WorldWideScience

Sample records for multiple sensor types

  1. Optimal placement of multiple types of communicating sensors with availability and coverage redundancy constraints

    Vecherin, Sergey N.; Wilson, D. Keith; Pettit, Chris L.

    2010-04-01

    Determination of an optimal configuration (numbers, types, and locations) of a sensor network is an important practical problem. In most applications, complex signal propagation effects and inhomogeneous coverage preferences lead to an optimal solution that is highly irregular and nonintuitive. The general optimization problem can be strictly formulated as a binary linear programming problem. Due to the combinatorial nature of this problem, however, its strict solution requires significant computational resources (NP-complete class of complexity) and is unobtainable for large spatial grids of candidate sensor locations. For this reason, a greedy algorithm for approximate solution was recently introduced [S. N. Vecherin, D. K. Wilson, and C. L. Pettit, "Optimal sensor placement with terrain-based constraints and signal propagation effects," Unattended Ground, Sea, and Air Sensor Technologies and Applications XI, SPIE Proc. Vol. 7333, paper 73330S (2009)]. Here further extensions to the developed algorithm are presented to include such practical needs and constraints as sensor availability, coverage by multiple sensors, and wireless communication of the sensor information. Both communication and detection are considered in a probabilistic framework. Communication signal and signature propagation effects are taken into account when calculating probabilities of communication and detection. Comparison of approximate and strict solutions on reduced-size problems suggests that the approximate algorithm yields quick and good solutions, which thus justifies using that algorithm for full-size problems. Examples of three-dimensional outdoor sensor placement are provided using a terrain-based software analysis tool.

  2. Mechanoluminescent Contact Type Sensor

    A. K. Yefremov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanoluminescent sensing elements convert mechanical stress into optical radiation. Advantages of such sensors are the ability to generate an optical signal, solid-state, simple structure, and resistance to electromagnetic interference. Mechanoluminescent sensor implementations can possess the concentrated and distributed sensitivity, thereby allowing us to detect the field of mechanical stresses distributed across the area and in volume. Most modern semiconductor photo-detectors can detect mechanoluminescent radiation, so there are no difficulties to provide its detection when designing the mechanoluminescent sensing devices. Mechanoluminescent substances have especial sensitivity to shock loads, and this effect can be used to create a fuse the structure of which includes a target contact type sensor with a photosensitive actuator. The paper briefly describes the theoretical basics of mechanoluminiscence: a light signal emerges from the interaction of crystalline phosphor luminescence centers with electrically charged dislocations, moving due to the deformation of the crystal. A mathematical model of the mechanoluminescent conversion is represented as a functional interaction between parameters of the mechanical shock excitation and the sensor light emission. Examples of computing the optical mechanoluminescent output signal depending on the duration and peak level of impulse load are given. It is shown that the luminous flux, generated by mechanoluminescent sensing element when there is an ammunition-target collision causes the current emerging in photo-detector (photodiode that is sufficient for a typical actuator of the fuse train to operate. The potential possibility to create a contact target type sensor based on the light-sensitive mechanoluminescent sensor was proved by the calculation and simulation results.

  3. Automated Registration Of Images From Multiple Sensors

    Rignot, Eric J. M.; Kwok, Ronald; Curlander, John C.; Pang, Shirley S. N.

    1994-01-01

    Images of terrain scanned in common by multiple Earth-orbiting remote sensors registered automatically with each other and, where possible, on geographic coordinate grid. Simulated image of terrain viewed by sensor computed from ancillary data, viewing geometry, and mathematical model of physics of imaging. In proposed registration algorithm, simulated and actual sensor images matched by area-correlation technique.

  4. Smart wheelchair: integration of multiple sensors

    Gassara, H. E.; Almuhamed, S.; Moukadem, A.; Schacher, L.; Dieterlen, A.; Adolphe, D.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop a smart wheelchair by integrating multiple sensors for measuring user’s physiological signals and subsequently transmitting and monitoring the treated signals to the user, a designated person or institution. Among other sensors, force, accelerometer, and temperature sensors are successfully integrated within both the backrest and the seat cushions of the wheelchair; while a pulse sensor is integrated within the armrest. The pulse sensor is connected to an amplification circuit board that is, in turn, placed within the armrest. The force and temperature sensors are integrated into a textile cover of the cushions by means of embroidery and sewing techniques. The signal from accelerometer is transmitted through Wi-Fi connection. The electrical connections needed for power supplying of sensors are made by embroidered conductive threads.

  5. Sensor data fusion to predict multiple soil properties

    Mahmood, H.S.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Henten, van E.J.

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of a single sensor is often low because all proximal soil sensors respond to more than one soil property of interest. Sensor data fusion can potentially overcome this inability of a single sensor and can best extract useful and complementary information from multiple sensors or sources.

  6. PERSON AUTHENTICATION USING MULTIPLE SENSOR DATA FUSION

    S. Vasuhi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a real-time system for face authentication, obtained through fusion of Infra Red (IR and visible images. In order to identify the unknown person authentication in highly secured areas, multiple algorithms are needed. The four well known algorithms for face recognition, Block Independent Component Analysis(BICA, Kalman Filtering(KF method, Discrete Cosine Transform(DCT and Orthogonal Locality Preserving Projections (OLPP are used to extract the features. If the data base size is very large and the features are not distinct then ambiguity will exists in face recognition. Hence more than one sensor is needed for critical and/or highly secured areas. This paper deals with multiple fusion methodology using weighted average and Fuzzy Logic. The visible sensor output depends on the environmental condition namely lighting conditions, illumination etc., to overcome this problem use histogram technique to choose appropriate algorithm. DCT and Kalman filtering are holistic approaches, BICA follows feature based approach and OLPP preserves the Euclidean structure of face space. These recognizers are capable of considering the problem of dimensionality reduction by eliminating redundant features and reducing the feature space. The system can handle variations like illumination, pose, orientation, occlusion, etc. up to a significant level. The integrated system overcomes the drawbacks of individual recognizers. The proposed system is aimed at increasing the accuracy of the person authentication system and at the same time reducing the limitations of individual algorithms. It is tested on real time database and the results are found to be 96% accurate.

  7. Galvanic Cell Type Sensor for Soil Moisture Analysis.

    Gaikwad, Pramod; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Paswan, Bhuneshwar; Raja Kottaichamy, Alagar; Makri Nimbegondi Kotresh, Harish; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2015-07-21

    Here we report the first potentiometric sensor for soil moisture analysis by bringing in the concept of Galvanic cells wherein the redox energies of Al and conducting polyaniline are exploited to design a battery type sensor. The sensor consists of only simple architectural components, and as such they are inexpensive and lightweight, making it suitable for on-site analysis. The sensing mechanism is proved to be identical to a battery type discharge reaction wherein polyaniline redox energy changes from the conducting to the nonconducting state with a resulting voltage shift in the presence of soil moisture. Unlike the state of the art soil moisture sensors, a signal derived from the proposed moisture sensor is probe size independent, as it is potentiometric in nature and, hence, can be fabricated in any shape or size and can provide a consistent output signal under the strong aberration conditions often encountered in soil moisture analysis. The sensor is regenerable by treating with 1 M HCl and can be used for multiple analysis with little read out hysteresis. Further, a portable sensor is fabricated which can provide warning signals to the end user when the moisture levels in the soil go below critically low levels, thereby functioning as a smart device. As the sensor is inexpensive, portable, and potentiometric, it opens up avenues for developing effective and energy efficient irrigation strategies, understanding the heat and water transfer at the atmosphere-land interface, understanding soil mechanics, forecasting the risk of natural calamities, and so on.

  8. Multiple Usage of Existing Satellite Sensors (PREPRINT)

    Keeney, James T

    2006-01-01

    .... Space offers a near-perfect vacuum to operate a passive or active sensor. Volume, mass and power on satellites is limited and risk management approaches tended to remove such sensors from satellite systems...

  9. Multiple Usage of Existing Satellite Sensors

    Keeney, James T

    2006-01-01

    .... Space offers a near-perfect vacuum to operate a passive or active sensor. Volume, mass and power on satellites is limited and risk management approaches tended to remove such sensors from satellite systems...

  10. Gas sensor with multiple internal reference electrodes and sensing electrodes

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a potentiometric gas sensor, or potentiometric gas detection element, with multiple internal reference electrodes and multiple sensing electrodes for determining the concentrations of gas components in a gaseous mixture. The sensor for gas detection comprises: a solid...

  11. Intelligent pressure measurement in multiple sensor arrays

    Matthews, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Pressure data acquisition has typically consisted of a group of sensors scanned by an electronic or mechanical multiplexer. The data accuracy was dependent upon the temperature stability of the sensors. This paper describes a new method of pressure measurement that combines individual temperature compensated pressure sensors, a microprocessor, and an A/D converter in one module. Each sensor has its own temperature characteristics stored in a look-up table to minimize sensor thermal errors. The result is an intelligent pressure module that can output temperature compensated engineering units over an Ethernet interface. Calibration intervals can be dramatically extended depending upon system accuracy requirements and calibration techniques used

  12. Multiple Ca2+ sensors in secretion

    Walter, Alexander M; Groffen, Alexander J; Sørensen, Jakob Balslev

    2011-01-01

    Regulated neurotransmitter secretion depends on Ca(2+) sensors, C2 domain proteins that associate with phospholipids and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes to trigger release upon Ca(2+) binding. Ca(2+) sensors are thought to prevent spontaneous...

  13. Robust giant magnetoresistive effect type multilayer sensor

    Lenssen, K.M.H.; Kuiper, A.E.T.; Roozeboom, F.

    2002-01-01

    A robust Giant Magneto Resistive effect type multilayer sensor comprising a free and a pinned ferromagnetic layer, which can withstand high temperatures and strong magnetic fields as required in automotive applications. The GMR multi-layer has an asymmetric magneto-resistive curve and enables

  14. Coherent Uncertainty Analysis of Aerosol Measurements from Multiple Satellite Sensors

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS altogether, a total of 11 different aerosol products were comparatively analyzed using data collocated with ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations within the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/ and http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/). The analysis was performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol optical depth or thickness (AOD or AOT) retrievals during 2006-2010 to available collocated AERONET measurements globally, regionally, and seasonally, and deriving a number of statistical measures of accuracy. We used a robust statistical approach to detect and remove possible outliers in the collocated data that can bias the results of the analysis. Overall, the proportion of outliers in each of the quality-screened AOD products was within 12%. Squared correlation coefficient (R2) values of the satellite AOD retrievals relative to AERONET exceeded 0.6, with R2 for most of the products exceeding 0.7 over land and 0.8 over ocean. Root mean square error (RMSE) values for most of the AOD products were within 0.15 over land and 0.09 over ocean. We have been able to generate global maps showing regions where the different products present advantages over the others, as well as the relative performance of each product over different landcover types. It was observed that while MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS provide accurate retrievals over most of the landcover types, multi-angle capabilities make MISR the only sensor to retrieve reliable AOD over barren and snow / ice surfaces. Likewise, active sensing enables CALIOP to retrieve aerosol properties over bright-surface shrublands more accurately than the other sensors, while POLDER, which is the only one of the sensors capable of measuring polarized aerosols, outperforms other sensors in

  15. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I

    Fischer, H.J.; Lois, J.F.; Gomes, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    A case of multiple endocrine neoplasia (Men) consisting of an unusual combination of an insulin-producing islet cell tumour and an adrenal adenoma is reported. CT clearly demonstrated the adrenal mass whereas the pancreatic lesion remained questionable. Conversely angiography located the pancreatic tumour but the adrenal findings were subtle. (orig.)

  16. Direction Finding Using Multiple MEMS Acoustic Sensors

    2015-09-01

    Technologies Boomerang Warrior-X. A shoulder-mounted device detects incoming fire and provides visual and/or audio announcement via speaker , earpiece or...panel, which is located inside the vehicle, alerts soldiers through an LED 12-hour clock image display panel and speaker mounted inside the vehicle...sensor was operated at the bending frequency due to its large amplitude of vibration . Because the bending mode is excited by the pressure gradient of

  17. Multiple Sensor Camera for Enhanced Video Capturing

    Nagahara, Hajime; Kanki, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yoshio; Yachida, Masahiko

    A resolution of camera has been drastically improved under a current request for high-quality digital images. For example, digital still camera has several mega pixels. Although a video camera has the higher frame-rate, the resolution of a video camera is lower than that of still camera. Thus, the high-resolution is incompatible with the high frame rate of ordinary cameras in market. It is difficult to solve this problem by a single sensor, since it comes from physical limitation of the pixel transfer rate. In this paper, we propose a multi-sensor camera for capturing a resolution and frame-rate enhanced video. Common multi-CCDs camera, such as 3CCD color camera, has same CCD for capturing different spectral information. Our approach is to use different spatio-temporal resolution sensors in a single camera cabinet for capturing higher resolution and frame-rate information separately. We build a prototype camera which can capture high-resolution (2588×1958 pixels, 3.75 fps) and high frame-rate (500×500, 90 fps) videos. We also proposed the calibration method for the camera. As one of the application of the camera, we demonstrate an enhanced video (2128×1952 pixels, 90 fps) generated from the captured videos for showing the utility of the camera.

  18. Control of multiple robots using vision sensors

    Aranda, Miguel; Sagüés, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This monograph introduces novel methods for the control and navigation of mobile robots using multiple-1-d-view models obtained from omni-directional cameras. This approach overcomes field-of-view and robustness limitations, simultaneously enhancing accuracy and simplifying application on real platforms. The authors also address coordinated motion tasks for multiple robots, exploring different system architectures, particularly the use of multiple aerial cameras in driving robot formations on the ground. Again, this has benefits of simplicity, scalability and flexibility. Coverage includes details of: a method for visual robot homing based on a memory of omni-directional images a novel vision-based pose stabilization methodology for non-holonomic ground robots based on sinusoidal-varying control inputs an algorithm to recover a generic motion between two 1-d views and which does not require a third view a novel multi-robot setup where multiple camera-carrying unmanned aerial vehicles are used to observe and c...

  19. A zonal wavefront sensor with multiple detector planes

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2018-03-01

    A conventional zonal wavefront sensor estimates the wavefront from the data captured in a single detector plane using a single camera. In this paper, we introduce a zonal wavefront sensor which comprises multiple detector planes instead of a single detector plane. The proposed sensor is based on an array of custom designed plane diffraction gratings followed by a single focusing lens. The laser beam whose wavefront is to be estimated is incident on the grating array and one of the diffracted orders from each grating is focused on the detector plane. The setup, by employing a beam splitter arrangement, facilitates focusing of the diffracted beams on multiple detector planes where multiple cameras can be placed. The use of multiple cameras in the sensor can offer several advantages in the wavefront estimation. For instance, the proposed sensor can provide superior inherent centroid detection accuracy that can not be achieved by the conventional system. It can also provide enhanced dynamic range and reduced crosstalk performance. We present here the results from a proof of principle experimental arrangement that demonstrate the advantages of the proposed wavefront sensing scheme.

  20. Flexible carbon nanotube nanocomposite sensor for multiple physiological parameter monitoring

    Nag, Anindya

    2016-10-16

    The paper presents the design, development, and fabrication of a flexible and wearable sensor based on carbon nanotube nanocomposite for monitoring specific physiological parameters. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as the substrate with a thin layer of a nanocomposite comprising functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and PDMS as electrodes. The sensor patch functionalized on strain-sensitive capacitive sensing from interdigitated electrodes which were patterned with a laser on the nanocomposite layer. The thickness of the electrode layer was optimized regarding strain and conductivity. The sensor patch was connected to a monitoring device from one end and attached to the body on the other for examining purposes. Experimental results show the capability of the sensor patch used to detect respiration and limb movements. This work is a stepping stone of the sensing system to be developed for multiple physiological parameters.

  1. Whitelists Based Multiple Filtering Techniques in SCADA Sensor Networks

    DongHo Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT consists of several tiny devices connected together to form a collaborative computing environment. Recently IoT technologies begin to merge with supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA sensor networks to more efficiently gather and analyze real-time data from sensors in industrial environments. But SCADA sensor networks are becoming more and more vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to increased connectivity. To safely adopt IoT technologies in the SCADA environments, it is important to improve the security of SCADA sensor networks. In this paper we propose a multiple filtering technique based on whitelists to detect illegitimate packets. Our proposed system detects the traffic of network and application protocol attacks with a set of whitelists collected from normal traffic.

  2. Flexible carbon nanotube nanocomposite sensor for multiple physiological parameter monitoring

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the design, development, and fabrication of a flexible and wearable sensor based on carbon nanotube nanocomposite for monitoring specific physiological parameters. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as the substrate with a thin layer of a nanocomposite comprising functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and PDMS as electrodes. The sensor patch functionalized on strain-sensitive capacitive sensing from interdigitated electrodes which were patterned with a laser on the nanocomposite layer. The thickness of the electrode layer was optimized regarding strain and conductivity. The sensor patch was connected to a monitoring device from one end and attached to the body on the other for examining purposes. Experimental results show the capability of the sensor patch used to detect respiration and limb movements. This work is a stepping stone of the sensing system to be developed for multiple physiological parameters.

  3. Routine sensor-augmented pump therapy in type 1 diabetes

    Nørgaard, Kirsten; Scaramuzza, Andrea; Bratina, Natasa

    2013-01-01

    Sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy can improve glycemic control, compared with multiple daily insulin injections or with insulin pump therapy alone, without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia.......Sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy can improve glycemic control, compared with multiple daily insulin injections or with insulin pump therapy alone, without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia....

  4. A Multiple Sensor Machine Vision System Technology for the Hardwood

    Richard W. Conners; D.Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1995-01-01

    For the last few years the authors have been extolling the virtues of a multiple sensor approach to hardwood defect detection. Since 1989 the authors have actively been trying to develop such a system. This paper details some of the successes and failures that have been experienced to date. It also discusses what remains to be done and gives time lines for the...

  5. Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access for Ubiquitous Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Anwar, Asim; Seet, Boon-Chong; Ding, Zhiguo

    2018-02-08

    Ubiquitous wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) have become a critical technology for enabling smart cities and other ubiquitous monitoring applications. Their deployment, however, can be seriously hampered by the spectrum available to the sheer number of sensors for communication. To support the communication needs of UWSNs without requiring more spectrum resources, the power-domain non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technique originally proposed for 5th Generation (5G) cellular networks is investigated for UWSNs for the first time in this paper. However, unlike 5G networks that operate in the licensed spectrum, UWSNs mostly operate in unlicensed spectrum where sensors also experience cross-technology interferences from other devices sharing the same spectrum. In this paper, we model the interferences from various sources at the sensors using stochastic geometry framework. To evaluate the performance, we derive a theorem and present new closed form expression for the outage probability of the sensors in a downlink scenario under interference limited environment. In addition, diversity analysis for the ordered NOMA users is performed. Based on the derived outage probability, we evaluate the average link throughput and energy consumption efficiency of NOMA against conventional orthogonal multiple access (OMA) technique in UWSNs. Further, the required computational complexity for the NOMA users is presented.

  6. Stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with corrugated diaphragm

    Tsukamoto, Takashiro; Asao, Hideaki; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with a corrugated palylene diaphragm, which prevent debris from jamming into the sensor without significant degradation of sensitivity and bandwidth, was reported. A new fabrication process using a lost-foil method to make the corrugated diaphragm on a 3-axis piezoresistive force sensor at wafer level has been developed. The texture sensor could detect the surface microstructure as small as about 10 \

  7. Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Sessions

    Dianjie Lu; Guijuan Zhang; Ren Han; Xiangwei Zheng; Hong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are subject to node failures because of limited energy and link unreliability which makes the design of routing protocols in such networks a challenging task. The multipath routing scheme is an optimal alternative to address this problem which splits the traffic across multiple paths instead of routing all the traffic along a single path. However, using more paths introduces more contentions which degrade energy efficiency. The problem becomes even more difficu...

  8. Imaging moving objects from multiply scattered waves and multiple sensors

    Miranda, Analee; Cheney, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a linearized imaging theory that combines the spatial, temporal and spectral components of multiply scattered waves as they scatter from moving objects. In particular, we consider the case of multiple fixed sensors transmitting and receiving information from multiply scattered waves. We use a priori information about the multipath background. We use a simple model for multiple scattering, namely scattering from a fixed, perfectly reflecting (mirror) plane. We base our image reconstruction and velocity estimation technique on a modification of a filtered backprojection method that produces a phase-space image. We plot examples of point-spread functions for different geometries and waveforms, and from these plots, we estimate the resolution in space and velocity. Through this analysis, we are able to identify how the imaging system depends on parameters such as bandwidth and number of sensors. We ultimately show that enhanced phase-space resolution for a distribution of moving and stationary targets in a multipath environment may be achieved using multiple sensors. (paper)

  9. Analysis of the SNR and sensing ability of different sensor types in a LIDAR system

    Choi, Gyudong; Han, Munhyun; Seo, Hongseok; Mheen, Bongki

    2017-10-01

    LIDAR (light distance and ranging) systems use sensors to detect reflected signals. The performance of the sensors significantly affects the specification of the LIDAR system. Especially, the number and size of the sensors determine the FOV (field of view) and resolution of the system, regardless of which sensors are used. The resolution of an array-type sensor normally depends on the number of pixels in the array. In this type of sensor, there are several limitations to increase the number of pixels in an array for higher resolution, specifically complexity, cost, and size limitations. Another type of sensors uses multiple pairs of transmitter and receiver channels. Each channel detects different points with the corresponding directions indicated by the laser points of each channel. In this case, in order to increase the resolution, it is required to increase the number of channels, resulting in bigger sensor head size and deteriorated reliability due to heavy rotating head module containing all the pairs. In this paper, we present a method to overcome these limitations and improve the performance of the LIDAR system. ETRI developed a type of scanning LIDAR system called a STUD (static unitary detector) LIDAR system. It was developed to solve the problems associated with the aforementioned sensors. The STUD LIDAR system can use a variety of sensors without any limitations on the size or number of sensors, unlike other LIDAR systems. Since it provides optimal performance in terms of range and resolution, the detailed analysis was conducted in the STUD LIDAR system by applying different sensor type to have improved sensing performance.

  10. Multimodal wireless sensor network-based ambient assisted living in real homes with multiple residents.

    Tunca, Can; Alemdar, Hande; Ertan, Halil; Incel, Ozlem Durmaz; Ersoy, Cem

    2014-05-30

    Human activity recognition and behavior monitoring in a home setting using wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provide a great potential for ambient assisted living (AAL) applications, ranging from health and wellbeing monitoring to resource consumption monitoring. However, due to the limitations of the sensor devices, challenges in wireless communication and the challenges in processing large amounts of sensor data in order to recognize complex human activities, WSN-based AAL systems are not effectively integrated in the home environment. Additionally, given the variety of sensor types and activities, selecting the most suitable set of sensors in the deployment is an important task. In order to investigate and propose solutions to such challenges, we introduce a WSN-based multimodal AAL system compatible for homes with multiple residents. Particularly, we focus on the details of the system architecture, including the challenges of sensor selection, deployment, networking and data collection and provide guidelines for the design and deployment of an effective AAL system. We also present the details of the field study we conducted, using the systems deployed in two different real home environments with multiple residents. With these systems, we are able to collect ambient sensor data from multiple homes. This data can be used to assess the wellbeing of the residents and identify deviations from everyday routines, which may be indicators of health problems. Finally, in order to elaborate on the possible applications of the proposed AAL system and to exemplify directions for processing the collected data, we provide the results of several human activity inference experiments, along with examples on how such results could be interpreted. We believe that the experiences shared in this work will contribute towards accelerating the acceptance of WSN-based AAL systems in the home setting.

  11. Multimodal Wireless Sensor Network-Based Ambient Assisted Living in Real Homes with Multiple Residents

    Can Tunca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition and behavior monitoring in a home setting using wireless sensor networks (WSNs provide a great potential for ambient assisted living (AAL applications, ranging from health and wellbeing monitoring to resource consumption monitoring. However, due to the limitations of the sensor devices, challenges in wireless communication and the challenges in processing large amounts of sensor data in order to recognize complex human activities, WSN-based AAL systems are not effectively integrated in the home environment. Additionally, given the variety of sensor types and activities, selecting the most suitable set of sensors in the deployment is an important task. In order to investigate and propose solutions to such challenges, we introduce a WSN-based multimodal AAL system compatible for homes with multiple residents. Particularly, we focus on the details of the system architecture, including the challenges of sensor selection, deployment, networking and data collection and provide guidelines for the design and deployment of an effective AAL system. We also present the details of the field study we conducted, using the systems deployed in two different real home environments with multiple residents. With these systems, we are able to collect ambient sensor data from multiple homes. This data can be used to assess the wellbeing of the residents and identify deviations from everyday routines, which may be indicators of health problems. Finally, in order to elaborate on the possible applications of the proposed AAL system and to exemplify directions for processing the collected data, we provide the results of several human activity inference experiments, along with examples on how such results could be interpreted. We believe that the experiences shared in this work will contribute towards accelerating the acceptance of WSN-based AAL systems in the home setting.

  12. Wearable flex sensor system for multiple badminton player grip identification

    Jacob, Alvin; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Tomari, Mohd Razali Bin Md; Sek, Tee Kian; Suberi, Anis Azwani Muhd

    2017-09-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a wearable sensor system to identify the different types of badminton grip that is used by a player during training. Badminton movements and strokes are fast and dynamic, where most of the involved movement are difficult to identify with the naked eye. Also, the usage of high processing optometric motion capture system is expensive and causes computational burden. Therefore, this paper suggests the development of a sensorized glove using flex sensor to measure a badminton player's finger flexion angle. The proposed Hand Monitoring Module (HMM) is connected to a personal computer through Bluetooth to enable wireless data transmission. The usability and feasibility of the HMM to identify different grip types were examined through a series of experiments, where the system exhibited 70% detection ability for the five different grip type. The outcome plays a major role in training players to use the proper grips for a badminton stroke to achieve a more powerful and accurate stroke execution.

  13. New Type Multielectrode Capacitance Sensor for Liquid Level

    Zhao, Y R [China University of Petroleum (Huadong), Qingdao (China); Shi, A P [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Chen, G Q [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Chang, Y Y [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Hang, Z [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Liu, B M [Binzhou University, Binzhou (China)

    2006-10-15

    This paper introduces the design of a new type multielectrode capacitance sensor for liquid level. The system regards electric field sensor MC33794 as the core and applies microcontroller MC9S12DJ128 to realize intelligent liquid level monitoring system, which overcomes the disadvantages of the traditional capacitance sensor, improves on the anti-jamming ability and the measurement precision and simplifies the system structure. Finally, the paper sums up the design of the system.

  14. Type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis

    Nielsen, N.M.; Westergaard, T.; Frisch, M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and multiple sclerosis (MS) contribute considerably to the burden of autoimmune diseases in young adults. Although HLA patterns of T1D and MS are considered mutually exclusive, individual and familial co-occurrence of the 2 diseases has been reported...... Multiple Sclerosis Register were used to identify patients with T1D, defined as patients in whom diabetes was diagnosed before age 20 years (N = 6078), and patients with MS (N = 11 862). First-degree relatives (N = 14,771) of patients with MS were identified from family information in the Danish Civil....... OBJECTIVE: To assess the co-occurrence of T1D and MS by estimating the risk for MS in patients with T1D and the risk for T1D in first-degree relatives of patients with MS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Two population-based disease registers, the Danish Hospital Discharge Register and the Danish...

  15. A Tactile Sensor Network System Using a Multiple Sensor Platform with a Dedicated CMOS-LSI for Robot Applications.

    Shao, Chenzhong; Tanaka, Shuji; Nakayama, Takahiro; Hata, Yoshiyuki; Bartley, Travis; Nonomura, Yutaka; Muroyama, Masanori

    2017-08-28

    Robot tactile sensation can enhance human-robot communication in terms of safety, reliability and accuracy. The final goal of our project is to widely cover a robot body with a large number of tactile sensors, which has significant advantages such as accurate object recognition, high sensitivity and high redundancy. In this study, we developed a multi-sensor system with dedicated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) Large-Scale Integration (LSI) circuit chips (referred to as "sensor platform LSI") as a framework of a serial bus-based tactile sensor network system. The sensor platform LSI supports three types of sensors: an on-chip temperature sensor, off-chip capacitive and resistive tactile sensors, and communicates with a relay node via a bus line. The multi-sensor system was first constructed on a printed circuit board to evaluate basic functions of the sensor platform LSI, such as capacitance-to-digital and resistance-to-digital conversion. Then, two kinds of external sensors, nine sensors in total, were connected to two sensor platform LSIs, and temperature, capacitive and resistive sensing data were acquired simultaneously. Moreover, we fabricated flexible printed circuit cables to demonstrate the multi-sensor system with 15 sensor platform LSIs operating simultaneously, which showed a more realistic implementation in robots. In conclusion, the multi-sensor system with up to 15 sensor platform LSIs on a bus line supporting temperature, capacitive and resistive sensing was successfully demonstrated.

  16. A Tactile Sensor Network System Using a Multiple Sensor Platform with a Dedicated CMOS-LSI for Robot Applications †

    Shao, Chenzhong; Tanaka, Shuji; Nakayama, Takahiro; Hata, Yoshiyuki; Bartley, Travis; Muroyama, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Robot tactile sensation can enhance human–robot communication in terms of safety, reliability and accuracy. The final goal of our project is to widely cover a robot body with a large number of tactile sensors, which has significant advantages such as accurate object recognition, high sensitivity and high redundancy. In this study, we developed a multi-sensor system with dedicated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) Large-Scale Integration (LSI) circuit chips (referred to as “sensor platform LSI”) as a framework of a serial bus-based tactile sensor network system. The sensor platform LSI supports three types of sensors: an on-chip temperature sensor, off-chip capacitive and resistive tactile sensors, and communicates with a relay node via a bus line. The multi-sensor system was first constructed on a printed circuit board to evaluate basic functions of the sensor platform LSI, such as capacitance-to-digital and resistance-to-digital conversion. Then, two kinds of external sensors, nine sensors in total, were connected to two sensor platform LSIs, and temperature, capacitive and resistive sensing data were acquired simultaneously. Moreover, we fabricated flexible printed circuit cables to demonstrate the multi-sensor system with 15 sensor platform LSIs operating simultaneously, which showed a more realistic implementation in robots. In conclusion, the multi-sensor system with up to 15 sensor platform LSIs on a bus line supporting temperature, capacitive and resistive sensing was successfully demonstrated. PMID:29061954

  17. Flat Type Thick Film Inductive Sensors

    D. Marioli

    2003-01-01

    area. Moreover, two sensors have been tested in the laboratory using the single layer as a distance sensor and the multi-layer as a transducer for the measurement of a metallic object profile. The results of the tests show a maximum sensitivity of 14mV/µm and a resolution of 0.6 µm for the single layer, while the multi layer one reconstructs the profile with an axial resolution of a few microns and a lateral resolution better than 200 mm.

  18. Modular multiple sensors information management for computer-integrated surgery.

    Vaccarella, Alberto; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Momi, Elena De

    2012-09-01

    In the past 20 years, technological advancements have modified the concept of modern operating rooms (ORs) with the introduction of computer-integrated surgery (CIS) systems, which promise to enhance the outcomes, safety and standardization of surgical procedures. With CIS, different types of sensor (mainly position-sensing devices, force sensors and intra-operative imaging devices) are widely used. Recently, the need for a combined use of different sensors raised issues related to synchronization and spatial consistency of data from different sources of information. In this study, we propose a centralized, multi-sensor management software architecture for a distributed CIS system, which addresses sensor information consistency in both space and time. The software was developed as a data server module in a client-server architecture, using two open-source software libraries: Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK) and OpenCV. The ROBOCAST project (FP7 ICT 215190), which aims at integrating robotic and navigation devices and technologies in order to improve the outcome of the surgical intervention, was used as the benchmark. An experimental protocol was designed in order to prove the feasibility of a centralized module for data acquisition and to test the application latency when dealing with optical and electromagnetic tracking systems and ultrasound (US) imaging devices. Our results show that a centralized approach is suitable for minimizing synchronization errors; latency in the client-server communication was estimated to be 2 ms (median value) for tracking systems and 40 ms (median value) for US images. The proposed centralized approach proved to be adequate for neurosurgery requirements. Latency introduced by the proposed architecture does not affect tracking system performance in terms of frame rate and limits US images frame rate at 25 fps, which is acceptable for providing visual feedback to the surgeon in the OR. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. On Multiple Polynomials of Capelli Type

    S.Y. Antonov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the class of Capelli polynomials in free associative algebra F{Z} (where F is an arbitrary field, Z is a countable set generalizing the construction of multiple Capelli polynomials. The fundamental properties of the introduced Capelli polynomials are provided. In particular, decomposition of the Capelli polynomials by means of the same type of polynomials is shown. Furthermore, some relations between their T -ideals are revealed. A connection between double Capelli polynomials and Capelli quasi-polynomials is established.

  20. A global calibration method for multiple vision sensors based on multiple targets

    Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Guangjun; Wei, Zhenzhong; Sun, Junhua

    2011-01-01

    The global calibration of multiple vision sensors (MVS) has been widely studied in the last two decades. In this paper, we present a global calibration method for MVS with non-overlapping fields of view (FOVs) using multiple targets (MT). MT is constructed by fixing several targets, called sub-targets, together. The mutual coordinate transformations between sub-targets need not be known. The main procedures of the proposed method are as follows: one vision sensor is selected from MVS to establish the global coordinate frame (GCF). MT is placed in front of the vision sensors for several (at least four) times. Using the constraint that the relative positions of all sub-targets are invariant, the transformation matrix from the coordinate frame of each vision sensor to GCF can be solved. Both synthetic and real experiments are carried out and good result is obtained. The proposed method has been applied to several real measurement systems and shown to be both flexible and accurate. It can serve as an attractive alternative to existing global calibration methods

  1. Improved fuel-cell-type hydrogen sensor

    Rudek, F. P.; Rutkowski, M. D.

    1968-01-01

    Modified hydrogen sensor replaces oxygen cathode with a cathode consisting of a sealed paste of gold hydroxide and a pure gold current collector. The net reaction which occurs during cell operation is the reduction of the gold hydroxide to gold and water, with a half-cell potential of 1.4 volts.

  2. Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Sessions

    Dianjie Lu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are subject to node failures because of limited energy and link unreliability which makes the design of routing protocols in such networks a challenging task. The multipath routing scheme is an optimal alternative to address this problem which splits the traffic across multiple paths instead of routing all the traffic along a single path. However, using more paths introduces more contentions which degrade energy efficiency. The problem becomes even more difficult in the scenario of multiple sessions since different source-destination pairs may pass the same link which makes the flow distribution of each link uncertain. Our goal is to minimize the energy cost and provide the robust transmission by choosing the optimal paths. We first study the problem from a theoretical standpoint by mapping it to the multi-commodity network design problem. Since it is hard to build a global addressing scheme due to the great number of sensor nodes, we propose a Distributed Energy Efficient Routing protocol (D2ER. In D2ER, we employ the transportation method which can optimize the flow distribution with minimal energy consumption. Simulation results demonstrate that our optimal algorithm can save energy drastically.

  3. Multiple-Event, Single-Photon Counting Imaging Sensor

    Zheng, Xinyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Sun, Chao; Wang, Kang L.

    2011-01-01

    The single-photon counting imaging sensor is typically an array of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes that are monolithically integrated with CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) readout, signal processing, and addressing circuits located in each pixel and the peripheral area of the chip. The major problem is its single-event method for photon count number registration. A single-event single-photon counting imaging array only allows registration of up to one photon count in each of its pixels during a frame time, i.e., the interval between two successive pixel reset operations. Since the frame time can t be too short, this will lead to very low dynamic range and make the sensor merely useful for very low flux environments. The second problem of the prior technique is a limited fill factor resulting from consumption of chip area by the monolithically integrated CMOS readout in pixels. The resulting low photon collection efficiency will substantially ruin any benefit gained from the very sensitive single-photon counting detection. The single-photon counting imaging sensor developed in this work has a novel multiple-event architecture, which allows each of its pixels to register as more than one million (or more) photon-counting events during a frame time. Because of a consequently boosted dynamic range, the imaging array of the invention is capable of performing single-photon counting under ultra-low light through high-flux environments. On the other hand, since the multiple-event architecture is implemented in a hybrid structure, back-illumination and close-to-unity fill factor can be realized, and maximized quantum efficiency can also be achieved in the detector array.

  4. Operation characteristics of a multiple type MCFC

    Kuroe, S.; Kamo, T. [Hitachi Research Lab., Hitachi, Ltd., Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Fujimura, H.; Kahara, T. [Hitachi, Ltd., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Multiple type structure of MCFC of which the separator of the cell is divided by four element cells has been studied. For the stable operation of this type cell, the effect of gas flow rate and temperature distribution on the cell voltage should be clear. In order to clarify these characteristics, a small sized mimic model has been made and tested. The flow rate distribution for the four element cells were varied and cell voltage and temperature distribution were measured for each cell. The decrease in cell voltage and the increase in maximum temperature became remarkable when the apparent utilization factor for one element cell became over 100%. The calculated results agreed fairly good with test results.

  5. Analysis of different coating thickness on new type of planar interdigital sensors for endotoxin detection

    Syaifudin, A. R Mohd

    2013-05-01

    New types of planar interdigital sensors have been fabricated on Silicon/Silicon Dioxide (Si/SiO2) wafers. The sensors were coated with pre-cursor silica functionalized with APTES (3-aminopropyltrietoxysilane) at different thicknesses. All sensors were then immobilized with Polymyxin, B (PmB). PmB is an antimicrobial peptide produced by the Gram-positive bacterium-Bacillus, has been immobilized on the coated sensors because of its specific binding properties to endotoxin. Studies were conducted to analyze the effect of different thicknesses of coatings on the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensors. It was observed sensors coated with 3 layers of coating has better sensitivity and selectivity to the target molecules (endotoxin) compared to sensors with 5 layers of coating. The repeatability and stability of the coated sensors were tested by multiple standard endotoxin measurement and it was observed that the sensors give a good reproducibility and stability up to six continuous measurements before the coating degrades. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Contaminant classification using cosine distances based on multiple conventional sensors.

    Liu, Shuming; Che, Han; Smith, Kate; Chang, Tian

    2015-02-01

    Emergent contamination events have a significant impact on water systems. After contamination detection, it is important to classify the type of contaminant quickly to provide support for remediation attempts. Conventional methods generally either rely on laboratory-based analysis, which requires a long analysis time, or on multivariable-based geometry analysis and sequence analysis, which is prone to being affected by the contaminant concentration. This paper proposes a new contaminant classification method, which discriminates contaminants in a real time manner independent of the contaminant concentration. The proposed method quantifies the similarities or dissimilarities between sensors' responses to different types of contaminants. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using data from contaminant injection experiments in a laboratory and compared with a Euclidean distance-based method. The robustness of the proposed method was evaluated using an uncertainty analysis. The results show that the proposed method performed better in identifying the type of contaminant than the Euclidean distance based method and that it could classify the type of contaminant in minutes without significantly compromising the correct classification rate (CCR).

  7. Multiple Distributed Smart Microgrids with a Self-Autonomous, Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Network

    Guerrero, Josep M.; Kheng Tan, Yen

    2012-01-01

    The chapter covers the smart wireless sensors for microgrids, as well as the energy harvesting technology used to sustain the operations of these sensors. Last, a case study on the multiple distributed smart microgrids with a self-autonomous, energy harvesting wireless sensor network is presented....

  8. Multiple Sensing Application on Wireless Sensor Network Simulation using NS3

    Kurniawan, I. F.; Bisma, R.

    2018-01-01

    Hardware enhancement provides opportunity to install various sensor device on single monitoring node which then enables users to acquire multiple data simultaneously. Constructing multiple sensing application in NS3 is a challenging task since numbers of aspects such as wireless communication, packet transmission pattern, and energy model must be taken into account. Despite of numerous types of monitoring data available, this study only considers two types such as periodic, and event-based data. Periodical data will generate monitoring data follows configured interval, while event-based transmit data when certain determined condition is met. Therefore, this study attempts to cover mentioned aspects in NS3. Several simulations are performed with different number of nodes on arbitrary communication scheme.

  9. Distributed data fusion across multiple hard and soft mobile sensor platforms

    Sinsley, Gregory

    One of the biggest challenges currently facing the robotics field is sensor data fusion. Unmanned robots carry many sophisticated sensors including visual and infrared cameras, radar, laser range finders, chemical sensors, accelerometers, gyros, and global positioning systems. By effectively fusing the data from these sensors, a robot would be able to form a coherent view of its world that could then be used to facilitate both autonomous and intelligent operation. Another distinct fusion problem is that of fusing data from teammates with data from onboard sensors. If an entire team of vehicles has the same worldview they will be able to cooperate much more effectively. Sharing worldviews is made even more difficult if the teammates have different sensor types. The final fusion challenge the robotics field faces is that of fusing data gathered by robots with data gathered by human teammates (soft sensors). Humans sense the world completely differently from robots, which makes this problem particularly difficult. The advantage of fusing data from humans is that it makes more information available to the entire team, thus helping each agent to make the best possible decisions. This thesis presents a system for fusing data from multiple unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned ground vehicles, and human observers. The first issue this thesis addresses is that of centralized data fusion. This is a foundational data fusion issue, which has been very well studied. Important issues in centralized fusion include data association, classification, tracking, and robotics problems. Because these problems are so well studied, this thesis does not make any major contributions in this area, but does review it for completeness. The chapter on centralized fusion concludes with an example unmanned aerial vehicle surveillance problem that demonstrates many of the traditional fusion methods. The second problem this thesis addresses is that of distributed data fusion. Distributed data fusion

  10. Optical detection system for MEMS-type pressure sensor

    Sareło, K; Górecka-Drzazga, A; Dziuban, J A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a special optical detection system designed for a MEMS-type (micro-electro-mechanical system) silicon pressure sensor is presented. The main part of the optical system—a detection unit with a perforated membrane—is bonded to the silicon sensor, and placed in a measuring system. An external light source illuminates the membrane of the pressure sensor. Owing to the light reflected from the deflected membrane sensor, the optical pattern consisting of light points is visible, and pressure can be estimated. The optical detection unit (20   ×   20   ×   20.4 mm 3 ) is fabricated using microengineering techniques. Its dimensions are adjusted to the dimensions of the pressure sensor (5   ×   5 mm 2 silicon membrane). Preliminary tests of the optical detection unit integrated with the silicon pressure sensor are carried out. For the membrane sensor from 15 to 60 µm thick, a repeatable detection of the differential pressure in the range of 0 to 280 kPa is achieved. The presented optical microsystem is especially suitable for the pressure measurements in a high radiation environment. (paper)

  11. Large Capacitance Measurement by Multiple Uses of MBL Charge Sensor

    Lee, Jung Sook; Chae, Min; Kim, Jung Bog

    2010-01-01

    A recent article by Morse described interesting electrostatics experiments using an MBL charge sensor. In this application, the charge sensor has a large capacitance compared to the charged test object, so nearly all charges can be transferred to the sensor capacitor from the capacitor to be measured. However, the typical capacitance of commercial…

  12. A Multiple Sensor Machine Vision System for Automatic Hardwood Feature Detection

    D. Earl Kline; Richard W. Conners; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbin

    1993-01-01

    A multiple sensor machine vision prototype is being developed to scan full size hardwood lumber at industrial speeds for automatically detecting features such as knots holes, wane, stain, splits, checks, and color. The prototype integrates a multiple sensor imaging system, a materials handling system, a computer system, and application software. The prototype provides...

  13. A new type of In-core sensor validation outline

    Figedy, S.

    2006-01-01

    In this a new type of in-core sensor validation method is outlined, which is based on combination of correlation coefficients and mutual information indices. First experience with this approach is described and further improvements to enhance the outcome reliability are proposed namely through computational intelligence techniques (Authors)

  14. Thin-film antifuses for pellistor type gas sensors

    Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Holleman, J.; van den Berg, Albert; Wallinga, Hans

    2001-01-01

    This work extends our previously reported idea of using the nano-scale conductive link (antifuse) as a combined heating /detecting element in a Pellistor-type gas sensor. Our new thin-film antifuse is designed in such a way that the oxide, for minimising the bulk influence on surface temperature,

  15. Research on the Multiple Factors Influencing Human Identification Based on Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    Lou, Ping; Hu, Jianmin

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of the multiple factors affecting human identification ability based on pyroelectric infrared technology is a complex problem. First, we examine various sensed pyroelectric waveforms of the human body thermal infrared signal and reveal a mechanism for affecting human identification. Then, we find that the mechanism is decided by the distance, human target, pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor, the body type, human moving velocity, signal modulation mask, and Fresnel lens. The mapping relationship between the sensed waveform and multiple influencing factors is established, and a group of mathematical models are deduced which fuse the macro factors and micro factors. Finally, the experimental results show the macro-factors indirectly affect the recognition ability of human based on the pyroelectric technology. At the same time, the correctness and effectiveness of the mathematical models is also verified, which make it easier to obtain more pyroelectric infrared information about the human body for discriminating human targets. PMID:29462908

  16. Aviation Fuel Gauging Sensor Utilizing Multiple Diaphragm Sensors Incorporating Polymer Optical Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Marques, C. A. F.; Pospori, A.; Saez-Rodriguez, D.

    2016-01-01

    A high-performance fuel gauging sensor is described that uses five diaphragm-based pressure sensors, which are monitored using a linear array of polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings. The sensors were initially characterized using water, revealing a sensitivity of 98 pm/cm for four of the sensors...... of sensors manufactured with a polyurethane-based diaphragm showed no measurable deterioration over a three month period immersed in fuel. These sensors exhibited a sensitivity of 39 pm/cm, which is less than the silicone rubber devices due to the stiffer nature of the polyurethane material used....

  17. Adaptive Information Access on Multiple Applications Support Wireless Sensor Networks

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    information is challenged by dynamic nature of information elements. These challenges are more prominent in case of wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, as the information that the sensor node collects are mostly dynamic in nature (say, temperature). Therefore, it is likely that there can be a mismatch...

  18. Adaptive Information Access in Multiple Applications Support Wireless Sensor Network

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, due to wide applicability of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) added by the low cost sensor devices, its popularity among the researchers and industrialists are very much visible. A substantial amount of works can be seen in the literature on WSN which are mainly focused on application...

  19. Sensors

    Jensen, H. [PBI-Dansensor A/S (Denmark); Toft Soerensen, O. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept. (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    A new type of ceramic oxygen sensors based on semiconducting oxides was developed in this project. The advantage of these sensors compared to standard ZrO{sub 2} sensors is that they do not require a reference gas and that they can be produced in small sizes. The sensor design and the techniques developed for production of these sensors are judged suitable by the participating industry for a niche production of a new generation of oxygen sensors. Materials research on new oxygen ion conducting conductors both for applications in oxygen sensors and in fuel was also performed in this project and finally a new process was developed for fabrication of ceramic tubes by dip-coating. (EHS)

  20. Development of Wearable Sheet-Type Shear Force Sensor and Measurement System that is Insusceptible to Temperature and Pressure.

    Toyama, Shigeru; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Shirogane, Satoshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Umino, Tokio; Uehara, Ryo; Okamoto, Takuma; Igarashi, Hiroshi

    2017-07-31

    A sheet-type shear force sensor and a measurement system for the sensor were developed. The sensor has an original structure where a liquid electrolyte is filled in a space composed of two electrode-patterned polymer films and an elastic rubber ring. When a shear force is applied on the surface of the sensor, the two electrode-patterned films mutually move so that the distance between the internal electrodes of the sensor changes, resulting in current increase or decrease between the electrodes. Therefore, the shear force can be calculated by monitoring the current between the electrodes. Moreover, it is possible to measure two-dimensional shear force given that the sensor has multiple electrodes. The diameter and thickness of the sensor head were 10 mm and 0.7 mm, respectively. Additionally, we also developed a measurement system that drives the sensor, corrects the baseline of the raw sensor output, displays data, and stores data as a computer file. Though the raw sensor output was considerably affected by the surrounding temperature, the influence of temperature was drastically decreased by introducing a simple arithmetical calculation. Moreover, the influence of pressure simultaneously decreased after the same calculation process. A demonstrative measurement using the sensor revealed the practical usefulness for on-site monitoring.

  1. Miniaturized Planar Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Electrochemical Gas Sensor for Rapid Multiple Gas Pollutants Monitoring.

    Wan, Hao; Yin, Heyu; Lin, Lu; Zeng, Xiangqun; Mason, Andrew J

    2018-02-01

    The growing impact of airborne pollutants and explosive gases on human health and occupational safety has escalated the demand of sensors to monitor hazardous gases. This paper presents a new miniaturized planar electrochemical gas sensor for rapid measurement of multiple gaseous hazards. The gas sensor features a porous polytetrafluoroethylene substrate that enables fast gas diffusion and room temperature ionic liquid as the electrolyte. Metal sputtering was utilized for platinum electrodes fabrication to enhance adhesion between the electrodes and the substrate. Together with carefully selected electrochemical methods, the miniaturized gas sensor is capable of measuring multiple gases including oxygen, methane, ozone and sulfur dioxide that are important to human health and safety. Compared to its manually-assembled Clark-cell predecessor, this sensor provides better sensitivity, linearity and repeatability, as validated for oxygen monitoring. With solid performance, fast response and miniaturized size, this sensor is promising for deployment in wearable devices for real-time point-of-exposure gas pollutant monitoring.

  2. Optimal power allocation of a single transmitter-multiple receivers channel in a cognitive sensor network

    Ayala Solares, Jose Roberto; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    The optimal transmit power of a wireless sensor network with one transmitter and multiple receivers in a cognitive radio environment while satisfying independent peak, independent average, sum of peak and sum of average transmission rate constraints

  3. Development of a Respiratory Inductive Plethysmography Module Supporting Multiple Sensors for Wearable Systems

    Zhengbo Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an RIP module with the features of supporting multiple inductive sensors, no variable frequency LC oscillator, low power consumption, and automatic gain adjustment for each channel. Based on the method of inductance measurement without using a variable frequency LC oscillator, we further integrate pulse amplitude modulation and time division multiplexing scheme into a module to support multiple RIP sensors. All inductive sensors are excited by a high-frequency electric current periodically and momentarily, and the inductance of each sensor is measured during the time when the electric current is fed to it. To improve the amplitude response of the RIP sensors, we optimize the sensing unit with a matching capacitor parallel with each RIP sensor forming a frequency selection filter. Performance tests on the linearity of the output with cross-sectional area and the accuracy of respiratory volume estimation demonstrate good linearity and accurate lung volume estimation. Power consumption of this new RIP module with two sensors is very low. The performance of respiration measurement during movement is also evaluated. This RIP module is especially desirable for wearable systems with multiple RIP sensors for long-term respiration monitoring.

  4. Adaptive multi-node multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) transmission for mobile wireless multimedia sensor networks.

    Cho, Sunghyun; Choi, Ji-Woong; You, Cheolwoo

    2013-10-02

    Mobile wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs), which consist of mobile sink or sensor nodes and use rich sensing information, require much faster and more reliable wireless links than static wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This paper proposes an adaptive multi-node (MN) multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) transmission to improve the transmission reliability and capacity of mobile sink nodes when they experience spatial correlation. Unlike conventional single-node (SN) MIMO transmission, the proposed scheme considers the use of transmission antennas from more than two sensor nodes. To find an optimal antenna set and a MIMO transmission scheme, a MN MIMO channel model is introduced first, followed by derivation of closed-form ergodic capacity expressions with different MIMO transmission schemes, such as space-time transmit diversity coding and spatial multiplexing. The capacity varies according to the antenna correlation and the path gain from multiple sensor nodes. Based on these statistical results, we propose an adaptive MIMO mode and antenna set switching algorithm that maximizes the ergodic capacity of mobile sink nodes. The ergodic capacity of the proposed scheme is compared with conventional SN MIMO schemes, where the gain increases as the antenna correlation and path gain ratio increase.

  5. A flow-type amperometric sensor in immunoenzyme analysis

    Ivnitskii, D.M.; Aronbaev, D.M.; Kashkin, A.P.; Meringova, L.F.; Yulaev, M.F.

    1986-06-01

    A portable flow-type amperometric sensor has been made for the immunoenzyme determination of L-asparaginase. The authors show it is possible to determine peroxidase (the marker enzyme) by this method over the concentration range 1.10/sup -11/-4.10/sup -10/ M. The limit of detection for L-asparaginase is 1.8.10/sup -10/ M, which corresponds to clinically significant enzyme concentrations. Various modifications of immunoenzyme analysis (IEA) are used in clinical and research laboratories, and have contributed to diagnosis as regards antigens and serum antibodies. The sensor used here uses the electrical reduction of the molecular ion at the surface of thr measurement electrode. The electrochemical reaction is preceded by a competing antigen-antibody reaction and by the peroxidase oxidation of the iodide in the depressions.

  6. Robust segment-type energy harvester and its application to a wireless sensor

    Lee, Soobum; Youn, Byeng D; Jung, Byung C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative design platform of a piezoelectric energy harvester (EH), called a segment-type EH, and its application to a wireless sensor. Energy harvesting technology is motivated to minimize battery replacement cost for wireless sensors, which aims at developing self-powered sensors by utilizing ambient energy sources. Vibration energy is one of the widely available ambient energy sources which can be converted into electrical energy using piezoelectric material. The current state-of-the-art in piezoelectric EH technology mainly utilizes a single natural frequency, which is less effective when utilizing a random ambient vibration with multi-modal frequencies. This research thus proposes a segment-type harvester to generate electric power efficiently which utilizes multiple modes by separating the piezoelectric material. In order to reflect the random nature of ambient vibration energy, a stochastic design optimization is solved to determine the optimal configuration in terms of energy efficiency and durability. A prototype is manufactured and mounted on a heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) system to operate a temperature wireless sensor. It shows its excellent performance to generate sufficient power for real-time temperature monitoring for building automation

  7. Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

    Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. RJ Pegoraro, DJ Hacking, RH Buck, L Rom, PA Lanning, GMB Berger. Abstract. Objective. To identify by means of genetic analyses individuals who are at risk of developing medullary thyroid cancer that is a component of multiple endocrine neoplasia. Subjects.

  8. A gas sensor array for the simultaneous detection of multiple VOCs.

    Zhang, Yumin; Zhao, Jianhong; Du, Tengfei; Zhu, Zhongqi; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Qingju

    2017-05-16

    Air quality around the globe is declining and public health is seriously threatened by indoor air pollution. Typically, indoor air pollutants are composed of a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are generally harmful to the human body, especially VOCs with low molecular weights (less than 100 Da). Moreover, in some situations, more than one type of VOC is present; thus, a device that can detect one or more VOCs simultaneously would be most beneficial. Here, we synthesized a sensor array with 4 units to detect 4 VOCs: acetone (unit 1), benzene (unit 2), methanol (unit 3) and formaldehyde (unit 4) simultaneously. All units were simultaneously exposed to 2.5 ppm of all four VOCs. The sensitivity of unit 1 was 14.67 for acetone and less than 2.54 for the other VOCs. The sensitivities of units 2, 3 and 4 to benzene, methanol and formaldehyde were 2 18.64, 20.98 and 17.26, respectively, and less than 4.01 for the other VOCs. These results indicated that the sensor array exhibited good selectivity and could be used for the real-time monitoring of indoor air quality. Thus, this device will be useful in situations requiring the simultaneous detection of multiple VOCs.

  9. Recognition of work space using multiple ultrasonic sensors

    Hao, J.; Pan, W.; Li, X. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Information & Electrical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    For applying ultrasonic sensor to the recognition of robot work space in the environment of a coal mine, a method of ultrasonic data fusion was developed with DS (Dempster-Shafer) evidence theory, which includes probability assignment of measurement system, evidence extraction and arithmetic of dynamic fusion. Finally, a computer simulation was performed and a satisfactory result was achieved in an assumed three-dimensional space with an ideal manipulator of straight rod combination. It is proved that the incomplete and unspecialized data can be processed reasonably with DS evidence theory and the method can be implemented conveniently. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  10. A Study on Detection of Elastic Wave Using Patch Type Piezo-Polymer Sensor

    Kim, Ki Bok; Yoon, Dong Jin; Kueon, Jae Hwa; Lee, Young Seop

    2004-01-01

    Patch type piezo-polymer sensors for smart structures were experimented to detect elastic wave. The pencil lead braking test was performed to analyze the characteristics of patch-type piezo-polymer sensors such as polyvinyliden fluoride (PVDF) and polyvinylidene fluoride trifluorethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) for several test specimens with various elastic wave velocities and acoustical impedances. The characteristics of the patch-type piezo-polymer sensor were compared with the commercial PZT acoustic emission (AE) sensor. The vacuum grease and epoxy resin were used as a couplant for the acoustic impedance matching between the sensor and specimen. The peak amplitude of elastic wave increased as the diameter of piezo-film and acoustical impedance of the specimen increased. The frequency detection range of the piezo-film sensors decreased with increasing diameter of the piezo-film sensor. The P(VDF-TrFE) sensor was more sensitive than the PVDF sensor

  11. Aptamer-based impedimetric sensor for bacterial typing.

    Labib, Mahmoud; Zamay, Anna S; Kolovskaya, Olga S; Reshetneva, Irina T; Zamay, Galina S; Kibbee, Richard J; Sattar, Syed A; Zamay, Tatiana N; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2012-10-02

    The development of an aptamer-based impedimetric sensor for typing of bacteria (AIST-B) is presented. Highly specific DNA aptamers to Salmonella enteritidis were selected via Cell-SELEX technique. Twelve rounds of selection were performed; each comprises a positive selection step against S. enteritidis and a negative selection step against a mixture of related pathogens, including Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Citrobacter freundii, to ensure the species-specificity of the selected aptamers. After sequencing of the pool showing the highest binding affinity to S. enteritidis, a DNA sequence of high affinity to the bacteria was integrated into an impedimetric sensor via self-assembly onto a gold nanoparticles-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (GNPs-SPCE). Remarkably, this aptasensor is highly selective and can successfully detect S. enteritidis down to 600 CFU mL(-1) (equivalent to 18 CFU in 30 μL assay volume) in 10 min and distinguish it from other Salmonella species, including S. typhimurium and S. choleraesuis. This report is envisaged to open a new venue for the aptamer-based typing of a variety of microorganisms using a rapid, economic, and label-free electrochemical platform.

  12. Multiple incipient sensor faults diagnosis with application to high-speed railway traction devices.

    Wu, Yunkai; Jiang, Bin; Lu, Ningyun; Yang, Hao; Zhou, Yang

    2017-03-01

    This paper deals with the problem of incipient fault diagnosis for a class of Lipschitz nonlinear systems with sensor biases and explores further results of total measurable fault information residual (ToMFIR). Firstly, state and output transformations are introduced to transform the original system into two subsystems. The first subsystem is subject to system disturbances and free from sensor faults, while the second subsystem contains sensor faults but without any system disturbances. Sensor faults in the second subsystem are then formed as actuator faults by using a pseudo-actuator based approach. Since the effects of system disturbances on the residual are completely decoupled, multiple incipient sensor faults can be detected by constructing ToMFIR, and the fault detectability condition is then derived for discriminating the detectable incipient sensor faults. Further, a sliding-mode observers (SMOs) based fault isolation scheme is designed to guarantee accurate isolation of multiple sensor faults. Finally, simulation results conducted on a CRH2 high-speed railway traction device are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The multiplicity of massive stars: A high angular resolution survey with the HST fine guidance sensor

    Aldoretta, E. J.; Gies, D. R.; Henry, T. J.; Jao, W.-C.; Norris, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of an all-sky survey made with the Fine Guidance Sensor on the Hubble Space Telescope to search for angularly resolved binary systems among massive stars. The sample of 224 stars is comprised mainly of Galactic O- and B-type stars and luminous blue variables, plus a few luminous stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The FGS TRANS mode observations are sensitive to the detection of companions with an angular separation between 0.″01 and 1.″0 and brighter than △m=5. The FGS observations resolved 52 binary and 6 triple star systems and detected partially resolved binaries in 7 additional targets (43 of these are new detections). These numbers yield a companion detection frequency of 29% for the FGS survey. We also gathered literature results on the numbers of close spectroscopic binaries and wider astrometric binaries among the sample, and we present estimates of the frequency of multiple systems and the companion frequency for subsets of stars residing in clusters and associations, field stars, and runaway stars. These results confirm the high multiplicity fraction, especially among massive stars in clusters and associations. We show that the period distribution is approximately flat in increments of logP. We identify a number of systems of potential interest for long-term orbital determinations, and we note the importance of some of these companions for the interpretation of the radial velocities and light curves of close binaries that have third companions.

  14. A nanoparticle-based sensor for visual detection of multiple mutations

    Elenis, Dimitrios S; Ioannou, Penelope C [Department of Chemistry, University of Athens, Athens 15771 (Greece); Christopoulos, Theodore K, E-mail: ioannou@chem.uoa.gr [Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Patras 26500 (Greece)

    2011-04-15

    Disposable dipstick-type DNA biosensors in the form of lateral flow strips are particularly useful for genotyping in a small laboratory or for field testing due to their simplicity, low cost and portability. Their unique advantage is that they enable visual detection in minutes without the use of instruments. In addition, the dry-reagent format minimizes the pipetting, incubation and washing steps. In this work, we significantly enhance the multiplexing capabilities of lateral flow strip biosensors without compromising their simplicity. Multiplex genotyping is carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by a single primer extension reaction for all target alleles, in which a primer is extended and biotin is incorporated only if it is perfectly complementary to the target. Multiallele detection is achieved by multiple test spots on the membrane of the sensor, each comprising a suspension of polystyrene microspheres functionalized with capture probes. The products of the primer extension reaction hybridize, through specific sequence tags, to the capture probes and are visualized by using antibiotin-conjugated gold nanoparticles. This design enables accommodation of multiple spots in a small area because the microspheres are trapped in the fibres of the membrane and remain fixed in site without any diffusion. Furthermore, the detectability is improved because the hybrids are exposed on the surface of the trapped microspheres rather than inside the pores of the membrane. We demonstrate the specificity and performance of the biosensor for multiallele genotyping.

  15. A nanoparticle-based sensor for visual detection of multiple mutations

    Elenis, Dimitrios S; Ioannou, Penelope C; Christopoulos, Theodore K

    2011-01-01

    Disposable dipstick-type DNA biosensors in the form of lateral flow strips are particularly useful for genotyping in a small laboratory or for field testing due to their simplicity, low cost and portability. Their unique advantage is that they enable visual detection in minutes without the use of instruments. In addition, the dry-reagent format minimizes the pipetting, incubation and washing steps. In this work, we significantly enhance the multiplexing capabilities of lateral flow strip biosensors without compromising their simplicity. Multiplex genotyping is carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by a single primer extension reaction for all target alleles, in which a primer is extended and biotin is incorporated only if it is perfectly complementary to the target. Multiallele detection is achieved by multiple test spots on the membrane of the sensor, each comprising a suspension of polystyrene microspheres functionalized with capture probes. The products of the primer extension reaction hybridize, through specific sequence tags, to the capture probes and are visualized by using antibiotin-conjugated gold nanoparticles. This design enables accommodation of multiple spots in a small area because the microspheres are trapped in the fibres of the membrane and remain fixed in site without any diffusion. Furthermore, the detectability is improved because the hybrids are exposed on the surface of the trapped microspheres rather than inside the pores of the membrane. We demonstrate the specificity and performance of the biosensor for multiallele genotyping.

  16. Tracking a convoy of multiple targets using acoustic sensor data

    Damarla, T. R.

    2003-08-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm to track a convoy of several targets in a scene using acoustic sensor array data. The tracking algorithm is based on template of the direction of arrival (DOA) angles for the leading target. Often the first target is the closest target to the sensor array and hence the loudest with good signal to noise ratio. Several steps were used to generate a template of the DOA angle for the leading target, namely, (a) the angle at the present instant should be close to the angle at the previous instant and (b) the angle at the present instant should be within error bounds of the predicted value based on the previous values. Once the template of the DOA angles of the leading target is developed, it is used to predict the DOA angle tracks of the remaining targets. In order to generate the tracks for the remaining targets, a track is established if the angles correspond to the initial track values of the first target. Second the time delay between the first track and the remaining tracks are estimated at the highest correlation points between the first track and the remaining tracks. As the vehicles move at different speeds the tracks either compress or expand depending on whether a target is moving fast or slow compared to the first target. The expansion and compression ratios are estimated and used to estimate the predicted DOA angle values of the remaining targets. Based on these predicted DOA angles of the remaining targets the DOA angles obtained from the MVDR or Incoherent MUSIC will be appropriately assigned to proper tracks. Several other rules were developed to avoid mixing the tracks. The algorithm is tested on data collected at Aberdeen Proving Ground with a convoy of 3, 4 and 5 vehicles. Some of the vehicles are tracked and some are wheeled vehicles. The tracking algorithm results are found to be good. The results will be presented at the conference and in the paper.

  17. Achromatic-chromatic colorimetric sensors for on-off type detection of analytes.

    Heo, Jun Hyuk; Cho, Hui Hun; Lee, Jin Woong; Lee, Jung Heon

    2014-12-21

    We report the development of achromatic colorimetric sensors; sensors changing their colors from achromatic black to other chromatic colors. An achromatic colorimetric sensor was prepared by mixing a general colorimetric indicator, whose color changes between chromatic colors, and a complementary colored dye with no reaction to the targeted analyte. As the color of an achromatic colorimetric sensor changes from black to a chromatic color, the color change could be much easily recognized than general colorimetric sensors with naked eyes. More importantly, the achromatic colorimetric sensors enable on-off type recognition of the presence of analytes, which have not been achieved from most colorimetric sensors. In addition, the color changes from some achromatic colorimetric sensors (achromatic Eriochrome Black T and achromatic Benedict's solution) could be recognized with naked eyes at much lower concentration ranges than normal chromatic colorimetric sensors. These results provide new opportunities in the use of colorimetric sensors for diverse applications, such as harsh industrial, environmental, and biological detection.

  18. Solutions on high-resolution multiple configuration system sensors

    Liu, Hua; Ding, Quanxin; Guo, Chunjie; Zhou, Liwei

    2014-11-01

    For aim to achieve an improved resolution in modern image domain, a method of continuous zoom multiple configuration, with a core optics is attempt to establish model by novel principle on energy transfer and high accuracy localization, by which the system resolution can be improved with a level in nano meters. A comparative study on traditional vs modern methods can demonstrate that the dialectical relationship and their balance is important, among Merit function, Optimization algorithms and Model parameterization. The effect of system evaluated criterion that MTF, REA, RMS etc. can support our arguments qualitatively.

  19. Multiple Acid Sensors Control Helicobacter pylori Colonization of the Stomach.

    Huang, Julie Y; Goers Sweeney, Emily; Guillemin, Karen; Amieva, Manuel R

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori's ability to respond to environmental cues in the stomach is integral to its survival. By directly visualizing H. pylori swimming behavior when encountering a microscopic gradient consisting of the repellent acid and attractant urea, we found that H. pylori is able to simultaneously detect both signals, and its response depends on the magnitudes of the individual signals. By testing for the bacteria's response to a pure acid gradient, we discovered that the chemoreceptors TlpA and TlpD are each independent acid sensors. They enable H. pylori to respond to and escape from increases in hydrogen ion concentration near 100 nanomolar. TlpD also mediates attraction to basic pH, a response dampened by another chemoreceptor TlpB. H. pylori mutants lacking both TlpA and TlpD (ΔtlpAD) are unable to sense acid and are defective in establishing colonization in the murine stomach. However, blocking acid production in the stomach with omeprazole rescues ΔtlpAD's colonization defect. We used 3D confocal microscopy to determine how acid blockade affects the distribution of H. pylori in the stomach. We found that stomach acid controls not only the overall bacterial density, but also the microscopic distribution of bacteria that colonize the epithelium deep in the gastric glands. In omeprazole treated animals, bacterial abundance is increased in the antral glands, and gland colonization range is extended to the corpus. Our findings indicate that H. pylori has evolved at least two independent receptors capable of detecting acid gradients, allowing not only survival in the stomach, but also controlling the interaction of the bacteria with the epithelium.

  20. A Multiple Mobility Support Approach (MMSA Based on PEAS for NCW in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Bong-Joo Koo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs can be implemented as one of sensor systems in Network Centric Warfare (NCW. Mobility support and energy efficiency are key concerns for this application, due to multiple mobile users and stimuli in real combat field. However, mobility support approaches that can be adopted in this circumstance are rare. This paper proposes Multiple Mobility Support Approach (MMSA based on Probing Environment and Adaptive Sleeping (PEAS to support the simultaneous mobility of both multiple users and stimuli by sharing the information of stimuli in WSNs. Simulations using Qualnet are conducted, showing that MMSA can support multiple mobile users and stimuli with good energy efficiency. It is expected that the proposed MMSA can be applied to real combat field.

  1. Current Design of the Flange Type Hydrogen Permeation Sensor in Liquid Breeder

    Lee, E. H.; Jin, H. G.; Yoon, J. S.; Kim, S. K.; Lee, D. W.; Lee, H. G.

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, A. Ciampichetti et al. proposed a hollow capsule shape permeation sensor and they theoretically and experimentally evaluated the performance of the sensor made of Nb membrane at test condition of 500 .deg. C. However, the evaluation result showed the measured hydrogen permeation flux in the sensor much lower than the predicted one and they concluded that, the result is due to the formation of an oxide layer on the sensor membrane surface. Three years later, A. Ciampichetti et al. observed that a hollow capsule shape permeation sensor has too long response time to measure hydrogen concentration in liquid breeder. However, they suggested optimizing the sensor geometry with the reduction of the ratio 'total sensor volume/permeation surface' to overcome the low hydrogen permeating flux. For development of the liquid breeding technologies in nuclear fusion, the permeation sensor to measure tritium concentration in liquid metal breeder has been developed. Lee et al. proposed a flange type permeation sensor to dramatically reduce the ratio sensor 'inside volume/permeation surface' and to remove membrane welding during sensor manufacture process. However, the flange type sensor has problem with sealing. In present study, the modified flange sensor design with a metallic C-ring spring gasket is introduced. The modified sensor will be verified and evaluated under high temperature conditions by end of 2015

  2. Current Design of the Flange Type Hydrogen Permeation Sensor in Liquid Breeder

    Lee, E. H.; Jin, H. G.; Yoon, J. S.; Kim, S. K.; Lee, D. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In 2004, A. Ciampichetti et al. proposed a hollow capsule shape permeation sensor and they theoretically and experimentally evaluated the performance of the sensor made of Nb membrane at test condition of 500 .deg. C. However, the evaluation result showed the measured hydrogen permeation flux in the sensor much lower than the predicted one and they concluded that, the result is due to the formation of an oxide layer on the sensor membrane surface. Three years later, A. Ciampichetti et al. observed that a hollow capsule shape permeation sensor has too long response time to measure hydrogen concentration in liquid breeder. However, they suggested optimizing the sensor geometry with the reduction of the ratio 'total sensor volume/permeation surface' to overcome the low hydrogen permeating flux. For development of the liquid breeding technologies in nuclear fusion, the permeation sensor to measure tritium concentration in liquid metal breeder has been developed. Lee et al. proposed a flange type permeation sensor to dramatically reduce the ratio sensor 'inside volume/permeation surface' and to remove membrane welding during sensor manufacture process. However, the flange type sensor has problem with sealing. In present study, the modified flange sensor design with a metallic C-ring spring gasket is introduced. The modified sensor will be verified and evaluated under high temperature conditions by end of 2015.

  3. Column-Parallel Single Slope ADC with Digital Correlated Multiple Sampling for Low Noise CMOS Image Sensors

    Chen, Y.; Theuwissen, A.J.P.; Chae, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a low noise CMOS image sensor (CIS) using 10/12 bit configurable column-parallel single slope ADCs (SS-ADCs) and digital correlated multiple sampling (CMS). The sensor used is a conventional 4T active pixel with a pinned-photodiode as photon detector. The test sensor was

  4. Effect of sensor-augmented pump treatment vs. multiple daily injections on albuminuria

    Vestergaard Rosenlund, Signe; Willum Hansen, Tine; Rossing, Peter

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The effect of glycaemic control on persisting albuminuria remains unclear. Insulin delivery and glucose variability may be important Objective: To investigate the effect of 1 year treatment with sensor-augmented insulin pump (SAP) or multiple daily injections (MDI) on albuminuria. DESIGN...

  5. Feasibility of large-scale deployment of multiple wearable sensors in Parkinson's disease

    Silva de Lima, A.L.; Hahn, T.; Evers, L.J.W.; Vries, N.M. de; Cohen, E.; Afek, M.; Bataille, L.; Daeschler, M.; Claes, K.; Boroojerdi, B.; Terricabras, D.; Little, M.A.; Baldus, H.; Bloem, B.R.; Faber, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Wearable devices can capture objective day-to-day data about Parkinson's Disease (PD). This study aims to assess the feasibility of implementing wearable technology to collect data from multiple sensors during the daily lives of PD patients. The Parkinson@home study is an observational, two-cohort

  6. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and multiple sclerosis: Genetically related ...

    Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder with involvement of both the cutaneous and nervous systems. Patients are susceptible to neurological complication in the form of tumors of the brain and spinal cord. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the myelinated axons ...

  7. Imaging Finding of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: Case Report

    Yum, Tae Jun; Cho, Hee Woo

    2012-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome with characteristic clinical and radiological manifestations. Many reports on MEN1 have been published; however, no cases of radiologically diagnosed MEN1 have been reported. Therefore, we report on a radiologically diagnosed case of MEN1 with clinical symptoms of gastroduodenal ulcer.

  8. Nuclear Receptors and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)

    Dreijerink, K.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that is characterized by the occurrence of tumours of the parathyroid glands, gastroenteropancreatic tumours, pitui-tary gland adenomas, as well as adrenal adenomas and neuro-endocrine tumours, often at a young age. MEN1 tumours can

  9. No Association of Blood Type O With Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Nell, Sjoerd; van Leeuwaarde, Rachel S.; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; de Laat, Joanne M.; Hermus, Ad R.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Herder, Wouter W.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Borel Rinkes, Inne H. M.; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2015-01-01

    An association between ABO blood type and the development of cancer, in particular, pancreatic cancer, has been reported in the literature. An association between blood type O and neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients was recently suggested. Therefore, blood

  10. No Association of Blood Type O With Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Nell, S.; Leeuwaarde, R.S. van; Pieterman, C.R.; Laat, J.M. de; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Dekkers, O.M.; Herder, W.W. de; Horst-Schrivers, A.N. van der; Drent, M.L.; Bisschop, P.H.; Havekes, B.; Rinkes, I.H.; Vriens, M.R.; Valk, G.D.

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: An association between ABO blood type and the development of cancer, in particular, pancreatic cancer, has been reported in the literature. An association between blood type O and neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients was recently suggested. Therefore,

  11. No Association of Blood Type O With Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Nell, Sjoerd; Van Leeuwaarde, Rachel S.; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; de Laat, Joanne M.; Hermus, Ad R.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Herder, Wouter W.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Rinkes, Inne H. M. Borel; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: An association between ABO blood type and the development of cancer, in particular, pancreatic cancer, has been reported in the literature. An association between blood type O and neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients was recently suggested. Therefore,

  12. Employing optical code division multiple access technology in the all fiber loop vibration sensor system

    Tseng, Shin-Pin; Yen, Chih-Ta; Syu, Rong-Shun; Cheng, Hsu-Chih

    2013-12-01

    This study proposes a spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) framework to access the vibration frequency of a test object on the all fiber loop vibration sensor (AFLVS). Each user possesses an individual SAC, and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) encoders/decoders using multiple FBG arrays were adopted, providing excellent orthogonal properties in the frequency domain. The system also mitigates multiple access interference (MAI) among users. When an optical fiber is bent to a point exceeding the critical radius, the fiber loop sensor becomes sensitive to external physical parameters (e.g., temperature, strain, and vibration). The AFLVS involves placing a fiber loop with a specific radius on a designed vibration platform.

  13. Network hydraulics inclusion in water quality event detection using multiple sensor stations data.

    Oliker, Nurit; Ostfeld, Avi

    2015-09-01

    Event detection is one of the current most challenging topics in water distribution systems analysis: how regular on-line hydraulic (e.g., pressure, flow) and water quality (e.g., pH, residual chlorine, turbidity) measurements at different network locations can be efficiently utilized to detect water quality contamination events. This study describes an integrated event detection model which combines multiple sensor stations data with network hydraulics. To date event detection modelling is likely limited to single sensor station location and dataset. Single sensor station models are detached from network hydraulics insights and as a result might be significantly exposed to false positive alarms. This work is aimed at decreasing this limitation through integrating local and spatial hydraulic data understanding into an event detection model. The spatial analysis complements the local event detection effort through discovering events with lower signatures by exploring the sensors mutual hydraulic influences. The unique contribution of this study is in incorporating hydraulic simulation information into the overall event detection process of spatially distributed sensors. The methodology is demonstrated on two example applications using base runs and sensitivity analyses. Results show a clear advantage of the suggested model over single-sensor event detection schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Feedback-type giant magneto-impedance sensor based on longitudinal excitation

    Zhao Wen; Bu Xiongzhu; Yu Geliang; Xiang Chao

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of Fe-based amorphous ribbon based on the longitudinal excitation are investigated with assistance of the theory of the giant magneto-impedance (GMI) effect. A feedback-type GMI micro-magnetic sensor is designed with regard to the design of the sensing element, the excitation circuit, the conditional circuit and the feedback circuit. With the analysis of the dynamic and static characteristics of the feedback-type GMI sensor, it is concluded that the designed feedback-type GMI sensor has higher linearity, stability and dynamic characteristics than non-feedback-type GMI sensor in −2.5 to +2.5 Oe. - Highlights: ► A feedback-type GMI micro-magnetic sensor is designed. ► Excitation coil and feedback coil of the sensor is designed to be in one. ► The feedback-type sensor has higher linearity and stability than non-feedback type. ► The feedback-type sensor has better dynamic characteristics than non-feedback type.

  15. Profiling of Current Transients in Capacitor Type Diamond Sensors

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Meskauskaite, Dovile; Kazuchits, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    The operational characteristics of capacitor-type detectors based on HPHT and CVD diamond have been investigated using perpendicular and parallel injection of carrier domain regimes. Simulations of the drift-diffusion current transients have been implemented by using dynamic models based on Shockley-Ramo’s theorem, under injection of localized surface domains and of bulk charge carriers. The bipolar drift-diffusion regimes have been analyzed for the photo-induced bulk domain (packet) of excess carriers. The surface charge formation and polarization effects dependent on detector biasing voltage have been revealed. The screening effects ascribed to surface charge and to dynamics of extraction of the injected bulk excess carrier domain have been separated and explained. The parameters of drift mobility of the electrons μe = 4000 cm2/Vs and holes μh = 3800 cm2/Vs have been evaluated for CVD diamond using the perpendicular profiling of currents. The coefficient of carrier ambipolar diffusion Da = 97 cm2/s and the carrier recombination lifetime τR,CVD ≌ 110 ns in CVD diamond were extracted by combining analysis of the transients of the sensor current and the microwave probed photoconductivity. The carrier trapping with inherent lifetime τR,HPHT ≌ 2 ns prevails in HPHT diamond. PMID:26061200

  16. Temperature-independent sensors based on perovskite-type oxides

    Zaza, F.; Frangini, S.; Masci, A.; Leoncini, J.; Pasquali, M.; Luisetto, I.; Tuti, S.

    2013-01-01

    The need of energy security and environment sustainability drives toward the development of energy technology in order to enhance the performance of internal combustion engines. Gas sensors play a key role for controlling the fuel oxygen ratio and monitoring the pollution emissions. The perovskite-type oxides can be synthesized for an extremely wide variety of combinations of chemical elements, allowing to design materials with suitable properties for sensing application. Lanthanum strontium ferrites, such as La 0.7 Sr 0.3 FeO 3 , are suitable oxygen sensing materials with temperature-independence conductivity, but they have low chemical stability under reducing conditions. The addition of aluminum into the perovskite structure improves the material properties in order to develop suitable oxygen sensing probes for lean burn engine control systems. Perovskite-type oxides with formula (La 0.7 Sr 0.3 )(Al x Fe 1−x )O 3 was synthesized by the citrate-nitrate combustion synthesis method. XRD analyses, show that it was synthesized a phase-pure powder belonging to the perovskite structure. Aluminum affects both the unit cell parameters, by shrinking the unit cell, and the powder morphology, by promoting the synthesis of particles with small crystallite size and large specific surface area. The partial substitution of iron with aluminum improves the chemical stability under reducing gas conditions and modulates the oxygen sensitivity by affecting the relative amount of Fe 4+ and Fe 3+ , as confirmed from TPR profiles. In the same time, the addition of aluminum does not affects the temperature-independent properties of lanthanum strontium ferrites. Indeed, the electrical measurements show that (La 0.7 Sr 0.3 )(Al x Fe 1−x )O 3 perovskites have temperature-independence conductivity from 900 K

  17. Temperature-independent sensors based on perovskite-type oxides

    Zaza, F.; Frangini, S.; Masci, A. [ENEA-Casaccia R.C., Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S.Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Leoncini, J.; Pasquali, M. [University La Sapienza, Piazza Via del Castro Laurenziano 7, 00161 Rome (Italy); Luisetto, I.; Tuti, S. [University RomaTre, Rome 00146 (Italy)

    2014-06-19

    The need of energy security and environment sustainability drives toward the development of energy technology in order to enhance the performance of internal combustion engines. Gas sensors play a key role for controlling the fuel oxygen ratio and monitoring the pollution emissions. The perovskite-type oxides can be synthesized for an extremely wide variety of combinations of chemical elements, allowing to design materials with suitable properties for sensing application. Lanthanum strontium ferrites, such as La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3}, are suitable oxygen sensing materials with temperature-independence conductivity, but they have low chemical stability under reducing conditions. The addition of aluminum into the perovskite structure improves the material properties in order to develop suitable oxygen sensing probes for lean burn engine control systems. Perovskite-type oxides with formula (La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3})(Al{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x})O{sub 3} was synthesized by the citrate-nitrate combustion synthesis method. XRD analyses, show that it was synthesized a phase-pure powder belonging to the perovskite structure. Aluminum affects both the unit cell parameters, by shrinking the unit cell, and the powder morphology, by promoting the synthesis of particles with small crystallite size and large specific surface area. The partial substitution of iron with aluminum improves the chemical stability under reducing gas conditions and modulates the oxygen sensitivity by affecting the relative amount of Fe{sup 4+} and Fe{sup 3+}, as confirmed from TPR profiles. In the same time, the addition of aluminum does not affects the temperature-independent properties of lanthanum strontium ferrites. Indeed, the electrical measurements show that (La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3})(Al{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x})O{sub 3} perovskites have temperature-independence conductivity from 900 K.

  18. Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Tonelli, Francesco; Giudici, Francesco; Giusti, Francesca; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the literature about entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1) to clarify their demographic features, localization imaging, practice, and appropriate therapeutical strategies, analyzing the current approach to entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1. Despite the fact that hyperparathyroidism is usually the first manifestation of MEN1, the penetrance of these tumors is similar. They are characterized by multiplicity of lesions, variable expression of the tumors, and propensity for malignant degeneration. Both the histological type and the size of MEN1 neuroendocrine tumors correlate with malignancy. Monitoring of pancreatic peptides and use of imaging exams allow early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment, resulting in prevention of metastatic disease and improvement of long-term survival. Surgery is often the treatment of choice for MEN1-neuroendocrine tumors. The rationale for surgical approach is to curtail malignant progression of the disease, and to cure the associated biochemical syndrome, should it be present

  19. Multi-sensor fusion with interacting multiple model filter for improved aircraft position accuracy.

    Cho, Taehwan; Lee, Changho; Choi, Sangbang

    2013-03-27

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has decided to adopt Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) as the 21st century standard for navigation. Accordingly, ICAO members have provided an impetus to develop related technology and build sufficient infrastructure. For aviation surveillance with CNS/ATM, Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS), Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), multilateration (MLAT) and wide-area multilateration (WAM) systems are being established. These sensors can track aircraft positions more accurately than existing radar and can compensate for the blind spots in aircraft surveillance. In this paper, we applied a novel sensor fusion method with Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter to GBAS, ADS-B, MLAT, and WAM data in order to improve the reliability of the aircraft position. Results of performance analysis show that the position accuracy is improved by the proposed sensor fusion method with the IMM filter.

  20. Tracking and Recognition of Multiple Human Targets Moving in a Wireless Pyroelectric Infrared Sensor Network

    Ji Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With characteristics of low-cost and easy deployment, the distributed wireless pyroelectric infrared sensor network has attracted extensive interest, which aims to make it an alternate infrared video sensor in thermal biometric applications for tracking and identifying human targets. In these applications, effectively processing signals collected from sensors and extracting the features of different human targets has become crucial. This paper proposes the application of empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert-Huang transform to extract features of moving human targets both in the time domain and the frequency domain. Moreover, the support vector machine is selected as the classifier. The experimental results demonstrate that by using this method the identification rates of multiple moving human targets are around 90%.

  1. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2: achievements and current challenges

    Andreas Machens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incremental advances in medical technology, such as the development of sensitive hormonal assays for routine clinical care, are the drivers of medical progress. This principle is exemplified by the creation of the concept of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, encompassing medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, and primary hyperparathyroidism, which did not emerge before the early 1960s. This review sets out to highlight key achievements, such as joint biochemical and DNA-based screening of individuals at risk of developing multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, before casting a spotlight on current challenges which include: (i ill-defined upper limits of calcitonin assays for infants and young children, rendering it difficult to implement the biochemical part of the integrated DNA-based/biochemical concept; (ii our increasingly mobile society in which different service providers are caring for one individual at various stages in the disease process. With familial relationships disintegrating as a result of geographic dispersion, information about the history of the origin family may become sketchy or just unavailable. This is when DNA-based gene tests come into play, confirming or excluding an individual's genetic predisposition to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 even before there is any biochemical or clinical evidence of the disease. However, the unrivaled molecular genetic progress in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 does not come without a price. Screening may uncover unknown gene sequence variants representing either harmless polymorphisms or pathogenic mutations. In this setting, functional characterization of mutant cells in vitro may generate helpful ancillary evidence with regard to the pathogenicity of gene variants in comparison with established mutations.

  2. An energy efficient distance-aware routing algorithm with multiple mobile sinks for wireless sensor networks.

    Wang, Jin; Li, Bin; Xia, Feng; Kim, Chang-Seob; Kim, Jeong-Uk

    2014-08-18

    Traffic patterns in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) usually follow a many-to-one model. Sensor nodes close to static sinks will deplete their limited energy more rapidly than other sensors, since they will have more data to forward during multihop transmission. This will cause network partition, isolated nodes and much shortened network lifetime. Thus, how to balance energy consumption for sensor nodes is an important research issue. In recent years, exploiting sink mobility technology in WSNs has attracted much research attention because it can not only improve energy efficiency, but prolong network lifetime. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient distance-aware routing algorithm with multiple mobile sink for WSNs, where sink nodes will move with a certain speed along the network boundary to collect monitored data. We study the influence of multiple mobile sink nodes on energy consumption and network lifetime, and we mainly focus on the selection of mobile sink node number and the selection of parking positions, as well as their impact on performance metrics above. We can see that both mobile sink node number and the selection of parking position have important influence on network performance. Simulation results show that our proposed routing algorithm has better performance than traditional routing ones in terms of energy consumption.

  3. Sequential interrogation of multiple FBG sensors using LPG modulation and an artificial neural network

    Basu, Mainak; Ghorai, S K

    2015-01-01

    Interrogating multiple fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) requires highly sensitive spectrum scanning equipment such as optical spectrum analyzers, tunable filters, acousto-optic tunable filters etc, which are expensive, bulky and time consuming. In this paper, we present a new approach for multiple FBG sensor interrogation using long-period gratings and an artificial neural network. The reflection spectra of the multiplexed FBGs are modulated by two long period gratings separately and the modulated optical intensities were detected by two photodetectors. The outputs of the detectors are then used as input in a previously trained artificial neural network to interrogate the FBG sensors. Simulations have been performed to determine the strain and wavelength shift using two and four sensors. The interrogation system has also been demonstrated experimentally for two sensors using simply supported beams in the range of 0–350 μstrain. The proposed interrogation scheme has been found to identify the perturbed FBG, and to determine strain and wavelength shift with reasonable accuracy. (paper)

  4. An Energy Efficient Distance-Aware Routing Algorithm with Multiple Mobile Sinks for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Jin Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Traffic patterns in wireless sensor networks (WSNs usually follow a many-to-one model. Sensor nodes close to static sinks will deplete their limited energy more rapidly than other sensors, since they will have more data to forward during multihop transmission. This will cause network partition, isolated nodes and much shortened network lifetime. Thus, how to balance energy consumption for sensor nodes is an important research issue. In recent years, exploiting sink mobility technology in WSNs has attracted much research attention because it can not only improve energy efficiency, but prolong network lifetime. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient distance-aware routing algorithm with multiple mobile sink for WSNs, where sink nodes will move with a certain speed along the network boundary to collect monitored data. We study the influence of multiple mobile sink nodes on energy consumption and network lifetime, and we mainly focus on the selection of mobile sink node number and the selection of parking positions, as well as their impact on performance metrics above. We can see that both mobile sink node number and the selection of parking position have important influence on network performance. Simulation results show that our proposed routing algorithm has better performance than traditional routing ones in terms of energy consumption.

  5. Smart Sensor for Online Detection of Multiple-Combined Faults in VSD-Fed Induction Motors

    Garcia-Ramirez, Armando G.; Osornio-Rios, Roque A.; Granados-Lieberman, David; Garcia-Perez, Arturo; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J.

    2012-01-01

    Induction motors fed through variable speed drives (VSD) are widely used in different industrial processes. Nowadays, the industry demands the integration of smart sensors to improve the fault detection in order to reduce cost, maintenance and power consumption. Induction motors can develop one or more faults at the same time that can be produce severe damages. The combined fault identification in induction motors is a demanding task, but it has been rarely considered in spite of being a common situation, because it is difficult to identify two or more faults simultaneously. This work presents a smart sensor for online detection of simple and multiple-combined faults in induction motors fed through a VSD in a wide frequency range covering low frequencies from 3 Hz and high frequencies up to 60 Hz based on a primary sensor being a commercially available current clamp or a hall-effect sensor. The proposed smart sensor implements a methodology based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT), RMS calculation and artificial neural networks (ANN), which are processed online using digital hardware signal processing based on field programmable gate array (FPGA).

  6. Optimal power allocation of a single transmitter-multiple receivers channel in a cognitive sensor network

    Ayala Solares, Jose Roberto

    2012-08-01

    The optimal transmit power of a wireless sensor network with one transmitter and multiple receivers in a cognitive radio environment while satisfying independent peak, independent average, sum of peak and sum of average transmission rate constraints is derived. A suboptimal scheme is proposed to overcome the frequency of outages for the independent peak transmission rate constraint. In all cases, numerical results are provided for Rayleigh fading channels. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Sensitive typing of reverse ABO blood groups with a waveguide-mode sensor.

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Torahiko; Ashiba, Hiroki; Fujimaki, Makoto; Tanaka, Mutsuo; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Takei, Masami; Awazu, Koichi; Makishima, Makoto

    2018-07-01

    Portable, on-site blood typing methods will help provide life-saving blood transfusions to patients during an emergency or natural calamity, such as significant earthquakes. We have previously developed waveguide-mode (WM) sensors for forward ABO and Rh(D) blood typing and detection of antibodies against hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. In this study, we evaluated a WM-sensor for reverse ABO blood typing. Since reverse ABO blood typing is a method for detection of antibodies against type A and type B oligosaccharide antigens on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs), we fixed a synthetic type A or type B trisaccharide antigen on the sensor chip of the WM sensor. We obtained significant changes in the reflectance spectra from a WM sensor on type A antigen with type B plasma and type O plasma and on type B antigen with type A plasma and type O plasma, and no spectrum changes on type A antigen or type B antigen with type AB plasma. Signal enhancement with the addition of a peroxidase reaction failed to increase the sensitivity for detection on oligosaccharide chips. By utilizing hemagglutination detection using regent type A and type B RBCs, we successfully determined reverse ABO blood groups with higher sensitivity compared to a method using oligosaccharide antigens. Thus, functionality of a portable device utilizing a WM sensor can be expanded to include reverse ABO blood typing and, in combination with forward ABO typing and antivirus antibody detection, may be useful for on-site blood testing in emergency settings. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Beam Pattern Analysis of the Plate-type Waveguide Sensor for Under-Sodium Viewing

    Kim, Hoewoong; Joo, Youngsang; Park, Changgyu; Kim, Jongbum

    2013-01-01

    Sensor for under-sodium viewing (USV) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) has been developed. In the developed WG sensor approach, the A0 mode Lamb wave is used and a thin beryllium layer is coated on the waveguide surface to improve the ultrasonic radiation ability in a sodium environment. In this work, the beam pattern radiated from the developed plate-type WG sensor is investigated analytically to understand and predict the ultrasonic beam radiation property of the WG sensor in a liquid. Analytic calculations to obtain beam patterns for two kinds of WG sensors with and without beryllium coating layers were carried out and the results were compared with those obtained by experiments. In this work, the beam pattern of the plate-type WG sensor for USV was investigated analytically. Employing the far-field approximation, the acoustic response at a given measurement position was calculated for the plate-type WG sensors with and without beryllium coating layers. The beam patterns of WG sensors were predicted by the analytic calculation and the corresponding experiments were carried out. The results showed that the far-field beam pattern radiated from the plate-type WG sensor could be well predicted by an analytic calculation. The radiation beam angles obtained by the analytical calculation were in good agreement with those obtained by experiments

  9. New type of cells with multiple chromosome rearrangements

    Aseeva, Elena A. [National Research Centre for Hematology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novozykovsky proezd 4a, 125167 Moscow (Russian Federation); Snigiryova, Galina P. [Russian Scientific Centre of Roentgenology and Radiology, ul. Profsoyuznaya 86, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Neverova, Anna L. [National Research Centre for Hematology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novozykovsky proezd 4a, 125167 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bogomazova, Alexandra N.; Novitskaya, Natalia N.; Khazins, Eva D. [Russian Scientific Centre of Roentgenology and Radiology, ul. Profsoyuznaya 86, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Domracheva, Elena V. [National Research Centre for Hematology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novozykovsky proezd 4a, 125167 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: dom@blood.ru

    2010-04-15

    A comparative analysis of the distribution and the frequency of multiaberrant cells (MAC) among lymphocytes in different categories of low dose (up to 0.5 Gy) irradiated people was carried out. The highest MAC frequency was observed in people exposed to {alpha}-radiation (Pu, Rn) and in cosmonauts. This fact allows MAC to be considered as an indicator of a high-energy local exposure. A new type of cells with multiple chromosome rearrangements was discovered in the course of analysis of stable aberrations by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method. The biological consequences of MAC formation and possibility of revealing the whole diversity of cells with multiple aberrations by means of modern molecular-cytogenetic methods are discussed.

  10. New type of cells with multiple chromosome rearrangements

    Aseeva, E.A.; Domracheva, E.V.; Neverova, A.L; Bogomazova, A.N.; Snigiryova, G.P.; Novitskaya, N.N.; Khazins, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A comparative analysis of the distribution and the frequency of multiaberrant cells (MAC) among lymphocytes in different categories of low dose (up to 0.5 Gy) irradiated people was carried out. MAC were found in most of the examined groups and they were absent in the control population. A highest MAC frequency was observed in people exposed to alpha radiation (Pu, Ra). This fact allows MAC to be considered as an indicator of a high-energy local exposure. A new type of cells with multiple chromosome rearrangements was discovered in the course of analysis of stable aberrations by the FISH method. The biological consequences of MAC formation and possibility of revealing the whole diversity of cells with multiple aberrations by means of modern molecular-cytogenetic methods is discussed

  11. Multi-Sensor Architectures

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Ahmed, Zaki; Khan, M. Z.

    2012-01-01

    The use of multiple sensors typically requires the fusion of data from different type of sensors. The combined use of such a data has the potential to give an efficient, high quality and reliable estimation. Input data from different sensors allows the introduction of target attributes (target ty...

  12. A Self-Reconstructing Algorithm for Single and Multiple-Sensor Fault Isolation Based on Auto-Associative Neural Networks

    Hamidreza Mousavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently different approaches have been developed in the field of sensor fault diagnostics based on Auto-Associative Neural Network (AANN. In this paper we present a novel algorithm called Self reconstructing Auto-Associative Neural Network (S-AANN which is able to detect and isolate single faulty sensor via reconstruction. We have also extended the algorithm to be applicable in multiple fault conditions. The algorithm uses a calibration model based on AANN. AANN can reconstruct the faulty sensor using non-faulty sensors due to correlation between the process variables, and mean of the difference between reconstructed and original data determines which sensors are faulty. The algorithms are tested on a Dimerization process. The simulation results show that the S-AANN can isolate multiple faulty sensors with low computational time that make the algorithm appropriate candidate for online applications.

  13. Generating Vegetation Leaf Area Index Earth System Data Record from Multiple Sensors. Part 1; Theory

    Ganguly, Sangram; Schull, Mitchell A.; Samanta, Arindam; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Milesi, Cristina; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2008-01-01

    The generation of multi-decade long Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) from remote sensing measurements of multiple sensors is key to monitoring long-term changes in vegetation due to natural and anthropogenic influences. Challenges in developing such ESDRs include problems in remote sensing science (modeling of variability in global vegetation, scaling, atmospheric correction) and sensor hardware (differences in spatial resolution, spectral bands, calibration, and information content). In this paper, we develop a physically based approach for deriving LAI and FPAR products from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data that are of comparable quality to the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI and FPAR products, thus realizing the objective of producing a long (multi-decadal) time series of these products. The approach is based on the radiative transfer theory of canopy spectral invariants which facilitates parameterization of the canopy spectral bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF). The methodology permits decoupling of the structural and radiometric components and obeys the energy conservation law. The approach is applicable to any optical sensor, however, it requires selection of sensor-specific values of configurable parameters, namely, the single scattering albedo and data uncertainty. According to the theory of spectral invariants, the single scattering albedo is a function of the spatial scale, and thus, accounts for the variation in BRF with sensor spatial resolution. Likewise, the single scattering albedo accounts for the variation in spectral BRF with sensor bandwidths. The second adjustable parameter is data uncertainty, which accounts for varying information content of the remote sensing measurements, i.e., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, low information content), vs. spectral BRF (higher

  14. Youth experiences with multiple types of prejudice-based harassment.

    Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Eisenberg, Marla E

    2016-08-01

    Despite prejudice-based harassment's associations with serious physical and mental health risks, research examining multiple forms of harassment among children/adolescents is lacking. This study documents the prevalence of prejudice-based harassment (i.e., harassment on the basis of gender, race/ethnicity, weight or physical appearance, sexual orientation, and disability status) among a large, statewide, school-based Midwestern U.S. sample of 162,034 adolescents. Weight-/appearance-based harassment was most prevalent among both girls (25.3%) and boys (19.8%). Adolescents from certain vulnerable groups experienced higher rates of multiple types of harassment, even when controlling for other sociodemographic characteristics. Prejudice-based harassment experiences are prevalent among adolescent girls and boys. Differential rates of each type of harassment are reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic status (e.g., white female adolescents report a significantly lower rate of race-based harassment (4.8%), as compared to Native American (18.6%), mixed/other race (18.9%), Hispanic/Latina (21.5%), Asian/Pacific Islander (24.2%), or Black/African American (24.8%) female adolescents); but a pattern of cross-harassment also is evident, such that differences in prevalence of each harassment type emerge across a variety of statuses (e.g., disability-based harassment was statistically significantly higher among discordant heterosexual (12.7%), gay (13.0%), bisexual (15.3%), and unsure (15.3%) male adolescents than among heterosexual male (7.2%) adolescents). Adolescents from specific sociodemographic groups are particularly vulnerable to certain types of harassment. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. MRI of the spinocerebellar degeneration (multiple system atrophy, Holmes type, and Menzel-Joseph type)

    Mukai, Eiichiro; Makino, Naoki.

    1991-01-01

    We have analyzed MRI in 33 patients with several forms of spinocerebellar degeneration; 17 with multiple system atrophy, 10 with Holmes type, and 6 with Menzel-Joseph type. The MRIs were obtained using a 1.5-T GEMR System. Patients with multiple system atrophy demonstrated: atrophy of the brain stem, particularly basis pontis; decreased signal intensity of the white matter of pons; atrophy of the white matter of cerebellum; atrophy and decreased signal intensity of the putamen, particularly along their lateral and posterior portions; and atrophy of the cerebrum. Patients with Holmes type showed: atrophy of the cerebellum; atrophy of the vermis more than hemispheres; and nuclei of the cerebellum with no decreased intensity on T 2 -weighted sequences. Patients with Menzel-Joseph type demonstrated moderate atrophy of the brain stem and mild atrophy of the white matter of cerebellum. MRI is a useful diagnostic tool in the management of the spinocerebellar degeneration. (author)

  16. Thymoma (World Health Organization type B3) with neuroendocrine differentiation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Tomita, Masaki; Ichiki, Nobuhiko; Ayabe, Takanori; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Kunihide

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Thymic epithelial tumors occur in 1?5% of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). Majority of these thymic epithelial tumors are thymic carcinoids and patients with thymoma in MEN 1 is rare. Furthermore, thymoma with neuroendocrine differentiation was also rarely reported. Herein, we report a 68-year-old man having type B3 thymoma with neuroendocrine differentiation in MEN 1 and to the best of our knowledge this is the first such case ever reported.

  17. Kalman Filtering for Discrete Stochastic Systems with Multiplicative Noises and Random Two-Step Sensor Delays

    Dongyan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the optimal Kalman filtering problem for a class of discrete stochastic systems with multiplicative noises and random two-step sensor delays. Three Bernoulli distributed random variables with known conditional probabilities are introduced to characterize the phenomena of the random two-step sensor delays which may happen during the data transmission. By using the state augmentation approach and innovation analysis technique, an optimal Kalman filter is constructed for the augmented system in the sense of the minimum mean square error (MMSE. Subsequently, the optimal Kalman filtering is derived for corresponding augmented system in initial instants. Finally, a simulation example is provided to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed filtering method.

  18. An energy efficient multiple mobile sinks based routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks

    Zhong, Peijun; Ruan, Feng

    2018-03-01

    With the fast development of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), more and more energy efficient routing algorithms have been proposed. However, one of the research challenges is how to alleviate the hot spot problem since nodes close to static sink (or base station) tend to die earlier than other sensors. The introduction of mobile sink node can effectively alleviate this problem since sink node can move along certain trajectories, causing hot spot nodes more evenly distributed. In this paper, we mainly study the energy efficient routing method with multiple mobile sinks support. We divide the whole network into several clusters and study the influence of mobile sink number on network lifetime. Simulation results show that the best network performance appears when mobile sink number is about 3 under our simulation environment.

  19. Lifetime Optimization of a Multiple Sink Wireless Sensor Network through Energy Balancing

    Tapan Kumar Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wireless sensor network consists of small limited energy sensors which are connected to one or more sinks. The maximum energy consumption takes place in communicating the data from the nodes to the sink. Multiple sink WSN has an edge over the single sink WSN where very less energy is utilized in sending the data to the sink, as the number of hops is reduced. If the energy consumed by a node is balanced between the other nodes, the lifetime of the network is considerably increased. The network lifetime optimization is achieved by restructuring the network by modifying the neighbor nodes of a sink. Only those nodes are connected to a sink which makes the total energy of the sink less than the threshold. This energy balancing through network restructuring optimizes the network lifetime. This paper depicts this fact through simulations done in MATLAB.

  20. Structural damage detection-oriented multi-type sensor placement with multi-objective optimization

    Lin, Jian-Fu; Xu, You-Lin; Law, Siu-Seong

    2018-05-01

    A structural damage detection-oriented multi-type sensor placement method with multi-objective optimization is developed in this study. The multi-type response covariance sensitivity-based damage detection method is first introduced. Two objective functions for optimal sensor placement are then introduced in terms of the response covariance sensitivity and the response independence. The multi-objective optimization problem is formed by using the two objective functions, and the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA)-II is adopted to find the solution for the optimal multi-type sensor placement to achieve the best structural damage detection. The proposed method is finally applied to a nine-bay three-dimensional frame structure. Numerical results show that the optimal multi-type sensor placement determined by the proposed method can avoid redundant sensors and provide satisfactory results for structural damage detection. The restriction on the number of each type of sensors in the optimization can reduce the searching space in the optimization to make the proposed method more effective. Moreover, how to select a most optimal sensor placement from the Pareto solutions via the utility function and the knee point method is demonstrated in the case study.

  1. New type of Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors for Environments with Rapidly Changing Temperature

    Tykhan Myroslav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical aspects of a new type of piezo-resistive pressure sensors for environments with rapidly changing temperatures are presented. The idea is that the sensor has two identical diaphragms which have different coefficients of linear thermal expansion. Therefore, when measuring pressure in environments with variable temperature, the diaphragms will have different deflection. This difference can be used to make appropriate correction of the sensor output signal and, thus, to increase accuracy of measurement. Since physical principles of sensors operation enable fast correction of the output signal, the sensor can be used in environments with rapidly changing temperature, which is its essential advantage. The paper presents practical implementation of the proposed theoretical aspects and the results of testing the developed sensor.

  2. Detection and Classification of Multiple Objects using an RGB-D Sensor and Linear Spatial Pyramid Matching

    Dimitriou, Michalis; Kounalakis, Tsampikos; Vidakis, Nikolaos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a complete system for multiple object detection and classification in a 3D scene using an RGB-D sensor such as the Microsoft Kinect sensor. Successful multiple object detection and classification are crucial features in many 3D computer vision applications. The main goal is making machines see and understand objects like humans do. To this goal, the new RGB-D sensors can be utilized since they provide real-time depth map which can be used along with the RGB images for our ...

  3. Capitalization of multiple intelligence types during the biology disciplines

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on a sample of children at the Lăpuş School with classes I-VIII, using the teaching/learning process of the biology disciplines. A key element in applying the theory of Multiple Intelligence in a classroom is knowing the intelligence profile of children. Differentiated teaching approach was designed based on the predominant types of intelligences. For this purpose we used various methods: questionnaire, observation of children as they are given various tasks, interview, development of projects, role play, the biographical method-personal history of child, analysis of activities' results (compositions, drawings, collages, portfolios, debates in pair-groups, and case studies. In child’s profile, (types of intelligences become qualities that we capitalize in training, designing different teaching approach depending on predominant types of intelligences. The results appeared without delay. After a school's year that we worked differently with the children, they have improved school performance and became more interested in the study of biological disciplines thus arousing their curiosity and respect towards life.

  4. Sensor-augmented pump therapy lowers HbA(1c) in suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes; a randomized controlled trial

    Hermanides, J.; Nørgaard, K.; Bruttomesso, D.; Mathieu, C.; Frid, A.; Dayan, C. M.; Diem, P.; Fermon, C.; Wentholt, I. M. E.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; DeVries, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of sensor-augmented pump therapy vs. multiple daily injection therapy in patients with suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes. In this investigator-initiated multi-centre trial (the Eurythmics Trial) in eight outpatient centres in Europe, we randomized 83 patients with

  5. Source location in plates based on the multiple sensors array method and wavelet analysis

    Yang, Hong Jun; Shin, Tae Jin; Lee, Sang Kwon

    2014-01-01

    A new method for impact source localization in a plate is proposed based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and wavelet analysis. For source localization, the direction of arrival of the wave caused by an impact on a plate and the distance between impact position and sensor should be estimated. The direction of arrival can be estimated accurately using MUSIC method. The distance can be obtained by using the time delay of arrival and the group velocity of the Lamb wave in a plate. Time delay is experimentally estimated using the continuous wavelet transform for the wave. The elasto dynamic theory is used for the group velocity estimation.

  6. Source location in plates based on the multiple sensors array method and wavelet analysis

    Yang, Hong Jun; Shin, Tae Jin; Lee, Sang Kwon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    A new method for impact source localization in a plate is proposed based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and wavelet analysis. For source localization, the direction of arrival of the wave caused by an impact on a plate and the distance between impact position and sensor should be estimated. The direction of arrival can be estimated accurately using MUSIC method. The distance can be obtained by using the time delay of arrival and the group velocity of the Lamb wave in a plate. Time delay is experimentally estimated using the continuous wavelet transform for the wave. The elasto dynamic theory is used for the group velocity estimation.

  7. P-Type Silicon Strip Sensors for the Future CMS Tracker

    The Tracker Group of the CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is expected to increase the LHC design luminosity by an order of magnitude. This will require silicon tracking detectors with a significantly higher radiation hardness. The CMS Tracker Collaboration has conducted an irradiation and measurement campaign to identify suitable silicon sensor materials and strip designs for the future outer tracker at CMS. Based on these results, the collaboration has chosen to use n-in-p type strip and macro-pixel sensors and focus further investigations on the optimization of that sensor type. This paper describes the main measurement results and conclusions that motivated this decision.

  8. Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Grzegorz Piecha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism may occur as a part of an inherited syndrome in a combination with pancreatic endocrine tumours and/or pituitary adenoma, which is classified as Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1. This syndrome is caused by a germline mutation in MEN-1 gene encoding a tumour-suppressor protein, menin. Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent clinical presentation of MEN-1, which usually appears in the second decade of life as an asymptomatic hypercalcemia and progresses through the next decades. The most frequent clinical presentation of MEN-1-associated primary hyperparathyroidism is bone demineralisation and recurrent kidney stones rarely followed by chronic kidney disease. The aim of this paper is to present the pathomechanism, screening procedures, diagnosis, and management of primary hyperparathyroidism in the MEN-1 syndrome. It also summarises the recent advances in the pharmacological therapy with a new group of drugs—calcimimetics.

  9. Multiple sleep alterations in mice lacking cannabinoid type 1 receptors.

    Alessandro Silvani

    Full Text Available Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 receptors are highly expressed in the brain and play a role in behavior control. Endogenous cannabinoid signaling is modulated by high-fat diet (HFD. We investigated the consequences of congenital lack of CB1 receptors on sleep in mice fed standard diet (SD and HFD. CB1 cannabinoid receptor knock-out (KO and wild-type (WT mice were fed SD or HFD for 4 months (n = 9-10 per group. Mice were instrumented with electroencephalographic (EEG and electromyographic electrodes. Recordings were performed during baseline (48 hours, sleep deprivation (gentle handling, 6 hours, sleep recovery (18 hours, and after cage switch (insomnia model paradigm, 6 hours. We found multiple significant effects of genotype on sleep. In particular, KO spent more time awake and less time in non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS than WT during the dark (active period but not during the light (rest period, enhancing the day-night variation of wake-sleep amounts. KO had slower EEG theta rhythm during REMS. REMS homeostasis after sleep deprivation was less effective in KO than in WT. Finally, KO habituated more rapidly to the arousing effect of the cage-switch test than WT. We did not find any significant effects of diet or of diet x genotype interaction on sleep. The occurrence of multiple sleep alterations in KO indicates important roles of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in limiting arousal during the active period of the day, in sleep regulation, and in sleep EEG in mice.

  10. Sensitive Capacitive-type Hydrogen Sensor Based on Ni Thin Film in Different Hydrogen Concentrations.

    Pour, Ghobad Behzadi; Aval, Leila Fekri; Eslami, Shahnaz

    2018-04-01

    Hydrogen sensors are micro/nano-structure that are used to locate hydrogen leaks. They are considered to have fast response/recovery time and long lifetime as compared to conventional gas sensors. In this paper, fabrication of sensitive capacitive-type hydrogen gas sensor based on Ni thin film has been investigated. The C-V curves of the sensor in different hydrogen concentrations have been reported. Dry oxidation was done in thermal chemical vapor deposition furnace (TCVD). For oxidation time of 5 min, the oxide thickness was 15 nm and for oxidation time 10 min, it was 20 nm. The Ni thin film as a catalytic metal was deposited on the oxide film using electron gun deposition. Two MOS sensors were compared with different oxide film thickness and different hydrogen concentrations. The highest response of the two MOS sensors with 15 nm and 20 nm oxide film thickness in 4% hydrogen concentration was 87.5% and 65.4% respectively. The fast response times for MOS sensors with 15 nm and 20 nm oxide film thickness in 4% hydrogen concentration was 8 s and 21 s, respectively. By increasing the hydrogen concentration from 1% to 4%, the response time for MOS sensor (20nm oxide thickness), was decreased from 28s to 21s. The recovery time was inversely increased from 237s to 360s. The experimental results showed that the MOS sensor based on Ni thin film had a quick response and a high sensitivity.

  11. An Adaptive Time-Spread Multiple-Access Policy for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Konstantinos Oikonomou

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks require a simple and efficient medium access control policy achieving high system throughput with no or limited control overhead in order to increase the network lifetime by minimizing the energy consumed during transmission attempts. Time-spread multiple-access (TSMA policies that have been proposed for ad hoc network environments, can also be employed in sensor networks, since no control overhead is introduced. However, they do not take advantage of any cross-layer information in order to exploit the idiosyncrasies of the particular sensor network environment such as the presence of typically static nodes and a common destination for the forwarded data. An adaptive probabilistic TSMA-based policy, that is proposed and analyzed in this paper, exploits these idiosyncrasies and achieves higher system throughput than the existing TSMA-based policies without any need for extra control overhead. As it is analytically shown in this paper, the proposed policy always outperforms the existing TSMA-based policies, if certain parameter values are properly set; the analysis also provides for these proper values. It is also shown that the proposed policy is characterized by a certain convergence period and that high system throughput is achieved for long convergence periods. The claims and expectations of the provided analysis are supported by simulation results presented in this paper.

  12. Teaching English Accepting Multiple Intelligence Types through Arts

    Ivana CIMERMANOVÁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the importance of acceptance of the multiple intelligence types as one of the key factor influencing the (language teaching. It focuses mainly on the possibility to introduce art as a source of material for language teaching, providing a wide spectrum of possibilities to introduce different types of activities. The author understands art not only as a source for language teaching/learning but something more than that. For her, the art can be a source for presenting moral and aesthetic values and the material, which will develop learners as a complete personality. The art can bring ethics, culture, history to the language lesson and can help learners to understand the mentality and culture of the target language countr(ies more deeply. The paper is the case study done at the secondary school (1st graders, using some materials and preparing them for achieving the states aim, by the author. This study was a space to learn more about the students’ perception of task based approach, what gave them a chance to experience a shift from ‘teacher-centred’ learning to ‘learner centred’ lesson.

  13. Scintigraphic Evaluation of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 ( MEN Type 2 )

    Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo; Whang, Kee Suk; Kim, Bo Wan; Lee, In Kyu

    1991-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN type 2, Sipple's syndrome) is a rare disorder characterized by the association of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, parathyroid hyperplasia and can be diagnosed in early stage of the disease by meticulous screening tests of the family. This case report describes the location and categorization of tumors using 99m Tc-pertechnetate, I -NaI, 99m Tc-pentavalent(V) DMSA, 131 I -MIBG scans in two cases of MEN type 2 occurred in a 32 year old women and her 29-year old brother. In MEN type 2, we think, combined use of 99m Tc-(V)-DMSA, 99m Tc-pertechnetate and 1 '3 1 I -MIBG may be useful for the categorization of tumor mass lesions and planning appropriate therapy.

  14. Improved detection limits of bacterial endotoxins using new type of planar interdigital sensors

    Syaifudin, A. R Mohd

    2012-10-01

    New types of planar interdigital sensors were fabricated by photolithography and etching techniques on a Silicon/Silicon Dioxide (Si/SiO2) wafer (single side polished). The sensors were then coated with APTES (3-aminopropyltrietoxysilane) a cross linker used to bind Polymyxin B (PmB) molecules on electrodes surface. PmB is an antimicrobial peptide produced by the Gram-positive bacterium-Bacillus which has specific binding properties to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This paper will discuss the fabrication process, coating and immobilization procedures and analysis of sensors\\' performance based on Impedance Spectroscopy method. The sensor sensitivity was compared to standard ToxinSensor Chromogenic LAL Endotoxin Assay Kit for verification. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Fault diagnosis of sensor networked structures with multiple faults using a virtual beam based approach

    Wang, H.; Jing, X. J.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a virtual beam based approach suitable for conducting diagnosis of multiple faults in complex structures with limited prior knowledge of the faults involved. The "virtual beam", a recently-proposed concept for fault detection in complex structures, is applied, which consists of a chain of sensors representing a vibration energy transmission path embedded in the complex structure. Statistical tests and adaptive threshold are particularly adopted for fault detection due to limited prior knowledge of normal operational conditions and fault conditions. To isolate the multiple faults within a specific structure or substructure of a more complex one, a 'biased running' strategy is developed and embedded within the bacterial-based optimization method to construct effective virtual beams and thus to improve the accuracy of localization. The proposed method is easy and efficient to implement for multiple fault localization with limited prior knowledge of normal conditions and faults. With extensive experimental results, it is validated that the proposed method can localize both single fault and multiple faults more effectively than the classical trust index subtract on negative add on positive (TI-SNAP) method.

  16. Irradiation tests of ITER candidate Hall sensors using two types of neutron spectra

    Duran, I.; Bolshakova, I.; Holyaka, R.; Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Sentkerestiova, J.; Bem, P.

    2010-01-01

    We report on irradiation tests of InSb based Hall sensors at two irradiation facilities with two distinct types of neutron spectra. One was a fission reactor neutron spectrum with a significant presence of thermal neutrons, while another one was purely fast neutron field. Total neutron fluence of the order of 10 16 cm -2 was accumulated in both cases, leading to significant drop of Hall sensor sensitivity in case of fission reactor spectrum, while stable performance was observed at purely fast neutron spectrum. This finding suggests that performance of this particular type of Hall sensors is governed dominantly by transmutation. Additionally, it further stresses the need to test ITER candidate Hall sensors under neutron flux with ITER relevant spectrum.

  17. Smart Control of Multiple Evaporator Systems with Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks

    Apolinar González-Potes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the complete integration of a fuzzy control of multiple evaporator systems with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, in which we study several important aspects for this kind of system, like a detailed analysis of the end-to-end real-time flows over wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSAN, a real-time kernel with an earliest deadline first (EDF scheduler, periodic and aperiodic tasking models for the nodes, lightweight and flexible compensation-based control algorithms for WSAN that exhibit packet dropouts, an event-triggered sampling scheme and design methodologies. We address the control problem of the multi-evaporators with the presence of uncertainties, which was tackled through a wireless fuzzy control approach, showing the advantages of this concept where it can easily perform the optimization for a set of multiple evaporators controlled by the same smart controller, which should have an intelligent and flexible architecture based on multi-agent systems (MAS that allows one to add or remove new evaporators online, without the need for reconfiguring, while maintaining temporal and functional restrictions in the system. We show clearly how we can get a greater scalability, the self-configuration of the network and the least overhead with a non-beacon or unslotted mode of the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol, as well as wireless communications and distributed architectures, which could be extremely helpful in the development process of networked control systems in large spatially-distributed plants, which involve many sensors and actuators. For this purpose, a fuzzy scheme is used to control a set of parallel evaporator air-conditioning systems, with temperature and relative humidity control as a multi-input and multi-output closed loop system; in addition, a general architecture is presented, which implements multiple control loops closed over a communication network, integrating the analysis and validation method for multi

  18. Wireless Integrated Network Sensors Next Generation

    Merrill, William

    2004-01-01

    ..., autonomous networking, and distributed operations for wireless networked sensor systems. Multiple types of sensor systems were developed and provided including capabilities for acoustic, seismic, passive infrared detection, and visual imaging...

  19. Multiple Observation Types Jointly Constrain Terrestrial Carbon and Water Cycles

    Raupach, M. R.; Haverd, V.; Briggs, P. R.; Canadell, J.; Davis, S. J.; Isaac, P. R.; Law, R.; Meyer, M.; Peters, G. P.; Pickett Heaps, C.; Roxburgh, S. H.; Sherman, B.; van Gorsel, E.; Viscarra Rossel, R.; Wang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Information about the carbon cycle potentially constrains the water cycle, and vice versa. This paper explores the utility of multiple observation sets to constrain carbon and water fluxes and stores in a land surface model, and a resulting determination of the Australian terrestrial carbon budget. Observations include streamflow from 416 gauged catchments, measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) and net ecosystem production (NEP) from 12 eddy-flux sites, litterfall data, and data on carbon pools. The model is a version of CABLE (the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere-Land Exchange model), coupled with CASAcnp (a biogeochemical model) and SLI (Soil-Litter-Iso, a soil hydrology model including liquid and vapour water fluxes and the effects of litter). By projecting observation-prediction residuals onto model uncertainty, we find that eddy flux measurements provide a significantly tighter constraint on Australian continental net primary production (NPP) than the other data types. However, simultaneous constraint by multiple data types is important for mitigating bias from any single type. Results emerging from the multiply-constrained model are as follows (with all values applying over 1990-2011 and all ranges denoting ±1 standard error): (1) on the Australian continent, a predominantly semi-arid region, over half (0.64±0.05) of the water loss through ET occurs through soil evaporation and bypasses plants entirely; (2) mean Australian NPP is 2200±400 TgC/y, making the NPP/precipitation ratio about the same for Australia as the global land average; (3) annually cyclic ("grassy") vegetation and persistent ("woody") vegetation respectively account for 0.56±0.14 and 0.43±0.14 of NPP across Australia; (4) the average interannual variability of Australia's NEP (±180 TgC/y) is larger than Australia's total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in 2011 (149 TgCeq/y), and is dominated by variability in desert and savannah regions. The mean carbon budget over 1990

  20. A novel hand-type detection technique with fingerprint sensor

    Abe, Narishige; Shinzaki, Takashi

    2013-05-01

    In large-scale biometric authentication systems such as the US-Visit (USA), a 10-fingerprints scanner which simultaneously captures four fingerprints is used. In traditional systems, specific hand-types (left or right) are indicated, but it is difficult to detect hand-type due to the hand rotation and the opening and closing of fingers. In this paper, we evaluated features that were extracted from hand images (which were captured by a general optical scanner) that are considered to be effective for detecting hand-type. Furthermore, we extended the knowledge to real fingerprint images, and evaluated the accuracy with which it detects hand-type. We obtained an accuracy of about 80% with only three fingers (index, middle, ring finger).

  1. Results of agriclimatological studies using multiple satellite sensors like NOAA AVHRR; GMS IR and LANDSAT MSS and TM

    Choudhury, A.M.

    1990-08-01

    Bangladesh Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization (SPARRSO) routinely receives NOAA and GMS imagery and uses them in agrometeorological monitoring, it also uses LANDSAT MSS and TM data for this purpose. Analysis of multiple satellite sensor data shows advantages for high resolution sensors. However, in the ease of crop monitoring, a good correlation has been obtained between results obtained with NOAA AVHRR and LANDSAT MSS for vegetation index. Crop estimation has been made using all kinds of sensors and it has been found that higher resolution data always give more accurate results. (author). 3 refs

  2. Maximizing the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Multiple Sets of Rendezvous

    Bo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, there is a “crowded center effect” where the energy of nodes located near a data sink drains much faster than other nodes resulting in a short network lifetime. To mitigate the “crowded center effect,” rendezvous points (RPs are used to gather data from other nodes. In order to prolong the lifetime of WSN further, we propose using multiple sets of RPs in turn to average the energy consumption of the RPs. The problem is how to select the multiple sets of RPs and how long to use each set of RPs. An optimal algorithm and a heuristic algorithm are proposed to address this problem. The optimal algorithm is highly complex and only suitable for small scale WSN. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated through simulations. The simulation results indicate that the heuristic algorithm approaches the optimal one and that using multiple RP sets can significantly prolong network lifetime.

  3. Parameter Estimation of Multiple Frequency-Hopping Signals with Two Sensors

    Le Zuo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper essentially focuses on parameter estimation of multiple wideband emitting sources with time-varying frequencies, such as two-dimensional (2-D direction of arrival (DOA and signal sorting, with a low-cost circular synthetic array (CSA consisting of only two rotating sensors. Our basic idea is to decompose the received data, which is a superimposition of phase measurements from multiple sources into separated groups and separately estimate the DOA associated with each source. Motivated by joint parameter estimation, we propose to adopt the expectation maximization (EM algorithm in this paper; our method involves two steps, namely, the expectation-step (E-step and the maximization (M-step. In the E-step, the correspondence of each signal with its emitting source is found. Then, in the M-step, the maximum-likelihood (ML estimates of the DOA parameters are obtained. These two steps are iteratively and alternatively executed to jointly determine the DOAs and sort multiple signals. Closed-form DOA estimation formulae are developed by ML estimation based on phase data, which also realize an optimal estimation. Directional ambiguity is also addressed by another ML estimation method based on received complex responses. The Cramer-Rao lower bound is derived for understanding the estimation accuracy and performance comparison. The verification of the proposed method is demonstrated with simulations.

  4. Detection and Classification of Multiple Objects using an RGB-D Sensor and Linear Spatial Pyramid Matching

    Dimitriou, Michalis; Kounalakis, Tsampikos; Vidakis, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    , connected components detection and filtering approaches, in order to design a complete image processing algorithm for efficient object detection of multiple individual objects in a single scene, even in complex scenes with many objects. Besides, we apply the Linear Spatial Pyramid Matching (LSPM) [1] method......This paper presents a complete system for multiple object detection and classification in a 3D scene using an RGB-D sensor such as the Microsoft Kinect sensor. Successful multiple object detection and classification are crucial features in many 3D computer vision applications. The main goal...... is making machines see and understand objects like humans do. To this goal, the new RGB-D sensors can be utilized since they provide real-time depth map which can be used along with the RGB images for our tasks. In our system we employ effective depth map processing techniques, along with edge detection...

  5. A piezoelectric-based infinite stiffness generation method for strain-type load sensors

    Zhang, Shuwen; Shao, Shubao; Xu, Minglong; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Under certain application conditions like nanoindentation technology and the mechanical property measurement of soft materials, the elastic deformation of strain-type load sensors affects their displacement measurement accuracy. In this work, a piezoelectric-based infinite stiffness generation method for strain-type load sensors that compensates for this elastic deformation is presented. The piezoelectric material-based deformation compensation method is proposed. An Hottinger Baldwin Messtechnik GmbH (HBM) Z30A/50N load sensor acts as the foundation of the method presented in this work. The piezoelectric stack is selected based on its size, maximum deformation value, blocking force and stiffness. Then, a clamping and fixing structure is designed to integrate the HBM sensor with the piezoelectric stack. The clamping and fixing structure, piezoelectric stack and HBM load sensor comprise the sensing part of the enhanced load sensor. The load-deformation curve and the voltage-deformation curve of the enhanced load sensor are then investigated experimentally. Because a hysteresis effect exists in the piezoelectric structure, the relationship between the control signal and the deformation value of the piezoelectric material is nonlinear. The hysteresis characteristic in a quasi-static condition is studied and fitted using a quadratic polynomial, and its coefficients are analyzed to enable control signal prediction. Applied arithmetic based on current theory and the fitted data is developed to predict the control signal. Finally, the experimental effects of the proposed method are presented. It is shown that when a quasi-static load is exerted on this enhanced strain-type load sensor, the deformation is reduced and the equivalent stiffness appears to be almost infinite. (paper)

  6. Morbillivirus v proteins exhibit multiple mechanisms to block type 1 and type 2 interferon signalling pathways.

    Senthil K Chinnakannan

    Full Text Available Morbilliviruses form a closely related group of pathogenic viruses which encode three non-structural proteins V, W and C in their P gene. Previous studies with rinderpest virus (RPV and measles virus (MeV have demonstrated that these non-structural proteins play a crucial role in blocking type I (IFNα/β and type II (IFNγ interferon action, and various mechanisms have been proposed for these effects. We have directly compared four important morbilliviruses, rinderpest (RPV, measles virus (MeV, peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV and canine distemper virus (CDV. These viruses and their V proteins could all block type I IFN action. However, the viruses and their V proteins had varying abilities to block type II IFN action. The ability to block type II IFN-induced gene transcription correlated with co-precipitation of STAT1 with the respective V protein, but there was no correlation between co-precipitation of either STAT1 or STAT2 and the abilities of the V proteins to block type I IFN-induced gene transcription or the creation of the antiviral state. Further study revealed that the V proteins of RPV, MeV, PPRV and CDV could all interfere with phosphorylation of the interferon-receptor-associated kinase Tyk2, and the V protein of highly virulent RPV could also block the phosphorylation of another such kinase, Jak1. Co-precipitation studies showed that morbillivirus V proteins all form a complex containing Tyk2 and Jak1. This study highlights the ability of morbillivirus V proteins to target multiple components of the IFN signalling pathways to control both type I and type II IFN action.

  7. Prediction Approach of Critical Node Based on Multiple Attribute Decision Making for Opportunistic Sensor Networks

    Qifan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting critical nodes of Opportunistic Sensor Network (OSN can help us not only to improve network performance but also to decrease the cost in network maintenance. However, existing ways of predicting critical nodes in static network are not suitable for OSN. In this paper, the conceptions of critical nodes, region contribution, and cut-vertex in multiregion OSN are defined. We propose an approach to predict critical node for OSN, which is based on multiple attribute decision making (MADM. It takes RC to present the dependence of regions on Ferry nodes. TOPSIS algorithm is employed to find out Ferry node with maximum comprehensive contribution, which is a critical node. The experimental results show that, in different scenarios, this approach can predict the critical nodes of OSN better.

  8. Sensors

    Pigorsch, Enrico

    1997-01-01

    This is the 5th edition of the Metra Martech Directory "EUROPEAN CENTRES OF EXPERTISE - SENSORS." The entries represent a survey of European sensors development. The new edition contains 425 detailed profiles of companies and research institutions in 22 countries. This is reflected in the diversity of sensors development programmes described, from sensors for physical parameters to biosensors and intelligent sensor systems. We do not claim that all European organisations developing sensors are included, but this is a good cross section from an invited list of participants. If you see gaps or omissions, or would like your organisation to be included, please send details. The data base invites the formation of effective joint ventures by identifying and providing access to specific areas in which organisations offer collaboration. This issue is recognised to be of great importance and most entrants include details of collaboration offered and sought. We hope the directory on Sensors will help you to find the ri...

  9. Performance of solid electrolyte type oxygen sensor in flowing lead bismuth

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Minoru

    2005-01-01

    A solid electrolyte type oxygen sensor for liquid 45%lead-55%bismuth (Pb-Bi) was developed. The performance of the oxygen sensor in the flowing lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) was investigated. The initial performance of the sensor was not reliable, since the reference fluid of the oxygen saturated bismuth in the sensor cell was not compact initially. The electromotive force (EMF) obtained from the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) cell was the same as that from the magnesia stabilized zirconia (MSZ) cell in the flowing Pb-Bi. The EMF of the sensor in the flowing Pb-Bi was lower than that in the stagnant Pb-Bi. However, the difference was small. The sensor showed repeatability after the long term interruption and the Pb-Bi drain/charge operation. After the performance tests, the corrosion of the sensor cells were investigated metallurgically. The YSZ cell was eroded around the free surface of the flowing Pb-Bi after 3500 hour-exposure in the flowing Pb-Bi. The MSZ cell showed smooth surface without the erosion. Although the YSZ cell worked more stably than the MSZ cell, the mechanical strength of the YSZ cell is weaker than that of the MSZ cell. (author)

  10. Concept for a MEMS-type vacuum sensor based on electrical conductivity measurements

    F. J. Giebel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the micro-structured vacuum sensor presented in this article is the measurement of the electrical conductivity of thinned gases in order to develop a small, economical and quite a simple type of vacuum sensor. There are already some approaches for small vacuum sensors. Most of them are based on conservative measurement principles similar to those used in macroscopic vacuum gauges. Ionization gauges use additional sources of energy, like hot cathodes, ultraviolet radiation or high voltage for example, for ionizing gas molecules and thereby increasing the number of charge carriers for measuring low pressures. In contrast, the concept discussed here cannot be found in macroscopic sensor systems because it depends on the microscopic dimension of a gas volume defined by two electrodes. Here we present the concept and the production of a micro-structured vacuum sensor chip, followed by the electrical characterization. Reference measurements with electrodes at a distance of about 1 mm showed currents in the size of picoampere and a conductivity depending on ambient pressure. In comparison with these preliminary measurements, fundamental differences regarding pressure dependence of the conductivity are monitored in the electrical characterization of the micro-structured sensor chip. Finally the future perspectives of this sensor concept are discussed.

  11. Sensor Augmented Pump Therapy Use in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Carolan, E

    2016-11-01

    Tight metabolic control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) reduces incidence and delays progression of micro-vascular complications. Severe hypoglycaemia remains a significant barrier to achieving optimal diabetes control. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) systems refine insulin delivery with programmable basal rates and mealtime bolusing

  12. Overview of Sensor Fusion Research at RDECOM NVESD & Recent Results on Vehicle Detection Using Multiple Sensor Nodes

    Perconti, Philip; Hilger, James; Loew, Murry

    2003-01-01

    .... This paper provides an overview of the on going research at NVESD related to fusing a mixture of active and passive sensors for countermine, dismounted AND mounted soldiers, aviation and unattended...

  13. Development of Remote-Type Haptic Catheter Sensor System using Piezoelectric Transducer

    Haruta, Mineyuki; Murayama, Yoshinobu; Omata, Sadao

    This study describes the development of Remote-Type Haptic Catheter Sensor System which enables the mechanical property evaluation of a blood vessel. This system consists of a feedback circuit and a piezoelectric ultrasound transducer, and is operated based on a phase shift method so that the entire system oscillates at its inherent resonance frequency. Ultrasound reflected by the blood vessel makes a phase shift of the resonance system depending on the acoustic impedance of the reflector. The phase shift is then measured as a change in resonance frequency of the system; therefore, the detection resolution is highly improved. The correlation between the acoustic impedance and the resonance frequency change of the sensor system was demonstrated using silicone rubbers, metals and actual blood vessels from a pig. The performance of the sensor was also examined using vessel shaped phantom model. Finally, the discussion surveys a possibility of the novel sensor system in an application for intra vascular diagnosis.

  14. A micromachined inline type microwave power sensor with working state transfer switches

    Han Lei

    2011-01-01

    A wideband 8-12 GHz inline type microwave power sensor, which has both working and non-working states, is presented. The power sensor measures the microwave power coupled from a CPW line by a MEMS membrane. In order to reduce microwave losses during the non-working state, a new structure of working state transfer switches is proposed to realize the two working states. The fabrication of the power sensor with two working states is compatible with the GaAs MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) process. The experimental results show that the power sensor has an insertion loss of 0.18 dB during the non-working state and 0.24 dB during the working state at a frequency of 10 GHz. This means that no microwave power has been coupled from the CPW line during the non-working state. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  15. Image Sensor

    Jerram, Paul; Stefanov, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    An image sensor of the type for providing charge multiplication by impact ionisation has plurality of multiplication elements. Each element is arranged to receive charge from photosensitive elements of an image area and each element comprises a sequence of electrodes to move charge along a transport path. Each of the electrodes has an edge defining a boundary with a first electrode, a maximum width across the charge transport path and a leading edge that defines a boundary with a second elect...

  16. Type Ia supernovae as speed sensors at intermediate redshifts

    Zhang Pengjie; Chen Xuelei

    2008-01-01

    Large scale peculiar velocity (LSPV) is a crucial probe of dark matter, dark energy, and gravity at cosmological scales. However, its application is severely limited by measurement obstacles. We show that fluctuations in type Ia supernovae fluxes induced by LSPV offer a promising approach to measure LSPV at intermediate redshifts. In the 3D Fourier space, gravitational lensing, the dominant systematical error, is well suppressed, localized, and can be further corrected effectively. Advances in supernova observations can further significantly reduce shot noise induced by supernova intrinsic fluctuations, which is the dominant statistical error. Robust mapping on the motion of the dark universe through type Ia supernovae is thus feasible to z∼0.5.

  17. Design, Fabrication, and Implementation of an Array-Type MEMS Piezoresistive Intelligent Pressure Sensor System

    Jiahong Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To meet the radiosonde requirement of high sensitivity and linearity, this study designs and implements a monolithically integrated array-type piezoresistive intelligent pressure sensor system which is made up of two groups of four pressure sensors with the pressure range of 0–50 kPa and 0–100 kPa respectively. First, theoretical models and ANSYS (version 14.5, Canonsburg, PA, USA finite element method (FEM are adopted to optimize the parameters of array sensor structure. Combing with FEM stress distribution results, the size and material characteristics of the array-type sensor are determined according to the analysis of the sensitivity and the ratio of signal to noise (SNR. Based on the optimized parameters, the manufacture and packaging of array-type sensor chips are then realized by using the standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS and microelectromechanical system (MEMS process. Furthermore, an intelligent acquisition and processing system for pressure and temperature signals is achieved. The S3C2440A microprocessor (Samsung, Seoul, Korea is regarded as the core part which can be applied to collect and process data. In particular, digital signal storage, display and transmission are realized by the application of a graphical user interface (GUI written in QT/E. Besides, for the sake of compensating the temperature drift and nonlinear error, the data fusion technique is proposed based on a wavelet neural network improved by genetic algorithm (GA-WNN for average measuring signal. The GA-WNN model is implemented in hardware by using a S3C2440A microprocessor. Finally, the results of calibration and test experiments achieved with the temperature ranges from −20 to 20 °C show that: (1 the nonlinear error and the sensitivity of the array-type pressure sensor are 8330 × 10−4 and 0.052 mV/V/kPa in the range of 0–50 kPa, respectively; (2 the nonlinear error and the sensitivity are 8129 × 10−4 and 0.020 mV/V/kPa in the

  18. Parity-Check Network Coding for Multiple Access Relay Channel in Wireless Sensor Cooperative Communications

    Du Bing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed theory suggests that network coding is a generalization of source coding and channel coding and thus yields a significant performance improvement in terms of throughput and spatial diversity. This paper proposes a cooperative design of a parity-check network coding scheme in the context of a two-source multiple access relay channel (MARC model, a common compact model in hierarchical wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The scheme uses Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC as the surrogate to build up a layered structure which encapsulates the multiple constituent LDPC codes in the source and relay nodes. Specifically, the relay node decodes the messages from two sources, which are used to generate extra parity-check bits by a random network coding procedure to fill up the rate gap between Source-Relay and Source-Destination transmissions. Then, we derived the key algebraic relationships among multidimensional LDPC constituent codes as one of the constraints for code profile optimization. These extra check bits are sent to the destination to realize a cooperative diversity as well as to approach MARC decode-and-forward (DF capacity.

  19. Cooperative and Adaptive Network Coding for Gradient Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Sinks

    M. E. Migabo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its low computational cost, the Gradient Based Routing (GBR broadcast of interest messages in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs causes significant packets duplications and unnecessary packets transmissions. This results in energy wastage, traffic load imbalance, high network traffic, and low throughput. Thanks to the emergence of fast and powerful processors, the development of efficient network coding strategies is expected to enable efficient packets aggregations and reduce packets retransmissions. For multiple sinks WSNs, the challenge consists of efficiently selecting a suitable network coding scheme. This article proposes a Cooperative and Adaptive Network Coding for GBR (CoAdNC-GBR technique which considers the network density as dynamically defined by the average number of neighbouring nodes, to efficiently aggregate interest messages. The aggregation is performed by means of linear combinations of random coefficients of a finite Galois Field of variable size GF(2S at each node and the decoding is performed by means of Gaussian elimination. The obtained results reveal that, by exploiting the cooperation of the multiple sinks, the CoAdNC-GBR not only improves the transmission reliability of links and lowers the number of transmissions and the propagation latency, but also enhances the energy efficiency of the network when compared to the GBR-network coding (GBR-NC techniques.

  20. Research on the Effects of Drying Temperature on Nitrogen Detection of Different Soil Types by Near Infrared Sensors.

    Nie, Pengcheng; Dong, Tao; He, Yong; Xiao, Shupei

    2018-01-29

    Soil is a complicated system whose components and mechanisms are complex and difficult to be fully excavated and comprehended. Nitrogen is the key parameter supporting plant growth and development, and is the material basis of plant growth as well. An accurate grasp of soil nitrogen information is the premise of scientific fertilization in precision agriculture, where near infrared sensors are widely used for rapid detection of nutrients in soil. However, soil texture, soil moisture content and drying temperature all affect soil nitrogen detection using near infrared sensors. In order to investigate the effects of drying temperature on the nitrogen detection in black soil, loess and calcium soil, three kinds of soils were detected by near infrared sensors after 25 °C placement (ambient temperature), 50 °C drying (medium temperature), 80 °C drying (medium-high temperature) and 95 °C drying (high temperature). The successive projections algorithm based on multiple linear regression (SPA-MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and competitive adaptive reweighted squares (CARS) were used to model and analyze the spectral information of different soil types. The predictive abilities were assessed using the prediction correlation coefficients (R P ), the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP), and the residual predictive deviation (RPD). The results showed that the loess (R P = 0.9721, RMSEP = 0.067 g/kg, RPD = 4.34) and calcium soil (R P = 0.9588, RMSEP = 0.094 g/kg, RPD = 3.89) obtained the best prediction accuracy after 95 °C drying. The detection results of black soil (R P = 0.9486, RMSEP = 0.22 g/kg, RPD = 2.82) after 80 °C drying were the optimum. In conclusion, drying temperature does have an obvious influence on the detection of soil nitrogen by near infrared sensors, and the suitable drying temperature for different soil types was of great significance in enhancing the detection accuracy.

  1. Design and fabrication of a terminating type MEMS microwave power sensor

    Xu Yinglin; Liao Xiaoping

    2009-01-01

    A terminating type MEMS microwave power sensor based on the Seebeck effect and compatible with the GaAs MMIC process is presented. An electrothermal model is introduced to simulate the heat transfer behavior and temperature distribution. The sensor measured the microwave power from -20 to 20 dBm up to 20 GHz. The sensitivity of the sensor is 0.27 mV/mW at 20 GHz, and the input return loss is less than -26 dB over the entire experiment frequency range. In order to improve the sensitivity, four different types of coplanar waveguide (CPW) were designed and the sensitivity was significantly increased by about a factor of 2.

  2. Smell identification of spices using nanomechanical membrane-type surface stress sensors

    Imamura, Gaku; Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-11-01

    Artificial olfaction, that is, a chemical sensor system that identifies samples by smell, has not been fully achieved because of the complex perceptional mechanism of olfaction. To realize an artificial olfactory system, not only an array of chemical sensors but also a valid feature extraction method is required. In this study, we achieved the identification of spices by smell using nanomechanical membrane-type surface stress sensors (MSS). Features were extracted from the sensing signals obtained from four MSS coated with different types of polymers, focusing on the chemical interactions between polymers and odor molecules. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the dataset consisting of the extracted parameters demonstrated the separation of each spice on the scatter plot. We discuss the strategy for improving odor identification based on the relationship between the results of PCA and the chemical species in the odors.

  3. MITRE sensor layer prototype

    Duff, Francis; McGarry, Donald; Zasada, David; Foote, Scott

    2009-05-01

    The MITRE Sensor Layer Prototype is an initial design effort to enable every sensor to help create new capabilities through collaborative data sharing. By making both upstream (raw) and downstream (processed) sensor data visible, users can access the specific level, type, and quantities of data needed to create new data products that were never anticipated by the original designers of the individual sensors. The major characteristic that sets sensor data services apart from typical enterprise services is the volume (on the order of multiple terabytes) of raw data that can be generated by most sensors. Traditional tightly coupled processing approaches extract pre-determined information from the incoming raw sensor data, format it, and send it to predetermined users. The community is rapidly reaching the conclusion that tightly coupled sensor processing loses too much potentially critical information.1 Hence upstream (raw and partially processed) data must be extracted, rapidly archived, and advertised to the enterprise for unanticipated uses. The authors believe layered sensing net-centric integration can be achieved through a standardize-encapsulate-syndicateaggregate- manipulate-process paradigm. The Sensor Layer Prototype's technical approach focuses on implementing this proof of concept framework to make sensor data visible, accessible and useful to the enterprise. To achieve this, a "raw" data tap between physical transducers associated with sensor arrays and the embedded sensor signal processing hardware and software has been exploited. Second, we encapsulate and expose both raw and partially processed data to the enterprise within the context of a service-oriented architecture. Third, we advertise the presence of multiple types, and multiple layers of data through geographic-enabled Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) services. These GeoRSS feeds are aggregated, manipulated, and filtered by a feed aggregator. After filtering these feeds to bring just the type

  4. Surgical treatment of pancreatic endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Marcel Cerqueira Cesar Machado

    Full Text Available Surgical approaches to pancreatic endocrine tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may differ greatly from those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Presurgical diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is therefore crucial to plan a proper intervention. Of note, hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 should be surgically treated before pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 resection, apart from insulinoma. Non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 >1 cm have a high risk of malignancy and should be treated by a pancreatic resection associated with lymphadenectomy. The vast majority of patients with gastrinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 present with tumor lesions at the duodenum, so the surgery of choice is subtotal or total pancreatoduodenectomy followed by regional lymphadenectomy. The usual surgical treatment for insulinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is distal pancreatectomy up to the mesenteric vein with or without spleen preservation, associated with enucleation of tumor lesions in the pancreatic head. Surgical procedures for glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, and vipomas/ multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are similar to those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Some of these surgical strategies for pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 still remain controversial as to their proper extension and timing. Furthermore, surgical resection of single hepatic metastasis secondary to pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may be curative and even in multiple liver metastases surgical resection is possible. Hepatic trans-arterial chemo-embolization is usually associated with surgical resection. Liver transplantation may be needed for select cases. Finally, pre-surgical clinical and genetic diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome and

  5. Use of multiple sensor technologies for quality control of in situ biogeochemical measurements: A SeaCycler case study

    Atamanchuk, Dariia; Koelling, Jannes; Lai, Jeremy; Send, Uwe; Wallace, Douglas

    2017-04-01

    Over the last two decades observing capacity for the global ocean has increased dramatically. Emerging sensor technologies for dissolved gases, nutrients and bio-optical properties in seawater are allowing extension of in situ observations beyond the traditionally measured salinity, temperature and pressure (CTD). However the effort to extend observations using autonomous instruments and platforms carries the risk of losing the level of data quality achievable through conventional water sampling techniques. We will present results from a case study with the SeaCycler profiling winch focusing on quality control of the in-situ measurements. A total of 13 sensors were deployed from May 2016 to early 2017 on SeaCycler's profiling sensor float, including CTD, dissolved oxygen (O2, 3 sensors), carbon dioxide (pCO2, 2 sensors), nutrients, velocity sensors, fluorometer, transmissometer, single channel PAR sensor, and others. We will highlight how multiple measurement technologies (e.g. for O2 and CO2) complement each other and result in a high quality data product. We will also present an initial assessment of the bio-optical data, their implications for seasonal phytoplankton dynamics and comparisons to climatologies and ocean-color data products obtained from the MODIS satellite.

  6. Estimating Single and Multiple Target Locations Using K-Means Clustering with Radio Tomographic Imaging in Wireless Sensor Networks

    2015-03-26

    clustering is an algorithm that has been used in data mining applications such as machine learning applications , pattern recognition, hyper-spectral imagery...42 3.7.2 Application of K-means Clustering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.8 Experiment Design...Tomographic Imaging WLAN Wireless Local Area Networks WSN Wireless Sensor Network xx ESTIMATING SINGLE AND MULTIPLE TARGET LOCATIONS USING K-MEANS CLUSTERING

  7. A Multi-Wavelength Opto-Electronic Patch Sensor to Effectively Detect Physiological Changes against Human Skin Types.

    Yan, Liangwen; Hu, Sijung; Alzahrani, Abdullah; Alharbi, Samah; Blanos, Panagiotis

    2017-06-21

    Different skin pigments among various ethnic group people have an impact on spectrometric illumination on skin surface. To effectively capture photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals, a multi-wavelength opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS) together with a schematic architecture of electronics were developed to overcome the drawback of present PPG sensor. To perform a better in vivo physiological measurement against skin pigments, optimal illuminations in OEPS, whose wavelength is compatible with a specific skin type, were optimized to capture a reliable physiological sign of heart rate (HR). A protocol was designed to investigate an impact of five skin types in compliance with Von Luschan's chromatic scale. Thirty-three healthy male subjects between the ages of 18 and 41 were involved in the protocol implemented by means of the OEPS system. The results show that there is no significant difference ( p: 0.09, F = 3.0) in five group tests with the skin types across various activities throughout a series of consistent measurements. The outcome of the present study demonstrates that the OEPS, with its multi-wavelength illumination characteristics, could open a path in multiple applications of different ethnic groups with cost-effective health monitoring.

  8. A Multi-Wavelength Opto-Electronic Patch Sensor to Effectively Detect Physiological Changes against Human Skin Types

    Liangwen Yan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Different skin pigments among various ethnic group people have an impact on spectrometric illumination on skin surface. To effectively capture photoplethysmographic (PPG signals, a multi-wavelength opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS together with a schematic architecture of electronics were developed to overcome the drawback of present PPG sensor. To perform a better in vivo physiological measurement against skin pigments, optimal illuminations in OEPS, whose wavelength is compatible with a specific skin type, were optimized to capture a reliable physiological sign of heart rate (HR. A protocol was designed to investigate an impact of five skin types in compliance with Von Luschan’s chromatic scale. Thirty-three healthy male subjects between the ages of 18 and 41 were involved in the protocol implemented by means of the OEPS system. The results show that there is no significant difference (p: 0.09, F = 3.0 in five group tests with the skin types across various activities throughout a series of consistent measurements. The outcome of the present study demonstrates that the OEPS, with its multi-wavelength illumination characteristics, could open a path in multiple applications of different ethnic groups with cost-effective health monitoring.

  9. Assessing UAV platform types and optical sensor specifications

    Altena, B.; Goedemé, T.

    2014-05-01

    Photogrammetric acquisition with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has grown extensively over the last couple of years. Such mobile platforms and their processing software have matured, resulting in a market which offers off-the-shelf mapping solutions to surveying companies and geospatial enterprises. Different approaches in platform type and optical instruments exist, though its resulting products have similar specifications. To demonstrate differences in acquisitioning practice, a case study over an open mine was flown with two different off-the-shelf UAVs (a fixed-wing and a multi-rotor). The resulting imagery is analyzed to clarify the differences in collection quality. We look at image settings, and stress the fact of photographic experience if manual setting are applied. For mapping production it might be safest to set the camera on automatic. Furthermore, we try to estimate if blur is present due to image motion. A subtle trend seems to be present, for the fast flying platform though its extent is of similar order to the slow moving one. It shows both systems operate at their limits. Finally, the lens distortion is assessed with special attention to chromatic aberration. Here we see that through calibration such aberrations could be present, however detecting this phenomena directly on imagery is not straightforward. For such effects a normal lens is sufficient, though a better lens and collimator does give significant improvement.

  10. High-Speed Tactile Sensing for Array-Type Tactile Sensor and Object Manipulation Based on Tactile Information

    Wataru Fukui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a universal robot hand with tactile and other sensors. An array-type tactile sensor is crucial for dexterous manipulation of objects using a robotic hand, since this sensor can measure the pressure distribution on finger pads. The sensor has a very high resolution, and the shape of a grasped object can be classified by using this sensor. The more the number of measurement points provided, the higher the accuracy of the classification, but with a corresponding lengthening of the measurement cycle. In this paper, the problem of slow response time is resolved by using software for an array-type tactile sensor with high resolution that emulates the human sensor system. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated through experiments.

  11. Hemagglutination detection for blood typing based on waveguide-mode sensors

    Hiroki Ashiba

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABO and Rh(D blood typing is one of the most important tests performed prior to blood transfusion. Although on-site blood testing is desirable for expedient blood transfusion procedure, most conventional methods and instruments lack the required usability or portability. Here, we describe a novel method, based on the detection of hemagglutination using an optical waveguide-mode sensor, for on-site use. The reflectance spectrum of blood alone and that of blood mixed with antibody reagents was measured using the waveguide-mode sensor. Differences in reflectance by agglutinated and non-agglutinated blood samples were observed at the bottom of the spectral dips; due to differences in the manner in which red blood cells interacted with the surface of the sensor chip. Following the addition of the antibody, blood types A, B, O, and AB were clearly distinguishable and Rh(D typing was also possible using the waveguide-mode sensor. Furthermore, the waveguide-mode-based measurement exhibited the potential to detect weak agglutination, which is difficult for human eyes to distinguish. Thus, this method holds great promise for application in novel on-site test instruments.

  12. Development of a Whole-Body Haptic Sensor with Multiple Supporting Points and Its Application to a Manipulator

    Hanyu, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Toshiaki

    This paper proposes a whole-body haptic sensing system that has multiple supporting points between the body frame and the end-effector. The system consists of an end-effector and multiple force sensors. Using this mechanism, the position of a contact force on the surface can be calculated without any sensor array. A haptic sensing system with a single supporting point structure has previously been developed by the present authors. However, the system has drawbacks such as low stiffness and low strength. Therefore, in this study, a mechanism with multiple supporting points was proposed and its performance was verified. In this paper, the basic concept of the mechanism is first introduced. Next, an evaluation of the proposed method, performed by conducting some experiments, is presented.

  13. Hybrid Multiple Soft-Sensor Models of Grinding Granularity Based on Cuckoo Searching Algorithm and Hysteresis Switching Strategy

    Jie-Sheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of grinding process and accuracy requirements of technical indicators, a hybrid multiple soft-sensor modeling method of grinding granularity is proposed based on cuckoo searching (CS algorithm and hysteresis switching (HS strategy. Firstly, a mechanism soft-sensor model of grinding granularity is deduced based on the technique characteristics and a lot of experimental data of grinding process. Meanwhile, the BP neural network soft-sensor model and wavelet neural network (WNN soft-sensor model are set up. Then, the hybrid multiple soft-sensor model based on the hysteresis switching strategy is realized. That is to say, the optimum model is selected as the current predictive model according to the switching performance index at each sampling instant. Finally the cuckoo searching algorithm is adopted to optimize the performance parameters of hysteresis switching strategy. Simulation results show that the proposed model has better generalization results and prediction precision, which can satisfy the real-time control requirements of grinding classification process.

  14. A theoretical study on Love wave sensors in a structure with multiple viscoelastic layers on a piezoelectric substrate

    Liu, Jiansheng

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical method is used to analyze the performance of Love wave sensors with multiple viscoelastic guiding layers on a piezoelectric substrate. The method is based upon the theoretical model for multi-elastic-layer piezoelectric Love waves and the Maxwell–Weichert model for viscoelastic materials. The relationship between sensor performance and the characteristics of Love waves is discussed. Numerical calculation is completed for a Love wave delay line consisting of a viscoelastic SU-8 layer, an elastic SiO 2 layer, an ST-90°X quartz substrate and two interdigital transducers (IDTs) with a period of 40 μm deposited on the substrate surface. The calculated results prove that a Love wave sensor with such a two-layer structure can achieve better performance than a Love wave sensor with only one (visco)elastic or elastic guiding layer. Some interesting abnormal phenomena, such as an oscillation in mass velocity sensitivity (S mv ), are predicted at the area where tail-raising occurs in the propagation velocity. The method and the numerical results presented in this work may help in the development of a high-performing Love wave sensor with multiple layers. (papers)

  15. Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia (MED: A Rare Type of Skeletal Dysplasia

    Mohammad Imnul Islam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED is a congenital disorder of skeletal development that primarily affects the ends of long bones, causing progressive joint and bone inflammation and short stature. Mutations in several genes are responsible for pathogenesis of this disease. We are reporting a case of MED who presented with the complaints of multiple swelling of the joints which was associated with pain during movement for last seven years. The patient had flexion deformity of all the affected joints along with restriction of movement. These were associated with kyphosis, pectus carnitum, knock-knee and short stature. Radiological findings were suggestive of MED. Counseling was done with the parents regarding the etiology, progression and outcome of the disease.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bsmmuj.v5i1.11025 BSMMU J 2012; 5(1:57-60 

  16. Existence and multiplicity of solutions for divergence type elliptic equations

    Lin Zhao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We establish the existence and multiplicity of weak solutions of a problem involving a uniformly convex elliptic operator in divergence form. We find one nontrivial solution by the mountain pass lemma, when the nonlinearity has a $(p-1$-superlinear growth at infinity, and two nontrivial solutions by minimization and mountain pass when the nonlinear term has a $(p-1$-sublinear growth at infinity.

  17. A novel sidestream ultrasonic flow sensor for multiple breath washout in children.

    Fuchs, Susanne I; Sturz, J; Junge, S; Ballmann, M; Gappa, M

    2008-08-01

    Inert gas multiple breath washout (MBW) for measuring Lung Clearance Index using mass spectrometry and 4% sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) as the tracer gas has been shown to be sensitive for detecting early Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung disease. However, mass spectrometry requires bulky equipment and is expensive to buy and maintain. A novel sidestream ultrasonic device may overcome this problem. The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility and clinical validity of measuring lung volume (functional residual capacity, FRC) and the LCI using the sidestream ultrasonic flow sensor in children and adolescents with CF in relation to spirometry and plain chest radiographs. MBW using the sidestream ultrasonic device and conventional spirometry were performed in 26 patients with CF and 22 healthy controls. In the controls (4.7-17.7 years) LCI was similar to that reported using mass spectrometry (mean (SD) 6.7 (0.5)). LCI was elevated in 77% of the CF children (6.8-18.9 years), whereas spirometry was abnormal in only 38.5%, 61.5%, and 26.9% for FEV(1), MEF(25), and FEV(1)/FVC, respectively. This was more marked in children ultrasonic MBW is a valid and simple alternative to mass spectrometry for assessing ventilation homogeneity in children. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Maximum Likelihood DOA Estimation of Multiple Wideband Sources in the Presence of Nonuniform Sensor Noise

    K. Yao

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the maximum likelihood (ML direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation of multiple wideband sources in the presence of unknown nonuniform sensor noise. New closed-form expression for the direction estimation Cramér-Rao-Bound (CRB has been derived. The performance of the conventional wideband uniform ML estimator under nonuniform noise has been studied. In order to mitigate the performance degradation caused by the nonuniformity of the noise, a new deterministic wideband nonuniform ML DOA estimator is derived and two associated processing algorithms are proposed. The first algorithm is based on an iterative procedure which stepwise concentrates the log-likelihood function with respect to the DOAs and the noise nuisance parameters, while the second is a noniterative algorithm that maximizes the derived approximately concentrated log-likelihood function. The performance of the proposed algorithms is tested through extensive computer simulations. Simulation results show the stepwise-concentrated ML algorithm (SC-ML requires only a few iterations to converge and both the SC-ML and the approximately-concentrated ML algorithm (AC-ML attain a solution close to the derived CRB at high signal-to-noise ratio.

  19. Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Mobile Sinks.

    Yang, Jin; Liu, Fagui; Cao, Jianneng; Wang, Liangming

    2016-07-14

    Mobile sinks can achieve load-balancing and energy-consumption balancing across the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, the frequent change of the paths between source nodes and the sinks caused by sink mobility introduces significant overhead in terms of energy and packet delays. To enhance network performance of WSNs with mobile sinks (MWSNs), we present an efficient routing strategy, which is formulated as an optimization problem and employs the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) to build the optimal routing paths. However, the conventional PSO is insufficient to solve discrete routing optimization problems. Therefore, a novel greedy discrete particle swarm optimization with memory (GMDPSO) is put forward to address this problem. In the GMDPSO, particle's position and velocity of traditional PSO are redefined under discrete MWSNs scenario. Particle updating rule is also reconsidered based on the subnetwork topology of MWSNs. Besides, by improving the greedy forwarding routing, a greedy search strategy is designed to drive particles to find a better position quickly. Furthermore, searching history is memorized to accelerate convergence. Simulation results demonstrate that our new protocol significantly improves the robustness and adapts to rapid topological changes with multiple mobile sinks, while efficiently reducing the communication overhead and the energy consumption.

  20. In vitro RBE-LET dependence for multiple particle types

    Sørensen, Brita Singers; Overgaard, Jens; Bassler, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Background. In vitro RBE values for various high LET radiation types have been determined for many different cell types. Occasionally it is criticized that RBE for a given endpoint cannot be single-value dependent on LET alone, but also on particle species, due to the different dose deposition...... profiles on microscopic scale. Hence LET is not sufficient as a predictor of RBE, and this is one of the motivations for development of radiobiological models which explicitly depend on the detailed particle energy spectrum of the applied radiation field. The aim of the present study is to summarize...... the available data in the literature regarding the dependency of RBE on LET for different particles. Method. As RBE is highly dependent on cell type and endpoint, we discriminated the RBE-LET relationship for the three investigated cell lines and at the same endpoint (10% survival in colony formation). Data...

  1. Surface-type humidity sensor based on cellulose-PEPC for telemetry systems

    Karimov, Kh. S.; Saleem, M.; Qasuria, T. A.; Farooq, M.

    2011-01-01

    Au/cellulose-PEPC/Au surface-type humidity sensors were fabricated by drop-casting cellulose and poly-N-epoxypropylcarbazole (PEPC) blend thin films. A blend of 2wt% of each cellulose and PEPC in benzol was used for the deposition of humidity sensing films. Blend films were deposited on glass substrates with preliminary deposited surface-type gold electrodes. Films of different thicknesses of cellulose and PEPC composite were deposited by drop-casting technique. A change in electrical resistance and capacitance of the fabricated devices was observed by increasing the relative humidity in the range of 0-95% RH. It was observed that the capacitances of the sensors increase, while their resistances decrease with increasing the relative humidity. The sensors were connected to op-amp square wave oscillators. It was observed that with increasing the relative humidity, the oscillator's frequencies were also increased in the range of 4.2-12.0 kHz for 65 μm thick film sample, 4.1-9.0 kHz for 88 μm thick film sample, and 4.2-9.0 kHz for 210 μm sample. Effects of film thickness on the oscillator's frequency with respect to humidity were also investigated. This polymer humidity sensor controlled oscillator can be used for short-range and long-range remote systems at environmental monitoring and assessment of the humidity level. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  2. Measurement of water flow rate in unsaturated soil by thermistor type sensor

    Takebe, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1981-09-01

    As a part of radiological safety studies for ground disposal of radioactive wastes, a measuring apparatus of water flow rate with thermistor type sensor was made as preliminary one and the measurement of water flow rate in the soil was carried out, in order to evalute by comparison of the migration rate of water with that of radionuclide in an unsaturated soil. The water flow rate can be determined by measuring the change of the thermal conductivity (temperature) of soil around the several thermistor type sensors set in a soil. Particularly at the region of low water content in the soil, the water flow rate was able to measure successfully by this apparatus. (author)

  3. Cell elasticity with altered cytoskeletal architectures across multiple cell types.

    Grady, Martha E; Composto, Russell J; Eckmann, David M

    2016-08-01

    The cytoskeleton is primarily responsible for providing structural support, localization and transport of organelles, and intracellular trafficking. The structural support is supplied by actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments, which contribute to overall cell elasticity to varying degrees. We evaluate cell elasticity in five different cell types with drug-induced cytoskeletal derangements to probe how actin filaments and microtubules contribute to cell elasticity and whether it is conserved across cell type. Specifically, we measure elastic stiffness in primary chondrocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells (HUVEC), hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HUH-7), and fibrosarcoma cells (HT 1080) subjected to two cytoskeletal destabilizers: cytochalasin D and nocodazole, which disrupt actin and microtubule polymerization, respectively. Elastic stiffness is measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the disruption of the cytoskeleton is confirmed using fluorescence microscopy. The two cancer cell lines showed significantly reduced elastic moduli values (~0.5kPa) when compared to the three healthy cell lines (~2kPa). Non-cancer cells whose actin filaments were disrupted using cytochalasin D showed a decrease of 60-80% in moduli values compared to untreated cells of the same origin, whereas the nocodazole-treated cells showed no change in elasticity. Overall, we demonstrate actin filaments contribute more to elastic stiffness than microtubules but this result is cell type dependent. Cancer cells behaved differently, exhibiting increased stiffness as well as stiffness variability when subjected to nocodazole. We show that disruption of microtubule dynamics affects cancer cell elasticity, suggesting therapeutic drugs targeting microtubules be monitored for significant elastic changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Integration of Multiple Contractors with Performance Type of Contracts

    BURDGE, L.F.

    2000-01-01

    The management practices, procedures, and processes that are suited to managing Management and Operation (MandO) type of contracts at Department of Energy (DOE) sites, which were cost reimbursement with award fee, are not well suited to managing contracts where fee is determined by performance metrics. Thus a different style of management, requiring substantial revamping of the management process, is needed. This shift in philosophy also requires a dramatic shift in culture. This paper will describe how these changes are being managed at the River Protection Project (RPP), located at the DOE's Hanford Site in Washington State, one of DOE's largest and highest risk environmental clean-up project

  5. Multiple breath washout with a sidestream ultrasonic flow sensor and mass spectrometry: a comparative study.

    Fuchs, Susanne I; Buess, Christian; Lum, Sooky; Kozlowska, Wanda; Stocks, Janet; Gappa, Monika

    2006-12-01

    Over recent years, there has been renewed interest in the multiple breath wash-out (MBW) technique for assessing ventilation inhomogeneity (VI) as a measure of early lung disease in children. While currently considered the gold standard, use of mass spectrometry (MS) to measure MBW is not commercially available, thereby limiting widespread application of this technique. A mainstream ultrasonic flow sensor was marketed for MBW a few years ago, but its use was limited to infants. We have recently undertaken intensive modifications of both hardware and software for the ultrasonic system to extend its use for older children. The aim of the current in vivo study was to compare simultaneous measurements of end-tidal tracer gas concentrations and lung clearance index (LCI) from this modified ultrasonic device with those from a mass spectrometer. Paired measurements of three MBW, using 4% sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) as the tracer gas and the two systems in series, were obtained in nine healthy adult volunteers. End-tidal tracer gas concentrations (n = 675 paired values) demonstrated close agreement (95% CI of difference -0.23; -0.17%, r(2) = 1). FRC was slightly higher from the MS (95%CI 0.08;0.17 L), but there was no difference in LCI (95%CI -0.10; 0.3). We conclude, that this ultrasonic prototype system measures end-tidal tracer gas concentration accurately and may therefore be a valid tool for MBW beyond early childhood. This prototype system could be the basis for a commercial device allowing more widespread application of MBW in the near future.

  6. Multiple Event Localization in a Sparse Acoustic Sensor Network Using UAVs as Data Mules

    2012-12-01

    the events to arrive in different orders at the sensors. Consequently , simple rules to group the ToAs from an event at different sensors, such as...a Microhard radio to forward the ToAs to the mule-UAV. Two Procerus Unicorn UAVs were used with different payloads. The imaging- UAV was equipped

  7. Intelligent Data Transfer for Multiple Sensor Networks over a Broad Temperature Range

    Krasowski, Michael (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A sensor network may be configured to operate in extreme temperature environments. A sensor may be configured to generate a frequency carrier, and transmit the frequency carrier to a node. The node may be configured to amplitude modulate the frequency carrier, and transmit the amplitude modulated frequency carrier to a receiver.

  8. Using Spread Spectrum Transform for Fast and Robust Simultaneous Measurement in Active Sensors with Multiple Emitters

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    We present a signal processing algorithm for making robust and simultaneous measurements in an active sensor, which has one or more emitters and a receiver, and which employs some sort of signal processing hardware. Robustness means low sensitivity to time and frequency localized disturbances......-cost active sensors....

  9. Cognitive Impairments in Multiple System Atrophy of the Cerebellar Type

    Hyun J. Hong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose We investigated the cognitive profiles in a large sample of patients with multiple system atrophy-cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C and compared directly them in patients with clinical diagnosis of probable MSA-C without dementia and control subjects with intact cognition. Methods We prospectively enrolled 26 patients with clinical diagnosis of probable MSA-C. All patients underwent a standardized neuropsychological test of the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery. Results The score of Korean version of the Mini- Mental State Examination was significantly lower in patients with MSA-C (27.2 ± 2.5 than in control subjects (28.9 ± 1.0, p = 0.003. Patients with MSA-C showed a significantly worse performance in visuospatial function, 3 words recall, verbal immediate, delayed and recognition memory, visual delayed memory, phonemic and sementic Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and ideomotor praxis (p < 0.05. Conclusions Patients with MSA-C show more severe and more widespread cognitive dysfunctions than controls. Our results also indicate that cognitive dysfunction in patients with MCA-C is suggestive of disruption of the cerebellocortical circuits.

  10. Cooperative Transmission in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Carrier Frequency Offsets: A Double-Differential Approach

    Kun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the rapidly increasing mobility of sensor nodes, mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSNs would be subject to multiple carrier frequency offsets (MCFOs, which result in time-varying channels and drastically degrade the network performance. To enhance the performance of such MWSNs, we propose a relay selection (RS based double-differential (DD cooperative transmission scheme, termed RSDDCT, in which the best relay sensor node is selected to forward the source sensor node’s signals to the destination sensor node with the detect-and-forward (DetF protocol. Assuming a Rayleigh fading environment, first, exact closed-form expressions for the outage probability and average bit error rate (BER of the RSDDCT scheme are derived. Then, simple and informative asymptotic outage probability and average BER expressions at the large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR regime are presented, which reveal that the RSDDCT scheme can achieve full diversity. Furthermore, the optimum power allocation strategy in terms of minimizing the average BER is investigated, and simple analytical solutions are obtained. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed RSDDCT scheme can achieve excellent performance over fading channels in the presence of unknown random MCFOs. It is also shown that the proposed optimum power allocation strategy offers substantial average BER performance improvement over the equal power allocation strategy.

  11. A Novel Sensor Selection and Power Allocation Algorithm for Multiple-Target Tracking in an LPI Radar Network

    Ji She

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Radar networks are proven to have numerous advantages over traditional monostatic and bistatic radar. With recent developments, radar networks have become an attractive platform due to their low probability of intercept (LPI performance for target tracking. In this paper, a joint sensor selection and power allocation algorithm for multiple-target tracking in a radar network based on LPI is proposed. It is found that this algorithm can minimize the total transmitted power of a radar network on the basis of a predetermined mutual information (MI threshold between the target impulse response and the reflected signal. The MI is required by the radar network system to estimate target parameters, and it can be calculated predictively with the estimation of target state. The optimization problem of sensor selection and power allocation, which contains two variables, is non-convex and it can be solved by separating power allocation problem from sensor selection problem. To be specific, the optimization problem of power allocation can be solved by using the bisection method for each sensor selection scheme. Also, the optimization problem of sensor selection can be solved by a lower complexity algorithm based on the allocated powers. According to the simulation results, it can be found that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the total transmitted power of a radar network, which can be conducive to improving LPI performance.

  12. Non-contact current and voltage sensor having detachable housing incorporating multiple ferrite cylinder portions

    Carpenter, Gary D.; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C.; Schappert, Michael A.

    2016-04-26

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing formed from two portions that mechanically close around the wire and that contain the current and voltage sensors. The current sensor is a ferrite cylinder formed from at least three portions that form the cylinder when the sensor is closed around the wire with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap between two of the ferrite portions along the circumference to measure current. A capacitive plate or wire is disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  13. Type IV pilins regulate their own expression via direct intramembrane interactions with the sensor kinase PilS

    Kilmury, Sara L. N.; Burrows, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Although two-component systems are a ubiquitous means of rapid bacterial adaptation to changing environments, identification of the specific signals detected by sensor kinases can be challenging. Also, little is known about the diverse, poorly characterized family of sensor kinases that detect intramembrane signals. We show that the major type IV pilin, PilA, is an inhibitory intramembrane ligand for the PilS sensor kinase that controls pilA expression and we characterize the mechanism of sig...

  14. RADIOMETRIC NORMALIZATION OF LARGE AIRBORNE IMAGE DATA SETS ACQUIRED BY DIFFERENT SENSOR TYPES

    S. Gehrke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Generating seamless mosaics of aerial images is a particularly challenging task when the mosaic comprises a large number of im-ages, collected over longer periods of time and with different sensors under varying imaging conditions. Such large mosaics typically consist of very heterogeneous image data, both spatially (different terrain types and atmosphere and temporally (unstable atmo-spheric properties and even changes in land coverage. We present a new radiometric normalization or, respectively, radiometric aerial triangulation approach that takes advantage of our knowledge about each sensor’s properties. The current implementation supports medium and large format airborne imaging sensors of the Leica Geosystems family, namely the ADS line-scanner as well as DMC and RCD frame sensors. A hierarchical modelling – with parameters for the overall mosaic, the sensor type, different flight sessions, strips and individual images – allows for adaptation to each sensor’s geometric and radiometric properties. Additional parameters at different hierarchy levels can compensate radiome-tric differences of various origins to compensate for shortcomings of the preceding radiometric sensor calibration as well as BRDF and atmospheric corrections. The final, relative normalization is based on radiometric tie points in overlapping images, absolute radiometric control points and image statistics. It is computed in a global least squares adjustment for the entire mosaic by altering each image’s histogram using a location-dependent mathematical model. This model involves contrast and brightness corrections at radiometric fix points with bilinear interpolation for corrections in-between. The distribution of the radiometry fixes is adaptive to each image and generally increases with image size, hence enabling optimal local adaptation even for very long image strips as typi-cally captured by a line-scanner sensor. The normalization approach is implemented in

  15. Generation of multiple cell types in Bacillus subtilis.

    Lopez, Daniel; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive bacterium that is well known for its ability to differentiate into metabolically inactive spores that are highly resistant to environmental stresses. In fact, populations of genetically identical B. subtilis comprise numerous distinct cell types. In addition to spores, cells can become genetically competent, motile, produce extracellular matrix or degradative enzymes, or secrete toxins that allow them to cannibalize their neighbors. Many of the cell fates listed above appear to be mutually exclusive. In this review, we discuss how individual cells within a population control their gene expression to ensure that proper regulation of differentiation occurs. These different cell fates are regulated by an intricate network that relies primarily on the activity of three major transcriptional regulators: Spo0A, DegU, and ComK. While individual cells must choose distinct cell fates, the population as a whole exhibits a spectrum of phenotypes whose diversity may increase fitness.

  16. The performance of a fiber optic displacement sensor for different types of probes and targets

    Yasin, M; Harun, S W; Abdul-Rashid, H A; Kusminarto; Karyono; Ahmad, H

    2008-01-01

    A simple fiber optic displacement sensor is presented using a multimode plastic bundled fiber and the intensity modulation technique. The performance of the sensor is compared for different types of probes and targets. The probe with the largest receiving core diameter demonstrates the highest linearity range, and increasing the number of receiving cores increases the sensitivity of the sensor. With a stainless steel target and the concentric bundled fiber with 16 receiving fibers as a probe, the sensitivity of the sensor is found to be 0.0220 mV/μm over 150 to 550 μm range and – 0.0061 mV/μm over 1100 to 2000 μm range. The target with a higher reflectivity shows a higher sensitivity. The linearity range for the front slope is almost similar for all targets tested. However, for the back slope, lower reflectivity objects have a relatively higher linearity range with the highest range of 1600 μm being obtained using plastic and aluminum targets. The simplicity of the design, high degree of sensitivity, dynamic range, non-contact measurement and low cost of the fabrication make it suitable for applications in industries for position control and micro displacement measurement in the hazardous regions

  17. Flexible Mixed-Potential-Type (MPT) NO₂ Sensor Based on An Ultra-Thin Ceramic Film.

    You, Rui; Jing, Gaoshan; Yu, Hongyan; Cui, Tianhong

    2017-07-29

    A novel flexible mixed-potential-type (MPT) sensor was designed and fabricated for NO₂ detection from 0 to 500 ppm at 200 °C. An ultra-thin Y₂O₃-doped ZrO₂ (YSZ) ceramic film 20 µm thick was sandwiched between a heating electrode and reference/sensing electrodes. The heating electrode was fabricated by a conventional lift-off process, while the porous reference and the sensing electrodes were fabricated by a two-step patterning method using shadow masks. The sensor's sensitivity is achieved as 58.4 mV/decade at the working temperature of 200 °C, as well as a detection limit of 26.7 ppm and small response time of less than 10 s at 200 ppm. Additionally, the flexible MPT sensor demonstrates superior mechanical stability after bending over 50 times due to the mechanical stability of the YSZ ceramic film. This simply structured, but highly reliable flexible MPT NO₂ sensor may lead to wide application in the automobile industry for vehicle emission systems to reduce NO₂ emissions and improve fuel efficiency.

  18. High frequency of multiple HPV types in cervical specimens from Danish women

    Mejlhede, Nina; Bonde, Jesper; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2009-01-01

    distribution among cervical specimens from more than 1000 Danish women. We also examined the HPV type distribution and the frequency of single and multiple HPV types for specimens from 113 women who underwent conization and were diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II or worse (CIN2+). Using...... microarray technology, we found that 49% of the HPV-positive patients were infected with multiple HPV types. Among the CIN2+ diagnosed women, this frequency was 41%. The most frequently found high-risk HPV type was HPV-16, which was found in 25% of the HPV-positive cervical specimens. Among the HPV positive...... CIN2+ diagnosed women, 48% were HPV-16 positive. Women younger than 30 years of age had a higher frequency of multiple infections (61%) than women older than 30 years (39%). We conclude that cervical infection with multiple HPV types is common among women in all age groups and among women...

  19. Multiple recycling of NdFeB-type sintered magnets

    Zakotnik, M. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: miha.zakotnik@gmail.com; Harris, I.R.; Williams, A.J. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-05

    Some fully dense, sintered NdFeB-type magnets (employed in VCM disc drives) have been subjected to a recycling process using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. After a brief milling treatment, the powder was aligned, pressed and re-sintered and this procedure was repeated four times with a progressive fall in the density and in the magnetic properties. The chemical analysis indicated that this was due to the progressive oxidation of the Nd-rich material and to some Nd loss by evaporation. The procedure was then repeated but with the addition (blending) of a fine powder of neodymium hydride after the first cycle. It was found that the addition of 1 at.% of neodymium at each stage was sufficient to maintain the density and the magnetic properties of the recycled magnets up to and including the 4th cycle. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and metallographic analysis indicated that the neodymium hydride additions compensated for the neodymium loss due to evaporation and to oxidation so that the proportion of Nd-rich material remained approximately constant. The additional amount of Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the blended recycled magnets appeared to inhibit grain growth on the 3rd and 4th cycles when compared to that of the unblended magnets. The next challenge is to see if the process can be scaled-up to an industrial scale.

  20. Flow Type Bio-Chemical Calorimeter with Micro Differential Thermopile Sensor.

    Saito, Masataka; Nakabeppu, Osamu

    2015-04-01

    Bio-chemical calorimeters with a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) thermopile sensor have been studied for monitoring detailed processes of the biochemical reactions of a minute sample with a high temporal resolution. The bio-calorimeters are generally divided into a batch-type and a flow-type. We developed a highly sensitive batch-type calorimeter which can detect a 100 nW level thermal reaction. However it shows a long settling time of 2 hours because of the heat capacity of a whole calorimeter. Thus, the flow-type calorimeters in passive and active mode have been studied for measuring the thermal reactions in an early stage after starting an analysis. The flow-type calorimeter consists of the MEMS differential thermopile sensor, a pair of micro channel reactor in a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) sheet in a three-fold thermostat chamber. The calorimeter in the passive mode was tested with dilution reactions of ethanol to water and NaCl aqueous solution to water. It was shown that the calorimeter detects exo- and endothermic reaction over 250 nW at solution flow rate of 0.05 ~ 1 µl/min with a settling time of about 4 minutes. In the active mode, a response test was conducted by using heat removal by water flow from the reactor channel. The active calorimetry enhances the response time about three to four times faster.

  1. Evaluation of different types of sensors and their positioning for on-line PD detection and localisation in distribution cables

    Wielen, van der P.C.J.M.; Veen, J.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.

    2003-01-01

    Different types of sensors can be used for on-line detection and localisation of PDs in medium voltage cables. These sensors can be placed on different locations in the substa-tions where the cable under test is terminated. Both aspects have a significant influence on the measured signals. In this

  2. Recent Developments in 2D Nanomaterials for Chemiresistive-Type Gas Sensors

    Choi, Seon-Jin; Kim, Il-Doo

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures are gaining tremendous interests due to the fascinating physical, chemical, electrical, and optical properties. Recent advances in 2D nanomaterials synthesis have contributed to optimization of various parameters such as physical dimension and chemical structure for specific applications. In particular, development of high performance gas sensors is gaining vast importance for real-time and on-site environmental monitoring by detection of hazardous chemical species. In this review, we comprehensively report recent achievements of 2D nanostructured materials for chemiresistive-type gas sensors. Firstly, the basic sensing mechanism is described based on charge transfer behavior between gas species and 2D nanomaterials. Secondly, diverse synthesis strategies and characteristic gas sensing properties of 2D nanostructures such as graphene, metal oxides, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), metal organic frameworks (MOFs), phosphorus, and MXenes are presented. In addition, recent trends in synthesis of 2D heterostructures by integrating two different types of 2D nanomaterials and their gas sensing properties are discussed. Finally, this review provides perspectives and future research directions for gas sensor technology using various 2D nanomaterials.

  3. Recent Developments in 2D Nanomaterials for Chemiresistive-Type Gas Sensors

    Choi, Seon-Jin; Kim, Il-Doo

    2018-05-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures are gaining tremendous interests due to the fascinating physical, chemical, electrical, and optical properties. Recent advances in 2D nanomaterials synthesis have contributed to optimization of various parameters such as physical dimension and chemical structure for specific applications. In particular, development of high performance gas sensors is gaining vast importance for real-time and on-site environmental monitoring by detection of hazardous chemical species. In this review, we comprehensively report recent achievements of 2D nanostructured materials for chemiresistive-type gas sensors. Firstly, the basic sensing mechanism is described based on charge transfer behavior between gas species and 2D nanomaterials. Secondly, diverse synthesis strategies and characteristic gas sensing properties of 2D nanostructures such as graphene, metal oxides, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), metal organic frameworks (MOFs), phosphorus, and MXenes are presented. In addition, recent trends in synthesis of 2D heterostructures by integrating two different types of 2D nanomaterials and their gas sensing properties are discussed. Finally, this review provides perspectives and future research directions for gas sensor technology using various 2D nanomaterials.

  4. Array-type sensor to determine corrosive conditions in high temperature water under gamma rays irradiation

    Satoh, T.; Tsukada, T.; Uchida, S.; Katoh, C.

    2010-01-01

    One of the problems to determine electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) in high temperature water under irradiation is to apply long-lived and reliable reference electrodes. In order to avoid troubles due to the reference electrode, a new concept to determine ECP without the reference electrode has been proposed. Several metal plates are applied as working electrodes and at the same time as the reference electrodes. Potential of the metal plates with stable oxide films on their surfaces show stable values in high temperature water. As a result of the combination of their potential values, ECP of each metal can be determined without any specific reference electrode. Array-type sensors consisting of several metal plates, e.g., Fe, Ni, Cr, Zr, Pt, Pd, Re, Ir, with well developed oxide films on their surface were prepared for ECP measurement in high temperature water under neutron/gamma ray irradiations. In order to confirm the feasibility of this concept, responses of the redox potentials of the pure metals to changes in the simulated BWR reactor water conditions were measured and the ECP was determined by the differences in potentials between a couple of metal plates. Major conclusions of the study are as follows: 1) The redox potentials of the Fe, Pt, Zr, Ir, Pd, and Re electrodes showed the different dependences on the changes in O 2 and H 2 O 2 concentrations. The redox potentials of the electrodes increased as the oxidant concentrations increased except for Zr electrode. The potential of the Zr electrode was kept the very low potential at the wide range of O 2 and H 2 O 2 concentrations differed form the other electrodes. 2) It was estimated that the redox potential of highly soluble metal may be increased, while that of low soluble metal may be decreased by an oxide film. The stable oxide film would cause the stable potential response of the electrode with oxide film. 3) The relationship between the oxidant concentrations and the redox potentials of the

  5. Sensitivity Enhancement of a Vertical-Type CMOS Hall Device for a Magnetic Sensor

    Sein Oh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a vertical-type CMOS Hall device with improved sensitivity to detect a 3D magnetic field in various types of sensors or communication devices. To improve sensitivity, trenches are implanted next to the current input terminal, so that the Hall current becomes maximum. The effect of the dimension and location of trenches on sensitivity is simulated in the COMSOL simulator. A vertical-type Hall device with a width of 16 μm and a height of 2 μm is optimized for maximum sensitivity. The simulation result shows that it has a 23% better result than a conventional vertical-type CMOS Hall device without a trench.

  6. Sensor

    Gleeson, Helen; Dierking, Ingo; Grieve, Bruce; Woodyatt, Christopher; Brimicombe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An electrical temperature sensor (10) comprises a liquid crystalline material (12). First and second electrically conductive contacts (14), (16), having a spaced relationship there between, contact the liquid crystalline material (12). An electric property measuring device is electrically connected to the first and second contacts (14), (16) and is arranged to measure an electric property of the liquid crystalline material (12). The liquid crystalline material (12) has a transition temperatur...

  7. An Electrochemical Sensor Based on Nanostructured Hollandite-type Manganese Oxide for Detection of Potassium Ions

    Alex S. Lima

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The participation of cations in redox reactions of manganese oxides provides an opportunity for development of chemical sensors for non-electroactive ions. A sensor based on a nanostructured hollandite-type manganese oxide was investigated for voltammetric detection of potassium ions. The detection is based on the measurement of anodic current generated by oxidation of Mn(III to Mn(IV at the surface of the electrode and the subsequent extraction of the potassium ions into the hollandite structure. In this work, an amperometric procedure at an operating potential of 0.80 V (versus SCE is exploited for amperometric monitoring. The current signals are linearly proportional to potassium ion concentration in the range 4.97 × 10−5 to 9.05 × 10−4 mol L−1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997.

  8. Piezoelectric materials selection for sensor applications using finite element and multiple attribute decision-making approaches

    Anuruddh Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the selection and performance evaluation of a variety of piezoelectric materials for cantilever-based sensor applications. The finite element analysis method is implemented to evaluate the relative importance of materials properties such as Young's Modulus (E, piezoelectric stress constants (e31, dielectric constant (ε and Poisson's ratio (υ for cantilever-based sensor applications. An analytic hierarchy process (AHP is used to assign weights to the properties that are studied for the sensor structure under study. A technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS is used to rank the performance of the piezoelectric materials in the context of sensor voltage outputs. The ranking achieved by the TOPSIS analysis is in good agreement with the results obtained from finite element method simulation. The numerical simulations show that K0.5Na0.5NbO3–LiSbO3 (KNN–LS materials family is important for sensor application. Young's modulus (E is most influencing material's property followed by piezoelectric constant (e31, dielectric constant (ε and Poisson's ratio (υ for cantilever-based piezoelectric sensor applications.

  9. Near Real Time Structural Health Monitoring with Multiple Sensors in a Cloud Environment

    Bock, Y.; Todd, M.; Kuester, F.; Goldberg, D.; Lo, E.; Maher, R.

    2017-12-01

    A repeated near real time 3-D digital surrogate representation of critical engineered structures can be used to provide actionable data on subtle time-varying displacements in support of disaster resiliency. We describe a damage monitoring system of optimally-integrated complementary sensors, including Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers coupled with the GNSS (seismogeodesy), light multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with high-resolution digital cameras and GNSS/IMU, and ground-based Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR). The seismogeodetic system provides point measurements of static and dynamic displacements and seismic velocities of the structure. The GNSS ties the UAV and LIDAR imagery to an absolute reference frame with respect to survey stations in the vicinity of the structure to isolate the building response to ground motions. The GNSS/IMU can also estimate the trajectory of the UAV with respect to the absolute reference frame. With these constraints, multiple UAVs and LIDAR images can provide 4-D displacements of thousands of points on the structure. The UAV systematically circumnavigates the target structure, collecting high-resolution image data, while the ground LIDAR scans the structure from different perspectives to create a detailed baseline 3-D reference model. UAV- and LIDAR-based imaging can subsequently be repeated after extreme events, or after long time intervals, to assess before and after conditions. The unique challenge is that disaster environments are often highly dynamic, resulting in rapidly evolving, spatio-temporal data assets with the need for near real time access to the available data and the tools to translate these data into decisions. The seismogeodetic analysis has already been demonstrated in the NASA AIST Managed Cloud Environment (AMCE) designed to manage large NASA Earth Observation data projects on Amazon Web Services (AWS). The Cloud provides

  10. Real-time trace gas sensor using a multimode diode laser and multiple-line integrated cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    Karpf, Andreas; Rao, Gottipaty N

    2015-07-01

    We describe and demonstrate a highly sensitive trace gas sensor based on a simplified design that is capable of measuring sub-ppb concentrations of NO2 in tens of milliseconds. The sensor makes use of a relatively inexpensive Fabry-Perot diode laser to conduct off-axis cavity enhanced spectroscopy. The broad frequency range of a multimode Fabry-Perot diode laser spans a large number of absorption lines, thereby removing the need for a single-frequency tunable laser source. The use of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy enhances the sensitivity of the sensor by providing a pathlength on the order of 1 km in a small volume. Off-axis alignment excites a large number of cavity modes simultaneously, thereby reducing the sensor's susceptibility to vibration. Multiple-line integrated absorption spectroscopy (where one integrates the absorption spectra over a large number of rovibronic transitions of the molecular species) further improves the sensitivity of detection. Relatively high laser power (∼400  mW) is used to compensate for the low coupling efficiency of a broad linewidth laser to the optical cavity. The approach was demonstrated using a 407 nm diode laser to detect trace quantities of NO2 in zero air. Sensitivities of 750 ppt, 110 ppt, and 65 ppt were achieved using integration times of 50 ms, 5 s, and 20 s respectively.

  11. Multiple solid pilocytic astrocytomas in cerebleiium with neurofibromatosis type: A case report

    Choi, Seo Young; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Young Ju

    2014-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytoma usually has a classic imaging manifestation of a solitary, cyst-like mass with a strong contrast-enhancing mural nodule. There is only one published report so far of multiple solid and cyst type pilocytic astrocytomas in the cerebellum in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patient from the United States in 2007. We report a case of pilocytic astrocytoma presenting with only solid, multiple pilocytic astrocytomas in the cerebellum in NF1 patient.

  12. Vibration monitoring of carbon fiber composites by multiple fiber optic sensors

    Olivero, Massimo; Perrone, Guido; Vallan, Alberto; Chen, Wei; Tosi, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    This work presents the comparison between the fiber Bragg grating technology and a vibration-measurement technique based on the detection of polarization rotation (polarimetric sensor) in a standard optical fiber, applied to the dynamic structural monitoring of carbon reinforced composites for the automotive industry. A carbon reinforced composite test plate in a 4-layer configuration was equipped with fiber Bragg gratings and polarimetric fiber sensors, then it was mechanically stressed by static and dynamic loads while monitoring the sensors response. The fiber Bragg grating setup exhibited 1.15+/-0.0016 pm/kg static load response and reproduced dynamic excitation with 0.1% frequency uncertainty, while the polarimetric sensing system exhibited a sensitivity of 1.74+/-0.001 mV/kg and reproduced the dynamic excitation with 0.5% frequency uncertainty. It is shown that the polarimetric sensor technology represents a cheap yet efficient alternative to the fiber Bragg grating sensors in the case of vibration-monitoring of small structures at high frequency.

  13. Method of the Determination of Exterior Orientation of Sensors in Hilbert Type Space.

    Stępień, Grzegorz

    2018-03-17

    The following article presents a new isometric transformation algorithm based on the transformation in the newly normed Hilbert type space. The presented method is based on so-called virtual translations, already known in advance, of two relative oblique orthogonal coordinate systems-interior and exterior orientation of sensors-to a common, known in both systems, point. Each of the systems is translated along its axis (the systems have common origins) and at the same time the angular relative orientation of both coordinate systems is constant. The translation of both coordinate systems is defined by the spatial norm determining the length of vectors in the new Hilbert type space. As such, the displacement of two relative oblique orthogonal systems is reduced to zero. This makes it possible to directly calculate the rotation matrix of the sensor. The next and final step is the return translation of the system along an already known track. The method can be used for big rotation angles. The method was verified in laboratory conditions for the test data set and measurement data (field data). The accuracy of the results in the laboratory test is on the level of 10 -6 of the input data. This confirmed the correctness of the assumed calculation method. The method is a further development of the author's 2017 Total Free Station (TFS) transformation to several centroids in Hilbert type space. This is the reason why the method is called Multi-Centroid Isometric Transformation-MCIT. MCIT is very fast and enables, by reducing to zero the translation of two relative oblique orthogonal coordinate systems, direct calculation of the exterior orientation of the sensors.

  14. Design, Development and Testing of a Semicircular Type Capacitive Angular Position Sensor

    Nikhil GAURAV

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A low cost semicircular type capacitive angular position sensor has been designed, developed and tested. It is made of two semicircular parallel plates where one plate is fixed and another plate is connected with the rotor whose angular position is to be measured. When the angular position of the rotor changes with respect to the fixed plate, the overlapping area between the two plates of the capacitor is varied causing a change in capacitance value. Capacitance variation obtained due to the change in angular position is in the nano farad range. For signal conditioning, series R-L-C resonating circuit instead of conventional bridge circuit has been used to convert the sensor capacitance variation in to voltage. Experimental result shows that the capacitance for change in angular position 0º-180º increases linearly and for 180º-360º it decreases linearly. To get a linearly increasing response of same slope for the full scale of 0º-360º, a suitable linearising circuit has been designed, developed and tested. Sensor output along with the signal conditioning shows good linearity and repeatability.

  15. Gradient-Type Magnetoelectric Current Sensor with Strong Multisource Noise Suppression.

    Zhang, Mingji; Or, Siu Wing

    2018-02-14

    A novel gradient-type magnetoelectric (ME) current sensor operating in magnetic field gradient (MFG) detection and conversion mode is developed based on a pair of ME composites that have a back-to-back capacitor configuration under a baseline separation and a magnetic biasing in an electrically-shielded and mechanically-enclosed housing. The physics behind the current sensing process is the product effect of the current-induced MFG effect associated with vortex magnetic fields of current-carrying cables (i.e., MFG detection) and the MFG-induced ME effect in the ME composite pair (i.e., MFG conversion). The sensor output voltage is directly obtained from the gradient ME voltage of the ME composite pair and is calibrated against cable current to give the current sensitivity. The current sensing performance of the sensor is evaluated, both theoretically and experimentally, under multisource noises of electric fields, magnetic fields, vibrations, and thermals. The sensor combines the merits of small nonlinearity in the current-induced MFG effect with those of high sensitivity and high common-mode noise rejection rate in the MFG-induced ME effect to achieve a high current sensitivity of 0.65-12.55 mV/A in the frequency range of 10 Hz-170 kHz, a small input-output nonlinearity of <500 ppm, a small thermal drift of <0.2%/℃ in the current range of 0-20 A, and a high common-mode noise rejection rate of 17-28 dB from multisource noises.

  16. Gradient-Type Magnetoelectric Current Sensor with Strong Multisource Noise Suppression

    2018-01-01

    A novel gradient-type magnetoelectric (ME) current sensor operating in magnetic field gradient (MFG) detection and conversion mode is developed based on a pair of ME composites that have a back-to-back capacitor configuration under a baseline separation and a magnetic biasing in an electrically-shielded and mechanically-enclosed housing. The physics behind the current sensing process is the product effect of the current-induced MFG effect associated with vortex magnetic fields of current-carrying cables (i.e., MFG detection) and the MFG-induced ME effect in the ME composite pair (i.e., MFG conversion). The sensor output voltage is directly obtained from the gradient ME voltage of the ME composite pair and is calibrated against cable current to give the current sensitivity. The current sensing performance of the sensor is evaluated, both theoretically and experimentally, under multisource noises of electric fields, magnetic fields, vibrations, and thermals. The sensor combines the merits of small nonlinearity in the current-induced MFG effect with those of high sensitivity and high common-mode noise rejection rate in the MFG-induced ME effect to achieve a high current sensitivity of 0.65–12.55 mV/A in the frequency range of 10 Hz–170 kHz, a small input-output nonlinearity of <500 ppm, a small thermal drift of <0.2%/℃ in the current range of 0–20 A, and a high common-mode noise rejection rate of 17–28 dB from multisource noises. PMID:29443920

  17. Multiple approaches for enhancing all-organic electronics photoluminescent sensors: simultaneous oxygen and pH monitoring.

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Teng; Cui, Weipan; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2013-05-17

    Key issues in using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation sources in structurally integrated photoluminescence (PL)-based sensors are the low forward light outcoupling, the OLEDs' broad electroluminescence (EL) bands, and the long-lived remnant EL that follows an EL pulse. The outcoupling issue limits the detection sensitivity (S) as only ~20% of the light generated within standard OLEDs can be forward outcoupled and used for sensor probe excitation. The EL broad band interferes with the analyte-sensitive PL, leading to a background that reduces S and dynamic range. In particular, these issues hinder designing compact sensors, potentially miniaturizable, that are devoid of optical filters and couplers. We address these shortcomings by introducing easy-to-employ multiple approaches for outcoupling improvement, PL enhancement, and background EL reduction leading to novel, compact all-organic device architectures demonstrated for simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and pH. The sensor comprises simply-fabricated, directionally-emitting, narrower-band, multicolor microcavity OLED excitation and small molecule- and polymer-based organic photodetectors (OPDs) with a more selective spectral response. Additionally, S and PL intensity for oxygen are enhanced by using polystyrene (PS):polyethylene glycol (PEG) blends as the sensing film matrix. By utilizing higher molecular weight PS, the ratio τ0/τ100 (PL decay time τ at 0% O2/τ at 100% O2) that is often used to express S increases ×1.9 to 20.7 relative to the lower molecular weight PS, where this ratio is 11.0. This increase reduces to ×1.7 when the PEG is added (τ0/τ100=18.2), but the latter results in an increase ×2.7 in the PL intensity. The sensor's response time is <10s in all cases. The microporous structure of these blended films, with PEG decorating PS pores, serves a dual purpose. It results in light scattering that reduces the EL that is waveguided in the substrate of the OLEDs and

  18. Design optimization of offshore wind farms with multiple types of wind turbines

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Most studies on offshore wind farm design assume a uniform wind farm, which consists of an identical type of wind turbines. In order to further reduce the cost of energy, we investigate the design of non-uniform offshore wind farms, i.e., wind farms with multiple types of wind turbines and hub-he...

  19. Toward daily monitoring of vegetation conditions at field scale through fusing data from multiple sensors

    Vegetation monitoring requires remote sensing data at fine spatial and temporal resolution. While imagery from coarse resolution sensors such as MODIS/VIIRS can provide daily observations, they lack spatial detail to capture surface features for crop and rangeland monitoring. The Landsat satellite s...

  20. A Study of Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis Using a New Wireless Medical Sensor Measurements System

    Yu, Fei; Bilberg, Arne

    2010-01-01

    of patients continuously for 24 hours. The measurements includes ECG module, EMG module, Motion detection, Skin temperature module, and wireless data acquisition module. LabView is used for signal processing and data analysis. This paper presents the brief procedures of developing the wireless medical sensor...

  1. Architecture of optical sensor for recognition of multiple toxic metal ions from water.

    Shenashen, M A; El-Safty, S A; Elshehy, E A

    2013-09-15

    Here, we designed novel optical sensor based on the wormhole hexagonal mesoporous core/multi-shell silica nanoparticles that enabled the selective recognition and removal of these extremely toxic metals from drinking water. The surface-coating process of a mesoporous core/double-shell silica platforms by several consequence decorations using a cationic surfactant with double alkyl tails (CS-DAT) and then a synthesized dicarboxylate 1,5-diphenyl-3-thiocarbazone (III) signaling probe enabled us to create a unique hierarchical multi-shell sensor. In this design, the high loading capacity and wrapping of the CS-DAT and III organic moieties could be achieved, leading to the formation of silica core with multi-shells that formed from double-silica, CS-DAT, and III dressing layers. In this sensing system, notable changes in color and reflectance intensity of the multi-shelled sensor for Cu(2+), Co(2+), Cd(2+), and Hg(2+) ions, were observed at pH 2, 8, 9.5 and 11.5, respectively. The multi-shelled sensor is added to enable accessibility for continuous monitoring of several different toxic metal ions and efficient multi-ion sensing and removal capabilities with respect to reversibility, selectivity, and signal stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Data-driven soft sensor design with multiple-rate sampled data: a comparative study

    Lin, Bao; Recke, Bodil; Schmidt, Torben M.

    2009-01-01

    to design quality soft sensors for cement kiln processes using data collected from a simulator and a plant log system. Preliminary results reveal that the WPLS approach is able to provide accurate one-step-ahead prediction. The regularized data lifting technique predicts the product quality of cement kiln...

  3. Quantification of whole-body bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease participants using multiple inertial sensors.

    Memar, Sara; Delrobaei, Mehdi; Pieterman, Marcus; McIsaac, Kenneth; Jog, Mandar

    2018-04-15

    Bradykinesia (slowness of movement) is a common motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that can severely affect quality of life for those living with the disease. Assessment and treatment of PD motor symptoms largely depends on clinical scales such as the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). However, such clinical scales rely on the visual assessment by a human observer, naturally resulting in inter-rater variability. Although previous studies have developed objective means for measuring bradykinesia in PD patients, their evaluation was restricted by the type of movement and number of joints assessed. These studies failed to provide a more comprehensive, whole-body evaluation capable of measuring multiple joints simultaneously. This study utilizes wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) to quantify whole-body movements, providing novel bradykinesia indices for walking (WBI) and standing up from a chair (sit-to-stand; SBI). The proposed bradykinesia indices include the joint angles at both upper and lower limbs and trunk motion to compute a complete, objective score for whole body bradykinesia. Thirty PD and 11 age-matched healthy control participants were recruited for the study. The participants performed two standard walking tasks that involved multiple body joints in the upper and lower limbs. The WBI and SBI successfully identified differences between control and PD participants. The indices also effectively identified differences within the PD population, distinguishing participants assessed with (ON) and without (OFF) levodopa; the gold-standard of treatment for PD. The goal of this study is to provide health professionals with an objective score for whole body bradykinesia by simultaneously measuring the upper and lower extremities along with truncal movement. This method demonstrates potential to be used in conjunction with current clinical standards for motor symptom assessment, and may also be promising for the remote assessment of PD

  4. A Dependable Localization Algorithm for Survivable Belt-Type Sensor Networks.

    Zhu, Mingqiang; Song, Fei; Xu, Lei; Seo, Jung Taek; You, Ilsun

    2017-11-29

    As the key element, sensor networks are widely investigated by the Internet of Things (IoT) community. When massive numbers of devices are well connected, malicious attackers may deliberately propagate fake position information to confuse the ordinary users and lower the network survivability in belt-type situation. However, most existing positioning solutions only focus on the algorithm accuracy and do not consider any security aspects. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive scheme for node localization protection, which aims to improve the energy-efficient, reliability and accuracy. To handle the unbalanced resource consumption, a node deployment mechanism is presented to satisfy the energy balancing strategy in resource-constrained scenarios. According to cooperation localization theory and network connection property, the parameter estimation model is established. To achieve reliable estimations and eliminate large errors, an improved localization algorithm is created based on modified average hop distances. In order to further improve the algorithms, the node positioning accuracy is enhanced by using the steepest descent method. The experimental simulations illustrate the performance of new scheme can meet the previous targets. The results also demonstrate that it improves the belt-type sensor networks' survivability, in terms of anti-interference, network energy saving, etc.

  5. Two Dimensional Array of Piezoresistive Nanomechanical Membrane-Type Surface Stress Sensor (MSS with Improved Sensitivity

    Nico F. de Rooij

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new generation of piezoresistive nanomechanical Membrane-type Surface stress Sensor (MSS chips, which consist of a two dimensional array of MSS on a single chip. The implementation of several optimization techniques in the design and microfabrication improved the piezoresistive sensitivity by 3~4 times compared to the first generation MSS chip, resulting in a sensitivity about ~100 times better than a standard cantilever-type sensor and a few times better than optical read-out methods in terms of experimental signal-to-noise ratio. Since the integrated piezoresistive read-out of the MSS can meet practical requirements, such as compactness and not requiring bulky and expensive peripheral devices, the MSS is a promising transducer for nanomechanical sensing in the rapidly growing application fields in medicine, biology, security, and the environment. Specifically, its system compactness due to the integrated piezoresistive sensing makes the MSS concept attractive for the instruments used in mobile applications. In addition, the MSS can operate in opaque liquids, such as blood, where optical read-out techniques cannot be applied.

  6. A Fast Multiple Sampling Method for Low-Noise CMOS Image Sensors With Column-Parallel 12-bit SAR ADCs

    Min-Kyu Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fast multiple sampling method for low-noise CMOS image sensor (CIS applications with column-parallel successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (SAR ADCs. The 12-bit SAR ADC using the proposed multiple sampling method decreases the A/D conversion time by repeatedly converting a pixel output to 4-bit after the first 12-bit A/D conversion, reducing noise of the CIS by one over the square root of the number of samplings. The area of the 12-bit SAR ADC is reduced by using a 10-bit capacitor digital-to-analog converter (DAC with four scaled reference voltages. In addition, a simple up/down counter-based digital processing logic is proposed to perform complex calculations for multiple sampling and digital correlated double sampling. To verify the proposed multiple sampling method, a 256 × 128 pixel array CIS with 12-bit SAR ADCs was fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurement results shows that the proposed multiple sampling method reduces each A/D conversion time from 1.2 μs to 0.45 μs and random noise from 848.3 μV to 270.4 μV, achieving a dynamic range of 68.1 dB and an SNR of 39.2 dB.

  7. Practical Use Technique of Sensor

    Hwang, Gyu Seop

    1985-11-01

    This book tells of practical use technology of sensor, introducing the recent trend of sensor for electronic industry, IC temperature sensor, radiation temperature sensor of surface acoustic wave, optical fiber temperature sensor, a polyelectrolyte film humidity sensor, semiconductor pressure sensor for industrial instrumentation, silicon integration pressure sensor, thick film humidity sensor and its application, photo sensor reflection type, and color sensor. It also deals with sensor for FA, sensor for a robot and sensor for the chemical industry.

  8. Practical Use Technique of Sensor

    Hwang, Gyu Seop

    1985-11-15

    This book tells of practical use technology of sensor, introducing the recent trend of sensor for electronic industry, IC temperature sensor, radiation temperature sensor of surface acoustic wave, optical fiber temperature sensor, a polyelectrolyte film humidity sensor, semiconductor pressure sensor for industrial instrumentation, silicon integration pressure sensor, thick film humidity sensor and its application, photo sensor reflection type, and color sensor. It also deals with sensor for FA, sensor for a robot and sensor for the chemical industry.

  9. Site Assessment of Multiple-Sensor Approaches for Buried Utility Detection

    Alexander C. D. Royal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful operation of buried infrastructure within urban environments is fundamental to the conservation of modern living standards. Open-cut methods are predominantly used, in preference to trenchless technology, to effect a repair, replace or install a new section of the network. This is, in part, due to the inability to determine the position of all utilities below the carriageway, making open-cut methods desirable in terms of dealing with uncertainty since the buried infrastructure is progressively exposed during excavation. However, open-cut methods damage the carriageway and disrupt society's functions. This paper describes the progress of a research project that aims to develop a multi-sensor geophysical platform that can improve the probability of complete detection of the infrastructure buried beneath the carriageway. The multi-sensor platform is being developed in conjunction with a knowledge-based system that aims to provide information on how the properties of the ground might affect the sensing technologies being deployed. The fusion of data sources (sensor data and utilities record data is also being researched to maximize the probability of location. This paper describes the outcome of the initial phase of testing along with the development of the knowledge-based system and the fusing of data to produce utility maps.

  10. Autonomous management of a recursive area hierarchy for large scale wireless sensor networks using multiple parents

    Cree, Johnathan Vee [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Delgado-Frias, Jose [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Large scale wireless sensor networks have been proposed for applications ranging from anomaly detection in an environment to vehicle tracking. Many of these applications require the networks to be distributed across a large geographic area while supporting three to five year network lifetimes. In order to support these requirements large scale wireless sensor networks of duty-cycled devices need a method of efficient and effective autonomous configuration/maintenance. This method should gracefully handle the synchronization tasks duty-cycled networks. Further, an effective configuration solution needs to recognize that in-network data aggregation and analysis presents significant benefits to wireless sensor network and should configure the network in a way such that said higher level functions benefit from the logically imposed structure. NOA, the proposed configuration and maintenance protocol, provides a multi-parent hierarchical logical structure for the network that reduces the synchronization workload. It also provides higher level functions with significant inherent benefits such as but not limited to: removing network divisions that are created by single-parent hierarchies, guarantees for when data will be compared in the hierarchy, and redundancies for communication as well as in-network data aggregation/analysis/storage.

  11. Multiple approaches for enhancing all-organic electronics photoluminescent sensors: Simultaneous oxygen and pH monitoring

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Teng; Cui, Weipan; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Novel simply-fabricated all-organic electronics pH and oxygen optical monitor. •Excitation sources: directionally emitting, narrowed multicolor microcavity OLEDs. •Photodetectors: small molecule- or polymer-based with selective spectral responses. •Sensor film: structured high molecular weight polystyrene:polyethylene glycol blend. •×1.9 sensitivity enhancement and ×2.7 increase in the photoluminescence for oxygen. -- Abstract: Key issues in using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation sources in structurally integrated photoluminescence (PL)-based sensors are the low forward light outcoupling, the OLEDs’ broad electroluminescence (EL) bands, and the long-lived remnant EL that follows an EL pulse. The outcoupling issue limits the detection sensitivity (S) as only ∼20% of the light generated within standard OLEDs can be forward outcoupled and used for sensor probe excitation. The EL broad band interferes with the analyte-sensitive PL, leading to a background that reduces S and dynamic range. In particular, these issues hinder designing compact sensors, potentially miniaturizable, that are devoid of optical filters and couplers. We address these shortcomings by introducing easy-to-employ multiple approaches for outcoupling improvement, PL enhancement, and background EL reduction leading to novel, compact all-organic device architectures demonstrated for simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and pH. The sensor comprises simply-fabricated, directionally-emitting, narrower-band, multicolor microcavity OLED excitation and small molecule- and polymer-based organic photodetectors (OPDs) with a more selective spectral response. Additionally, S and PL intensity for oxygen are enhanced by using polystyrene (PS):polyethylene glycol (PEG) blends as the sensing film matrix. By utilizing higher molecular weight PS, the ratio τ 0 /τ 100 (PL decay time τ at 0% O 2 /τ at 100% O 2 ) that is often used to express S

  12. Noise Reduction Effect of Multiple-Sampling-Based Signal-Readout Circuits for Ultra-Low Noise CMOS Image Sensors

    Shoji Kawahito

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the noise reduction effect of multiple-sampling-based signal readout circuits for implementing ultra-low-noise image sensors. The correlated multiple sampling (CMS technique has recently become an important technology for high-gain column readout circuits in low-noise CMOS image sensors (CISs. This paper reveals how the column CMS circuits, together with a pixel having a high-conversion-gain charge detector and low-noise transistor, realizes deep sub-electron read noise levels based on the analysis of noise components in the signal readout chain from a pixel to the column analog-to-digital converter (ADC. The noise measurement results of experimental CISs are compared with the noise analysis and the effect of noise reduction to the sampling number is discussed at the deep sub-electron level. Images taken with three CMS gains of two, 16, and 128 show distinct advantage of image contrast for the gain of 128 (noise(median: 0.29 e−rms when compared with the CMS gain of two (2.4 e−rms, or 16 (1.1 e−rms.

  13. Method of the Determination of Exterior Orientation of Sensors in Hilbert Type Space

    Grzegorz Stępień

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents a new isometric transformation algorithm based on the transformation in the newly normed Hilbert type space. The presented method is based on so-called virtual translations, already known in advance, of two relative oblique orthogonal coordinate systems—interior and exterior orientation of sensors—to a common, known in both systems, point. Each of the systems is translated along its axis (the systems have common origins and at the same time the angular relative orientation of both coordinate systems is constant. The translation of both coordinate systems is defined by the spatial norm determining the length of vectors in the new Hilbert type space. As such, the displacement of two relative oblique orthogonal systems is reduced to zero. This makes it possible to directly calculate the rotation matrix of the sensor. The next and final step is the return translation of the system along an already known track. The method can be used for big rotation angles. The method was verified in laboratory conditions for the test data set and measurement data (field data. The accuracy of the results in the laboratory test is on the level of 10−6 of the input data. This confirmed the correctness of the assumed calculation method. The method is a further development of the author’s 2017 Total Free Station (TFS transformation to several centroids in Hilbert type space. This is the reason why the method is called Multi-Centroid Isometric Transformation—MCIT. MCIT is very fast and enables, by reducing to zero the translation of two relative oblique orthogonal coordinate systems, direct calculation of the exterior orientation of the sensors.

  14. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Brandi, M.L.; Aurbach, G.D.; Fitzpatrick, L.A.; Quarto, R.; Spiegel, A.M.; Bliziotes, M.M.; Norton, J.A.; Doppman, J.L.; Marx, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands is a central feature of familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. We used cultured bovine parathyroid cells to test for mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with this disorder. Normal plasma stimulated [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation, on the average, to the same extent as it was stimulated in a plasma-free control culture. This contrasted with the results of the tests with plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, in which parathyroid mitogenic activity increased 2400 percent over the control value (P less than 0.001). Plasma from these patients also stimulated the proliferation of bovine parathyroid cells in culture, whereas plasma from normal subjects inhibited it. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from the patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 was greater than that in plasma from patients with various other disorders, including sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (with adenoma, hyperplasia, or cancer of the parathyroid), sporadic primary hypergastrinemia, sporadic pituitary tumor, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (P less than 0.05). Parathyroid mitogenic activity in the plasma of patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 persisted for up to four years after total parathyroidectomy. The plasma also had far more mitogenic activity in cultures of parathyroid cells than did optimal concentrations of known growth factors or of any parathyroid secretagogue. This mitogenic activity had an apparent molecular weight of 50,000 to 55,000. We conclude that primary hyperparathyroidism in familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may have a humoral cause

  15. Vernier effect-based multiplication of the Sagnac beating frequency in ring laser gyroscope sensors

    Adib, George A.; Sabry, Yasser M.; Khalil, Diaa

    2018-02-01

    A multiplication method of the Sagnac effect scale factor in ring laser gyroscopes is presented based on the Vernier effect of a dual-coupler passive ring resonator coupled to the active ring. The multiplication occurs when the two rings have comparable lengths or integer multiples and their scale factors have opposite signs. In this case, and when the rings have similar areas, the scale factor is multiplied by ratio of their length to their length difference. The scale factor of the presented configuration is derived analytically and the lock-in effect is analyzed. The principle is demonstrated using optical fiber rings and semiconductor optical amplifier as gain medium. A scale factor multiplication by about 175 is experimentally measured, demonstrating larger than two orders of magnitude enhancement in the Sagnac effect scale factor for the first time in literature, up to the authors' knowledge.

  16. Simulations of Operation Dynamics of Different Type GaN Particle Sensors

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kalesinskas, Vidas; Pavlov, Jevgenij; Vysniauskas, Juozas

    2015-01-01

    The operation dynamics of the capacitor-type and PIN diode type detectors based on GaN have been simulated using the dynamic and drift-diffusion models. The drift-diffusion current simulations have been implemented by employing the software package Synopsys TCAD Sentaurus. The monopolar and bipolar drift regimes have been analyzed by using dynamic models based on the Shockley-Ramo theorem. The carrier multiplication processes determined by impact ionization have been considered in order to compensate carrier lifetime reduction due to introduction of radiation defects into GaN detector material. PMID:25751080

  17. TSC measurements on proton-irradiated p-type Si-sensors

    Donegani, Elena; Fretwurst, Eckhart; Garutti, Erika; Junkes, Alexandra [University of Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Thin n{sup +}p Si sensors are potential candidates for coping with neutron equivalent fluences up to 2.10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} and an ionizing dose in the order of a few MGy, which are expected e.g. for the HL-LHC upgrade. The aim of the present work is to provide experimental data on radiation-induced defects in order to: firstly, get a deeper understanding of the properties of hadron induced defects, and secondly develop a radiation damage model based on microscopic measurements. Therefore, the outcomes of Thermally Stimulated Current measurements on 200 μm thick Float-Zone (FZ) and Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) diodes will be shown, as a results of irradiation with 23 MeV protons and isothermal annealing. The samples were irradiated in the fluence range (0.3-1).10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, so that the maximal temperature at which the TSC signal is still sharply distinguishable from the dark current is 200 K. In particular, special focus will be given to the defect introduction rate and to the issue of boron removal in p-type silicon. Annealing studies allow to distinguish which defects mainly contribute to the leakage current and which to the space charge, and thus correlate microscopic defects properties with macroscopic sensor properties.

  18. Surgical approach in patients with hyperparathyroidism in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: total versus partial parathyroidectomy

    Francesco Tonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, primary hyperparathyroidism is the first endocrinopathy to be diagnosed in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, and is also the most common one. The timing of the surgery and strategy in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1/hyperparathyroidism are still under debate. The aims of surgery are to: 1 correct hypercalcemia, thus preventing persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism; 2 avoid persistent hypoparathyroidism; and 3 facilitate the surgical treatment of possible recurrences. Currently, two types of surgical approach are indicated: 1 subtotal parathyroidectomy with removal of at least 3-3 K glands; and 2 total parathyroidectomy with grafting of autologous parathyroid tissue. Transcervical thymectomy must be performed with both of these procedures. Unsuccessful surgical treatment of hyperparathyroidism is more frequently observed in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 than in sporadic hyperparathyroidism. The recurrence rate is strongly influenced by: 1 the lack of a pre-operative multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 diagnosis; 2 the surgeon's experience; 3 the timing of surgery; 4 the possibility of performing intra-operative confirmation (histologic examination, rapid parathyroid hormone assay of the curative potential of the surgical procedure; and, 5 the surgical strategy. Persistent hyperparathyroidism seems to be more frequent after subtotal parathyroidectomy than after total parathyroidectomy with autologous graft of parathyroid tissue. Conversely, recurrent hyperparathyroidism has a similar frequency in the two surgical strategies. To plan further operations, it is very helpful to know all the available data about previous surgery and to undertake accurate identification of the site of recurrence.

  19. Elimination of ghost markers during dual sensor-based infrared tracking of multiple individual reflective markers

    Stroian, G.; Falco, T.; Seuntjens, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of dose delivery in radiotherapy is affected by the uncertainty in tumor localization. Motion of internal anatomy due to physiological processes such as respiration may lead to significant displacements which compromise tumor coverage and generate irradiation of healthy tissue. Real-time tracking with infrared-based systems is often used for tracking thoracic motion in radiation therapy. We studied the origin of ghost markers ('crosstalk') which may appear during dual sensor-based infrared tracking of independent reflective markers. Ghost markers occur when two or more reflective markers are coplanar with each other and with the sensors of the two camera-based infrared tracking system. Analysis shows that sensors are not points but they have a finite extent and this extent determines for each marker a 'ghost volume'. If one reflective marker enters the ghost volume of another marker, ghost markers will be reported by the tracking system; if the reflective markers belong to a surface their 'ghost volume' is reduced to a 'ghost surface' (ghost zone). Appearance of ghost markers is predicted for markers taped on the torso of an anthropomorphic phantom. This study illustrates the dependence of the shape, extent, and location of the ghost zones on the shape of the anthropomorphic phantom, the angle of view of the tracking system, and the distance between the tracking system and the anthropomorphic phantom. It is concluded that the appearance of ghost markers can be avoided by positioning the markers outside the ghost zones of the other markers. However, if this is not possible and the initial marker configuration is ghost marker-free, ghost markers can be eliminated during real-time tracking by virtue of the fact that they appear in the coordinate data sequence only temporarily

  20. Multiple approaches for enhancing all-organic electronics photoluminescent sensors: Simultaneous oxygen and pH monitoring

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Teng; Cui, Weipan [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Shinar, Joseph, E-mail: jshinar@iastate.edu [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Shinar, Ruth, E-mail: rshinar@iastate.edu [Microelectronics Research Center and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2013-05-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Novel simply-fabricated all-organic electronics pH and oxygen optical monitor. •Excitation sources: directionally emitting, narrowed multicolor microcavity OLEDs. •Photodetectors: small molecule- or polymer-based with selective spectral responses. •Sensor film: structured high molecular weight polystyrene:polyethylene glycol blend. •×1.9 sensitivity enhancement and ×2.7 increase in the photoluminescence for oxygen. -- Abstract: Key issues in using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation sources in structurally integrated photoluminescence (PL)-based sensors are the low forward light outcoupling, the OLEDs’ broad electroluminescence (EL) bands, and the long-lived remnant EL that follows an EL pulse. The outcoupling issue limits the detection sensitivity (S) as only ∼20% of the light generated within standard OLEDs can be forward outcoupled and used for sensor probe excitation. The EL broad band interferes with the analyte-sensitive PL, leading to a background that reduces S and dynamic range. In particular, these issues hinder designing compact sensors, potentially miniaturizable, that are devoid of optical filters and couplers. We address these shortcomings by introducing easy-to-employ multiple approaches for outcoupling improvement, PL enhancement, and background EL reduction leading to novel, compact all-organic device architectures demonstrated for simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and pH. The sensor comprises simply-fabricated, directionally-emitting, narrower-band, multicolor microcavity OLED excitation and small molecule- and polymer-based organic photodetectors (OPDs) with a more selective spectral response. Additionally, S and PL intensity for oxygen are enhanced by using polystyrene (PS):polyethylene glycol (PEG) blends as the sensing film matrix. By utilizing higher molecular weight PS, the ratio τ{sub 0}/τ{sub 100} (PL decay time τ at 0% O{sub 2}/τ at 100% O{sub 2}) that is often used

  1. Position paper: cognitive radio networking for multiple sensor network interoperability in mines

    Kagize, BM

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available . These commercially available networks are purported to be self-organizing and self correcting, though the software behind these networks are proprietary with the caveat of inter-operability difficulties with other networks [5]. There is a non-propriety and open...: Research challenges,” - Ad Hoc Networks, 2006 – Elsevier [4] V Mhatre, C Rosenberg, “Homogeneous vs heterogeneous clustered sensor networks: a comparative study,” - Communications, 2004 IEEE International Conference on, 2004 - ieeexplore.ieee.org [5...

  2. Annealing studies of irradiated p-type sensors designed for the upgrade of ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker

    Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC in 2025 will challenge the silicon strip detector performance with high fluence and long operation time. Sensors have been designed and tests on charge collection and electrical performance have been carried out in order to evaluate their behavior. Besides that, it is important to understand and predict the long-term evolution of the sensor properties. In this work, we present detailed studies on the annealing behavior of ATLAS12 strip sensors designed by the ITK Strip Sensor Working Group and irradiated from 510^13 to 210^15 n_eq/cm^2. Systematic charge collection, leakage current and impedance measurements have been carried out during the annealing time at 23 and 60°C until break-down or the appearance of charge multiplication. Sensors showing charge multiplication have been then kept at high voltage for a long time in order to monitor their stability. The difference in the annealing behavior between the two temperatures has been analyzed. From the impedance measurem...

  3. Annealing Studies of irradiated p-type Sensors Designed for the Upgrade of ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker

    Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC in 2025 will challenge the silicon strip detector performance with high fluence and long operation time. Sensors have been designed and tests on charge collection and electrical performance have been carried out in order to evaluate their behaviour. Besides that, it is important to understand and predict the long-term evolution of the sensor prop- erties. In this work, detailed studies on the annealing behaviour of ATLAS12 strip sensors designed by the ITK Strip Sensor Working Group and irradiated from 5 × 1013 neqcm−2 to 2 × 1015 neqcm−2 are presented. Systematic charge collection, leakage current and impedance measurements have been carried out during the annealing time at 23 and 60◦C until break-down or the appearance of charge multiplication. Sensors showing charge multiplication have been then kept at high voltage for a long time in order to monitor their stability. The difference in the annealing behaviour between the two temperatures has been analysed and...

  4. A Type of Low-Latency Data Gathering Method with Multi-Sink for Sensor Networks

    Sha, Chao; Qiu, Jian-mei; Li, Shu-yan; Qiang, Meng-ye; Wang, Ru-chuan

    2016-01-01

    To balance energy consumption and reduce latency on data transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), a type of low-latency data gathering method with multi-Sink (LDGM for short) is proposed in this paper. The network is divided into several virtual regions consisting of three or less data gathering units and the leader of each region is selected according to its residual energy as well as distance to all of the other nodes. Only the leaders in each region need to communicate with the mobile Sinks which have effectively reduced energy consumption and the end-to-end delay. Moreover, with the help of the sleep scheduling and the sensing radius adjustment strategies, redundancy in network coverage could also be effectively reduced. Simulation results show that LDGM is energy efficient in comparison with MST as well as MWST and its time efficiency on data collection is higher than one Sink based data gathering methods. PMID:27338401

  5. A Type of Low-Latency Data Gathering Method with Multi-Sink for Sensor Networks

    Chao Sha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To balance energy consumption and reduce latency on data transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, a type of low-latency data gathering method with multi-Sink (LDGM for short is proposed in this paper. The network is divided into several virtual regions consisting of three or less data gathering units and the leader of each region is selected according to its residual energy as well as distance to all of the other nodes. Only the leaders in each region need to communicate with the mobile Sinks which have effectively reduced energy consumption and the end-to-end delay. Moreover, with the help of the sleep scheduling and the sensing radius adjustment strategies, redundancy in network coverage could also be effectively reduced. Simulation results show that LDGM is energy efficient in comparison with MST as well as MWST and its time efficiency on data collection is higher than one Sink based data gathering methods.

  6. Integration of Curved D-Type Optical Fiber Sensor with Microfluidic Chip.

    Sun, Yung-Shin; Li, Chang-Jyun; Hsu, Jin-Cherng

    2016-12-30

    A curved D-type optical fiber sensor (OFS) combined with a microfluidic chip is proposed. This OFS, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the Kretchmann's configuration, is applied as a biosensor to measure the concentrations of different bio-liquids such as ethanol, methanol, and glucose solutions. The SPR phenomenon is attained by using the optical fiber to guide the light source to reach the side-polished, gold-coated region. Integrating this OFS with a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based microfluidic chip, the SPR spectra for liquids with different refractive indices are recorded. Experimentally, the sensitivity of the current biosensor was calculated to be in the order of 10 -5 RIU. This microfluidic chip-integrated OFS could be valuable for monitoring subtle changes in biological samples such as blood sugar, allergen, and biomolecular interactions.

  7. Integration of Curved D-Type Optical Fiber Sensor with Microfluidic Chip

    Yung-Shin Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A curved D-type optical fiber sensor (OFS combined with a microfluidic chip is proposed. This OFS, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR of the Kretchmann’s configuration, is applied as a biosensor to measure the concentrations of different bio-liquids such as ethanol, methanol, and glucose solutions. The SPR phenomenon is attained by using the optical fiber to guide the light source to reach the side-polished, gold-coated region. Integrating this OFS with a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA-based microfluidic chip, the SPR spectra for liquids with different refractive indices are recorded. Experimentally, the sensitivity of the current biosensor was calculated to be in the order of 10−5 RIU. This microfluidic chip-integrated OFS could be valuable for monitoring subtle changes in biological samples such as blood sugar, allergen, and biomolecular interactions.

  8. Soft Sensor Modeling Based on Multiple Gaussian Process Regression and Fuzzy C-mean Clustering

    Xianglin ZHU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the difficulties of online measurement of some crucial biochemical variables in fermentation processes, a new soft sensor modeling method is presented based on the Gaussian process regression and fuzzy C-mean clustering. With the consideration that the typical fermentation process can be distributed into 4 phases including lag phase, exponential growth phase, stable phase and dead phase, the training samples are classified into 4 subcategories by using fuzzy C- mean clustering algorithm. For each sub-category, the samples are trained using the Gaussian process regression and the corresponding soft-sensing sub-model is established respectively. For a new sample, the membership between this sample and sub-models are computed based on the Euclidean distance, and then the prediction output of soft sensor is obtained using the weighting sum. Taking the Lysine fermentation as example, the simulation and experiment are carried out and the corresponding results show that the presented method achieves better fitting and generalization ability than radial basis function neutral network and single Gaussian process regression model.

  9. A real-time automated quality control of rain gauge data based on multiple sensors

    qi, Y.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Precipitation is one of the most important meteorological and hydrological variables. Automated rain gauge networks provide direct measurements of precipitation and have been used for numerous applications such as generating regional and national precipitation maps, calibrating remote sensing data, and validating hydrological and meteorological model predictions. Automated gauge observations are prone to a variety of error sources (instrument malfunction, transmission errors, format changes), and require careful quality controls (QC). Many previous gauge QC techniques were based on neighborhood checks within the gauge network itself and the effectiveness is dependent on gauge densities and precipitation regimes. The current study takes advantage of the multi-sensor data sources in the National Mosaic and Multi-Sensor QPE (NMQ/Q2) system and developes an automated gauge QC scheme based the consistency of radar hourly QPEs and gauge observations. Error characteristics of radar and gauge as a function of the radar sampling geometry, precipitation regimes, and the freezing level height are considered. The new scheme was evaluated by comparing an NMQ national gauge-based precipitation product with independent manual gauge observations. Twelve heavy rainfall events from different seasons and areas of the United States are selected for the evaluation, and the results show that the new NMQ product with QC'ed gauges has a more physically spatial distribution than the old product. And the new product agrees much better statistically with the independent gauges.

  10. Extremely sensitive multiple sensing ring PCF sensor for lower indexed chemical detection

    Veerpal Kaur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we have designed and analysed a photonic crystal fiber with multiple sensing ring in core for chemical and biochemical sensing applications. In this proposed design, three and four sensing ring describe in core which offers remarkable high sensitivity and spiral cladding pattern confines large fraction of power in core region and thus reduce the overall confinement loss. This novel proposed model exhibits simultaneously ultra high relative sensitivity 95.40%, 93.13% and minimum confinement loss 7.108×10−08, 2.47×10−08dB/km for four and three ring pattern. These sensing rings are filled with different sensing liquid. Multiple sensing rings as compared to multiple air holes are desirable feature from fabrication point of view. This proposed PCF design overcomes some experimental challenge such as PCF probe needs some displacement after filling the sensing liquid. These uniform circular sensing rings around the solid core overcome the losses and support better evanescent field matter interaction for sensing application. Multiple sensing rings as compared to multiple tiny air holes are desirable feature from fabrication point of view.

  11. Facile fabrication of wire-type indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors applicable to ultrasensitive flexible sensors.

    Kim, Yeong-Gyu; Tak, Young Jun; Kim, Hee Jun; Kim, Won-Gi; Yoo, Hyukjoon; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2018-04-03

    We fabricated wire-type indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) using a self-formed cracked template based on a lift-off process. The electrical characteristics of wire-type IGZO TFTs could be controlled by changing the width and density of IGZO wires through varying the coating conditions of template solution or multi-stacking additional layers. The fabricated wire-type devices were applied to sensors after functionalizing the surface. The wire-type pH sensor showed a sensitivity of 45.4 mV/pH, and this value was an improved sensitivity compared with that of the film-type device (27.6 mV/pH). Similarly, when the wire-type device was used as a glucose sensor, it showed more variation in electrical characteristics than the film-type device. The improved sensing properties resulted from the large surface area of the wire-type device compared with that of the film-type device. In addition, we fabricated wire-type IGZO TFTs on flexible substrates and confirmed that such structures were very resistant to mechanical stresses at a bending radius of 10 mm.

  12. Positioning of the sensor cell on the sensing area using cell trapping pattern in incubation type planar patch clamp biosensor.

    Wang, Zhi-Hong; Takada, Noriko; Uno, Hidetaka; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu; Urisu, Tsuneo

    2012-08-01

    Positioning the sensor cell on the micropore of the sensor chip and keeping it there during incubation are problematic tasks for incubation type planar patch clamp biosensors. To solve these problems, we formed on the Si sensor chip's surface a cell trapping pattern consisting of a lattice pattern with a round area 5 μm deep and with the micropore at the center of the round area. The surface of the sensor chip was coated with extra cellular matrix collagen IV, and HEK293 cells on which a chimera molecule of channel-rhodopsin-wide-receiver (ChR-WR) was expressed, were then seeded. We examined the effects of this cell trapping pattern on the biosensor's operation. In the case of a flat sensor chip without a cell trapping pattern, it took several days before the sensor cell covered the micropore and formed an almost confluent state. As a result, multi-cell layers easily formed and made channel current measurements impossible. On the other hand, the sensor chip with cell trapping pattern easily trapped cells in the round area, and formed the colony consisted of the cell monolayer covering the micropore. A laser (473 nm wavelength) induced channel current was observed from the whole cell arrangement formed using the nystatin perforation technique. The observed channel current characteristics matched measurements made by using a pipette patch clamp. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultra-sensitive bio-sensor based on GMR in self-suspended-membrane-type germanium grating

    Ma, Jianyong; Zhang, Dawei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an ultra-sensitive bio-sensor based on the GMR effect in self-suspended-membrane-type gratings (SSGs) is proposed using multilayer plane waveguide theory. It is demonstrated from our calculations that the sensitivity of our bio-sensor is near the theoretical limit compared with a conventional GMR sensor. Based on the normalized eigenfunction of a single-layer homogeneous grating, the resonance curves with respect to different refractive indices of surrounding media are calculated, which confirm the estimated sensitivity. In addition, we design a highly sensitive bio-sensor in the near- and mid-IR wavelength region for liquid and gas detection respectively, the sensor can deliver a resolution over 1 × 10 −5 in the near-IR region in a large refractive index (1.3–1.7) range and provide better than 1 × 10 −6 in the mid-IR region, which is enough for various bio-material detections. Therefore, the bio-sensor we proposed is one or two orders more sensitive than conventional GMR sensors. (paper)

  14. 2-D FEM Simulation of Propagation and Radiation of Leaky Lamb Wave in a Plate-Type Ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor

    Park, Sang-Jin; Kim, Hoe-Woong; Joo, Young-Sang; Kim, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Jong-Bum [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This paper introduces the 2-D FEM simulation of the propagation and radiation of the leaky Lamb wave in and from a plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor conducted for the radiation beam profile analysis. The FEM simulations are performed with three different excitation frequencies and the radiation beam profiles obtained from FEM simulations are compared with those obtained from corresponding experiments. This paper deals with the 2-D FEM simulation of the propagation and radiation of the leaky Lamb wave in and from a plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor conducted to analyze the radiation beam profiles. The radiation beam profile results obtained from the FEM simulation show good agreement with the ones obtained from the experiment. This result will be utilized to improve the performance of the developed waveguide sensor. The quality of the visualized image is mainly affected by beam profile characteristics of the leaky wave radiated from the waveguide sensor. However, the relationships between the radiation beam profile and many parameters of the waveguide sensor are not fully revealed yet. Therefore, further parametric studies are necessary to improve the performance of the sensor and the finite element method (FEM) is one of the most effective tools for the parametric study.

  15. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXII. Multiplicity properties of the B-type stars

    Dunstall, P.R.; Dufton, P.L.; Sana, H.; Evans, C.J.; Howarth, I.D.; Simón-Díaz, S.; de Mink, S.E.; Langer, N.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Taylor, W.D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal

  16. Strong convergence of an extragradient-type algorithm for the multiple-sets split equality problem.

    Zhao, Ying; Shi, Luoyi

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a new extragradient-type method to solve the multiple-sets split equality problem (MSSEP). Under some suitable conditions, the strong convergence of an algorithm can be verified in the infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Moreover, several numerical results are given to show the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  17. A new multiplicity formula for the Weyl modules of type A

    Ye Jiachen; Zhou Zhongguo

    2003-08-01

    A monomial basis and a filtration of subalgebras for the universal enveloping algebra U(g) of a complex simple Lie algebra g l of type A I is given in this note. In particular, a new multiplicity formula for the Weyl module V(λ) of U(g l ) is obtained in this note. (author)

  18. A rare presentation of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN type 2A syndrome

    Elroy Patrick Weledji

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer disease may be a manifestation of symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. A case of an intractable complicated peptic ulcer disease secondary to hypercalcaemia from multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A is presented. Hypercalcaemia should always be excluded as a cause of recurrent, or complicated peptic ulcer disease.

  19. Application of V2O5/WO3/TiO2 for Resistive-Type SO2 Sensors

    Izu, Noriya; Hagen, Gunter; Schönauer, Daniela; Röder-Roith, Ulla; Moos, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    A study on the application of V2O5/WO3/TiO2 (VWT) as the sensitive material for resistive-type SO2 sensor was conducted, based on the fact that VWT is a well-known catalyst material for good selective catalytic nitrogen oxide reduction with a proven excellent durability in exhaust gases. The sensors fabricated in this study are planar ones with interdigitated electrodes of Au or Pt. The vanadium content of the utilized VWT is 1.5 or 3.0 wt%. The resistance of VWT decreases with an increasing SO2 concentration in the range from 20 ppm to 5,000 ppm. The best sensor response to SO2 occurs at 400 °C using Au electrodes. The sensor response value is independent on the amount of added vanadium but dependent on the electrode materials at 400 °C. These results are discussed and a sensing mechanism is discussed. PMID:22163780

  20. Multiple products management system with sensors array in automated storage and retrieval systems

    Vongbunyong, Supachai; Roengritronnachai, Perawat; Kongsanit, Savanut; Chanok-owat, Chawisa; Polchankajorn, Pongsakorn

    2018-01-01

    Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RS) have now been widely used in a number of industries due to its capability to automatically manage the storage of products in effective ways. One of the key features of AS/RS is that each rack is not assigned for a specific product resulting in the benefit of space utilization and logistics related issues. In this research, sensor arrays are equipped at each rack in order to enhance this feature. As a result, various products can be identified and mixed in each rack, so that the space utilization efficiency can be increased. To prove the concept, a prototype system consisting of a Cartesian robot that manages the storage and retrieval of products with 9 variations based on size and color. The concept of Cyber-Physical System and self-awareness of the system are also implemented in this concept prototype.

  1. Mechanisms of odor-tracking: multiple sensors for enhanced perception and behavior

    Alex Gomez-Marin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Early in evolution, the ability to sense and respond to changing environments must have provided a critical survival advantage to living organisms. From bacteria and worms to flies and vertebrates, sophisticated mechanisms have evolved to enhance odor detection and localization. Here, we review several modes of chemotaxis. We further consider the relevance of a striking and recurrent motif in the organization of invertebrate and vertebrate sensory systems, namely the existence of two symmetrical olfactory sensors. By combining our current knowledge about the olfactory circuits of larval and adult Drosophila, we examine the molecular and neural mechanisms underlying robust olfactory perception and extend these analyses to recent behavioral studies addressing the relevance and function of bilateral olfactory input for gradient detection. Finally, using a comparative theoretical approach based on Braitenberg’s vehicles, we speculate about the relationships between anatomy, circuit architecture and stereotypical orientation behaviors.

  2. Familial disseminated plaque type porokeratosis with multiple horns and squamous cell carcinoma involving anal skin

    Sarma Nilendu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Porokeratosis is a disorder of keratinization showing a well-defined lesion with a hyperkeratotic ridge on the border that contains the coronoid lamella. We report familial (autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance disseminated plaque type (Mibelli′s type porokeratosis in a father and son. In the father, there were multiple horns and a large squamous cell carcinoma in a large lesion over the perianal region that reached up to the squamo-columnar junction of the anal mucosa and even invaded the anal sphincteric muscles. Disseminated lesions of the Mibelli′s type, development of horns, and malignancy in this unusual location have not been previously reported.

  3. Energy storage management system with distributed wireless sensors

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2015-12-08

    An energy storage system having a multiple different types of energy storage and conversion devices. Each device is equipped with one or more sensors and RFID tags to communicate sensor information wirelessly to a central electronic management system, which is used to control the operation of each device. Each device can have multiple RFID tags and sensor types. Several energy storage and conversion devices can be combined.

  4. Multiple long bone cysts revealed by MRI in trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II predisposing to pathological fractures

    Konala, Praveen; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N. [The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oswestry (United Kingdom); Kiely, Nigel [The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oswestry (United Kingdom); Noakes, Charlotte [Oxford University Hospital, The Oxford Genetics Laboratories, Oxford (United Kingdom); Blair, Edward [Oxford University Hospital, Department of Clinical Genetics, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-15

    Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II is a rare genetic disorder with the few published case reports mainly reporting the radiographic skeletal manifestations. There are no published imaging reports of long bone cysts involving multiple bones in this condition. We report a unique case of bone cysts involving multiple long bones detected with MRI in a patient with trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II complicated by a subsequent pathological fracture. It is possible that the bone cysts are a previously undescribed feature of this syndrome; however, the evidence is insufficient to establish a definite association. Chromosomal abnormality identified in this patient is consistent with trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II with no unusual features. Although the nature of these bone cysts is unclear, they are one of the causes of the known increased fracture risk observed in this syndrome. (orig.)

  5. Multiple sensor integration for seizure onset detection in human patients comparing conventional disc versus novel tripolar concentric ring electrodes.

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Ding, Quan; Martínez-Juárez, Iris E; Gaitanis, John; Kay, Steven M; Besio, Walter G

    2013-01-01

    As epilepsy affects approximately one percent of the world population, electrical stimulation of the brain has recently shown potential for additive seizure control therapy. Closed-loop systems that apply electrical stimulation when seizure onset is automatically detected require high accuracy of automatic seizure detection based on electrographic brain activity. To improve this accuracy we propose to use noninvasive tripolar concentric ring electrodes that have been shown to have significantly better signal-to-noise ratio, spatial selectivity, and mutual information compared to conventional disc electrodes. The proposed detection methodology is based on integration of multiple sensors using exponentially embedded family (EEF). In this preliminary study it is validated on over 26.3 hours of data collected using both tripolar concentric ring and conventional disc electrodes concurrently each from 7 human patients with epilepsy including five seizures. For a cross-validation based group model EEF correctly detected 100% and 80% of seizures respectively with tripolar concentric ring electrodes.

  6. The CRESST-III iStick veto. Stable operation of multiple transition edge sensors in one readout circuit

    Rothe, Johannes [Max-Planck-Institut f. Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: CRESST-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    To enable complete rejection of holder-related events in the upcoming CRESST-III dark matter search experiment, the scintillating target crystals are held by calcium tungstate sticks (iSticks) instrumented with tungsten transition edge sensors (TESs). Since the iStick signals are used exclusively for vetoing, it is sufficient to register if an event happened in any stick, without knowing which one. This allows the operation of all iSticks in a single readout circuit, requiring just one SQUID magnetometer. The talk describes the effect of bias current heating and corresponding hysteresis phenomena known in single-TES circuits, and the resulting conditions for stability in multiple-TES circuits. The fundamentally different behaviour of parallel and series circuits and resulting design choices are explored.

  7. Prevalence of single and multiple HPV types in cervical carcinomas in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Schellekens, Maaike C; Dijkman, Anneke; Aziz, Mohammad Farid; Siregar, Budiningsih; Cornain, Santoso; Kolkman-Uljee, Sandra; Peters, Lex A W; Fleuren, Gert Jan

    2004-04-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most frequently occurring type of cancer in women worldwide. A persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary causal factor in cervical carcinogenesis. The distribution of HPV types in populations has been studied worldwide. In Indonesia, however, few data are available describing the prevalence of HPV. Cervical carcinoma is the most common female cancer in Indonesia and causes high morbidity and mortality figures. With HPV vaccination studies in progress, it is important to map the HPV status of a population that would benefit greatly from future prevention programs. We tested 74 cervical cancer specimens from consecutive, newly diagnosed cervical cancer patients in the outpatient clinic of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. After additional staining, the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples were histologically classified. HPV presence and genotype distribution were determined by SPF10 polymerase chain reaction and line probe assay. HPV DNA of 12 different HPV types was detected in 96% of the specimens. The three most common types were 16 (44%), 18 (39%) and 52 (14%). In 14% of the specimens, multiple HPV types were present. The multiple HPV types were significantly more prevalent among adenosquamous carcinomas in comparison with squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma (P = 0.014). Distribution of HPV types in Indonesia with a more prominent role for HPV 18 is slightly different from that in other parts of the world. The high amount of multiple HPV infections found in adenosquamous carcinomas may prompt further research on the pathogenesis of this type of cervical tumours.

  8. Search and Classification Using Multiple Autonomous Vehicles Decision-Making and Sensor Management

    Wang, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Search and Classification Using Multiple Autonomous Vehicles provides a comprehensive study of decision-making strategies for domain search and object classification using multiple autonomous vehicles (MAV) under both deterministic and probabilistic frameworks. It serves as a first discussion of the problem of effective resource allocation using MAV with sensing limitations, i.e., for search and classification missions over large-scale domains, or when there are far more objects to be found and classified than there are autonomous vehicles available. Under such scenarios, search and classification compete for limited sensing resources. This is because search requires vehicle mobility while classification restricts the vehicles to the vicinity of any objects found. The authors develop decision-making strategies to choose between these competing tasks and vehicle-motion-control laws to achieve the proposed management scheme. Deterministic Lyapunov-based, probabilistic Bayesian-based, and risk-based decision-mak...

  9. Measurement of electron beams profile of pierce type electron source using sensor of used Tv tube

    Darsono; Suhartono; Suprapto; Elin Nuraini

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of an electron beam profile has been performed using electron beam monitor based on method of phosphorescent materials. The main components of the electron beam monitor consists of a fluorescent sensor using a used Tv tube, CCTV camera to record images on a Tv screen, video adapter as interface between CCTV and laptop, and the laptop as a viewer and data processing. Two Pierce-type electron sources diode and triode was measured the shape of electron beam profile in real time. Results of the experiments showed that the triode electron source of Pierce type gave the shape of electron beam profiles better than that of the diode electron source .The anode voltage is not so influential on the beam profile shape. The focused voltage in the triode electron source is so influence to the shape of the electron beam profile, but above 5 kV no great effect. It can be concluded that the electron beam monitor can provide real time observations and drawings shape of the electron beam profile displayed on the used Tv tube glass screen which is the real picture of the shape of the electron beam profile. Triode electron source produces a better electron beam profile than that of the diode electron source. (author)

  10. Common Fixed Points of Generalized Rational Type Cocyclic Mappings in Multiplicative Metric Spaces

    Mujahid Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present fixed point result of mappings satisfying a generalized rational contractive condition in the setup of multiplicative metric spaces. As an application, we obtain a common fixed point of a pair of weakly compatible mappings. Some common fixed point results of pair of rational contractive types mappings involved in cocyclic representation of a nonempty subset of a multiplicative metric space are also obtained. Some examples are presented to support the results proved herein. Our results generalize and extend various results in the existing literature.

  11. Uncertainly Analysis of Two Types of Humidity Sensors by a Humidity Generator with a Divided-Flow System.

    Chen, Ling-Hsi; Chen, Chiachung

    2018-02-21

    Humidity measurement is an important technique for the agricultural, foods, pharmaceuticals, and chemical industries. For the sake of convenience, electrical relative humidity (RH) sensors have been widely used. These sensors need to be calibrated to ensure their accuracy and the uncertainty measurement of these sensors has become a major concern. In this study, a self-made divided-flow generator was established to calibrate two types of electrical humidity sensors. The standard reference humidity was calculated from dew-point temperature and air dry-bulb temperature measured by a chilled mirror monitor. This divided-flow generator could produce consistent result of RH measurement results. The uncertainty of the reference standard increased with the increase of RH values. The combined uncertainty with the adequate calibration equations were ranged from 0.82% to 1.45% RH for resistive humidity sensors and 0.63% to 1.4% for capacitive humidity sensors, respectively. This self-made, divided-flow generator, and calibration method are cheap, time-saving, and easy to be used. Thus, the proposed approach can easily be applied in research laboratories.

  12. Uncertainly Analysis of Two Types of Humidity Sensors by a Humidity Generator with a Divided-Flow System

    Chen, Ling-Hsi

    2018-01-01

    Humidity measurement is an important technique for the agricultural, foods, pharmaceuticals, and chemical industries. For the sake of convenience, electrical relative humidity (RH) sensors have been widely used. These sensors need to be calibrated to ensure their accuracy and the uncertainty measurement of these sensors has become a major concern. In this study, a self-made divided-flow generator was established to calibrate two types of electrical humidity sensors. The standard reference humidity was calculated from dew-point temperature and air dry-bulb temperature measured by a chilled mirror monitor. This divided-flow generator could produce consistent result of RH measurement results. The uncertainty of the reference standard increased with the increase of RH values. The combined uncertainty with the adequate calibration equations were ranged from 0.82% to 1.45% RH for resistive humidity sensors and 0.63% to 1.4% for capacitive humidity sensors, respectively. This self-made, divided-flow generator, and calibration method are cheap, time-saving, and easy to be used. Thus, the proposed approach can easily be applied in research laboratories. PMID:29466313

  13. Patterns and correlates of co-occurrence among multiple types of child maltreatment

    Kim, Kihyun; Mennen, Ferol E.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the patterns and correlates of the types of maltreatment experienced by adolescents aged 9–12, participating in an ongoing longitudinal study on the impact of neglect on children’s development. Using case record abstraction, the study compared the child protection classification and findings from the case record abstraction with regard to the rates of four types of maltreatment (i.e. physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect) as well as co-occurrence across multiple types of maltreatment. Next, the study examined the frequently observed patterns of child maltreatment. Finally, the study investigated whether aspects of caretaker functioning and the detailed incident characteristics in the cases of neglect differed by the number of different types of maltreatment the children experienced. Results showed significant discrepancies between the Child Protective Service classification and case record abstraction. Child Protective Service classification considerably underestimated the rate of co-occurrence across multiple types of maltreatment. Neglect accompanied by physical and emotional abuse was the most common form. Some of the caretaker functioning variables distinguished the number of types of maltreatment. Based on the findings, future-research directions and practice implication were discussed. PMID:29225485

  14. Assessment of Personality Types and Locus of Control in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Sh. Mazaheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease with unknown cause. MS is one of the disabling neurologic diseases in adult especially young range that myelin part of central nervous system (CNS is destructed. The aim of this study was assessment of types A and B personality and internal and external locus of control in multiple sclerosis (MS patients and comparison of the results with control group.Materials & Methods: In a case-control study, 30 patients with MS and 30 normal persons as control group evaluated with neurological examination, Rotter locus of control test and Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire for detection of types A and B personality. We employed to analyze the results.Results: 43 percent and 57 percent of MS patients had internal and external locus of control respectively. 63 percent and 37 percent of MS patients had type A and B personality respectively. 60 percent and 40 percent of control group had internal and external locus of control respectively. 20 percent and 80 percent of control group had type A and B personality respectively. Difference between personality type in two groups was significant (P<0.01.Conclusions: In this study, MS patients had more type A personality in comparison to control group.

  15. Position and mass determination of multiple particles using cantilever based mass sensors

    Dohn, Soeren; Schmid, Silvan; Boisen, Anja; Amiot, Fabien

    2010-01-01

    Resonant microcantilevers are highly sensitive to added masses and have the potential to be used as mass-spectrometers. However, making the detection of individual added masses quantitative requires the position determination for each added mass. We derive expressions relating the position and mass of several added particles to the resonant frequencies of a cantilever, and an identification procedure valid for particles with different masses is proposed. The identification procedure is tested by calculating positions and mass of multiple microparticles with similar mass positioned on individual microcantilevers. Excellent agreement is observed between calculated and measured positions and calculated and theoretical masses.

  16. Impact of Age and Antibody Type on Progression From Single to Multiple Autoantibodies in Type 1 Diabetes Relatives.

    Bosi, Emanuele; Boulware, David C; Becker, Dorothy J; Buckner, Jane H; Geyer, Susan; Gottlieb, Peter A; Henderson, Courtney; Kinderman, Amanda; Sosenko, Jay M; Steck, Andrea K; Bingley, Polly J

    2017-08-01

    Islet autoantibodies are markers of type 1 diabetes, and an increase in number of autoantibodies detected during the preclinical phase predicts progression to overt disease. To refine the effect of age in relation to islet antibody type on progression from single to multiple autoantibodies in relatives of people with type 1 diabetes. We examined 994 relatives with normal glucose tolerance who were positive for a single autoantibody, followed prospectively in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention. Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulin (IAA), insulinoma-associated antigen 2, and zinc transporter 8 and islet cell antibodies were tested every 6 to 12 months. The primary outcome was confirmed development of multiple autoantibodies. Age was categorized as <8 years, 8 to 11 years, 12 to 17 years, and ≥18 years, and optimal age breakpoints were identified by recursive partitioning analysis. After median follow-up of 2 years, 141 relatives had developed at least one additional autoantibodies. Five-year risk was inversely related to age, but the pattern differed by antibody type: Relatives with GADA showed a gradual decrease in risk over the four age groups, whereas relatives with IAA showed a sharp decrease above age 8 years. Recursive partitioning analysis identified age breakpoints at 14 years in relatives with GADA and at 4 years in relatives with IAA. In relatives with IAA, spread of islet autoimmunity is largely limited to early childhood, whereas immune responses initially directed at glutamic acid decarboxylase can mature over a longer period. These differences have important implications for monitoring these patients and for designing prevention trials. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  17. Pick-and-place process for sensitivity improvement of the capacitive type CMOS MEMS 2-axis tilt sensor

    Chang, Chun-I.; Tsai, Ming-Han; Liu, Yu-Chia; Sun, Chih-Ming; Fang, Weileun

    2013-09-01

    This study exploits the foundry available complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process and the packaging house available pick-and-place technology to implement a capacitive type micromachined 2-axis tilt sensor. The suspended micro mechanical structures such as the spring, stage and sensing electrodes are fabricated using the CMOS microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processes. A bulk block is assembled onto the suspended stage by pick-and-place technology to increase the proof-mass of the tilt sensor. The low temperature UV-glue dispensing and curing processes are employed to bond the block onto the stage. Thus, the sensitivity of the CMOS MEMS capacitive type 2-axis tilt sensor is significantly improved. In application, this study successfully demonstrates the bonding of a bulk solder ball of 100 µm in diameter with a 2-axis tilt sensor fabricated using the standard TSMC 0.35 µm 2P4M CMOS process. Measurements show the sensitivities of the 2-axis tilt sensor are increased for 2.06-fold (x-axis) and 1.78-fold (y-axis) after adding the solder ball. Note that the sensitivity can be further improved by reducing the parasitic capacitance and the mismatch of sensing electrodes caused by the solder ball.

  18. Modeling and Simulation of a Novel Relay Node Based Secure Routing Protocol Using Multiple Mobile Sink for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Madhumathy Perumal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data gathering and optimal path selection for wireless sensor networks (WSN using existing protocols result in collision. Increase in collision further increases the possibility of packet drop. Thus there is a necessity to eliminate collision during data aggregation. Increasing the efficiency is the need of the hour with maximum security. This paper is an effort to come up with a reliable and energy efficient WSN routing and secure protocol with minimum delay. This technique is named as relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS. This protocol finds the rendezvous point for optimal transmission of data using a “splitting tree” technique in tree-shaped network topology and then to determine all the subsequent positions of a sink the “Biased Random Walk” model is used. In case of an event, the sink gathers the data from all sources, when they are in the sensing range of rendezvous point. Otherwise relay node is selected from its neighbor to transfer packets from rendezvous point to sink. A symmetric key cryptography is used for secure transmission. The proposed relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS is experimented and simulation results are compared with Intelligent Agent-Based Routing (IAR protocol to prove that there is increase in the network lifetime compared with other routing protocols.

  19. Structural health monitoring and damage assessment using measured FRFs from multiple sensors. Part I. The indicator of correlation criteria

    Zang, C.; Friswell, M.I. [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Univ. of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Imregun, M. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents two criteria for correlating measured frequency responses from multiple sensors and proposes to use them as indicators for structural damage detection. The first criterion is a global shape correlation (GSC) function that is sensitive to mode shape differences but not to relative scales. The second criterion, a global amplitude correlation (GAC) function, is based on actual response amplitudes. Both correlation criteria are a function of frequency and uniquely map a set of complex responses to a real scalar between zero and unity. The averaged integrations of GSC and GAC functions along the frequency points over the measurement range, also called damage indicators, are used to describe the correlation between two sets of vibration data. When a structure state remains unchanged, both correlation criteria are as close to unity simultaneously. Otherwise, the correlation with the reference data will be decreased with changes of structure states. Using GSC and GAC functions has the advantage of being able to deal with incomplete measurements. Also, all available response data are used and hence there is no critical selection of frequency points for damage detection. The above correlation criteria were applied to a bookshelf structure and various cases such as undamaged states, damage locations (single and multiple), damage levels, as well as environmental variability are discussed. As expected, it was found that indicators of correlation criteria were able to identify all various cases correctly. (orig.)

  20. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion.

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-09-02

    Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiple pharmacy use and types of pharmacies used to obtain prescriptions.

    Look, Kevin A; Mott, David A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate trends and patterns in the prevalence of multiple pharmacy use (MPU) and to describe the number and types of pharmacies used by multiple pharmacy users from 2003 to 2009. Retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study. United States from 2003 to 2009. 89,941 responses to the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey over 7 years. Analysis of respondent pharmacy use behaviors. Annual use of more than one pharmacy and number and types of pharmacies used. MPU among patients using medications increased significantly during the study period (from 36.4% [95% CI 35.2-37.6] in 2003 to 43.2% [41.9-44.4] in 2009)-a relative increase of 18.7% ( P = 0.01). Multiple pharmacy users used between 2 and 17 different pharmacies per year to obtain prescription medications. Although approximately 70% of multiple pharmacy users used only two pharmacies, the proportion using three or more pharmacies increased from 24.1% (22.5-25.7) in 2003 to 29.1% (27.4-30.8) in 2009. Mail service pharmacy use had the largest relative increase among multiple pharmacy users during the study period (27.2%), and MPU was nearly twice as high (75%) among mail service users compared with non-mail service users. MPU is common on a national level and has increased greatly in recent years. Patient use of pharmacies that have the potential to share medication information electronically is low among multiple pharmacy users, suggesting increased workload for pharmacists and potential medication safety concerns. This has important implications for pharmacists, as it potentially impedes their ability to maintain accurate medication profiles for patients.

  2. Atuoradiographic detection of multiple sclerosis plaques with an ω3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine) binding site radiogland

    HAUW, J.J.; Sazdovitch, V.; Cornu, P.; Dubois, A.; Benavides, J.; Mac Kenzie, E.; Scatton, B.

    1989-01-01

    In Multiple Sclerosis (MS), the presence of monocyte-macrophages and microglial cells in active plaques is a constant feature. They are numerous at the border of active lesions where they constiture, with other cell types such as lymphocytes and oligodendrocytes the so-called flial wall. Monocyte-macrophages and microglial cells are thought to be directly involved in the process of demyelination. Some macrophages laden with meylin degradation products are also seen in the center of the plaqie, often located in the perivascular cuffs. In addition, astrocytic gliosis occurs in the center of the plaques. As all these cell types are richly endowed with ω3 sites, the feasibility of using ω3 site autoradiagraphy to detect the demyelination plaques in the brain of post-mortem cases of Multiple Sclerosis has been investigated. (Author). 8 refs

  3. Continued Kinematic and Photometric Investigations of Hierarchical Solar-type Multiple Star Systems

    Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Marinan, Anne D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA 91109 (United States); Tokovinin, Andrei [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Mason, Brian D., E-mail: lewis.c.roberts@jpl.nasa.gov [U.S. Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    We observed 15 of the solar-type binaries within 67 pc of the Sun previously observed by the Robo-AO system in the visible, with the PHARO near-infrared camera and the PALM-3000 adaptive optics system on the 5 m Hale telescope. The physical status of the binaries is confirmed through common proper motion and detection of orbital motion. In the process, we detected a new candidate companion to HIP 95309. We also resolved the primary of HIP 110626 into a close binary, making that system a triple. These detections increase the completeness of the multiplicity survey of the solar-type stars within 67 pc of the Sun. Combining our observations of HIP 103455 with archival astrometric measurements and RV measurements, we are able to compute the first orbit of HIP 103455, showing that the binary has a 68 year period. We place the components on a color–magnitude diagram and discuss each multiple system individually.

  4. A novel multi-item joint replenishment problem considering multiple type discounts.

    Ligang Cui

    Full Text Available In business replenishment, discount offers of multi-item may either provide different discount schedules with a single discount type, or provide schedules with multiple discount types. The paper investigates the joint effects of multiple discount schemes on the decisions of multi-item joint replenishment. In this paper, a joint replenishment problem (JRP model, considering three discount (all-unit discount, incremental discount, total volume discount offers simultaneously, is constructed to determine the basic cycle time and joint replenishment frequencies of multi-item. To solve the proposed problem, a heuristic algorithm is proposed to find the optimal solutions and the corresponding total cost of the JRP model. Numerical experiment is performed to test the algorithm and the computational results of JRPs under different discount combinations show different significance in the replenishment cost reduction.

  5. MRI findings in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts manifesting hyperactive-type delirium

    Arahata, Yutaka; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Furuse, Masahiro; Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    MRI studies were carried out on 69 patients with multiple lacunar infarcts: 32 had hyperactive-type delirium and the other 37 were non-delirious controls. Between the two groups, there were no statistically significant differences in mean age and sex distribution. In the corona radiata and basal ganglia, the number of infarcts did not differ between the two groups. However, the extent of thalamic infarcts and periventricular hyperintensity (PVH), the maximal width of the third ventricle and Evans' ratio among the delirious patients were significantly larger than those in the controls. In conclusion, thalamic lesions and diffuse advanced PVH may have an intimate correlation in the development of hyperactive-type delirium in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts. (author)

  6. MRI findings in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts manifesting hyperactive-type delirium

    Arahata, Yutaka; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Furuse, Masahiro (Nakatsugawa Municipal General Hospital, Gifu (Japan)); Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira

    1994-04-01

    MRI studies were carried out on 69 patients with multiple lacunar infarcts: 32 had hyperactive-type delirium and the other 37 were non-delirious controls. Between the two groups, there were no statistically significant differences in mean age and sex distribution. In the corona radiata and basal ganglia, the number of infarcts did not differ between the two groups. However, the extent of thalamic infarcts and periventricular hyperintensity (PVH), the maximal width of the third ventricle and Evans' ratio among the delirious patients were significantly larger than those in the controls. In conclusion, thalamic lesions and diffuse advanced PVH may have an intimate correlation in the development of hyperactive-type delirium in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts. (author).

  7. Cushing Disease in a patient with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B.

    Kasturi, Kannan; Fernandes, Lucas; Quezado, Martha; Eid, Mary; Marcus, Leigh; Chittiboina, Prashant; Rappaport, Mark; Stratakis, Constantine A; Widemann, Brigitte; Lodish, Maya

    2017-06-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) is a rare autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized in part by metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and pheochromocytoma. Cushing disease is a rare cause of endogenous hypercortisolism in children. We describe a 21-year-old African-American male who was diagnosed at age 10 with an ACTH-secreting pituitary microadenoma. At age 16 he developed medullary thyroid cancer and was found to have multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B with the characteristic M918T mutation of the RET proto-oncogene. Following thyroidectomy, he was initiated on Vandetanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and has since had stable disease over the last 5 years. Our patient is the first individual with MEN2B to be described with Cushing disease. The RET oncogene may play a role in pituitary tumorigenesis; alternatively, the coexistence of these two entities may represent an extremely rare coincidence.

  8. Using Multiple Types of Studies in Systematic Reviews of Health Care Interventions – A Systematic Review

    Peinemann, Frank; Tushabe, Doreen Allen; Kleijnen, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Background A systematic review may evaluate different aspects of a health care intervention. To accommodate the evaluation of various research questions, the inclusion of more than one study design may be necessary. One aim of this study is to find and describe articles on methodological issues concerning the incorporation of multiple types of study designs in systematic reviews on health care interventions. Another aim is to evaluate methods studies that have assessed whether reported effects differ by study types. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Methodology Register on 31 March 2012 and identified 42 articles that reported on the integration of single or multiple study designs in systematic reviews. We summarized the contents of the articles qualitatively and assessed theoretical and empirical evidence. We found that many examples of reviews incorporating multiple types of studies exist and that every study design can serve a specific purpose. The clinical questions of a systematic review determine the types of design that are necessary or sufficient to provide the best possible answers. In a second independent search, we identified 49 studies, 31 systematic reviews and 18 trials that compared the effect sizes between randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, which were statistically different in 35%, and not different in 53%. Twelve percent of studies reported both, different and non-different effect sizes. Conclusions Different study designs addressing the same question yielded varying results, with differences in about half of all examples. The risk of presenting uncertain results without knowing for sure the direction and magnitude of the effect holds true for both nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials. The integration of multiple study designs in systematic reviews is required if patients should be informed on the many facets of patient relevant issues of health care

  9. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) and Pituitary Adenoma Predisposition (PAP) in Northern Finland

    Vierimaa, O. (Outi)

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome characterized by parathyroid, gastroenteropancreatic and pituitary neuroendocrine tumours. In Northern Finland, two founder mutations of the MEN1 gene (1466del12, 1657insC) accounting for the majority of the MEN1 cases, have common ancestors born in the 18th and 19th centuries, respectively. Three small clusters of familial pituitary adenoma have also been detected, two of which could be linked by genealogy to a ...

  10. Effect of disease duration on personality type in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy individual

    Sahar Vesal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis may have profound emotional consequences. The relation between psychological and physical factors could lead patients toward unforeseen disease. This study focuses on multiple sclerosis (MS disease duration on personality type A and B in relation to individuals' behaviors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in Isfahan Alzahra hospital in 2013. Three hundred MS patients and 100 healthy individuals were determined. The distributed questionnaires related to MS patients and considering the descriptive statistics such as demographic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 18 based on Chi-square test and independent T-test. Results: Disease duration varied between 1 to 38 years: 30% (1-4 years, 38% (5-10 years, 20% (10-20 years, and 12% (more than 20 years. Significant relationship was observed between disease duration and tendency to type A (higher stress. This relation was positive and significant in Relapsing Remitting MS patients; but negative correlation was seen in Secondary Progressive MS patients. These patients tended to type B (lower stress when disease duration increased. Conclusions: Individuals with disease duration of one year and less than one year tend to type A personality, while patients with increment of disease duration have tendency to type B.

  11. Application Of FA Sensor 2

    Park, Seon Ho

    1993-03-01

    This book introduces FA sensor from basic to making system, which includes light sensor like photo diode and photo transistor, photo electricity sensor, CCD type image sensor, MOS type image sensor, color sensor, cds cell, and optical fiber scope. It also deals with direct election position sensor such as proximity switch, differential motion, linear scale of photo electricity type, and magnet scale, rotary sensor with summary of rotary encoder, rotary encoder types and applications, flow sensor, and sensing technology.

  12. Development of pvc membrane based potentiometric pH sensor using amine type neutral carrier

    Khan, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    The glass membrane-based pH-electrode has proved its utility over decades. However some limitations are associated with these type of sensors. It can not be used for measuring pH of hydrofluoric acid solution and is difficult to miniaturize for biological applications due to its high resistance and fragility. In the present investigation modified PVC-membranes have been cast by incorporating lipophilic salt tetrabutyl ammonium tetraphenylborate and sodium tetraphenylborate along with electro active compound tri-n-octylamine as neutral carrier. The performance comparison of fabricated pH-sensitive membrane electrode has been carried out regarding their Nernstian slope and life time. The performance comparison of the membrane electrodes fabricated from laboratory grade tri-n-octylamine and those prepared from highly purified ionophore was also carried out. The slopes of the modified membrane electrodes based on pure ionophore were 59 mV/decade H/sup +/ ions and commercial ionophore 54 mV/decade H/sup +/ ions. The linear range was from pH 5-11. In the range of pH 6-10 response was excellent. The measurement of selectivity coefficients for the probable, interfering ions (anions and cations) were also carried out. (author)

  13. Applications of the energy differentiation type radiation line sensor to such as inspection for the plumbing corrosion

    Tomita, Yasuhiro; Shirayanagi, Yuji; Matsui, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The authors have engaged in development of the next-generation radiation detectors that can give information on energy such as X-rays and γ-rays, and commercialized an energy discrimination type radiation line sensor capable of discriminating the energy of photons using a CdTe radiation detector element. This paper introduces the structure and principles of this energy discrimination type radiation line sensor. As the basic application, it also introduces the material identification, energy discrimination type X-ray CT imaging, and the quantitative determination of iron plate thickness using X-ray. In addition, it introduces the radiation line sensor we have developed for inspecting the reduced amount of wall thickness of piping with insulation materials. This radiation line sensor for pipe thinning inspection combined with radiation sources (X-rays, γ-rays) and a transport system is capable of accurately and efficiently inspecting reduced wall thickness, while moving the censor on the covered pipe with heat insulating materials through remote control, without removing piping insulation materials and without stopping the use of piping. (A.O.)

  14. P-stop isolation study of irradiated n-in-p type silicon strip sensors for harsh radiation environment

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084505

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the most radiation hard silicon sensors for the CMS Experiment after the Phase II Upgrade in 2023 a comprehensive study of silicon sensors after a fluence of up to $1.5\\times10^{15} n_{eq}/cm^{2}$ corresponding to $3000 fb^{-1}$ after the HL-LHC era has been carried out. The results led to the decision that the future Outer Tracker (20~cm${<}R{<}$110~cm) of CMS will consist of n-in-p type sensors. This technology is more radiation hard but also the manufacturing is more challenging compared to p-in-n type sensors due to additional process steps in order to suppress the accumulation of electrons between the readout strips. One possible isolation technique of adjacent strips is the p-stop structure which is a p-type material implantation with a certain pattern for each individual strip. However, electrical breakdown and charge collection studies indicate that the process parameters of the p-stop structure have to be carefully calibrated in order to achieve a sufficient strip isolatio...

  15. Genetic heterogeneity in type 1 Gaucher disease: Multiple genotypes in Ashkenazic and non-Ashkenazic individuals

    Tsuji, Shoji; Martin, B.M.; Stubblefield, B.K.; LaMarca, M.E.; Ginns, E.I.; Barranger, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence analysis of a genomic clone from an Ashkenazic Jewish patient with type 1 Gaucher disease revealed a single-base mutation (adenosine to guanosine transition) in exon 9 of the glucocerebrosidase gene. This change results in the amino acid substitution of serine for asparagine. Transient expression studies following oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of the normal cDNA confirmed that the mutation results in loss of glucocerebrosidase activity. Allele-specific hybridization with oligonucleotide probes demonstrated that this mutation was found exclusively in type 1 phenotype. None of the 6 type 2 patients, 11 type 3 patients, or 12 normal controls had this allele. In contrast, 15 of 24 type 1 patients had one allele with this mutation, and 3 others were homozygous for the mutation. Furthermore, some of the Ashkenazic Jewish type 1 patients had only one allele with this mutation, suggesting that even in this population there is allelic heterozygosity. These findings indicate that there are multiple allelic mutations responsible for type 1 Gaucher disease in both the Jewish and non-Jewish populations. Allelic-specific hybridization demonstrating this mutation in exon 9, used in conjunction with the Nci I restriction fragment length polymorphism described as a marker for neuronopathic Gaucher disease, provides a tool for diagnosis and genetic counseling that is ∼80% informative in all Gaucher patients studied

  16. Genetic heterogeneity in type 1 Gaucher disease: Multiple genotypes in Ashkenazic and non-Ashkenazic individuals

    Tsuji, Shoji; Martin, B.M.; Stubblefield, B.K.; LaMarca, M.E.; Ginns, E.I. (National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Barranger, J.A. (Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles, CA (USA))

    1988-04-01

    Nucleotide sequence analysis of a genomic clone from an Ashkenazic Jewish patient with type 1 Gaucher disease revealed a single-base mutation (adenosine to guanosine transition) in exon 9 of the glucocerebrosidase gene. This change results in the amino acid substitution of serine for asparagine. Transient expression studies following oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of the normal cDNA confirmed that the mutation results in loss of glucocerebrosidase activity. Allele-specific hybridization with oligonucleotide probes demonstrated that this mutation was found exclusively in type 1 phenotype. None of the 6 type 2 patients, 11 type 3 patients, or 12 normal controls had this allele. In contrast, 15 of 24 type 1 patients had one allele with this mutation, and 3 others were homozygous for the mutation. Furthermore, some of the Ashkenazic Jewish type 1 patients had only one allele with this mutation, suggesting that even in this population there is allelic heterozygosity. These findings indicate that there are multiple allelic mutations responsible for type 1 Gaucher disease in both the Jewish and non-Jewish populations. Allelic-specific hybridization demonstrating this mutation in exon 9, used in conjunction with the Nci I restriction fragment length polymorphism described as a marker for neuronopathic Gaucher disease, provides a tool for diagnosis and genetic counseling that is {approx}80% informative in all Gaucher patients studied.

  17. Pull-in instability of paddle-type and double-sided NEMS sensors under the accelerating force

    Keivani, M.; Khorsandi, J.; Mokhtari, J.; Kanani, A.; Abadian, N.; Abadyan, M.

    2016-02-01

    Paddle-type and double-sided nanostructures are potential for use as accelerometers in flying vehicles and aerospace applications. Herein the pull-in instability of the cantilever paddle-type and double-sided sensors in the Casimir regime are investigated under the acceleration. The D'Alembert principle is employed to transform the accelerating system into an equivalent static system by incorporating the accelerating force. Based on the couple stress theory (CST), the size-dependent constitutive equations of the sensors are derived. The governing nonlinear equations are solved by two approaches, i.e. modified variational iteration method and finite difference method. The influences of the Casimir force, geometrical parameters, acceleration and the size phenomenon on the instability performance have been demonstrated. The obtained results are beneficial to design and fabricate paddle-type and double-sided accelerometers.

  18. Complex heterogeneous tissue constructs containing multiple cell types prepared by inkjet printing technology.

    Xu, Tao; Zhao, Weixin; Zhu, Jian-Ming; Albanna, Mohammad Z; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a versatile method for fabricating complex and heterogeneous three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs using simultaneous ink-jetting of multiple cell types. Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFSCs), canine smooth muscle cells (dSMCs), and bovine aortic endothelial cells (bECs), were separately mixed with ionic cross-linker calcium chloride (CaCl(2)), loaded into separate ink cartridges and printed using a modified thermal inkjet printer. The three cell types were delivered layer-by-layer to pre-determined locations in a sodium alginate-collagen composite located in a chamber under the printer. The reaction between CaCl(2) and sodium alginate resulted in a rapid formation of a solid composite gel and the printed cells were anchored in designated areas within the gel. The printing process was repeated for several cycles leading to a complex 3D multi-cell hybrid construct. The biological functions of the 3D printed constructs were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Each of the printed cell types maintained their viability and normal proliferation rates, phenotypic expression, and physiological functions within the heterogeneous constructs. The bioprinted constructs were able to survive and mature into functional tissues with adequate vascularization in vivo. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating complex heterogeneous tissue constructs containing multiple cell types using inkjet printing technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of Diabetes Type 1 in Patients Suffered From Multiple Sclerosis

    Dayer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Because IL2RA is considered a predisposing factor in the incidence of both type I diabetes and multiple sclerosis (MS, and considering that both are autoimmune diseases, some studies suggest a correlation between type I diabetes and MS. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of type I diabetes among people with MS. Patients and Methods The study subjects comprised 100 patients with MS from the Khuzestan multiple sclerosis center at rehabilitation school of Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, whose diagnosis of MS had been confirmed by a specialist, and were not being treated with steroids. Subjects were selected from patients younger than 30 years old. After filling out an application form, 5 mL fasting venous blood and 5 mL after 2 hours were taken. The blood glucose level was measured with a kit (Zist Shimi using the enzymatic method. Results The mean age of the participants was 24.28 years. The rate of type I diabetes was equal to 4% of the total sample, while 18% of all patients had impaired fasting glucose. Conclusions Given the high level of impaired fasting glucose among patients in this study, it is likely that MS provides the basis for the incidence of glucose metabolism disorders. To prove this, further studies with larger sample sizes are required.

  20. Ultrasensitive and Selective Organic FET-type Nonenzymatic Dopamine Sensor Based on Platinum Nanoparticles-Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide.

    Oh, Jungkyun; Lee, Jun Seop; Jun, Jaemoon; Kim, Sung Gun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2017-11-15

    Dopamine (DA), a catecholamine hormone, is an important neurotransmitter that controls renal and cardiovascular organizations and regulates physiological activities. Abnormal concentrations of DA cause unfavorable neuronal illnesses such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit disorder. However, the DA concentration is exceedingly low in patients and difficult to detect with existing biosensors. In this study, we developed an organic field-effect-transistor-type (OFET) nonenzyme biosensor using platinum nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene oxide (Pt_rGO) for ultrasensitive and selective DA detection. The Pt_rGOs were fabricated by reducing GO aqueous solution-containing Pt precursors (PtCl 4 ) with a chemical reducing agent. The Pt_rGOs were immobilized on a graphene substrate by π-π interactions and a conducting-polymer source-drain electrode was patterned on the substrate to form the DA sensor. The resulting OFET sensor showed a high sensitivity to remarkably low DA concentrations (100 × 10 -18 M) and selectivity among interfering molecules. Good stability was expected for the OFET sensor because it was fabricated without an enzymatic receptor, and π-π conjugation is a part of the immobilization process. Furthermore, the OFET sensors are flexible and offer the possibility of wide application as wearable and portable sensors.

  1. Klinefelter's Syndrome with Seizure, Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type Ib and Multiple Endocrine Dysfunctions

    Chwen-Yi Yang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter's syndrome is rarely associated with hypocalcemia, especially pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP type Ib. We describe a case of Klinefelter's syndrome associated with seizure, PHP type Ib and multiple endocrine dysfunctions. A 19-year-old Taiwanese male was admitted due to seizures with loss of consciousness. He had been diagnosed with Klinefelter's syndrome with seizure disorder and hypocalcemia 3 months previously. Physical examination revealed eunuchoidism but no osteodystrophy, while laboratory data revealed severe hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and elevated parathyroid hormone. Chromosomal study showed 47, XXY. Osteoporosis was found on chest and abdominal radiography. Dense calcification in the cerebrum and cerebellum was shown on brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Elevation of the patient's serum calcium level was noted after vitamin D and calcium carbonate supplements were given. Klinefelter's syndrome is rarely associated with PHP type Ib; our patient's hypocalcemia improved after long-term aggressive treatment.

  2. Decoding subtle forearm flexions using fractal features of surface electromyogram from single and multiple sensors.

    Arjunan, Sridhar Poosapadi; Kumar, Dinesh Kant

    2010-10-21

    Identifying finger and wrist flexion based actions using a single channel surface electromyogram (sEMG) can lead to a number of applications such as sEMG based controllers for near elbow amputees, human computer interface (HCI) devices for elderly and for defence personnel. These are currently infeasible because classification of sEMG is unreliable when the level of muscle contraction is low and there are multiple active muscles. The presence of noise and cross-talk from closely located and simultaneously active muscles is exaggerated when muscles are weakly active such as during sustained wrist and finger flexion. This paper reports the use of fractal properties of sEMG to reliably identify individual wrist and finger flexion, overcoming the earlier shortcomings. SEMG signal was recorded when the participant maintained pre-specified wrist and finger flexion movements for a period of time. Various established sEMG signal parameters such as root mean square (RMS), Mean absolute value (MAV), Variance (VAR) and Waveform length (WL) and the proposed fractal features: fractal dimension (FD) and maximum fractal length (MFL) were computed. Multi-variant analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to determine the p value, indicative of the significance of the relationships between each of these parameters with the wrist and finger flexions. Classification accuracy was also computed using the trained artificial neural network (ANN) classifier to decode the desired subtle movements. The results indicate that the p value for the proposed feature set consisting of FD and MFL of single channel sEMG was 0.0001 while that of various combinations of the five established features ranged between 0.009 - 0.0172. From the accuracy of classification by the ANN, the average accuracy in identifying the wrist and finger flexions using the proposed feature set of single channel sEMG was 90%, while the average accuracy when using a combination of other features ranged between 58% and 73

  3. Decoding subtle forearm flexions using fractal features of surface electromyogram from single and multiple sensors

    Kumar Dinesh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying finger and wrist flexion based actions using a single channel surface electromyogram (sEMG can lead to a number of applications such as sEMG based controllers for near elbow amputees, human computer interface (HCI devices for elderly and for defence personnel. These are currently infeasible because classification of sEMG is unreliable when the level of muscle contraction is low and there are multiple active muscles. The presence of noise and cross-talk from closely located and simultaneously active muscles is exaggerated when muscles are weakly active such as during sustained wrist and finger flexion. This paper reports the use of fractal properties of sEMG to reliably identify individual wrist and finger flexion, overcoming the earlier shortcomings. Methods SEMG signal was recorded when the participant maintained pre-specified wrist and finger flexion movements for a period of time. Various established sEMG signal parameters such as root mean square (RMS, Mean absolute value (MAV, Variance (VAR and Waveform length (WL and the proposed fractal features: fractal dimension (FD and maximum fractal length (MFL were computed. Multi-variant analysis of variance (MANOVA was conducted to determine the p value, indicative of the significance of the relationships between each of these parameters with the wrist and finger flexions. Classification accuracy was also computed using the trained artificial neural network (ANN classifier to decode the desired subtle movements. Results The results indicate that the p value for the proposed feature set consisting of FD and MFL of single channel sEMG was 0.0001 while that of various combinations of the five established features ranged between 0.009 - 0.0172. From the accuracy of classification by the ANN, the average accuracy in identifying the wrist and finger flexions using the proposed feature set of single channel sEMG was 90%, while the average accuracy when using a combination

  4. Development of a Cloud Computing-Based Pier Type Port Structure Stability Evaluation Platform Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors.

    Jo, Byung Wan; Jo, Jun Ho; Khan, Rana Muhammad Asad; Kim, Jung Hoon; Lee, Yun Sung

    2018-05-23

    Structure Health Monitoring is a topic of great interest in port structures due to the ageing of structures and the limitations of evaluating structures. This paper presents a cloud computing-based stability evaluation platform for a pier type port structure using Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors in a system consisting of a FBG strain sensor, FBG displacement gauge, FBG angle meter, gateway, and cloud computing-based web server. The sensors were installed on core components of the structure and measurements were taken to evaluate the structures. The measurement values were transmitted to the web server via the gateway to analyze and visualize them. All data were analyzed and visualized in the web server to evaluate the structure based on the safety evaluation index (SEI). The stability evaluation platform for pier type port structures involves the efficient monitoring of the structures which can be carried out easily anytime and anywhere by converging new technologies such as cloud computing and FBG sensors. In addition, the platform has been successfully implemented at “Maryang Harbor” situated in Maryang-Meyon of Korea to test its durability.

  5. Improved double-multiple streamtube model for the Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine

    Berg, D. E.

    Double streamtube codes model the curved blade (Darrieus-type) vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) as a double actuator fish arrangement (one half) and use conservation of momentum principles to determine the forces acting on the turbine blades and the turbine performance. Sandia National Laboratories developed a double multiple streamtube model for the VAWT which incorporates the effects of the incident wind boundary layer, nonuniform velocity between the upwind and downwind sections of the rotor, dynamic stall effects and local blade Reynolds number variations. The theory underlying this VAWT model is described, as well as the code capabilities. Code results are compared with experimental data from two VAWT's and with the results from another double multiple streamtube and a vortex filament code. The effects of neglecting dynamic stall and horizontal wind velocity distribution are also illustrated.

  6. Multiple intracranial aneurysms and moyamoya disease associated with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II: surgical considerations.

    Waldron, James S; Hetts, Steven W; Armstrong-Wells, Jennifer; Dowd, Christopher F; Fullerton, Heather J; Gupta, Nalin; Lawton, Michael T

    2009-11-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is a rare genetic syndrome characterized by extremely small stature and microcephaly, and is associated in 25% of patients with intracranial aneurysms and moyamoya disease. Although aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and stroke are leading causes of morbidity and death in these patients, MOPD II is rarely examined in the neurosurgical literature. The authors report their experience with 3 patients who presented with MOPD II, which includes a patient with 8 aneurysms (the most aneurysms reported in the literature), and the first report of a patient with both moyamoya disease and multiple aneurysms. The poor natural history of these lesions indicates aggressive microsurgical and/or endovascular therapy. Microsurgery, whether for aneurysm clip placement or extracranial-intracranial bypass, is challenging due to tight surgical corridors and diminutive arteries in these patients, but is technically feasible and strongly indicated when multiple aneurysms must be treated or cerebral revascularization is needed.

  7. Superficial Type of Multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas: Detailed Comparative Study of Its Dermoscopic and Histopathological Findings

    Hirofuji, A.; Takiguchi, K.; Nakamura, K.; Kuramochi, A.; Tsuchida, T.; Arai, E.; Shimizu, M.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated in detail the dermoscopic and histopathological findings in a case of a superficial type of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). These multiple lesions (occurring in the chest, neck, and back) showed three different findings, respectively. Dermoscopy of the erythematous and brown-colored patch on the anterior chest showed spoke wheel areas, and the histopathological cross-section revealed vertical spoke wheel structures. In the black- and brown-colored patch at the neck, the dermatoscopy showed a maple leaf-like structure, which was in accordance with the strengthening of the histological lateral connection of the lesion. The brown-colored patch of the lateral back histologically showed irregularly enlarged spoke wheel-like areas with peripheral increased melanin pigments, which correlated with the dark black color of dermoscopic maple leaf-like areas. The vertical spoke wheel areas by dermatoscopy revealed a horizontal spoke wheel structure by histopathology

  8. Superficial Type of Multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas: Detailed Comparative Study of Its Dermoscopic and Histopathological Findings

    Akiko Hirofuji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated in detail the dermoscopic and histopathological findings in a case of a superficial type of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs. These multiple lesions (occurring in the chest, neck, and back showed three different findings, respectively. Dermoscopy of the erythematous and brown-colored patch on the anterior chest showed spoke wheel areas, and the histopathological cross-section revealed vertical spoke wheel structures. In the black- and brown-colored patch at the neck, the dermatoscopy showed a maple leaf-like structure, which was in accordance with the strengthening of the histological lateral connection of the lesion. The brown-colored patch of the lateral back histologically showed irregularly enlarged spoke wheel-like areas with peripheral increased melanin pigments, which correlated with the dark black color of dermoscopic maple leaf-like areas. The vertical spoke wheel areas by dermatoscopy revealed a horizontal spoke wheel structure by histopathology.

  9. Terahertz optical-Hall effect for multiple valley band materials: n-type silicon

    Kuehne, P.; Hofmann, T.; Herzinger, C.M.; Schubert, M.

    2011-01-01

    The optical-Hall effect comprises generalized ellipsometry at long wavelengths on samples with free-charge carriers placed within external magnetic fields. Measurement of the anisotropic magneto-optic response allows for the determination of the free-charge carrier properties including spatial anisotropy. In this work we employ the optical-Hall effect at terahertz frequencies for analysis of free-charge carrier properties in multiple valley band materials, for which the optical free-charge carrier contributions originate from multiple Brillouin-zone conduction or valence band minima or maxima, respectively. We investigate exemplarily the room temperature optical-Hall effect in low phosphorous-doped n-type silicon where free electrons are located in six equivalent conduction-band minima near the X-point. We simultaneously determine their free-charge carrier concentration, mobility, and longitudinal and transverse effective mass parameters.

  10. Structural health monitoring and damage assessment using measured FRFs from multiple sensors. Part II. Decision making with RBF networks

    Zang, C.; Friswell, M.I. [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Univ. of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Imregun, M. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    This paper is the second of two papers concerned with structural health monitoring and damage assessment using measured FRFs from multiple sensors, and discusses the decision making technique with radial basis function (RBF) neural networks. In PART 1 of the paper, the correlation criteria showed their capability to indicate various changes to the structure's state. PART 2, presented here, develops the methodology of decision theory to identify precisely all of the structure states. Although, the statistical approach can be used for classification, interpreting the information is difficult. Neural network techniques have been proven to possess many advantages for classification due to their learning ability and good generalization. In this paper, the radial basis function neural network is applied for function approximation and recognition. The key idea is to partition the input space (the indicators of the correlation criteria) into a number of subspaces that are in the form of hyper spheres. Then, the widely used k-mean clustering algorithm was selected as a logical approach to detecting the structure states. A bookshelf structure with measured frequency responses from 24 accelerometers was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The results show the successful classification of all structure states, for instance, the undamaged and damage states, damage locations and damage levels, and the environmental variability. (orig.)

  11. The Optimization Based Dynamic and Cyclic Working Strategies for Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Base Stations and Wireless Energy Transfer Devices

    Ding, Xu; Han, Jianghong; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal working schemes for wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices are proposed. The wireless energy transfer devices also work as data gatherers while charging sensor nodes. The wireless sensor network is firstly divided into sub networks according to the concept of Voronoi diagram. Then, the entire energy replenishing procedure is split into the pre-normal and normal energy replenishing stages. With the objective of maximizing the sojourn time ratio of the wireless energy transfer device, a continuous time optimization problem for the normal energy replenishing cycle is formed according to constraints with which sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices should comply. Later on, the continuous time optimization problem is reshaped into a discrete multi-phased optimization problem, which yields the identical optimality. After linearizing it, we obtain a linear programming problem that can be solved efficiently. The working strategies of both sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices in the pre-normal replenishing stage are also discussed in this paper. The intensive simulations exhibit the dynamic and cyclic working schemes for the entire energy replenishing procedure. Additionally, a way of eliminating “bottleneck” sensor nodes is also developed in this paper. PMID:25785305

  12. The optimization based dynamic and cyclic working strategies for rechargeable wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices.

    Ding, Xu; Han, Jianghong; Shi, Lei

    2015-03-16

    In this paper, the optimal working schemes for wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices are proposed. The wireless energy transfer devices also work as data gatherers while charging sensor nodes. The wireless sensor network is firstly divided into sub networks according to the concept of Voronoi diagram. Then, the entire energy replenishing procedure is split into the pre-normal and normal energy replenishing stages. With the objective of maximizing the sojourn time ratio of the wireless energy transfer device, a continuous time optimization problem for the normal energy replenishing cycle is formed according to constraints with which sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices should comply. Later on, the continuous time optimization problem is reshaped into a discrete multi-phased optimization problem, which yields the identical optimality. After linearizing it, we obtain a linear programming problem that can be solved efficiently. The working strategies of both sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices in the pre-normal replenishing stage are also discussed in this paper. The intensive simulations exhibit the dynamic and cyclic working schemes for the entire energy replenishing procedure. Additionally, a way of eliminating "bottleneck" sensor nodes is also developed in this paper.

  13. INNOVATIVE ACOUSTIC SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR LEAK DETECTION IN CHALLENGING PIPE TYPES

    2016-12-30

    the LeakFinderRT system is composed of leak sensors, a wireless signal transmission system, and a personal computer equipped with cross-correlation...Correlux: As shown in Figure 5.5, the Correlux system is composed of two leak sensors, a wireless signal transmission system, and a correlating device...investment ratio TB Test Bed UEM Utility and Energy Management vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was supported by the U.S. Department of

  14. Multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors in type I neurofibromatosis: a pathologic and molecular study.

    Yantiss, Rhonda K; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Sarran, Lisa; Besmer, Peter; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2005-04-01

    Multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors typically occur in familial form associated with KIT receptor tyrosine kinase or platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRA) germline mutations, but may also develop in the setting of type 1 neurofibromatosis. The molecular abnormalities of gastrointestinal stromal tumors arising in neurofibromatosis have not been extensively studied. We identified three patients with type 1 neuro-fibromatosis and multiple small intestinal stromal tumors. Immunostains for CD117, CD34, desmin, actins, S-100 protein, and keratins were performed on all of the tumors. DNA was extracted from representative paraffin blocks from separate tumor nodules in each case and subjected to a nested polymerase chain reaction, using primers for KIT exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 and PDGFRA exons 12 and 18, followed by direct sequencing. The mean patient age was 56 years (range: 37-86 years, male/female ratio: 2/1). One patient had three tumors, one had five, and one had greater than 10 tumor nodules, all of which demonstrated histologic features characteristic of gastrointestinal stromal tumors and stained strongly for CD117 and CD34. One patient died of disease at 35 months, one was disease free at 12 months and one was lost to follow-up. DNA extracts from 10 gastrointestinal stromal tumors (three from each of two patients and four from one patient) were subjected to polymerase chain reactions and assessed for mutations. All of the tumors were wild type for KIT exons 9, 13, and 17 and PDGFRA exons 12 and 18. Three tumors from one patient had identical point mutations in KIT exon 11, whereas the other tumors were wild type at this locus. We conclude that, although most patients with type 1 neurofibromatosis and gastrointestinal stromal tumors do not have KIT or PDGFRA mutations, KIT germline mutations might be implicated in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in some patients.

  15. Endogenous and recombinant type I interferons and disease activity in multiple sclerosis

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Krakauer, Martin; Limborg, Signe

    2012-01-01

    the percentage of CD4+ T cells expressing CD71 and HLA-DR (activated T cells), and this was associated with an increased risk of clinical disease activity. In contrast, induction of CD71 and HLA-DR was not observed in untreated MS patients with evidence of endogenous type IFN I activity. In conclusion......Although treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) with the type I interferon (IFN) IFN-ß lowers disease activity, the role of endogenous type I IFN in MS remains controversial. We studied CD4+ T cells and CD4+ T cell subsets, monocytes and dendritic cells by flow cytometry and analysed the relationship...... with endogenous type I IFN-like activity, the effect of IFN-ß therapy, and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disease activity in MS patients. Endogenous type I IFN activity was associated with decreased expression of the integrin subunit CD49d (VLA-4) on CD4+CD26(high) T cells (Th1 helper cells...

  16. Sticker-type ECG/PPG concurrent monitoring system hybrid integration of CMOS SoC and organic sensor device.

    Yongsu Lee; Hyeonwoo Lee; Seunghyup Yoo; Hoi-Jun Yoo

    2016-08-01

    The sticker-type sensor system is proposed targeting ECG/PPG concurrent monitoring for cardiovascular diseases. The stickers are composed of two types: Hub and Sensor-node (SN) sticker. Low-power CMOS SoC for measuring ECG and PPG signal is hybrid integrated with organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic photo detector (OPD). The sticker has only 2g weight and only consumes 141μW. The optical calibration loop is adopted for maintaining SNR of PPG signal higher than 30dB. The pulse arrival time (PAT) and SpO2 value can be extracted from various body parts and verified comparing with the reference device from 20 people in-vivo experiments.

  17. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Diagnosed in a Child Based on Multiple Juvenile Xanthogranulomas and Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    Jans, Sune R R; Schomerus, Eckhard; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    An association between juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) has been described in the literature but has only been documented in approximately 20 cases. We diagnosed a patient with NF1 at 25 months of age, before any cutaneous...... with chemotherapy and allogenic bone marrow transplantation. With increased awareness, patients with JXG and NF1 who develop symptoms possibly related to JMML, such as paleness, skin bleeding, cough, unexplained fever, and hepatosplenomegaly, should be further evaluated. We also emphasize that multiple JXG lesions...

  18. Prognostic Classification Factors Associated With Development of Multiple Autoantibodies, Dysglycemia, and Type 1 Diabetes?A Recursive Partitioning Analysis

    Xu, Ping; Krischer, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To define prognostic classification factors associated with the progression from single to multiple autoantibodies, multiple autoantibodies to dysglycemia, and dysglycemia to type 1 diabetes onset in relatives of individuals with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Three distinct cohorts of subjects from the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study were investigated separately. A recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was used to determine the risk classes. Clini...

  19. Laser-Bioplasma Interaction: The Blood Type Transmutation Induced by Multiple Ultrashort Wavelength Laser Beams

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of ultrashort wavelength multi laser beams with the flowing blood thin films leads to the transmutation of the blood types A, B, and AB into O type. This is a novel mechanism of importance for the transfusion medicine. Laser radiation is in resonance with the eigen-frequency modes of the antigen proteins and forces the proteins to parametrically oscillate until they get kicked out from the surface. The stripping away of antigens is done by the scanning-multiple-lasers of a high repetition rate in the blue-purple frequency domain. The guiding-lasers are in the red-green frequency domain. The laser force, (parametric interaction with the antigen eigen-oscillation), upon the antigen protein molecule must exceed its weight. The scanning laser beam is partially reflected as long as the antigen(s) is not eliminated. The process of the protein detachment can last a few minutes. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs., Stefan University.

  20. Patterns of cervical coinfection with multiple human papilloma virus types in a screening population in Denmark

    Goldman, Bryan; Rebolj, Matejka; Rygaard, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection suggest that HPV genotypes are not independent of each other. This may be explained by risk factors common to all HPV infections, but type-specific biological factors may also play a role. This raises the question of whether widespread use...... of the quadrivalent vaccine (covering HPV6, 11, 16, 18) may indirectly affect the prevalence of any non-vaccine types. Routine screening samples from 5014 Danish women were tested for 35 HPV genotypes (including 13 high-risk) using the Genomica CLART(®) HPV2 kit, which is a low-density microarray based on PCR...... amplification. Simulation studies were performed both under independence between genotypes and under a common dependence structure as would arise from common risk factors, and simulation results were compared to observed coinfection patterns. Overall HPV prevalence was 37.4%, with multiple infections in 17...

  1. Design and Experimentation with Sandwich Microstructure for Catalytic Combustion-Type Gas Sensors

    Jun-Tao Gu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional handmade catalytic combustion gas sensor has some problems such as a pairing difficulty, poor consistency, high power consumption, and not being interchangeable. To address these issues, integrated double catalytic combustion of alcohol gas sensor was designed and manufactured using silicon micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology. The temperature field of the sensor is analyzed using the ANSYS finite element analysis method. In this work, the silicon oxide-PECVD-oxidation technique is used to manufacture a SiO2-Si3N2-SiO2 microstructure carrier with a sandwich structure, while wet etching silicon is used to form a beam structure to reduce the heat consumption. Thin-film technology is adopted to manufacture the platinum-film sensitive resistance. Nano Al2O3-ZrO-ThO is coated to format the sensor carrier, and the sensitive unit is dipped in a Pt-Pd catalyst solution to form the catalytic sensitive bridge arm. Meanwhile the uncoated catalyst carrier is considered as the reference unit, realizing an integrated chip based on a micro double bridge and forming sensors. The lines of the Pt thin-film resistance have been observed with an electronic microscope. The compensation of the sensitive material carriers and compensation materials have been analyzed using an energy spectrum. The results show that the alcohol sensor can detect a volume fraction between 0 and 4,500 × 10−6 and has good linear output characteristic. The temperature ranges from −20 to +40 °C. The humidity ranges from 30% to 85% RH. The zero output of the sensor is less than ±2.0% FS. The power consumption is ≤0.2 W, and both the response and recovery time are approximately 20 s.

  2. Variability at Multiple Scales: Using an Array of Current and Pressure Sensor Equipped Inverted Echo Sounders to Measure the Ocean

    2016-11-29

    of Current- and Pressure - Sensor Equipped Inverted Echo Sounders to Measure the Ocean 5b. GRANT NUMBER NOOO 14-15-1-2857 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...inverted echo sounders (lESs) equipped with pressure and current sensors (CPIESs). CPIESs are moored instruments that measure the round-trip acoustic...at a range of spatial and temporal scales. The goals of this project were to enhance the pool of pressure - sensor equipped lESs available at the

  3. Ferguson Smith type multiple keratoacanthomas and a keratoacanthoma centrifugum marginatum in a woman from Japan.

    Kato, N; Ito, K; Kimura, K; Shibata, M

    2003-10-01

    We report a case of multiple keratoacanthomas on the sun-exposed skin of a 37-year-old woman from Japan. She had experienced 4 similar episodes of evolution and involution of multiple keratoacanthomas during a period of 10 years since she was 27 years old. She was given the diagnosis of Ferguson Smith type keratoacanthoma. This is the seventh Japanese case of Ferguson Smith type keratoacanthoma described in detail in the literature. In addition, the patient was found to have an annular, coral reef-like eruption on the front of her neck, which was diagnosed as a keratoacanthoma centrifugum marginatum. A combination of different variants of keratoacanthoma in 1 patient is uncommon, and only 2 patients with the same combination of lesions, as that seen in our patient, have been reported. Our patient was treated by a relatively low dose (0.5 mg/kg body weight) of etretinate. Both variants of keratoacanthoma showed good response to the treatment. Effectiveness of etretinate for treating keratoacanthoma centrifugum marginatum has only been reported in a few cases. Our patient had no relapse during a period of 15 months after cessation of etretinate treatment.

  4. Design of PH-based accelerated life testing plans under multiple-stress-type

    Elsayed, E.A.; Zhang Hao

    2007-01-01

    Accelerated life testing (ALT) is used to obtain failure time data quickly under high stress levels in order to predict product life performance under design stress conditions. Most of the previous work on designing ALT plans is focused on the application of a single stress. However, as components or products become more reliable due to technological advances, it becomes more difficult to obtain significant amount of failure data within reasonable amount of time using single stress only. Multiple-stress-type ALTs have been employed as a means of overcoming such difficulties. In this paper, we design optimum multiple-stress-type ALT plans based on the proportional hazards model. The optimum combinations of stresses and their levels are determined such that the variance of the reliability estimate of the product over a specified period of time is minimized. The use of the model is illustrated using numerical example, and sensitivity analysis shows that the resultant optimum ALT plan is robust to the deviation in model parameters

  5. Application of V2O5/WO3/TiO2 for Resistive-Type SO2 Sensors

    Ralf Moos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the application of V2O5/WO3/TiO2 (VWT as the sensitive material for resistive-type SO2 sensor was conducted, based on the fact that VWT is a well-known catalyst material for good selective catalytic nitrogen oxide reduction with a proven excellent durability in exhaust gases. The sensors fabricated in this study are planar ones with interdigitated electrodes of Au or Pt. The vanadium content of the utilized VWT is 1.5 or 3.0 wt%. The resistance of VWT decreases with an increasing SO2 concentration in the range from 20 ppm to 5,000 ppm. The best sensor response to SO2 occurs at 400 °C using Au electrodes. The sensor response value is independent on the amount of added vanadium but dependent on the electrode materials at 400 °C. These results are discussed and a sensing mechanism is discussed.

  6. The Effect of Three Different Data Fusion Approaches on the Quality of Soil Moisture Retrievals from Multiple Passive Microwave Sensors

    Robin van der Schalie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term climate records of soil moisture are of increased importance to climate researchers. In this study, we aim to evaluate the quality of three different fusion approaches that combine soil moisture retrieval from multiple satellite sensors. The arrival of L-band missions has led to an increased focus on the integration of L-band-based soil moisture retrievals in climate records, emphasizing the need to improve our understanding based on its added value within a multi-sensor framework. The three evaluated approaches were developed on 10-year passive microwave data (2003–2013 from two different satellite sensors, i.e., SMOS (2010–2013 and AMSR-E (2003–2011, and are based on a neural network (NN, regressions (REG, and the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM. The ability of the different approaches to best match AMSR-E and SMOS in their overlapping period was tested using an inter-comparison exercise between the SMOS and AMSR-E datasets, while the skill of the individual soil moisture products, based on anomalies, was evaluated using two verification techniques; first, a data assimilation technique that links precipitation information to the quality of soil moisture (expressed as the Rvalue, and secondly the triple collocation analysis (TCA. ASCAT soil moisture was included in the skill evaluation, representing the active microwave-based counterpart of soil moisture retrievals. Besides a semi-global analysis, explicit focus was placed on two regions that have strong land–atmosphere coupling, the Sahel (SA and the central Great Plains (CGP of North America. The NN approach gives the highest correlation coefficient between SMOS and AMSR-E, closely followed by LPRM and REG, while the absolute error is approximately the same for all three approaches. The Rvalue and TCA show the strength of using different satellite sources and the impact of different merging approaches on the skill to correctly capture soil moisture anomalies. The

  7. Distribution patterns of infection with multiple types of human papillomaviruses and their association with risk factors.

    Sara Soto-De Leon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with multiple types of human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical lesions. In this study, cervical samples collected from 1,810 women with diverse sociocultural backgrounds, who attended to their cervical screening program in different geographical regions of Colombia, were examined for the presence of cervical lesions and HPV by Papanicolau testing and DNA PCR detection, respectively. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The negative binomial distribution model used in this study showed differences between the observed and expected values within some risk factor categories analyzed. Particularly in the case of single infection and coinfection with more than 4 HPV types, observed frequencies were smaller than expected, while the number of women infected with 2 to 4 viral types were higher than expected. Data analysis according to a negative binomial regression showed an increase in the risk of acquiring more HPV types in women who were of indigenous ethnicity (+37.8%, while this risk decreased in women who had given birth more than 4 times (-31.1%, or were of mestizo (-24.6% or black (-40.9% ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: According to a theoretical probability distribution, the observed number of women having either a single infection or more than 4 viral types was smaller than expected, while for those infected with 2-4 HPV types it was larger than expected. Taking into account that this study showed a higher HPV coinfection rate in the indigenous ethnicity, the role of underlying factors should be assessed in detail in future studies.

  8. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • To develop a novel instrumental intelligent test methodology for food sensory analysis. • A novel data fusion was used in instrumental intelligent test methodology. • Linear and nonlinear tools were comparatively used for modeling. • The instrumental test methodology can be imitative of human test behavior. - Abstract: Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers

  9. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng, E-mail: qschen@ujs.edu.cn

    2014-09-02

    Highlights: • To develop a novel instrumental intelligent test methodology for food sensory analysis. • A novel data fusion was used in instrumental intelligent test methodology. • Linear and nonlinear tools were comparatively used for modeling. • The instrumental test methodology can be imitative of human test behavior. - Abstract: Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers.

  10. A study of transition from n- to p-type based on hexagonal WO3 nanorods sensor

    Wu, Ya-Qiao; Hu, Ming; Wei, Xiao-Ying

    2014-04-01

    Hexagonal WO3 nanorods are fabricated by a facile hydrothermal process at 180 °C using sodium tungstate and sodium chloride as starting materials. The morphology, structure, and composition of the prepared nanorods are studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. It is found that the agglomeration of the nanorods is strongly dependent on the PH value of the reaction solution. Uniform and isolated WO3 nanorods with diameters ranging from 100 nm-150 nm and lengths up to several micrometers are obtained at PH = 2.5 and the nanorods are identified as being hexagonal in phase structure. The sensing characteristics of the WO3 nanorod sensor are obtained by measuring the dynamic response to NO2 with concentrations in the range 0.5 ppm-5 ppm and at working temperatures in the range 25 °C-250 °C. The obtained WO3 nanorods sensors are found to exhibit opposite sensing behaviors, depending on the working temperature. When being exposed to oxidizing NO2 gas, the WO3 nanorod sensor behaves as an n-type semiconductor as expected when the working temperature is higher than 50 °C, whereas, it behaves as a p-type semiconductor below 50 °C. The origin of the n- to p-type transition is correlated with the formation of an inversion layer at the surface of the WO3 nanorod at room temperature. This finding is useful for making new room temperature NO2 sensors based on hexagonal WO3 nanorods.

  11. A study of transition from n- to p-type based on hexagonal WO3 nanorods sensor

    Wu Ya-Qiao; Hu Ming; Wei Xiao-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Hexagonal WO 3 nanorods are fabricated by a facile hydrothermal process at 180 °C using sodium tungstate and sodium chloride as starting materials. The morphology, structure, and composition of the prepared nanorods are studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. It is found that the agglomeration of the nanorods is strongly dependent on the PH value of the reaction solution. Uniform and isolated WO 3 nanorods with diameters ranging from 100 nm–150 nm and lengths up to several micrometers are obtained at PH = 2.5 and the nanorods are identified as being hexagonal in phase structure. The sensing characteristics of the WO 3 nanorod sensor are obtained by measuring the dynamic response to NO 2 with concentrations in the range 0.5 ppm–5 ppm and at working temperatures in the range 25 °C–250 °C. The obtained WO 3 nanorods sensors are found to exhibit opposite sensing behaviors, depending on the working temperature. When being exposed to oxidizing NO 2 gas, the WO 3 nanorod sensor behaves as an n-type semiconductor as expected when the working temperature is higher than 50 °C, whereas, it behaves as a p-type semiconductor below 50 °C. The origin of the n- to p-type transition is correlated with the formation of an inversion layer at the surface of the WO 3 nanorod at room temperature. This finding is useful for making new room temperature NO 2 sensors based on hexagonal WO 3 nanorods. (general)

  12. High accuracy prediction of beta-turns and their types using propensities and multiple alignments.

    Fuchs, Patrick F J; Alix, Alain J P

    2005-06-01

    We have developed a method that predicts both the presence and the type of beta-turns, using a straightforward approach based on propensities and multiple alignments. The propensities were calculated classically, but the way to use them for prediction was completely new: starting from a tetrapeptide sequence on which one wants to evaluate the presence of a beta-turn, the propensity for a given residue is modified by taking into account all the residues present in the multiple alignment at this position. The evaluation of a score is then done by weighting these propensities by the use of Position-specific score matrices generated by PSI-BLAST. The introduction of secondary structure information predicted by PSIPRED or SSPRO2 as well as taking into account the flanking residues around the tetrapeptide improved the accuracy greatly. This latter evaluated on a database of 426 reference proteins (previously used on other studies) by a sevenfold crossvalidation gave very good results with a Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.42 and an overall prediction accuracy of 74.8%; this places our method among the best ones. A jackknife test was also done, which gave results within the same range. This shows that it is possible to reach neural networks accuracy with considerably less computional cost and complexity. Furthermore, propensities remain excellent descriptors of amino acid tendencies to belong to beta-turns, which can be useful for peptide or protein engineering and design. For beta-turn type prediction, we reached the best accuracy ever published in terms of MCC (except for the irregular type IV) in the range of 0.25-0.30 for types I, II, and I' and 0.13-0.15 for types VIII, II', and IV. To our knowledge, our method is the only one available on the Web that predicts types I' and II'. The accuracy evaluated on two larger databases of 547 and 823 proteins was not improved significantly. All of this was implemented into a Web server called COUDES (French acronym

  13. Thermal-dissipation sap flow sensors may not yield consistent sap-flux estimates over multiple years

    Georgianne W. Moore; Barbara J. Bond; Julia A. Jones; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2010-01-01

    Sap flow techniques, such as thermal dissipation, involve an empirically derived relationship between sap flux and the temperature differential between a heated thermocouple and a nearby reference thermocouple inserted into the sapwood. This relationship has been widely tested but mostly with newly installed sensors. Increasingly, sensors are used for extended periods...

  14. A Novel Earphone Type Sensor for Measuring Mealtime: Consideration of the Method to Distinguish between Running and Meals

    Kazuhiro Taniguchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe a technique for estimating meal times using an earphone-type wearable sensor. A small optical sensor composed of a light-emitting diode and phototransistor is inserted into the ear hole of a user and estimates the meal times of the user from the time variations in the amount of light received. This is achieved by emitting light toward the inside of the ear canal and receiving light reflected back from the ear canal. This proposed technique allowed “meals” to be differentiated from having conversations, sneezing, walking, ascending and descending stairs, operating a computer, and using a smartphone. Conventional devices worn on the head of users and that measure food intake can vibrate during running as the body is jolted more violently than during walking; this can result in the misidentification of running as eating by these devices. To solve this problem, we used two of our sensors simultaneously: one in the left ear and one in the right ear. This was based on our finding that measurements from the left and right ear canals have a strong correlation during running but no correlation during eating. This allows running and eating to be distinguished based on correlation coefficients, which can reduce misidentification. Moreover, by using an optical sensor composed of a semiconductor, a small and lightweight device can be created. This measurement technique can also measure body motion associated with running, and the data obtained from the optical sensor inserted into the ear can be used to support a healthy lifestyle regarding both eating and exercise.

  15. Influence of Individual Differences on the Calculation Method for FBG-Type Blood Pressure Sensors.

    Koyama, Shouhei; Ishizawa, Hiroaki; Fujimoto, Keisaku; Chino, Shun; Kobayashi, Yuka

    2016-12-28

    In this paper, we propose a blood pressure calculation and associated measurement method that by using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. There are several points at which the pulse can be measured on the surface of the human body, and when a FBG sensor located at any of these points, the pulse wave signal can be measured. The measured waveform is similar to the acceleration pulse wave. The pulse wave signal changes depending on several factors, including whether or not the individual is healthy and/or elderly. The measured pulse wave signal can be used to calculate the blood pressure using a calibration curve, which is constructed by a partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis using a reference blood pressure and the pulse wave signal. In this paper, we focus on the influence of individual differences from calculated blood pressure based on each calibration curve. In our study, the calculated blood pressure from both the individual and overall calibration curves were compared, and our results show that the calculated blood pressure based on the overall calibration curve had a lower measurement accuracy than that based on an individual calibration curve. We also found that the influence of the individual differences on the calculated blood pressure when using the FBG sensor method were very low. Therefore, the FBG sensor method that we developed for measuring the blood pressure was found to be suitable for use by many people.

  16. Three-dimensional simulations in optimal performance trial between two types of Hall sensors fabrication technologies

    Paun, Maria-Alexandra, E-mail: map65@cam.ac.uk

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of the present work is to make a comparison between Hall devices integrated in regular bulk and Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) CMOS technology. A three-dimensional model based on numerical estimation is provided for a particular XL Hall structure in two different technologies (the first one is XFAB XH 0.35 µm regular bulk CMOS and the second one is XFAB SOI XI10 1 µm non-fully depleted). In assessing the performance of the Hall Effect sensors included in the comparison, both three-dimensional physical simulations and measurements results will be used. In order to discriminate which category of sensors has the highest performance, their main characteristic parameters, including input resistance, Hall voltage, absolute sensitivity and their temperature drift, will be extracted and compared. Electrostatic potential and current density distribution are important aspects that are also investigated. The particular technology offering the highest sensor performance is identified. - Highlights: • A comparison between Hall devices integrated in regular bulk and SOI CMOS technologies is made. • A three-dimensional model for the XL Hall structure, in the two technologies, is provided. • The main characteristic parameters and the temperature drift are investigated. • The sensors performance is evaluated using 3D physical simulations and measurements data.

  17. Methadone ameliorates multiple-low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in mice

    Amirshahrokhi, K.; Dehpour, A.R.; Hadjati, J.; Sotoudeh, M.; Ghazi-Khansari, M.

    2008-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of pancreatic islets and destruction of β cells by the immune system. Opioids have been shown to modulate a number of immune functions, including T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines. The immunosuppressive effect of long-term administration of opioids has been demonstrated both in animal models and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of methadone, a μ-opioid receptor agonist, on type 1 diabetes. Administration of multiple low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) (MLDS) (40mg/kg intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days) to mice resulted in autoimmune diabetes. Mice were treated with methadone (10mg/kg/day subcutaneously) for 24days. Blood glucose, insulin and pancreatic cytokine levels were measured. Chronic methadone treatment significantly reduced hyperglycemia and incidence of diabetes, and restored pancreatic insulin secretion in the MLDS model. The protective effect of methadone can be overcome by pretreatment with naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist. Also, methadone treatment decreased the proinflammatory Th1 cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ] and increased anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Histopathological observations indicated that STZ-mediated destruction of β cells was attenuated by methadone treatment. It seems that methadone as an opioid agonist may have a protective effect against destruction of β cells and insulitis in the MLDS model of type 1 diabetes

  18. Dynamic load mitigation using dissipative elastic metamaterials with multiple Maxwell-type oscillators

    Alamri, Sagr; Li, Bing; Tan, K. T.

    2018-03-01

    Dissipative elastic metamaterials have attracted increased attention in recent times. This paper presents the development of a dissipative elastic metamaterial with multiple Maxwell-type resonators for stress wave attenuation. The mechanism of the dissipation effect on the vibration characteristics is systematically investigated by mass-spring-damper models with single and dual resonators. Based on the parameter optimization, it is revealed that a broadband wave attenuation region (stopping band) can be obtained by properly utilizing interactions from resonant motions and viscoelastic effects of the Maxwell-type oscillators. The relevant numerical verifications are conducted for various cases, and excellent agreement between the numerical and theoretical frequency response functions is shown. The design of this dissipative metamaterial system is further applied for dynamic load mitigation and blast wave attenuation. Moreover, the transient response in the continuum model is designed and analyzed for more robust design. By virtue of the bandgap merging effect induced by the Maxwell-type damper, the transient blast wave can be almost completely suppressed in the low frequency range. A significantly improved performance of the proposed dissipative metamaterials for stress wave mitigation is verified in both time and frequency domains.

  19. A Novel High-Precision Digital Tunneling Magnetic Resistance-Type Sensor for the Nanosatellites’ Space Application

    Xiangyu Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS magnetic sensors are widely used in the nanosatellites field. We proposed a novel high-precision miniaturized three-axis digital tunneling magnetic resistance-type (TMR sensor. The design of the three-axis digital magnetic sensor includes a low-noise sensitive element and high-performance interface circuit. The TMR sensor element can achieve a background noise of 150 pT/Hz1/2 by the vertical modulation film at a modulation frequency of 5 kHz. The interface circuit is mainly composed of an analog front-end current feedback instrumentation amplifier (CFIA with chopper structure and a fully differential 4th-order Sigma-Delta (ΣΔ analog to digital converter (ADC. The low-frequency 1/f noise of the TMR magnetic sensor are reduced by the input-stage and system-stage chopper. The dynamic element matching (DEM is applied to average out the mismatch between the input and feedback transconductor so as to improve the gain accuracy and gain drift. The digital output is achieved by a switched-capacitor ΣΔ ADC. The interface circuit is implemented by a 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The performance test of the TMR magnetic sensor system shows that: at a 5 V operating voltage, the sensor can achieve a power consumption of 120 mW, a full scale of ±1 Guass, a bias error of 0.01% full scale (FS, a nonlinearity of x-axis 0.13% FS, y-axis 0.11% FS, z-axis 0.15% FS and a noise density of x-axis 250 pT/Hz1/2 (at 1 Hz, y-axis 240 pT/Hz1/2 (at 1 Hz, z-axis 250 pT/Hz1/2 (at 1 Hz, respectively. This work has a less power consumption, a smaller size, and higher resolution than other miniaturized magnetometers by comparison.

  20. Togetherness of the Multiple Diverticulosis of the First Part of the Duodenum with Neurofibromatosis Type I: A Case Report

    Ozgur Turk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Duedonal diverticulosis is common in clinical practice. Most of duedonal diverticulosis is located at the second part of duodenum; incidence is reported as 67%, incidence of third and forth part is %20. Multiple diverticulosis of the first part of the duodenum is a rare case. There is not any knowledge togetherness of neurofibromatosis type 1 and duedonal diverticulosis. Here we reported incidentally diagnosed multiple diverticulosis of duodenum that is located in the first part in a neurofibromatosis type 1 patient with multiple neurofibromatosis nodules. Neurofibromatosis could affect various organs. Along the digestive system carcinoid tumors and neuroendocrine tumors are more encountered diseases. Endoscopic examinations and abdominal imaging may be useful for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal coexisting disease in neurofibromatosis type 1 . In conclusion neurofibromatosis type 1 could affect multiple systems and it should evaluate carefully.

  1. Multiple endocrine neoplasia phenocopy revealed as a co-occurring neuroendocrine tumor and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3

    Hovden, Silje; Jespersen, Marie Louise; Nissen, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3 should be considered as differential diagnosis in patients with suspected primary hyperparathyroidism and/or suspected multiple neoplasia syndrome, as correct diagnosis will spare the patients for going through multiple futile parathyroidectomies...... and for the worry of being diagnosed with a cancer susceptibility syndrome....

  2. 47 CFR 2.924 - Marketing of electrically identical equipment having multiple trade names and models or type...

    2010-10-01

    ... Authorizations § 2.924 Marketing of electrically identical equipment having multiple trade names and models or... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marketing of electrically identical equipment having multiple trade names and models or type numbers under the same FCC Identifier. 2.924 Section 2.924...

  3. Synthesis of new copper nanoparticle-decorated anchored type ligands: Applications as non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors for hydrogen peroxide

    Ensafi, Ali A., E-mail: Ensafi@cc.iut.ac.ir; Zandi-Atashbar, N.; Ghiaci, M.; Taghizadeh, M.; Rezaei, B.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) decorated on two new anchored type ligands were utilized to prepare two electrochemical sensors. These ligands are made from bonding amine chains to silica support including SiO{sub 2}–pro–NH{sub 2} (compound I) and SiO{sub 2}–pro–NH–cyanuric–NH{sub 2} (compound II). The morphology of synthesized CuNPs was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nano-particles were in the range of 13–37 nm with the average size of 23 nm. These materials were used to modify carbon paste electrode. Different electrochemical techniques, including cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and hydrodynamic chronoamperometry, were used to study the sensor behavior. These electrochemical sensors were used as a model for non-enzymatic detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). To evaluate the abilities of the modified electrodes for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection, the electrochemical signals were compared in the absence and presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. From them, two modified electrodes showed significant responses vs. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition. The amperograms illustrated that the sensors were selective for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensing with linear ranges of 5.14–1250 μmol L{sup −1} and 1.14–1120 μmol L{sup −1} with detection limits of 0.85 and 0.27 μmol L{sup −1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, sensitivities of 3545 and 11,293 μA mmol{sup −1} L and with response times less than 5 s for I/CPE and II/CPE, respectively. As further verification of the selected sensor, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} contained in milk sample was analyzed and the obtained results were comparable with the ones from classical control titration method. - Highlights: • Copper nanoparticles decorating on two new anchored type ligands were prepared. • Ligands are bonding to silica support as SiO{sub 2}–pro–NH{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}–pro–NH–cyanuric–NH{sub 2}. • These materials were used as electrochemical sensors for H

  4. Characteristics of the Danish families with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Jäger, Anne Charlotte; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Hansen, Thomas v.O.

    2006-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is caused by autosomal dominantly inherited mutations in the MEN1 gene. Here, we report 25 MEN1 mutations - of which 12 are novel - found in 36 Danish families with MEN1 or variant MEN1 disease. Furthermore, one FIHP family was found to have an earlier...... reported mutation. The mutations were predominantly found in exons 9 and 10 encoding the C-terminal part of menin. Seven of the mutations were missense mutations, changing conserved residues. Furthermore screening of 93 out of 153 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) identified five...... mutation carriers. Two of these belonged to known MEN1 families, whereas the only MEN1-related disease in the other three was pHPT. Screening of 96 consecutive patients with fore-/midgut endocrine tumours revealed five mutation carries out of 28 patients with sporadic gastrinomas, whereas no mutations were...

  5. Failure to demonstrate human T cell lymphotropic virus type I in multiple sclerosis patients

    Fugger, L; Morling, N; Ryder, L P

    1990-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was employed in searching for human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) gag, env and pol sequences in samples of DNA prepared from two HTLV-I seropositive patients with tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), the Swedish multiple sclerosis (MS......) patients who recently have been reported to be PCR-positive for HTLV-I gag and env sequences, and eight healthy individuals. Precautions were taken in order to reduce the risk of cross-contamination in the PCR. In the two TSP patients strong signals were obtained with gag, env and pol amplification primers...... data do not confirm the presence of HTLV-I sequences in MS patients....

  6. An improved early detection method of type-2 diabetes mellitus using multiple classifier system

    Zhu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The specific causes of complex diseases such as Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) have not yet been identified. Nevertheless, many medical science researchers believe that complex diseases are caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Detection of such diseases becomes an issue because it is not free from false presumptions and is accompanied by unpredictable effects. Given the greatly increased amount of data gathered in medical databases, data mining has been used widely in recent years to detect and improve the diagnosis of complex diseases. However, past research showed that no single classifier can be considered optimal for all problems. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on employing multiple classifier systems to improve the accuracy of detection for complex diseases, such as T2DM. We proposed a dynamic weighted voting scheme called multiple factors weighted combination for classifiers\\' decision combination. This method considers not only the local and global accuracy but also the diversity among classifiers and localized generalization error of each classifier. We evaluated our method on two real T2DM data sets and other medical data sets. The favorable results indicated that our proposed method significantly outperforms individual classifiers and other fusion methods.

  7. Free energy landscape and multiple folding pathways of an H-type RNA pseudoknot.

    Yunqiang Bian

    Full Text Available How RNA sequences fold to specific tertiary structures is one of the key problems for understanding their dynamics and functions. Here, we study the folding process of an H-type RNA pseudoknot by performing a large-scale all-atom MD simulation and bias-exchange metadynamics. The folding free energy landscapes are obtained and several folding intermediates are identified. It is suggested that the folding occurs via multiple mechanisms, including a step-wise mechanism starting either from the first helix or the second, and a cooperative mechanism with both helices forming simultaneously. Despite of the multiple mechanism nature, the ensemble folding kinetics estimated from a Markov state model is single-exponential. It is also found that the correlation between folding and binding of metal ions is significant, and the bound ions mediate long-range interactions in the intermediate structures. Non-native interactions are found to be dominant in the unfolded state and also present in some intermediates, possibly hinder the folding process of the RNA.

  8. Aptamer-based hydrogel barcodes for the capture and detection of multiple types of pathogenic bacteria.

    Xu, Yueshuang; Wang, Huan; Luan, Chengxin; Liu, Yuxiao; Chen, Baoan; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2018-02-15

    Rapid and sensitive diagnosing hematological infections based on the separation and detection of pathogenic bacteria in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. To address this, we herein present a new barcodes technology that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of pathogenic bacteria from a complex sample. The barcodes are poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel inverse opal particles with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during bacteria capture on their surfaces. As the spherical surface of the particles has ordered porous nanostructure, the barcodes can provide not only more surface area for probe immobilization and reaction, but also a nanopatterned platform for highly efficient bioreactions. In addition, the PEG hydrogel scaffold could decrease the non-specificity adsorption by its anti-adhesive effect, and the decorated aptamer probes in the scaffolds could increase the sensitivity, reliability, and specificity of the bacteria capture and detection. Moreover, the tagged magnetic nanoparticles in the PEG scaffold could impart the barcodes with controllable movement under magnetic fields, which can be used to significantly increase the reaction speed and simplify the processing of the bioassays. Based on the describe barcodes, it was demonstrated that the bacteria could be captured and identified even at low bacterial concentrations (100 CFU mL -1 ) within 2.5h, which is effectively shortened in comparison with the "gold standard" in clinic. These features make the barcodes ideal for capturing and detecting multiple bacteria from clinical samples for hematological infection diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple types of motives don't multiply the motivation of West Point cadets.

    Wrzesniewski, Amy; Schwartz, Barry; Cong, Xiangyu; Kane, Michael; Omar, Audrey; Kolditz, Thomas

    2014-07-29

    Although people often assume that multiple motives for doing something will be more powerful and effective than a single motive, research suggests that different types of motives for the same action sometimes compete. More specifically, research suggests that instrumental motives, which are extrinsic to the activities at hand, can weaken internal motives, which are intrinsic to the activities at hand. We tested whether holding both instrumental and internal motives yields negative outcomes in a field context in which various motives occur naturally and long-term educational and career outcomes are at stake. We assessed the impact of the motives of over 10,000 West Point cadets over the period of a decade on whether they would become commissioned officers, extend their officer service beyond the minimum required period, and be selected for early career promotions. For each outcome, motivation internal to military service itself predicted positive outcomes; a relationship that was negatively affected when instrumental motives were also in evidence. These results suggest that holding multiple motives damages persistence and performance in educational and occupational contexts over long periods of time.

  10. Lupus erythematosus, thyroiditis, alopecia areata and vitiligo – A multiple autoimmune syndrome type 3 case presentation

    Alin Laurentiu Tatu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The combination of at least three autoimmune diseases in the same patient has defined as multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS. Abnormalities of T cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity have been described previously in the literature. Aims of work were to investigate the 22 years old patient with lupus erythematosus for three years and autoimune thyroiditis for one year, regardind other possible autoimmune conditions and to establish a treatment to control the diseases. The clinical exam revealed some circular hairless patches on the beard appeared about three months ago and white depigmented disseminated areas started one month ago and the laboratory investigations were performed. The modified laboratory findings were total IgE 530 UI/mL, Anti-SSA (anti-RO antibodies> 200 IU/mL, SSB negative, Antinuclear antibodies (ANA positive and fine speckled, Lupus anticoagulant testing positive, Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies 951 UI/ml, TSH 4,7 µUI/mL. The diagnosis of multiple autoimmune syndrome(MAS type 3 including Lupus erythematosus, autoimune Thyroiditis, Alopecia Areata and Vitiligo was established. Endocrine autoimmunities are associated with autoantibodies that react to specific antigens, whereas patients with collagen diseases synthesize immunoglobulins that recognize nonorgan-specific cellular targets, such as nucleoproteins and nucleic acids. Cellular autoimmunity is important in the pathogenesis MAS. The existence of one autoimmune disorder helps lead to the discovery of other autoimmune conditions.

  11. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: case report.

    Lima, Aline Dt; Alves, Vanessa R; Rocha, Andressa R; Martinhago, Ana C; Martinhago, Ciro; Donadio, Nilka; Dzik, Artur; Cavagna, Mario; Gebrim, Luiz H

    2018-03-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis was carried out for embryonic analysis in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). This is a rare autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome and the patients with MEN1 are characterized by the occurrence of tumors in multiple endocrine tissues, associated with germline and somatic inactivating mutations in the MEN1 gene. This case report documents a successful preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) involving a couple at-risk for MEN1 syndrome, with a birth of a healthy infant. The couple underwent a cycle of controlled ovarian stimulation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Embryos were biopsied at the blastocyst stage and cryopreserved; we used PCR-based DNA analysis for PGD testing. Only one of the five embryos analyzed for MEN1 syndrome was unaffected. This embryo was thawed and transferred following endometrial preparation. After positive βHCG test; clinical pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound, and a healthy infant was born. PGD for single gene disorders has been an emerging therapeutic tool for couples who are at risk of passing a genetic disease on to their offspring.

  12. Study of a fuel injection quantity sensor in diesel engine. Part 3. Experimental evaluation of the improved type micro turbine sensor; Diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funsharyo sensor no kenkyu. 3. Funsharyo keisoku no seido kojo ni kansuru jikken hyoka

    Maehara, H; Iwasaki, T; Kobayashi, T [Zexel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A Micro Turbine Sensor has been developed to measure fuel injection quantity and injection rate. Previous reports described results of experiments on the MTS which were carried out under steady and unsteady flow conditions. The MTS has been improved in shape of a holder tip and a detecting procedure for rotating speed of a turbine. As a result revolution speed of the turbine increased 18% over the conventional type holder under steady flow condition. Furthermore the measurement resolution of the MTS came up to about 2(mm{sup 3}/pulse) at 20(mm{sup 3}/stroke) under intermittent spray conditions using fuel injection pump. 11 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. A full scope nuclear power plant simulator for multiple reactor types with virtual control panels

    Yonezawa, Hisanori; Ueda, Hiroki; Kato, Takahisa

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes a full scope nuclear power plant simulator for multiple reactor types with virtual control panels which Toshiba developed and delivered. After the Fukushima DAIICHI nuclear power plants accident, it is required that all the people who are engaged in the design, manufacturing, operation, maintenance, management and regulation for the nuclear power plant should learn the wide and deep knowledge about the nuclear power plant design including the severe accident. For this purpose, the training with a full scope simulator is one of the most suitable ways. However the existing full scope simulators which are consist of the control panels replica of the referenced plants are costly and they are hard to remodel to fit to the real plant of the latest condition. That's why Toshiba developed and delivered the new concept simulator system which covers multiple referenced plants even though they have different design like BWR and PWR. The control panels of the simulator are made by combining 69 large Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) panels with touch screen instead of a control panel replica of referenced plant. The screen size of the each panel is 42 inches and 3 displays are arranged in tandem for one unit and 23 units are connected together. Each panel displays switches, indicators, recorders and lamps with the Computer Graphics (CG) and trainees operate them with touch operations. The simulator includes a BWR and a PWR simulator model, which enable trainees to learn the wide and deep knowledge about the nuclear power plant of BWR and PWR reactor types. (author)

  14. CpG Type A Induction of an Early Protective Environment in Experimental Multiple Sclerosis

    James Crooks

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS that mimics human multiple sclerosis (MS, and it is thought to be driven by Th1 and Th17 myelin-reactive cells. Although adaptive immunity is clearly pivotal in the pathogenesis of EAE, with an essential role of CD4+ T cells, little is known of early, innate responses in this experimental setting. CpG-rich oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs, typically found in microbial genomes, are potent activators of TLR9 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs. In this study, we compared the effects of two types of CpG, namely, type A and type B, on EAE. We found that treatment with CpG type A ODN (CpG-A, known to induce high amounts of IFN-α in pDCs, significantly reduced disease severity in EAE, relative to controls (12.63±1.86 versus 23.49±1.46, resp.; p=0.001. Treatment also delayed onset of neurological deficits and reduced spinal cord demyelination, while increasing the percentage of splenic regulatory (Foxp3+ CD4+ T cells. CpG-A likewise reduced the levels of IL-17 and IFN-γ in the CNS. Mechanistic insight into those events showed that CpG-A promoted a regulatory phenotype in pDCs. Moreover, adoptive transfer of pDCs isolated from CpG-A-treated mice inhibited CNS inflammation and induced disease remission in acute-phase EAE. Our data thus identify a link between TLR9 activation by specific ligands and the induction of tolerance via innate immunity mechanisms.

  15. Wave interactions with multiple semi-immersed Jarlan-type perforated breakwaters

    Elbisy, Moussa S.

    2017-06-01

    This study examines wave interactions with multiple semi-immersed Jarlan-type perforated breakwaters. A numerical model based on linear wave theory and an eigenfunction expansion method has been developed to study the hydrodynamic characteristics of breakwaters. The numerical results show a good agreement with previous analytical results and experimental data for limiting cases of double partially immersed impermeable walls and double and triple Jarlan-type breakwaters. The wave transmission coefficient C T; reflection coefficient C R, and energy dissipation coefficient C E coefficients and the horizontal wave force exerted on the front and rear walls are examined. The results show that C R reaches the maximum value when B/L = 0.46 n while it is smallest when B/L=0.46 n+0.24 ( n=0, 1, 2,...). An economical triple semi-immersed Jarlan-type perforated breakwater can be designed with B/L = 0.25 and C R and C T ranging from 0.25 to 0.32 by choosing a relative draft d/h of 0.35 and a permeability parameter of the perforated front walls being 0.5 for an incident wave number kh nearly equal to 2.0. The triple semi-immersed Jarlan-type perforated breakwaters with significantly reduced C R, will enhance the structure's wave absorption ability, and lead to smaller wave forces compared with the double one. The proposed model may be used to predict the response of a structure in the preliminary design stage for practical engineering.

  16. Simulations, fabrication and characterization of diamond coated Love wave-type SAW sensors

    Talbi, A.; Soltani, A.; Rumeau, A.; Taylor, Andrew; Drbohlavová, L.; Klimša, Ladislav; Kopeček, Jaromír; Fekete, Ladislav; Krečmarová, Marie; Mortet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 212, č. 11 (2015), 2606-2610 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA ČR GA13-31783S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : acoustic sensors * chemical vapor deposition * diamond * nanocrystalline materials * quartz * surface acoustic waves Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2015

  17. Analysis of Brassica oleracea early stage abiotic stress responses reveals tolerance in multiple crop types and for multiple sources of stress.

    Beacham, Andrew M; Hand, Paul; Pink, David Ac; Monaghan, James M

    2017-12-01

    Brassica oleracea includes a number of important crop types such as cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and kale. Current climate conditions and weather patterns are causing significant losses in these crops, meaning that new cultivars with improved tolerance of one or more abiotic stress types must be sought. In this study, genetically fixed B. oleracea lines belonging to a Diversity Fixed Foundation Set (DFFS) were assayed for their response to seedling stage-imposed drought, flood, salinity, heat and cold stress. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) variation in stress tolerance response was found for each stress, for each of four measured variables (relative fresh weight, relative dry weight, relative leaf number and relative plant height). Lines tolerant to multiple stresses were found to belong to several different crop types. There was no overall correlation between the responses to the different stresses. Abiotic stress tolerance was identified in multiple B. oleracea crop types, with some lines exhibiting resistance to multiple stresses. For each stress, no one crop type appeared significantly more or less tolerant than others. The results are promising for the development of more environmentally robust lines of different B. oleracea crops by identifying tolerant material and highlighting the relationship between responses to different stresses. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Optimized GF(2k) ONB type I multiplier architecture based on the Massey-Omura multiplication pattern

    Fournaris, A P; Koufopavlou, O

    2005-01-01

    Multiplication in GF(2 k ) finite fields is becoming rapidly a very promising solution for fast, small, efficient binary algorithms designed for hardware applications. GF(2 k ) finite fields defined over optimal normal bases (ONB) can be very advantageous in term of gates number and multiplication time delay. Many ONB multipliers works have been proposed that use the Massey-Omura multiplication pattern. In this paper, a method for designing type I optimal normal basis multipliers and an optimal normal basis (ONB) type I multiplier hardware architecture is proposed that, through parallelism and pairing categorization of the ONB multiplication table matrix, achieves very interesting results in terms of gate number and multiplication time delay

  19. Flexible Mixed-Potential-Type (MPT NO2 Sensor Based on An Ultra-Thin Ceramic Film

    Rui You

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel flexible mixed-potential-type (MPT sensor was designed and fabricated for NO2 detection from 0 to 500 ppm at 200 °C. An ultra-thin Y2O3-doped ZrO2 (YSZ ceramic film 20 µm thick was sandwiched between a heating electrode and reference/sensing electrodes. The heating electrode was fabricated by a conventional lift-off process, while the porous reference and the sensing electrodes were fabricated by a two-step patterning method using shadow masks. The sensor’s sensitivity is achieved as 58.4 mV/decade at the working temperature of 200 °C, as well as a detection limit of 26.7 ppm and small response time of less than 10 s at 200 ppm. Additionally, the flexible MPT sensor demonstrates superior mechanical stability after bending over 50 times due to the mechanical stability of the YSZ ceramic film. This simply structured, but highly reliable flexible MPT NO2 sensor may lead to wide application in the automobile industry for vehicle emission systems to reduce NO2 emissions and improve fuel efficiency.

  20. Analysis of multiple types of human cells subsequent to bioprinting with electrospraying technology.

    Xin, Yu; Chai, Gang; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Xiangsheng; Qu, Miao; Tan, Andy; Bogari, Melia; Zhu, Ming; Lin, Li; Hu, Qingxi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yan

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate bioprinting with electrospraying technology using multiple types of human cell suspensions as bio-ink, in order to lay the initial foundations for the application of the bioprinting technology in tissue engineering. In the current study, six types of human cells were selected and cultured, including human fibroblasts, human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs), human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs), adult human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19), human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1). Each cell type was divided into two groups, the experimental and control group. All the experimental group cells were electrosprayed using an electrospraying printer (voltage, 15 kV; flow rate, 150 µl/min) and collected in a petri dish placed 15 cm away from the needle (needle diameter, 0.5 mm). Subsequently, cell viability was detected by flow cytometry with a Live/Dead Viability kit. In addition, the cell morphological characteristics were observed with a phase-contrast microscope after 6 h of culturing in order to obtain adherent cells, while cell proliferation was analyzed using a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. The control groups, without printing, were subjected to the same procedures as the experimental groups. The results of the cell viability and proliferation assays indicated a statistically significant difference after printing between the experiments and control groups only for the hADSCs (P0.05). In addition, there were no observable differences between all experimental and the control groups at any examined time point in the terms of cell morphological characteristics. In conclusion, bioprinting based on electrospraying technology demonstrated no distinct negative effect on cell vitality, proliferation and morphology in the present study, and thus the application of this novel technology to cell printing may provide a promising method in tissue engineering.

  1. Target intervention against multiple-risk markers to reduce cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Gaede, Peter; Pedersen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease is markedly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes with a prevalence twice as high compared to the background population. With the recognition of multiple concomitant risk factors for both microvascular as well as cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic pa...

  2. Variation in type and frequency of diagnostic imaging during trauma care across multiple time points by patient insurance type

    Bell, Nathaniel; Repáraz, Laura; Fry, William R.; Smith, R. Stephen; Luis, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that uninsured patients receive fewer radiographic studies during trauma care, but less is known as to whether differences in care are present among other insurance groups or across different time points during hospitalization. Our objective was to examine the number of radiographic studies administered to a cohort of trauma patients over the entire hospital stay as well as during the first 24-hours of care. Patient data were obtained from an American College of Surgeons (ACS) verified Level I Trauma Center between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012. We used negative binomial regression to construct relative risk (RR) ratios for type and frequency of radiographic imaging received among persons with Medicare, Medicaid, no insurance, or government insurance plans in reference to those with commercial indemnity plans. The analysis was adjusted for patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, injury severity score, injury mechanism, comorbidities, complications, hospital length of stay, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. A total of 3621 records from surviving patients age > =18 years were assessed. After adjustment for potential confounders, the expected number of radiographic studies decreased by 15 % among Medicare recipients (RR 0.85, 95 % CI 0.78–0.93), 11 % among Medicaid recipients (0.89, 0.81–0.99), 10 % among the uninsured (0.90, 0.85–0.96) and 19 % among government insurance groups (0.81, 0.72–0.90), compared with the reference group. This disparity was observed during the first 24-hours of care among patients with Medicare (0.78, 0.71–0.86) and government insurance plans (0.83, 0.74–0.94). Overall, there were no differences in the number of radiographic studies among the uninsured or among Medicaid patients during the first 24-hours of care compared with the reference group, but differences were observed among the uninsured in a sub-analysis of severely injured patients (ISS > 15). Both uninsured and insured patients treated at a

  3. Novel multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 variations in patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism

    S Birla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT can occur either as a sporadic case or in association with syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare autosomal-dominant disease resulting from mutations in MEN1 gene encoding a 621 amino acid long tumor suppressor protein “menin.” We report here the results of MEN1 screening in 31 patients diagnosed with sporadic PHPT. Materials and Methods: Diagnosis of sporadic PHPT was made when blood urea and serum creatinine were normal, serum parathyroid hormone was high, and parathyroid enlargement could be localized on ultrasound and/or parathyroid scan. A total of 31 patients and 50 healthy volunteers were recruited for molecular analysis after taking informed consent. Results: Major symptoms at presentation were bone pain, fatigue, muscle weakness, and renal stones. Molecular genetic analysis revealed the presence of two novel intronic variations, c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A which by human splicing finder are predicted to cause potential alteration of splicing by either activating an intronic cryptic acceptor site or converting a conserved exonic splicing silencer sequence to an exonic splicing enhancer site. Apart from these, two reported polymorphisms rs144677807 and rs669976 were seen only in patients and none of the controls. Other reported polymorphisms rs2071313 and rs654440 were identified both in controls and patients. Conclusions: This is the first study of MEN1 gene screening in sporadic PHPT in India reporting on the clinical and genetic findings, wherein two novel intronic variations c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A were identified showing their possible role in disease causation.

  4. BDNF val66met polymorphism affects aging of multiple types of memory.

    Kennedy, Kristen M; Reese, Elizabeth D; Horn, Marci M; Sizemore, April N; Unni, Asha K; Meerbrey, Michael E; Kalich, Allan G; Rodrigue, Karen M

    2015-07-01

    The BDNF val66met polymorphism (rs6265) influences activity-dependent secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the synapse, which is crucial for learning and memory. Individuals homozygous or heterozygous for the met allele have lower BDNF secretion than val homozygotes and may be at risk for reduced declarative memory performance, but it remains unclear which types of declarative memory may be affected and how aging of memory across the lifespan is impacted by the BDNF val66met polymorphism. This cross-sectional study investigated the effects of BDNF polymorphism on multiple indices of memory (item, associative, prospective, subjective complaints) in a lifespan sample of 116 healthy adults aged 20-93 years. Advancing age showed a negative effect on item, associative and prospective memory, but not on subjective memory complaints. For item and prospective memory, there were significant age×BDNF group interactions, indicating the adverse effect of age on memory performance across the lifespan was much stronger in the BDNF met carriers than for the val homozygotes. BDNF met carriers also endorsed significantly greater subjective memory complaints, regardless of age, and showed a trend (pmemory performance compared to val homozygotes. These results suggest that genetic predisposition to the availability of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, by way of the BDNF val66met polymorphism, exerts an influence on multiple indices of episodic memory - in some cases in all individuals regardless of age (subjective memory and perhaps associative memory), in others as an exacerbation of age-related differences in memory across the lifespan (item and prospective memory). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Memory & Aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Irradiation tests of ITER candidate Hall sensors using two types of neutron spectra

    Ďuran, Ivan; Bolshakova, I.; Viererbl, L.; Sentkerestiová, J.; Holyaka, R.; Lahodová, Z.; Bém, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 10 (2010), 10E122-10E122 ISSN 0034-6748. [Topical Conference on High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics/18th./. Wildwood, 16.05.2010-20.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/08/H057; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Galvanomagnetic Sensor * Fusion Reactor * Magnetic Diagnostics * Radiation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.598, year: 2010

  6. On the construction of elliptic Chudnovsky-type algorithms for multiplication in large extensions of finite fields

    Ballet, Stéphane; Bonnecaze, Alexis; Tukumuli, Mila

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We indicate a strategy in order to construct bilinear multiplication algorithms of type Chudnovsky in large extensions of any finite field. In particular, using the symmetric version of the generalization of Randriambololona specialized on the elliptic curves, we show that it is possible to construct such algorithms with low bilinear complexity. More precisely, if we only consider the Chudnovsky-type algorithms of type symmetric elliptic, we show that the symmetric bil...

  7. Design and performance of multiple effect basin type solar still; Basin-taju koyo fukugogata taiyonetsu joryuki no kaihatsu

    Tanaka, H; Nosoko, T; Nagata, T [Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A seawater desalinating still was devised, which utilizes solar heat and combines a basin type still with a multiple effect type still. The devised still has a triangular cross section, has a seawater basin at its bottom, wherein the slope facing the sun has a double glass window, and the other slope is arranged with a multiple effect still (three-step effect system). The sun light that has permeated the double glass window heats and evaporates seawater on the basin. Majority of the generated steam is condensed at the lower face of a lowermost partition of the multiple effect section, and its latent heat evaporates the seawater contained in a wick on the rear side. The steam is condensed at the lower face of the second partition, this action is repeated sequentially to upper plates, and the heat is discharged finally into the surrounding air from the uppermost face of the multiple effect section. Seawater is supplied from the upper part onto the wick in each partition, which is evaporated, condensed and recovered at the lower part. The condensate is recovered at the lower part of each plate. The construction is simpler than the conventional downward indirect heating multiple effect type still, and the distilling efficiency is improved by 30%. Technological difficulty in the upward direct heating multiple effect type still can also be improved. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Sensors, Volume 4, Thermal Sensors

    Scholz, Jorg; Ricolfi, Teresio

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume describes the construction and applicational aspects of thermal sensors while presenting a rigorous treatment of the underlying physical principles. It provides a unique overview of the various categories of sensors as well as of specific groups, e.g. temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, and radiation thermometers), noise and acoustic thermometers, heat-flow and mass-flow sensors. Specific facettes of applications are presented by specialists from different fields including process control, automotive technology and cryogenics. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialists and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  9. Characterization of polymer-type ionic conductors using nuclear magnetic resonance and thermal analysis. Humidity sensor

    Cavalcante, Maria Goretti.

    1992-04-01

    We report a study using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Thermogravimetry Analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Infrared Spectroscopy in polymeric complexes formed poly(ethylene oxide), (PEO), and lithium salts. These complexes have have shown a large potential for technological applications in batteries, sensors, etc. We developed and characterized humidity sensors and discussed how the humidity affects the conformation of the complexes, the mobility of ionic species, and the polymeric chains. The results indicate that the hydration affects the conformation of polymeric complexes by plasticizing the water, which induces a volumetric expansion in the PEO chain. The processes was completely reversible for the level of hydration studied. NMR was used to distinguish the movement of polymeric chains from the movement of the ionic species. From the analysis of the second moment of resonance lines from the study of the nuclear relaxation we were able to estimate the average distance between the ionic species and the proton in the complexes chains. The behaviour of spin -lattice relaxation of hydrogen and fluorine in the P(EO) - Li B F, as a function of temperature and frequency reflects the nature of the disorder and the complexity of the ionic conduction process in these materials. (author). 91 refs., 69 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Designing Kerr interactions using multiple superconducting qubit types in a single circuit

    Elliott, Matthew; Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran

    2018-02-01

    The engineering of Kerr interactions is of great interest for processing quantum information in multipartite quantum systems and for investigating many-body physics in a complex cavity-qubit network. We study how coupling multiple different types of superconducting qubits to the same cavity modes can be used to modify the self- and cross-Kerr effects acting on the cavities and demonstrate that this type of architecture could be of significant benefit for quantum technologies. Using both analytical perturbation theory results and numerical simulations, we first show that coupling two superconducting qubits with opposite anharmonicities to a single cavity enables the effective self-Kerr interaction to be diminished, while retaining the number splitting effect that enables control and measurement of the cavity field. We demonstrate that this reduction of the self-Kerr effect can maintain the fidelity of coherent states and generalised Schrödinger cat states for much longer than typical coherence times in realistic devices. Next, we find that the cross-Kerr interaction between two cavities can be modified by coupling them both to the same pair of qubit devices. When one of the qubits is tunable in frequency, the strength of entangling interactions between the cavities can be varied on demand, forming the basis for logic operations on the two modes. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of producing an array of cavities and qubits where intermediary and on-site qubits can tune the strength of self- and cross-Kerr interactions across the whole system. This architecture could provide a way to engineer interesting many-body Hamiltonians and be a useful platform for quantum simulation in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

  11. Study of the brain glucose metabolism in different stage of mixed-type multiple system atrophy

    Wang Ying; Zhang Benshu; Cai Li; Zhang Meiyun; Gao Shuo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the brain glucose metabolism in different stage of mixed-type multiple system atrophy (MSA). Methods: Forty-six MSA patients with cerebellar or Parkinsonian symptoms and 18 healthy controls with similar age as patients were included. According to the disease duration,the patients were divided into three groups: group 1 (≤ 12 months, n=14), group 2 (13-24 months, n=13), group 3 (≥ 25 months, n=19). All patients and controls underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT brain imaging. To compare metabolic distributions between different groups, SPM 8 software and two-sample t test were used for image data analysis. When P<0.005, the result was considered statistically significant. Results: At the level of P<0.005, the hypometabolism in group 1 (all t>3.49) was identified in the frontal lobe, lateral temporal lobe, insula lobe, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate nucleus and anterior cerebellar hemisphere. The regions of hypometabolism extended to posterolateral putamen and part of posterior cerebellar hemisphere in group 2 (all t>3.21). In group 3, the whole parts of putamen and cerebellar hemisphere were involved as hypometabolism (all t>4.08). In addition to the hypometabolism regions, there were also stabled hypermetabolism regions mainly in the parietal lobe, medial temporal lobe and the thalamus in all patient groups (all t>3.27 in group 1, all t>3.02 in group 2,all t>3.30 in group 3). Conclusions: Disease duration is closely related to the FDG metabolism in the MSA patients. Frontal lobe, lateral temporal lobe, anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus can be involved at early stage of the disease. Putaminal hypometabolism begins in its posterolateral part. Cerebellar hypometabolism occurs early at its anterior part. Besides, thalamus shows hypermetabolism in the whole duration. 18 F-FDG metabolic changes of brain can reflect the development of mixed-type MSA. (authors)

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus-like particles activate multiple types of immune cells

    Sailaja, Gangadhara; Skountzou, Ioanna; Quan, Fu-Shi; Compans, Richard W.; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2007-01-01

    The rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide makes it a high priority to develop an effective vaccine. Since live attenuated or inactivated HIV is not likely to be approved as a vaccine due to safety concerns, HIV virus like particles (VLPs) offer an attractive alternative because they are safe due to the lack of a viral genome. Although HIV VLPs have been shown to induce humoral and cellular immune responses, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which they induce such responses and to improve their immunogenicity. We generated HIV VLPs, and VLPs containing Flt3 ligand (FL), a dendritic cell growth factor, to target VLPs to dendritic cells, and investigated the roles of these VLPs in the initiation of adaptive immune responses in vitro and in vivo. We found that HIV-1 VLPs induced maturation of dendritic cells and monocyte/macrophage populations in vitro and in vivo, with enhanced expression of maturation markers and cytokines. Dendritic cells pulsed with VLPs induced activation of splenocytes resulting in increased production of cytokines. VLPs containing FL were found to increase dendritic cells and monocyte/macrophage populations in the spleen when administered to mice. Administration of VLPs induced acute activation of multiple types of cells including T and B cells as indicated by enhanced expression of the early activation marker CD69 and down-regulation of the homing receptor CD62L. VLPs containing FL were an effective form of antigen in activating immune cells via dendritic cells, and immunization with HIV VLPs containing FL resulted in enhanced T helper type 2-like immune responses

  13. Acetone gas-sensing properties of multiple-networked Pd-decorated Bi_2O_3 nanorod sensors

    Park, Sung Hoon; Kim, Soo Hyun; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Chong Mu

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the sensing properties of Bi_2O_3 nanorods decorated with Pd nanoparticles. Pd-decorated β-Bi_2O_3 nanorods were prepared by immersing the Bi_2O_3 nanorods in ethanol/(50 mM)PdCl_2 solution followed by UV irradiation and annealing. The Bi_2O_3 nanorods decorated with Pd nanoparticles showed faster and stronger response to acetone gas than the pristine Bi_2O_3 nanorods. Interestingly, the difference in response time between the Pd-decorated Bi_2O_3 nanorod sensor and pristine Bi_2O_3 nanorod sensor increased with increasing the acetone gas concentration. In contrast, the difference in recovery time between the two nanorod sensors decreased with increasing the acetone gas concentration. This difference can be explained using the chemical mechanism. The underlying mechanism for the enhanced response of the Bi_2O_3 nanorods decorated with Pd nanoparticles to acetone gas is also discussed

  14. Design of a PC Based Pressure Indicator Using Inductive Pick-up Type Transducer and Bourdon Tube Sensor

    S. C. BERA

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Bourdon tube is a mechanical type pressure sensor and the bourdon gauge measures gauge pressure of a process pipe line or a process tank. But it is a local indicator and special costlier techniques are required to transmit the reading of bourdon gauge to a remote distance. In the present paper, a very simple inductive pick-up type technique has been developed to transmit the reading of bourdon gauge to a remote distance in the form of 1-5 Volt D.C. signal. This signal has been optically isolated to design a PC based pressure indicator using Labtech Note Book Pro software. The theoretical analysis of the whole technique has been presented in the paper. The instrument developed using this technique has been experimentally tested and the experimental results are reported in the paper. A good linearity and repeatability of the instrument has been observed.

  15. Spinal tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1: an MRI study of frequency, multiplicity and variety

    Thakkar, S.D.; Mautner, V.F.; Feigen, U.

    1999-01-01

    In neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) spinal tumours cause neurological symptoms in about 2 % of patients. Among over 1400 patients with NF1 we saw symptomatic spinal tumours in 23 (1.6 %). MRI of the entire spinal canal was obtained in 54 patients aged 5-56 years with NF1. The number, site, morphology and signal characteristics of the spinal tumours were recorded and analysed. There were 24 patients with symptoms such as sensory impairment or paralysis; 30 patients had no neurological deficits. Of the 24 symptomatic patients, 23 (96 %) had spinal tumours, while we saw spinal tumours in 12 (40 %) of the 30 patients without neurological deficits. No spinal segment was preferred in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients. Most intraspinal extramedullary tumours were primarily extradural and intraforaminal. MRI showed intramedullary tumours in 3 patients (6 %), intraspinal extramedullary tumours in 18 (33 %) and intraforaminal tumours in 31 (57 %). Only neurological deficits in patients with NF1 should prompt further diagnostic clarification. In patients with neurological symptoms there may be a multiplicity of masses in the spinal canal, which can lead to difficulties in attaching symptoms to a certain tumour. In patients who do not satisfy the NIH criteria, it can be a helpful observation that spinal tumours in NF1 are primarily intraforaminal, extending into the spinal canal, while in NF2 they are mostly intraspinal intradural tumours. (orig.)

  16. Impact of Co-Channel Interference on the Outage Performance Under Multiple Type II Relay Environments

    Choi, Seyeong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Nam, Sung Sik

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, through an exact analysis of the outage probability, we investigate the impact of co-channel interference (CCI) on the outage performance of type II (or user equipment) relay under multiple-relay environments considering the selection combining-based relay selection scheme with the decode-and-forward protocol. We consider the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) over both independent and identically distributed and independent but non-identically distributed fading channels. To fully take into account the effect of CCI, we adopt a more practical parameter such as the CCI coefficient. The major difficulty in the analysis resides in the determination of the statistics of the output SINR. To settle this problem, we first present the general but relatively simplified expressions for the statistics and then the related outage probability in closed-form. Furthermore, to consider more practical scenario, based on the fact that the number of participating relays can be random, we investigate the average outage probability by averaging the number of participating relays.

  17. Multiple zebrafish atoh1 genes specify a diversity of neuronal types in the zebrafish cerebellum.

    Kidwell, Chelsea U; Su, Chen-Ying; Hibi, Masahiko; Moens, Cecilia B

    2018-06-01

    A single Atoh1 basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor specifies multiple neuron types in the mammalian cerebellum and anterior hindbrain. The zebrafish genome encodes three paralagous atoh1 genes whose functions in cerebellum and anterior hindbrain development we explore here. With use of a transgenic reporter, we report that zebrafish atoh1c-expressing cells are organized in two distinct domains that are separated both by space and developmental time. An early isthmic expression domain gives rise to an extracerebellar population in rhombomere 1 and an upper rhombic lip domain gives rise to granule cell progenitors that migrate to populate all four granule cell territories of the fish cerebellum. Using genetic mutants we find that of the three zebrafish atoh1 paralogs, atoh1c and atoh1a are required for the full complement of granule neurons. Surprisingly, the two genes are expressed in non-overlapping granule cell progenitor populations, indicating that fish use duplicate atoh1 genes to generate granule cell diversity that is not detected in mammals. Finally, live imaging of granule cell migration in wildtype and atoh1c mutant embryos reveals that while atoh1c is not required for granule cell specification per se, it is required for granule cells to delaminate and migrate away from the rhombic lip. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Type 2 diabetes-related variants influence the risk of developing multiple myeloma

    Ríos, Rafael; Lupiañez, Carmen Belén; Campa, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been suggested to be a risk factor for multiple myeloma (MM), but the relationship between the two traits is still not well understood. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether 58 genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS)-identified common variants for T2D influence...... genetic information (area under the curve (AUC)=0.645 vs AUC=0.629; P=4.05×10(-) (06)). A gender-stratified analysis also revealed a significant gender effect modification for ADAM30rs2641348 and NOTCH2rs10923931 variants (Pinteraction=0.001 and 0.0004, respectively). Men carrying the ADAM30rs2641348C...... carrying the KCNQ1rs2237892T allele or the CDKN2A-2Brs2383208G/G, IGF1rs35767T/T and MADDrs7944584T/T genotypes had a significantly increased risk of MM (odds ratio (OR)=1.32-2.13) whereas those carrying the KCNJ11rs5215C, KCNJ11rs5219T and THADArs7578597C alleles or the FTOrs8050136A/A and LTArs1041981C...

  19. Impact of Co-Channel Interference on the Outage Performance Under Multiple Type II Relay Environments

    Choi, Seyeong

    2017-11-15

    In this paper, through an exact analysis of the outage probability, we investigate the impact of co-channel interference (CCI) on the outage performance of type II (or user equipment) relay under multiple-relay environments considering the selection combining-based relay selection scheme with the decode-and-forward protocol. We consider the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) over both independent and identically distributed and independent but non-identically distributed fading channels. To fully take into account the effect of CCI, we adopt a more practical parameter such as the CCI coefficient. The major difficulty in the analysis resides in the determination of the statistics of the output SINR. To settle this problem, we first present the general but relatively simplified expressions for the statistics and then the related outage probability in closed-form. Furthermore, to consider more practical scenario, based on the fact that the number of participating relays can be random, we investigate the average outage probability by averaging the number of participating relays.

  20. MAARGHA: A Prototype System for Road Condition and Surface Type Estimation by Fusing Multi-Sensor Data

    Deepak Rajamohan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Road infrastructure in countries like India is expanding at a rapid pace and is becoming increasingly difficult for authorities to identify and fix the bad roads in time. Current Geographical Information Systems (GIS lack information about on-road features like road surface type, speed breakers and dynamic attribute data like the road quality. Hence there is a need to build road monitoring systems capable of collecting such information periodically. Limitations of satellite imagery with respect to the resolution and availability, makes road monitoring primarily an on-field activity. Monitoring is currently performed using special vehicles that are fitted with expensive laser scanners and need skilled resource besides providing only very low coverage. Hence such systems are not suitable for continuous road monitoring. Cheaper alternative systems using sensors like accelerometer and GPS (Global Positioning System exists but they are not equipped to achieve higher information levels. This paper presents a prototype system MAARGHA (MAARGHA in Sanskrit language means an eternal path to solution, which demonstrates that it can overcome the disadvantages of the existing systems by fusing multi-sensory data like camera image, accelerometer data and GPS trajectory at an information level, apart from providing additional road information like road surface type. MAARGHA has been tested across different road conditions and sensor data characteristics to assess its potential applications in real world scenarios. The developed system achieves higher information levels when compared to state of the art road condition estimation systems like Roadroid. The system performance in road surface type classification is dependent on the local environmental conditions at the time of imaging. In our study, the road surface type classification accuracy reached 100% for datasets with near ideal environmental conditions and dropped down to 60% for datasets with shadows and

  1. Nontypeable pneumococci can be divided into multiple cps types, including one type expressing the novel gene pspK.

    Park, In Ho; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Andrade, Ana Lucia; Briles, David E; McDaniel, Larry S; Nahm, Moon H

    2012-01-01

    Although virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with its capsule, some pathogenic S. pneumoniae isolates lack capsules and are serologically nontypeable (NT). We obtained 64 isolates that were identified as NT "pneumococci" (i.e., bacteria satisfying the conventional definition but without the multilocus sequence typing [MLST]-based definition of S. pneumoniae) by the traditional criteria. All 64 were optochin sensitive and had lytA, and 63 had ply. Twelve isolates had cpsA, suggesting the presence of a conventional but defective capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) locus. The 52 cpsA-negative isolates could be divided into three null capsule clades (NCC) based on aliC (aliB-like ORF1), aliD (aliB-like ORF2), and our newly discovered gene, pspK, in their cps loci. pspK encodes a protein with a long alpha-helical region containing an LPxTG motif and a YPT motif known to bind human pIgR. There were nine isolates in NCC1 (pspK(+) but negative for aliC and aliD), 32 isolates in NCC2 (aliC(+) aliD(+) but negative for pspK), and 11 in NCC3 (aliD(+) but negative for aliC and pspK). Among 52 cpsA-negative isolates, 41 were identified as S. pneumoniae by MLST analysis. All NCC1 and most NCC2 isolates were S. pneumoniae, whereas all nine NCC3 and two NCC2 isolates were not S. pneumoniae. Several NCC1 and NCC2 isolates from multiple individuals had identical MLST and cps regions, showing that unencapsulated S. pneumoniae can be infectious among humans. Furthermore, NCC1 and NCC2 S. pneumoniae isolates could colonize mice as well as encapsulated S. pneumoniae, although S. pneumoniae with an artificially disrupted cps locus did not. Moreover, an NCC1 isolate with pspK deletion did not colonize mice, suggesting that pspK is critical for colonization. Thus, PspK may provide pneumococci a means of surviving in the nasopharynx without capsule. IMPORTANCE The presence of a capsule is critical for many pathogenic bacteria, including pneumococci. Reflecting the

  2. Multiple Observation Types Jointly Constrain Australian Terrestrial Carbon and Water Cycles

    Haverd, Vanessa; Raupach, Michael; Briggs, Peter; Canadell, Pep; Davis, Steven; Isaac, Peter; Law, Rachel; Meyer, Mick; Peters, Glenn; Pickett-Heaps, Christopher; Roxburgh, Stephen; Sherman, Bradford; van Gorsel, Eva; Viscarra Rossel, Raphael; Wang, Ziyuan

    2013-04-01

    Information about the carbon cycle potentially constrains the water cycle, and vice versa. This paper explores the utility of multiple observation sets to constrain carbon and water fluxes and stores in a land surface model, and a resulting determination of the Australian terrestrial carbon budget. Observations include streamflow from 416 gauged catchments, measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) and net ecosystem production (NEP) from 12 eddy-flux sites, litterfall data, and data on carbon pools. The model is a version of CABLE (the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere-Land Exchange model), coupled with CASAcnp (a biogeochemical model) and SLI (Soil-Litter-Iso, a soil hydrology model including liquid and vapour water fluxes and the effects of litter). By projecting observation-prediction residuals onto model uncertainty, we find that eddy flux measurements provide a significantly tighter constraint on Australian continental net primary production (NPP) than the other data types. However, simultaneous constraint by multiple data types is important for mitigating bias from any single type. Results emerging from the multiply-constrained model are as follows (with all values applying over 1990-2011 and all ranges denoting ±1 standard error): (1) on the Australian continent, a predominantly semi-arid region, over half (0.64±0.05) of the water loss through ET occurs through soil evaporation and bypasses plants entirely; (2) mean Australian NPP is 2200±400 TgC/y, making the NPP/precipitation ratio about the same for Australia as the global land average; (3) annually cyclic ("grassy") vegetation and persistent ("woody") vegetation respectively account for 0.56±0.14 and 0.43±0.14 of NPP across Australia; (4) the average interannual variability of Australia's NEP (±180 TgC/y) is larger than Australia's total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in 2011 (149 TgCeq/y), and is dominated by variability in desert and savannah regions. The mean carbon budget over 1990

  3. Flexible Sheet-Type Sensor for Noninvasive Measurement of Cellular Oxygen Metabolism on a Culture Dish.

    Mari Kojima

    Full Text Available A novel flexible sensor was developed for the noninvasive oxygen metabolism measurement of cultivated cells and tissues. This device is composed of a transparent double-layered polymer sheet of ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH and poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS having an array of microhole structures of 90 μm diameter and 50 μm depth on its surface. All the microhole structures were equipped with a 1-μm-thick optical chemical sensing layer of platinum porphyrin-fluoropolymer on their bottom. The three-dimensional microstructures of the sensor were fabricated by a newly developed simple and low-cost production method named self-aligned hot embossing. The device was designed to be attached slightly above the cells cultivated on a dish to form a temporarily closed microspace over the target cells during measurement. Since the change in oxygen concentration is relatively fast in the microcompartmentalized culture medium, a rapid evaluation of the oxygen consumption rate is possible by measuring the phosphorescence lifetime of the platinum porphyrin-fluoropolymer. The combined use of the device and an automated optical measurement system enabled the high-throughput sensing of cellular oxygen consumption (100 points/min. We monitored the oxygen metabolism of the human breast cancer cell line MCF7 on a Petri dish and evaluated the oxygen consumption rate to be 0.72 ± 0.12 fmol/min/cell. Furthermore, to demonstrate the utility of the developed sensing system, we demonstrated the mapping of the oxygen consumption rate of rat brain slices and succeeded in visualizing a clear difference among the layer structures of the hippocampus, i.e., the cornu ammonis (CA1 and CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG.

  4. Analysis of a Smartphone-Based Architecture with Multiple Mobility Sensors for Fall Detection with Supervised Learning

    Santoyo-Ramón, José Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a wearable Fall Detection System (FDS) based on a body-area network consisting of four nodes provided with inertial sensors and Bluetooth wireless interfaces. The signals captured by the nodes are sent to a smartphone which simultaneously acts as another sensing point. In contrast to many FDSs proposed by the literature (which only consider a single sensor), the multisensory nature of the prototype is utilized to investigate the impact of the number and the positions of the sensors on the effectiveness of the production of the fall detection decision. In particular, the study assesses the capability of four popular machine learning algorithms to discriminate the dynamics of the Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and falls generated by a set of experimental subjects, when the combined use of the sensors located on different parts of the body is considered. Prior to this, the election of the statistics that optimize the characterization of the acceleration signals and the efficacy of the FDS is also investigated. As another important methodological novelty in this field, the statistical significance of all the results (an aspect which is usually neglected by other works) is validated by an analysis of variance (ANOVA). PMID:29642638

  5. Solution-based analysis of multiple analytes by a sensor array: toward the development of an electronic tongue

    Savoy, Steven M.; Lavigne, John J.; Yoo, J. S.; Wright, John; Rodriguez, Marc; Goodey, Adrian; McDoniel, Bridget; McDevitt, John T.; Anslyn, Eric V.; Shear, Jason B.; Ellington, Andrew D.; Neikirk, Dean P.

    1998-12-01

    A micromachined sensor array has been developed for the rapid characterization of multi-component mixtures in aqueous media. The sensor functions in a manner analogous to that of the mammalian tongue, using an array composed of individually immobilized polystyrene-polyethylene glycol composite microspheres selectively arranged in micromachined etch cavities localized o n silicon wafers. Sensing occurs via colorimetric or fluorometric changes to indicator molecules that are covalently bound to amine termination sites on the polymeric microspheres. The hybrid micromachined structure has been interfaced directly to a charged-coupled-device that is used for the simultaneous acquisition of the optical data from the individually addressable `taste bud' elements. With the miniature sensor array, acquisition of data streams composed of red, green, and blue color patterns distinctive for the analytes in the solution are rapidly acquired. The unique combination of carefully chosen reporter molecules with water permeable microspheres allows for the simultaneous detection and quantification of a variety of analytes. The fabrication of the sensor structures and the initial colorimetric and fluorescent responses for pH, Ca+2, Ce+3, and sugar are reported. Interface to microfluidic components should also be possible, producing a complete sampling/sensing system.

  6. Financial burden is associated with worse health-related quality of life in adults with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

    Peipert, Benjamin J; Goswami, Sneha; Helenowski, Irene; Yount, Susan E; Sturgeon, Cord

    2017-12-01

    Health-related quality of life and financial burden among patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is poorly described. It is not known how financial burden influences health-related quality of life in this population. We hypothesized that the financial burden attributable to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is associated with worse health-related quality of life. United States adults (≥18 years) with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 were recruited from the AMENSupport MEN online support group. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and financial burden were assessed via an online survey. The instrument Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System 29-item profile measure was used to assess health-related quality of life. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify significant variables in each Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System domain. Out of 1,378 members in AMENSupport, our survey link was accessed 449 times (33%). Of 153 US respondents who completed our survey, 84% reported financial burden attributable to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. The degree of financial burden had a linear relationship with worse health-related quality of life across all Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System domains (r = 0.36-0.55, P financial event(s). Borrowing money from friends/family (30%), unemployment (13%), and spending >$100/month out-of-pocket on prescription medications (46%) were associated consistently with impaired health-related quality of life (ß = 3.75-6.77, P times more likely to be unemployed and declare bankruptcy than the US population, respectively. This study characterizes the financial burden in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Individuals with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 report a high degree of financial burden, negative financial events, and unemployment. Each of these factors was associated with worse health-related quality of life

  7. Intrusion detection sensors

    Williams, J.D.

    1978-07-01

    Intrusion detection sensors are an integral part of most physical security systems. Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Safeguards and Security, Sandia Laboratories has conducted a survey of available intrusion detection sensors and has tested a number of different sensors. An overview of these sensors is provided. This overview includes (1) the operating principles of each type of sensor, (2) unique sensor characteristics, (3) desired sensor improvements which must be considered in planning an intrusion detection system, and (4) the site characteristics which affect the performance of both exterior and interior sensors. Techniques which have been developed to evaluate various intrusion detection sensors are also discussed

  8. Survey of the future concrete structures lifetime measuring the water content: 4 types of embedded sensor under checking

    Moreau, G.; Salin, J.; Masson, B.; Dubois, J.P.; Agostini, F.; Skoczylas, F.

    2011-01-01

    Today thermal and mechanical properties are well-measured with common sensors like respectively PT100 sensors and vibrating wire sensors or new sensors like optical fiber sensors. On the other hand there is no reference sensor for the measurement of the concrete moisture. In this paper, we present our laboratory evaluation's protocol and first result for four different technologies of concrete moisture sensor based on our owner requirement. Specimens of porous mortar (E/C ∼ 0.8) with embedded sensor are placed into a temperature and humidity controlled climatic chamber. Then, different air relative humidity steps are enforced. Before each relative humidity change, stabilization of the mass of specimens is expected. The four technologies are based on: 1) capacity between two electrodes. The sensor is embedded in a porous Teflon cap. The sensor measures the humidity of air at equilibrium with concrete. Today it is the most common moisture sensor; 2) Elongation measurement of a calibrated nano porous material with a vibrating wire sensor. The sensor measures the hygroscopic volume change related to the humidity of the surrounding concrete. This sensor called Hydravib has been developed by Cementys S.A.S.; 3) Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR). The sensor measures an Electro Magnetic Wave time propagation in the concrete and this one is a function of the concrete permittivity; 4) gas permeability measurement of the ambient concrete. The sensor measures a pressure drop through a porous stainless filter. This study evaluates the capacities of four sensor technologies to indirectly measure one key parameter of concrete structure: the moisture concrete. Capacitive sensor does not seem to fulfill our requirements. Hydravib presents sensitivity to the moisture concrete evolution but it needs more development and a nano porous material calibration. Finally TDR and Pulse sensors present very promising results

  9. Multiple trigger scintillators were installed: big ones covering the total surface of the sensor and several smaller ones. The former give a trigger for each beam particle. The latter are used to select a part of the sensor surface for efficiency measurements.

    Nooren, G.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple trigger scintillators were installed: big ones covering the total surface of the sensor and several smaller ones. The former give a trigger for each beam particle. The latter are used to select a part of the sensor surface for efficiency measurements.

  10. Areal and volumetric Bone Mineral Density and risk of multiple types of fracture in older men

    Chalhoub, Didier; Orwoll, Eric S.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Boudreau, Robert; Greenspan, Susan; Newman, Anne B.; Zmuda, Joseph; Bauer, Douglas; Cummings, Steven; Cauley, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies have examined the association between low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk in older men, none have simultaneously studied the relationship between multiple BMD sites and risk of different types of fractures. Using data from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study, we evaluated the association between areal BMD (aBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) measurements, and different types of fractures during an average of 9.7 years of follow up. Men answered questionnaires about fractures every 4 months (>97% completions). Fractures were confirmed by centralized review of radiographic reports; pathological fractures were excluded. Risk of fractures was assessed at the hip, spine, wrist, shoulder, rib/chest/sternum, ankle/foot/toe, arm, hand/finger, leg, pelvis/coccyx, skull/face and any non-spine fracture. Age and race adjusted Cox proportional-hazards modeling was used to assess the risk of fracture in 3301 older men with both aBMD (at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine) and vBMD (at the trabecular spine and FN, and cortical FN) measurements, with hazard ratios (HRs) expressed per standard deviation (SD) decrease. Lower FN and spine aBMD were associated with an increased risk of fracture at the hip, spine, wrist, shoulder, rib/chest/sternum, arm, and any non-spine fracture (statistically significant HRs per SD decrease ranged from 1.24 - 3.57). Lower trabecular spine and FN vBMD were associated with increased risk of most fractures with statistically significant HRs ranging between 1.27 and 3.69. There was a statistically significant association between FN cortical vBMD and fracture risk at the hip (HR=1.55) and spine sites (HR=1.26), but no association at other fracture sites. In summary, both lower aBMD and vBMD were associated with increased fracture risk. The stronger associations observed for trabecular vBMD than cortical vBMD may reflect the greater

  11. Results of early thyroidectomy for medullary thyroid carcinoma in children with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    Telander, R L; Zimmerman, D; van Heerden, J A; Sizemore, G W

    1986-12-01

    Children with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) often develop medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT) or its precursor, C-cell hyperplasia. Survival results are improved if malignancy is diagnosed early from the results of plasma immunoreactive calcitonin (iCT) measurement. The effect of early detection and thyroidectomy in children with MEN2 syndrome was determined by reviewing the experience between 1975 and 1985. Seventeen children with MEN2 who were 12 years old or younger underwent a total thyroidectomy for MCT or C-cell hyperplasia. iCT was measured in all patients preoperatively and postoperatively. Of the 17 children, 14 (82%) had MEN2a and 3 (18%) had MEN2b. There were 14 (82%) female and three (18%) male patients; their mean age was 6.97 years (range 1.5 to 12 years). In all patients, the diagnosis of MCT was made from initial elevated levels of iCT after stimulation with pentagastrin. Three patients had clinical evidence of disease preoperatively. All patients underwent a total thyroidectomy and lymph nodes were removed from the central zone; a neck dissection was performed in the three with clinically obvious disease. MCT with C-cell hyperplasia was found in 11 children and C-cell hyperplasia alone in six. Of the 11 with carcinoma, eight had bilateral disease and three unilateral. Six children had bilateral C-cell hyperplasia. All 17 children were alive and feeling well at the time of this report; however, three had evidence of metastatic disease according to iCT measurements. None of the children had recurrent nerve injuries; one had evidence of hypoparathyroidism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. A multiple treatment comparison meta-analysis of monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors for Parkinson's disease.

    Binde, C D; Tvete, I F; Gåsemyr, J; Natvig, B; Klemp, M

    2018-05-30

    To the best of our knowledge, there are no systematic reviews or meta-analyses that compare rasagiline, selegiline and safinamide. Therefore, we aimed to perform a drug class review comparing all available monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) inhibitors in a multiple treatment comparison. We performed a systematic literature search to identify randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of MAO-B inhibitors in patients with Parkinson's disease. MAO-B inhibitors were evaluated either as monotherapy or in combination with levodopa or dopamine agonists. Endpoints of interest were change in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score and serious adverse events. We estimated the relative effect of each MAO-B inhibitor versus the comparator drug by creating three networks of direct and indirect comparisons. For each of the networks, we considered a joint model. The systematic literature search and study selection process identified 27 publications eligible for our three network analyses. We found the relative effects of rasagiline, safinamide and selegiline treatment given alone and compared to placebo in a model without explanatory variables to be 1.560 (1.409, 1.734), 1.449 (0.873, 2.413) and 1.532 (1.337, 1.757) respectively. We also found all MAO-B inhibitors to be efficient when given together with levodopa. When ranking the MAO-B inhibitors given in combination with levodopa, selegiline was the most effective and rasagiline was the second best. All of the included MAO-B inhibitors were effective compared to placebo when given as monotherapy. Combination therapy with MAO-B inhibitors and levodopa showed that all three MAO-B inhibitors were effective compared to placebo, but selegiline was the most effective drug. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Radiological surveillance in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: a double-edged sword?

    Ruth Therese Casey

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Context: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a hereditary condition characterised by the predisposition to hyperplasia/tumours of endocrine glands. MEN1-related disease, moreover, malignancy related to MEN1, is increasingly responsible for death in up to two-thirds of patients. Although patients undergo radiological and biochemical surveillance, current recommendations for radiological monitoring are based on non-prospective data with little consensus or evidence demonstrating improved outcome from this approach. Here, we sought to determine whether cumulative radiation exposure as part of the recommended radiological screening programme posed a distinct risk in a cohort of patients with MEN1.Patients and study design: A retrospective review of 43 patients with MEN1 attending our institution between 2007 and 2015 was performed. Demographic and clinical information including phenotype was obtained for all patients. We also obtained details regarding all radiological procedures performed as part of MEN1 surveillance or disease localisation. An estimated effective radiation dose (ED for each individual patient was calculated.Results: The mean ED for the total patient cohort was 121 mSv, and the estimated mean lifetime risk of cancer secondary to radiation exposure was 0.49%. Patients with malignant neuroendocrine tumours (NETS had significantly higher ED levels compared to patients without metastatic disease (P < 0.0022.Conclusions: In MEN1, radiological surveillance is associated with clinically significant exposure to ionising radiation. In patients with MEN1, multi-modality imaging strategies designed to minimise this exposure should be considered.

  14. Indian hedgehog mutations causing brachydactyly type A1 impair Hedgehog signal transduction at multiple levels

    Ma, Gang; Yu, Jiang; Xiao, Yue; Chan, Danny; Gao, Bo; Hu, Jianxin; He, Yongxing; Guo, Shengzhen; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Lingling; Gao, Linghan; Zhang, Wenjuan; Kang, Yan; Cheah, Kathryn SE; Feng, Guoyin; Guo, Xizhi; Wang, Yujiong; Zhou, Cong-zhao; He, Lin

    2011-01-01

    Brachydactyly type A1 (BDA1), the first recorded Mendelian autosomal dominant disorder in humans, is characterized by a shortening or absence of the middle phalanges. Heterozygous missense mutations in the Indian Hedgehog (IHH) gene have been identified as a cause of BDA1; however, the biochemical consequences of these mutations are unclear. In this paper, we analyzed three BDA1 mutations (E95K, D100E, and E131K) in the N-terminal fragment of Indian Hedgehog (IhhN). Structural analysis showed that the E95K mutation changes a negatively charged area to a positively charged area in a calcium-binding groove, and that the D100E mutation changes the local tertiary structure. Furthermore, we showed that the E95K and D100E mutations led to a temperature-sensitive and calcium-dependent instability of IhhN, which might contribute to an enhanced intracellular degradation of the mutant proteins via the lysosome. Notably, all three mutations affected Hh binding to the receptor Patched1 (PTC1), reducing its capacity to induce cellular differentiation. We propose that these are common features of the mutations that cause BDA1, affecting the Hh tertiary structure, intracellular fate, binding to the receptor/partners, and binding to extracellular components. The combination of these features alters signaling capacity and range, but the impact is likely to be variable and mutation-dependent. The potential variation in the signaling range is characterized by an enhanced interaction with heparan sulfate for IHH with the E95K mutation, but not the E131K mutation. Taken together, our results suggest that these IHH mutations affect Hh signaling at multiple levels, causing abnormal bone development and abnormal digit formation. PMID:21537345

  15. Brucella Modulates Secretory Trafficking via Multiple Type IV Secretion Effector Proteins

    Myeni, Sebenzile; Child, Robert; Ng, Tony W.; Kupko, John J.; Wehrly, Tara D.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Celli, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular pathogenic bacterium Brucella generates a replicative vacuole (rBCV) derived from the endoplasmic reticulum via subversion of the host cell secretory pathway. rBCV biogenesis requires the expression of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB, which is thought to translocate effector proteins that modulate membrane trafficking along the endocytic and secretory pathways. To date, only a few T4SS substrates have been identified, whose molecular functions remain unknown. Here, we used an in silico screen to identify putative T4SS effector candidate proteins using criteria such as limited homology in other bacterial genera, the presence of features similar to known VirB T4SS effectors, GC content and presence of eukaryotic-like motifs. Using β-lactamase and CyaA adenylate cyclase reporter assays, we identified eleven proteins translocated into host cells by Brucella, five in a VirB T4SS-dependent manner, namely BAB1_0678 (BspA), BAB1_0712 (BspB), BAB1_0847 (BspC), BAB1_1671 (BspE) and BAB1_1948 (BspF). A subset of the translocated proteins targeted secretory pathway compartments when ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, and the VirB effectors BspA, BspB and BspF inhibited protein secretion. Brucella infection also impaired host protein secretion in a process requiring BspA, BspB and BspF. Single or combined deletions of bspA, bspB and bspF affected Brucella ability to replicate in macrophages and persist in the liver of infected mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Brucella modulates secretory trafficking via multiple T4SS effector proteins that likely act coordinately to promote Brucella pathogenesis. PMID:23950720

  16. Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure

    Yang, Jihui [Lakeshore, CA; Shi, Xun [Troy, MI; Bai, Shengqiang [Shanghai, CN; Zhang, Wenqing [Shanghai, CN; Chen, Lidong [Shanghai, CN; Yang, Jiong [Shanghai, CN

    2012-01-17

    A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

  17. Multiple Restrictions of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Feline Cells▿

    Münk, Carsten; Zielonka, Jörg; Constabel, Hannelore; Kloke, Björn-Philipp; Rengstl, Benjamin; Battenberg, Marion; Bonci, Francesca; Pistello, Mauro; Löchelt, Martin; Cichutek, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    The productive replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) occurs exclusively in defined cells of human or chimpanzee origin, explaining why heterologous animal models for HIV replication, pathogenesis, vaccination, and therapy are not available. This lack of an animal model for HIV-1 studies prompted us to examine the susceptibility of feline cells in order to evaluate the cat (Felis catus) as an animal model for studying HIV-1. Here, we report that feline cell lines harbor multiple restrictions with respect to HIV-1 replication. The feline CD4 receptor does not permit virus infection. Feline T-cell lines MYA-1 and FeT-1C showed postentry restrictions resulting in low HIV-1 luciferase reporter activity and low expression of viral Gag-Pol proteins when pseudotyped vectors were used. Feline fibroblastic CrFK and KE-R cells, expressing human CD4 and CCR5, were very permissive for viral entry and HIV-long terminal repeat-driven expression but failed to support spreading infection. KE-R cells displayed a profound block with respect to release of HIV-1 particles. In contrast, CrFK cells allowed very efficient particle production; however, the CrFK cell-derived HIV-1 particles had low specific infectivity. We subsequently identified feline apolipoprotein B-editing catalytic polypeptide 3 (feAPOBEC3) proteins as active inhibitors of HIV-1 particle infectivity. CrFK cells express at least three different APOBEC3s: APOBEC3C, APOBEC3H, and APOBEC3CH. While the feAPOBEC3C did not significantly inhibit HIV-1, the feAPOBEC3H and feAPOBEC3CH induced G to A hypermutations of the viral cDNA and reduced the infectivity ∼10- to ∼40-fold. PMID:17459941

  18. Clinical and Genetic Analysis of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1-Related Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Chinese.

    Jing Kong

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-related primary hyperparathyroidism (MHPT differs in many aspects from sporadic PHPT (SHPT. The aims of this study were to summarize the clinical features and genetic background of Chinese MHPT patients and compare the severity of the disease with those of SHPT.A total of 40 MHPT (27 sporadic, 7 families and 169 SHPT cases of Chinese descent were retrospectively analyzed. X-rays and ultrasound were used to assess the bone and urinary system. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA were performed to measure bone mineral density (BMD. Besides direct sequencing of the MEN1 and CDKN1B genes, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA was used to screen gross deletion for the MEN1 gene.Compared with SHPT patients, MHPT patients showed lower prevalence of typical X-ray changes related to PHPT (26.3% vs. 55.7%, P = 0.001 but higher prevalence of urolithiasis/renal calcification (40.2% vs. 60.0%, P = 0.024. MHPT patients showed higher phosphate level (0.84 vs. 0.73mmol/L, P<0.05 but lower ALP (103.0 vs. 174.0U/L, P<0.001 and PTH (4.0 vs. 9.8×upper limit, P<0.001 levels than SHPT patients. There were no significant differences in BMD Z-scores at the lumbar spine and femoral neck between the two groups. Mutations in the MEN1 gene were detected in 27 MHPT cases. Among the nine novel mutations were novel, one of them involved the deletion of exon 5 and 6.MHPT patients experienced more common kidney complications but less skeletal issues, and a milder biochemical manifestation compared with SHPT patients. MEN1 mutation detection rate was 79.4% and 9 of the identified mutations were novel.

  19. [New type distributed optical fiber temperature sensor (DTS) based on Raman scattering and its' application].

    Wang, Jian-Feng; Liu, Hong-Lin; Zhang, Shu-Qin; Yu, Xiang-Dong; Sun, Zhong-Zhou; Jin, Shang-Zhong; Zhang, Zai-Xuan

    2013-04-01

    Basic principles, development trends and applications status of distributed optical fiber Raman temperature sensor (DTS) are introduced. Performance parameters of DTS system include the sensing optical fiber length, temperature measurement uncertainty, spatial resolution and measurement time. These parameters have a certain correlation and it is difficult to improve them at the same time by single technology. So a variety of key techniques such as Raman amplification, pulse coding technique, Raman related dual-wavelength self-correction technique and embedding optical switching technique are researched to improve the performance of the DTS system. A 1 467 nm continuous laser is used as pump laser and the light source of DTS system (1 550 nm pulse laser) is amplified. When the length of sensing optical fiber is 50 km the Raman gain is about 17 dB. Raman gain can partially compensate the transmission loss of optical fiber, so that the sensing length can reach 50 km. In DTS system using pulse coding technique, pulse laser is coded by 211 bits loop encoder and correlation calculation is used to demodulate temperature. The encoded laser signal is related, whereas the noise is not relevant. So that signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of DTS system can be improved significantly. The experiments are carried out in DTS system with single mode optical fiber and multimode optical fiber respectively. Temperature measurement uncertainty can all reach 1 degrees C. In DTS system using Raman related dual-wavelength self-correction technique, the wavelength difference of the two light sources must be one Raman frequency shift in optical fiber. For example, wavelength of the main laser is 1 550 nm and wavelength of the second laser must be 1 450 nm. Spatial resolution of DTS system is improved to 2 m by using dual-wavelength self-correction technique. Optical switch is embedded in DTS system, so that the temperature measurement channel multiply extended and the total length of the sensing

  20. Matrix-type multiple reciprocity boundary element method for solving three-dimensional two-group neutron diffusion equations

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Sahashi, Naoki.

    1997-01-01

    The multiple reciprocity boundary element method has been applied to three-dimensional two-group neutron diffusion problems. A matrix-type boundary integral equation has been derived to solve the first and the second group neutron diffusion equations simultaneously. The matrix-type fundamental solutions used here satisfy the equation which has a point source term and is adjoint to the neutron diffusion equations. A multiple reciprocity method has been employed to transform the matrix-type domain integral related to the fission source into an equivalent boundary one. The higher order fundamental solutions required for this formulation are composed of a series of two types of analytic functions. The eigenvalue itself is also calculated using only boundary integrals. Three-dimensional test calculations indicate that the present method provides stable and accurate solutions for criticality problems. (author)

  1. [Continuous insulin therapy versus multiple insulin injections in the management of type 1 diabetes: a longitutinal study].

    Ribeiro, Maria Estela Bellini; Del Roio Liberatore Junior, Raphael; Custodio, Rodrigo; Martinelli Junior, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    To compare multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy as treatment for type 1 diabetes melito. 40 patients with type 1 diabetes melito (21 female) with ages between 10 and 20 years (mean=14.2) and mean duration of diabetes of 7 years used multiple doses of insulin for at least 6 months and after that, continuous insulin infusion therapy for at least 6 months. Each one of the patients has used multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy. For analysis of HbA1c, mean glycated hemoglobin levels (mHbA1c) were obtained during each treatment period (multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy period). Although mHbA1c levels were lower during continuous insulin infusion therapy the difference was not statistically significant. During multiple doses of insulin, 14.2% had mHbA1c values below 7.5% vs. 35.71% while on continuous insulin infusion therapy; demonstrating better glycemic control with the use of continuous insulin infusion therapy. During multiple doses of insulin, 15-40 patients have severe hypoglycemic events versus 5-40 continuous insulin infusion therapy. No episodes of ketoacidosis events were recorded. This is the first study with this design comparing multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy in Brazil showing no significant difference in HbA1c; hypoglycemic events were less frequent during continuous insulin infusion therapy than during multiple doses of insulin and the percentage of patients who achieved a HbA1c less than 7.5% was greater during continuous insulin infusion therapy than multiple doses of insulin therapy. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Relative Estimation of Water Content for Flat-Type Inductive-Based Oil Palm Fruit Maturity Sensor

    Norhisam Misron

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to study the sensor that identifies the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches by using a flat-type inductive concept based on a resonant frequency technique. Conventionally, a human grader is used to inspect the ripeness of the oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB which can be inconsistent and inaccurate. There are various new methods that are proposed with the intention to grade the ripeness of the oil palm FFB, but none has taken the inductive concept. In this study, the resonance frequency of the air coil is investigated. Samples of oil palm FFB are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 10 MHz and the results obtained show a linear relationship between the graph of the resonance frequency (MHz against time (Weeks. It is observed that the resonance frequencies obtained for Week 10 (pre-mature and Week 18 (mature are around 8.5 MHz and 9.8 MHz, respectively. These results are compared with the percentage of the moisture content. Hence, the inductive method of the oil palm fruit maturity sensor can be used to detect the change in water content for ripeness detection of the oil palm FFB.

  3. Oxygen partial pressure effects on the RF sputtered p-type NiO hydrogen gas sensors

    Turgut, Erdal; Çoban, Ömer; Sarıtaş, Sevda; Tüzemen, Sebahattin; Yıldırım, Muhammet; Gür, Emre

    2018-03-01

    NiO thin films were grown by Radio Frequency (RF) Magnetron Sputtering method under different oxygen partial pressures, which are 0.6 mTorr, 1.3 mTorr and 2.0 mTorr. The effects of oxygen partial pressures on the thin films were analyzed through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Hall measurements. The change in the surface morphology of the thin films has been observed with the SEM and AFM measurements. While nano-pyramids have been obtained on the thin film grown at the lowest oxygen partial pressure, the spherical granules lower than 60 nm in size has been observed for the samples grown at higher oxygen partial pressures. The shift in the dominant XRD peak is realized to the lower two theta angle with increasing the oxygen partial pressures. XPS measurements showed that the Ni2p peak involves satellite peaks and two oxidation states of Ni, Ni2+ and Ni3+, have been existed together with the corresponding splitting in O1s spectrum. P-type conductivity of the grown NiO thin films are confirmed by the Hall measurements with concentrations on the order of 1013 holes/cm-3. Gas sensor measurements revealed minimum of 10% response to the 10 ppm H2 level. Enhanced responsivity of the gas sensor devices of NiO thin films is shown as the oxygen partial pressure increases.

  4. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis Indicates Association of P-Glycoprotein Substrate or Inhibitor Character with Bitterness Intensity, Measured with a Sensor.

    Yano, Kentaro; Mita, Suzune; Morimoto, Kaori; Haraguchi, Tamami; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Miyako; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Uchida, Takahiro; Ogihara, Takuo

    2015-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) regulates absorption of many drugs in the gastrointestinal tract and their accumulation in tumor tissues, but the basis of substrate recognition by P-gp remains unclear. Bitter-tasting phenylthiocarbamide, which stimulates taste receptor 2 member 38 (T2R38), increases P-gp activity and is a substrate of P-gp. This led us to hypothesize that bitterness intensity might be a predictor of P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status. Here, we measured the bitterness intensity of a panel of P-gp substrates and nonsubstrates with various taste sensors, and used multiple linear regression analysis to examine the relationship between P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status and various physical properties, including intensity of bitter taste measured with the taste sensor. We calculated the first principal component analysis score (PC1) as the representative value of bitterness, as all taste sensor's outputs shared significant correlation. The P-gp substrates showed remarkably greater mean bitterness intensity than non-P-gp substrates. We found that Km value of P-gp substrates were correlated with molecular weight, log P, and PC1 value, and the coefficient of determination (R(2) ) of the linear regression equation was 0.63. This relationship might be useful as an aid to predict P-gp substrate status at an early stage of drug discovery. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. Coordination Protocols for a Reliable Sensor, Actuator, and Device Network (SADN

    Keiji Ozaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensor, actuator, and device network (SADN is composed of three types of nodes, which are sensor, actuator, and actuation device nodes. Sensor nodes and actuator nodes are interconnected in wireless networks as discussed in wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs. Actuator nodes and device nodes are interconnected in types of networks, i.e. wireless and wired network. Sensor nodes sense an physical event and send sensed values of the event to actuator nodes. An actuator node makes a decision on proper actions on receipt of sensed values and then issue the action requests to the device nodes. A device node really acts to the physical world. For example, moves a robot arms by performing the action on receipt of the action request. Messages may be lost and nodes may be faulty. Especially, messages are lost due to noise and collision in a wireless network. We propose a fully redundant model for an SADN where each of sensor, actuator, and device functions is replicated in multiple nodes and each of sensor-actuator and actuator-device communication is realized in many-to-many type of communication protocols. Even if some number of nodes are faulty, the other nodes can perform requested tasks. Here, each sensor node sends sensed values to multiple actuator nodes and each actuator node receives sensed values from multiple sensor nodes. While multiple actuator nodes communicate with multiple replica nodes of a device. Even if messages are lost and some number of nodes are faulty, device nodes can surely receive action requests required for sensed values and the actions are performed. In this paper, we discuss a type of semi-passive coordination (SPC protocol of multiple actuator nodes for multiple sensor nodes. We discuss a type of active coordination protocol for multiple actuator nodes and multiple actuation device nodes. We evaluate the SPC protocol for the sensor-actuator coordination in terms of the number of messages exchanged among

  6. Active Sensor Configuration Validation for Refrigeration Systems

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Blanke, Mogens; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2010-01-01

    -diagnosis methods falling short on this problem, this paper suggests an active diagnosis procedure to isolate sensor faults at the commissioning stage, before normal operation has started. Using statistical methods, residuals are evaluated versus multiple hypothesis models in a minimization process to uniquely......Major faults in the commissioning phase of refrigeration systems are caused by defects related to sensors. With a number of similar sensors available that do not differ by type but only by spatial location in the plant, interchange of sensors is a common defect. With sensors being used quite...... differently by the control system, fault-finding is difficult in practice and defects are regularly causing commissioning delays at considerable expense. Validation and handling of faults in the sensor configuration are therefore essential to cut costs during commissioning. With passive fault...

  7. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the venture business assisting type regional consortium - Core industry creation type. Comprehensive research and development for reducing ABS (MABS) sensor system into small module for enhancing vehicle steering safety; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Koji no sharyo soansei wo jitsugensuru ABS (MABS) sensor system no kogata module ka ni tsuite no sogo kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The effort aims to develop a sensor system to enable overall VDC (vehicle dynamic control). The goal is to manufacture a small module type sensor system more than 20 times higher than the conventional type in responding speed and accuracy, which will use a novel ABS (anti-lock braking system) capable of direct and real-time measurement of axial forces in the four directions. The prototype module will be a package in which a system-on-a-chip accommodating peripheral circuits is integrated with a sensor. In the effort to develop a novel multi-axial sensing system (MASS) for a smaller ABS, a circuit optimization technology was developed. A dedicated IC (integrated circuit) was developed for a system to process a large volume of signals. In the effort to develop technologies for packaging the novel sensor system and for constructing modules, technologies were developed for integrating sensor components and an IC into one, module junctioning, module installation, simplification of the installation process, and for the manufacturing of modules. Developed in the effort to optimize MASS were technologies involving the selection and evaluation of sensor components and the enhancement of such processes, optimization of the sensor itself, and the improvement of the sensor system for higher efficiency in calculation. Sensor modules were tested aboard vehicles and the compatibility of the system-on-a-chip with the MASS module was confirmed. (NEDO)

  8. Chemical sensors

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section

  9. Multiple stress response of lowland stream benthic macroinvertebrates is dependent on habitat type

    Graeber, Daniel; Jensen, Tinna M.; Rasmussen, Jes

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, lowland stream ecosystems are exposed to multiple anthropogenic stress due to the combination of water scarcity, eutrophication and fine sedimentation. The understanding of the effects of such multiple stress on stream benthic macroinvertebrates has been growing in the recent years...

  10. Tailor-made rehabilitation approach using multiple types of hybrid assistive limb robots for acute stroke patients: A pilot study.

    Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Takashi; Ogata, Toshiyasu; Saita, Kazuya; Hyakutake, Koichi; Watanabe, Junko; Shiota, Etsuji; Inoue, Tooru

    2016-01-01

    This article investigated the feasibility of a tailor-made neurorehabilitation approach using multiple types of hybrid assistive limb (HAL) robots for acute stroke patients. We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent rehabilitation using the HAL robots. The Brunnstrom stage, Barthel index (BI), and functional independence measure (FIM) were evaluated at baseline and when patients were transferred to a rehabilitation facility. Scores were compared between the multiple-robot rehabilitation and single-robot rehabilitation groups. Nine hemiplegic acute stroke patients (five men and four women; mean age 59.4 ± 12.5 years; four hemorrhagic stroke and five ischemic stroke) underwent rehabilitation using multiple types of HAL robots for 19.4 ± 12.5 days, and 14 patients (six men and eight women; mean age 63.2 ± 13.9 years; nine hemorrhagic stroke and five ischemic stroke) underwent rehabilitation using a single type of HAL robot for 14.9 ± 8.9 days. The multiple-robot rehabilitation group showed significantly better outcomes in the Brunnstrom stage of the upper extremity, BI, and FIM scores. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first pilot study demonstrating the feasibility of rehabilitation using multiple exoskeleton robots. The tailor-made rehabilitation approach may be useful for the treatment of acute stroke.

  11. Prediction of beta-turns and beta-turn types by a novel bidirectional Elman-type recurrent neural network with multiple output layers (MOLEBRNN).

    Kirschner, Andreas; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2008-10-01

    Prediction of beta-turns from amino acid sequences has long been recognized as an important problem in structural bioinformatics due to their frequent occurrence as well as their structural and functional significance. Because various structural features of proteins are intercorrelated, secondary structure information has been often employed as an additional input for machine learning algorithms while predicting beta-turns. Here we present a novel bidirectional Elman-type recurrent neural network with multiple output layers (MOLEBRNN) capable of predicting multiple mutually dependent structural motifs and demonstrate its efficiency in recognizing three aspects of protein structure: beta-turns, beta-turn types, and secondary structure. The advantage of our method compared to other predictors is that it does not require any external input except for sequence profiles because interdependencies between different structural features are taken into account implicitly during the learning process. In a sevenfold cross-validation experiment on a standard test dataset our method exhibits the total prediction accuracy of 77.9% and the Mathew's Correlation Coefficient of 0.45, the highest performance reported so far. It also outperforms other known methods in delineating individual turn types. We demonstrate how simultaneous prediction of multiple targets influences prediction performance on single targets. The MOLEBRNN presented here is a generic method applicable in a variety of research fields where multiple mutually depending target classes need to be predicted. http://webclu.bio.wzw.tum.de/predator-web/.

  12. Development of Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Fralick, G.; Thomas, V.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, W. H.; Ward, B.; Makel, D.

    2002-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, fire detection, and environmental monitoring. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. However, due to issues of selectivity and cross-sensitivity, individual sensors are limited in the amount of information that they can provide in environments that contain multiple chemical species. Thus, sensor arrays are being developed to address detection needs in such multi-species environments. This paper discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, hydrazine, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  13. Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase is a Cytosolic DNA Sensor that Activates the Type-I Interferon Pathway

    Sun, Lijun; Wu, Jiaxi; Du, Fenghe; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Zhijian J.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of DNA in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells is a danger signal that triggers the host immune responses such as the production of type-I interferons (IFN). Cytosolic DNA induces IFN through the production of cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP), which binds to and activates the adaptor protein STING. Through biochemical fractionation and quantitative mass spectrometry, we identified a cGAMP synthase (cGAS), which belongs to the nucleotidyltransferase family. Overexpression of cGAS activated the transcription factor IRF3 and induced IFNβ in a STING-dependent manner. Knockdown of cGAS inhibited IRF3 activation and IFNβ induction by DNA transfection or DNA virus infection. cGAS bound to DNA in the cytoplasm and catalyzed cGAMP synthesis. These results indicate that cGAS is a cytosolic DNA sensor that induces interferons by producing the second messenger cGAMP. PMID:23258413

  14. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase is a cytosolic DNA sensor that activates the type I interferon pathway.

    Sun, Lijun; Wu, Jiaxi; Du, Fenghe; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Zhijian J

    2013-02-15

    The presence of DNA in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells is a danger signal that triggers host immune responses such as the production of type I interferons. Cytosolic DNA induces interferons through the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP-AMP, or cGAMP), which binds to and activates the adaptor protein STING. Through biochemical fractionation and quantitative mass spectrometry, we identified a cGAMP synthase (cGAS), which belongs to the nucleotidyltransferase family. Overexpression of cGAS activated the transcription factor IRF3 and induced interferon-β in a STING-dependent manner. Knockdown of cGAS inhibited IRF3 activation and interferon-β induction by DNA transfection or DNA virus infection. cGAS bound to DNA in the cytoplasm and catalyzed cGAMP synthesis. These results indicate that cGAS is a cytosolic DNA sensor that induces interferons by producing the second messenger cGAMP.

  15. A new type of smart basalt fiber-reinforced polymer bars as both reinforcements and sensors for civil engineering application

    Tang, Yongsheng; Wu, Zhishen; Yang, Caiqian; Wu, Gang; Shen, Sheng

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, a new type of smart basalt fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP) bar is developed and their sensing performance is investigated by using the Brillouin scattering-based distributed fiber optic sensing technique. The industrial manufacturing process is first addressed, followed by an experimental study on the strain, temperature and fundamental mechanical properties of the BFRP bars. The results confirm the superior sensing properties, in particular the measuring accuracy, repeatability and linearity through comparing with bare optical fibers. Results on the mechanical properties show stable elastic modulus and high ultimate strength. Therefore, the smart BFRP bar has potential applications for long-term structural health monitoring (SHM) as embedded sensors as well as strengthening and upgrading structures. Moreover the coefficient of thermal expansion for smart BFRP bars is similar to the value for concrete.

  16. A new type of smart basalt fiber-reinforced polymer bars as both reinforcements and sensors for civil engineering application

    Tang, Yongsheng; Wu, Zhishen; Yang, Caiqian; Wu, Gang; Shen, Sheng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new type of smart basalt fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP) bar is developed and their sensing performance is investigated by using the Brillouin scattering-based distributed fiber optic sensing technique. The industrial manufacturing process is first addressed, followed by an experimental study on the strain, temperature and fundamental mechanical properties of the BFRP bars. The results confirm the superior sensing properties, in particular the measuring accuracy, repeatability and linearity through comparing with bare optical fibers. Results on the mechanical properties show stable elastic modulus and high ultimate strength. Therefore, the smart BFRP bar has potential applications for long-term structural health monitoring (SHM) as embedded sensors as well as strengthening and upgrading structures. Moreover the coefficient of thermal expansion for smart BFRP bars is similar to the value for concrete

  17. Low accuracy of tumor markers for diagnosing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 patients

    de Laat, Joanne M.; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; Weijmans, Maaike; Hermus, Ad R.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Herder, Wouter W.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The assessment of tumor markers for diagnosing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients is advised in the current guidelines but has never been validated for this purpose. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the

  18. Low Accuracy of Tumor Markers for Diagnosing Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Patients

    de Laat, Joanne M.; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; Weijmans, Maaike; Hermus, Ad R.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Herder, Wouter W.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The assessment of tumor markers for diagnosing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients is advised in the current guidelines but has never been validated for this purpose. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the

  19. Teacher Subject Specialisms and Their Relationships to Learning Styles, Psychological Types and Multiple Intelligences: Implications for Course Development

    Perry, Chris; Ball, Ian

    2004-01-01

    This study explores issues in teacher education that increase our understanding of, and response to, the individual differences displayed by learners. A large undergraduate teacher education cohort provided evidence of the range and distribution of preferences in learning styles, psychological types and multiple intelligences. This information…

  20. Agreement between different input image types in brain atrophy measurement in multiple sclerosis using SIENAX and SIENA

    Neacsu, V.; Jasperse, B.; Korteweg, T.; Knol, D.L.; Valsasina, P.; Filippi, M.; Barkhof, F.; Rovaris, M.; Vrenken, H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether multiple sclerosis (MS) atrophy can be assessed by SIENA and SIENAX software using other image types from MS research protocols than T1-weighted images without contrast agent, which are not always available. Materials and Methods: We selected 46 MS patients with

  1. Key steps in type III secretion system (T3SS) towards translocon assembly with potential sensor at plant plasma membrane.

    Ji, Hongtao; Dong, Hansong

    2015-09-01

    Many plant- and animal-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria employ the type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins from bacterial cells into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells. The effector translocation occurs through an integral component of T3SS, the channel-like translocon, assembled by hydrophilic and hydrophobic proteinaceous translocators in a two-step process. In the first, hydrophilic translocators localize to the tip of a proteinaceous needle in animal pathogens, or a proteinaceous pilus in plant pathogens, and associate with hydrophobic translocators, which insert into host plasma membranes in the second step. However, the pilus needs to penetrate plant cell walls in advance. All hydrophilic translocators so far identified in plant pathogens are characteristic of harpins: T3SS accessory proteins containing a unitary hydrophilic domain or an additional enzymatic domain. Two-domain harpins carrying a pectate lyase domain potentially target plant cell walls and facilitate the penetration of the pectin-rich middle lamella by the bacterial pilus. One-domain harpins target plant plasma membranes and may play a crucial role in translocon assembly, which may also involve contrapuntal associations of hydrophobic translocators. In all cases, sensory components in the target plasma membrane are indispensable for the membrane recognition of translocators and the functionality of the translocon. The conjectural sensors point to membrane lipids and proteins, and a phosphatidic acid and an aquaporin are able to interact with selected harpin-type translocators. Interactions between translocators and their sensors at the target plasma membrane are assumed to be critical for translocon assembly. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  2. Weyl Group Multiple Dirichlet Series Type A Combinatorial Theory (AM-175)

    Brubaker, Ben; Friedberg, Solomon

    2011-01-01

    Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series are generalizations of the Riemann zeta function. Like the Riemann zeta function, they are Dirichlet series with analytic continuation and functional equations, having applications to analytic number theory. By contrast, these Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series may be functions of several complex variables and their groups of functional equations may be arbitrary finite Weyl groups. Furthermore, their coefficients are multiplicative up to roots of unity, generalizing the notion of Euler products. This book proves foundational results about these series an

  3. Uniformly Porous Nanocrystalline CaMgFe1.33Ti3O12 Ceramic Derived Electro-Ceramic Nanocomposite for Impedance Type Humidity Sensor

    Tripathy, Ashis; Pramanik, Sumit; Manna, Ayan; Shasmin, Hanie Nadia; Radzi, Zamri; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2016-01-01

    Since humidity sensors have been widely used in many sectors, a suitable humidity sensing material with improved sensitivity, faster response and recovery times, better stability and low hysteresis is necessary to be developed. Here, we fabricate a uniformly porous humidity sensor using Ca, Ti substituted Mg ferrites with chemical formula of CaMgFe1.33Ti3O12 as humidity sensing materials by solid-sate step-sintering technique. This synthesis technique is useful to control the grain size with increased porosity to enhance the hydrophilic characteristics of the CaMgFe1.33Ti3O12 nanoceramic based sintered electro-ceramic nanocomposites. The highest porosity, lowest density and excellent surface-hydrophilicity properties were obtained at 1050 °C sintered ceramic. The performance of this impedance type humidity sensor was evaluated by electrical characterizations using alternating current (AC) in the 33%–95% relative humidity (RH) range at 25 °C. Compared with existing conventional resistive humidity sensors, the present sintered electro-ceramic nanocomposite based humidity sensor showed faster response time (20 s) and recovery time (40 s). This newly developed sensor showed extremely high sensitivity (%S) and small hysteresis of humidity sensors. PMID:27916913

  4. Sensor-Augmented Insulin Pumps and Hypoglycemia Prevention in Type 1 Diabetes

    Steineck, Isabelle; Ranjan, Ajenthen; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    prevention. We present evidence from randomized trials, observational studies, and meta-analyses including nonpregnant individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We also outline concerns regarding SAPs with and without automated insulin suspension. There is evidence that SAP treatment reduces episodes...

  5. Functioning glucagonoma associated with primary hyperparathyroidism: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or incidental association?

    Erdas, Enrico; Mariotti, Stefano; Pomata, Mariano; Aste, Nicola; Pilloni, Luca; Nicolosi, Angelo; Licheri, Sergio; Cappai, Antonello; Mastinu, Marco; Cetani, Filomena; Pardi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is commonly based on clinical criteria, and confirmed by genetic testing. In patients without known MEN1-related germline mutations, the possibility of a casual association between two or more endocrine tumors cannot be excluded and subsequent management may be difficult to plan. We describe a very uncommon case of functioning glucagonoma associated with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) in which genetic testing failed to detect germline mutations of MEN-1 and other known genes responsible for MEN1. The patient, a 65-year old woman, had been suffering for more than 1 year from weakness, progressive weight loss, angular cheilitis, glossitis and, more recently, skin rashes on the perineum, perioral skin and groin folds. After multidisciplinary investigations, functioning glucagonoma and asymptomatic pHPT were diagnosed and, since family history was negative, sporadic MEN1 was suspected. However, genetic testing revealed neither MEN-1 nor other gene mutations responsible for rarer cases of MEN1 (CDKN1B/p27 and other cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes CDKN1A/p15, CDKN2C/p18, CDKN2B/p21). The patient underwent distal splenopancreatectomy and at the 4-month follow-up she showed complete remission of symptoms. Six months later, a thyroid nodule, suspected to be a malignant neoplasia, and two hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands were detected respectively by ultrasound with fine needle aspiration cytology and 99m Tc-sestamibi scan with SPECT acquisition. Total thyroidectomy was performed, whereas selective parathyroidectomy was preferred to a more extensive procedure because the diagnosis of MEN1 was not supported by genetic analysis and intraoperative intact parathyroid hormone had revealed “adenoma-like” kinetics after the second parathyroid resection. Thirty-nine and 25 months after respectively the first and the second operation, the patient is well and shows no signs or symptoms of recurrence. Despite

  6. Functioning glucagonoma associated with primary hyperparathyroidism: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or incidental association?

    Erdas Enrico

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is commonly based on clinical criteria, and confirmed by genetic testing. In patients without known MEN1-related germline mutations, the possibility of a casual association between two or more endocrine tumors cannot be excluded and subsequent management may be difficult to plan. We describe a very uncommon case of functioning glucagonoma associated with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT in which genetic testing failed to detect germline mutations of MEN-1 and other known genes responsible for MEN1. Case presentation The patient, a 65-year old woman, had been suffering for more than 1 year from weakness, progressive weight loss, angular cheilitis, glossitis and, more recently, skin rashes on the perineum, perioral skin and groin folds. After multidisciplinary investigations, functioning glucagonoma and asymptomatic pHPT were diagnosed and, since family history was negative, sporadic MEN1 was suspected. However, genetic testing revealed neither MEN-1 nor other gene mutations responsible for rarer cases of MEN1 (CDKN1B/p27 and other cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes CDKN1A/p15, CDKN2C/p18, CDKN2B/p21. The patient underwent distal splenopancreatectomy and at the 4-month follow-up she showed complete remission of symptoms. Six months later, a thyroid nodule, suspected to be a malignant neoplasia, and two hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands were detected respectively by ultrasound with fine needle aspiration cytology and 99mTc-sestamibi scan with SPECT acquisition. Total thyroidectomy was performed, whereas selective parathyroidectomy was preferred to a more extensive procedure because the diagnosis of MEN1 was not supported by genetic analysis and intraoperative intact parathyroid hormone had revealed “adenoma-like” kinetics after the second parathyroid resection. Thirty-nine and 25 months after respectively the first and the second operation, the patient is well

  7. Topology Optimization of Nano-Mechanical Cantilever Sensors Using a C0 Discontinuous Galerkin-Type Approach

    Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi; Evgrafov, Anton; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a C0 discontinuous Galerkin method for topology optimization of nano-mechanical sensors, namely temperature, surface stress, and mass sensors. The sensors are modeled using classical thin plate theory, which requires C1 basis functions in the standard finite element method...

  8. Ion torrent personal genome machine sequencing for genomic typing of Neisseria meningitidis for rapid determination of multiple layers of typing information.

    Vogel, Ulrich; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Claus, Heike; Jünemann, Sebastian; Prior, Karola; Harmsen, Dag

    2012-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis causes invasive meningococcal disease in infants, toddlers, and adolescents worldwide. DNA sequence-based typing, including multilocus sequence typing, analysis of genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance, and sequence typing of vaccine antigens, has become the standard for molecular epidemiology of the organism. However, PCR of multiple targets and consecutive Sanger sequencing provide logistic constraints to reference laboratories. Taking advantage of the recent development of benchtop next-generation sequencers (NGSs) and of BIGSdb, a database accommodating and analyzing genome sequence data, we therefore explored the feasibility and accuracy of Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) sequencing for genomic typing of meningococci. Three strains from a previous meningococcus serogroup B community outbreak were selected to compare conventional typing results with data generated by semiconductor chip-based sequencing. In addition, sequencing of the meningococcal type strain MC58 provided information about the general performance of the technology. The PGM technology generated sequence information for all target genes addressed. The results were 100% concordant with conventional typing results, with no further editing being necessary. In addition, the amount of typing information, i.e., nucleotides and target genes analyzed, could be substantially increased by the combined use of genome sequencing and BIGSdb compared to conventional methods. In the near future, affordable and fast benchtop NGS machines like the PGM might enable reference laboratories to switch to genomic typing on a routine basis. This will reduce workloads and rapidly provide information for laboratory surveillance, outbreak investigation, assessment of vaccine preventability, and antibiotic resistance gene monitoring.

  9. Charge collection measurements in single-type column 3D sensors

    Scaringella, M.; Polyakov, A.; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Bruzzi, M.; Tosi, C.; Boscardin, M.; Piemonte, C.; Pozza, A.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.

    2007-01-01

    We report on charge collection studies on 3D silicon detectors of single-type column n-diffusions in p-substrate, configured either as strip or as pad detectors. The charge is generated by penetrating beta particles from a 90 Sr source which, together with a scintillation counter, serves as an electron telescope. The charge collection as a function of bias voltage is compared with the depletion thickness derived from the measured C-V characteristics

  10. Model Study of the Influence of Ambient Temperature and Installation Types on Surface Temperature Measurement by Using a Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor

    Yi Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface temperature is an important parameter in clinical diagnosis, equipment state control, and environmental monitoring fields. The Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG temperature sensor possesses numerous significant advantages over conventional electrical sensors, thus it is an ideal choice to achieve high-accuracy surface temperature measurements. However, the effects of the ambient temperature and installation types on the measurement of surface temperature are often overlooked. A theoretical analysis is implemented and a thermal transfer model of a surface FBG sensor is established. The theoretical and simulated analysis shows that both substrate strain and the temperature difference between the fiber core and hot surface are the most important factors which affect measurement accuracy. A surface-type temperature standard setup is proposed to study the measurement error of the FBG temperature sensor. Experimental results show that there are two effects influencing measurement results. One is the “gradient effect”. This results in a positive linear error with increasing surface temperature. Another is the “substrate effect”. This results in a negative non-linear error with increasing surface temperature. The measurement error of the FBG sensor with single-ended fixation are determined by the gradient effect and is a linear error. It is not influenced by substrate expansion. Thus, it can be compensated easily. The measurement errors of the FBG sensor with double-ended fixation are determined by the two effects and the substrate effect is dominant. The measurement error change trend of the FBG sensor with fully-adhered fixation is similar to that with double-ended fixation. The adhesive layer can reduce the two effects and measurement error. The fully-adhered fixation has lower error, however, it is easily affected by substrate strain. Due to its linear error and strain-resistant characteristics, the single-ended fixation will play an

  11. Model Study of the Influence of Ambient Temperature and Installation Types on Surface Temperature Measurement by Using a Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor.

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Surface temperature is an important parameter in clinical diagnosis, equipment state control, and environmental monitoring fields. The Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) temperature sensor possesses numerous significant advantages over conventional electrical sensors, thus it is an ideal choice to achieve high-accuracy surface temperature measurements. However, the effects of the ambient temperature and installation types on the measurement of surface temperature are often overlooked. A theoretical analysis is implemented and a thermal transfer model of a surface FBG sensor is established. The theoretical and simulated analysis shows that both substrate strain and the temperature difference between the fiber core and hot surface are the most important factors which affect measurement accuracy. A surface-type temperature standard setup is proposed to study the measurement error of the FBG temperature sensor. Experimental results show that there are two effects influencing measurement results. One is the "gradient effect". This results in a positive linear error with increasing surface temperature. Another is the "substrate effect". This results in a negative non-linear error with increasing surface temperature. The measurement error of the FBG sensor with single-ended fixation are determined by the gradient effect and is a linear error. It is not influenced by substrate expansion. Thus, it can be compensated easily. The measurement errors of the FBG sensor with double-ended fixation are determined by the two effects and the substrate effect is dominant. The measurement error change trend of the FBG sensor with fully-adhered fixation is similar to that with double-ended fixation. The adhesive layer can reduce the two effects and measurement error. The fully-adhered fixation has lower error, however, it is easily affected by substrate strain. Due to its linear error and strain-resistant characteristics, the single-ended fixation will play an important role in the FBG sensor

  12. Multiple Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Brucella Typing Reveals Multiple Lineages in Brucella melitensis Currently Endemic in China

    Mingjun Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. In China, brucellosis is recognized as a reemerging disease mainly caused by Brucella melitensis specie. To better understand the currently endemic B. melitensis strains in China, three Brucella genotyping methods were applied to 110 B. melitensis strains obtained in past several years. By MLVA genotyping, five MLVA-8 genotypes were identified, among which genotypes 42 (1-5-3-13-2-2-3-2 was recognized as the predominant genotype, while genotype 63 (1-5-3-13-2-3-3-2 and a novel genotype of 1-5-3-13-2-4-3-2 were second frequently observed. MLVA-16 discerned a total of 57 MLVA-16 genotypes among these Brucella strains, with 41 genotypes being firstly detected and the other 16 genotypes being previously reported. By BruMLSA21 typing, six sequence types (STs were identified, among them ST8 is the most frequently seen in China while the other five STs were firstly detected and designated as ST137, ST138, ST139, ST140, and ST141 by international multilocus sequence typing database. Whole-genome sequence (WGS-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based typing and phylogenetic analysis resolved Chinese B. melitensis strains into five clusters, reflecting the existence of multiple lineages among these Chinese B. melitensis strains. In phylogeny, Chinese lineages are more closely related to strains collected from East Mediterranean and Middle East countries, such as Turkey, Kuwait, and Iraq. In the next few years, MLVA typing will certainly remain an important epidemiological tool for Brucella infection analysis, as it displays a high discriminatory ability and achieves result largely in agreement with WGS-SNP-based typing. However, WGS-SNP-based typing is found to be the most powerful and reliable method in discerning Brucella strains and will be popular used in the future.

  13. Ecosystem services capacity across heterogeneous forest types: understanding the interactions and suggesting pathways for sustaining multiple ecosystem services.

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Turton, Stephen M; Macgregor, Colin J; Pert, Petina L

    2016-10-01

    As ecosystem services supply from tropical forests is declining due to deforestation and forest degradation, much effort is essential to sustain ecosystem services supply from tropical forested landscapes, because tropical forests provide the largest flow of multiple ecosystem services among the terrestrial ecosystems. In order to sustain multiple ecosystem services, understanding ecosystem services capacity across heterogeneous forest types and identifying certain ecosystem services that could be managed to leverage positive effects across the wider bundle of ecosystem services are required. We sampled three forest types, tropical rainforests, sclerophyll forests, and rehabilitated plantation forests, over an area of 32,000m(2) from Wet Tropics bioregion, Australia, aiming to compare supply and evaluate interactions and patterns of eight ecosystem services (global climate regulation, air quality regulation, erosion regulation, nutrient regulation, cyclone protection, habitat provision, energy provision, and timber provision). On average, multiple ecosystem services were highest in the rainforests, lowest in sclerophyll forests, and intermediate in rehabilitated plantation forests. However, a wide variation was apparent among the plots across the three forest types. Global climate regulation service had a synergistic impact on the supply of multiple ecosystem services, while nutrient regulation service was found to have a trade-off impact. Considering multiple ecosystem services, most of the rehabilitated plantation forest plots shared the same ordination space with rainforest plots in the ordination analysis, indicating that rehabilitated plantation forests may supply certain ecosystem services nearly equivalent to rainforests. Two synergy groups and one trade-off group were identified. Apart from conserving rainforests and sclerophyll forests, our findings suggest two additional integrated pathways to sustain the supply of multiple ecosystem services from a

  14. Real-Time PCR Typing of Escherichia coli Based on Multiple Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms--a Convenient and Rapid Method.

    Lager, Malin; Mernelius, Sara; Löfgren, Sture; Söderman, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections caused by Escherichia coli and antibiotic resistance due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production constitute a threat against patient safety. To identify, track, and control outbreaks and to detect emerging virulent clones, typing tools of sufficient discriminatory power that generate reproducible and unambiguous data are needed. A probe based real-time PCR method targeting multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) was developed. The method was based on the multi locus sequence typing scheme of Institute Pasteur and by adaptation of previously described typing assays. An 8 SNP-panel that reached a Simpson's diversity index of 0.95 was established, based on analysis of sporadic E. coli cases (ESBL n = 27 and non-ESBL n = 53). This multi-SNP assay was used to identify the sequence type 131 (ST131) complex according to the Achtman's multi locus sequence typing scheme. However, it did not fully discriminate within the complex but provided a diagnostic signature that outperformed a previously described detection assay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of isolates from a presumed outbreak (n = 22) identified two outbreaks (ST127 and ST131) and three different non-outbreak-related isolates. Multi-SNP typing generated congruent data except for one non-outbreak-related ST131 isolate. We consider multi-SNP real-time PCR typing an accessible primary generic E. coli typing tool for rapid and uniform type identification.

  15. Tool Wear Prediction in Ti-6Al-4V Machining through Multiple Sensor Monitoring and PCA Features Pattern Recognition

    Alessandra Caggiano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Machining of titanium alloys is characterised by extremely rapid tool wear due to the high cutting temperature and the strong adhesion at the tool-chip and tool-workpiece interface, caused by the low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity of Ti alloys. With the aim to monitor the tool conditions during dry turning of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, a machine learning procedure based on the acquisition and processing of cutting force, acoustic emission and vibration sensor signals during turning is implemented. A number of sensorial features are extracted from the acquired sensor signals in order to feed machine learning paradigms based on artificial neural networks. To reduce the large dimensionality of the sensorial features, an advanced feature extraction methodology based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA is proposed. PCA allowed to identify a smaller number of features (k = 2 features, the principal component scores, obtained through linear projection of the original d features into a new space with reduced dimensionality k = 2, sufficient to describe the variance of the data. By feeding artificial neural networks with the PCA features, an accurate diagnosis of tool flank wear (VBmax was achieved, with predicted values very close to the measured tool wear values.

  16. Tool Wear Prediction in Ti-6Al-4V Machining through Multiple Sensor Monitoring and PCA Features Pattern Recognition.

    Caggiano, Alessandra

    2018-03-09

    Machining of titanium alloys is characterised by extremely rapid tool wear due to the high cutting temperature and the strong adhesion at the tool-chip and tool-workpiece interface, caused by the low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity of Ti alloys. With the aim to monitor the tool conditions during dry turning of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, a machine learning procedure based on the acquisition and processing of cutting force, acoustic emission and vibration sensor signals during turning is implemented. A number of sensorial features are extracted from the acquired sensor signals in order to feed machine learning paradigms based on artificial neural networks. To reduce the large dimensionality of the sensorial features, an advanced feature extraction methodology based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is proposed. PCA allowed to identify a smaller number of features ( k = 2 features), the principal component scores, obtained through linear projection of the original d features into a new space with reduced dimensionality k = 2, sufficient to describe the variance of the data. By feeding artificial neural networks with the PCA features, an accurate diagnosis of tool flank wear ( VB max ) was achieved, with predicted values very close to the measured tool wear values.

  17. Tool Wear Prediction in Ti-6Al-4V Machining through Multiple Sensor Monitoring and PCA Features Pattern Recognition

    2018-01-01

    Machining of titanium alloys is characterised by extremely rapid tool wear due to the high cutting temperature and the strong adhesion at the tool-chip and tool-workpiece interface, caused by the low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity of Ti alloys. With the aim to monitor the tool conditions during dry turning of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, a machine learning procedure based on the acquisition and processing of cutting force, acoustic emission and vibration sensor signals during turning is implemented. A number of sensorial features are extracted from the acquired sensor signals in order to feed machine learning paradigms based on artificial neural networks. To reduce the large dimensionality of the sensorial features, an advanced feature extraction methodology based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is proposed. PCA allowed to identify a smaller number of features (k = 2 features), the principal component scores, obtained through linear projection of the original d features into a new space with reduced dimensionality k = 2, sufficient to describe the variance of the data. By feeding artificial neural networks with the PCA features, an accurate diagnosis of tool flank wear (VBmax) was achieved, with predicted values very close to the measured tool wear values. PMID:29522443

  18. An 80x80 microbolometer type thermal imaging sensor using the LWIR-band CMOS infrared (CIR) technology

    Tankut, Firat; Cologlu, Mustafa H.; Askar, Hidir; Ozturk, Hande; Dumanli, Hilal K.; Oruc, Feyza; Tilkioglu, Bilge; Ugur, Beril; Akar, Orhan Sevket; Tepegoz, Murat; Akin, Tayfun

    2017-02-01

    This paper introduces an 80x80 microbolometer array with a 35 μm pixel pitch operating in the 8-12 μm wavelength range, where the detector is fabricated with the LWIR-band CMOS infrared technology, shortly named as CIR, which is a novel microbolometer implementation technique developed to reduce the detector cost in order to enable the use of microbolometer type sensors in high volume markets, such as the consumer market and IoT. Unlike the widely used conventional surface micromachined microbolometer approaches, MikroSens' CIR detector technology does not require the use of special high TCR materials like VOx or a-Si, instead, it allows to implement microbolometers with standard CMOS layers, where the suspended bulk micromachined structure is obtained by only few consecutive selective MEMS etching steps while protecting the wirebond pads with a simple lithograpy step. This approach not only reduces the fabrication cost but also increases the production yield. In addition, needing simple subtractive post-CMOS fabrication steps allows the CIR technology to be carried out in any CMOS and MEMS foundry in a truly fabless fashion, where industrially mature and Au-free wafer level vacuum packaging technologies can also be carried out, leading to cost advantage, simplicity, scalability, and flexibility. The CIR approach is used to implement an 80x80 FPA with 35 μm pixel pitch, namely MS0835A, using a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The fabricated sensor is measured to provide NETD (Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference) value of 163 mK at 17 fps (frames per second) and 71 mK at 4 fps with F/1.0 optics in a dewar environment. The measurement results of the wafer level vacuum packaged sensors with one side AR coating shows an NETD values of 112 mK at 4 fps with F/1.1 optics, i.e., demonstrates a good performance for high volume low-cost applications like advanced presence detection and human counting applications. The CIR approach of MikroSens is scalable and can be used to

  19. Development of neutron detector using sensor type surface barrier with (n,p) and (n,α) converters

    Madi Filho, Tufic

    1999-01-01

    A Si semiconductor detector, surface barrier type, with a slim film of a converter material capable to produce charged particles was used as a sensor of neutrons in an environment of a zero power reactor. Two types of converters were used to improve the detection efficiency: (1) the polyethylene, n(CH 2 ), which produces recoil protons from the (n,p) interaction and, (2) the 10 B which generates a particle from the (n,alpha) reaction. The optimal thickness of those converters was determined experimentally and specifically for the polyethylene a mathematical model R(ips) = ε p · N 0 ·(1-e -Σ·Χ ) ·e -μ ·Χ + ε n · N 0 · -Σ · Χ was used to fit to the experimental data. For the polyethylene converter the thickness was of 0.058 cm (62.64 mg.cm -2 ) while for the 10 B it was equal to 6.55 [μm (1.54 mg.cm -2 ). The converter of polyethylene or 10 B improved the detection efficiency to a factor of 4.7 and 3.0 respectively. The comparison of the spectrum of the background radiation with the spectra of the recoil protons and the a radiation from the 10 B it was concluded that the polyethylene presented better performance than the 10 B converter. (author)

  20. Recognition of a Person Wearing Sport Shoes or High Heels through Gait Using Two Types of Sensors

    Marcin Derlatka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is currently an area that is both very interesting as well as rapidly growing. Among various types of biometrics the human gait recognition seems to be one of the most intriguing. However, one of the greatest problems within this field of biometrics is the change in gait caused by footwear. A change of shoes results in a significant lowering of accuracy in recognition of people. The following work presents a method which uses data gathered by two sensors: force plates and Microsoft Kinect v2 to reduce this problem. Microsoft Kinect is utilized to measure the body height of a person which allows the reduction of the set of recognized people only to those whose height is similar to that which has been measured. The entire process is preceded by identifying the type of footwear which the person is wearing. The research was conducted on data obtained from 99 people (more than 3400 strides and the proposed method allowed us to reach a Correct Classification Rate (CCR greater than 88% which, in comparison to earlier methods reaching CCR’s of <80%, is a significant improvement. The work presents advantages as well as limitations of the proposed method.

  1. Recognition of a Person Wearing Sport Shoes or High Heels through Gait Using Two Types of Sensors.

    Derlatka, Marcin; Bogdan, Mariusz

    2018-05-21

    Biometrics is currently an area that is both very interesting as well as rapidly growing. Among various types of biometrics the human gait recognition seems to be one of the most intriguing. However, one of the greatest problems within this field of biometrics is the change in gait caused by footwear. A change of shoes results in a significant lowering of accuracy in recognition of people. The following work presents a method which uses data gathered by two sensors: force plates and Microsoft Kinect v2 to reduce this problem. Microsoft Kinect is utilized to measure the body height of a person which allows the reduction of the set of recognized people only to those whose height is similar to that which has been measured. The entire process is preceded by identifying the type of footwear which the person is wearing. The research was conducted on data obtained from 99 people (more than 3400 strides) and the proposed method allowed us to reach a Correct Classification Rate (CCR) greater than 88% which, in comparison to earlier methods reaching CCR’s of <80%, is a significant improvement. The work presents advantages as well as limitations of the proposed method.

  2. An M/G/1 queue with multiple types of feedback and gated vacations

    O.J. Boxma (Onno); U. Yechiali

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers a single-server queue with Poisson arrivals and multiple customer feedbacks. If the first service attempt of a newly arriving customer is not successful, he returns to the end of the queue for another service attempt, with a different service time distribution. He

  3. Seismic reflector imaging using internal multiples with Marchenko-type equations

    Slob, E.C.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Broggini, F.; Snieder, R.

    2014-01-01

    We present an imaging method that creates a map of reflection coefficients in correct one-way time with no contamination from internal multiples using purely a filtering approach. The filter is computed from the measured reflection response and does not require a background model. We demonstrate

  4. The Representation of Multiple Intelligences Types in the Top-Notch Series: A Textbook Evaluation

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah; Jozaghi, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating Top-Notch series through a checklist devised by the researchers based on the elements of the Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory proposed by Gardner (1998). With the shift from teacher-centered classrooms to learner-centered one, more and more research is needed to be done in the realm of students' need analysis. One…

  5. Finding Multiple Peaks Signal in Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F)

    Bin Ab Maalek, Abu Ubaidah Amir; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2017-01-01

    Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F) is diamond and silicon sensors based luminometer of CMS detector. The methods of finding multiple peaks signal in BCM1F is shown. Multiple peaks signal found at signal with width between 60 ns - 300 ns. Double peaks are counted as single hit in the constant threshold analysis and leads to underestimation in the luminosity. Therefore it should be estimated for different filling schemes and sensor types. The percentage of long width pulse in different sensor for different fill are calculated. About 30 \\% long width pulse found in sCVD sensor, 12 \\% in pCVD and no more than 1 \\% for silicon sensor.

  6. Transfer of preheat-treated SnO 2 via a sacrificial bridge-type ZnO layer for ethanol gas sensor

    Lee, Da Hoon; Kang, Sun Kil; Pak, Yusin; Lim, Namsoo; Lee, Ryeri; Kumaresan, Yogeenth; Lee, Sungeun; Lee, Chaedeok; Ham, Moon-Ho; Jung, Gun Young

    2017-01-01

    The progress in developing the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) heater-based SnO2 gas sensors was hindered by the subsequent heat treatment of the tin oxide (SnO2), nevertheless it is required to obtain excellent sensor characteristics. During the sintering process, the MEMS heater and the contact electrodes can be degraded at such a high temperature, which could reduce the sensor response and reliability. In this research, we presented a process of preheating the printed SnO2 sensing layer on top of a sacrificial bridge-type ZnO layer at such a high temperature, followed by transferring it onto the contact electrodes of sensor device by selective etching of the sacrificial ZnO layer. Therefore, the sensor device was not exposed to the high sintering temperature. The SnO2 gas sensor fabricated by the transfer process exhibited a rectangular sensing curve behavior with a rapid response of 52 s at 20 ppm ethanol concentration. In addition, reliable and repeatable sensing characteristics were obtained even at an ethanol gas concentration of 5 ppm.

  7. Transfer of preheat-treated SnO 2 via a sacrificial bridge-type ZnO layer for ethanol gas sensor

    Lee, Da Hoon

    2017-08-05

    The progress in developing the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) heater-based SnO2 gas sensors was hindered by the subsequent heat treatment of the tin oxide (SnO2), nevertheless it is required to obtain excellent sensor characteristics. During the sintering process, the MEMS heater and the contact electrodes can be degraded at such a high temperature, which could reduce the sensor response and reliability. In this research, we presented a process of preheating the printed SnO2 sensing layer on top of a sacrificial bridge-type ZnO layer at such a high temperature, followed by transferring it onto the contact electrodes of sensor device by selective etching of the sacrificial ZnO layer. Therefore, the sensor device was not exposed to the high sintering temperature. The SnO2 gas sensor fabricated by the transfer process exhibited a rectangular sensing curve behavior with a rapid response of 52 s at 20 ppm ethanol concentration. In addition, reliable and repeatable sensing characteristics were obtained even at an ethanol gas concentration of 5 ppm.

  8. n⁺ GaAs/AuGeNi-Au Thermocouple-Type RF MEMS Power Sensors Based on Dual Thermal Flow Paths in GaAs MMIC.

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Liao, Xiaoping

    2017-06-17

    To achieve radio frequency (RF) power detection, gain control, and circuit protection, this paper presents n⁺ GaAs/AuGeNi-Au thermocouple-type RF microelectromechanical system (MEMS) power sensors based on dual thermal flow paths. The sensors utilize a conversion principle of RF power-heat-voltage, where a thermovoltage is obtained as the RF power changes. To improve the heat transfer efficiency and the sensitivity, structures of two heat conduction paths are designed: one in which a thermal slug of Au is placed between two load resistors and hot junctions of the thermocouples, and one in which a back cavity is fabricated by the MEMS technology to form a substrate membrane underneath the resistors and the hot junctions. The improved sensors were fabricated by a GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) process. Experiments show that these sensors have reflection losses of less than -17 dB up to 12 GHz. At 1, 5, and 10 GHz, measured sensitivities are about 63.45, 53.97, and 44.14 µ V/mW for the sensor with the thermal slug, and about 111.03, 94.79, and 79.04 µ V/mW for the sensor with the thermal slug and the back cavity, respectively.

  9. n+ GaAs/AuGeNi-Au Thermocouple-Type RF MEMS Power Sensors Based on Dual Thermal Flow Paths in GaAs MMIC

    Zhiqiang Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To achieve radio frequency (RF power detection, gain control, and circuit protection, this paper presents n+ GaAs/AuGeNi-Au thermocouple-type RF microelectromechanical system (MEMS power sensors based on dual thermal flow paths. The sensors utilize a conversion principle of RF power-heat-voltage, where a thermovoltage is obtained as the RF power changes. To improve the heat transfer efficiency and the sensitivity, structures of two heat conduction paths are designed: one in which a thermal slug of Au is placed between two load resistors and hot junctions of the thermocouples, and one in which a back cavity is fabricated by the MEMS technology to form a substrate membrane underneath the resistors and the hot junctions. The improved sensors were fabricated by a GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC process. Experiments show that these sensors have reflection losses of less than −17 dB up to 12 GHz. At 1, 5, and 10 GHz, measured sensitivities are about 63.45, 53.97, and 44.14 µV/mW for the sensor with the thermal slug, and about 111.03, 94.79, and 79.04 µV/mW for the sensor with the thermal slug and the back cavity, respectively.

  10. An evolvable oestrogen receptor activity sensor: development of a modular system for integrating multiple genes into the yeast genome

    Fox, J.E.; Bridgham, J.T.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Thornton, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    To study a gene interaction network, we developed a gene-targeting strategy that allows efficient and stable genomic integration of multiple genetic constructs at distinct target loci in the yeast genome. This gene-targeting strategy uses a modular plasmid with a recyclable selectable marker and a

  11. Endovascular repair of multiple infrageniculate aneurysms in a patient with vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Domenick, Natalie; Cho, Jae S; Abu Hamad, Ghassan; Makaroun, Michel S; Chaer, Rabih A

    2011-09-01

    Patients with vascular type Ehler-Danlos syndrome can develop aneurysms in unusual locations. We describe the case of a 33-year-old woman with vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome who developed metachronous tibial artery aneurysms that were sequentially treated with endovascular means. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolution of Late-type Galaxies in a Cluster Environment: Effects of High-speed Multiple Encounters with Early-type Galaxies

    Hwang, Jeong-Sun; Park, Changbom; Banerjee, Arunima; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2018-04-01

    Late-type galaxies falling into a cluster would evolve being influenced by the interactions with both the cluster and the nearby cluster member galaxies. Most numerical studies, however, tend to focus on the effects of the former with little work done on those of the latter. We thus perform a numerical study on the evolution of a late-type galaxy interacting with neighboring early-type galaxies at high speed using hydrodynamic simulations. Based on the information obtained from the Coma cluster, we set up the simulations for the case where a Milky Way–like late-type galaxy experiences six consecutive collisions with twice as massive early-type galaxies having hot gas in their halos at the closest approach distances of 15–65 h ‑1 kpc at the relative velocities of 1500–1600 km s‑1. Our simulations show that the evolution of the late-type galaxy can be significantly affected by the accumulated effects of the high-speed multiple collisions with the early-type galaxies, such as on cold gas content and star formation activity of the late-type galaxy, particularly through the hydrodynamic interactions between cold disk and hot gas halos. We find that the late-type galaxy can lose most of its cold gas after the six collisions and have more star formation activity during the collisions. By comparing our simulation results with those of galaxy–cluster interactions, we claim that the role of the galaxy–galaxy interactions on the evolution of late-type galaxies in clusters could be comparable with that of the galaxy–cluster interactions, depending on the dynamical history.

  13. Simulation of a resonant-type ring magnet power supply with multiple resonant cells and energy storage chokes

    Kim, J.M.S.; Blackmore, E.W.; Reiniger, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    For the TRIUMF KAON Factory Booster Ring, a resonant-type magnet power supply has been proposed for the dipole magnet excitation. The Booster Ring magnet power supply system based on resonant circuits, coupled with distributed energy make-up networks, is a complex system, sensitive to many system parameters. When multiple resonant cells, each with its own energy make-up network, are connected in a ring, it is very difficult to derive closed-form solutions to determine the operating conditions of the power supply system. A meaningful way to understand and analyze such a complex system is to use a simulation tool. This paper presents the analysis of operating conditions of the resonant-type ring magnet power supply with multiple resonant cells, using the circuit simulation tool, SPICE. The focus of the study is on the effect of circuit parameter variations in energy storage chokes

  14. Sensor-Augmented Pump-Based Customized Mathematical Model for Type 1 Diabetes.

    Grosman, Benyamin; Wu, Di; Miller, Diana; Lintereur, Louis; Roy, Anirban; Parikh, Neha; Kaufman, Francine R

    2018-03-01

    Simulations using mathematical models are important for studying, developing, and improving therapies for people with type 1 diabetes. The Medtronic CareLink ® database was used to create virtual patients with a variety of inter-insulin sensitivities, meal absorption rates, pharmacokinetics, age, and gender. In addition, intra-insulin sensitivities of the virtual patients change over a 24-h cycle. A total of 2087 virtual patients were developed. The time percentage between 70 and 180 mg/dL of the CareLink uploads and the simulated virtual patients was 72.4% (18.6) and 74.1% (16.9), respectively. The time percentage 18 years) and 90 adult (>28 years) virtual patients, respectively. The Medtronic CareLink database was utilized to generate a large number of virtual patients with a variety of insulin sensitivities, pharmacokinetics, and meal absorption rates. This new simulation model can be potentially used to evaluate and prognosticate the outcomes of studies of artificial pancreas algorithms and systems.

  15. X-ray-to-current signal conversion characteristics of trench-structured photodiodes for direct-conversion-type silicon X-ray sensor

    Ariyoshi, Tetsuya; Funaki, Shota; Sakamoto, Kenji; Baba, Akiyoshi; Arima, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the radiation dose required in medical X-ray diagnoses, we propose a high-sensitivity direct-conversion-type silicon X-ray sensor that uses trench-structured photodiodes. This sensor is advantageous in terms of its long device lifetime, noise immunity, and low power consumption because of its low bias voltage. With this sensor, it is possible to detect X-rays with almost 100% efficiency; sensitivity can therefore be improved by approximately 10 times when compared with conventional indirect-conversion-type sensors. In this study, a test chip was fabricated using a single-poly single-metal 0.35 μm process. The formed trench photodiodes for the X-ray sensor were approximately 170 and 300 μm deep. At a bias voltage of 25 V, the absorbed X-ray-to-current signal conversion efficiencies were 89.3% (theoretical limit; 96.7%) at a trench depth of 170 μm and 91.1% (theoretical limit; 94.3%) at a trench depth of 300 μm. (author)

  16. Room temperature, ppb-level NO2 gas sensing of multiple-networked ZnSe nanowire sensors under UV illumination

    Sunghoon Park

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reports of the gas sensing properties of ZnSe are few, presumably because of the decomposition and oxidation of ZnSe at high temperatures. In this study, ZnSe nanowires were synthesized by the thermal evaporation of ZnSe powders and the sensing performance of multiple-networked ZnSe nanowire sensors toward NO2 gas was examined. The results showed that ZnSe might be a promising gas sensor material if it is used at room temperature. The response of the ZnSe nanowires to 50 ppb–5 ppm NO2 at room temperature under dark and UV illumination conditions were 101–102% and 113–234%, respectively. The responses of the ZnSe nanowires to 5 ppm NO2 increased from 102 to 234% with increasing UV illumination intensity from 0 to 1.2 mW/cm2. The response of the ZnSe nanowires was stronger than or comparable to that of typical metal oxide semiconductors reported in the literature, which require higher NO2 concentrations and operate at higher temperatures. The origin of the enhanced response of the ZnSe nanowires towards NO2 under UV illumination is also discussed.

  17. Low-frequency and multiple-bands sound insulation using hollow boxes with membrane-type faces

    Yu, Wei-wei; Fan, Li; Ma, Ren-hao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2018-04-01

    Hollow boxes with their faces made up of elastic membranes are used to block acoustic waves. It is demonstrated that placing a cuboid membrane-type box inside a pipe can effectively insulate acoustic waves even if the box is smaller than the cross-section of the pipe. The sound insulation is achieved within multiple frequency-bands below 500 Hz based on different mechanisms, which originate from the coaction of the cavity, membrane-type faces, and the intervals between the box and pipe walls. Furthermore, by adjusting the structural parameters and establishing an array of boxes, we can achieve better sound insulation at more frequency-bands.

  18. Multiple populations within globular clusters in Early-type galaxies Exploring their effect on stellar initial mass function estimates

    Chantereau, W.; Usher, C.; Bastian, N.

    2018-05-01

    It is now well-established that most (if not all) ancient globular clusters host multiple populations, that are characterised by distinct chemical features such as helium abundance variations along with N-C and Na-O anti-correlations, at fixed [Fe/H]. These very distinct chemical features are similar to what is found in the centres of the massive early-type galaxies and may influence measurements of the global properties of the galaxies. Additionally, recent results have suggested that M/L variations found in the centres of massive early-type galaxies might be due to a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function. We present an analysis of the effects of globular cluster-like multiple populations on the integrated properties of early-type galaxies. In particular, we focus on spectral features in the integrated optical spectrum and the global mass-to-light ratio that have been used to infer variations in the stellar initial mass function. To achieve this we develop appropriate stellar population synthesis models and take into account, for the first time, an initial-final mass relation which takes into consideration a varying He abundance. We conclude that while the multiple populations may be present in massive early-type galaxies, they are likely not responsible for the observed variations in the mass-to-light ratio and IMF sensitive line strengths. Finally, we estimate the fraction of stars with multiple populations chemistry that come from disrupted globular clusters within massive ellipticals and find that they may explain some of the observed chemical patterns in the centres of these galaxies.

  19. Multiple periodic solutions to a class of second-order nonlinear mixed-type functional differential equations

    Xiao-Bao Shu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of variational structure and Z2 group index theory, we obtain multiple periodic solutions to a class of second-order mixed-type differential equations x''(t−τ+f(t,x(t,x(t−τ,x(t−2τ=0 and x''(t−τ+λ(tf1(t,x(t,x(t−τ,x(t−2τ=x(t−τ.

  20. Development of Gentle Slope Light Guide Structure in a 3.4 μm Pixel Pitch Global Shutter CMOS Image Sensor with Multiple Accumulation Shutter Technology.

    Sekine, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Onuki, Yusuke; Kawabata, Kazunari; Tsuboi, Toshiki; Matsuno, Yasushi; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Inoue, Shunsuke; Ichikawa, Takeshi

    2017-12-09

    CMOS image sensors (CISs) with global shutter (GS) function are strongly required in order to avoid image degradation. However, CISs with GS function have generally been inferior to the rolling shutter (RS) CIS in performance, because they have more components. This problem is remarkable in small pixel pitch. The newly developed 3.4 µm pitch GS CIS solves this problem by using multiple accumulation shutter technology and the gentle slope light guide structure. As a result, the developed GS pixel achieves 1.8 e - temporal noise and 16,200 e - full well capacity with charge domain memory in 120 fps operation. The sensitivity and parasitic light sensitivity are 28,000 e - /lx·s and -89 dB, respectively. Moreover, the incident light angle dependence of sensitivity and parasitic light sensitivity are improved by the gentle slope light guide structure.

  1. Piezoceramic Sensors

    Sharapov, Valeriy

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the latest and complete information about various types of piezosensors. A sensor is a converter of the measured physical size to an electric signal. Piezoelectric transducers and sensors are based on piezoelectric effects. They have proven to be versatile tools for the measurement of various processes. They are used for quality assurance, process control and for research and development in many different industries. In each area of application specific requirements to the parameters of transducers and sensors are developed. This book presents the fundamentals, technical des

  2. Agrobacterium VirB10, an ATP energy sensor required for type IV secretion.

    Cascales, Eric; Christie, Peter J

    2004-12-07

    Bacteria use type IV secretion systems (T4SS) to translocate DNA and protein substrates to target cells of phylogenetically diverse taxa. Recently, by use of an assay termed transfer DNA immunoprecipitation (TrIP), we described the translocation route for a DNA substrate [T-DNA, portion of the Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid that is transferred to plant cells] of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/D4 T4SS in terms of a series of temporally and spatially ordered substrate contacts with subunits of the secretion channel. Here, we report that the bitopic inner membrane protein VirB10 undergoes a structural transition in response to ATP utilization by the VirD4 and VirB11 ATP-binding subunits, as monitored by protease susceptibility. VirB10 interacts with inner membrane VirD4 independently of cellular energetic status, whereas the energy-induced conformational change is required for VirB10 complex formation with an outer membrane-associated heterodimer of VirB7 lipoprotein and VirB9, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation. Under these conditions, the T-DNA substrate is delivered from the inner membrane channel components VirB6 and VirB8 to periplasmic and outer membrane-associated VirB2 pilin and VirB9. We propose that VirD4 and VirB11 coordinate the ATP-dependent formation of a VirB10 "bridge" between inner and outer membrane subassemblies of the VirB/D4 T4SS, and that this morphogenetic event is required for T-DNA translocation across the A. tumefaciens cell envelope.

  3. Identification of multiple HPV types on spermatozoa from human sperm donors

    Kaspersen, Maja D; Larsen, Peter B; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) may cause sexually transmitted disease. High-risk types of HPV are involved in the development of cervical cell dysplasia, whereas low-risk types may cause genital condyloma. Despite the association between HPV and cancer, donor sperm need not be tested for HPV...... according to European regulations. Consequently, the potential health risk of HPV transmission by donor bank sperm has not been elucidated, nor is it known how HPV is associated with sperm. The presence of 35 types of HPV was examined on DNA from semen samples of 188 Danish sperm donors using a sensitive...

  4. Study of TiC+TiN Multiple Films On Type of 316L Stainless Steel

    XUE Qi; JIN Yong; HU Dong-ping; HUANG Ben-sheng; DENG Bai-quan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the synthesis process of TiC+TiN multiple films on super-low-carbon stainless steels is reported.The TiC layer is coated as the first layer in the multiple film, the change of growth rate of the film on the 316L Stainless steel is not same as the one on carbides substrates, while the mole ratio of CH4 to TiCl4 (mCH4/TiCl4) is changed from 1.2to 2.0. The Ti [C, N], as a kind of inter-layer between TiC and TiN layers, is helpful to improve the adhesion between the TiC and TiN layer. The cooling rate greatly influences the quality of the adhesion between the TiC+TiN film and substrates.

  5. Study of TiC+TiN Multiple Films On Type of 316L Stainless Steel

    XUEQi; JINYong; HUDong-ping; HUANGBen-sheng; DENGBai-quan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the synthesis process of TiC+TiN multiple films on super-low-carbon stainless steels is reported. The TiC layer is coated as the first layer in the multiple film, the change of growth rate of the film on the 316L Stainlesss teel is not same as the one on carbides substrates, while the mole ratio of CH4 to TiCl4 (mCH4/TiCl4) is changed from 1.2 to 2.0. The Ti [C,N], as a kind of inter-layer between TiC and TiN layers, is helpful to improve the adhesion hetween the TiC and TiN layer. The cooling rate greatly influences the quality of the adhesion between the TiC+TiN film and substrates.

  6. HLA typing in acute optic neuritis. Relation to multiple sclerosis and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Frederiksen, J.L.; Madsen, H.O.; Ryder, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and HLA findings to clarify the relationship between monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) and ON as part of clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS). DESIGN: Population-based cohort of patients with ON refe......OBJECTIVE: To study the association of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and HLA findings to clarify the relationship between monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) and ON as part of clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS). DESIGN: Population-based cohort of patients......: The frequency of HLA-DR15 was significantly increased in patients with ON + CDMS (52%) and ON (47%) compared with control subjects (31%). The frequency of HLA-DR17 was almost equal in the ON + CDMS (18%), ON (23%), and control (23%) groups. The frequencies of HLA-DQA-1B (55% in ON + CDMS, 58% in ON) and HLA...

  7. An improved early detection method of type-2 diabetes mellitus using multiple classifier system

    Zhu, Jia; Xie, Qing; Zheng, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The specific causes of complex diseases such as Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) have not yet been identified. Nevertheless, many medical science researchers believe that complex diseases are caused by a combination of genetic, environmental

  8. A computer interface for processing multi-parameter data of multiple event types

    Katayama, I.; Ogata, H.

    1980-01-01

    A logic circuit called a 'Raw Data Processor (RDP)' which functions as an interface between ADCs and the PDP-11 computer has been developed at RCNP, Osaka University for general use. It enables data processing simultaneously for numbers of events of various types up to 16, and an arbitrary combination of ADCs of any number up to 14 can be assigned to each event type by means of a pinboard matrix. The details of the RDP and its application are described. (orig.)

  9. Prognostic Classification Factors Associated With Development of Multiple Autoantibodies, Dysglycemia, and Type 1 Diabetes-A Recursive Partitioning Analysis.

    Xu, Ping; Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2016-06-01

    To define prognostic classification factors associated with the progression from single to multiple autoantibodies, multiple autoantibodies to dysglycemia, and dysglycemia to type 1 diabetes onset in relatives of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Three distinct cohorts of subjects from the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study were investigated separately. A recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was used to determine the risk classes. Clinical characteristics, including genotype, antibody titers, and metabolic markers were analyzed. Age and GAD65 autoantibody (GAD65Ab) titers defined three risk classes for progression from single to multiple autoantibodies. The 5-year risk was 11% for those subjects >16 years of age with low GAD65Ab titers, 29% for those ≤16 years of age with low GAD65Ab titers, and 45% for those subjects with high GAD65Ab titers regardless of age. Progression to dysglycemia was associated with islet antigen 2 Ab titers, and 2-h glucose and fasting C-peptide levels. The 5-year risk is 28%, 39%, and 51% for respective risk classes defined by the three predictors. Progression to type 1 diabetes was associated with the number of positive autoantibodies, peak C-peptide level, HbA1c level, and age. Four risk classes defined by RPA had a 5-year risk of 9%, 33%, 62%, and 80%, respectively. The use of RPA offered a new classification approach that could predict the timing of transitions from one preclinical stage to the next in the development of type 1 diabetes. Using these RPA classes, new prevention techniques can be tailored based on the individual prognostic risk characteristics at different preclinical stages. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  10. Prognostic Classification Factors Associated With Development of Multiple Autoantibodies, Dysglycemia, and Type 1 Diabetes—A Recursive Partitioning Analysis

    Krischer, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To define prognostic classification factors associated with the progression from single to multiple autoantibodies, multiple autoantibodies to dysglycemia, and dysglycemia to type 1 diabetes onset in relatives of individuals with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Three distinct cohorts of subjects from the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study were investigated separately. A recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was used to determine the risk classes. Clinical characteristics, including genotype, antibody titers, and metabolic markers were analyzed. RESULTS Age and GAD65 autoantibody (GAD65Ab) titers defined three risk classes for progression from single to multiple autoantibodies. The 5-year risk was 11% for those subjects >16 years of age with low GAD65Ab titers, 29% for those ≤16 years of age with low GAD65Ab titers, and 45% for those subjects with high GAD65Ab titers regardless of age. Progression to dysglycemia was associated with islet antigen 2 Ab titers, and 2-h glucose and fasting C-peptide levels. The 5-year risk is 28%, 39%, and 51% for respective risk classes defined by the three predictors. Progression to type 1 diabetes was associated with the number of positive autoantibodies, peak C-peptide level, HbA1c level, and age. Four risk classes defined by RPA had a 5-year risk of 9%, 33%, 62%, and 80%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The use of RPA offered a new classification approach that could predict the timing of transitions from one preclinical stage to the next in the development of type 1 diabetes. Using these RPA classes, new prevention techniques can be tailored based on the individual prognostic risk characteristics at different preclinical stages. PMID:27208341

  11. Synchronizing data from irregularly sampled sensors

    Uluyol, Onder

    2017-07-11

    A system and method include receiving a set of sampled measurements for each of multiple sensors, wherein the sampled measurements are at irregular intervals or different rates, re-sampling the sampled measurements of each of the multiple sensors at a higher rate than one of the sensor's set of sampled measurements, and synchronizing the sampled measurements of each of the multiple sensors.

  12. GSR-TDMA: A Geometric Spatial Reuse-Time Division Multiple Access MAC Protocol for Multihop Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Changho Yun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonnegligible propagation delay of acoustic signals causes spatiotemporal uncertainty that occasionally enables simultaneous, collision-free packet transmission among underwater nodes (UNs. These transmissions can be handled by efficiently managing the channel access of the UNs in the data-link layer. To this end, Geometric Spatial Reuse-TDMA (GSR-TDMA, a new TDMA-based MAC protocol, is designed for use in centralized, multihop underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs, and in this case all UNs are periodically scheduled after determining a geometric map according to the information on their location. The scheduling strategy increases the number of UNs that send packets coincidentally via two subscheduling configurations (i.e., interhop and intrahop scheduling. Extensive simulations are used to investigate the reception success rate (RSR and the multihop delay (MHD of GSR-TDMA, and the results are compared to those of previous approaches, including C-MAC and HSR-TDMA. GSR-TDMA outperforms C-MAC; the RSR of GSR-TDMA is 15% higher than that of C-MAC, and the MHD of GSR-TDMA is 30% lower than that of C-MAC at the most. In addition, GSR-TDMA provides even better performance improvements over HSR-TDMA; the RSR of GSR-TDMA is 50% higher than that of HSR-TDMA, and the MHD of GSR-TDMA is an order of 102 lower than that of HSR-TDMA at the most.

  13. Mirage effect sensor with simple detector and with multiple detector: application to non destructive evaluation by photothermal excitation

    Charbonnier, Francois

    1990-01-01

    Local photothermal excitation of absorbing sample provides spatial and temporal temperature distribution inside this sample and its neighbouring medium. Optical, thermal and geometrical characteristics (thickness, presence of a defect...) modify surface temperature evolution. The realization of an optical instrument using mirage effect, sensitive and accurate, has came out of two industrial applications of non destructive evaluation: - automatic set-up for absolute measurement of thermal losses on concentrical pipes interface.- set up for quantitative measurement of optical absorption losses on multi coated laser mirrors. To obtain images and compensate acquisition slowness due to investigated thermal phenomenons, a synchronous integration signal process from a multi detector, is described. Experimental set-up using mirage effect detected by a linear CCD reading sensor is realized on this principle. Some examples prove feasibility of this parallel measurement along an excitation line. At last, high frequency parallel synchronous detection with sequential cut-out demodulation was tested and succeeded with a 50 kHz optical signal. (author) [fr

  14. Outward electron transfer by Saccharomyces cerevisiae monitored with a bi-cathodic microbial fuel cell-type activity sensor.

    Ducommun, Raphaël; Favre, Marie-France; Carrard, Delphine; Fischer, Fabian

    2010-03-01

    A Janus head-like bi-cathodic microbial fuel cell was constructed to monitor the electron transfer from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to a woven carbon anode. The experiments were conducted during an ethanol cultivation of 170 g/l glucose in the presence and absence of yeast-peptone medium. First, using a basic fuel-cell type activity sensor, it was shown that yeast-peptone medium contains electroactive compounds. For this purpose, 1% solutions of soy peptone and yeast extract were subjected to oxidative conditions, using a microbial fuel cell set-up corresponding to a typical galvanic cell, consisting of culture medium in the anodic half-cell and 0.5 M K(3)Fe(CN)(6) in the cathodic half-cell. Second, using a bi-cathodic microbial fuel cell, it was shown that electrons were transferred from yeast cells to the carbon anode. The participation of electroactive compounds in the electron transport was separated as background current. This result was verified by applying medium-free conditions, where only glucose was fed, confirming that electrons are transferred from yeast cells to the woven carbon anode. Knowledge about the electron transfer through the cell membrane is of importance in amperometric online monitoring of yeast fermentations and for electricity production with microbial fuel cells. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Factors affecting the performance of a single-chamber microbial fuel cell-type biological oxygen demand sensor.

    Yang, Gai-Xiu; Sun, Yong-Ming; Kong, Xiao-Ying; Zhen, Feng; Li, Ying; Li, Lian-Hua; Lei, Ting-Zhou; Yuan, Zhen-Hong; Chen, Guan-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microorganisms as biocatalysts to degrade organic matter or sludge present in wastewater (WW), and thereby generate electricity. We developed a simple, low-cost single-chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC)-type biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor using carbon felt (anode) and activated sludge, and demonstrated its feasibility in the construction of a real-time BOD measurement system. Further, the effects of anodic pH and organic concentration on SCMFC performance were examined, and the correlation between BOD concentration and its response time was analyzed. Our results demonstrated that the SCMFC exhibited a stable voltage after 132 min following the addition of synthetic WW (BOD concentration: 200 mg/L). Notably, the response signal increased with an increase in BOD concentration (range: 5-200 mg/L) and was found to be directly proportional to the substrate concentration. However, at higher BOD concentrations (>120 mg/L) the response signal remained unaltered. Furthermore, we optimized the SCMFC using synthetic WW, and tested it with real WW. Upon feeding real WW, the BOD values exhibited a standard deviation from 2.08 to 8.3% when compared to the standard BOD5 method, thus demonstrating the practical applicability of the developed system to real treatment effluents.

  16. A Type-2 Block-Component-Decomposition Based 2D AOA Estimation Algorithm for an Electromagnetic Vector Sensor Array

    Yu-Fei Gao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a two-dimensional angle of arrival (2D AOA estimation algorithm for the electromagnetic vector sensor (EMVS array based on Type-2 block component decomposition (BCD tensor modeling. Such a tensor decomposition method can take full advantage of the multidimensional structural information of electromagnetic signals to accomplish blind estimation for array parameters with higher resolution. However, existing tensor decomposition methods encounter many restrictions in applications of the EMVS array, such as the strict requirement for uniqueness conditions of decomposition, the inability to handle partially-polarized signals, etc. To solve these problems, this paper investigates tensor modeling for partially-polarized signals of an L-shaped EMVS array. The 2D AOA estimation algorithm based on rank- ( L 1 , L 2 , · BCD is developed, and the uniqueness condition of decomposition is analyzed. By means of the estimated steering matrix, the proposed algorithm can automatically achieve angle pair-matching. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the present algorithm has the advantages of both accuracy and robustness of parameter estimation. Even under the conditions of lower SNR, small angular separation and limited snapshots, the proposed algorithm still possesses better performance than subspace methods and the canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD method.

  17. Epidemiological analysis of demographic characteristics and type of injuries in patients with multiple trauma with respect to conclusive treatment outcome

    Zagorac Slaviša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Multiple trauma is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the population of people under 45 years of age. The consequences of multiple trauma have huge epidemiological, social and economic significance. Objective The aim of the paper was to analyze the conclusive treatment outcome of multiply traumatized patients with respect to their sex, age, injury mechanism and type. METHOD This retrospective study included 100 patients with multiple injuries (ISS>16 treated in the Emergency Room of the Clinical Centre of Serbia in the course of 2004. Clinical, X-ray, laboratory and numerical presentation methods - scores (ISS and GCS were used to show the injury severity. Results Most of the injured were males (80%, and the average age was 40±20 (5-83. Out of the total number of patients who died, 23 (82% were males, and 5 (18% were females. The average age of the patients with fatal outcomes was 48±21 (8-86. Traffic accidents were the leading cause of injury (59%. The median GCS was 10±3 (3-15. The average ISS was 30 (20-66 in the surviving patients, and 53 (27-77 in those who died. Conclusion With respect to sex, in most cases multiple trauma affects males (p<0.01, with the average age of about 40. With respect to injury mechanism, the main cause of the occurrence of multiple trauma is traffic accidents (p<0.01. There is a statistically significant difference in the values of GCS and ISS relative to the definitive outcome (p<0.01. Statistical data processing indicated that there was a statistically significant correlation between mortality and type of injury in a given organic system (p<0.01, but that there was no statistically significant correlation between mortality and age. .

  18. Highly sensitive and area-efficient CMOS image sensor using a PMOSFET-type photodetector with a built-in transfer gate

    Seo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Do; Kong, Jae-Sung; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Choi, Pyung

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, a new CMOS image sensor is presented, which uses a PMOSFET-type photodetector with a transfer gate that has a high and variable sensitivity. The proposed CMOS image sensor has been fabricated using a 0.35 μm 2-poly 4- metal standard CMOS technology and is composed of a 256 × 256 array of 7.05 × 7.10 μm pixels. The unit pixel has a configuration of a pseudo 3-transistor active pixel sensor (APS) with the PMOSFET-type photodetector with a transfer gate, which has a function of conventional 4-transistor APS. The generated photocurrent is controlled by the transfer gate of the PMOSFET-type photodetector. The maximum responsivity of the photodetector is larger than 1.0 × 10 3 A/W without any optical lens. Fabricated 256 × 256 CMOS image sensor exhibits a good response to low-level illumination as low as 5 lux.

  19. HLA typing in patients with multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS).

    Borruat, F X; Herbort, C P; Spertini, F; Desarnaulds, A B

    1998-03-01

    Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) is an acquired chorioretinal disorder of unknown etiology. We investigated the possibility that MEWDS might be related to a specific HLA subtyping. Blood was obtained from nine patients affected by MEWDS. HLA-B51 was found in four of these nine patients with MEWDS. There was a 3.7-fold increased frequency of HLA-B51 in patients affected by MEWDS (relative risk 5.86). MEWDS might then be related to the presence of a specific HLA subtype, HLA-B51. However, due to the small sample size, our results need to be confirmed by further testing.

  20. Polyvalent type IV sensitizations to multiple fragrances and a skin protection cream in a metal worker.

    Tanko, Zita; Shab, Arna; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig; Weisshaar, Elke

    2009-06-01

    Fragrances are very common in everyday products. A metalworker with chronic hand eczema and previously diagnosed type IV sensitizations to epoxy resin, balsam of Peru, fragrance mix and fragrance mix II was diagnosed with additional type IV sensitizations to geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, lilial, tree moss, oak moss absolute, citral, citronellol, farnesol, Lyral, fragrance mix II and fragrance mix (with sorbitan sesquioleate). In addition, a type IV sensitization to the skin protection cream containing geraniol and citronellol used at the workplace was detected, and deemed occupationally relevant in this case. The patient could have had contact to fragrances through private use of cosmetics and detergents. On the other hand, the fragrance-containing skin protection cream supports occupational exposure. This case report demonstrates that fragrance contact allergy has to be searched for and clarified individually, which requires a thorough history and a detailed analysis of the work place.

  1. Sensor integration of multiple tripolar concentric ring electrodes improves pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure onset detection in rats.

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Ding, Quan; Kay, Steven M; Besio, Walter G

    2012-01-01

    As epilepsy affects approximately one percent of the world population, electrical stimulation of the brain has recently shown potential for additive seizure control therapy. Previously, we applied noninvasive transcranial focal stimulation via tripolar concentric ring electrodes on the scalp of rats after inducing seizures with pentylenetetrazole. We developed a system to detect seizures and automatically trigger the stimulation and evaluated the system on the electrographic activity from rats. In this preliminary study we propose and validate a novel seizure onset detection algorithm based on exponentially embedded family. Unlike the previously proposed approach it integrates the data from multiple electrodes allowing an improvement of the detector performance.

  2. High intensity training may reverse the fiber type specific decline in myogenic stem cells in multiple sclerosis patients

    Jean eFarup

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is associated with loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. The myogenic stem cells (satellite cells – SCs are instrumental to accretion of myonuclei, but remain to be investigated in MS. The present study aimed to compare the SC and myonuclei content between MS patients (n=23 and age matched healthy controls (HC, n=18. Furthermore, the effects of 12 weeks of high intensity training on SC and myonuclei content were explored in MS. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. Vastus Lateralis at baseline (MS+HC and following 12 weeks of training (MS only. Frozen biopsies were sectioned followed by immunohistochemical analysis for fiber type specific SCs (Pax7+, myonuclei (MN and central nuclei content and fiber cross-sectional area (fCSA using ATPase histochemistry. At baseline the SCs per fiber was lower in type II compared to type I fiber in both MS (119%, p<0.01 and HC (69%, p<0.05, whereas the SCs per fCSA was lower in type II fibers compared to type I only in MS (72%, p<0.05. No differences were observed in MN or central nuclei between MS and HC. Following training the type II fiber SCs per fiber and fCSA in MS patients increased by 165% (p<0.05 and 135% (p<0.05, respectively. Furthermore, the type II fiber MN content increased by 35% (p<0.05 following training. In conclusion, the SC content is lower in type II compared to type I fibers in both MS and HC. Furthermore, high intensity training was observed to selectively increase the SC and myonuclei content in type II fibers in MS patients.

  3. Algorithms for Some Euler-Type Identities for Multiple Zeta Values

    Shifeng Ding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple zeta values are the numbers defined by the convergent series ζ(s1,s2,…,sk=∑n1>n2>⋯>nk>0(1/n1s1 n2s2⋯nksk, where s1, s2, …, sk are positive integers with s1>1. For k≤n, let E(2n,k be the sum of all multiple zeta values with even arguments whose weight is 2n and whose depth is k. The well-known result E(2n,2=3ζ(2n/4 was extended to E(2n,3 and E(2n,4 by Z. Shen and T. Cai. Applying the theory of symmetric functions, Hoffman gave an explicit generating function for the numbers E(2n,k and then gave a direct formula for E(2n,k for arbitrary k≤n. In this paper we apply a technique introduced by Granville to present an algorithm to calculate E(2n,k and prove that the direct formula can also be deduced from Eisenstein's double product.

  4. U12 type introns were lost at multiple occasions during evolution

    Bartschat Sebastian

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two categories of introns are known, a common U2 type and a rare U12 type. These two types of introns are removed by distinct spliceosomes. The phylogenetic distribution of spliceosomal RNAs that are characteristic of the U12 spliceosome, i.e. the U11, U12, U4atac and U6atac RNAs, suggest that U12 spliceosomes were lost in many phylogenetic groups. We have now examined the distribution of U2 and U12 introns in many of these groups. Results U2 and U12 introns were predicted by making use of available EST and genomic sequences. The results show that in species or branches where U12 spliceosomal components are missing, also U12 type of introns are lacking. Examples are the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, Entamoeba histolytica, green algae, diatoms, and the fungal lineage Basidiomycota. Furthermore, whereas U12 splicing does not occur in Caenorhabditis elegans, U12 introns as well as U12 snRNAs are present in Trichinella spiralis, which is deeply branching in the nematode tree. A comparison of homologous genes in T. spiralis and C. elegans revealed different mechanisms whereby U12 introns were lost. Conclusions The phylogenetic distribution of U12 introns and spliceosomal RNAs give further support to an early origin of U12 dependent splicing. In addition, this distribution identifies a large number of instances during eukaryotic evolution where such splicing was lost.

  5. Solar Distillation System Based on Multiple-Effect Diffusion Type Still

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Chong, Tze-Ling; Chang, Hsien-Shun; Wu, Po-Hsien; Kao, Yeong-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    The present study intends to develop a high-performance solar-assisted desalination system (SADS) using multi-effect diffusion type still (MEDS) and the vacuum tube solar collector (VTSC). A MEDS prototype was designed and built. The measured result

  6. Learning styles and types of multiple intelligences in dental students in their first and tenth semester. Monterrey, Mexico, 2015.

    Juan Solís-Soto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays the incorporation and validation of learning styles and multiple intelligences enable teachers to obtain positive results in academic performance. This new approach has allowed to appreciate personal differences in dental students and strengthen their underdeveloped aspects, improving teaching and learning skills. Objective: To compare learning styles and multiple intelligences in a sample of Mexican dental students in their first and tenth semester. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using questionnaires on learning styles (Honey-Alonso and Gardner’s multiple intelligences was performed. The study was applied to 123 students in their first semester and 157 in their tenth semester at the School of Dentistry at Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, evaluating differences between age and sex. Results: Logical-Mathematical intelligence (p=0.044 and Kinesthetic-Corporal intelligence (p=0.042 showed significant differences between students of both semesters, with intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences being more prevalent. Within learning styles, the prevalent were Reflexive and Theoretical, showing a significant difference between semesters (p=0.005. Conclusion: The most prevalent learning styles in both groups were Reflexive and Theoretical, with no difference between both sexes. The most prevalent types of multiple intelligences in both sexes and groups were interpersonal and intrapersonal.

  7. Multiple sclerosis masquerading as Alzheimer-type dementia: Clinical, radiological and pathological findings.

    Tobin, W O; Popescu, B F; Lowe, V; Pirko, I; Parisi, J E; Kantarci, K; Fields, J A; Bruns, M B; Boeve, B F; Lucchinetti, C F

    2016-04-01

    We report a comprehensive clinical, radiological, neuropsychometric and pathological evaluation of a woman with a clinical diagnosis of AD dementia (ADem), but whose autopsy demonstrated widespread demyelination, without Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. Initial neuropsychometric evaluation suggested amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Serial magnetic resonance images (MRI) images demonstrated the rate of increase in her ventricular volume was comparable to that of 46 subjects with aMCI who progressed to ADem, without accumulating white matter disease. Myelin immunohistochemistry at autopsy demonstrated extensive cortical subpial demyelination. Subpial lesions involved the upper cortical layers, and often extended through the entire width of the cortex. Multiple sclerosis (MS) can cause severe cortical dysfunction and mimic ADem. Cortical demyelination is not well detected by standard imaging modalities and may not be detected on autopsy without myelin immunohistochemistry. © The Author(s), 2015.

  8. Simulation of new p-type strip detectors with trench to enhance the charge multiplication effect in the n-type electrodes

    Fernández-Martínez, P.; Pellegrini, G.; Balbuena, J.P.; Quirion, D.; Hidalgo, S.; Flores, D.; Lozano, M.; Casse, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows the simulation results of new p-type strip detectors with trench electrodes to enhance the charge multiplication effect in the irradiated detector. The new design includes baby microstrip detectors (area=1 cm 2 ) with a strip pitch of 80 μm and p-stop isolation structures. The strip has a 5 μm-wide trench along all its length, filled and doped with polysilicon to create a deep N + contact into the material bulk. The trench depth can be varied in order to study the influence of the electric field on the charge multiplication effect in heavily irradiated samples. Some alternative designs have also been studied to establish a comparison between various structures using different technologies. Simulation reproduce the electrical behaviour under different irradiation conditions, taking into account the damage accumulated after irradiation with neutrons and protons with several fluence values. The investigation of these effects provides important indications on the ability of this modified electrode geometry to control and optimise the charge multiplication effect, in order to fully recover the collection efficiency of heavily irradiated microstrip detectors, at reasonable bias voltage compatible with the voltage feed limitation of the CERN SLHC experiments.

  9. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) with multiple vascular complications misdiagnosed as Dubowitz syndrome

    Dieks, Jana-Katharina; Baumer, Alessandra; Wilichowski, Ekkehard; Rauch, Anita; Sigler, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    To date, the genetic basis of Dubowitz syndrome (short stature, microcephaly, facial abnormalities, eczema) is unknown and vascular complications are not known to be associated with this syndrome. In microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II; disproportionate short statue, microcephaly, facial abnormalities), however, cerebral aneurysms and other vascular abnormalities are frequent complications. MOPD II is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the pericentrin (PC...

  10. Multiple types of harassment: associations with emotional well-being and unhealthy behaviors in adolescents.

    Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Wall, Melanie M; Piran, Niva; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-06-01

    To explore relationships between harassment (i.e., race-, weight-, socioeconomic-status (SES)-based, and sexual) and health-related outcomes, including self-esteem, depressive symptoms, body satisfaction, substance use, and self-harm behavior, among diverse adolescents. Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study of adolescents participating in Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 (EAT 2010) (n = 2,793; mean age = 14.4 years). Sample was socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse (81% racial/ethnic minority; 54% low or low-middle income). Having experienced any type of harassment was significantly associated with poor self-esteem, depressive symptoms, low body satisfaction, substance use, and self-harm behaviors. After mutually adjusting for other types of harassment, weight-based harassment was consistently associated with lower self-esteem and lower body satisfaction in both genders (standardized βs ranged in magnitude from .39 to .48); sexual harassment was significantly associated with self-harm and substance use in both genders (ORs: 1.64 to 2.92); and both weight-based and sexual harassment were significantly associated with depressive symptoms among girls (standardized βs = .34 and .37). Increases in the number of different harassment types reported by adolescents were associated with elevated risk for alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, and self-harm (ORs: 1.22 to 1.42) as well as emotional well-being (standardized βs: .13 to .26). Having had any harassment experience was significantly associated with a variety of negative health and well-being outcomes among adolescents, and risk for these outcomes increases with the number of harassment types an adolescent experiences. Early detection and intervention to decrease harassment experiences may be particularly important in mitigating psychological and behavioral harm among adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  11. Froissart type rise of cross sections and predictions for spectra and multiplicities of hadrons at future accelerators

    Ter-Martirosyan, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental data of ISR and SPS colliders on σ tot and on the diffraction cone slope [B(s)] t=0 are used for a more precise determination of parameters (s=αp(0)-1 and others) of the supercritical Pomeron. With account of all P n rescatterings it leads to the Froissart type rise of cross sections at high energy. The quark-gluon string model of Pomeron, describing the existing experimental data, leads to predictions for super high energies of spectra of hadrons produced with small p perpendcular , in particular, the values of (dN ch /dy) y=0 , hadron average multiplicities =N-bar ch (ξ) and even their distributions over multiplicity W(N)=S N /σ in . The results are presented as curves and tables for energies √ s=0.9, 2, 4, 10, 20, 40, 10 2 , 10 3 TeV

  12. Embolization as an Alternative Treatment of Insulinoma in a Patient with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Syndrome

    Peppa, Melpomeni; Brountzos, Elias; Economopoulos, Nicolaos; Boutati, Eleni; Pikounis, Vasilios; Patapis, Paul; Economopoulos, Theofanis; Raptis, Sotirios A.; Hadjidakis, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    Insulinoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor, most commonly originating from the pancreas, which is either sporadic or familial as a component of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1). It is characterized by increased insulin secretion leading to hypoglycemia. Surgical removal is considered the treatment of choice, with limited side effects and relatively low morbidity and mortality, both being improved by the laparoscopic procedure. We present the case of a 30-year-old patient with MEN1 and recurrent insulinoma with severe hypoglycemic episodes who could not be surgically treated due to the adherence of the tumor to large blood vessels and to prior multiple surgical operations. He was treated by repeated embolization using spherical polyvinyl alcohol particles, resulting in shrinkage of the tumor, improvement of the frequency and severity of the hypoglycemic episodes, and better quality of life.

  13. A Kolmogorov-type competition model with multiple coexistence states and its applications to plant competition for sunlight

    Just, Winfried; Nevai, Andrew L.

    2008-12-01

    It is demonstrated that a Kolmogorov-type competition model featuring species allocation and gain functions can possess multiple coexistence statesE Two examples are constructed: one in which the two competing species possess rectangular allocation functions but distinct gain functions, and the other in which one species has a rectangular allocation function, the second species has a bi-rectangular allocation function, and the two species share a common gain function. In both examples, it is shown that the species nullclines may intersect multiple times within the interior of the first quadrant, thus creating both locally stable and unstable equilibrium points. These results have important applications in the study of plant competition for sunlight, in which the allocation functions describe the vertical placement of leaves for two competing species, and the gain functions represent rates of photosynthesis performed by leaves at different heights when shaded by overlying leaves belonging to either species.

  14. Reinforcement of a plate weakened by multiple holes with several patches for different types of plate-patch attachment

    Zemlyanova, A.

    2014-01-24

    The most general situation of the reinforcement of a plate with multiple holes by several patches is considered. There is no restriction on the number and the location of the patches. Two types of patch attachment are considered: only along the boundary of the patch or both along the boundary of the patch and the boundaries of the holes which this patch covers. The unattached boundaries of the holes may be loaded with given in-plane stresses. The mechanical problem is reduced to a system of singular integral equations which can be further reduced to a system of Fredholm equations. A new numerical procedure for the solution of the system of singular integral equations is proposed in this paper. It is demonstrated on numerical examples that this procedure has advantages in the case of multiple patches and holes and allows achievement of better numerical convergence with less computational effort.

  15. Multiple Types of Harassment: Associations with Emotional Well-being and Unhealthy Behaviors in Adolescents

    Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Wall, Melanie M.; Piran, Niva; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore relationships between harassment (i.e., race-, weight-, SES-based, sexual) and health-related outcomes, including self-esteem, depressive symptoms, body satisfaction, substance use, and self-harm behavior, among diverse adolescents. Method Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study with socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse sample (81% racial/ethnic minority; 54% low or low-middle income) of adolescents participating in Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 (EAT 2010) (n = 2,793; mean age = 14.4 years). Results Harassment experiences were significantly associated with negative health behaviors and well-being. After mutually adjusting for other types of harassment, weight-based harassment was consistently associated with lower self-esteem and lower body satisfaction in both genders (standardized βs ranged in magnitude from 0.39 to 0.48); sexual harassment was significantly associated with self-harm and substance use in both genders (ORs: 1.64 to 2.92); and both weight-based and sexual harassment were significantly associated with depressive symptoms among girls (standardized βs = 0.34 and 0.37). Increases in the number of harassment types reported by adolescents were associated with elevated risk for all outcomes regarding substance use/self-harm (ORs: 1.22 to 1.42) and emotional well-being (standardized βs: 0.13 to 0.26). Conclusions Harassment—particularly weight-based and sexual harassment— is associated with a variety of negative health and well-being outcomes among adolescents, and risk for these outcomes increases with the number of harassment types an adolescent experiences. Early detection and intervention to decrease harassment experiences may be particularly important in mitigating psychological and behavioral harm among adolescents. PMID:24411820

  16. Solar Distillation System Based on Multiple-Effect Diffusion Type Still

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2014-03-01

    The present study intends to develop a high-performance solar-assisted desalination system (SADS) using multi-effect diffusion type still (MEDS) and the vacuum tube solar collector (VTSC). A MEDS prototype was designed and built. The measured result is very close to the estimation. The 10-effect MEDS will produce pure water at about 13.7 L/day/m2 collector area at a solar irradiation of 600 W/m2 and 19.7 L/day/m2 collector area at solar irradiation 800 W/m2. For 20-effect still, the yield rate increase is 32% compared to 10-effect still.

  17. Iterative Relay Scheduling with Hybrid ARQ under Multiple User Equipment (Type II) Relay Environments

    Nam, Sung Sik

    2018-01-09

    In this work, we propose an iterative relay scheduling with hybrid ARQ (IRS-HARQ) scheme which realizes fast jump-in/successive relaying and subframe-based decoding under the multiple user equipment (UE) relay environments applicable to the next-generation cellular systems (e.g., LTE-Advanced and beyond). The proposed IRS-HARQ aims to increase the achievable data rate by iteratively scheduling a relatively better UE relay closer to the end user in a probabilistic sense, provided that the relay-to-end user link should be operated in an open-loop and transparent mode. The latter is due to the fact that not only there are no dedicated control channels between the UE relay and the end user but also a new cell is not created. Under this open-loop and transparent mode, our proposed protocol is implemented by partially exploiting the channel state information based on the overhearing mechanism of ACK/NACK for HARQ. Further, the iterative scheduling enables UE-to-UE direct communication with proximity that offers spatial frequency reuse and energy saving.

  18. Multiple contemporary arterial dissection in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV

    Anna Rocci

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of multiple spontaneous arteries dissection in a 52-year-old female; the patient had a relevant family history of vascular complications and typical features so we hypothesized vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS that was confirmed by genetic analysis of COL3A1 gene. We adopted a conservative approach: the patient was treated with heparin in the acute phase followed by aspirin and then celiprolol was started on the basis of a recent trial that demonstrates a reduction in arterial events in EDS patient treated. A careful follow-up was done with Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography scan, as non-invasive diagnostic techniques are preferred in these patients, and no other vascular symptomatic events have occurred. We tested all living relatives: half of them had COL3A1 mutation, they were referred to another center specialized in rare diseases and EDS for long-term follow-up and genetic counseling. This case demonstrates as a careful evaluation of clinical signs, clinical history of the patient and his family has allowed a definitive diagnosis, proper management of the patient during the acute event and in terms of prophylaxis of recurrence.

  19. Wh-question intonation in Peninsular Spanish: Multiple contours and the effect of task type

    Nicholas C. Henriksen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an experimental investigation of wh-question intonation in Peninsular Spanish. Speech data were collected from six León, Spain Peninsular Spanish speakers, and oral production data were elicited under two conditions: a computerized sentence reading task and an information gap task-oriented dialogue. The latter task was an adaptation of the HCRC Map Task method (cf. Anderson et al., 1991 and was designed to elicit multiple wh-question productions in an unscripted and more spontaneous speech style than the standard sentence reading task. Results indicate that four contours exist in the tonal inventory of the six speakers. The two most frequent contours were a final rise contour and a nuclear circumflex contour. Systematic task-based differences were found for four of the six speakers, indicating that sentence reading task data alone may not accurately reflect spontaneous speech tonal patterns (cf. Cruttenden, 2007; but see also Lickley, Schepman, & Ladd, 2005. The experimental findings serve to clarify a number of assumptions about the syntax-prosody interface underlying wh-question utterance signaling; they also have implications for research methods in intonation and task-based variation in laboratory phonology.

  20. Unravelling Darwin's entangled bank: architecture and robustness of mutualistic networks with multiple interaction types.

    Dáttilo, Wesley; Lara-Rodríguez, Nubia; Jordano, Pedro; Guimarães, Paulo R; Thompson, John N; Marquis, Robert J; Medeiros, Lucas P; Ortiz-Pulido, Raul; Marcos-García, Maria A; Rico-Gray, Victor

    2016-11-30

    Trying to unravel Darwin's entangled bank further, we describe the architecture of a network involving multiple forms of mutualism (pollination by animals, seed dispersal by birds and plant protection by ants) and evaluate whether this multi-network shows evidence of a structure that promotes robustness. We found that species differed strongly in their contributions to the organization of the multi-interaction network, and that only a few species contributed to the structuring of these patterns. Moreover, we observed that the multi-interaction networks did not enhance community robustness compared with each of the three independent mutualistic networks when analysed across a range of simulated scenarios of species extinction. By simulating the removal of highly interacting species, we observed that, overall, these species enhance network nestedness and robustness, but decrease modularity. We discuss how the organization of interlinked mutualistic networks may be essential for the maintenance of ecological communities, and therefore the long-term ecological and evolutionary dynamics of interactive, species-rich communities. We suggest that conserving these keystone mutualists and their interactions is crucial to the persistence of species-rich mutualistic assemblages, mainly because they support other species and shape the network organization. © 2016 The Author(s).