and Turkish Migration Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Matthias Johannes; Koch, Eckhardt

    2017-06-01

    Migration, acculturation, and psychiatric disorders may cause stress and adaptation processes differently in men and women, but empirical research is scarce. In a retrospective study n = 62 Turkish migrants and n = 62 native German inpatients with depressive or anxiety disorders, matched for age, gender, and diagnoses, were compared using a 10-item instrument for the assessment of migration- and acculturation related stressors (MIGSTR10). Gender differences in the prevalence of stressors and in the total sum of stressors were calculated and compared between migrants and indigenous patients. Results showed a higher global stress level in migrants and in women than in men with migration background. Regarding single stressors, the perceived loss of status was significantly more prevalent and more pronounced in men than in women (P stress should be taken into account in migration and acculturation research.

  10. The impact of minority stressors on the mental and physical health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo, Guy; Mor, Zohar

    2014-08-01

    Research relating to minority stressors generally explores mental health outcomes, with limited focus on the physical dimension. In addition, minority stress research is conducted mainly in Christian-oriented societies. To address these pitfalls we used Web sampling targeting Israeli participants ages 12 to 30 (N = 952; 28 percent heterosexuals, 78 percent lesbian, gay, and bisexual [LGB] adolescents and young adults) to assess their mental health, physical and sexual risk behaviors, minority stressors, and coping resources. Results indicate that young LGBs had lower levels of mental and physical health than heterosexuals. Among LGB participants, high levels of minority stressors and low levels of coping resources predicted lower levels of mental health, and lower levels of mental health predicted lower levels of physical health. These results emphasize that minority stressors should be recognized as risk factors for poorer mental health, as well as for physical and sexual risk behaviors.

  11. Multiple Types of Memory and Everyday Functional Assessment in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Jenna

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective Current proxy measures for assessing everyday functioning (e.g., questionnaires, performance-based measures, and direct observation) show discrepancies in their rating of functional status. The present study investigated the relationship between multiple proxy measures of functional status and content memory (i.e., memory for information), temporal order memory, and prospective memory in an older adult sample. Method A total of 197 community-dwelling older adults who did (n = 45) or did not meet (n = 152) criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI), completed six different assessments of functional status (two questionnaires, two performance-based tasks, and two direct observation tasks) as well as experimental measures of content memory, prospective memory, and temporal order memory. Results After controlling for demographics and content memory, the temporal order and prospective memory measures explained a significant amount of variance in all proxy functional status measures. When all variables were entered into the regression analyses, content memory and prospective memory were found to be significant predictors of all measures of functional status, whereas temporal order memory was a significant predictor for the questionnaire and direct observation measures, but not performance-based measures. Conclusion The results suggest that direct observation and questionnaire measures may be able to capture components of everyday functioning that require context and temporal sequencing abilities, such as multi-tasking, that are not as well captured in many current laboratory performance-based measures of functional status. Future research should aim to inform the development and use of maximally effective and valid proxy measures of functional ability. PMID:28334170

  12. Multiple Types of Memory and Everyday Functional Assessment in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Jenna; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2017-06-01

    Current proxy measures for assessing everyday functioning (e.g., questionnaires, performance-based measures, and direct observation) show discrepancies in their rating of functional status. The present study investigated the relationship between multiple proxy measures of functional status and content memory (i.e., memory for information), temporal order memory, and prospective memory in an older adult sample. A total of 197 community-dwelling older adults who did (n = 45) or did not meet (n = 152) criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI), completed six different assessments of functional status (two questionnaires, two performance-based tasks, and two direct observation tasks) as well as experimental measures of content memory, prospective memory, and temporal order memory. After controlling for demographics and content memory, the temporal order and prospective memory measures explained a significant amount of variance in all proxy functional status measures. When all variables were entered into the regression analyses, content memory and prospective memory were found to be significant predictors of all measures of functional status, whereas temporal order memory was a significant predictor for the questionnaire and direct observation measures, but not performance-based measures. The results suggest that direct observation and questionnaire measures may be able to capture components of everyday functioning that require context and temporal sequencing abilities, such as multi-tasking, that are not as well captured in many current laboratory performance-based measures of functional status. Future research should aim to inform the development and use of maximally effective and valid proxy measures of functional ability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Assessments of Maize Yield Potential in the Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Crop Models

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    Kim, S. H.; Myoung, B.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, S. G.; Lee, W. K.; Kafatos, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Peninsular has unique agricultural environments due to the differences in the political and socio-economical systems between the Republic of Korea (SK, hereafter) and the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (NK, hereafter). NK has been suffering from the lack of food supplies caused by natural disasters, land degradation and failed political system. The neighboring developed country SK has a better agricultural system but very low food self-sufficiency rate (around 1% of maize). Maize is an important crop in both countries since it is staple food for NK and SK is No. 2 maize importing country in the world after Japan. Therefore evaluating maize yield potential (Yp) in the two distinct regions is essential to assess food security under climate change and variability. In this study, we have utilized multiple process-based crop models capable of regional-scale assessments to evaluate maize Yp over the Korean Peninsula - the GIS version of EPIC model (GEPIC) and APSIM model that can be expanded to regional scales (APSIM regions). First we evaluated model performance and skill for 20 years from 1991 to 2010 using reanalysis data (Local Data Assimilation and Prediction System (LDAPS); 1.5km resolution) and observed data. Each model's performances were compared over different regions within the Korean Peninsula of different regional climate characteristics. To quantify the major influence of individual climate variables, we also conducted a sensitivity test using 20 years of climatology. Lastly, a multi-model ensemble analysis was performed to reduce crop model uncertainties. The results will provide valuable information for estimating the climate change or variability impacts on Yp over the Korean Peninsula.

  14. Decision-making in multiple sclerosis consultations in Italy: third observer and patient assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrolongo, Erika; Giordano, Andrea; Kleinefeld, Monica; Confalonieri, Paolo; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Tortorella, Carla; Pugliatti, Maura; Radice, Davide; Goss, Claudia; Heesen, Christoph; Solari, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    To assess decision-making in multiple sclerosis (MS) from third observer and patient perspectives. Audio recordings of first-ever consultations with a participating physician (88 outpatients, 10 physicians) at four tertiary MS care clinics in Italy, were rated by a third observer using the Observing Patient Involvement in Shared Decision Making (OPTION) and by patients using the Perceived Involvement in Ca