WorldWideScience

Sample records for multiple scattering series

  1. Quantum Optical Multiple Scattering

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær

    . In the first part we use a scattering-matrix formalism combined with results from random-matrix theory to investigate the interference of quantum optical states on a multiple scattering medium. We investigate a single realization of a scattering medium thereby showing that it is possible to create entangled...... states by interference of squeezed beams. Mixing photon states on the single realization also shows that quantum interference naturally arises by interfering quantum states. We further investigate the ensemble averaged transmission properties of the quantized light and see that the induced quantum...... interference survives even after disorder averaging. The quantum interference manifests itself through increased photon correlations. Furthermore, the theoretical description of a measurement procedure is presented. In this work we relate the noise power spectrum of the total transmitted or reflected light...

  2. Scattering and multiple scattering in disordered materials

    Weaver, R.L.; Butler, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The papers in this section were presented at a joint session of symposium V on Applications of Multiple Scattering Theory and of Symposium P on Disordered Systems. They show that the ideas of scattering theory can help us to understand a very broad class of phenomena

  3. Determination of multiple scattering effects

    Langevin, M.

    1981-01-01

    The integration of Sigmund and Winterbon numerical values is extended to the reduced thickness tau=2000. The diagram obtained allows a simple determination of the multiple scattering effect for different targets and projectiles [fr

  4. Static and dynamic properties of multiple light scattering

    Štěpánek, Petr

    1993-11-01

    We have examined the onset and evolution of multiple scattering of light on a series of latex dispersions as a function of increasing volume concentration φ of particles. We have shown that using vertically polarized incident light, the static scattered intensity becomes progressively depolarized, with increasing φ. The polarization of scattered light is completely random in the limit of strong multiple scattering. The spectra of decay times of dynamic light scattering display a region of oligo scattering at intermediate φ where both the single and multiple scattering components can be dynamically identified. For φ≳0.03 the limit of diffusive transport of light is attained. The obtained results confirm that our earlier measurements of dynamic light scattering on systems exhibiting critical opalescence are not influenced by multiple light scattering.

  5. Effect of multiple scattering on lidar measurements

    Cohen, A.

    1977-01-01

    The lidar equation in its standard form involves the assumption that the scattered irradiance reaching the lidar receiver has been only singly scattered. However, in the cases of scattering from clouds and thick aerosol layers, it is shown that multiple scattering cannot be neglected. An experimental method for the detection of multiple scattering by depolarization measurement techniques is discussed. One method of theoretical calculations of double-scattering is presented and discussed

  6. Spatial photon correlations in multiple scattering media

    Smolka, Stephan; Muskens, O.; Lagendijk, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first angle-resolved measurements of spatial photon correlations that are induced by multiple scattering of light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions and depends on incident photon fluctuations.......We present the first angle-resolved measurements of spatial photon correlations that are induced by multiple scattering of light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions and depends on incident photon fluctuations....

  7. Gamma holography from multiple scattering

    Coussement, R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the introduction of heterodyne methods for synchrotron radiation (Cousesement et al. in Phys. Rev. B 54:16003, 1996; Callens et al. in Phys. Rev. 67:104423, 2003) one observes interferences between two scattering amplitudes; the scattering amplitude of resonant nuclei in a reference sample and the scattering amplitude of nuclei in the sample under investigation. Theses interferences can easily been observed as resonances in velocity spectra when one uses a time integrated method. They can also been observed as quantum beats, when one would use the time differential method. For both methods it is important that one uses a reference sample and therefore both methods disserved the name 'heterodyne methods.' As theses interferences are a product of two scattering amplitudes, the amplitude of a wave scattered form the investigated sample can be known with its phase. But it is assumed that the reference wave is known in advance by a proper choice of the reference sample. At first sight it is very likely that multiple scattering would add more complexity but in this paper it is claimed that on the contrary it provide a bonus, especially for single crystals. It provokes only a line broadening and a line shift of the resonances in the velocity spectra (or a change in the damping and frequency of the quantum beats when the time spectra are registered). Moreover these changes in the line shapes can easily be measured and they provide all the information needed to reconstruct a 3-D picture of the atomic arrangement of resonant nuclei and moreover they distinguish between different hyperfine sites. The method may be more practical for measurements on synchrotron radiation but it does also apply to velocity spectra obtained from resonant scattering with strong sources. The use of radioactive sources suffer from the disadvantage of poorer statistics or much longer accumulation times but they enjoy the advantage to be table-top and at-home experiments. As strong sources are

  8. Thermal-neutron multiple scattering: critical double scattering

    Holm, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    A quantum mechanical formulation for multiple scattering of thermal-neutrons from macroscopic targets is presented and applied to single and double scattering. Critical nuclear scattering from liquids and critical magnetic scattering from ferromagnets are treated in detail in the quasielastic approximation for target systems slightly above their critical points. Numerical estimates are made of the double scattering contribution to the critical magnetic cross section using relevant parameters from actual experiments performed on various ferromagnets. The effect is to alter the usual Lorentzian line shape dependence on neutron wave vector transfer. Comparison with corresponding deviations in line shape resulting from the use of Fisher's modified form of the Ornstein-Zernike spin correlations within the framework of single scattering theory leads to values for the critical exponent eta of the modified correlations which reproduce the effect of double scattering. In addition, it is shown that by restricting the range of applicability of the multiple scattering theory from the outset to critical scattering, Glauber's high energy approximation can be used to provide a much simpler and more powerful description of multiple scattering effects. When sufficiently close to the critical point, it provides a closed form expression for the differential cross section which includes all orders of scattering and has the same form as the single scattering cross section with a modified exponent for the wave vector transfer

  9. Correlation expansion: a powerful alternative multiple scattering calculation method

    Zhao Haifeng; Wu Ziyu; Sebilleau, Didier

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a powerful alternative expansion method to perform multiple scattering calculations. In contrast to standard MS series expansion, where the scattering contributions are grouped in terms of scattering order and may diverge in the low energy region, this expansion, called correlation expansion, partitions the scattering process into contributions from different small atom groups and converges at all energies. It converges faster than MS series expansion when the latter is convergent. Furthermore, it takes less memory than the full MS method so it can be used in the near edge region without any divergence problem, even for large clusters. The correlation expansion framework we derive here is very general and can serve to calculate all the elements of the scattering path operator matrix. Photoelectron diffraction calculations in a cluster containing 23 atoms are presented to test the method and compare it to full MS and standard MS series expansion

  10. Significance of multiple scattering in imaging through turbid media

    Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1986-01-01

    The degradation of image quality in a turbid medium is analyzed within the framework of the small-angle approximation, the diffusion approximation, and a rigorous two-dimensional radiative transfer equation. These three approaches allow us to emphasize different aspects of the imaging problem when multiple scattering effects are important. For a medium with a forward-peaked phase function, the separation of multiple scattering into a series of scatterings of various order provides a fruitful technique. The use of the diffusion approximation and transport theory extends the determination of the modulation transfer function to a turbid medium with an arbitrary degree of anisotropy

  11. Certain theories of multiple scattering in random media of discrete scatterers

    Olsen, R.L.; Kharadly, M.M.Z.; Corr, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    New information is presented on the accuracy of the heuristic approximations in two important theories of multiple scattering in random media of discrete scatterers: Twersky's ''free-space'' and ''two-space scatterer'' formalisms. Two complementary approaches, based primarily on a one-dimensional model and the one-dimensional forms of the theories, are used. For scatterer distributions of low average density, the ''heuristic'' asymptotic forms for the coherent field and the incoherent intensity are compared with asymptotic forms derived from a systematic analysis of the multiple scattering processes. For distributions of higher density, both in the average number of scatterers per wavelength and in the degree of packing of finite-size scatterers, the analysis is carried out ''experimentally'' by means of a Monte Carlo computer simulation. Approximate series expressions based on the systematic approach are numerically evaluated along with the heuristic expressions. The comparison (for both forward- and back-scattered field moments) is made for the worst-case conditions of strong multiple scattering for which the theories have not previously been evaluated. Several significant conclusions are drawn which have certain practical implications: in application of the theories to describe some of the scattering phenomena which occur in the troposphere, and in the further evaluation of the theories using experiments on physical models

  12. The multiple Dirichlet product and the multiple Dirichlet series

    Onozuka, Tomokazu

    2016-01-01

    First, we define the multiple Dirichlet product and study the properties of it. From those properties, we obtain a zero-free region of a multiple Dirichlet series and a multiple Dirichlet series expression of the reciprocal of a multiple Dirichlet series.

  13. Multiple Indicator Stationary Time Series Models.

    Sivo, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the propriety and practical advantages of specifying multivariate time series models in the context of structural equation modeling for time series and longitudinal panel data. For time series data, the multiple indicator model specification improves on classical time series analysis. For panel data, the multiple indicator model…

  14. Multiple scattering processes: inverse and direct

    Kagiwada, H.H.; Kalaba, R.; Ueno, S.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the work is to formulate inverse problems in radiative transfer, to introduce the functions b and h as parameters of internal intensity in homogeneous slabs, and to derive initial value problems to replace the more traditional boundary value problems and integral equations of multiple scattering with high computational efficiency. The discussion covers multiple scattering processes in a one-dimensional medium; isotropic scattering in homogeneous slabs illuminated by parallel rays of radiation; the theory of functions b and h in homogeneous slabs illuminated by isotropic sources of radiation either at the top or at the bottom; inverse and direct problems of multiple scattering in slabs including internal sources; multiple scattering in inhomogeneous media, with particular reference to inverse problems for estimation of layers and total thickness of inhomogeneous slabs and to multiple scattering problems with Lambert's law and specular reflectors underlying slabs; and anisotropic scattering with reduction of the number of relevant arguments through axially symmetric fields and expansion in Legendre functions. Gaussian quadrature data for a seven point formula, a FORTRAN program for computing the functions b and h, and tables of these functions supplement the text

  15. High-energy expansion for nuclear multiple scattering

    Wallace, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    The Watson multiple scattering series is expanded to develop the Glauber approximation plus systematic corrections arising from three (1) deviations from eikonal propagation between scatterings, (2) Fermi motion of struck nucleons, and (3) the kinematic transformation which relates the many-body scattering operators of the Watson series to the physical two-body scattering amplitude. Operators which express effects ignored at the outset to obtain the Glauber approximation are subsequently reintroduced via perturbation expansions. Hence a particular set of approximations is developed which renders the sum of the Watson series to the Glauber form in the center of mass system, and an expansion is carried out to find leading order corrections to that summation. Although their physical origins are quite distinct, the eikonal, Fermi motion, and kinematic corrections produce strikingly similar contributions to the scattering amplitude. It is shown that there is substantial cancellation between their effects and hence the Glauber approximation is more accurate than the individual approximations used in its derivation. It is shown that the leading corrections produce effects of order (2kR/subc/) -1 relative to the double scattering term in the uncorrected Glauber amplitude, hk being momentum and R/subc/ the nuclear char []e radius. The leading order corrections are found to be small enough to validate quatitative analyses of experimental data for many intermediate to high energy cases and for scattering angles not limited to the very forward region. In a Gaussian model, the leading corrections to the Glauber amplitude are given as convenient analytic expressions

  16. Multiple scattering of ions in polyatomic materials

    Eastham, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The equations which determine small angle multiple scattering in the thin polyatomic layers are evaluated numerically for certain cases. A simple approximate method for calculating the scattering in terms of an average target charge which is a function of the target thickness is given and compared with the exact numerical value. The results agree to better than 5% over a wide range of target composition and thickness. (orig.)

  17. Theory of Multiple Coulomb Scattering from Extended Nuclei

    Cooper, L. N.; Rainwater, J.

    1954-08-01

    Two independent methods are described for calculating the multiple scattering distribution for projected angle scattering resulting when very high energy charged particles traverse a thick scatterer. The results are compared with the theories of Moliere and Olbert.

  18. Lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering

    Bichsel, H.; Hanson, K.M.; Schillaci, K.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1982-07-01

    Values have been calculated for the average lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering of protons with energies of several hundred MeV. The calculations incorporate the Moliere distribution which does not make the gaussian approximations of the distribution in projected angle and lateral deflections. Compared to other published data, such approximations can lead to errors in the lateral displacement of up to 10% in water.

  19. Multiple Scattering Model for Optical Coherence Tomography with Rytov Approximation

    Li, Muxingzi

    2017-01-01

    of speckles due to multiple scatterers within the coherence length, and other random noise. Motivated by the above two challenges, a multiple scattering model based on Rytov approximation and Gaussian beam optics is proposed for the OCT setup. Some previous

  20. Multiple scattering theory for space filling potentials

    Butler, W.H.; Brown, R.G.; Nesbet, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Multiple scattering theory (MST) provides an efficient technique for solving the wave equation for the special case of muffin-tin potentials. Here MST is extended to treat space filling non-muffin tin potentials and its validity, accuracy and efficiency are tested by application of the two dimensional empty lattice test. For this test it is found that the traditional formulation of MST does not coverage as the number of partial waves is increased. A simple modification of MST, however, allows this problem to be solved exactly and efficiently. 15 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Quantum optics in multiple scattering random media

    Lodahl, Peter; Lagendijk, Ad

    2005-01-01

    Quantum Optics in Multiple Scattering Random Media Peter Lodahl Research Center COM, Technical University of Denmark, Dk-2800 Lyngby, Denmark. Coherent transport of light in a disordered random medium has attracted enormous attention both from a fundamental and application point of view. Coherent......-tions that should be readily attainable experimentally is devised. Figure 1. Inverse total transmission of shot noise (left) and technical noise (right) as a function of the thickness of the ran-dom medium. The experimental data are well explained by theory (curves). [1] J. Tworzydlo and C.W.J. Beenakker, Phys. Rev...

  2. Coulomb interaction in multiple scattering theory

    Ray, L.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Thaler, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    The treatment of the Coulomb interaction in the multiple scattering theories of Kerman-McManus-Thaler and Watson is examined in detail. By neglecting virtual Coulomb excitations, the lowest order Coulomb term in the Watson optical potential is shown to be a convolution of the point Coulomb interaction with the distributed nuclear charge, while the equivalent Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb potential is obtained from an averaged, single-particle Coulombic T matrix. The Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb potential is expressed as the Watson Coulomb term plus additional Coulomb-nuclear and Coulomb-Coulomb cross terms, and the omission of the extra terms in usual Kerman-McManus-Thaler applications leads to negative infinite total reaction cross section predictions and incorrect pure Coulomb scattering limits. Approximations are presented which eliminate these anomalies. Using the two-potential formula, the full projectile-nucleus T matrix is separated into two terms, one resulting from the distributed nuclear charge and the other being a Coulomb distorted nuclear T matrix. It is shown that the error resulting from the omission of the Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb terms is effectively removed when the pure Coulomb T matrix in Kerman-McManus-Thaler is replaced by the analogous quantity in the Watson approach. Using the various approximations, theoretical angular distributions are obtained for 800 MeV p+ 208 Pb elastic scattering and compared with experimental data

  3. Eikonal multiple scattering model within the framework of Feynman's positron theory

    Tekou, A.

    1986-07-01

    The Bethe Salpeter equation for nucleon-nucleon, nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering is eikonalized. Multiple scattering series is obtained. Contributions of three body interations are included. The model presented below may be used to investigate atomic collisions. (author)

  4. Multiple scattering effects in 7Li

    Cox, A.J.; Warner, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The differential cross-sections for the production of 0.478 MeV γ-rays following the inelastic scattering of 14 MeV neutrons in large samples of LiF, which will be used in fusion reactor blankets, have been measured. The neutrons were produced using the 3 H(d,n) 4 α reaction, with the deuterons being accelerated by a 150 kV SAMES type accelerator. In order to reduce the background level the γ-ray signal was gated, using a time of flight technique based on the α-particle associated with neutron production. Measurements of the γ-ray production differential cross-sections were made for various thicknesses of LiF. The results were compared to the predictions of the Monte Carlo Computer Code, MORSE, with an agreement of +-11% being achieved. In addition a phenomenological expression was found which is capable of predicting the variation in cross-sections with thickness due to multiple scattering effects to within +-12%. (author)

  5. Quantum limits of Eisenstein series and scattering states

    Petridis, Y.N.; Raulf, N.; Risager, Morten S.

    2013-01-01

    We identify the quantum limits of scattering states for the modular surface. This is obtained through the study of quantum measures of non-holomorphic Eisenstein series away from the critical line. We provide a range of stability for the quantum unique ergodicity theorem of Luo and Sarnak....

  6. Erratum to "Quantum Limits of Eisenstein Series and Scattering States''

    Petridis, Y.N.; Raulf, N.; Risager, Morten S.

    2013-01-01

    We identify the quantum limits of scattering states for the modular surface. This is obtained through the study of quantum measures of non-holomorphic Eisenstein series away from the critical line. We provide a range of stability for the quantum unique ergodicity theorem of Luo and Sarnak...

  7. Multiple small-angle neutron scattering studies of anisotropic materials

    Allen, A J; Long, G G; Ilavsky, J

    2002-01-01

    Building on previous work that considered spherical scatterers and randomly oriented spheroidal scatterers, we describe a multiple small-angle neutron scattering (MSANS) analysis for nonrandomly oriented spheroids. We illustrate this with studies of the multi-component void morphologies found in plasma-spray thermal barrier coatings. (orig.)

  8. Exact multiple scattering theory of two-nucleus collisions including the Pauli principle

    Gurvitz, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    Exact equations for two-nucleus scattering are derived in which the effects of the Pauli principle are fully included. Our method exploits a modified equation for the scattering of two identical nucleons, which is obtained at the beginning. Considering proton-nucleus scattering we found that the resulting amplitude has two components, one resembling a multiple scattering series for distinguishable particles, and the other a distorted (A-1) nucleon cluster exchange. For elastic pA scattering the multiple scattering amplitude is found in the form of an optical potential expansion. We show that the Kerman-McManus-Thaler theory of the optical potential could be easily modified to include the effects of antisymmetrization of the projectile with the target nucleons. Nucleus-nucleus scattering is studied first for distinguishable target and beam nucleus. Afterwards the Pauli principle is included, where only the case of deuteron-nucleus scattering is discussed in detail. The resulting amplitude has four components. Two of them correspond to modified multiple scattering expansions and the others are distorted (A-1)- and (A-2)- nucleon cluster exchange. The result for d-A scattering is extended to the general case of nucleus-nucleus scattering. The equations are simple to use and as such constitute an improvement over existing schemes

  9. Convergence of the multiple scattering expansion in XAFS and XANES

    Rehr, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The convergence of the multiple-scattering expansion of XAFS and XANES by explicit path-bypath calculations. The approach is based on the fast scattering matrix formalism of Rehr and Albers, together with an automated path finder and filters that exclude negligible paths. High-order scattering terms are found to be essential, especially at low energies. Several factors including the magnitude of curved wave scattering amplitudes, inelastic losses and multiple-scattering Debye-Waller factors control convergence of the expansion. The convergence is illustrated explicitly for the case of diatomic molecules

  10. Numerical modelling of multiple scattering between two elastical particles

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1998-01-01

    in suspension have been studied extensively since Foldy's formulation of his theory for isotropic scattering by randomly distributed scatterers. However, a number of important problems related to multiple scattering are still far from finding their solutions. A particular, but still unsolved, problem......Multiple acoustical signal interactions with sediment particles in the vicinity of the seabed may significantly change the course of sediment concentration profiles determined by inversion from acoustical backscattering measurements. The scattering properties of high concentrations of sediments...... is the question of proximity thresholds for influence of multiple scattering in terms of particle properties like volume fraction, average distance between particles or other related parameters. A few available experimental data indicate a significance of multiple scattering in suspensions where the concentration...

  11. Real space multiple scattering description of alloy phase stability

    Turchi, P.E.A.; Sluiter, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the advanced methodology which has been recently developed to study phase stability properties of substitutional alloys, including order-disorder phenomena and structural transformations. The approach is based on the real space version of the Generalized Perturbation Method first introduced by Ducastelle and Gautier, within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker multiple scattering formulation of the Coherent Potential Approximation. Temperature effects are taken into account with a generalized meanfield approach, namely the Cluster Variation Method. The viability and the predictive power of such a scheme will be illustrated by a few examples, among them: the ground state properties of alloys, in particular the ordering tendencies for a series of equiatomic bcc-based alloys, the computation of alloy phase diagrams with the case of fcc and bcc-based Ni-Al alloys, the calculation of antiphase boundary energies and interfacial energies, and the stability of artificial ordered superlattices

  12. Compton-scatter tissue densitometry: calculation of single and multiple scatter photon fluences

    Battista, J.J.; Bronskill, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The accurate measurement of in vivo electron densities by the Compton-scatter method is limited by attenuations and multiple scattering in the patient. Using analytic and Monte Carlo calculation methods, the Clarke tissue density scanner has been modelled for incident monoenergetic photon energies from 300 to 2000 keV and for mean scattering angles of 30 to 130 degrees. For a single detector focussed to a central position in a uniform water phantom (25 x 25 x 25 cm 3 ) it has been demonstrated that: (1) Multiple scatter contamination is an inherent limitation of the Compton-scatter method of densitometry which can be minimised, but not eliminated, by improving the energy resolution of the scattered radiation detector. (2) The choice of the incident photon energy is a compromise between the permissible radiation dose to the patient and the tolerable level of multiple scatter contamination. For a mean scattering angle of 40 degrees, the intrinsic multiple-single scatter ratio decreases from 64 to 35%, and the radiation dose (per measurement) increases from 1.0 to 4.1 rad, as the incident photon energy increases from 300 to 2000 keV. These doses apply to a sampled volume of approximately 0.3 cm 3 and an electron density precision of 0.5%. (3) The forward scatter densitometer configuration is optimum, minimising both the dose and the multiple scatter contamination. For an incident photon energy of 1250 keV, the intrinsic multiple-single scatter ratio reduces from 122 to 27%, and the dose reduces from 14.3 to 1.2 rad, as the mean scattering angle decreases from 130 to 30 degrees. These calculations have been confirmed by experimental measurements. (author)

  13. Depth distribution of multiple order X-ray scatter

    Yao Weiguang; Leszczynski, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Scatter can significantly affect quality of projectional X-ray radiographs and tomographic reconstructions. With this in mind, we examined some of the physical properties of multiple orders of scatter of X-ray photons traversing through a layer of scattering media such as water. Using Monte Carlo techniques, we investigated depth distributions of interactions between incident X-ray photons and water before the resulting scattered photons reach the detector plane. Effects of factors such as radiation field size, air gap, thickness of the layer of scattering medium and X-ray energy, on the scatter were included in the scope of this study. The following scatter characteristics were observed: (1) for a layer of scattering material corresponding to the typical subject thickness in medical imaging, frequency distribution of locations of the last scattering interaction increases approximately exponentially with depth, and the higher the order of scatter or the energy of the incident photon, the narrower is the distribution; (2) for the second order scatter, the distribution of locations of the first interaction is more uniform than that of the last interaction and is dependent on the energy of the primary photons. Theoretical proofs for some of these properties are given. These properties are important to better understanding of effects of scatter on the radiographic and tomographic imaging process and to developing effective methods for scatter correction

  14. Acoustic scattering by multiple elliptical cylinders using collocation multipole method

    Lee, Wei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the collocation multipole method for the acoustic scattering induced by multiple elliptical cylinders subjected to an incident plane sound wave. To satisfy the Helmholtz equation in the elliptical coordinate system, the scattered acoustic field is formulated in terms of angular and radial Mathieu functions which also satisfy the radiation condition at infinity. The sound-soft or sound-hard boundary condition is satisfied by uniformly collocating points on the boundaries. For the sound-hard or Neumann conditions, the normal derivative of the acoustic pressure is determined by using the appropriate directional derivative without requiring the addition theorem of Mathieu functions. By truncating the multipole expansion, a finite linear algebraic system is derived and the scattered field can then be determined according to the given incident acoustic wave. Once the total field is calculated as the sum of the incident field and the scattered field, the near field acoustic pressure along the scatterers and the far field scattering pattern can be determined. For the acoustic scattering of one elliptical cylinder, the proposed results match well with the analytical solutions. The proposed scattered fields induced by two and three elliptical–cylindrical scatterers are critically compared with those provided by the boundary element method to validate the present method. Finally, the effects of the convexity of an elliptical scatterer, the separation between scatterers and the incident wave number and angle on the acoustic scattering are investigated.

  15. Diffractive scattering on nuclei in multiple scattering theory with inelastic screening

    Zoller, V.R.

    1988-01-01

    The cross sections for the diffractive scattering of hadrons on nuclei are calculated in the two-channel approximation of multiple scattering theory. In contrast to the standard Glauber approach, it is not assumed that the nucleon scattering profile is a Gaussian or that the Regge radius of the hadron is small compared to the nuclear radius. The AGK Reggeon diagrammatic technique is used to calculate the topological cross sections and the cross sections for coherent and incoherent diffractive dissociation and quasielastic scattering. The features of hadron-nucleus scattering at superhigh energies are discussed

  16. Study of multiple scattering effects in heavy ion RBS

    Fang, Z; O` Connor, D J [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Multiple scattering effect is normally neglected in conventional Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) analysis. The backscattered particle yield normally agrees well with the theory based on the single scattering model. However, when heavy incident ions are used such as in heavy ion Rutherford backscattering (HIRBS), or the incident ion energy is reduced, multiple scattering effect starts to play a role in the analysis. In this paper, the experimental data of 6MeV C ions backscattered from a Au target are presented. In measured time of flight spectrum a small step in front of the Au high energy edge is observed. The high energy edge of the step is about 3.4 ns ahead of the Au signal which corresponds to an energy {approx} 300 keV higher than the 135 degree single scattering energy. This value coincides with the double scattering energy of C ion undergoes two consecutive 67.5 degree scattering. Efforts made to investigate the origin of the high energy step observed lead to an Monte Carlo simulation aimed to reproduce the experimental spectrum on computer. As a large angle scattering event is a rare event, two consecutive large angle scattering is extremely hard to reproduce in a random simulation process. Thus, the simulation has not found a particle scattering into 130-140 deg with an energy higher than the single scattering energy. Obviously faster algorithms and a better physical model are necessary for a successful simulation. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Study of multiple scattering effects in heavy ion RBS

    Fang, Z.; O`Connor, D.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Multiple scattering effect is normally neglected in conventional Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) analysis. The backscattered particle yield normally agrees well with the theory based on the single scattering model. However, when heavy incident ions are used such as in heavy ion Rutherford backscattering (HIRBS), or the incident ion energy is reduced, multiple scattering effect starts to play a role in the analysis. In this paper, the experimental data of 6MeV C ions backscattered from a Au target are presented. In measured time of flight spectrum a small step in front of the Au high energy edge is observed. The high energy edge of the step is about 3.4 ns ahead of the Au signal which corresponds to an energy {approx} 300 keV higher than the 135 degree single scattering energy. This value coincides with the double scattering energy of C ion undergoes two consecutive 67.5 degree scattering. Efforts made to investigate the origin of the high energy step observed lead to an Monte Carlo simulation aimed to reproduce the experimental spectrum on computer. As a large angle scattering event is a rare event, two consecutive large angle scattering is extremely hard to reproduce in a random simulation process. Thus, the simulation has not found a particle scattering into 130-140 deg with an energy higher than the single scattering energy. Obviously faster algorithms and a better physical model are necessary for a successful simulation. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Reproducibility of artificial multiple scattering media

    Marakis, Evangelos; van Harten, Wouter; Uppu, Ravitej; Pinkse, Pepijn Willemszoon Harry

    2016-01-01

    State of the art authentication systems depend on physical unclonable functions (PUF) [1], physical keys that are assumed unclonable due to technological constraints. Random scattering media, dielectric materials with rapid and random refractive index variations, are considered as ideal optical PUFs

  19. Assessment of Multiple Scattering Errors of Laser Diffraction Instruments

    Strakey, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The accuracy of two commercial laser diffraction instruments was compared under conditions of multiple scattering designed to simulate the high droplet number densities encountered in liquid propellant rocket combustors...

  20. Multiple scattering approach to X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Benfatto, M.; Wu Ziyu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper authors present the state of the art of the theoretical background needed for analyzing X-ray absorption spectra in the whole energy range. The multiple-scattering (MS) theory is presented in detail with some applications on real systems. Authors also describe recent progress in performing geometrical fitting of the XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) energy region and beyond using a full multiple-scattering approach

  1. Analysis of multiple scattering effects in optical Doppler tomography

    Yura, H.T.; Thrane, L.; Andersen, Peter E.

    2005-01-01

    Optical Doppler tomography (ODT) combines Doppler velocimetry and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to obtain high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of particle flow velocity in scattering media such as the human retina and skin. Here, we present the results of a theoretical analysis of ODT where...... multiple scattering effects are included. The purpose of this analysis is to determine how multiple scattering affects the estimation of the depth-resolved localized flow velocity. Depth-resolved velocity estimates are obtained directly from the corresponding mean or standard deviation of the observed...

  2. SWIMS: a small-angle multiple scattering computer code

    Sayer, R.O.

    1976-07-01

    SWIMS (Sigmund and WInterbon Multiple Scattering) is a computer code for calculation of the angular dispersion of ion beams that undergo small-angle, incoherent multiple scattering by gaseous or solid media. The code uses the tabulated angular distributions of Sigmund and Winterbon for a Thomas-Fermi screened Coulomb potential. The fraction of the incident beam scattered into a cone defined by the polar angle α is computed as a function of α for reduced thicknesses over the range 0.01 less than or equal to tau less than or equal to 10.0. 1 figure, 2 tables

  3. Method for measuring multiple scattering corrections between liquid scintillators

    Verbeke, J.M., E-mail: verbeke2@llnl.gov; Glenn, A.M., E-mail: glenn22@llnl.gov; Keefer, G.J., E-mail: keefer1@llnl.gov; Wurtz, R.E., E-mail: wurtz1@llnl.gov

    2016-07-21

    A time-of-flight method is proposed to experimentally quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between scintillators. An array of scintillators is characterized in terms of crosstalk with this method by measuring a californium source, for different neutron energy thresholds. The spectral information recorded by the scintillators can be used to estimate the fractions of neutrons multiple scattering. With the help of a correction to Feynman's point model theory to account for multiple scattering, these fractions can in turn improve the mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation.

  4. Electron Raman scattering in asymmetrical multiple quantum wells

    Betancourt-Riera, R; Rosas, R; Marin-Enriquez, I; Riera, R; Marin, J L

    2005-01-01

    Optical properties of asymmetrical multiple quantum wells for the construction of quantum cascade lasers are calculated, and expressions for the electronic states of asymmetrical multiple quantum wells are presented. The gain and differential cross-section for an electron Raman scattering process are obtained. Also, the emission spectra for several scattering configurations are discussed, and the corresponding selection rules for the processes involved are studied; an interpretation of the singularities found in the spectra is given. The electron Raman scattering studied here can be used to provide direct information about the efficiency of the lasers

  5. Markov chain solution of photon multiple scattering through turbid slabs.

    Lin, Ying; Northrop, William F; Li, Xuesong

    2016-11-14

    This work introduces a Markov Chain solution to model photon multiple scattering through turbid slabs via anisotropic scattering process, i.e., Mie scattering. Results show that the proposed Markov Chain model agree with commonly used Monte Carlo simulation for various mediums such as medium with non-uniform phase functions and absorbing medium. The proposed Markov Chain solution method successfully converts the complex multiple scattering problem with practical phase functions into a matrix form and solves transmitted/reflected photon angular distributions by matrix multiplications. Such characteristics would potentially allow practical inversions by matrix manipulation or stochastic algorithms where widely applied stochastic methods such as Monte Carlo simulations usually fail, and thus enable practical diagnostics reconstructions such as medical diagnosis, spray analysis, and atmosphere sciences.

  6. Multiple scattering effects in depth resolution of elastic recoil detection

    Wielunski, L.S.; Harding, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) is used to profile hydrogen and other low mass elements in thin films at surface and interfaces in a similar way that Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) is used to detect and profile heavy elements. It is often assumed that the depth resolutions of these two techniques are similar. However, in contrast to typical RBS, the depth resolution of ERD is limited substantially by multiple scattering. In experimental data analysis and/or spectra simulations of a typical RBS measurement multiple scattering effects are often ignored. Computer programs used in IBA, such as RUMP, HYPRA or RBX do not include multiple scattering effects at all. In this paper, using practical thin metal structures with films containing intentionally introduced hydrogen, we demonstrate experimental ERD depth resolution and sensitivity limitations. The effects of sample material and scattering angle are also discussed. (authors)

  7. Multiple scattering effects in depth resolution of elastic recoil detection

    Wielunski, L.S.; Harding, G.L. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Telecommunications and Industrial Physics; Szilagyi, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest, (Hungary)

    1998-06-01

    Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) is used to profile hydrogen and other low mass elements in thin films at surface and interfaces in a similar way that Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) is used to detect and profile heavy elements. It is often assumed that the depth resolutions of these two techniques are similar. However, in contrast to typical RBS, the depth resolution of ERD is limited substantially by multiple scattering. In experimental data analysis and/or spectra simulations of a typical RBS measurement multiple scattering effects are often ignored. Computer programs used in IBA, such as RUMP, HYPRA or RBX do not include multiple scattering effects at all. In this paper, using practical thin metal structures with films containing intentionally introduced hydrogen, we demonstrate experimental ERD depth resolution and sensitivity limitations. The effects of sample material and scattering angle are also discussed. (authors). 19 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Ground Vibration Isolation of Multiple Scattering by Using Rows of Tubular Piles as Barriers

    Miao-miao Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formal solution for the multiple scattering of plane harmonic waves by a group of arbitrary configuration tubular piles in an elastic total space is derived. Each order of scattering satisfies prescribed boundary conditions at the interface of tubular piles, which is delivered as the sum of incident and scattering waves. The first order performs the scattering wave by each scattered pile and the subsequent orders resulted from the excitation of each pile of first order of scattering from the remaining tubular piles. Advanced scattering orders can be regarded as the same manners. Several series of scattering coefficients are figured out with the aids of addition theorem so that the exact steady-state solution for the scattered displacement and stress is obtained. Particularly, when internal diameter of tubular piles tends to be infinitely small, it degenerates to a solid pile problem. By imposing the normalized displacement amplitudes and transmissibility indices, the influences of specific parameters such as scattering orders, internal and external diameter ratio of piles, pile material rigidity, position and distances between tubular pile and pile rows, and pile numbers are discussed. Certain recommended conclusions have been drawn as the guidelines of practical engineering design for discontinuous barrier of tubular piles.

  9. Multiple scattering theory for superconducting heterostructures

    Ujfalussy, Balazs [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-07-01

    We generalize the screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method for solving the corresponding Kohn-Sham-Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for surfaces and interfaces. As an application of the theory, we study the quasiparticle spectrum of Au overlayers on a Nb(100) host. We find that within the superconducting gap region, the quasiparticle spectrum consists of Andreev bound states with a dispersion which is closely connected to the underlying electronic structure of the overlayer. We also find that the spectrum has a strongly k-dependent induced gap. The properties of the gap are discussed in relation to the thickness of the overlayer, and it is shown that certain states do not participate in the Andreev scattering process. From the thickness dependence of the gap size we calculate the superconducting critical temperature of Au/Nb(100) heterostructures what we compare with with experiments. Moreover, predictions are made for similar heterostructures of other compounds.

  10. Multiple scattering theory of radiative transfer in inhomogeneous atmospheres.

    Kanal, M.

    1973-01-01

    In this paper we treat the multiple scattering theory of radiative transfer in plane-parallel inhomogeneous atmospheres. The treatment presented here may be adopted to model atmospheres characterized by an optical depth dependent coherent scattering phase function. For the purpose of illustration we consider the semi-infinite medium in which the absorption property of the atmosphere is characterized by an exponential function. The methodology employed here is the extension of the case treated previously by the author for homogeneous atmospheres.

  11. Simulation of multiple scattering background in heavy ion backscattering spectrometry

    Li, M.M.; O'Connor, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    With the development of heavy ion backscattering spectrometry (HIBS) for the detection of trace quantities of heavy-atom impurities on Si surfaces, it is necessary to quantify the multiple scattering contribution to the spectral background. In the present work, the Monte Carlo computer simulation program TRIM has been used to study the backscattering spectrum and the multiple scattering background features for heavy ions C, Ne, Si, Ar and Kr impinging on four types of targets: (1) a single ultra-thin (free standing) Au film of 10 A thickness, (2) a 10 A Au film on a 50 A Si surface, (3) a 10 A Au film on an Si substrate (10 000 A), and (4) a thick target (10 000 A) of pure Si. The ratio of the signal from the Au thin layer to the background due to multiple scattering has been derived by fitting the simulation results. From the simulation results, it is found that the Au film contributes to the background which the Si plays a role in developing due to the ion's multiple scattering in the substrate. Such a background is generated neither by only the Au thin layer nor by the pure Si substrate independently. The corresponding mechanism of multiple scattering in the target can be explained as one large-angle scattering in the Au layer and subsequently several small angle scatterings in the substrate. This study allows an appropriate choice of incident beam species and energy range when the HIBS is utilized to analyse low level impurities in Si wafers

  12. Monte Carlo simulations of multiple scattering effects in ERD measurements

    Doyle, Barney Lee; Arstila, Kai.; Nordlumd, K.; Knapp, James Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Multiple scattering effects in ERD measurements are studied by comparing two Monte Carlo simulation codes, representing different approaches to obtain acceptable statistics, to experimental spectra measured from a HfO 2 sample with a time-of-flight-ERD setup. The results show that both codes can reproduce the absolute detection yields and the energy distributions in an adequate way. The effect of the choice of the interatomic potential in multiple scattering effects is also studied. Finally the capabilities of the MC simulations in the design of new measurement setups are demonstrated by simulating the recoil energy spectra from a WC x N y sample with a low energy heavy ion beam.

  13. Effects of multiple scattering and target structure on photon emission

    Blankenbecler, R.

    1996-05-01

    The Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect is the suppression of Bethe-Heitler radiation caused by multiple scattering in the target medium. The quantum treatment given by S.D. Drell and the author for homogeneous targets of finite thickness will be reviewed. It will then be extended to structured targets. In brief, it is shown that radiators composed of separated plates or of a medium with a spatially varying radiation length can exhibit unexpected structure, even coherence maxima and minima, in their photon spectra. Finally, a functional integral method for performing the averaging implicit in multiple scattering will be briefly discussed and the leading corrections to previous results evaluated

  14. Collective hypersonic excitations in strongly multiple scattering colloids.

    Still, T; Gantzounis, G; Kiefer, D; Hellmann, G; Sainidou, R; Fytas, G; Stefanou, N

    2011-04-29

    Unprecedented low-dispersion high-frequency acoustic excitations are observed in dense suspensions of elastically hard colloids. The experimental phononic band structure for SiO(2) particles with different sizes and volume fractions is well represented by rigorous full-elastodynamic multiple-scattering calculations. The slow phonons, which do not relate to particle resonances, are localized in the surrounding liquid medium and stem from coherent multiple scattering that becomes strong in the close-packing regime. Such rich phonon-matter interactions in nanostructures, being still unexplored, can open new opportunities in phononics.

  15. Multiple scattering theory of X-ray absorption. A review

    Fonda, L.

    1991-11-01

    We review the basic elements of the theory of X-ray absorption using the tools provided by the theory of multiple scattering. A momentum space approach of clear physical insight is used where the final formulas expressing EXAFS and XANES, i.e. the structures appearing in the absorption coefficient above the edge of a deep core level threshold, are given in terms of eigenstates of the photoelectron momentum. A simple graphic representation is given for the multiple scattering function. (author). 38 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  16. Multiple scattering problems in heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    Johnston, P.N.; El Bouanani, M.; Stannard, W.B.; Bubb, I.F.; Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N.; Siegele, R.

    1998-01-01

    A number of groups use Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (HIERDA) to study materials science problems. Nevertheless, there is no standard methodology for the analysis of HIERDA spectra. To overcome this deficiency we have been establishing codes for 2-dimensional data analysis. A major problem involves the effects of multiple and plural scattering which are very significant, even for quite thin (∼100 nm) layers of the very heavy elements. To examine the effects of multiple scattering we have made comparisons between the small-angle model of Sigmund et al. and TRIM calculations. (authors)

  17. Elastic scattering of protons at the nucleus 6He in the Glauber multiple scattering theory

    Prmantayeva, B.A.; Temerbayev, A.A.; Tleulessova, I.K.; Ibrayeva, E.T.

    2011-01-01

    Calculation is submitted for the differential cross sections of elastic p 6 He-scattering at energies of 70 and 700 MeV/nucleon within the framework of the Glauber theory of multiple diffraction scattering. We used the three-particle wave functions: α-n-n with realistic intercluster potentials. The sensitivity of elastic scattering to the proton-nuclear interaction and the structure of nuclei had been investigated. It is shown that the contribution of small components of the wave function as well as the multiplicity of the scattering operator Ω should be considered to describe a cross-section in broad angular range . A comparison with available experimental data was made. (author)

  18. An empirical correction for moderate multiple scattering in super-heterodyne light scattering.

    Botin, Denis; Mapa, Ludmila Marotta; Schweinfurth, Holger; Sieber, Bastian; Wittenberg, Christopher; Palberg, Thomas

    2017-05-28

    Frequency domain super-heterodyne laser light scattering is utilized in a low angle integral measurement configuration to determine flow and diffusion in charged sphere suspensions showing moderate to strong multiple scattering. We introduce an empirical correction to subtract the multiple scattering background and isolate the singly scattered light. We demonstrate the excellent feasibility of this simple approach for turbid suspensions of transmittance T ≥ 0.4. We study the particle concentration dependence of the electro-kinetic mobility in low salt aqueous suspension over an extended concentration regime and observe a maximum at intermediate concentrations. We further use our scheme for measurements of the self-diffusion coefficients in the fluid samples in the absence or presence of shear, as well as in polycrystalline samples during crystallization and coarsening. We discuss the scope and limits of our approach as well as possible future applications.

  19. Multiple scattering and attenuation corrections in Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments

    Dawidowski, J; Blostein, J J; Granada, J R

    2006-01-01

    Multiple scattering and attenuation corrections in Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments are analyzed. The theoretical basis of the method is stated, and a Monte Carlo procedure to perform the calculation is presented. The results are compared with experimental data. The importance of the accuracy in the description of the experimental parameters is tested, and the implications of the present results on the data analysis procedures is examined

  20. Imaging moving objects from multiply scattered waves and multiple sensors

    Miranda, Analee; Cheney, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a linearized imaging theory that combines the spatial, temporal and spectral components of multiply scattered waves as they scatter from moving objects. In particular, we consider the case of multiple fixed sensors transmitting and receiving information from multiply scattered waves. We use a priori information about the multipath background. We use a simple model for multiple scattering, namely scattering from a fixed, perfectly reflecting (mirror) plane. We base our image reconstruction and velocity estimation technique on a modification of a filtered backprojection method that produces a phase-space image. We plot examples of point-spread functions for different geometries and waveforms, and from these plots, we estimate the resolution in space and velocity. Through this analysis, we are able to identify how the imaging system depends on parameters such as bandwidth and number of sensors. We ultimately show that enhanced phase-space resolution for a distribution of moving and stationary targets in a multipath environment may be achieved using multiple sensors. (paper)

  1. Multiple scattering in the nuclear rearrangement reactions at medium energy

    Tekou, A.

    1980-09-01

    It is shown that the multiple scattering mechanism is very important in the transfer of the large momenta involved in the nuclear rearrangement reactions at medium energy. In contrast to the usual belief, the reaction cross-section is not very sensitive to the high momenta components of the nuclear wave function. The multiple scattering mechanism is especially important in 4 He(p,d) 3 He reaction around 800 MeV. Here the collisions involving two nucleons of the target nucleus are dominant. The triple collisions contribution is also important. The four collision contribution is negligible in the forward direction and sizeable at large angles. Thus, using the K.M.T. approach in DWBA calculations, the second order term of the optical potential must be included. So, is it not well established that the second term of the K.M.T. optical potential is important for the proton elastic scattering on light nuclei. (author)

  2. Multiple scattering in synchrotron studies of disordered materials

    Poulsen, H.F.; Neuefeind, J.

    1995-01-01

    A formalism for the multiple scattering and self-absorption in synchrotron studies of disordered materials is presented. The formalism goes beyond conventionally used approximations and treat the cross sections, the beam characteristics, the state of polarization, and the electronic correction terms in full. Using hard X-rays it is shown how the simulated distributions can be directly compared to experimental data. ((orig.))

  3. Multiple-scattering in radar systems: A review

    Battaglia, Alessandro; Tanelli, Simone; Kobayashi, Satoru; Zrnic, Dusan; Hogan, Robin J.; Simmer, Clemens

    2010-01-01

    Although extensively studied within the lidar community, the multiple scattering phenomenon has always been considered a rare curiosity by radar meteorologists. Up to few years ago its appearance has only been associated with two- or three-body-scattering features (e.g. hail flares and mirror images) involving highly reflective surfaces. Recent atmospheric research aimed at better understanding of the water cycle and the role played by clouds and precipitation in affecting the Earth's climate has driven the deployment of high frequency radars in space. Examples are the TRMM 13.5 GHz, the CloudSat 94 GHz, the upcoming EarthCARE 94 GHz, and the GPM dual 13-35 GHz radars. These systems are able to detect the vertical distribution of hydrometeors and thus provide crucial feedbacks for radiation and climate studies. The shift towards higher frequencies increases the sensitivity to hydrometeors, improves the spatial resolution and reduces the size and weight of the radar systems. On the other hand, higher frequency radars are affected by stronger extinction, especially in the presence of large precipitating particles (e.g. raindrops or hail particles), which may eventually drive the signal below the minimum detection threshold. In such circumstances the interpretation of the radar equation via the single scattering approximation may be problematic. Errors will be large when the radiation emitted from the radar after interacting more than once with the medium still contributes substantially to the received power. This is the case if the transport mean-free-path becomes comparable with the instrument footprint (determined by the antenna beam-width and the platform altitude). This situation resembles to what has already been experienced in lidar observations, but with a predominance of wide- versus small-angle scattering events. At millimeter wavelengths, hydrometeors diffuse radiation rather isotropically compared to the visible or near infrared region where scattering is

  4. Continuum multiple-scattering approach to electron-molecule scattering and molecular photoionization

    Dehmer, J.L.; Dill, D.

    1979-01-01

    The multiple-scattering approach to the electronic continuum of molecules is described. The continuum multiple-scattering model (CMSM) was developed as a survey tool and, as such was required to satisfy two requirements. First, it had to have a very broad scope, which means (i) molecules of arbitrary geometry and complexity containing any atom in the periodic system, (ii) continuum electron energies from 0-1000 eV, and (iii) capability to treat a large range of processes involving both photoionization and electron scattering. Second, the structure of the theory was required to lend itself to transparent, physical interpretation of major spectral features such as shape resonances. A comprehensive theoretical framework for the continuum multiple scattering method is presented, as well as its applications to electron-molecule scattering and molecular photoionization. Highlights of recent applications in these two areas are reviewed. The major impact of the resulting studies over the last few years has been to establish the importance of shape resonances in electron collisions and photoionization of practically all (non-hydride) molecules

  5. Renormalized multiple-scattering theory of photoelectron diffraction

    Biagini, M.

    1993-01-01

    The current multiple-scattering cluster techniques for the calculation of x-ray photoelectron and Auger-electron diffraction patterns consume much computer time in the intermediate-energy range (200--1000 eV); in fact, because of the large value of the electron mean free path and of the large forward-scattering amplitude at such energies, the electron samples a relatively large portion of the crystal, so that the number of paths to be considered becomes dramatically high. An alternative method is developed in the present paper: instead of calculating the individual contribution from each single path, the scattering matrix of each plane parallel to the surface is calculated with a renormalization process that calculates every scattering event in the plane up to infinite order. Similarly the scattering between two planes is calculated up to infinite order, and the double-plane scattering matrix is introduced. The process may then be applied to the calculation of a larger set of atomic layers. The advantage of the method is that a relatively small number of internuclear vectors have been used to obtain convergence in the calculation

  6. Generalization of the geometric optical series approach for nonadiabatic scattering problems

    Herman, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    The geometric optical series approach of Bremmer is generalized for multisurface nonadiabatic scattering problems. This method yields the formal solution of the Schroedinger equation as an infinite series of multiple integrals. The zeroth order term corresponds to WKB propagation on a single adiabatic surface, while the general Nth order term involves N reflections and/or transitions between surfaces accompanied by ''free,'' single surface semiclassical propagation between the points of reflection and transition. Each term is integrated over all possible transition and reflection points. The adiabatic and diabatic limits of this expression are discussed. Numerical results, in which all reflections are ignored, are presented for curve crossing and noncrossing problems. These results are compared to exact quantum results and are shown to be highly accurate

  7. Charged particle multiplicities in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Aid, S.; Anderson, M.; Andreev, V.

    1996-08-01

    Using the H1 detector at HERA, charged particle multiplicity distributions in deep inelastic e + p scattering have been measured over a large kinematical region. The evolution with W and Q 2 of the multiplicity distribution and of the multiplicity moments in pseudorapidity domains of varying size is studied in the current fragmentation region of the hadronic centre-of-mass frame. The results are compared with data from fixed target lepton-nucleon interactions, e + e - annihilations and hadron-hadron collisions as well as with expectations from QCD based parton models. Fits to the negative binomial and lognormal distributions are presented. (orig.)

  8. SWIMS, Sigmund and Winterbon Multiple Scattering of Ion Beams

    Eyeberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function - SWIMS calculates the angular dispersion of ion beams that undergo small-angle, incoherent multiple scattering by gaseous or solid media. 2 - Method of solution - SWIMS uses the tabulated angular distributions of Sigmund and Winterbon for a Thomas-Fermi screened Coulomb potential. The fraction of the incident beam scattered into a cone defined by the polar angle is computed as a function of that angle for a reduced thickness over the rang of 0.01 to 10

  9. Coastal Zone Color Scanner atmospheric correction algorithm - Multiple scattering effects

    Gordon, Howard R.; Castano, Diego J.

    1987-01-01

    Errors due to multiple scattering which are expected to be encountered in application of the current Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) atmospheric correction algorithm are analyzed. The analysis is based on radiative transfer computations in model atmospheres, in which the aerosols and molecules are distributed vertically in an exponential manner, with most of the aerosol scattering located below the molecular scattering. A unique feature of the analysis is that it is carried out in scan coordinates rather than typical earth-sun coordinates, making it possible to determine the errors along typical CZCS scan lines. Information provided by the analysis makes it possible to judge the efficacy of the current algorithm with the current sensor and to estimate the impact of the algorithm-induced errors on a variety of applications.

  10. Interstitial integrals in the multiple-scattering model

    Swanson, J.R.; Dill, D.

    1982-01-01

    We present an efficient method for the evaluation of integrals involving multiple-scattering wave functions over the interstitial region. Transformation of the multicenter interstitial wave functions to a single center representation followed by a geometric projection reduces the integrals to products of analytic angular integrals and numerical radial integrals. The projection function, which has the value 1 in the interstitial region and 0 elsewhere, has a closed-form partial-wave expansion. The method is tested by comparing its results with exact normalization and dipole integrals; the differences are 2% at worst and typically less than 1%. By providing an efficient means of calculating Coulomb integrals, the method allows treatment of electron correlations using a multiple scattering basis set

  11. Multiple-scattering corrections to the Beer-Lambert law

    Zardecki, A.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of multiple scattering on the validity of the Beer-Lambert law is discussed for a wide range of particle-size parameters and optical depths. To predict the amount of received radiant power, appropriate correction terms are introduced. For particles larger than or comparable to the wavelength of radiation, the small-angle approximation is adequate; whereas for small densely packed particles, the diffusion theory is advantageously employed. These two approaches are used in the context of the problem of laser-beam propagation in a dense aerosol medium. In addition, preliminary results obtained by using a two-dimensional finite-element discrete-ordinates transport code are described. Multiple-scattering effects for laser propagation in fog, cloud, rain, and aerosol cloud are modeled

  12. Ultrasound scatter in heterogeneous 3D microstructures: Parameters affecting multiple scattering

    Engle, B. J.; Roberts, R. A.; Grandin, R. J.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports on a computational study of ultrasound propagation in heterogeneous metal microstructures. Random spatial fluctuations in elastic properties over a range of length scales relative to ultrasound wavelength can give rise to scatter-induced attenuation, backscatter noise, and phase front aberration. It is of interest to quantify the dependence of these phenomena on the microstructure parameters, for the purpose of quantifying deleterious consequences on flaw detectability, and for the purpose of material characterization. Valuable tools for estimation of microstructure parameters (e.g. grain size) through analysis of ultrasound backscatter have been developed based on approximate weak-scattering models. While useful, it is understood that these tools display inherent inaccuracy when multiple scattering phenomena significantly contribute to the measurement. It is the goal of this work to supplement weak scattering model predictions with corrections derived through application of an exact computational scattering model to explicitly prescribed microstructures. The scattering problem is formulated as a volume integral equation (VIE) displaying a convolutional Green-function-derived kernel. The VIE is solved iteratively employing FFT-based con-volution. Realizations of random microstructures are specified on the micron scale using statistical property descriptions (e.g. grain size and orientation distributions), which are then spatially filtered to provide rigorously equivalent scattering media on a length scale relevant to ultrasound propagation. Scattering responses from ensembles of media representations are averaged to obtain mean and variance of quantities such as attenuation and backscatter noise levels, as a function of microstructure descriptors. The computational approach will be summarized, and examples of application will be presented.

  13. Quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of quadrature squeezed light

    Lodahl, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Propagating quadrature squeezed light through a multiple scattering random medium is found to induce pronounced spatial quantum correlations that have no classical analogue. The correlations are revealed in the number of photons transported through the sample that can be measured from the intensity...... fluctuations of the total transmission or reflection. In contrast, no pronounced spatial quantum correlations appear in the quadrature amplitudes where excess noise above the shot noise level is found....

  14. Multiple-scattering theory. New developments and applications

    Ernst, Arthur

    2007-12-04

    Multiple-scattering theory (MST) is a very efficient technique for calculating the electronic properties of an assembly of atoms. It provides explicitly the Green function, which can be used in many applications such as magnetism, transport and spectroscopy. This work gives an overview on recent developments of multiple-scattering theory. One of the important innovations is the multiple scattering implementation of the self-interaction correction approach, which enables realistic electronic structure calculations of systems with localized electrons. Combined with the coherent potential approximation (CPA), this method can be applied for studying the electronic structure of alloys and as well as pseudo-alloys representing charge and spin disorder. This formalism is extended to finite temperatures which allows to investigate phase transitions and thermal fluctuations in correlated materials. Another novel development is the implementation of the self-consistent non-local CPA approach, which takes into account charge correlations around the CPA average and chemical short range order. This formalism is generalized to the relativistic treatment of magnetically ordered systems. Furthermore, several improvements are implemented to optimize the computational performance and to increase the accuracy of the KKR Green function method. The versatility of the approach is illustrated in numerous applications. (orig.)

  15. Multiple-scattering theory. New developments and applications

    Ernst, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Multiple-scattering theory (MST) is a very efficient technique for calculating the electronic properties of an assembly of atoms. It provides explicitly the Green function, which can be used in many applications such as magnetism, transport and spectroscopy. This work gives an overview on recent developments of multiple-scattering theory. One of the important innovations is the multiple scattering implementation of the self-interaction correction approach, which enables realistic electronic structure calculations of systems with localized electrons. Combined with the coherent potential approximation (CPA), this method can be applied for studying the electronic structure of alloys and as well as pseudo-alloys representing charge and spin disorder. This formalism is extended to finite temperatures which allows to investigate phase transitions and thermal fluctuations in correlated materials. Another novel development is the implementation of the self-consistent non-local CPA approach, which takes into account charge correlations around the CPA average and chemical short range order. This formalism is generalized to the relativistic treatment of magnetically ordered systems. Furthermore, several improvements are implemented to optimize the computational performance and to increase the accuracy of the KKR Green function method. The versatility of the approach is illustrated in numerous applications. (orig.)

  16. Characterizing interdependencies of multiple time series theory and applications

    Hosoya, Yuzo; Takimoto, Taro; Kinoshita, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces academic researchers and professionals to the basic concepts and methods for characterizing interdependencies of multiple time series in the frequency domain. Detecting causal directions between a pair of time series and the extent of their effects, as well as testing the non existence of a feedback relation between them, have constituted major focal points in multiple time series analysis since Granger introduced the celebrated definition of causality in view of prediction improvement. Causality analysis has since been widely applied in many disciplines. Although most analyses are conducted from the perspective of the time domain, a frequency domain method introduced in this book sheds new light on another aspect that disentangles the interdependencies between multiple time series in terms of long-term or short-term effects, quantitatively characterizing them. The frequency domain method includes the Granger noncausality test as a special case. Chapters 2 and 3 of the book introduce an i...

  17. Multiple Scattering Model for Optical Coherence Tomography with Rytov Approximation

    Li, Muxingzi

    2017-04-24

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a coherence-gated, micrometer-resolution imaging technique that focuses a broadband near-infrared laser beam to penetrate into optical scattering media, e.g. biological tissues. The OCT resolution is split into two parts, with the axial resolution defined by half the coherence length, and the depth-dependent lateral resolution determined by the beam geometry, which is well described by a Gaussian beam model. The depth dependence of lateral resolution directly results in the defocusing effect outside the confocal region and restricts current OCT probes to small numerical aperture (NA) at the expense of lateral resolution near the focus. Another limitation on OCT development is the presence of a mixture of speckles due to multiple scatterers within the coherence length, and other random noise. Motivated by the above two challenges, a multiple scattering model based on Rytov approximation and Gaussian beam optics is proposed for the OCT setup. Some previous papers have adopted the first Born approximation with the assumption of small perturbation of the incident field in inhomogeneous media. The Rytov method of the same order with smooth phase perturbation assumption benefits from a wider spatial range of validity. A deconvolution method for solving the inverse problem associated with the first Rytov approximation is developed, significantly reducing the defocusing effect through depth and therefore extending the feasible range of NA.

  18. A Monte Carlo evaluation of analytical multiple scattering corrections for unpolarised neutron scattering and polarisation analysis data

    Mayers, J.; Cywinski, R.

    1985-03-01

    Some of the approximations commonly used for the analytical estimation of multiple scattering corrections to thermal neutron elastic scattering data from cylindrical and plane slab samples have been tested using a Monte Carlo program. It is shown that the approximations are accurate for a wide range of sample geometries and scattering cross-sections. Neutron polarisation analysis provides the most stringent test of multiple scattering calculations as multiply scattered neutrons may be redistributed not only geometrically but also between the spin flip and non spin flip scattering channels. A very simple analytical technique for correcting for multiple scattering in neutron polarisation analysis has been tested using the Monte Carlo program and has been shown to work remarkably well in most circumstances. (author)

  19. Multiple Scattering Approach to Continuum State with Generally Shaped Potential

    Hatada, Keisuke; Hayakawa, Kuniko; Tenore, Antonio; Benfatto, Maurizio; Natoli, Calogero

    2007-01-01

    We present a new scheme for solving the scattering problem for an arbitrarily shaped potential cell that avoids the well known convergence problems in the angular momentum expansion of the cell shape function. Tests of the method against analytically soluble separable model potentials, with and without shape truncation, have been performed with success. By a judicious choice of the shape of the cells partitioning the whole molecular space and use of empty cells when necessary, we set up a multiple scattering scheme that leads to a straightforward generalization of the same equations in the muffin-tin approximation. For example lmax in the angular momentum expansion can still be chosen according to the rule lmax ∼ kR, where R is the radius of the bounding sphere of the cell and all the matrices appearing in the theory are square matrices

  20. Multiple Scattering Theory for Spectroscopies : a Guide to Multiple Scattering Computer Codes : Dedicated to C. R. Natoli on the Occasion of his 75th Birthday

    Hatada, Keisuke; Ebert, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    This edited book, based on material presented at the EU Spec Training School on Multiple Scattering Codes and the following MSNano Conference, is divided into two distinct parts. The first part, subtitled “basic knowledge”, provides the basics of the multiple scattering description in spectroscopies, enabling readers to understand the physics behind the various multiple scattering codes available for modelling spectroscopies. The second part, “extended knowledge”, presents “state- of-the-art” short chapters on specific subjects associated with improving of the actual description of spectroscopies within the multiple scattering formalism, such as inelastic processes, or precise examples of modelling.

  1. An integral for second-order multiple scattering perturbation theory

    Hoffman, G.G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the closed form evaluation of a six-dimensional integral. The integral arises in the application to many-electron systems of a multiple scattering perturbation expansion at second order when formulated in fourier space. The resulting function can be used for the calculation of both the electron density and the effective one-electron potential in an SCF calculations. The closed form expression derived here greatly facilitates these calculations. In addition, the evaluated integral can be used for the computation of second-order corrections to the open-quotes optimized Thomas-Fermi theory.close quotes 10 refs., 2 figs

  2. Quantum Interference and Entanglement Induced by Multiple Scattering of Light

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Mortensen, Asger; Lodahl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We report on the effects of quantum interference induced by the transmission of an arbitrary number of optical quantum states through a multiple-scattering medium. We identify the role of quantum interference on the photon correlations and the degree of continuous variable entanglement between two...... output modes. It is shown that quantum interference survives averaging over all ensembles of disorder and manifests itself as increased photon correlations due to photon antibunching. Furthermore, the existence of continuous variable entanglement correlations in a volume speckle pattern is predicted. Our...

  3. Multiple Time Series Ising Model for Financial Market Simulations

    Takaishi, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose an Ising model which simulates multiple financial time series. Our model introduces the interaction which couples to spins of other systems. Simulations from our model show that time series exhibit the volatility clustering that is often observed in the real financial markets. Furthermore we also find non-zero cross correlations between the volatilities from our model. Thus our model can simulate stock markets where volatilities of stocks are mutually correlated

  4. Aethalometer multiple scattering correction Cref for mineral dust aerosols

    Di Biagio, Claudia; Formenti, Paola; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Pangui, Edouard; Marchand, Nicolas; Doussin, Jean-François

    2017-08-01

    In this study we provide a first estimate of the Aethalometer multiple scattering correction Cref for mineral dust aerosols. Cref is an empirical constant used to correct the aerosol absorption coefficient measurements for the multiple scattering artefact of the Aethalometer; i.e. the filter fibres on which aerosols are deposited scatter light and this is miscounted as absorption. The Cref at 450 and 660 nm was obtained from the direct comparison of Aethalometer data (Magee Sci. AE31) with (i) the absorption coefficient calculated as the difference between the extinction and scattering coefficients measured by a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Extinction analyser (CAPS PMex) and a nephelometer respectively at 450 nm and (ii) the absorption coefficient from a MAAP (Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer) at 660 nm. Measurements were performed on seven dust aerosol samples generated in the laboratory by the mechanical shaking of natural parent soils issued from different source regions worldwide. The single scattering albedo (SSA) at 450 and 660 nm and the size distribution of the aerosols were also measured. Cref for mineral dust varies between 1.81 and 2.56 for a SSA of 0.85-0.96 at 450 nm and between 1.75 and 2.28 for a SSA of 0.98-0.99 at 660 nm. The calculated mean for dust is 2.09 (±0.22) at 450 nm and 1.92 (±0.17) at 660 nm. With this new Cref the dust absorption coefficient by the Aethalometer is about 2 % (450 nm) and 11 % (660 nm) higher than that obtained by using Cref = 2.14 at both 450 and 660 nm, as usually assumed in the literature. This difference induces a change of up to 3 % in the dust SSA at 660 nm. The Cref seems to be independent of the fine and coarse particle size fractions, and so the obtained Cref can be applied to dust both close to sources and following transport. Additional experiments performed with pure kaolinite minerals and polluted ambient aerosols indicate Cref of 2.49 (±0.02) and 2.32 (±0.01) at 450 and 660 nm (SSA = 0.96-0.97) for

  5. SCATTER

    Broome, J.

    1965-11-01

    The programme SCATTER is a KDF9 programme in the Egtran dialect of Fortran to generate normalized angular distributions for elastically scattered neutrons from data input as the coefficients of a Legendre polynomial series, or from differential cross-section data. Also, differential cross-section data may be analysed to produce Legendre polynomial coefficients. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K. A. E. A. Nuclear Data Library is optional. (author)

  6. Muon energy estimate through multiple scattering with the MACRO detector

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Bakari, D.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Brigida, M.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Candela, A.; Carboni, M.; Caruso, R.; Cassese, F.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Choudhary, B.C.; Coutu, S.; Cozzi, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Deo, M.; Dekhissi, H.; De Marzo, C.; De Mitri, I.; Derkaoui, J.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Dincecco, M.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giorgini, M.; Grassi, M.; Gray, L.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Heinz, R.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katsavounidis, I.; Kearns, E.; Kim, H.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D.S.; Lindozzi, M.; Lipari, P.; Longley, N.P.; Longo, M.J.; Loparco, F.; Maaroufi, F.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Michael, D.G.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolo, D.; Nolty, R.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C.W.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Pistilli, P.; Popa, V.; Raino, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Rrhioua, A.; Satriano, C.; Scapparone, E. E-mail: eugenio.scapparone@bo.infn.it; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra, P.; Sioli, M. E-mail: maximiliano.sioli@bo.infn.it; Sirri, G.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Surdo, A.; Tarle, G.; Tatananni, E.; Togo, V.; Vakili, M.; Walter, C.W.; Webb, R

    2002-10-21

    Muon energy measurement represents an important issue for any experiment addressing neutrino-induced up-going muon studies. Since the neutrino oscillation probability depends on the neutrino energy, a measurement of the muon energy adds an important piece of information concerning the neutrino system. We show in this paper how the MACRO limited streamer tube system can be operated in drift mode by using the TDCs included in the QTPs, an electronics designed for magnetic monopole search. An improvement of the space resolution is obtained, through an analysis of the multiple scattering of muon tracks as they pass through our detector. This information can be used further to obtain an estimate of the energy of muons crossing the detector. Here we present the results of two dedicated tests, performed at CERN PS-T9 and SPS-X7 beam lines, to provide a full check of the electronics and to exploit the feasibility of such a multiple scattering analysis. We show that by using a neural network approach, we are able to reconstruct the muon energy for E{sub {mu}}<40 GeV. The test beam data provide an absolute energy calibration, which allows us to apply this method to MACRO data.

  7. Muon energy estimate through multiple scattering with the MACRO detector

    Ambrosio, M; Auriemma, G; Bakari, D; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Candela, A; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Cassese, F; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; De Deo, M; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; Derkaoui, J; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Dincecco, M; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Gray, L; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lindozzi, M; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Pistilli, P; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rrhioua, A; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Tatananni, E; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R

    2002-01-01

    Muon energy measurement represents an important issue for any experiment addressing neutrino-induced up-going muon studies. Since the neutrino oscillation probability depends on the neutrino energy, a measurement of the muon energy adds an important piece of information concerning the neutrino system. We show in this paper how the MACRO limited streamer tube system can be operated in drift mode by using the TDCs included in the QTPs, an electronics designed for magnetic monopole search. An improvement of the space resolution is obtained, through an analysis of the multiple scattering of muon tracks as they pass through our detector. This information can be used further to obtain an estimate of the energy of muons crossing the detector. Here we present the results of two dedicated tests, performed at CERN PS-T9 and SPS-X7 beam lines, to provide a full check of the electronics and to exploit the feasibility of such a multiple scattering analysis. We show that by using a neural network approach, we are able to r...

  8. A new three-dimensional track fit with multiple scattering

    Berger, Niklaus; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr [Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg (Germany); Institut für Kernphysik and PRISMA cluster of excellence, Mainz University, Mainz (Germany); Kiehn, Moritz; Schöning, André [Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    Modern semiconductor detectors allow for charged particle tracking with ever increasing position resolution. Due to the reduction of the spatial hit uncertainties, multiple Coulomb scattering in the detector layers becomes the dominant source for tracking uncertainties. In this case long distance effects can be ignored for the momentum measurement, and the track fit can consequently be formulated as a sum of independent fits to hit triplets. In this paper we present an analytical solution for a three-dimensional triplet(s) fit in a homogeneous magnetic field based on a multiple scattering model. Track fitting of hit triplets is performed using a linearization ansatz. The momentum resolution is discussed for a typical spectrometer setup. Furthermore the track fit is compared with other track fits for two different pixel detector geometries, namely the Mu3e experiment at PSI and a typical high-energy collider experiment. For a large momentum range the triplets fit provides a significantly better performance than a single helix fit. The triplets fit is fast and can easily be parallelized, which makes it ideal for the implementation on parallel computing architectures.

  9. A new three-dimensional track fit with multiple scattering

    Berger, Niklaus; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kiehn, Moritz; Schöning, André

    2017-01-01

    Modern semiconductor detectors allow for charged particle tracking with ever increasing position resolution. Due to the reduction of the spatial hit uncertainties, multiple Coulomb scattering in the detector layers becomes the dominant source for tracking uncertainties. In this case long distance effects can be ignored for the momentum measurement, and the track fit can consequently be formulated as a sum of independent fits to hit triplets. In this paper we present an analytical solution for a three-dimensional triplet(s) fit in a homogeneous magnetic field based on a multiple scattering model. Track fitting of hit triplets is performed using a linearization ansatz. The momentum resolution is discussed for a typical spectrometer setup. Furthermore the track fit is compared with other track fits for two different pixel detector geometries, namely the Mu3e experiment at PSI and a typical high-energy collider experiment. For a large momentum range the triplets fit provides a significantly better performance than a single helix fit. The triplets fit is fast and can easily be parallelized, which makes it ideal for the implementation on parallel computing architectures.

  10. Fining of Red Wine Monitored by Multiple Light Scattering.

    Ferrentino, Giovanna; Ramezani, Mohsen; Morozova, Ksenia; Hafner, Daniela; Pedri, Ulrich; Pixner, Konrad; Scampicchio, Matteo

    2017-07-12

    This work describes a new approach based on multiple light scattering to study red wine clarification processes. The whole spectral signal (1933 backscattering points along the length of each sample vial) were fitted by a multivariate kinetic model that was built with a three-step mechanism, implying (1) adsorption of wine colloids to fining agents, (2) aggregation into larger particles, and (3) sedimentation. Each step is characterized by a reaction rate constant. According to the first reaction, the results showed that gelatin was the most efficient fining agent, concerning the main objective, which was the clarification of the wine, and consequently the increase in its limpidity. Such a trend was also discussed in relation to the results achieved by nephelometry, total phenols, ζ-potential, color, sensory, and electronic nose analyses. Also, higher concentrations of the fining agent (from 5 to 30 g/100 L) or higher temperatures (from 10 to 20 °C) sped up the process. Finally, the advantage of using the whole spectral signal vs classical univariate approaches was demonstrated by comparing the uncertainty associated with the rate constants of the proposed kinetic model. Overall, multiple light scattering technique showed a great potential for studying fining processes compared to classical univariate approaches.

  11. Multiple scattering theory and applications for intermediate energy reactions of nuclei

    Ludeking, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    Interactions of two composite clusters are treated in a multiple scattering framework whereby many-particle operators are decomposed into a systematic and finite series such that there is an ordered sequestering according to particle rank. Thus, an N-body operator is written as the superposition of all distinct groupings of interactions that occur between particle pairs, triplets, quartets, etc., such that all groupings contain at least one particle from each of the composite systems. It is demonstrated how the transition operator, a reaction operator, and an optical potential may be described in this context. The general structure of such decompositions is shown, and the connection to the standard multiple-scattering prescriptions, delineated. The direct reaction amplitude for stripping and pickup is described, and the two potential formula of Gell-Mann and Goldberger is derived. The multiple scattering formalism for direct reactions is constructed in the eikonal approximation. The sensitivity of the transition cross section to the target density and nucleon-nucleon density correlations are examined in this framework. The limitations of the zero-range approximation to the deuteron vertex function are examined by comparison with the finite-range vertex function at a range of energies. 25 figures, 5 tables

  12. Semiclassical series solution of the generalized phase shift atom--diatom scattering equations

    Squire, K.R.; Curtiss, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    A semiclassical series solution of the previously developed operator form of the generalized phase shift equations describing atom--diatom scattering is presented. This development is based on earlier work which led to a double series in powers of Planck's constant and a scaling parameter of the anisotropic portion of the intermolecular potential. The present solution is similar in that it is a double power series in Planck's constant and in the difference between the spherical radial momentum and a first order approximation. The present series solution avoids difficulties of the previous series associated with the classical turning point

  13. Almost everywhere convergence over cubes of multiple trigonometric Fourier series

    Antonov, N Yu

    2004-01-01

    Under certain conditions on a function φ:[0,+∞)→[0,+∞) we prove a theorem asserting that the convergence almost everywhere of trigonometric Fourier series for all functions of class φ(L) [-π,π) implies the convergence over cubes of the multiple Fourier series and all its conjugates for an arbitrary function f element of φ(L)(log + L) d-1 ) [-π,π) d , d element of N. It follows from this and an earlier result of the author on the convergence almost everywhere of Fourier series of functions of one variable and class L(log + L)(log + log + log + L)) [-π,π) that if f element of L(log + L) d (log + log + log + L)) [-π,π) d , d element of N, then the Fourier series of f and all its conjugates converge over cubes almost everywhere

  14. Multiple Scattering in Random Mechanical Systems and Diffusion Approximation

    Feres, Renato; Ng, Jasmine; Zhang, Hong-Kun

    2013-10-01

    This paper is concerned with stochastic processes that model multiple (or iterated) scattering in classical mechanical systems of billiard type, defined below. From a given (deterministic) system of billiard type, a random process with transition probabilities operator P is introduced by assuming that some of the dynamical variables are random with prescribed probability distributions. Of particular interest are systems with weak scattering, which are associated to parametric families of operators P h , depending on a geometric or mechanical parameter h, that approaches the identity as h goes to 0. It is shown that ( P h - I)/ h converges for small h to a second order elliptic differential operator on compactly supported functions and that the Markov chain process associated to P h converges to a diffusion with infinitesimal generator . Both P h and are self-adjoint (densely) defined on the space of square-integrable functions over the (lower) half-space in , where η is a stationary measure. This measure's density is either (post-collision) Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution or Knudsen cosine law, and the random processes with infinitesimal generator respectively correspond to what we call MB diffusion and (generalized) Legendre diffusion. Concrete examples of simple mechanical systems are given and illustrated by numerically simulating the random processes.

  15. Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene.

    Brida, D; Tomadin, A; Manzoni, C; Kim, Y J; Lombardo, A; Milana, S; Nair, R R; Novoselov, K S; Ferrari, A C; Cerullo, G; Polini, M

    2013-01-01

    Graphene is emerging as a viable alternative to conventional optoelectronic, plasmonic and nanophotonic materials. The interaction of light with charge carriers creates an out-of-equilibrium distribution, which relaxes on an ultrafast timescale to a hot Fermi-Dirac distribution, that subsequently cools emitting phonons. Although the slower relaxation mechanisms have been extensively investigated, the initial stages still pose a challenge. Experimentally, they defy the resolution of most pump-probe setups, due to the extremely fast sub-100 fs carrier dynamics. Theoretically, massless Dirac fermions represent a novel many-body problem, fundamentally different from Schrödinger fermions. Here we combine pump-probe spectroscopy with a microscopic theory to investigate electron-electron interactions during the early stages of relaxation. We identify the mechanisms controlling the ultrafast dynamics, in particular the role of collinear scattering. This gives rise to Auger processes, including charge multiplication, which is key in photovoltage generation and photodetectors.

  16. Radiation of ultrarelativistic charge taking into account for multiple scattering

    Yang, C.

    1977-01-01

    A brief theoretical review of characteristics of X-rays and more hard radiation formed by an ultrarelativistic charged particle passing through a plate or a stack of plates with regard for multiple scattering and the plate material absorptivity is made. Formulas for frequency- angular and frequency distributions of total radiation in the cases of a plate and of a stack of plates with large spacings as well as a stack of sufficiently thick plates are given. A calculation method for the radiation distributions in a general case of an arbitrary stack is pointed out. The frequency distribution of the total radiation consisting of bremsstrahlung and boundary effects is analyzed in detail. A problem of experimental separation of the boundary effect from the total radiation is discussed

  17. Multiple scattering of slow muons in an electron gas

    Archubi, C.D.; Arista, N.R.

    2017-01-01

    A comparative study of the angular dispersion of slow muons in an electron gas is performed using 3 dielectric models which represent the case of metals (Lindhard model for a free electron gas) and the cases of semiconductors and insulators (Levine and Louie model and Brandt and Reinheimer model for systems with a band gap) and a non-linear model for both cases at very low velocities. The contribution of collective electronic excitations according to the dielectric model are found to be negligible. The results from the calculation using Lindhard expressions for the angular half width are consistent with the result of a multiple scattering model. In particular, the effects produced by the band gap of the material are analyzed in detail. Finally, as the recoil effect is negligible, there is an almost exact scaling, for a given velocity, between the proton and the muon results. (authors)

  18. Study of the multiple scattering effect in TEBENE using the Monte Carlo method

    Singkarat, Somsorn.

    1990-01-01

    The neutron time-of-flight and energy spectra, from the TEBENE set-up, have been calculated by a computer program using the Monte Carlo method. The neutron multiple scattering within the polyethylene scatterer ring is closely investigated. The results show that multiple scattering has a significant effect on the detected neutron yield. They also indicate that the thickness of the scatterer ring has to be carefully chosen. (author)

  19. Intrinsic acoustical cross sections in the multiple scattering by a pair of rigid cylindrical particles in 2D

    Mitri, F. G.

    2017-08-01

    The multiple scattering effects occurring between two scatterers are described based upon the multipole expansion formalism as well as the addition theorem of cylindrical wave functions. An original approach is presented in which an effective incident acoustic field on a particular object, which includes both the primary and re-scattered waves from the other particle is determined first, and then used with the scattered field to derive closed-form analytical expressions for the inherent (i.e. intrinsic) cross-sections based on the far-field scattering. This method does not introduce any approximation in the calculation of the intrinsic cross-sections since the procedure is reduced to the one-body problem. The mathematical expressions for the intrinsic cross-sections are formulated in partial-wave series expansions (PWSEs) in cylindrical coordinates involving the angle of incidence, the addition theorem for the cylindrical wave functions, and the expansion coefficients of the scatterers. Numerical examples illustrate the analysis for two rigid circular cylindrical cross-sections with different radii immersed in a non-viscous fluid. Computations for the dimensionless extrinsic and intrinsic extinction cross-section factors are evaluated with particular emphasis on varying the angle of incidence, the interparticle distance, as well as the sizes of the particles. A symmetric behavior is observed for the dimensionless extrinsic extinction cross-section, while asymmetry arises for the intrinsic extinction cross-section of each particle with respect to the angle of incidence. The present analysis provides a complete analytical and computational method for the prediction of the intrinsic (local) scattering, absorption and extinction cross-sections in the multiple acoustic scatterings of plane progressive waves of arbitrary incidence by a pair of scatterers. The results and computational analyses can be used as a priori information for future applications to guide the

  20. Intrinsic acoustical cross sections in the multiple scattering by a pair of rigid cylindrical particles in 2D

    Mitri, F G

    2017-01-01

    The multiple scattering effects occurring between two scatterers are described based upon the multipole expansion formalism as well as the addition theorem of cylindrical wave functions. An original approach is presented in which an effective incident acoustic field on a particular object, which includes both the primary and re-scattered waves from the other particle is determined first, and then used with the scattered field to derive closed-form analytical expressions for the inherent (i.e. intrinsic) cross-sections based on the far-field scattering. This method does not introduce any approximation in the calculation of the intrinsic cross-sections since the procedure is reduced to the one-body problem. The mathematical expressions for the intrinsic cross-sections are formulated in partial-wave series expansions (PWSEs) in cylindrical coordinates involving the angle of incidence, the addition theorem for the cylindrical wave functions, and the expansion coefficients of the scatterers. Numerical examples illustrate the analysis for two rigid circular cylindrical cross-sections with different radii immersed in a non-viscous fluid. Computations for the dimensionless extrinsic and intrinsic extinction cross-section factors are evaluated with particular emphasis on varying the angle of incidence, the interparticle distance, as well as the sizes of the particles. A symmetric behavior is observed for the dimensionless extrinsic extinction cross-section, while asymmetry arises for the intrinsic extinction cross-section of each particle with respect to the angle of incidence. The present analysis provides a complete analytical and computational method for the prediction of the intrinsic (local) scattering, absorption and extinction cross-sections in the multiple acoustic scatterings of plane progressive waves of arbitrary incidence by a pair of scatterers. The results and computational analyses can be used as a priori information for future applications to guide the

  1. Characterization of the Lung Parenchyma Using Ultrasound Multiple Scattering.

    Mohanty, Kaustav; Blackwell, John; Egan, Thomas; Muller, Marie

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the study described here was to showcase the application of ultrasound to quantitative characterization of the micro-architecture of the lung parenchyma to predict the extent of pulmonary edema. The lung parenchyma is a highly complex and diffusive medium for which ultrasound techniques have remained qualitative. The approach presented here is based on ultrasound multiple scattering and exploits the complexity of ultrasound propagation in the lung structure. The experimental setup consisted of a linear transducer array with an 8-MHz central frequency placed in contact with the lung surface. The diffusion constant D and transport mean free path L* of the lung parenchyma were estimated by separating the incoherent and coherent intensities in the near field and measuring the growth of the incoherent diffusive halo over time. Significant differences were observed between the L* values obtained in healthy and edematous rat lungs in vivo. In the control rat lung, L* was found to be 332 μm (±48.8 μm), whereas in the edematous lung, it was 1040 μm (±90 μm). The reproducibility of the measurements of L* and D was tested in vivo and in phantoms made of melamine sponge with varying air volume fractions. Two-dimensional finite difference time domain numerical simulations were carried out on rabbit lung histology images with varying degrees of lung collapse. Significant correlations were observed between air volume fraction and L* in simulation (r = -0.9542, p lung in which edema was simulated by adding phosphate-buffered saline revealed a linear relationship between the fluid volume fraction and L*. These results illustrate the potential of methods based on ultrasound multiple scattering for the quantitative characterization of the lung parenchyma. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aethalometer multiple scattering correction Cref for mineral dust aerosols

    C. Di Biagio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we provide a first estimate of the Aethalometer multiple scattering correction Cref for mineral dust aerosols. Cref is an empirical constant used to correct the aerosol absorption coefficient measurements for the multiple scattering artefact of the Aethalometer; i.e. the filter fibres on which aerosols are deposited scatter light and this is miscounted as absorption. The Cref at 450 and 660 nm was obtained from the direct comparison of Aethalometer data (Magee Sci. AE31 with (i the absorption coefficient calculated as the difference between the extinction and scattering coefficients measured by a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Extinction analyser (CAPS PMex and a nephelometer respectively at 450 nm and (ii the absorption coefficient from a MAAP (Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer at 660 nm. Measurements were performed on seven dust aerosol samples generated in the laboratory by the mechanical shaking of natural parent soils issued from different source regions worldwide. The single scattering albedo (SSA at 450 and 660 nm and the size distribution of the aerosols were also measured. Cref for mineral dust varies between 1.81 and 2.56 for a SSA of 0.85–0.96 at 450 nm and between 1.75 and 2.28 for a SSA of 0.98–0.99 at 660 nm. The calculated mean for dust is 2.09 (±0.22 at 450 nm and 1.92 (±0.17 at 660 nm. With this new Cref the dust absorption coefficient by the Aethalometer is about 2 % (450 nm and 11 % (660 nm higher than that obtained by using Cref  =  2.14 at both 450 and 660 nm, as usually assumed in the literature. This difference induces a change of up to 3 % in the dust SSA at 660 nm. The Cref seems to be independent of the fine and coarse particle size fractions, and so the obtained Cref can be applied to dust both close to sources and following transport. Additional experiments performed with pure kaolinite minerals and polluted ambient aerosols indicate Cref of 2.49 (±0.02 and 2

  3. Wave scattering theory a series approach based on the Fourier transformation

    Eom, Hyo J

    2001-01-01

    The book provides a unified technique of Fourier transform to solve the wave scattering, diffraction, penetration, and radiation problems where the technique of separation of variables is applicable. The book discusses wave scattering from waveguide discontinuities, various apertures, and coupling structures, often encountered in electromagnetic, electrostatic, magnetostatic, and acoustic problems. A system of simultaneous equations for the modal coefficients is formulated and the rapidly-convergent series solutions amenable to numerical computation are presented. The series solutions find practical applications in the design of microwave/acoustic transmission lines, waveguide filters, antennas, and electromagnetic interference/compatibilty-related problems.

  4. Multiple exchange and high-energy fixed-angle scattering

    Halliday, I G; Orzalesi, C A; Tau, M

    1975-01-01

    The application of the eikonal ansatz to fermion fermion elastic scattering with Abelian vector gluon exchanges is discussed. The behaviours of the elastic scattering amplitude and the elastic form factor are considered and an important mechanism for fixed angle high energy elastic scattering is identified. (6 refs).

  5. Focusing of light energy inside a scattering medium by controlling the time-gated multiple light scattering

    Jeong, Seungwon; Lee, Ye-Ryoung; Choi, Wonjun; Kang, Sungsam; Hong, Jin Hee; Park, Jin-Sung; Lim, Yong-Sik; Park, Hong-Gyu; Choi, Wonshik

    2018-05-01

    The efficient delivery of light energy is a prerequisite for the non-invasive imaging and stimulating of target objects embedded deep within a scattering medium. However, the injected waves experience random diffusion by multiple light scattering, and only a small fraction reaches the target object. Here, we present a method to counteract wave diffusion and to focus multiple-scattered waves at the deeply embedded target. To realize this, we experimentally inject light into the reflection eigenchannels of a specific flight time to preferably enhance the intensity of those multiple-scattered waves that have interacted with the target object. For targets that are too deep to be visible by optical imaging, we demonstrate a more than tenfold enhancement in light energy delivery in comparison with ordinary wave diffusion cases. This work will lay a foundation to enhance the working depth of imaging, sensing and light stimulation.

  6. WKB approach to evaluate series of Mathieu functions in scattering problems

    Hubert, Maxime; Dubertrand, Remy

    2017-01-01

    The scattering of a wave obeying Helmholtz equation by an elliptic obstacle can be described exactly using series of Mathieu functions. This situation is relevant in optics, quantum mechanics and fluid dynamics. We focus on the case when the wavelength is comparable to the obstacle size, when the most standard approximations fail. The approximations of the radial (or modified) Mathieu functions using WKB method are shown to be especially efficient, in order to precisely evaluate series of suc...

  7. Light propagation in finite-sized photonic crystals: multiple scattering using an electric field integral equation

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Lodahl, Peter; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We present an accurate, stable, and efficient solution to the Lippmann–Schwinger equation for electromagnetic scattering in two dimensions. The method is well suited for multiple scattering problems and may be applied to problems with scatterers of arbitrary shape or non-homogenous background mat...

  8. Measurements and applications of neutron multiple scattering in resonance region

    Ohkubo, Makio

    1977-02-01

    Capture yield of neutrons impinging on a thick material is complicated due to self-shielding and multiple scattering, especially in the resonance region. When the incident neutron energy is equal to a resonance energy of the material, capture probability of the neutron increases with sample thickness and reaches a saturation value P sub(CO). There is a simple relation between P sub(CO) and GAMMA sub(n)/GAMMA and the recoil energy by the Monte-Carlo calculation. To examine validity of the relation, P sub(CO) was measured for 19 resonances in 12 nuclides with thick samples, using a JAERI linac time-of-flight spectrometer with Moxon-Rae type gamma ray detector and transmission type neutron flux monitor. Results of the measurements confirmed the validity. With this relation, the GAMMA sub(n)/GAMMA or GAMMA sub(γ)/GAMMA value can be obtained from the measured P sub(CO), and also the level spins be determined by combining the transmission data. Because of the definition of P sub(CO), determination of the resonance parameters is not sensitive to the sample thickness as far as it is sufficiently thick. (auth.)

  9. Multiple-scattering theory with a truncated basis set

    Zhang, X.; Butler, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    Multiple-scattering theory (MST) is an extremely efficient technique for calculating the electronic structure of an assembly of atoms. The wave function in MST is expanded in terms of spherical waves centered on each atom and indexed by their orbital and azimuthal quantum numbers, l and m. The secular equation which determines the characteristic energies can be truncated at a value of the orbital angular momentum l max , for which the higher angular momentum phase shifts, δ l (l>l max ), are sufficiently small. Generally, the wave-function coefficients which are calculated from the secular equation are also truncated at l max . Here we point out that this truncation of the wave function is not necessary and is in fact inconsistent with the truncation of the secular equation. A consistent procedure is described in which the states with higher orbital angular momenta are retained but with their phase shifts set to zero. We show that this treatment gives smooth, continuous, and correctly normalized wave functions and that the total charge density calculated from the corresponding Green function agrees with the Lloyd formula result. We also show that this augmented wave function can be written as a linear combination of Andersen's muffin-tin orbitals in the case of muffin-tin potentials, and can be used to generalize the muffin-tin orbital idea to full-cell potentals

  10. Multiple scattering approach to the vibrational excitation of molecules by slow electrons

    Drukarev, G.

    1976-01-01

    Another approach to the problem of vibrational excitation of homonuclear two-atomic molecules by slow electrons possibly accompanied by rotational transitions is presented based on the picture of multiple scattering of an electron inside the molecule. The scattering of two fixed centers in the zero range potential model is considered. The results indicate that the multiple scattering determines the order of magnitude of the vibrational excitation cross sections in the energy region under consideration even if the zero range potential model is used. Also the connection between the multiple scattering approach and quasi-stationary molecular ion picture is established. 9 refs

  11. Absorption in multiple scattering systems of coated spheres: design applications

    Stout, Brian; Andraud, Christine; Stout, Sophie; Lafait, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    We illustrate the utility of some recently derived transfer matrix methods for electromagnetic scattering calculations in systems composed of coated spherical scatterers. Any of the spherical coatings, cores, or host media may be composed of absorbing materials. Our formulae permit the calculation of local absorption in either orientation fixed or orientation averaged situations. We introduce methods for estimating the macroscopic transport properties of such media, and show how our scattering calculations can permit 'design' optimization of macroscopic properties

  12. MULTIPLE-PLANET SCATTERING AND THE ORIGIN OF HOT JUPITERS

    Beaugé, C.; Nesvorný, D.

    2012-01-01

    Doppler and transit observations of exoplanets show a pile-up of Jupiter-size planets in orbits with a 3 day period. A fraction of these hot Jupiters have retrograde orbits with respect to the parent star's rotation, as evidenced by the measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. To explain these observations we performed a series of numerical integrations of planet scattering followed by the tidal circularization and migration of planets that evolved into highly eccentric orbits. We considered planetary systems having three and four planets initially placed in successive mean-motion resonances, although the angles were taken randomly to ensure orbital instability in short timescales. The simulations included the tidal and relativistic effects, and precession due to stellar oblateness. Our results show the formation of two distinct populations of hot Jupiters. The inner population (Population I) is characterized by semimajor axis a 1 Gyr and fits nicely the observed 3 day pile-up. A comparison between our three-planet and four-planet runs shows that the formation of hot Jupiters is more likely in systems with more initial planets. Due to the large-scale chaoticity that dominates the evolution, high eccentricities and/or high inclinations are generated mainly by close encounters between the planets and not by secular perturbations (Kozai or otherwise). The relative proportion of retrograde planets seems of be dependent on the stellar age. Both the distribution of almost aligned systems and the simulated 3 day pile-up also fit observations better in our four-planet simulations. This may suggest that the planetary systems with observed hot Jupiters were originally rich in the number of planets, some of which were ejected. In a broad perspective, our work therefore hints on an unexpected link between the hot Jupiters and recently discovered free floating planets.

  13. Evanescent wave scattering at off-axis incidence on multiple cylinders located near a surface

    Lee, Siu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The scattering characteristics of an infinite cylinder are strongly influenced by the incidence angle relative to its axis. If the incident wave propagates in the plane normal to the axis of the cylinder, the polarization of the scattered wave remains unchanged and the scattered wave propagates in the same plan as the incident wave. At off-axis incidence such that the incident direction makes an oblique angle with the cylinder axis, the scattered wave is depolarized, and its spatial distribution becomes three-dimensional. This paper presents the scattering solution for oblique incidence on multiple parallel cylinders located near a planar interface by an evanescent wave that is generated by total internal reflection of the source wave propagating in the higher refractive index substrate. Hertz potentials are utilized to formulate the interaction of inhomogeneous waves with the cylinders, scattering at the substrate interface, and near field scattering between the cylinders. Analytic formulas are derived for the electromagnetic fields and Poynting vector of scattered radiation in the near-field and their asymptotic forms in the far-field. Numerical examples are shown to illustrate scattering of evanescent wave by multiple cylinders at off-axis incidence. - Highlights: • Developed an exact solution for off-axis incidence on multiple cylinders. • Included depolarization, near-field scattering, and Fresnel effect in theory. • Derived analytic formulas for scattered radiation in the far field. • Illustrated evanescent scattering at off-axis incidence by numerical data

  14. The integration of improved Monte Carlo compton scattering algorithms into the Integrated TIGER Series

    Quirk, Thomas J. IV

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated TIGER Series (ITS) is a software package that solves coupled electron-photon transport problems. ITS performs analog photon tracking for energies between 1 keV and 1 GeV. Unlike its deterministic counterpart, the Monte Carlo calculations of ITS do not require a memory-intensive meshing of phase space; however, its solutions carry statistical variations. Reducing these variations is heavily dependent on runtime. Monte Carlo simulations must therefore be both physically accurate and computationally efficient. Compton scattering is the dominant photon interaction above 100 keV and below 5-10 MeV, with higher cutoffs occurring in lighter atoms. In its current model of Compton scattering, ITS corrects the differential Klein-Nishina cross sections (which assumes a stationary, free electron) with the incoherent scattering function, a function dependent on both the momentum transfer and the atomic number of the scattering medium. While this technique accounts for binding effects on the scattering angle, it excludes the Doppler broadening the Compton line undergoes because of the momentum distribution in each bound state. To correct for these effects, Ribbefor's relativistic impulse approximation (IA) will be employed to create scattering cross section differential in both energy and angle for each element. Using the parameterizations suggested by Brusa et al., scattered photon energies and angle can be accurately sampled at a high efficiency with minimal physical data. Two-body kinematics then dictates the electron's scattered direction and energy. Finally, the atomic ionization is relaxed via Auger emission or fluorescence. Future work will extend these improvements in incoherent scattering to compounds and to adjoint calculations.

  15. On sets of convergence and divergence of multiple orthogonal series

    D'yachenko, M I; Kazaryan, K S

    2002-01-01

    Multiple Fourier series with respect to uniformly bounded orthonormal systems (ONSs) are studied. The following results are obtained. Theorem 1. Let Φ={φ n (x)} n=1 ∞ be a complete orthonormal system on [0,1] that is uniformly bounded by M on this interval, assume that m≥2, and let Φ(m)={φ n (x)} nelement ofN m , where φ n (n)=φ n 1 (x 1 )...φ n m (x m ). Then there exists a function f(x) element of L([0,1] m ) cubically diverges on some measurable subset H of [0,1] m with μ m (H)≥1-(1-1/M 2 ) m . Theorem 3. For M>1 and an integer m≥2 let E be an arbitrary measurable subset of [0,1] such that μ(E)=1-1/M 2 . Then there exists a complete orthonormal system Φ on [0,1] uniformly bounded by M there such that the multiple Fourier series of each function f(x) element of L([0,1] m ) with respect to the product system Φ(m) cubically converges to f(x) a.e. on E m . Definitive results in this direction are established also for incomplete uniformly bounded ONSs

  16. Looking for Multiple Scattering Effects in Backscattered Ultrasonic Grain Noise from Jet-Engine Nickel Alloys

    Margetan, F.J.; Haldipur, Pranaam; Yu Linxiao; Thompson, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    For pulse/echo inspections of metals, models which predict backscattered noise characteristics often make a 'single-scattering' assumption, i.e., multiple-scattering events in which sound is scattered from one grain to another before returning to the transducer are ignored. Models based on the single-scattering assumption have proven to be very useful in simulating inspections of engine-alloy billets and forgings. However, this assumption may not be accurate if grain scattering is too 'strong' (e.g., if the mean grain diameter and/or the inspection frequency is too large). In this work, backscattered grain noise measurements and analyses were undertaken to search for evidence of significant multiple scattering in pulse/echo inspections of jet-engine Nickel alloys. At or above about 7 MHz frequency and 50 micron grain diameter, problems were seen with single-scattering noise models that are likely due to the neglect of multiple scattering by the models. The modeling errors were less severe for focused-probe measurements in the focal zone than for planar probe inspections. Single-scattering noise models are likely adequate for simulating current billet inspections which are carried out using 5-MHz focused transducers. However, multiple scattering effects should be taken into account in some fashion when simulating higher-frequency inspections of Nickel-alloy billets having large mean grain diameters (> 40 microns)

  17. Single and multiple electromagnetic scattering by dielectric obstacles from a resonance perspective

    Riley, D.J.

    1987-03-01

    A new application of the singularity expansion method (SEM) is explored. This application combines the classical theory of wave propagation through a multiple-scattering environment and the SEM. Because the SEM is generally considered to be a theory for describing surface currents on conducting scatters, extensions are made which permit, under certain conditions, a singularity expansion representation for the electromagnetic field scattered by a dielectric scatterer. Application of this expansion is then made to the multiple-scattering case using both single and multiple interactions. A resonance scattering tensor form is used for the SEM description which leds to an associated tensor form for the solution to the multiple-scattering problem with each SEM pole effect appearing explicitly. The coherent field is determined for both spatial and SEM parameter random variations. A numerical example for the case of an ensemble of dielectric spheres which possess frequency-dependent loss is also made. Accurate resonance expansions for the single-scattering problem are derived, and resonance trajectories based on the Debye relaxation model for the refractive index are introduced. Application of these resonance expansions is then made to the multiple-scattering results for a slab containing a distribution of spheres with varying radii. Conditions are discussed which describe when the hybrid theory is appropriate. 53 refs., 21 figs., 9 tabs

  18. SIMSAS - a window based software package for simulation and analysis of multiple small-angle scattering data

    Jayaswal, B.; Mazumder, S.

    1998-09-01

    Small-angle scattering data from strong scattering systems, e.g. porous materials, cannot be analysed invoking single scattering approximation as specimen needed to replicate the bulk matrix in essential properties are too thick to validate the approximation. The presence of multiple scattering is indicated by invalidity of the functional invariance property of the observed scattering profile with variation of sample thickness and/or wave length of the probing radiation. This article delineates how non accounting of multiple scattering affects the results of analysis and then how to correct the data for its effect. It deals with an algorithm to extract single scattering profile from small-angle scattering data affected by multiple scattering. The algorithm can process the scattering data and deduce single scattering profile in absolute scale. A software package, SIMSAS, is introduced for executing this inversion step. This package is useful both to simulate and to analyse multiple small-angle scattering data. (author)

  19. Elastic and quasielastic scattering of light nuclei in the theory of multiple scattering

    Ismatov, E.I.; Kuterbekov, K.A.; Dzhuraev, Sh.Kh.; Ehsaniyazov, Sh.P.; Zholdasova, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the work the calculation method for diffraction scattering amplitudes of light nuclei by heavy nuclei is developed. For A 1 A 2 -scattering effects of pair-, three-fold, and four-fold screenings are estimated. It is shown, that in amplitude calculations for A 1 A 2 elastic scattering it is enough come to nothing more than accounting of total screenings in the first order. Analysis of nucleus-nucleus scattering sensitive characteristics to choice of single-particle nuclear densities parametrization is carried out

  20. Multiple scattering of polarized light: comparison of Maxwell theory and radiative transfer theory.

    Voit, Florian; Hohmann, Ansgar; Schäfer, Jan; Kienle, Alwin

    2012-04-01

    For many research areas in biomedical optics, information about scattering of polarized light in turbid media is of increasing importance. Scattering simulations within this field are mainly performed on the basis of radiative transfer theory. In this study a polarization sensitive Monte Carlo solution of radiative transfer theory is compared to exact Maxwell solutions for all elements of the scattering Müller matrix. Different scatterer volume concentrations are modeled as a multitude of monodisperse nonabsorbing spheres randomly positioned in a cubic simulation volume which is irradiated with monochromatic incident light. For all Müller matrix elements effects due to dependent scattering and multiple scattering are analysed. The results are in overall good agreement between the two methods with deviations related to dependent scattering being prominent for high volume concentrations and high scattering angles.

  1. Multiple pole in the electron--hydrogen-atom scattering amplitude

    Amusia, M.Y.; Kuchiev, M.Y.

    1982-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the amplitude for electron--hydrogen-atom forward scattering has the third-order pole at the point E = -13.6 eV, E being the energy of the incident electron. The coefficients which characterize the pole are calculated exactly. The invalidity of the Born approximation is proved. The contribution of the pole singularity to the dispersion relation for the scattering amplitude is discussed

  2. Analytical calculation of the average scattering cross sections using fourier series

    Palma, Daniel A.P.; Goncalves, Alessandro C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C. da

    2009-01-01

    The precise determination of the Doppler broadening functions is very important in different applications of reactors physics, mainly in the processing of nuclear data. Analytical approximations are obtained in this paper for average scattering cross section using expansions in Fourier series, generating an approximation that is simple and precise. The results have shown to be satisfactory from the point-of-view of accuracy and do not depend on the type of resonance considered. (author)

  3. Integrable deformations and scattering matrices for the N=2 supersymmetric discrete series

    Fendley, P.; Mathur, S.D.; Vafa, C.; Warner, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    We find integrable deformations of the N=2 supersymmetric minimal series of conformal models by discovering supermultiplets of conserved currents in the perturbed theories. Integrability for these models is closely related to the geometric structure of the perturbed superpotentials. The exact soliton spectrum can be read off from the superpotential and this is then used to determine the purely elastic scattering matrices for the perturbed massive theories. (orig.)

  4. Analytical calculation of the average scattering cross sections using fourier series

    Palma, Daniel A.P. [Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: dpalmaster@gmail.com; Goncalves, Alessandro C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C. da [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear], e-mail: asilva@con.ufrj.br, e-mail: agoncalves@con.ufrj.br, e-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br, e-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    The precise determination of the Doppler broadening functions is very important in different applications of reactors physics, mainly in the processing of nuclear data. Analytical approximations are obtained in this paper for average scattering cross section using expansions in Fourier series, generating an approximation that is simple and precise. The results have shown to be satisfactory from the point-of-view of accuracy and do not depend on the type of resonance considered. (author)

  5. A stochastic model of multiple scattering of charged particles: process, transport equation and solutions

    Papiez, L.; Moskvin, V.; Tulovsky, V.

    2001-01-01

    The process of angular-spatial evolution of multiple scattering of charged particles can be described by a special case of Boltzmann integro-differential equation called Lewis equation. The underlying stochastic process for this evolution is the compound Poisson process on the surface of the unit sphere. The significant portion of events that constitute compound Poisson process that describes multiple scattering have diffusional character. This property allows to analyze the process of angular-spatial evolution of multiple scattering of charged particles as combination of soft and hard collision processes and compute appropriately its transition densities. These computations provide a method of the approximate solution to the Lewis equation. (orig.)

  6. Observation of spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light

    Smolka, Stephan; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2009-01-01

    and negative spatial quantum correlations are observed when varying the quantum state incident to the multiple scattering medium, and the strength of the correlations is controlled by the number of photons. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with recent theoretical proposals by implementing......We present the experimental realization of spatial quantum correlations of photons that are induced by multiple scattering of squeezed light. The quantum correlation relates photons propagating along two different light paths through the random medium and is infinite in range. Both positive...... the full quantum model of multiple scattering....

  7. [The portrayal of multiple sclerosis in television series].

    Karenberg, A

    2009-04-01

    An increasing number of television series deal with neurological disorders, including fictional portrayals of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this paper was to analyze every available TV episode with an MS character. Productions were identified by film databases and by hand search. Each episode was evaluated along neurologic and cinematic lines. Between 1985 and 2006, portrayals of MS appeared in 17 episodes produced in Germany, the US, and the UK. The frequency of symptoms shown onscreen strongly differed from epidemiological data. In particular sensory, cognitive, and bladder symptoms as well as difficulties with sexual function were under-represented. The authenticity of the disease depiction was strongly dependent upon the genre. Coping stories could be identified as the most prominent genre. Television patients were often portrayed as "brave fighters", "refined characters", and "afflicted without symptoms". Television series attract millions of viewers and thus shape the public image of a disease. Sound knowledge of how symptoms, diagnosis, and therapeutic options are presented in mass media is therefore indispensable for all who deal with MS patients, relatives, and caregivers.

  8. Density of states calculations and multiple-scattering theory for photons

    Moroz, A.

    1994-05-01

    The density of states for a finite or an infinite cluster of scatterers in the case of both, electrons and photons, can be represented in a general form as the sum over all Krein-Friedel contributions of individual scatterers and a contribution due to the presence of multiple scatterers. The latter is given by the sum over all periodic orbits between different scatterers. General three dimensional multiple-scattering theory for electromagnetic waves in the presence of scatterers of arbitrary shape is presented. Vector structure constants are calculated and general rules for obtaining them from known scalar structure constants are given. The KKR equations for photons are explicitly written down. (author). 22 refs., 2 figs

  9. Multiple scattering of elliptically polarized light in two-dimensional medium with large inhomogeneities

    Gorodnichev, E. E., E-mail: gorodn@theor.mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    For elliptically polarized light incident on a two-dimensional medium with large inhomogeneities, the Stokes parameters of scattered waves are calculated. Multiple scattering is assumed to be sharply anisotropic. The degree of polarization of scattered radiation is shown to be a nonmonotonic function of depth when the incident wave is circularly polarized or its polarization vector is not parallel to the symmetry axis of the inhomogeneities.

  10. Localization of a small change in a multiple scattering environment without modeling of the actual medium

    Rakotonarivo , Sandrine; Walker , S.C.; Kuperman , W. A.; Roux , Philippe

    2011-01-01

    International audience; A method to actively localize a small perturbation in a multiple scattering medium using a collection of remote acoustic sensors is presented. The approach requires only minimal modeling and no knowledge of the scatterer distribution and properties of the scattering medium and the perturbation. The medium is ensonified before and after a perturbation is introduced. The coherent difference between the measured signals then reveals all field components that have interact...

  11. Solution of neutron slowing down equation including multiple inelastic scattering

    El-Wakil, S.A.; Saad, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    The present work is devoted the presentation of an analytical method for the calculation of elastically and inelastically slowed down neutrons in an infinite non absorbing homogeneous medium. On the basis of the Central limit theory (CLT) and the integral transform technique the slowing down equation including inelastic scattering in terms of the Green function of elastic scattering is solved. The Green function is decomposed according to the number of collisions. A formula for the flux at any lethargy O (u) after any number of collisions is derived. An equation for the asymptotic flux is also obtained

  12. Optimum track fitting in the presence of multiple scattering

    Lutz, G.

    1987-06-01

    A method for track fitting is proposed which attempts to be as close as possible to the real track along the full path length. This is done by the introduction of scattering planes in which the particle is allowed to change its direction. A fit over the full track length includes the probability of direction change by scattering. Using matrix notation a fairly simple formalism for error estimation has been developed. Results of this method are compared to those of more widely used procedures for 'typical' examples of High Energy Spectrometers. (orig.)

  13. Multiple-scattering formalism beyond the quasistatic approximation: Analyzing resonances in plasmonic chains

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We present a multiple-scattering formalism for simulating scattering of electromagnetic waves on spherical inhomogeneities in 3D. The formalism is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and the electromagnetic Green's tensor and applies an expansion of the electric field on spherical...

  14. Multiple scattering theory for non-local and multichannel potentials

    Natoli, C.R.; Krüger, P.; Hatada, K.; Hayakawa, K.; Sébilleau, D.; Šipr, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 36 (2012), s. 1-20 ISSN 0953-8984 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : multichannel scattering * correlation s * density matrix Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2012

  15. Application of multiple scattering theory in electron dosimetry

    Oliveira, M.J.G.S. de.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model, based on the Fermi-Eyges scattering theory, which takes into account the different heterogeneous media, is proposed. Heterogeneous phantoms were built in order to obtain curves of distribution of the absorbed dose. The agreement between the theoretical and experimental data prove that presented theory model is useful to describe the absorbed dose in homogeneous media. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. Continuum and bound electronic wavefunctions for anisotropic multiple-scattering potentials

    Siegel, J.; Dill, D.; Dehmer, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Standard multiple-scattering treatments of bound and continuum one-electron states are restricted to a monopole potential in each of the various spherical regions. We have extended the treatment within these regions to a general potential. The corresponding multiple-scattering equations should facilitate accurate treatment of effects of the build-up of charge due to bonding, of the dipole character of polar molecules, and of external fields

  17. Multiple scattering corrections to the Beer-Lambert law. 1: Open detector.

    Tam, W G; Zardecki, A

    1982-07-01

    Multiple scattering corrections to the Beer-Lambert law are analyzed by means of a rigorous small-angle solution to the radiative transfer equation. Transmission functions for predicting the received radiant power-a directly measured quantity in contrast to the spectral radiance in the Beer-Lambert law-are derived. Numerical algorithms and results relating to the multiple scattering effects for laser propagation in fog, cloud, and rain are presented.

  18. Effects of multiple scattering and atmospheric aerosol on the polarization of the twilight sky

    Ugolnikov, Oleg S.; Postylyakov, Oleg V.; Maslov, Igor A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a review of a number of wide-angle polarization CCD-measurements of the twilight sky in V and R color bands with effective wavelengths 550 and 700nm. The basic factors affecting (usually decreasing) the polarization of the twilight sky are the atmospheric aerosol scattering and multiple scattering. These effects were distinguished from each other, and a method of multiple-scattering separation is discussed. The results are compared with the data of numerical simulation of radiative transfer in the atmosphere for different aerosol models. The whole twilight period is divided into different stages with different mechanisms forming the twilight-sky polarization properties

  19. [Multiple scattering of visible and infrared light by sea fog over wind driving rough sea surface].

    Sun, Xian-Ming; Wang, Hai-Hua; Lei, Cheng-Xin; Shen, Jin

    2013-08-01

    The present paper is concerned with computing the multiple scattering characteristics of a sea fog-sea surface couple system within this context. The single scattering characteristics of sea fog were studied by Mie theory, and the multiple scattering of sunlight by single sea fog layer was studied by radiative transfer theory. The reflection function of a statistically rough ocean surface was obtained using the standard Kirchhoff formulation, with shadowing effects taken into account. The reflection properties of the combined sea fog and ocean surface were obtained employing the adding method, and the results indicated that the reflected light intensity of sea fog increased with the sea background.

  20. Coherent transmission of an ultrasonic shock wave through a multiple scattering medium.

    Viard, Nicolas; Giammarinaro, Bruno; Derode, Arnaud; Barrière, Christophe

    2013-08-01

    We report measurements of the transmitted coherent (ensemble-averaged) wave resulting from the interaction of an ultrasonic shock wave with a two-dimensional random medium. Despite multiple scattering, the coherent waveform clearly shows the steepening that is typical of nonlinear harmonic generation. This is taken advantage of to measure the elastic mean free path and group velocity over a broad frequency range (2-15 MHz) in only one experiment. Experimental results are found to be in good agreement with a linear theoretical model taking into account spatial correlations between scatterers. These results show that nonlinearity and multiple scattering are both present, yet uncoupled.

  1. Concise formulation of the three-dimensional multiple-scattering theory.

    Oyhenart, Laurent; Vignéras, Valérie

    2012-08-01

    The scattering of an electromagnetic wave by a set of dielectric and metallic spheres is a well-known physical problem. We show a mathematical simplification of the multiple-scattering theory. In this paper, we will establish the multiple-scattering equation in two different ways. Through the study of the equation form, we can choose the simplest spherical wave expansion for calculations. Then, we propose concise expressions of the Mie scattering coefficients and translation coefficients for both polarizations. With these simplified expressions, large spheres are studied without loss of accuracy. Far-field expressions, cross-sections, and the scattering matrix are also simplified. Thus, we obtain formulas that can be easily understood from a physical point of view.

  2. Multiple scattering in closely packed systems of arbitrary non-overlapping shapes

    Keister, B.D.

    1982-11-01

    It has long been known that the multiple scattering of waves from a system of obstacles of finite extent can be described completely with a knowledge of the on-shell amplitudes of the individual scatterers, provided that the minimally enclosing spheres concentric with the scattering centers do not overlap. In this paper, it is shown that on-shell amplitudes alone suffice for a wider class of scattering configurations, in which the individual scatterers do not overlap, but their geometries do not satisfy the above condition. These extended geometries require a careful treatment of certain partial wave sums. An example is also discussed in which a pair of non-overlapping scatterers requires more than the on-shell amplitudes for a solution

  3. Rearrangement and convergence improvement of the Born series in scattering theory on the basis of orthogonal projections

    Kukulin, V.I.; Pomerantsev, V.N.

    1976-01-01

    Method of rearrangement of the Born series in scattering theory is proposed which uses the corthogonal projecting pseudopotentials (OPP) proposed recently. It is proved vigorously that the rearranged Born series will converge for all negative and small positive energy value seven in the presence of bound states. Method of correct introduction of scattering operators in orthogonal subspaces is displayed. Comparison of the OPP method with the projection technique developed by Feschbach is given. Physical applications of the method formulated are discussed

  4. Analytical multiple scattering correction to the Mie theory: Application to the analysis of the lidar signal

    Flesia, C.; Schwendimann, P.

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of the multiple scattering to the lidar signal is dependent on the optical depth tau. Therefore, the radar analysis, based on the assumption that the multiple scattering can be neglected is limited to cases characterized by low values of the optical depth (tau less than or equal to 0.1) and hence it exclude scattering from most clouds. Moreover, all inversion methods relating lidar signal to number densities and particle size must be modified since the multiple scattering affects the direct analysis. The essential requests of a realistic model for lidar measurements which include the multiple scattering and which can be applied to practical situations follow. (1) Requested are not only a correction term or a rough approximation describing results of a certain experiment, but a general theory of multiple scattering tying together the relevant physical parameter we seek to measure. (2) An analytical generalization of the lidar equation which can be applied in the case of a realistic aerosol is requested. A pure analytical formulation is important in order to avoid the convergency and stability problems which, in the case of numerical approach, are due to the large number of events that have to be taken into account in the presence of large depth and/or a strong experimental noise.

  5. Inelastic multiple scattering of interacting bosons in weak random potentials

    Geiger, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Within the present thesis we develop a diagrammatic scattering theory for interacting bosons in a three-dimensional, weakly disordered potential. Based on a microscopic N-body scattering theory, we identify the relevant diagrams including elastic and inelastic collision processes that are sufficient to describe quantum transport in the regime of weak disorder. By taking advantage of the statistical properties of the weak disorder potential, we demonstrate how the N-body dynamics can be reduced to a nonlinear integral equation of Boltzmann type for the single-particle diffusive flux. A presently available alternative description - based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation - only includes elastic collisions. In contrast, we show that far from equilibrium the presence of inelastic collisions - even for weak interaction strength - must be accounted for and can induce the full thermalization of the single-particle current. In addition, we also determine the coherent corrections to the incoherent transport, leading to the effect of coherent backscattering. For the first time, we are able to analyze the influence of inelastic collisions on the coherent backscattering signal, which lead to an enhancement of the backscattered cone in a narrow spectral window, even for increasing non-linearity. With a short recollection of the presently available experimental techniques we furthermore show how an immediate implementation of our suggested setup with confined Bose-Einstein condensates can be accomplished. Thereby, the emergence of collective and/or thermodynamic behavior from fundamental, microscopic constituents can also be assessed experimentally. In a second part of this thesis, we present first results for light scattering off strongly interacting Rydberg atoms trapped in a one-dimensional, chain-like configuration. In order to monitor the time-dependence of this interacting many-body system, we devise a weak measurement scenario for which we derive a master equation for the

  6. Scattering by an infinite homogenous anisotropic elliptic cylinder in terms of Mathieu functions and Fourier series.

    Mao, Shi-Chun; Wu, Zhen-Sen

    2008-12-01

    An exact solution to the two-dimensional scattering properties of an anisotropic elliptic cylinder for transverse electric polarization is presented. The internal field in an anisotropic elliptic cylinder is expressed as integral representations of Mathieu functions and Fourier series. The coefficients of the series expansion are obtained by imposing boundary conditions on the anisotropic-free-space interface. A matrix is developed to solve the nonorthogonality properties of Mathieu functions at the interface between two different media. Numerical results are given for the bistatic radar cross section and the amplitude of the total magnetic field along the x and y axes. The result is in agreement with that available as expected when an elliptic cylinder degenerates to a circular one.

  7. A Hierarchical Approach to Persistent Scatterer Network Construction and Deformation Time Series Estimation

    Rui Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hierarchical approach to network construction and time series estimation in persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI for deformation analysis using the time series of high-resolution satellite SAR images. To balance between computational efficiency and solution accuracy, a dividing and conquering algorithm (i.e., two levels of PS networking and solution is proposed for extracting deformation rates of a study area. The algorithm has been tested using 40 high-resolution TerraSAR-X images collected between 2009 and 2010 over Tianjin in China for subsidence analysis, and validated by using the ground-based leveling measurements. The experimental results indicate that the hierarchical approach can remarkably reduce computing time and memory requirements, and the subsidence measurements derived from the hierarchical solution are in good agreement with the leveling data.

  8. In vivo diagnosis of skin cancer using polarized and multiple scattered light spectroscopy

    Bartlett, Matthew Allen

    This thesis research presents the development of a non-invasive diagnostic technique for distinguishing between skin cancer, moles, and normal skin using polarized and multiple scattered light spectroscopy. Polarized light incident on the skin is single scattered by the epidermal layer and multiple scattered by the dermal layer. The epidermal light maintains its initial polarization while the light from the dermal layer becomes randomized and multiple scattered. Mie theory was used to model the epidermal light as the scattering from the intercellular organelles. The dermal signal was modeled as the diffusion of light through a localized semi-homogeneous volume. These models were confirmed using skin phantom experiments, studied with in vitro cell cultures, and applied to human skin for in vivo testing. A CCD-based spectroscopy system was developed to perform all these experiments. The probe and the theory were tested on skin phantoms of latex spheres on top of a solid phantom. We next extended our phantom study to include in vitro cells on top of the solid phantom. Optical fluorescent microscope images revealed at least four distinct scatterers including mitochondria, nucleoli, nuclei, and cell membranes. Single scattering measurements on the mammalian cells consistently produced PSD's in the size range of the mitochondria. The clinical portion of the study consisted of in vivo measurements on cancer, mole, and normal skin spots. The clinical study combined the single scattering model from the phantom and in vitro cell studies with the diffusion model for multiple scattered light. When parameters from both layers were combined, we found that a sensitivity of 100% and 77% can be obtained for detecting cancers and moles, respectively, given the number of lesions examined.

  9. Coherence effects and average multiplicity in deep inelastic scattering at small χ

    Kisselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    The average hadron multiplicity in deep inelastic scattering at small χ is calculated in this paper. Its relationship with the average multiplicity in e + e - annihilation is established. As shown the results do not depend on a choice of the gauge vector. The important role of coherence effects in both space-like and time-like jet evolution is clarified. (orig.)

  10. Continuous-wave spatial quantum correlations of light induced by multiple scattering

    Smolka, Stephan; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Huck, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    and reflectance. Utilizing frequency-resolved quantum noise measurements, we observe that the strength of the spatial quantum correlation function can be controlled by changing the quantum state of an incident bright squeezed-light source. Our results are found to be in excellent agreement with the developed......We present theoretical and experimental results on spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light. A continuous-mode quantum theory is derived that enables determining the spatial quantum correlation function from the fluctuations of the total transmittance...... theory and form a basis for future research on, e. g., quantum interference of multiple quantum states in a multiple scattering medium....

  11. Multiple and dependent scattering by densely packed discrete spheres: Comparison of radiative transfer and Maxwell theory

    Ma, L.X.; Tan, J.Y.; Zhao, J.M.; Wang, F.Q.; Wang, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    The radiative transfer equation (RTE) has been widely used to deal with multiple scattering of light by sparsely and randomly distributed discrete particles. However, for densely packed particles, the RTE becomes questionable due to strong dependent scattering effects. This paper examines the accuracy of RTE by comparing with the exact electromagnetic theory. For an imaginary spherical volume filled with randomly distributed, densely packed spheres, the RTE is solved by the Monte Carlo method combined with the Percus–Yevick hard model to consider the dependent scattering effect, while the electromagnetic calculation is based on the multi-sphere superposition T-matrix method. The Mueller matrix elements of the system with different size parameters and volume fractions of spheres are obtained using both methods. The results verify that the RTE fails to deal with the systems with a high-volume fraction due to the dependent scattering effects. Apart from the effects of forward interference scattering and coherent backscattering, the Percus–Yevick hard sphere model shows good accuracy in accounting for the far-field interference effects for medium or smaller size parameters (up to 6.964 in this study). For densely packed discrete spheres with large size parameters (equals 13.928 in this study), the improvement of dependent scattering correction tends to deteriorate. The observations indicate that caution must be taken when using RTE in dealing with the radiative transfer in dense discrete random media even though the dependent scattering correction is applied. - Highlights: • The Muller matrix of randomly distributed, densely packed spheres are investigated. • The effects of multiple scattering and dependent scattering are analyzed. • The accuracy of radiative transfer theory for densely packed spheres is discussed. • Dependent scattering correction takes effect at medium size parameter or smaller. • Performance of dependent scattering correction

  12. Scaling laws governing the multiple scattering of diatomic molecules under Coulomb explosion

    Sigmund, P.

    1992-01-01

    The trajectories of fast molecules during and after penetration through foils are governed by Coulomb explosion and distorted by multiple scattering and other penetration phenomena. A scattering event may cause the energy available for Coulomb explosion to increase or decrease, and angular momentum may be transferred to the molecule. Because of continuing Coulomb explosion inside and outside the target foil, the transmission pattern recorded at a detector far away from the target is not just a linear superposition of Coulomb explosion and multiple scattering. The velocity distribution of an initially monochromatic and well-collimated, but randomly oriented, beam of molecular ions is governed by a generalization of the standard Bothe-Landau integral that governs the multiple scattering of atomic ions. Emphasis has been laid on the distribution in relative velocity and, in particular, relative energy. The statistical distributions governing the longitudinal motion (i.e., the relative motion along the molecular axis) and the rotational motion can be scaled into standard multiple-scattering distributions of atomic ions. The two scaling laws are very different. For thin target foils, the significance of rotational energy transfer is enhanced by an order of magnitude compared to switched-off Coulomb explosion. A distribution for the total relative energy (i.e., longitudinal plus rotational motion) has also been found, but its scaling behavior is more complex. Explicit examples given for all three distributions refer to power-law scattering. As a first approximation, scattering events undergone by the two atoms in the molecule were assumed uncorrelated. A separate section has been devoted to an estimate of the effect of impact-parameter correlation on the multiple scattering of penetrating molecules

  13. Broadband electromagnetic dipole scattering by coupled multiple nanospheres

    Jing, Xufeng; Ye, Qiufeng; Hong, Zhi; Zhu, Dongshuo; Shi, Guohua

    2017-11-01

    With the development of nanotechnology, the ability to manipulate light at the nanoscale is critical to future optical functional devices. The use of high refractive index dielectric single silicon nanoparticle can achieve electromagnetic dipole resonant properties. Compared with single nanosphere, the use of dimer and trimer introduces an additional dimension (gap size) for improving the performance of dielectric optical devices through the coupling between closely connected silicon nanospheres. When changing the gap size between the nanospheres, the interaction between the particles can be from weak to strong. Compared with single nanospheres, dimerized or trimeric nanospheres exhibit more pronounced broadband scattering properties. In addition, by introducing more complex interaction, the trimericed silicon nanospheres exhibit a more significant increase in bandwidth than expected. In addition, the presence of the substrate will also contribute to the increase in the bandwidth of the nanospheres. The broadband response in dielectric nanostructures can be effectively applied to broadband applications such as dielectric nanoantennas or solar cells.

  14. Application of the 2-D discrete-ordinates method to multiple scattering of laser radiation

    Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; Embury, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The discrete-ordinates finite-element radiation transport code twotran is applied to describe the multiple scattering of a laser beam from a reflecting target. For a model scenario involving a 99% relative humidity rural aerosol we compute the average intensity of the scattered radiation and correction factors to the Beer-Lambert law arising from multiple scattering. As our results indicate, 2-D x-y and r-z geometry modeling can reliably describe a realistic 3-D scenario. Specific results are presented for the two visual ranges of 1.52 and 0.76 km which show that, for sufficiently high aerosol concentrations (e.g., equivalent to V = 0.76 km), the target signature in a distant detector becomes dominated by multiply scattered radiation from interactions of the laser light with the aerosol environment. The merits of the scaling group and the delta-M approximation for the transfer equation are also explored

  15. Multiple scattering formulation of two-dimensional acoustic and electromagnetic metamaterials

    Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose, E-mail: datorma1@upvnet.upv.es, E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es [Grupo de Fenomenos Ondulatorios, Departamento de IngenierIa Electronica, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n (Edificio 7F), ES-46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    A multiple scattering formulation of two-dimensional (2D) acoustic metamaterials is presented. This approach is comprehensive and can lead to frequency-dependent effective parameters (scalar bulk modulus and tensorial mass density), as it is possible to have not only positive or negative ellipsoidal refractive index, but also positive or negative hyperbolic refractive index. The correction due to multiple scattering interactions is included in the theory and it is demonstrated that its contribution is important only for lattices with high filling fractions. Since the surface fields on the scatterers are mainly responsible for the anomalous behavior of the resulting effective medium, complex scatterers can be used to engineer the frequency response. Anisotropic effects are also discussed within this formulation and some numerical examples are reported. A homogenization theory is also extended to electromagnetic wave propagation in 2D lattices of dielectric structures, where Mie resonances are found to be responsible for the metamaterial behavior.

  16. Efficient Processing of Multiple DTW Queries in Time Series Databases

    Kremer, Hardy; Günnemann, Stephan; Ivanescu, Anca-Maria

    2011-01-01

    . In many of today’s applications, however, large numbers of queries arise at any given time. Existing DTW techniques do not process multiple DTW queries simultaneously, a serious limitation which slows down overall processing. In this paper, we propose an efficient processing approach for multiple DTW...... for multiple DTW queries....

  17. Effects of multiple scattering on radiative properties of soot fractal aggregates

    Yon, Jérôme; Liu, Fengshan; Bescond, Alexandre; Caumont-Prim, Chloé; Rozé, Claude; Ouf, François-Xavier; Coppalle, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The in situ optical characterization of smokes composed of soot particles relies on light extinction, angular static light scattering (SLS), or laser induced incandescence (LII). These measurements are usually interpreted by using the Rayleigh–Debye–Gans theory for Fractal Aggregates (RDG-FA). RDG-FA is simple to use but it completely neglects the impact of multiple scattering (MS) within soot aggregates. In this paper, based on a scaling approach that takes into account MS effects, an extended form of the RDG-FA theory is proposed in order to take into account these effects. The parameters of this extended theory and their dependency on the number of primary sphere inside the aggregate (1 p <1006) and on the wavelength (266nm<λ<1064nm) are evaluated thanks to rigorous calculations based on discrete dipole approximation (DDA) and generalized multi-sphere Mie-solution (GMM) calculations. This study shows that size determination by SLS is not distorted by MS effect. On the contrary, it is shown that fractal dimension can be misinterpreted by light scattering experiments, especially at short wavelengths. MS effects should be taken into account for the interpretation of absorption measurements that are involved in LII or extinction measurements. -- Highlights: • We incorporate multiple scattering effects in a scaling approach for fractal aggregates. • A generalized structure factor is introduced for implementation in RDG-FA theory. • Forward scattering is affected by multiple scattering as well as power law regime. • Absorption cross sections are affected by multiple scattering. • Absorption cross sections are 11% higher than that for forward scattering

  18. Multiple scattering expansion of the self-energy at finite temperature

    Jeon, S.; Ellis, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    An often used rule that the thermal correction to the self-energy is the thermal phase-space times the forward scattering amplitude from target particles is shown to be the leading term in an exact multiple scattering expansion. Starting from imaginary-time finite-temperature field theory, a rigorous expansion for the retarded self-energy is derived. The relationship to the thermodynamic potential is briefly discussed. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  19. Multiple Scattering Expansion of the Self-Energy at Finite Temperature

    Jeon, Sangyong; Ellis, Paul J.

    1998-01-01

    An often used rule that the thermal correction to the self-energy is the thermal phase-space times the forward scattering amplitude from target particles is shown to be the leading term in an exact multiple scattering expansion. Starting from imaginary-time finite-temperature field theory, a rigorous expansion for the retarded self-energy is derived. The relationship to the thermodynamic potential is briefly discussed.

  20. Taking apart the enhanced backscattering cone: Interference fringes from reciprocal paths in multiple light scattering

    Bret, Boris P. J.; Ferreira, Flavio P.; Nunes-Pereira, Eduardo J.; Belsley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We report the decomposition of the enhanced backscattering cone into its constitutive interference fringes. These fringes are due to the constructive interference between reciprocal paths of any multiply scattered wave after ensemble averaging. An optical setup combining a two-point continuous-wave illumination and matching detection allows the observation of the fringes and, therefore, the quantitative characterization of the Green's function for light propagation between the two points in a multiple-scattering media.

  1. Analytical calculations of multiple scattering for high energy photons and neutrons

    Thoe, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    Radiography of large dense objects often require the use of highly penetrating radiation. For example, a couple of centimeters of steel attenuates 50 keV x-rays by a factor of approximately 10 -14 whereas this same amount of steel would attenuate a 500 keV photon beam by only a factor of about 0.25. However, this increase in penetrating power comes with a price. In the case of x-radiation there are two bills to pay: (1) For projection radiography, this increase in penetration directly causes a corresponding decrease in resolution. (2) This increase in penetration occurs in a region where the interaction of radiation and matter is changing from absorption to scattering. In the above example the fraction of scattering goes from about 0.1 at 50 keV to over 0.99 at 500 keV. These scattered photons can significantly degrade contrast. In order to overcome some of these difficulties, radiography using scattered photons has been studied by myself and numerous other authors. In all the above cases, calculation of the intensity of scattered radiation is of primary importance. In cases where scattering is probable, multiple scattering can also be probable. Calculations of multiple scattering are generally very difficult and usually require the use of extremely sophisticated Monte Carlo simulations. It is not unusual for these calculations to require several hours of CPU time on some of the worlds largest and fastest supercomputers. In this paper I will present an alternative approach. I will present an analytical solution to the equations of double scattering, and show how this solution can extended to the case of higher order scattering. Finally, I will give numerical examples of these solutions and compare them to solutions obtained by Monte Carlo simulations

  2. Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by a collection of plasma drift turbulent vortices

    Resendes, D.

    1995-01-01

    An application of the self-consistent multiple-scattering theory of electro-magnetic waves to drift turbulent vortices is presented. Using the known single-vortex solution, the integral equation describing the scattering from a finite density of drift turbulent vortices is obtained. Rather than solving this equation and then averaging, the averaging operation is taken first to obtain statistical moment equations, from which the coherent and incoherent scattering follow. These results are expressed in a Fourier basis, and the cross-section is evaluated. Limiting forms of the theory and straightforward generalizations are discussed. (Author)

  3. Bridging Three Orders of Magnitude: Multiple Scattered Waves Sense Fractal Microscopic Structures via Dispersion

    Lambert, Simon A.; Näsholm, Sven Peter; Nordsletten, David; Michler, Christian; Juge, Lauriane; Serfaty, Jean-Michel; Bilston, Lynne; Guzina, Bojan; Holm, Sverre; Sinkus, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    Wave scattering provides profound insight into the structure of matter. Typically, the ability to sense microstructure is determined by the ratio of scatterer size to probing wavelength. Here, we address the question of whether macroscopic waves can report back the presence and distribution of microscopic scatterers despite several orders of magnitude difference in scale between wavelength and scatterer size. In our analysis, monosized hard scatterers 5 μ m in radius are immersed in lossless gelatin phantoms to investigate the effect of multiple reflections on the propagation of shear waves with millimeter wavelength. Steady-state monochromatic waves are imaged in situ via magnetic resonance imaging, enabling quantification of the phase velocity at a voxel size big enough to contain thousands of individual scatterers, but small enough to resolve the wavelength. We show in theory, experiments, and simulations that the resulting coherent superposition of multiple reflections gives rise to power-law dispersion at the macroscopic scale if the scatterer distribution exhibits apparent fractality over an effective length scale that is comparable to the probing wavelength. Since apparent fractality is naturally present in any random medium, microstructure can thereby leave its fingerprint on the macroscopically quantifiable power-law exponent. Our results are generic to wave phenomena and carry great potential for sensing microstructure that exhibits intrinsic fractality, such as, for instance, vasculature.

  4. A novel sampling method for multiple multiscale targets from scattering amplitudes at a fixed frequency

    Liu, Xiaodong

    2017-08-01

    A sampling method by using scattering amplitude is proposed for shape and location reconstruction in inverse acoustic scattering problems. Only matrix multiplication is involved in the computation, thus the novel sampling method is very easy and simple to implement. With the help of the factorization of the far field operator, we establish an inf-criterion for characterization of underlying scatterers. This result is then used to give a lower bound of the proposed indicator functional for sampling points inside the scatterers. While for the sampling points outside the scatterers, we show that the indicator functional decays like the bessel functions as the sampling point goes away from the boundary of the scatterers. We also show that the proposed indicator functional continuously depends on the scattering amplitude, this further implies that the novel sampling method is extremely stable with respect to errors in the data. Different to the classical sampling method such as the linear sampling method or the factorization method, from the numerical point of view, the novel indicator takes its maximum near the boundary of the underlying target and decays like the bessel functions as the sampling points go away from the boundary. The numerical simulations also show that the proposed sampling method can deal with multiple multiscale case, even the different components are close to each other.

  5. Two-dimensional phononic crystals with time-varying properties: a multiple scattering analysis

    Wright, D W; Cobbold, R S C

    2010-01-01

    Multiple scattering theory is a versatile two- and three-dimensional method for characterizing the acoustic wave transmission through many scatterers. It provides analytical solutions to wave propagation in scattering structures, and its computational complexity grows logarithmically with the number of scatterers. In this paper we show how the 2D method can be adapted to include the effects of time-varying material parameters. Specifically, a new T-matrix is defined to include the effects of frequency modulation that occurs in time-varying phononic crystals. Solutions were verified against finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations and showed excellent agreement. This new method enables fast characterization of time-varying phononic crystals without the need to resort to lengthy FDTD simulations. Also, the method of combining T-matrices to form the T-supermatrix remains unchanged provided that the new matrix definitions are used. The method is quite compatible with existing implementations of multiple scattering theory and could be readily extended to three-dimensional multiple scattering theory

  6. Operation of multiple superconducting energy doubler magnets in series

    Kalbfleisch, G.; Limon, P.J.; Rode, C.

    1977-01-01

    In order to understand the operational characteristics of the Energy Doubler, a series of experiments were begun which were designed to be a practical test of running superconducting accelerator magnets in series. Two separate tests in which two Energy Doubler dipoles were powered in series are described. Of particular interest are the static losses of the cryostats and the behavior of the coils and cryostats during quenches. The results of the tests show that Energy Doubler magnets can be safely operated near their short sample limit, and that the various safety devices used are adequate to protect the coils and the cryostats from damage

  7. Point spread function due to multiple scattering of light in the atmosphere

    Pękala, J.; Wilczyński, H.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric scattering of light has a significant influence on the results of optical observations of air showers. It causes attenuation of direct light from the shower, but also contributes a delayed signal to the observed light. The scattering of light therefore should be accounted for, both in simulations of air shower detection and reconstruction of observed events. In this work a Monte Carlo simulation of multiple scattering of light has been used to determine the contribution of the scattered light in observations of a point source of light. Results of the simulations and a parameterization of the angular distribution of the scattered light contribution to the observed signal (the point spread function) are presented. -- Author-Highlights: •Analysis of atmospheric scattering of light from an isotropic point source. •Different geometries and atmospheric conditions were investigated. •A parameterization of scattered light distribution has been developed. •The parameterization allows one to easily account for the light scattering in air. •The results will be useful in analyses of observations of extensive air shower

  8. A fast calculating two-stream-like multiple scattering algorithm that captures azimuthal and elevation variations

    Fiorino, Steven T.; Elmore, Brannon; Schmidt, Jaclyn; Matchefts, Elizabeth; Burley, Jarred L.

    2016-05-01

    Properly accounting for multiple scattering effects can have important implications for remote sensing and possibly directed energy applications. For example, increasing path radiance can affect signal noise. This study describes the implementation of a fast-calculating two-stream-like multiple scattering algorithm that captures azimuthal and elevation variations into the Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) atmospheric characterization and radiative transfer code. The multiple scattering algorithm fully solves for molecular, aerosol, cloud, and precipitation single-scatter layer effects with a Mie algorithm at every calculation point/layer rather than an interpolated value from a pre-calculated look-up-table. This top-down cumulative diffusivity method first considers the incident solar radiance contribution to a given layer accounting for solid angle and elevation, and it then measures the contribution of diffused energy from previous layers based on the transmission of the current level to produce a cumulative radiance that is reflected from a surface and measured at the aperture at the observer. Then a unique set of asymmetry and backscattering phase function parameter calculations are made which account for the radiance loss due to the molecular and aerosol constituent reflectivity within a level and allows for a more accurate characterization of diffuse layers that contribute to multiple scattered radiances in inhomogeneous atmospheres. The code logic is valid for spectral bands between 200 nm and radio wavelengths, and the accuracy is demonstrated by comparing the results from LEEDR to observed sky radiance data.

  9. Development of multiple scattering lidar to retrieve cloud extinction and size information

    Kim, Dukhyeon; Cheong, Hai Du; Kim, Young Gi; Park, Sun Ho

    2008-01-01

    Traditional Mie scattering cloud lidar have some limitations because of multiple scattering effects. Because this multiple scattering effects induce depolarization of spherical particle and enhancement of extinction coefficient. We cannot measure the phase of water with depolarization lidar, and also cannot measure the extinction coefficient with single FOV(Field Of View)Mie cloud lidar system. In the study, we have developed a multiple field of view Mie cloud liar system which can give many information about the cloud droplet such as cloud effective size, cloud number density, extinction coefficient of cloud, and phase of water through the correction of multiple scattering effects. For this purpose, we have developed a multiple field of view lidar system which composed of 32 different pinholes. Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram and picture of pinholes which start from 100μm to 8mm. Pihole is located at the focal plane of the parabolic mirror, in this case the minimum FOV is 67μrad, maximum FOV is 5.3 mrad. Figure 2 shows Monte Carlo simulation of the multiple scattering photons vs. cloud depth. In this calculation we assumed that wavelength normalized aerosol size(x)is 100, and density of cloud (extinction efficiency)is 0.01m"-1". By measuring FOV dependent signals and aerosol extinction coefficient we can extract effective droplet size through following equations. Here θ"d"is aerosol effective size, and z"j", f, Θ(z)are height, aerosol density dependent function, and angular size of lidar signal at the height z. Finally. f(z)depends on the light mean free path and number of scattering

  10. Resonant Rayleigh scattering of exciton-polaritons in multiple quantum wells

    Malpuech, Guillaume; Kavokin, Alexey; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical concept of resonant Rayleigh scattering (RRS) of exciton-polaritons in multiple quantum wells (QWs) is presented. The optical coupling between excitons in different QWs can strongly affect the RRS dynamics, giving rise to characteristic temporal oscillations on a picosecond scale....... Bragg and anti-Bragg arranged QW structures with the same excitonic parameters are predicted to have drastically different RRS spectra. Experimental data on the RRS from multiple QWs show the predicted strong temporal oscillations at small scattering angles, which are well explained by the presented...

  11. Comparison of multiplicity distributions to the negative binomial distribution in muon-proton scattering

    Arneodo, M.; Ferrero, M.I.; Peroni, C.; Bee, C.P.; Bird, I.; Coughlan, J.; Sloan, T.; Braun, H.; Brueck, H.; Drees, J.; Edwards, A.; Krueger, J.; Montgomery, H.E.; Peschel, H.; Pietrzyk, U.; Poetsch, M.; Schneider, A.; Dreyer, T.; Ernst, T.; Haas, J.; Kabuss, E.M.; Landgraf, U.; Mohr, W.; Rith, K.; Schlagboehmer, A.; Schroeder, T.; Stier, H.E.; Wallucks, W.

    1987-01-01

    The multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons produced in the deep inelastic muon-proton scattering at 280 GeV are analysed in various rapidity intervals, as a function of the total hadronic centre of mass energy W ranging from 4-20 GeV. Multiplicity distributions for the backward and forward hemispheres are also analysed separately. The data can be well parameterized by binomial distributions, extending their range of applicability to the case of lepton-proton scattering. The energy and the rapidity dependence of the parameters is presented and a smooth transition from the binomial distribution via Poissonian to the ordinary binomial is observed. (orig.)

  12. Weyl Group Multiple Dirichlet Series Type A Combinatorial Theory (AM-175)

    Brubaker, Ben; Friedberg, Solomon

    2011-01-01

    Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series are generalizations of the Riemann zeta function. Like the Riemann zeta function, they are Dirichlet series with analytic continuation and functional equations, having applications to analytic number theory. By contrast, these Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series may be functions of several complex variables and their groups of functional equations may be arbitrary finite Weyl groups. Furthermore, their coefficients are multiplicative up to roots of unity, generalizing the notion of Euler products. This book proves foundational results about these series an

  13. Divergent series, summability and resurgence II simple and multiple summability

    Loday-Richaud, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the question how to “sum” a power series in one variable when it diverges, that is, how to attach to it analytic functions, the volume gives answers by presenting and comparing the various theories of k-summability and multisummability. These theories apply in particular to all solutions of ordinary differential equations. The volume includes applications, examples and revisits, from a cohomological point of view, the group of tangent-to-identity germs of diffeomorphisms of C studied in volume 1. With a view to applying the theories to solutions of differential equations, a detailed survey of linear ordinary differential equations is provided which includes Gevrey asymptotic expansions, Newton polygons, index theorems and Sibuya’s proof of the meromorphic classification theorem that characterizes the Stokes phenomenon for linear differential equations. This volume is the second of a series of three entitled Divergent Series, Summability and Resurgence. It is aimed at graduate students and res...

  14. Localization of a small change in a multiple scattering environment without modeling of the actual medium.

    Rakotonarivo, S T; Walker, S C; Kuperman, W A; Roux, P

    2011-12-01

    A method to actively localize a small perturbation in a multiple scattering medium using a collection of remote acoustic sensors is presented. The approach requires only minimal modeling and no knowledge of the scatterer distribution and properties of the scattering medium and the perturbation. The medium is ensonified before and after a perturbation is introduced. The coherent difference between the measured signals then reveals all field components that have interacted with the perturbation. A simple single scatter filter (that ignores the presence of the medium scatterers) is matched to the earliest change of the coherent difference to localize the perturbation. Using a multi-source/receiver laboratory setup in air, the technique has been successfully tested with experimental data at frequencies varying from 30 to 60 kHz (wavelength ranging from 0.5 to 1 cm) for cm-scale scatterers in a scattering medium with a size two to five times bigger than its transport mean free path. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  15. A Two-Dimensional Helmholtz Equation Solution for the Multiple Cavity Scattering Problem

    2013-02-01

    obtained by using the block Gauss – Seidel iterative meth- od. To show the convergence of the iterative method, we define the error between two...models to the general multiple cavity setting. Numerical examples indicate that the convergence of the Gauss – Seidel iterative method depends on the...variational approach. A block Gauss – Seidel iterative method is introduced to solve the cou- pled system of the multiple cavity scattering problem, where

  16. Multiplicities of charged kaons from deep-inelastic muon scattering off an isoscalar target

    Adolph, C.; Aghasyan, M.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M. G.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N. V.; Anosov, V.; Augsten, K.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, M.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E. R.; Birsa, R.; Bodlák, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Capozza, L.; Chang, W.-C.; Chatterjee, C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, A.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Dreisbach, Ch.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekapm, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; Hamar, G.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Yu.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jarý, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lian, Y.-S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, R.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, W.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Mitrofanov, E.; Mitrofanov, N.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W. D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pešek, M.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Pierre, N.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Roskot, M.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salač, R.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sawada, H.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smolík, J.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, Aleš; Steffen, D.; Stolarski, M.; Subrt, O.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Thiel, A.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Wallner, S.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Zaremba, K.; Závada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 767, 10 APRIL (2017), s. 133-141 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : deep inelastic scattering * kaon multiplicities * quark fragmentation functions * strange quark Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 4.807, year: 2016

  17. Coulomb correction to the screening angle of the Moliere multiple scattering theory

    Kuraev, E.A.; Voskresenskaya, O.O.; Tarasov, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Coulomb correction to the screening angular parameter of the Moliere multiple scattering theory is found. Numerical calculations are presented in the range of nuclear charge 4 ≤ Z ≤ 82. Comparison with the Moliere result for the screening angle reveals up to 30% deviation from it for sufficiently heavy elements of the target material

  18. Multiple scattering in electron fluid and energy loss in multi-ionic targets

    Deutsch, C., E-mail: claude.deutsch@u-psud.fr [LPGP, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Tahir, N.A. [GSI, 1Planck Str., 64291-Darmstadt (Germany); Barriga-Carrasco, M. [ETSII, UCastilla-la-Mancha, 13071 Ciudad-Real (Spain); Ceban, V. [LPGP, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Fromy, P. [CRI, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Gilles, D. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/IRFU/SAP, 91191-Gif-s-Yvette (France); Leger, D. [Laboratoire Monthouy, UValenciennes-Hainaut Cambresis (France); Maynard, G. [LPGP, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Tashev, B. [Department of Physics, KazNu, Tole Bi82, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Volpe, L. [Department of Physics, UMilano-Bicocca, Milano 20126 (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    Extensions of the standard stopping model (SSM) for ion projectiles interacting with dense targets of timely concern for ICF and WDM are reviewed. They include multiple scattering on partially degenerate electrons, low velocity ion slowing down in demixing H–He mixtures within Jovian planets core or multiionic target such as Kapton.

  19. Multiple scattering in electron fluid and energy loss in multi-ionic targets

    Deutsch, C.; Tahir, N.A.; Barriga-Carrasco, M.; Ceban, V.; Fromy, P.; Gilles, D.; Leger, D.; Maynard, G.; Tashev, B.; Volpe, L.

    2014-01-01

    Extensions of the standard stopping model (SSM) for ion projectiles interacting with dense targets of timely concern for ICF and WDM are reviewed. They include multiple scattering on partially degenerate electrons, low velocity ion slowing down in demixing H–He mixtures within Jovian planets core or multiionic target such as Kapton

  20. A method for the generation of random multiple Coulomb scattering angles

    Campbell, J.R.

    1995-06-01

    A method for the random generation of spatial angles drawn from non-Gaussian multiple Coulomb scattering distributions is presented. The method employs direct numerical inversion of cumulative probability distributions computed from the universal non-Gaussian angular distributions of Marion and Zimmerman. (author). 12 refs., 3 figs

  1. Multiple (Two) Met Bel 601 In Series Ultimate Vacuum Testing

    Restivo, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-30

    SRNL Environmental and Chemical Process Technology (E&CPT) was requested to perform testing of vacuum pumps per a verbal request from the Customer, SRNL Hydrogen Processing Technology. Tritium Operations is currently having difficulties procuring the Normetex™® Model 15 m3/hr (9 CFM) vacuum pump (formerly Normetex Pompes, now EumecaSARL). One possible solution proposed by Hydrogen Processing Technology personnel is to use two Senior Aerospace Metal Bellows MB-601 vacuum pumps piped with the heads in series, and the pumps in series (Figure 1 below). This memorandum documents the ultimate vacuum testing that was performed to determine if this concept was a viable alternate vacuum pump strategy. This testing dovetails with previous pump evaluations documented in references 1 and 2.

  2. MCRTOF, Multiple Scattering of Resonance Region Neutron in Time of Flight Experiments

    Ohkubo, Mako

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Multiple scattering of neutrons in the resonance energy region impinging on a disk with an arbitrary angle. 2 - Method of solution: The Monte Carlo method is employed to simulate the path of an incident neutron in a medium for which macroscopic cross sections are determined by resonance parameters. By tracing a large number of neutrons, probabilities for capture, transmission, front-face scattering, rear-face scattering and side-face scattering are determined and printed out as function of incident neutron energy. Optionally, the distribution of capture locations in the disk can be printed. The incident neutron energy is swept to fit a situation as encountered in time-of-flight experiments. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The cross section file is constructed from input resonance parameters with a single- level Breit-Wigner formula. The following restrictions and simplifications apply: - The maximum number of resonances is five. - Reactions other than capture and scattering are neglected. - The angular scattering distribution in the center-of-mass system is assumed to be uniform. - Chemical binding effects are neglected

  3. Multiple scattering effects with cyclical terms in active remote sensing of vegetated surface using vector radiative transfer theory

    The energy transport in a vegetated (corn) surface layer is examined by solving the vector radiative transfer equation using a numerical iterative approach. This approach allows a higher order that includes the multiple scattering effects. Multiple scattering effects are important when the optical t...

  4. A multiple scattering theory for EM wave propagation in a dense random medium

    Karam, M. A.; Fung, A. K.; Wong, K. W.

    1985-01-01

    For a dense medium of randomly distributed scatterers an integral formulation for the total coherent field has been developed. This formulation accounts for the multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves including both the twoand three-particle terms. It is shown that under the Markovian assumption the total coherent field and the effective field have the same effective wave number. As an illustration of this theory, the effective wave number and the extinction coefficient are derived in terms of the polarizability tensor and the pair distribution function for randomly distributed small spherical scatterers. It is found that the contribution of the three-particle term increases with the particle size, the volume fraction, the frequency and the permittivity of the particle. This increase is more significant with frequency and particle size than with other parameters.

  5. Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves in disordered magnetic media localization parameter, energy transport velocity and diffusion constant

    Pinheiro, F A; Martínez, A S

    2001-01-01

    We review some of our recent results concerning the single and multiple electromagnetic scattering by magnetic spherical particles. For a single electromagnetic scattering we show that the magnetic contribution alters, when compared to nonmagnetic scattering, the behavior of the cross sections and mean cosine of the scattering angle (cos omega). For ferromagnetic particles, resonances may occur even in the small-particle limit when the particle radius is much smaller than the wavelength. The resonances increase the cross sections while (cos omega) is diminished , and even may become negative. Several quantities such the Ioffe-Regel parameter for localization are calculated for the multiple scattering regime. We show that magnetic scattering favors the observation of localization of electromagnetic waves in three dimensions. Further, this is also verified for dynamical experiments, where we show that the diffusion constant can be very small. Since the magnetic permeability of the scatterers can vary significan...

  6. Experimental investigations of multiple scattering of 662 keV gamma photons in elements and binary alloys

    Singh, Gurvinderjit; Singh, Manpreet; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, Bhajan

    2008-01-01

    The energy, intensity and angular distributions of multiple scattering of 662 keV gamma photons, emerging from targets of pure elements and binary alloys, are observed as a function of target thickness in reflection and transmission geometries. The observed spectra recorded by a properly shielded NaI (Tl) scintillation detector, in addition to singly scattered events, consist of photons scattered more than once for thick targets. To extract the contribution of multiply scattered photons from the measured spectra, a singly scattered distribution is reconstructed analytically. We observe that the numbers of multiply scattered events increase with increase in target thickness, and saturate for a particular thickness called saturation thickness. The saturation thickness decreases with increasing atomic number. The multiple scattering, an interfering background noise in Compton profiles and Compton cross-section measurements, has been successfully used as a new technique to assign the 'effective atomic number' to binary alloys. Monte Carlo calculations support the present experimental results

  7. Products of multiple Fourier series with application to the multiblade transformation

    Kunz, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    A relatively simple and systematic method for forming the products of multiple Fourier series using tensor like operations is demonstrated. This symbolic multiplication can be performed for any arbitrary number of series, and the coefficients of a set of linear differential equations with periodic coefficients from a rotating coordinate system to a nonrotating system is also demonstrated. It is shown that using Fourier operations to perform this transformation make it easily understood, simple to apply, and generally applicable.

  8. Multiple scattering of low energy rare gas ions: a comparison of experiment and computer simulation

    Heiland, W.; Taglauer, E.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-01-01

    Some aspects of ion scattering below a few keV have been interpreted by multiple scattering. This can partly be simulated by chain or string models, where the single crystal surface is replaced by a chain of atoms. The computer program MARLOWE allows a simulation of solid-ion interaction, which is much closer to reality, e.g. the crystal is three-dimensional, includes lattice vibrations, electronic stopping power, different scattering potentials, etc. It is shown that the energy of the reflected ions as a function of the primary energy, lattice constant, impact angle and scattering angle can be understood within the string model. These results of the string model are confirmed by the MARLOWE calculations. For an interpretation of the measured intensities the simple string model is insufficient, whereas with MARLOWE reasonable agreement with experimental data may be achieved, if the thermal vibrations of the lattice atoms are taken into account. The experimental data include Ne + →Ni, Ne + →Ag and preliminary data on Ne + →W. The screening parameters of the scattering potentials are estimated for these ion-atom combinations. The results allow some conclusions about surface Debye temperatures. (Auth.)

  9. The potential influence of multiple scattering on longwave flux and heating rate simulations with clouds

    Kuo, C. P.; Yang, P.; Huang, X.; Feldman, D.; Flanner, M.; Kuo, C.; Mlawer, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds, which cover approximately 67% of the globe, serve as one of the major modulators in adjusting radiative energy on the Earth. Since rigorous radiative transfer computations including multiple scattering are costly, only absorption is considered in the longwave spectral bands in the radiation sub-models of the general circulation models (GCMs). Quantification of the effect of ignoring longwave scattering for flux and heating rate simulations is performed by using the GCM version of the Longwave Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG_LW) with an implementation with the 16-stream Discrete Ordinates Radiative Transfer (DISORT) Program for a Multi-Layered Plane-Parallel Medium in conjunction with the 2010 CCCM products that merge satellite observations from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), the CloudSat, the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). One-year global simulations show that neglecting longwave scattering overestimates upward flux at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and underestimates downward flux at the surface by approximately 2.63 and 1.15 W/m2, respectively. Furthermore, when longwave scattering is included in the simulations, the tropopause is cooled by approximately 0.018 K/day and the surface is heated by approximately 0.028 K/day. As a result, the radiative effects of ignoring longwave scattering and doubling CO2 are comparable in magnitude.

  10. On the representation of electron multiple elastic-scattering distributions for Monte Carlo calculations

    Kawrakow, I.; Bielajew, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    A new representation of elastic electron-nucleus (Coulomb) multiple-scattering distributions is developed. Using the screened Rutherford cross section with the Moliere screening parameter as an example, a simple analytic angular transformation of the Goudsmit-Saunderson multiple-scattering distribution accounts for most of the structure of the angular distribution leaving a residual 3-parameter (path-length, transformed angle and screening parameter) function that is reasonably slowly varying and suitable for rapid, accurate interpolation in a computer-intensive algorithm. The residual function is calculated numerically for a wide range of Moliere screening parameters and path-lengths suitable for use in a general-purpose condensed-history Monte Carlo code. Additionally, techniques are developed that allow the distributions to be scaled to account for energy loss. This new representation allows ''''on-the-fly'''' sampling of Goudsmit-Saunderson angular distributions in a screened Rutherford approximation suitable for class II condensed-history Monte Carlo codes. (orig.)

  11. UAV remote sensing atmospheric degradation image restoration based on multiple scattering APSF estimation

    Qiu, Xiang; Dai, Ming; Yin, Chuan-li

    2017-09-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote imaging is affected by the bad weather, and the obtained images have the disadvantages of low contrast, complex texture and blurring. In this paper, we propose a blind deconvolution model based on multiple scattering atmosphere point spread function (APSF) estimation to recovery the remote sensing image. According to Narasimhan analytical theory, a new multiple scattering restoration model is established based on the improved dichromatic model. Then using the L0 norm sparse priors of gradient and dark channel to estimate APSF blur kernel, the fast Fourier transform is used to recover the original clear image by Wiener filtering. By comparing with other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed method can correctly estimate blur kernel, effectively remove the atmospheric degradation phenomena, preserve image detail information and increase the quality evaluation indexes.

  12. LAI inversion from optical reflectance using a neural network trained with a multiple scattering model

    Smith, James A.

    1992-01-01

    The inversion of the leaf area index (LAI) canopy parameter from optical spectral reflectance measurements is obtained using a backpropagation artificial neural network trained using input-output pairs generated by a multiple scattering reflectance model. The problem of LAI estimation over sparse canopies (LAI 1000 percent for low LAI. Minimization methods applied to merit functions constructed from differences between measured reflectances and predicted reflectances using multiple-scattering models are unacceptably sensitive to a good initial guess for the desired parameter. In contrast, the neural network reported generally yields absolute percentage errors of <30 percent when weighting coefficients trained on one soil type were applied to predicted canopy reflectance at a different soil background.

  13. Multiplicities of charged kaons from deep-inelastic muon scattering off an isoscalar target

    Adolph, C.

    2017-04-10

    Precise measurements of charged-kaon multiplicities in deep inelastic scattering were performed. The results are presented in three-dimensional bins of the Bjorken scaling variable x, the relative virtual-photon energy y, and the fraction z of the virtual-photon energy carried by the produced hadron. The data were obtained by the COMPASS Collaboration by scattering 160 GeV muons off an isoscalar 6 LiD target. They cover the kinematic domain 1 (GeV/c)2 5 GeV/c^2 in the invariant mass of the hadronic system. The results from the sum of the z-integrated K+ and K- multiplicities at high x point to a value of the non-strange quark fragmentation function larger than obtained by the earlier DSS fit.

  14. Multiplicities of charged kaons from deep-inelastic muon scattering off an isoscalar target

    C. Adolph

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Precise measurements of charged-kaon multiplicities in deep inelastic scattering were performed. The results are presented in three-dimensional bins of the Bjorken scaling variable x, the relative virtual-photon energy y, and the fraction z of the virtual-photon energy carried by the produced hadron. The data were obtained by the COMPASS Collaboration by scattering 160 GeV muons off an isoscalar 6LiD target. They cover the kinematic domain 1(GeV/c25 GeV/c2 in the invariant mass of the hadronic system. The results from the sum of the z-integrated K+ and K− multiplicities at high x point to a value of the non-strange quark fragmentation function larger than obtained by the earlier DSS fit.

  15. Multiple scattering wavelength dependent backscattering of kaolin dust in the IR: Measurements and theory

    Ben-David, Avishai

    1992-01-01

    Knowing the optical properties of aerosol dust is important for designing electro-optical systems and for modeling the effect on propagation of light in the atmosphere. As CO2 lidar technology becomes more advanced and is used for multiwavelength measurements, information on the wavelength dependent backscattering of aerosol dust particles is required. The volume backscattering coefficient of aerosols in the IR is relatively small. Thus, only a few field measurements of backscattering, usually at only a few wavelengths, are reported in the literature. We present spectral field measurements of backscattering of kaolin dust in the 9-11 micron wavelength range. As the quantity of dust increases, multiple scattering contributes more to the measured backscattered signal. The measurements show the effect of the dust quantity of the spectral backscatter measurements. A simple analytical two stream radiative transfer model is applied to confirm the measurements and to give insight to the multiple scattering spectra of backscattering.

  16. Electromagnetic imaging of multiple-scattering small objects: non-iterative analytical approach

    Chen, X; Zhong, Y

    2008-01-01

    Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) imaging method and the least squares method are applied to solve the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem of determining the locations and polarization tensors of a collection of small objects embedded in a known background medium. Based on the analysis of induced electric and magnetic dipoles, the proposed MUSIC method is able to deal with some special scenarios, due to the shapes and materials of objects, to which the standard MUSIC doesn't apply. After the locations of objects are obtained, the nonlinear inverse problem of determining the polarization tensors of objects accounting for multiple scattering between objects is solved by a non-iterative analytical approach based on the least squares method

  17. Atmospheric neutrino oscillations from upward throughgoing muon multiple scattering in MACRO

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Bakari, D.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Brigida, M.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Caruso, R.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarusi, T.; Choudhary, B.C.; Coutu, S.; Cozzi, M.; De Cataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; De Marzo, C.; De Mitri, I.; Derkaoui, J.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giorgini, M.; Grassi, M.; Grillo, A.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Heinz, R.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katsavounidis, I.; Kearns, E.; Kim, H.; Kumar, A.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Longo, M.J.; Loparco, F.; Maaroufi, F.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Manzoor, S.; Margiotta, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Michael, D.G.; Mikheyev, S.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolo, D.; Nolty, R.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C.W.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Popa, V.; Raino, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Rrhioua, A.; Satriano, C.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra, P.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Surdo, A.; Tarle, G.; Togo, V.; Vakili, M.; Walter, C.W.; Webb, R

    2003-07-24

    The energy of atmospheric neutrinos detected by MACRO was estimated using multiple Coulomb scattering of upward throughgoing muons. This analysis allows a test of atmospheric neutrino oscillations, relying on the distortion of the muon energy distribution. These results have been combined with those coming from the upward throughgoing muon angular distribution only. Both analyses are independent of the neutrino flux normalization and provide strong evidence, above the 4{sigma} level, in favour of neutrino oscillations.

  18. All orders Boltzmann collision term from the multiple scattering expansion of the self-energy

    Fillion-Gourdeau, F.; Gagnon, J.-S.; Jeon, S.

    2007-01-01

    We summarize our main findings in deriving the Boltzmann collision term from the Kadanoff-Baym relativistic transport equation and the multiple scattering expansion of the self-energy within a quasi-particle approximation. Our collision term is valid to all orders in perturbation theory and contains processes with any number of participating particles. This work completes a program initiated by Carrington and Mrowczynski and developed further by present authors and Weinstock in recent literature

  19. Exploitation of Microdoppler and Multiple Scattering Phenomena for Radar Target Recognition

    2006-08-24

    progress on the reserach grant "Exploitation of MicroDoppler and Multiple Scattering Phenomena for Radar Target Recognition" during the period 1...paper describes a methodology of modeling A number of ray-based EM techniques have been interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) images...modes including the single present an IFSAR simulation methodology to simulate the antenna transmit mode, the ping-pong mode or the repeat interferogram

  20. Quantum theory of dynamic multiple light scattering in fluctuating disordered media

    Skipetrov, S. E.

    2007-01-01

    We formulate a quantum theory of dynamic multiple light scattering in fluctuating disordered media and calculate the fluctuation and the autocorrelation function of the photon number operator for light transmitted through a disordered slab. The effect of disorder on the information capacity of a quantum communication channel operating in a disordered environment is estimated, and the use of squeezed light in diffusing-wave spectroscopy is discussed

  1. The hybrid model for sampling multiple elastic scattering angular deflections based on Goudsmit-Saunderson theory

    Wasaye Muhammad Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for the Monte Carlo simulation of electron multiple elastic scattering based on the framework of SuperMC (Super Monte Carlo simulation program for nuclear and radiation process is presented. This paper describes efficient and accurate methods by which the multiple scattering angular deflections are sampled. The Goudsmit-Saunderson theory of multiple scattering has been used for sampling angular deflections. Differential cross-sections of electrons and positrons by neutral atoms have been calculated by using Dirac partial wave program ELSEPA. The Legendre coefficients are accurately computed by using the Gauss-Legendre integration method. Finally, a novel hybrid method for sampling angular distribution has been developed. The model uses efficient rejection sampling method for low energy electrons (500 mean free paths. For small path lengths, a simple, efficient and accurate analytical distribution function has been proposed. The later uses adjustable parameters determined from the fitting of Goudsmith-Saunderson angular distribution. A discussion of the sampling efficiency and accuracy of this newly developed algorithm is given. The efficiency of rejection sampling algorithm is at least 50 % for electron kinetic energies less than 500 keV and longer path lengths (>500 mean free paths. Monte Carlo Simulation results are then compared with measured angular distributions of Ross et al. The comparison shows that our results are in good agreement with experimental measurements.

  2. Correlations in multiple production on nuclei and Glauber model of multiple scattering

    Zoller, V.R.; Nikolaev, N.N.

    1982-01-01

    Critical analysis of possibility for describing correlation phenomena during multiple production on nuclei within the framework of the Glauber multiple seattering model generalized for particle production processes with Capella, Krziwinski and Shabelsky has been performed. It was mainly concluded that the suggested generalization of the Glauber model gives dependences on Ng(Np) (where Ng-the number of ''grey'' tracess, and Np-the number of protons flying out of nucleus) and, eventually, on #betta# (where #betta#-the number of intranuclear interactions) contradicting experience. Independent of choice of relation between #betta# and Ng(Np) in the model the rapidity corrletor Rsub(eta) is overstated in the central region and understated in the region of nucleus fragmentation. In mean multiplicities these two contradictions of experience are disguised with random compensation and agreement with experience in Nsub(S) (function of Ng) cannot be an argument in favour of the model. It is concluded that eiconal model doesn't permit to quantitatively describe correlation phenomena during the multiple production on nuclei

  3. Dual wavelength multiple-angle light scattering system for cryptosporidium detection

    Buaprathoom, S.; Pedley, S.; Sweeney, S. J.

    2012-06-01

    A simple, dual wavelength, multiple-angle, light scattering system has been developed for detecting cryptosporidium suspended in water. Cryptosporidium is a coccidial protozoan parasite causing cryptosporidiosis; a diarrheal disease of varying severity. The parasite is transmitted by ingestion of contaminated water, particularly drinking-water, but also accidental ingestion of bathing-water, including swimming pools. It is therefore important to be able to detect these parasites quickly, so that remedial action can be taken to reduce the risk of infection. The proposed system combines multiple-angle scattering detection of a single and two wavelengths, to collect relative wavelength angle-resolved scattering phase functions from tested suspension, and multivariate data analysis techniques to obtain characterizing information of samples under investigation. The system was designed to be simple, portable and inexpensive. It employs two diode lasers (violet InGaN-based and red AlGaInP-based) as light sources and silicon photodiodes as detectors and optical components, all of which are readily available. The measured scattering patterns using the dual wavelength system showed that the relative wavelength angle-resolved scattering pattern of cryptosporidium oocysts was significantly different from other particles (e.g. polystyrene latex sphere, E.coli). The single wavelength set up was applied for cryptosporidium oocysts'size and relative refractive index measurement and differential measurement of the concentration of cryptosporidium oocysts suspended in water and mixed polystyrene latex sphere suspension. The measurement results showed good agreement with the control reference values. These results indicate that the proposed method could potentially be applied to online detection in a water quality control system.

  4. A prediction method based on wavelet transform and multiple models fusion for chaotic time series

    Zhongda, Tian; Shujiang, Li; Yanhong, Wang; Yi, Sha

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve the prediction accuracy of chaotic time series, a prediction method based on wavelet transform and multiple models fusion is proposed. The chaotic time series is decomposed and reconstructed by wavelet transform, and approximate components and detail components are obtained. According to different characteristics of each component, least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is used as predictive model for approximation components. At the same time, an improved free search algorithm is utilized for predictive model parameters optimization. Auto regressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA) is used as predictive model for detail components. The multiple prediction model predictive values are fusion by Gauss–Markov algorithm, the error variance of predicted results after fusion is less than the single model, the prediction accuracy is improved. The simulation results are compared through two typical chaotic time series include Lorenz time series and Mackey–Glass time series. The simulation results show that the prediction method in this paper has a better prediction.

  5. The Algebra of a q-Analogue of Multiple Harmonic Series

    Yoshihiro Takeyama

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an algebra which describes the multiplication structure of a family of q-series containing a q-analogue of multiple zeta values. The double shuffle relations are formulated in our framework. They contain a q-analogue of Hoffman's identity for multiple zeta values. We also discuss the dimension of the space spanned by the linear relations realized in our algebra.

  6. Multiple scattering effects in fast neutron polarization experiments using high-pressure helium-xenon gas scintillators as analyzers

    Tornow, W.; Mertens, G.

    1977-01-01

    In order to study multiple scattering effects both in the gas and particularly in the solid materials of high-pressure gas scintillators, two asymmetry experiments have been performed by scattering of 15.6 MeV polarized neutrons from helium contained in stainless steel vessels of different wall thicknesses. A monte Carlo computer code taking into account the polarization dependence of the differential scattering cross sections has been written to simulate the experiments and to calculate corrections for multiple scattering on helium, xenon and the gas containment materials. Besides the asymmetries for the various scattering processes involved, the code yields time-of-flight spectra of the scattered neutrons and pulse height spectra of the helium recoil nuclei in the gas scintillator. The agreement between experimental results and Monte Carlo calculations is satisfactory. (Auth.)

  7. Preliminary results on application of the multiple-scattering technique to electron--molecule scattering and molecular photoionization: the PI/sub g/ resonance in e-N2 scattering

    Dehmer, J.L.; Dill, D.

    1974-01-01

    A prototype calculation of the well-known 2.5-eV shape resonance in e-N 2 scattering was performed to test the usefulness of the multiple-scattering method for electronic continuum molecular wavefunctions. The results of this demanding test are very encouraging. (U.S.)

  8. Characterisation of ultrasonic structural noise in multiple scattering media using phased arrays

    Bedetti, T; Dorval, V; Jenson, F; Derode, A

    2013-01-01

    The ultrasonic inspection of multiple scattering media gives rise to structural noise which makes it difficult to detect potential damage or crack inside the component. In order to predict the performances of ultrasonic inspection over such complex media, scattering models can be used. Such models rely on specific key parameters describing the multiple scattering process, which can be determined by specific measurements and post-processing techniques. Such experiments were carried out on stainless steel plates using linear phased-arrays. They consist in recording the response matrix constituted by impulse responses between all the elements of the array. By conducting post-processing on this matrix, we measure the elastic mean free path l e and the correlation distance d c of the recorded noise. Additionally, the dynamic behaviour of the coherent backscattering effect was studied in order to measure the diffusion constant D. Plane-wave beamforming has been applied to the response matrix to improve the angular resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio of the backscattered intensity. Details of postprocessing techniques will be shown

  9. Multiple-scattering analysis of laser-beam propagation in the atmosphere and through obscurants

    Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1983-01-01

    The general purpose, discrete-ordinates transport code TWOTRAN is applied to describe the propagation and multiple scattering of a laser beam in a nonhomogeneous aerosol medium. For the medium composed of smoke, haze, and a rain cloud, the problem of the target detectability in a realistic atmospheric scenario is addressed and solved. The signals reflected from the target vs the signals scattered from the smoke cloud are analyzed as a function of the smoke concentration. By calculating the average intensity and a correction factor in the x-y and r-z geometries, the consistency of the rectangular and cylindrical geometry models is assessed. Received power for a detector with a small field of view is computed on a sphere of 1-km radius around the laser source for the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory rural aerosol model with extinction coefficients of 4 km - 1 and 10 km - 1 . This computation allows us to study the received power as a function of the angle between the detector and source axes. The correction factor describing the multiple-scattering enhancement with respect to the simple Lambert-Beer law is introduced, and its calculation is employed to validate the use of the small-angle approximation for the transmissometer configuration. An outline of the theory for a finite field of view detector is followed by numerical results pertaining to the received power and intensity for various aerosol models. Recommendations regarding future work are also formulated

  10. Compton scatter correction in case of multiple crosstalks in SPECT imaging.

    Sychra, J J; Blend, M J; Jobe, T H

    1996-02-01

    A strategy for Compton scatter correction in brain SPECT images was proposed recently. It assumes that two radioisotopes are used and that a significant portion of photons of one radioisotope (for example, Tc99m) spills over into the low energy acquisition window of the other radioisotope (for example, Tl201). We are extending this approach to cases of several radioisotopes with mutual, multiple and significant photon spillover. In the example above, one may correct not only the Tl201 image but also the Tc99m image corrupted by the Compton scatter originating from the small component of high energy Tl201 photons. The proposed extension is applicable to other anatomical domains (cardiac imaging).

  11. Scattering by multiple parallel radially stratified infinite cylinders buried in a lossy half space.

    Lee, Siu-Chun

    2013-07-01

    The theoretical solution for scattering by an arbitrary configuration of closely spaced parallel infinite cylinders buried in a lossy half space is presented in this paper. The refractive index and permeability of the half space and cylinders are complex in general. Each cylinder is radially stratified with a distinct complex refractive index and permeability. The incident radiation is an arbitrarily polarized plane wave propagating in the plane normal to the axes of the cylinders. Analytic solutions are derived for the electric and magnetic fields and the Poynting vector of backscattered radiation emerging from the half space. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the application of the scattering solution to calculate backscattering from a lossy half space containing multiple homogeneous and radially stratified cylinders at various depths and different angles of incidence.

  12. On the solution of a few problems of multiple scattering by Monte Carlo method

    Bluet, J.C.

    1966-02-01

    Three problems of multiple scattering arising from neutron cross sections experiments, are reported here. The common hypothesis are: - Elastic scattering is the only possible process - Angular distributions are isotropic - Losses of particle energy are negligible in successive collisions. In the three cases practical results, corresponding to actual experiments are given. Moreover the results are shown in more general way, using dimensionless variable such as the ratio of geometrical dimensions to neutron mean free path. The FORTRAN codes are given together with to the corresponding flow charts, and lexicons of symbols. First problem: Measurement of sodium capture cross-section. A sodium sample of given geometry is submitted to a neutron flux. Induced activity is then measured by means of a sodium iodide cristal. The distribution of active nuclei in the sample, and the counter efficiency are calculated by Monte-Carlo method taking multiple scattering into account. Second problem: absolute measurement of a neutron flux using a glass scintillator. The scintillator is a use of lithium 6 loaded glass, submitted to neutron flux perpendicular to its plane faces. If the glass thickness is not negligible compared with scattering mean free path λ, the mean path e' of neutrons in the glass is different from the thickness. Monte-Carlo calculation are made to compute this path and a relative correction to efficiency equal to (e' - e)/e. Third problem: study of a neutron collimator. A neutron detector is placed at the bottom of a cylinder surrounded with water. A neutron source is placed on the cylinder axis, in front of the water shield. The number of neutron tracks going directly and indirectly through the water from the source to the detector are counted. (author) [fr

  13. Full-potential multiple scattering theory with space-filling cells for bound and continuum states.

    Hatada, Keisuke; Hayakawa, Kuniko; Benfatto, Maurizio; Natoli, Calogero R

    2010-05-12

    We present a rigorous derivation of a real-space full-potential multiple scattering theory (FP-MST) that is free from the drawbacks that up to now have impaired its development (in particular the need to expand cell shape functions in spherical harmonics and rectangular matrices), valid both for continuum and bound states, under conditions for space partitioning that are not excessively restrictive and easily implemented. In this connection we give a new scheme to generate local basis functions for the truncated potential cells that is simple, fast, efficient, valid for any shape of the cell and reduces to the minimum the number of spherical harmonics in the expansion of the scattering wavefunction. The method also avoids the need for saturating 'internal sums' due to the re-expansion of the spherical Hankel functions around another point in space (usually another cell center). Thus this approach provides a straightforward extension of MST in the muffin-tin (MT) approximation, with only one truncation parameter given by the classical relation l(max) = kR(b), where k is the electron wavevector (either in the excited or ground state of the system under consideration) and R(b) is the radius of the bounding sphere of the scattering cell. Moreover, the scattering path operator of the theory can be found in terms of an absolutely convergent procedure in the l(max) --> ∞ limit. Consequently, this feature provides a firm ground for the use of FP-MST as a viable method for electronic structure calculations and makes possible the computation of x-ray spectroscopies, notably photo-electron diffraction, absorption and anomalous scattering among others, with the ease and versatility of the corresponding MT theory. Some numerical applications of the theory are presented, both for continuum and bound states.

  14. A multiple-scale power series method for solving nonlinear ordinary differential equations

    Chein-Shan Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The power series solution is a cheap and effective method to solve nonlinear problems, like the Duffing-van der Pol oscillator, the Volterra population model and the nonlinear boundary value problems. A novel power series method by considering the multiple scales $R_k$ in the power term $(t/R_k^k$ is developed, which are derived explicitly to reduce the ill-conditioned behavior in the data interpolation. In the method a huge value times a tiny value is avoided, such that we can decrease the numerical instability and which is the main reason to cause the failure of the conventional power series method. The multiple scales derived from an integral can be used in the power series expansion, which provide very accurate numerical solutions of the problems considered in this paper.

  15. Measurement of hadron multiplicities in deep inelastic scattering and extraction of quark fragmentation functions

    Curiel-Garcia, Quiela-Marina

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of the COMPASS experience is the study of the nucleon spin structure. Data were taken from a polarized muon beam (160 GeV/c) scattering off a polarized target ( 6 LiD or NH 3 ). In this context, the need of a precise knowledge of quark Fragmentation Functions (final-state hadronization of quarks q into hadrons h, FFs) was raised. The FFs can be extracted from hadron multiplicities produced in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS). This thesis presents the measurement of charged hadrons (pions and kaons) multiplicities from SIDIS data collected in 2006. The data cover a large kinematical range: Q 2 ≥1 (GeV/c)2, y belongs to [0.1,0.9], x belongs to [0.004,0.7] and W belongs to [5,17] GeV. These multiplicities provide an important input for global QCD analyses of world data at NLO, aiming at the FFs determination. (author) [fr

  16. Combined Helmholtz Integral Equation - Fourier series formulation of acoustical radiation and scattering problems

    Fedotov, I

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Combined Helmholtz Integral Equation – Fourier series Formulation (CHIEFF) is based on representation of a velocity potential in terms of Fourier series and finding the Fourier coefficients of this expansion. The solution could be substantially...

  17. Modified random hinge transport mechanics and multiple scattering step-size selection in EGS5

    Wilderman, S.J.; Bielajew, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    The new transport mechanics in EGS5 allows for significantly longer electron transport step sizes and hence shorter computation times than required for identical problems in EGS4. But as with all Monte Carlo electron transport algorithms, certain classes of problems exhibit step-size dependencies even when operating within recommended ranges, sometimes making selection of step-sizes a daunting task for novice users. Further contributing to this problem, because of the decoupling of multiple scattering and continuous energy loss in the dual random hinge transport mechanics of EGS5, there are two independent step sizes in EGS5, one for multiple scattering and one for continuous energy loss, each of which influences speed and accuracy in a different manner. Further, whereas EGS4 used a single value of fractional energy loss (ESTEPE) to determine step sizes at all energies, to increase performance by decreasing the amount of effort expended simulating lower energy particles, EGS5 permits the fractional energy loss values which are used to determine both the multiple scattering and continuous energy loss step sizes to vary with energy. This results in requiring the user to specify four fractional energy loss values when optimizing computations for speed. Thus, in order to simplify step-size selection and to mitigate step-size dependencies, a method has been devised to automatically optimize step-size selection based on a single material dependent input related to the size of problem tally region. In this paper we discuss the new transport mechanics in EGS5 and describe the automatic step-size optimization algorithm. (author)

  18. Multiple X-ray tomography using transmitted, scattered and fluorescent radiation

    Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Golosio, B.; Lopes, R.T.; Barroso, R.C.; Donativi, M.; Castellano, A.; Quarta, S.

    2003-01-01

    A multiple CT-scanner is described, which contemporaneously uses transmitted, scattered and fluorescent X-rays for Imaging. The scanner is characterized by a small size X-ray tube and by four detectors: a ''pencil'' X-ray NaI(Tl) for transmitted tomography, a larger size NaI(Tl) for 90 C o Compton tomography, a thermoelectrically cooled Si-PIN or CdZnTe for fluorescent imaging and a CdZnTe for Rayleigh (or diffraction) tomography. Examples of applications are shown

  19. Multiple-scattering and DV-Xα analyses of a Cl-passivated Ge(111) surface

    Cao, S; Tang, J-C; Shen, S-L

    2003-01-01

    The multiple-scattering cluster and DV-Xα methods have been employed to analyse the chlorine 1s near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) of a Cl-passivated Ge(111) surface. Our detailed analysis demonstrates how the chlorine atoms form a perfect monochloride structure with Cl bonding to the topmost Ge atom. Our calculation reveals the interaction in the chlorine layer is multipolar electrostatic forces. Furthermore, the DV-Xα cluster calculation shows that the orbital contour of the sharp Cl-Ge resonance exhibits a global symmetry, which confirms it to be σ * -like. The above studies are found to enrich previous experimental NEXAFS investigations

  20. Topological cross sections in hadron-nucleus collisions and multiple scattering theory

    Zoller, V.R.

    1987-01-01

    The multiple scattering theory supplemented with cutting rules of Abramovsky, V.A., Gribov, V.N., Kancheli, O.V. is applied to calculation of the hadron-nucleus interaction cross sections. In contrast to standard Glauber approach neither smalness of the interaction radius compared to the nuclear radii nor Gaussian form of the hN-interaction profile function are assumed. The theory of the supercritical pomeron are used. However all the results are more general and do not depend on the parametrization of the pomeron pole amplitude. The region of validity of the widely used approximate formulae for topological and total hA-interaction cross sections are discussed

  1. Multiple and double scattering contributions to depth resolution and low energy background in hydrogen elastic recoil detection

    Wielunski, L S [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1997-12-31

    The sensitivity of hydrogen elastic recoil detection ( ERD ) is usually limited by the low energy background in the ERD spectrum. A number of 4.5 MeV He{sup ++} hydrogen ERD spectra from different hydrogen implanted samples are compared. The samples are chosen with different atomic numbers from low Z (carbon) to high Z (tungsten carbide) to observe the effects of multiple scattering and double scattering within the sample material. The experimental depth resolution and levels of the low energy background in ERD spectra are compared with theoretical predictions from multiple and double scattering. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  2. Multiple and double scattering contributions to depth resolution and low energy background in hydrogen elastic recoil detection

    Wielunski, L.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1996-12-31

    The sensitivity of hydrogen elastic recoil detection ( ERD ) is usually limited by the low energy background in the ERD spectrum. A number of 4.5 MeV He{sup ++} hydrogen ERD spectra from different hydrogen implanted samples are compared. The samples are chosen with different atomic numbers from low Z (carbon) to high Z (tungsten carbide) to observe the effects of multiple scattering and double scattering within the sample material. The experimental depth resolution and levels of the low energy background in ERD spectra are compared with theoretical predictions from multiple and double scattering. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Symmetry relationships for multiple scattering of polarized light in turbid spherical samples: theory and a Monte Carlo simulation.

    Otsuki, Soichi

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a theory describing totally incoherent multiple scattering of turbid spherical samples. It is proved that if reciprocity and mirror symmetry hold for single scattering by a particle, they also hold for multiple scattering in spherical samples. Monte Carlo simulations generate a reduced effective scattering Mueller matrix, which virtually satisfies reciprocity and mirror symmetry. The scattering matrix was factorized by using the symmetric decomposition in a predefined form, as well as the Lu-Chipman polar decomposition, approximately into a product of a pure depolarizer and vertically oriented linear retarding diattenuators. The parameters of these components were calculated as a function of the polar angle. While the turbid spherical sample is a pure depolarizer at low polar angles, it obtains more functions of the retarding diattenuator with increasing polar angle.

  4. A MULTIPLE SCATTERING POLARIZED RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODEL: APPLICATION TO HD 189733b

    Kopparla, Pushkar; Yung, Yuk L. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Natraj, Vijay; Swain, Mark R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA-JPL), Pasadena, CA (United States); Zhang, Xi [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Wiktorowicz, Sloane J., E-mail: pkk@gps.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2016-01-20

    We present a multiple scattering vector radiative transfer model that produces disk integrated, full phase polarized light curves for reflected light from an exoplanetary atmosphere. We validate our model against results from published analytical and computational models and discuss a small number of cases relevant to the existing and possible near-future observations of the exoplanet HD 189733b. HD 189733b is arguably the most well observed exoplanet to date and the only exoplanet to be observed in polarized light, yet it is debated if the planet’s atmosphere is cloudy or clear. We model reflected light from clear atmospheres with Rayleigh scattering, and cloudy or hazy atmospheres with Mie and fractal aggregate particles. We show that clear and cloudy atmospheres have large differences in polarized light as compared to simple flux measurements, though existing observations are insufficient to make this distinction. Futhermore, we show that atmospheres that are spatially inhomogeneous, such as being partially covered by clouds or hazes, exhibit larger contrasts in polarized light when compared to clear atmospheres. This effect can potentially be used to identify patchy clouds in exoplanets. Given a set of full phase polarimetric measurements, this model can constrain the geometric albedo, properties of scattering particles in the atmosphere, and the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit. The model is used to interpret new polarimetric observations of HD 189733b in a companion paper.

  5. Multiple scattering and stop band characteristics of flexural waves on a thin plate with circular holes

    Wang, Zuowei; Biwa, Shiro

    2018-03-01

    A numerical procedure is proposed for the multiple scattering analysis of flexural waves on a thin plate with circular holes based on the Kirchhoff plate theory. The numerical procedure utilizes the wave function expansion of the exciting as well as scattered fields, and the boundary conditions at the periphery of holes are incorporated as the relations between the expansion coefficients of exciting and scattered fields. A set of linear algebraic equations with respect to the wave expansion coefficients of the exciting field alone is established by the numerical collocation method. To demonstrate the applicability of the procedure, the stop band characteristics of flexural waves are analyzed for different arrangements and concentrations of circular holes on a steel plate. The energy transmission spectra of flexural waves are shown to capture the detailed features of the stop band formation of regular and random arrangements of holes. The increase of the concentration of holes is found to shift the dips of the energy transmission spectra toward higher frequencies as well as deepen them. The hexagonal hole arrangement can form a much broader stop band than the square hole arrangement for flexural wave transmission. It is also demonstrated that random arrangements of holes make the transmission spectrum more complicated.

  6. Multiple Coulomb scattering of high-energy heavy charged particle beams used in biology and medicine

    Wong, M.; Schimmerling, W.; Ludewigt, B.; Phillips, M.; Curtis, S.; Tobias, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors measured lateral displacement and angular distributions of high-energy heavy charged particles emerging from a target at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory BEVALAC with beams used in radiobiology experiments. Multiple Coulomb scattering occurring in the target material generally spreads the beam laterally and increases its divergence. The apparatus consists of four sets of position-sensitive semiconductor detectors located along the beam line. Each providing two position signals and one energy signal. The difference between the two position signals is used to determine the particle position in one dimension. The two position signals are constrained to add up to the energy deposition signal in order to reject multiple-particle traversals. The vector directions for the incident and emerging particles are reconstructed in three dimensions from their measured coordinated positions. Lateral and angular distributions are reported for beams of high-energy neon, iron and uranium ions incident on targets of aluminum, cooper, lead and water

  7. Energy dependence of the charged multiplicity in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The charged multiplicity distributions and the mean charged multiplicity have been investigated in inclusive neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA, using an integrated luminosity of 38.6 pb{sup -1}. The measurements were performed in the current region of the Breit frame, as well as in the current fragmentation region of the hadronic centre-of-mass frame. The KNO-scaling properties of the data were investigated and the energy dependence was studied using different energy scales. The data are compared to results obtained in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions and to previous DIS measurements as well as to leading-logarithm parton-shower Monte Carlo predictions. (orig.)

  8. Energy dependence of the charged multiplicity in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2008-03-01

    The charged multiplicity distributions and the mean charged multiplicity have been investigated in inclusive neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA, using an integrated luminosity of 38.6 pb -1 . The measurements were performed in the current region of the Breit frame, as well as in the current fragmentation region of the hadronic centre-of-mass frame. The KNO-scaling properties of the data were investigated and the energy dependence was studied using different energy scales. The data are compared to results obtained in e + e - collisions and to previous DIS measurements as well as to leading-logarithm parton-shower Monte Carlo predictions. (orig.)

  9. Multiple solutions to dense systems in radar scattering using a preconditioned block GMRES solver

    Boyse, W.E. [Advanced Software Resources, Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Multiple right-hand sides occur in radar scattering calculations in the computation of the simulated radar return from a body at a large number of angles. Each desired angle requires a right-hand side vector to be computed and the solution generated. These right-hand sides are naturally smooth functions of the angle parameters and this property is utilized in a novel way to compute solutions an order of magnitude faster than LINPACK The modeling technique addressed is the Method of Moments (MOM), i.e. a boundary element method for time harmonic Maxwell`s equations. Discretization by this method produces general complex dense systems of rank 100`s to 100,000`s. The usual way to produce the required multiple solutions is via LU factorization and solution routines such as found in LINPACK. Our method uses the block GMRES iterative method to directly iterate a subset of the desired solutions to convergence.

  10. Lidar inelastic multiple-scattering parameters of cirrus particle ensembles determined with geometrical-optics crystal phase functions.

    Reichardt, J; Hess, M; Macke, A

    2000-04-20

    Multiple-scattering correction factors for cirrus particle extinction coefficients measured with Raman and high spectral resolution lidars are calculated with a radiative-transfer model. Cirrus particle-ensemble phase functions are computed from single-crystal phase functions derived in a geometrical-optics approximation. Seven crystal types are considered. In cirrus clouds with height-independent particle extinction coefficients the general pattern of the multiple-scattering parameters has a steep onset at cloud base with values of 0.5-0.7 followed by a gradual and monotonic decrease to 0.1-0.2 at cloud top. The larger the scattering particles are, the more gradual is the rate of decrease. Multiple-scattering parameters of complex crystals and of imperfect hexagonal columns and plates can be well approximated by those of projected-area equivalent ice spheres, whereas perfect hexagonal crystals show values as much as 70% higher than those of spheres. The dependencies of the multiple-scattering parameters on cirrus particle spectrum, base height, and geometric depth and on the lidar parameters laser wavelength and receiver field of view, are discussed, and a set of multiple-scattering parameter profiles for the correction of extinction measurements in homogeneous cirrus is provided.

  11. Multiple-scattering formalism for correlated systems: A KKR-DMFT approach

    Minar, J.; Perlov, A.; Ebert, H.; Chioncel, L.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Lichtenstein, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    We present a charge and self-energy self-consistent computational scheme for correlated systems based on the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) multiple scattering theory with the many-body effects described by the means of dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). The corresponding local multiorbital and energy dependent self-energy is included into the set of radial differential equations for the single-site wave functions. The KKR Green's function is written in terms of the multiple scattering path operator, the later one being evaluated using the single-site solution for the t-matrix that in turn is determined by the wave functions. An appealing feature of this approach is that it allows to consider local quantum and disorder fluctuations on the same footing. Within the coherent potential approximation (CPA) the correlated atoms are placed into a combined effective medium determined by the DMFT self-consistency condition. Results of corresponding calculations for pure Fe, Ni, and Fe x Ni 1-x alloys are presented

  12. The Over-Barrier Resonant States and Multi-Channel Scattering in Multiple Quantum Wells

    A Polupanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an explicit numerical method for accurate calculation of the scattering matrix and its poles, and apply this method to describe the multi-channel scattering in the multiple quantum-wells structures. The S-matrix is continued analytically to the unphysical region of complex energy values. Results of calculations show that there exist one or more S-matrix poles, corresponding to the over-barrier resonant states critical for the effect of the absolute reflection of holes in the energy range where only the heavy ones may propagate over barriers in a structure. Light- and heavy-hole states are described by the Luttinger Hamiltonian matrix. In contrast to the single quantum-well case, at some parameters of a multiple quantum-wells structure the number of S-matrix poles may exceed that of the absolute reflection peaks, and at different values of parameters the absolute reflection peak corresponds to different resonant states. The imaginary parts of the S-matrix poles and hence the lifetimes of resonant states as well as the widths of resonant peaks of absolute reflection depend drastically on the quantum-well potential depth. In the case of shallow quantum wells there is in fact a long-living over-barrier resonant hole state.

  13. Intermediate energy nucleon-deuteron scattering theory.

    Wilson, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Sloan's conclusion (1969) that terms of the multiple-scattering series beyond single scattering contribute only to S- and P-wave amplitudes in an S-wave separable model is examined. A comparison of experiments with the calculation at 146 MeV shows that the conclusion is valid in nucleon-deuteron scattering applications.

  14. Tightness of M-estimators for multiple linear regression in time series

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Bent

    We show tightness of a general M-estimator for multiple linear regression in time series. The positive criterion function for the M-estimator is assumed lower semi-continuous and sufficiently large for large argument: Particular cases are the Huber-skip and quantile regression. Tightness requires...

  15. The Representation of Multiple Intelligences Types in the Top-Notch Series: A Textbook Evaluation

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah; Jozaghi, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating Top-Notch series through a checklist devised by the researchers based on the elements of the Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory proposed by Gardner (1998). With the shift from teacher-centered classrooms to learner-centered one, more and more research is needed to be done in the realm of students' need analysis. One…

  16. Bidirectional Flyback Converter with Multiple Series Connected Outputs for High Voltage Capacitive Charge and Discharge Applications

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Zhang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    is limited by the parasitics of the high voltage active components, which also prevent full utilization of valley switching during discharge process. A second implementation is therefore proposed, where the secondary of flyback transformer winding is split into multiple windings which are connected in series...

  17. Time-Series INSAR: An Integer Least-Squares Approach For Distributed Scatterers

    Samiei-Esfahany, Sami; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to extend the geode- tic mathematical model which was developed for persistent scatterers to a model which can exploit distributed scatterers (DS). The main focus is on the integer least- squares framework, and the main challenge is to include the decorrelation effect in the mathematical model. In order to adapt the integer least-squares mathematical model for DS we altered the model from a single master to a multi-master configuration and introduced the decorrelation effect stochastically. This effect is described in our model by a full covariance matrix. We propose to de- rive this covariance matrix by numerical integration of the (joint) probability distribution function (PDF) of interferometric phases. This PDF is a function of coherence values and can be directly computed from radar data. We show that the use of this model can improve the performance of temporal phase unwrapping of distributed scatterers.

  18. Spectrometer for Particle Characterization With a New Multiple-Scattering Theory, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There are two major commercial types of light-scattering particle size analyzers: Static Light Scattering and Dynamic Light Scattering. They are expensive, delicate,...

  19. Scattering Analysis of a Compact Dipole Array with Series and Parallel Feed Network including Mutual Coupling Effect

    H. L. Sneha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current focus in defense arena is towards the stealth technology with an emphasis to control the radar cross-section (RCS. The scattering from the antennas mounted over the platform is of prime importance especially for a low-observable aerospace vehicle. This paper presents the analysis of the scattering cross section of a uniformly spaced linear dipole array. Two types of feed networks, that is, series and parallel feed networks, are considered. The total RCS of phased array with either kind of feed network is obtained by following the signal as it enters through the aperture and travels through the feed network. The RCS estimation of array is done including the mutual coupling effect between the dipole elements in three configurations, that is, side-by-side, collinear, and parallel-in-echelon. The results presented can be useful while designing a phased array with optimum performance towards low observability.

  20. A Least Square Approach for Joining Persistent Scatterer InSAR Time Series Acquired by Different Satellites

    Caro Cuenca, Miguel; Esfahany, Sami Samiei; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2010-12-01

    Persistent scatterer Radar Interferometry (PSI) can provide with a wealth of information on surface motion. These methods overcome the major limitations of the antecessor technique, interferometric SAR (InSAR), such as atmospheric disturbances, by detecting the scatterers which are slightly affected by noise. The time span that surface deformation processes are observed is limited by the satellite lifetime, which is usually less than 10 years. However most of deformation phenomena last longer. In order to fully monitor and comprehend the observed signal, acquisitions from different sensors can be merged. This is a complex task for one main reason. PSI methods provide with estimations that are relative in time to one of the acquisitions which is referred to as master or reference image. Therefore, time series acquired by different sensors will have different reference images and cannot be directly compared or joint unless they are set to the same time reference system. In global terms, the operation of translating from one to another reference systems consist of calculating a vertical offset, which is the total deformation that occurs between the two master times. To estimate this offset, different strategies can be applied, for example, using additional data such as leveling or GPS measurements. In this contribution we propose to use a least squares to merge PSI time series without any ancillary information. This method treats the time series individually, i.e. per PS, and requires some knowledge of the deformation signal, for example, if a polynomial would fairly describe the expected behavior. To test the proposed approach, we applied it to the southern Netherlands, where the surface is affected by ground water processes in abandoned mines. The time series were obtained after processing images provided by ERS1/2 and Envisat. The results were validated using in-situ water measurements, which show very high correlation with deformation time series.

  1. Measurement of time series variation of thermal diffusivity of magnetic fluid under magnetic field by forced Rayleigh scattering method

    Motozawa, Masaaki, E-mail: motozawa.masaaki@shizuoka.ac.jp [Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan); Muraoka, Takashi [Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan); Motosuke, Masahiro, E-mail: mot@rs.tus.ac.jp [Tokyo University of Science, 6-3-1 Niijuku, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan); Fukuta, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: fukuta.mitsuhiro@shizuoka.ac.jp [Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    It can be expected that the thermal diffusivity of a magnetic fluid varies from time to time after applying a magnetic field because of the growth of the inner structure of a magnetic fluid such as chain-like clusters. In this study, time series variation of the thermal diffusivity of a magnetic fluid caused by applying a magnetic field was investigated experimentally. For the measurement of time series variation of thermal diffusivity, we attempted to apply the forced Rayleigh scattering method (FRSM), which has high temporal and high spatial resolution. We set up an optical system for the FRSM and measured the thermal diffusivity. A magnetic field was applied to a magnetic fluid in parallel and perpendicular to the heat flux direction, and the magnetic field intensity was 70 mT. The FRSM was successfully applied to measurement of the time series variation of the magnetic fluid from applying a magnetic field. The results show that a characteristic configuration in the time series variation of the thermal diffusivity of magnetic fluid was obtained in the case of applying a magnetic field parallel to the heat flux direction. In contrast, in the case of applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the heat flux, the thermal diffusivity of the magnetic fluid hardly changed during measurement. - Highlights: • Thermal diffusivity was measured by forced Rayleigh scattering method (FRSM). • FRSM has high temporal and high spatial resolutions for measurement. • We attempted to apply FRSM to magnetic fluid (MF). • Time series variation of thermal diffusivity of MF was successfully measured by FRSM. • Anisotropic thermal diffusivity of magnetic fluid was also successfully confirmed.

  2. Track reconstruction for the Mu3e experiment based on a novel Multiple Scattering fit

    Kozlinskiy Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mu3e experiment is designed to search for the lepton flavor violating decay μ+ → e+e+e−. The aim of the experiment is to reach a branching ratio sensitivity of 10−16. In a first phase the experiment will be performed at an existing beam line at the Paul-Scherrer Institute (Switzerland providing 108 muons per second, which will allow to reach a sensitivity of 2 · 10−15. The muons with a momentum of about 28 MeV/c are stopped and decay at rest on a target. The decay products (positrons and electrons with energies below 53MeV are measured by a tracking detector consisting of two double layers of 50 μm thin silicon pixel sensors. The high granularity of the pixel detector with a pixel size of 80 μm × 80 μm allows for a precise track reconstruction in the high multiplicity environment of the Mu3e experiment, reaching 100 tracks per reconstruction frame of 50 ns in the final phase of the experiment. To deal with such high rates and combinatorics, the Mu3e track reconstruction uses a novel fit algorithm that in the simplest case takes into account only the multiple scattering, which allows for a fast online tracking on a GPU based filter farm. An implementation of the 3-dimensional multiple scattering fit based on hit triplets is described. The extension of the fit that takes into account energy losses and pixel size is used for offline track reconstruction. The algorithm and performance of the offline track reconstruction based on a full Geant4 simulation of the Mu3e detector are presented.

  3. Born series for (2 cluster) → (2 cluster) scattering of two, three, and four particle Schroedinger operators

    Hagedorn, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    We investigate elastic and inelastic (2 cluster)→(2 cluster)scattering for classes of two, three, and four body Schroedinger operators H=H 0 +ΣVij. Formulas are derived for those generalized eigenfunctions of H which correspond asymptotically in the past to two freely moving clusters. With these eigenfunctions, we establish a formula for the (2 cluster)→(2 cluster) T-matrix and prove the convergence of a Born series for the T-matrix at high energy. (orig.) [de

  4. Suppression of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in multiple-ion species inertial confinement fusion Hohlraum Plasmas

    Neumayer, P

    2007-01-01

    A long-standing problem in the field of laser-plasma interactions is to successfully employ multiple-ion species plasmas to reduce stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraum conditions. Multiple-ion species increase significantly the linear Landau damping for acoustic waves. Consequently, recent hohlraum designs for indirect-drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility investigate wall liner material options so that the liner gain for parametric instabilities will be below threshold for the onset SBS. Although the effect of two-ion species plasmas on Landau damping has been directly observed with Thomson scattering, early experiments on SBS in these plasmas have suffered from competing non-linear effects or laser beam filamentation. In this study, a reduction of SBS scattering to below the percent level has been observed in hohlraums at Omega that emulate the plasma conditions in an indirect drive ICF experiments. These experiments have measured the laser-plasma interaction processes in ignition-relevant high-electron temperature regime demonstrating Landau damping as a controlling process for SBS. The hohlraums have been filled with various fractions of CO 2 and C 3 H 8 varying the ratio of the light (H) to heavy (C and O) ion density from 0 to 2.6. They have been heated by 14.5 kJ of 351-nm light, thus increasing progressively Landau damping by an order of magnitude at constant electron density and temperature. A delayed 351-nm interaction beam, spatially smoothed to produce a 200-(micro)m laser spot at best focus, has propagated along the axis of the hohlraum. The backscattered light, both into the lens and outside, the transmitted light through the hohlraum plasma and the radiation temperature of the hohlraum has been measured. For ignition relevant laser intensities (3-9 10 14 Wcm -2 ), we find that the SBS reflectivity scales as predicted with Landau damping from >30% to <1%. Simultaneously, the hohlraum radiation

  5. Nonperturbative Series Expansion of Green's Functions: The Anatomy of Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering in the Doped Hubbard Model

    Lu, Yi; Haverkort, Maurits W.

    2017-12-01

    We present a nonperturbative, divergence-free series expansion of Green's functions using effective operators. The method is especially suited for computing correlators of complex operators as a series of correlation functions of simpler forms. We apply the method to study low-energy excitations in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) in doped one- and two-dimensional single-band Hubbard models. The RIXS operator is expanded into polynomials of spin, density, and current operators weighted by fundamental x-ray spectral functions. These operators couple to different polarization channels resulting in simple selection rules. The incident photon energy dependent coefficients help to pinpoint main RIXS contributions from different degrees of freedom. We show in particular that, with parameters pertaining to cuprate superconductors, local spin excitation dominates the RIXS spectral weight over a wide doping range in the cross-polarization channel.

  6. Analysis of multiple scattering contributions in electron-impact ionization of molecular hydrogen

    Ren, Xueguang; Hossen, Khokon; Wang, Enliang; Pindzola, M. S.; Dorn, Alexander; Colgan, James

    2017-10-01

    We report a combined experimental and theoretical study on the low-energy (E 0 = 31.5 eV) electron-impact ionization of molecular hydrogen (H2). Triple differential cross sections are measured for a range of fixed emission angles of one outgoing electron between {θ }1=-70^\\circ and -130° covering the full 4π solid angle of the second electron. The energy sharing of the outgoing electrons varies from symmetric ({E}1={E}2=8 eV) to highly asymmetric (E 1 = 1 eV and E 2 = 15 eV). In addition to the binary and recoil lobes, a structure is observed perpendicular to the incoming beam direction which is due to multiple scattering of the projectile inside the molecular potential. The absolutely normalized experimental cross sections are compared with results from the time-dependent close-coupling (TDCC) calculations. Molecular alignment dependent TDCC results demonstrate that these structures are only present if the molecule axis is lying in the scattering plane.

  7. Angular distribution of diffuse reflectance from incoherent multiple scattering in turbid media.

    Gao, M; Huang, X; Yang, P; Kattawar, G W

    2013-08-20

    The angular distribution of diffuse reflection is elucidated with greater understanding by studying a homogeneous turbid medium. We modeled the medium as an infinite slab and studied the reflection dependence on the following three parameters: the incident direction, optical depth, and asymmetry factor. The diffuse reflection is produced by incoherent multiple scattering and is solved through radiative transfer theory. At large optical depths, the angular distribution of the diffuse reflection with small incident angles is similar to that of a Lambertian surface, but, with incident angles larger than 60°, the angular distributions have a prominent reflection peak around the specular reflection angle. These reflection peaks are found originating from the scattering within one transport mean free path in the top layer of the medium. The maximum reflection angles for different incident angles are analyzed and can characterize the structure of angular distributions for different asymmetry factors and optical depths. The properties of the angular distribution can be applied to more complex systems for a better understanding of diffuse reflection.

  8. Measurement of Hadron Multiplicities in Deep Inelastic Muon-Nucleon Scattering

    du Fresne von Hohenesche, Nicolas

    2016-06-02

    In deep-inelastic muon-nucleon scattering, a single quark can be ejected out of the nucleon by the absorption of a high-energy photon. Such a free isolated quark has never been observed in nature. In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), coloured objects, such as a single quark, create additional quark anti-quark pairs out of the colour field and the final state comprises a jet of hadrons. The hadronisation process can be described by fragmentation functions D_q^h, the probability that a quark with the flavour q turns into a hadron of the type h. Similar to the parton distribution function, the fragmentation functions are fundamental, universal and process-independent quantities. The fragmentation functions are measured with the COM- PASS spectrometer in muon-nucleon scattering. The observables are the hadron multiplicities M_h. The COMPASS experiment consists of a two-stage magnetic spectrometer located at the M2 beam line of the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN and uses a polarised muon beam on a nuclear fixed targ...

  9. Modified Moliere's screening parameter and its impact on multiple coulomb scattering

    Striganov, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    The Moliere approximation of elastic Coulomb scattering cross-sections plays an important role in accurate description of multiple scattering, non-ionisation energy, DPA radiation damage etc. The cross-section depends only on a single parameter that describes the atomic screening. Moliere calculated the screening angle for the Tomas-Fermi distribution of electrons in atoms. In this paper, the screening parameter was recalculated using a more accurate atomic form-factor obtained from the self-consistent Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater computations. For relativistic particles, the new screening angle can differ from the Moliere approximation by up to 50%. At the same time, it is rather close to other independent calculations. At low energies, the new screening angle is different for positrons and electrons. The positron screening parameter is much larger than the electron one for heavy nuclei at energies of ∼Z keV. The impact of the screening angle on particle transport and calculated quantities is discussed. (authors)

  10. Comparison of Geant4 multiple Coulomb scattering models with theory for radiotherapy protons.

    Makarova, Anastasia; Gottschalk, Bernard; Sauerwein, Wolfgang

    2017-07-06

    Usually, Monte Carlo models are validated against experimental data. However, models of multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) in the Gaussian approximation are exceptional in that we have theories which are probably more accurate than the experiments which have, so far, been done to test them. In problems directly sensitive to the distribution of angles leaving the target, the relevant theory is the Molière/Fano/Hanson variant of Molière theory (Gottschalk et al 1993 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 74 467-90). For transverse spreading of the beam in the target itself, the theory of Preston and Koehler (Gottschalk (2012 arXiv:1204.4470)) holds. Therefore, in this paper we compare Geant4 simulations, using the Urban and Wentzel models of MCS, with theory rather than experiment, revealing trends which would otherwise be obscured by experimental scatter. For medium-energy (radiotherapy) protons, and low-Z (water-like) target materials, Wentzel appears to be better than Urban in simulating the distribution of outgoing angles. For beam spreading in the target itself, the two models are essentially equal.

  11. Diffusion equations and hard collisions in multiple scattering of charged particles

    Papiez, Lech; Tulovsky, Vladimir

    1998-01-01

    The processes of angular-spatial evolution of multiple scattering of charged particles are described by the Lewis (special case of Boltzmann) integro-differential equation. The underlying stochastic process for this evolution is the compound Poisson process with transition densities satisfying the Lewis equation. In this paper we derive the Lewis equation from the compound Poisson process and show that the effective method of the solution of this equation can be based on the idea of decomposition of the compound Poisson process into processes of soft and hard collisions. Formulas for transition densities of soft and hard collision processes are provided in this paper together with the formula expressing the general solution of the Lewis equation in terms of those transition densities

  12. Hydrogen Balmer alpha intensity distributions and line profiles from multiple scattering theory using realistic geocoronal models

    Anderson, D. E., Jr.; Meier, R. R.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Tinsley, B. A.

    1987-01-01

    The H Balmer alpha nightglow is investigated by using Monte Carlo models of asymmetric geocoronal atomic hydrogen distributions as input to a radiative transfer model of solar Lyman-beta radiation in the thermosphere and atmosphere. It is shown that it is essential to include multiple scattering of Lyman-beta radiation in the interpretation of Balmer alpha airglow data. Observations of diurnal variation in the Balmer alpha airglow showing slightly greater intensities in the morning relative to evening are consistent with theory. No evidence is found for anything other than a single sinusoidal diurnal variation of exobase density. Dramatic changes in effective temperature derived from the observed Balmer alpha line profiles are expected on the basis of changing illumination conditions in the thermosphere and exosphere as different regions of the sky are scanned.

  13. The Green Function cellular method and its relation to multiple scattering theory

    Butler, W.H.; Zhang, X.G.; Gonis, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates techniques for solving the wave equation which are based on the idea of obtaining exact local solutions within each potential cell, which are then joined to form a global solution. The authors derive full potential multiple scattering theory (MST) from the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and show that it as well as a closely related cellular method are techniques of this type. This cellular method appears to have all of the advantages of MST and the added advantage of having a secular matrix with only nearest neighbor interactions. Since this cellular method is easily linearized one can rigorously reduce electronic structure calculation to the problem of solving a nearest neighbor tight-binding problem

  14. Diffusion equations and hard collisions in multiple scattering of charged particles

    Papiez, Lech [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Tulovsky, Vladimir [Department of Mathematics, St. John' s College, Staten Island, New York, NY (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The processes of angular-spatial evolution of multiple scattering of charged particles are described by the Lewis (special case of Boltzmann) integro-differential equation. The underlying stochastic process for this evolution is the compound Poisson process with transition densities satisfying the Lewis equation. In this paper we derive the Lewis equation from the compound Poisson process and show that the effective method of the solution of this equation can be based on the idea of decomposition of the compound Poisson process into processes of soft and hard collisions. Formulas for transition densities of soft and hard collision processes are provided in this paper together with the formula expressing the general solution of the Lewis equation in terms of those transition densities.

  15. Absorption imaging of a quasi-two-dimensional gas: a multiple scattering analysis

    Chomaz, L; Corman, L; Yefsah, T; Desbuquois, R; Dalibard, J

    2012-01-01

    Absorption imaging with quasi-resonant laser light is a commonly used technique for probing ultra-cold atomic gases in various geometries. In this paper, we investigate some non-trivial aspects of this method when applying the method to in situ diagnosis of a quasi-two-dimensional (2D) gas. Using Monte Carlo simulations we study the modification of the absorption cross-section of a photon when it undergoes multiple scattering in the gas. We determine the variations of the optical density with various parameters, such as the detuning of the light from the atomic resonance and the thickness of the gas. We compare our results to the known 3D result (the Beer-Lambert law) and outline the specific features of the 2D case. (paper)

  16. Multiple Time Series Forecasting Using Quasi-Randomized Functional Link Neural Networks

    Thierry Moudiki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We are interested in obtaining forecasts for multiple time series, by taking into account the potential nonlinear relationships between their observations. For this purpose, we use a specific type of regression model on an augmented dataset of lagged time series. Our model is inspired by dynamic regression models (Pankratz 2012, with the response variable’s lags included as predictors, and is known as Random Vector Functional Link (RVFL neural networks. The RVFL neural networks have been successfully applied in the past, to solving regression and classification problems. The novelty of our approach is to apply an RVFL model to multivariate time series, under two separate regularization constraints on the regression parameters.

  17. Everywhere divergent Fourier series with respect to the Walsh system and with respect to multiplicative systems

    Bochkarev, S V

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a new construction of everywhere divergent Fourier-Walsh series is presented. This construction enables one to halve the gap in the Lebesgue-Orlicz classes between the Schipp-Moon lower bound established by using Kolmogorov's construction and the Sjoelin upper bound obtained by using Carleson's method. Fourier series which are everywhere divergent after a rearrangement are constructed with respect to the Walsh system (and to more general systems of characters) with the best lower bound for the Weyl factor. Some results related to an upper bound of the majorant for partial sums of series with respect to rearranged multiplicative systems are established. The results thus obtained show certain merits of harmonic analysis on the dyadic group in clarifying and overcoming fundamental difficulties in the solution of the main problems of Fourier analysis

  18. Multiple Scattering Analysis of Cu - K EXAFS in Bi2Sr1.5 Cu2O8+δ

    Roehler, J.; Cruesemann, R.

    1995-01-01

    We have analyzed the Cu K-EXAFS of Bi 2 Sr 1.5 Ca 1.5 Cu 2 O 8+δ using a full multiple scattering analysis in a cluster with diameter d∼ 7.6 A. The layered structure has numerous quasi one-dimensional structural elements which give rise to significant multiple scattering contributions in the EXAFS. We confirm the Sr/Ca ratio of the sample is 1:1, and one Ca atom is located close to a nominal Sr-site. At 40 K the dimpling angle in the CuO 2 -plane is found to be ≤ 3.5 . (author)

  19. Multiple Scattering Approach to Polarization Dependence of F K-Edge XANES Spectra for Highly Oriented Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Thin Film

    Nagamatsu, S.; Ono, M.; Kera, S.; Okudaira, K. K.; Fujikawa, T.; Ueno, N.

    2007-01-01

    The polarization dependence of F K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of highly-oriented thin-film of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has been analyzed by using multiple scattering theory. The spectra show clear polarization dependence due to the highly-oriented structure. The multiple scattering calculations reflects a local structure around an absorbing atom. The calculated results obtained by considering intermolecular-interactions are in good agreement with the observed polarization-dependence. We have also analyzed structural models of the radiation damaged PTFE films

  20. New Recursive Representations for the Favard Constants with Application to Multiple Singular Integrals and Summation of Series

    Snezhana Georgieva Gocheva-Ilieva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are obtained integral form and recurrence representations for some Fourier series and connected with them Favard constants. The method is based on preliminary integration of Fourier series which permits to establish general recursion formulas for Favard constants. This gives the opportunity for effective summation of infinite series and calculation of some classes of multiple singular integrals by the Favard constants.

  1. Coherent light scattering of heterogeneous randomly rough films and effective medium in the theory of electromagnetic wave multiple scattering

    Berginc, G [THALES, 2 avenue Gay-Lussac 78995 ELANCOURT (France)

    2013-11-30

    We have developed a general formalism based on Green's functions to calculate the coherent electromagnetic field scattered by a random medium with rough boundaries. The approximate expression derived makes it possible to determine the effective permittivity, which is generalised for a layer of an inhomogeneous random medium with different types of particles and bounded with randomly rough interfaces. This effective permittivity describes the coherent propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a random medium with randomly rough boundaries. We have obtained an expression, which contains the Maxwell – Garnett formula at the low-frequency limit, and the Keller formula; the latter has been proved to be in good agreement with experiments for particles whose dimensions are larger than a wavelength. (coherent light scattering)

  2. Automated classification of Permanent Scatterers time-series based on statistical characterization tests

    Berti, Matteo; Corsini, Alessandro; Franceschini, Silvia; Iannacone, Jean Pascal

    2013-04-01

    The application of space borne synthetic aperture radar interferometry has progressed, over the last two decades, from the pioneer use of single interferograms for analyzing changes on the earth's surface to the development of advanced multi-interferogram techniques to analyze any sort of natural phenomena which involves movements of the ground. The success of multi-interferograms techniques in the analysis of natural hazards such as landslides and subsidence is widely documented in the scientific literature and demonstrated by the consensus among the end-users. Despite the great potential of this technique, radar interpretation of slope movements is generally based on the sole analysis of average displacement velocities, while the information embraced in multi interferogram time series is often overlooked if not completely neglected. The underuse of PS time series is probably due to the detrimental effect of residual atmospheric errors, which make the PS time series characterized by erratic, irregular fluctuations often difficult to interpret, and also to the difficulty of performing a visual, supervised analysis of the time series for a large dataset. In this work is we present a procedure for automatic classification of PS time series based on a series of statistical characterization tests. The procedure allows to classify the time series into six distinctive target trends (0=uncorrelated; 1=linear; 2=quadratic; 3=bilinear; 4=discontinuous without constant velocity; 5=discontinuous with change in velocity) and retrieve for each trend a series of descriptive parameters which can be efficiently used to characterize the temporal changes of ground motion. The classification algorithms were developed and tested using an ENVISAT datasets available in the frame of EPRS-E project (Extraordinary Plan of Environmental Remote Sensing) of the Italian Ministry of Environment (track "Modena", Northern Apennines). This dataset was generated using standard processing, then the

  3. Advanced approach to the analysis of a series of in-situ nuclear forward scattering experiments

    Vrba, Vlastimil, E-mail: vlastimil.vrba01@upol.cz [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University Olomouc, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Procházka, Vít, E-mail: v.prochazka@upol.cz [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University Olomouc, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Smrčka, David, E-mail: david.smrcka@upol.cz [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University Olomouc, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Department of Nuclear Reactors, Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-03-01

    This study introduces a sequential fitting procedure as a specific approach to nuclear forward scattering (NFS) data evaluation. Principles and usage of this advanced evaluation method are described in details and its utilization is demonstrated on NFS in-situ investigations of fast processes. Such experiments frequently consist of hundreds of time spectra which need to be evaluated. The introduced procedure allows the analysis of these experiments and significantly decreases the time needed for the data evaluation. The key contributions of the study are the sequential use of the output fitting parameters of a previous data set as the input parameters for the next data set and the model suitability crosscheck option of applying the procedure in ascending and descending directions of the data sets. Described fitting methodology is beneficial for checking of model validity and reliability of obtained results.

  4. Advanced approach to the analysis of a series of in-situ nuclear forward scattering experiments

    Vrba, Vlastimil; Procházka, Vít; Smrčka, David; Miglierini, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces a sequential fitting procedure as a specific approach to nuclear forward scattering (NFS) data evaluation. Principles and usage of this advanced evaluation method are described in details and its utilization is demonstrated on NFS in-situ investigations of fast processes. Such experiments frequently consist of hundreds of time spectra which need to be evaluated. The introduced procedure allows the analysis of these experiments and significantly decreases the time needed for the data evaluation. The key contributions of the study are the sequential use of the output fitting parameters of a previous data set as the input parameters for the next data set and the model suitability crosscheck option of applying the procedure in ascending and descending directions of the data sets. Described fitting methodology is beneficial for checking of model validity and reliability of obtained results.

  5. The albedo problem in the case of multiple synthetic scattering taking place in a plane-symmetric slab

    Shafiq, A.; Meyer, H.E. de; Grosjean, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    An approximate model based on an improved diffusion-type theory is established for treating multiple synthetic scattering in a homogeneous slab of finite thickness. As in the case of the exact treatment given in the preceding paper (Part I), it appears possible to transform the considered transport problem into an equivalent fictitious one involving multiple isotropic scattering, therefore permitting the application of an established corrected diffusion theory for treating isotropic scattering taking place in a convex homogeneous medium bounded by a vacuum in the presence of various types of sources. The approximate values of the reflection and transmission coefficients are compared with the rigorous values listed in Part I. In this way, the high accuracy of the approximation is clearly demonstrated. (author)

  6. A System for Acquisition, Processing and Visualization of Image Time Series from Multiple Camera Networks

    Cemal Melih Tanis

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A system for multiple camera networks is proposed for continuous monitoring of ecosystems by processing image time series. The system is built around the Finnish Meteorological Image PROcessing Toolbox (FMIPROT, which includes data acquisition, processing and visualization from multiple camera networks. The toolbox has a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI for which only minimal computer knowledge and skills are required to use it. Images from camera networks are acquired and handled automatically according to the common communication protocols, e.g., File Transfer Protocol (FTP. Processing features include GUI based selection of the region of interest (ROI, automatic analysis chain, extraction of ROI based indices such as the green fraction index (GF, red fraction index (RF, blue fraction index (BF, green-red vegetation index (GRVI, and green excess (GEI index, as well as a custom index defined by a user-provided mathematical formula. Analysis results are visualized on interactive plots both on the GUI and hypertext markup language (HTML reports. The users can implement their own developed algorithms to extract information from digital image series for any purpose. The toolbox can also be run in non-GUI mode, which allows running series of analyses in servers unattended and scheduled. The system is demonstrated using an environmental camera network in Finland.

  7. Influence of multiple well defined conformations on small-angle scattering of proteins in solution.

    Heller, William T

    2005-01-01

    A common structural motif for many proteins comprises rigid domains connected by a flexible hinge or linker. The flexibility afforded by these domains is important for proper function and such proteins may be able to adopt more than one conformation in solution under equilibrium conditions. Small-angle scattering of proteins in solution samples all conformations that exist in the sampled volume during the time of the measurement, providing an ensemble-averaged intensity. In this paper, the influence of sampling an ensemble of well defined protein structures on the small-angle solution scattering intensity profile is examined through common analysis methods. Two tests were performed using simulated data: one with the extended and collapsed states of the bilobal calcium-binding protein calmodulin and the second with the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, which has two globular domains connected by a glycine hinge. In addition to analyzing the simulated data for the radii of gyration Rg, distance distribution function P(r) and particle volume, shape restoration was applied to the simulated data. Rg and P(r) of the ensemble profiles could be easily mistaken for a single intermediate state. The particle volumes and models of the ensemble intensity profiles show that some indication of multiple conformations exists in the case of calmodulin, which manifests an enlarged volume and shapes that are clear superpositions of the conformations used. The effect on the structural parameters and models is much more subtle in the case of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A. Examples of how noise influences the data and analyses are also presented. These examples demonstrate the loss of the indications of multiple conformations in cases where even broad distributions of structures exist. While the tests using calmodulin show that the ensemble states remain discernible from the other ensembles tested or a single partially collapsed state, the tests performed using the

  8. Multiplicities of charged pions and charged hadrons from deep-inelastic scattering of muons off an isoscalar target

    Adolph, C.; Aghasyan, M.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alexeev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N. V.; Anosov, V.; Augsten, K.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Beck, D.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E. R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlák, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Capozza, L.; Chang, W.-C.; Chatterjee, C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekapm, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, E.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Yu.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jarý, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuhn, R.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lian, Y.-S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Mitrofanov, E.; Mitrofanov, N.; Miyachi, Y.; Montuenga, P.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W. D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pešek, M.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Pierre, N.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Roskot, M.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salač, R.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smolík, J.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, Aleš; Steffen, D.; Stolarski, M.; Šulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Zaremba, K.; Závada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 764, JAN (2017), s. 1-10 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : deep inelastic scattering * pion multiplicities * fragmentation functions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 4.807, year: 2016

  9. Nonparametric estimation of the heterogeneity of a random medium using compound Poisson process modeling of wave multiple scattering.

    Le Bihan, Nicolas; Margerin, Ludovic

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we present a nonparametric method to estimate the heterogeneity of a random medium from the angular distribution of intensity of waves transmitted through a slab of random material. Our approach is based on the modeling of forward multiple scattering using compound Poisson processes on compact Lie groups. The estimation technique is validated through numerical simulations based on radiative transfer theory.

  10. Detection of bifurcations in noisy coupled systems from multiple time series

    Williamson, Mark S.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2015-03-01

    We generalize a method of detecting an approaching bifurcation in a time series of a noisy system from the special case of one dynamical variable to multiple dynamical variables. For a system described by a stochastic differential equation consisting of an autonomous deterministic part with one dynamical variable and an additive white noise term, small perturbations away from the system's fixed point will decay slower the closer the system is to a bifurcation. This phenomenon is known as critical slowing down and all such systems exhibit this decay-type behaviour. However, when the deterministic part has multiple coupled dynamical variables, the possible dynamics can be much richer, exhibiting oscillatory and chaotic behaviour. In our generalization to the multi-variable case, we find additional indicators to decay rate, such as frequency of oscillation. In the case of approaching a homoclinic bifurcation, there is no change in decay rate but there is a decrease in frequency of oscillations. The expanded method therefore adds extra tools to help detect and classify approaching bifurcations given multiple time series, where the underlying dynamics are not fully known. Our generalisation also allows bifurcation detection to be applied spatially if one treats each spatial location as a new dynamical variable. One may then determine the unstable spatial mode(s). This is also something that has not been possible with the single variable method. The method is applicable to any set of time series regardless of its origin, but may be particularly useful when anticipating abrupt changes in the multi-dimensional climate system.

  11. Detection of bifurcations in noisy coupled systems from multiple time series

    Williamson, Mark S.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    We generalize a method of detecting an approaching bifurcation in a time series of a noisy system from the special case of one dynamical variable to multiple dynamical variables. For a system described by a stochastic differential equation consisting of an autonomous deterministic part with one dynamical variable and an additive white noise term, small perturbations away from the system's fixed point will decay slower the closer the system is to a bifurcation. This phenomenon is known as critical slowing down and all such systems exhibit this decay-type behaviour. However, when the deterministic part has multiple coupled dynamical variables, the possible dynamics can be much richer, exhibiting oscillatory and chaotic behaviour. In our generalization to the multi-variable case, we find additional indicators to decay rate, such as frequency of oscillation. In the case of approaching a homoclinic bifurcation, there is no change in decay rate but there is a decrease in frequency of oscillations. The expanded method therefore adds extra tools to help detect and classify approaching bifurcations given multiple time series, where the underlying dynamics are not fully known. Our generalisation also allows bifurcation detection to be applied spatially if one treats each spatial location as a new dynamical variable. One may then determine the unstable spatial mode(s). This is also something that has not been possible with the single variable method. The method is applicable to any set of time series regardless of its origin, but may be particularly useful when anticipating abrupt changes in the multi-dimensional climate system

  12. Detection of bifurcations in noisy coupled systems from multiple time series

    Williamson, Mark S., E-mail: m.s.williamson@exeter.ac.uk; Lenton, Timothy M. [Earth System Science Group, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Laver Building, North Park Road, Exeter EX4 4QE (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-15

    We generalize a method of detecting an approaching bifurcation in a time series of a noisy system from the special case of one dynamical variable to multiple dynamical variables. For a system described by a stochastic differential equation consisting of an autonomous deterministic part with one dynamical variable and an additive white noise term, small perturbations away from the system's fixed point will decay slower the closer the system is to a bifurcation. This phenomenon is known as critical slowing down and all such systems exhibit this decay-type behaviour. However, when the deterministic part has multiple coupled dynamical variables, the possible dynamics can be much richer, exhibiting oscillatory and chaotic behaviour. In our generalization to the multi-variable case, we find additional indicators to decay rate, such as frequency of oscillation. In the case of approaching a homoclinic bifurcation, there is no change in decay rate but there is a decrease in frequency of oscillations. The expanded method therefore adds extra tools to help detect and classify approaching bifurcations given multiple time series, where the underlying dynamics are not fully known. Our generalisation also allows bifurcation detection to be applied spatially if one treats each spatial location as a new dynamical variable. One may then determine the unstable spatial mode(s). This is also something that has not been possible with the single variable method. The method is applicable to any set of time series regardless of its origin, but may be particularly useful when anticipating abrupt changes in the multi-dimensional climate system.

  13. Studying time of flight imaging through scattering media across multiple size scales (Conference Presentation)

    Velten, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Light scattering is a primary obstacle to optical imaging in a variety of different environments and across many size and time scales. Scattering complicates imaging on large scales when imaging through the atmosphere when imaging from airborne or space borne platforms, through marine fog, or through fog and dust in vehicle navigation, for example in self driving cars. On smaller scales, scattering is the major obstacle when imaging through human tissue in biomedical applications. Despite the large variety of participating materials and size scales, light transport in all these environments is usually described with very similar scattering models that are defined by the same small set of parameters, including scattering and absorption length and phase function. We attempt a study of scattering and methods of imaging through scattering across different scales and media, particularly with respect to the use of time of flight information. We can show that using time of flight, in addition to spatial information, provides distinct advantages in scattering environments. By performing a comparative study of scattering across scales and media, we are able to suggest scale models for scattering environments to aid lab research. We also can transfer knowledge and methodology between different fields.

  14. Multiple parton interactions in deep inelastic ep-scattering at HERA

    Osman, Sakar

    2008-12-15

    The production of jets with low transverse momenta (mini-jets) in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering is studied. The analyses uses data taken with the H1 detector at HERA during the years 1999 to 2000. The events are required to contain either at least one leading jet of P{sub T}>5 GeV (the inclusive 1-jet sample) or at least two hard jets where one of them has to be at an angle larger than 140 degrees with respect to the leading jet (inclusive 2-jet sample). Mini-jet multiplicities and their average transverse momenta are presented as a function of Q{sup 2}, in two regions of psuedo-rapidity and for two bins in the hadronic mass, W for the inclusive 1-jet sample. For the inclusive 2-jet sample the results are shown for direct and resolved photon interactions in two bins of W. The results are compared to various QCD based models. A new method for calibrating jet energy measurements up to 10 GeV has been developed and its performance has been studied. (orig.)

  15. Band structures in a two-dimensional phononic crystal with rotational multiple scatterers

    Song, Ailing; Wang, Xiaopeng; Chen, Tianning; Wan, Lele

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the acoustic wave propagation in a two-dimensional phononic crystal composed of rotational multiple scatterers is investigated. The dispersion relationships, the transmission spectra and the acoustic modes are calculated by using finite element method. In contrast to the system composed of square tubes, there exist a low-frequency resonant bandgap and two wide Bragg bandgaps in the proposed structure, and the transmission spectra coincide with band structures. Specially, the first bandgap is based on locally resonant mechanism, and the simulation results agree well with the results of electrical circuit analogy. Additionally, increasing the rotation angle can remarkably influence the band structures due to the transfer of sound pressure between the internal and external cavities in low-order modes, and the redistribution of sound pressure in high-order modes. Wider bandgaps are obtained in arrays composed of finite unit cells with different rotation angles. The analysis results provide a good reference for tuning and obtaining wide bandgaps, and hence exploring the potential applications of the proposed phononic crystal in low-frequency noise insulation.

  16. Multiple parton interactions in deep inelastic ep-scattering at HERA

    Osman, Sakar

    2008-12-01

    The production of jets with low transverse momenta (mini-jets) in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering is studied. The analyses uses data taken with the H1 detector at HERA during the years 1999 to 2000. The events are required to contain either at least one leading jet of P T >5 GeV (the inclusive 1-jet sample) or at least two hard jets where one of them has to be at an angle larger than 140 degrees with respect to the leading jet (inclusive 2-jet sample). Mini-jet multiplicities and their average transverse momenta are presented as a function of Q 2 , in two regions of psuedo-rapidity and for two bins in the hadronic mass, W for the inclusive 1-jet sample. For the inclusive 2-jet sample the results are shown for direct and resolved photon interactions in two bins of W. The results are compared to various QCD based models. A new method for calibrating jet energy measurements up to 10 GeV has been developed and its performance has been studied. (orig.)

  17. Multiple parton scattering in nuclei: heavy quark energy loss and modified fragmentation functions

    Zhang Benwei; Wang, Enke; Wang Xinnian

    2005-01-01

    Multiple scattering, induced radiative energy loss and modified fragmentation functions of a heavy quark in nuclear matter are studied within the framework of generalized factorization in perturbative QCD. Modified heavy quark fragmentation functions and energy loss are derived in detail with illustration of the mass dependencies of the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal interference effects and heavy quark energy loss. Due to the quark mass dependence of the gluon formation time, the nuclear size dependencies of nuclear modification of the heavy quark fragmentation function and heavy quark energy loss are found to change from a linear to a quadratic form when the initial energy and momentum scale are increased relative to the quark mass. The radiative energy loss of the heavy quark is also significantly suppressed due to limited cone of gluon radiation imposed by the mass. Medium modification of the heavy quark fragmentation functions is found to be limited to the large z region due to the form of heavy quark fragmentation functions in vacuum

  18. Fully-relativistic full-potential multiple scattering theory: A pathology-free scheme

    Liu, Xianglin; Wang, Yang; Eisenbach, Markus; Stocks, G. Malcolm

    2018-03-01

    The Green function plays an essential role in the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker(KKR) multiple scattering method. In practice, it is constructed from the regular and irregular solutions of the local Kohn-Sham equation and robust methods exist for spherical potentials. However, when applied to a non-spherical potential, numerical errors from the irregular solutions give rise to pathological behaviors of the charge density at small radius. Here we present a full-potential implementation of the fully-relativistic KKR method to perform ab initio self-consistent calculation by directly solving the Dirac differential equations using the generalized variable phase (sine and cosine matrices) formalism Liu et al. (2016). The pathology around the origin is completely eliminated by carrying out the energy integration of the single-site Green function along the real axis. By using an efficient pole-searching technique to identify the zeros of the well-behaved Jost matrices, we demonstrated that this scheme is numerically stable and computationally efficient, with speed comparable to the conventional contour energy integration method, while free of the pathology problem of the charge density. As an application, this method is utilized to investigate the crystal structures of polonium and their bulk properties, which is challenging for a conventional real-energy scheme. The noble metals are also calculated, both as a test of our method and to study the relativistic effects.

  19. Contributions to the theory of electron spectroscopy. Applications of the relativistic multiple-scattering theory

    Henk, J.

    2004-01-01

    Electron spectroscopy provides access to fundamental properties of solids, such as the geometric, electronic, and the magnetic structure. The latter are necessary for the understanding of a variety of basic but nevertheless important effects. The present work outlines recently developed theoretical approaches to electron spectroscopies. Most of the collected results rely on first-principles calculations, as formulated in multiple-scattering theory, and are contrasted with experimental findings. One topic involves spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy which is addressed for magnetic surfaces and ultrathin films. Exemplary results comprise magnetic dichroism in both valence-band and core-level photoemission as well as the temperature dependence of magnetic properties of ultrathin films. Another topic is spin-dependent ballistic transport through planar tunnel junctions, focusing here on the zero-bias anomaly. In most of the cases, spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is an essential ingredient and, hence, favors a relativistic description. Prominent effects of SOC are illustrated by means of the electronic structure of rare gases adsorbed on a substrate and by the splitting of surface states on Au(111). Concerning magnetism, the magnetic anisotropy of Ni films on Cu(001) is discussed, focusing in particular on the spin reorientation transition induced by lattice distortions in ultrathin films. (orig.)

  20. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging lidar

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, Anthony B.; Rohde, Charles A.; Tellier, Larry; Ho, Cheng

    2002-09-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data on various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  1. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, Anthony B.; Rohde, Charles A.; Tellier, Larry L.; Ho, Cheng

    2002-01-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  2. Enhanced terahertz detection using multiple GaAs HEMTs connected in series

    Elkhatib, Tamer A.; Veksler, Dmitry B.; Salama, Khaled N.; Zhang, Xi-C.; Shur, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    We report here, for the first time, on enhanced nonresonant detection of terahertz radiation using multiple InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) connected in series and biased by a direct drain current. A 1.63 THz (184 mum) response is proportional to the number of detecting transistors operating in saturation region at the same gate-source bias voltage. The experimental data are in agreement with the detection mechanism based on the rectification of overdamped plasma waves excited by radiation in channels of devices.

  3. Enhanced terahertz detection using multiple GaAs HEMTs connected in series

    Elkhatib, Tamer A.

    2012-07-28

    We report here, for the first time, on enhanced nonresonant detection of terahertz radiation using multiple InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) connected in series and biased by a direct drain current. A 1.63 THz (184 mum) response is proportional to the number of detecting transistors operating in saturation region at the same gate-source bias voltage. The experimental data are in agreement with the detection mechanism based on the rectification of overdamped plasma waves excited by radiation in channels of devices.

  4. Multiple Scattering Principal Component-based Radiative Transfer Model (PCRTM) from Far IR to UV-Vis

    Liu, X.; Wu, W.; Yang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Modern satellite hyperspectral satellite remote sensors such as AIRS, CrIS, IASI, CLARREO all require accurate and fast radiative transfer models that can deal with multiple scattering of clouds and aerosols to explore the information contents. However, performing full radiative transfer calculations using multiple stream methods such as discrete ordinate (DISORT), doubling and adding (AD), successive order of scattering order of scattering (SOS) are very time consuming. We have developed a principal component-based radiative transfer model (PCRTM) to reduce the computational burden by orders of magnitudes while maintain high accuracy. By exploring spectral correlations, the PCRTM reduce the number of radiative transfer calculations in frequency domain. It further uses a hybrid stream method to decrease the number of calls to the computational expensive multiple scattering calculations with high stream numbers. Other fast parameterizations have been used in the infrared spectral region reduce the computational time to milliseconds for an AIRS forward simulation (2378 spectral channels). The PCRTM has been development to cover spectral range from far IR to UV-Vis. The PCRTM model have been be used for satellite data inversions, proxy data generation, inter-satellite calibrations, spectral fingerprinting, and climate OSSE. We will show examples of applying the PCRTM to single field of view cloudy retrievals of atmospheric temperature, moisture, traces gases, clouds, and surface parameters. We will also show how the PCRTM are used for the NASA CLARREO project.

  5. A hybrid approach to simulate multiple photon scattering in X-ray imaging

    Freud, N.; Letang, J.-M.; Babot, D.

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid simulation approach is proposed to compute the contribution of scattered radiation in X- or γ-ray imaging. This approach takes advantage of the complementarity between the deterministic and probabilistic simulation methods. The proposed hybrid method consists of two stages. Firstly, a set of scattering events occurring in the inspected object is determined by means of classical Monte Carlo simulation. Secondly, this set of scattering events is used as a starting point to compute the energy imparted to the detector, with a deterministic algorithm based on a 'forced detection' scheme. For each scattering event, the probability for the scattered photon to reach each pixel of the detector is calculated using well-known physical models (form factor and incoherent scattering function approximations, in the case of Rayleigh and Compton scattering respectively). The results of the proposed hybrid approach are compared to those obtained with the Monte Carlo method alone (Geant4 code) and found to be in excellent agreement. The convergence of the results when the number of scattering events increases is studied. The proposed hybrid approach makes it possible to simulate the contribution of each type (Compton or Rayleigh) and order of scattering, separately or together, with a single PC, within reasonable computation times (from minutes to hours, depending on the number of pixels of the detector). This constitutes a substantial benefit, compared to classical simulation methods (Monte Carlo or deterministic approaches), which usually requires a parallel computing architecture to obtain comparable results

  6. A hybrid approach to simulate multiple photon scattering in X-ray imaging

    Freud, N. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: nicolas.freud@insa-lyon.fr; Letang, J.-M. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Babot, D. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid simulation approach is proposed to compute the contribution of scattered radiation in X- or {gamma}-ray imaging. This approach takes advantage of the complementarity between the deterministic and probabilistic simulation methods. The proposed hybrid method consists of two stages. Firstly, a set of scattering events occurring in the inspected object is determined by means of classical Monte Carlo simulation. Secondly, this set of scattering events is used as a starting point to compute the energy imparted to the detector, with a deterministic algorithm based on a 'forced detection' scheme. For each scattering event, the probability for the scattered photon to reach each pixel of the detector is calculated using well-known physical models (form factor and incoherent scattering function approximations, in the case of Rayleigh and Compton scattering respectively). The results of the proposed hybrid approach are compared to those obtained with the Monte Carlo method alone (Geant4 code) and found to be in excellent agreement. The convergence of the results when the number of scattering events increases is studied. The proposed hybrid approach makes it possible to simulate the contribution of each type (Compton or Rayleigh) and order of scattering, separately or together, with a single PC, within reasonable computation times (from minutes to hours, depending on the number of pixels of the detector). This constitutes a substantial benefit, compared to classical simulation methods (Monte Carlo or deterministic approaches), which usually requires a parallel computing architecture to obtain comparable results.

  7. Application of a multiple scattering model to estimate optical depth, lidar ratio and ice crystal effective radius of cirrus clouds observed with lidar.

    Gouveia Diego

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lidar measurements of cirrus clouds are highly influenced by multiple scattering (MS. We therefore developed an iterative approach to correct elastic backscatter lidar signals for multiple scattering to obtain best estimates of single-scattering cloud optical depth and lidar ratio as well as of the ice crystal effective radius. The approach is based on the exploration of the effect of MS on the molecular backscatter signal returned from above cloud top.

  8. Application of a multiple scattering model to estimate optical depth, lidar ratio and ice crystal effective radius of cirrus clouds observed with lidar.

    Gouveia, Diego; Baars, Holger; Seifert, Patric; Wandinger, Ulla; Barbosa, Henrique; Barja, Boris; Artaxo, Paulo; Lopes, Fabio; Landulfo, Eduardo; Ansmann, Albert

    2018-04-01

    Lidar measurements of cirrus clouds are highly influenced by multiple scattering (MS). We therefore developed an iterative approach to correct elastic backscatter lidar signals for multiple scattering to obtain best estimates of single-scattering cloud optical depth and lidar ratio as well as of the ice crystal effective radius. The approach is based on the exploration of the effect of MS on the molecular backscatter signal returned from above cloud top.

  9. GEKF, GUKF and GGPF based prediction of chaotic time-series with additive and multiplicative noises

    Wu Xuedong; Song Zhihuan

    2008-01-01

    On the assumption that random interruptions in the observation process are modelled by a sequence of independent Bernoulli random variables, this paper generalize the extended Kalman filtering (EKF), the unscented Kalman filtering (UKF) and the Gaussian particle filtering (GPF) to the case in which there is a positive probability that the observation in each time consists of noise alone and does not contain the chaotic signal (These generalized novel algorithms are referred to as GEKF, GUKF and GGPF correspondingly in this paper). Using weights and network output of neural networks to constitute state equation and observation equation for chaotic time-series prediction to obtain the linear system state transition equation with continuous update scheme in an online fashion, and the prediction results of chaotic time series represented by the predicted observation value, these proposed novel algorithms are applied to the prediction of Mackey–Glass time-series with additive and multiplicative noises. Simulation results prove that the GGPF provides a relatively better prediction performance in comparison with GEKF and GUKF. (general)

  10. The collapsed cone algorithm for (192)Ir dosimetry using phantom-size adaptive multiple-scatter point kernels.

    Tedgren, Åsa Carlsson; Plamondon, Mathieu; Beaulieu, Luc

    2015-07-07

    The aim of this work was to investigate how dose distributions calculated with the collapsed cone (CC) algorithm depend on the size of the water phantom used in deriving the point kernel for multiple scatter. A research version of the CC algorithm equipped with a set of selectable point kernels for multiple-scatter dose that had initially been derived in water phantoms of various dimensions was used. The new point kernels were generated using EGSnrc in spherical water phantoms of radii 5 cm, 7.5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm and 50 cm. Dose distributions derived with CC in water phantoms of different dimensions and in a CT-based clinical breast geometry were compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the Geant4-based brachytherapy specific MC code Algebra. Agreement with MC within 1% was obtained when the dimensions of the phantom used to derive the multiple-scatter kernel were similar to those of the calculation phantom. Doses are overestimated at phantom edges when kernels are derived in larger phantoms and underestimated when derived in smaller phantoms (by around 2% to 7% depending on distance from source and phantom dimensions). CC agrees well with MC in the high dose region of a breast implant and is superior to TG43 in determining skin doses for all multiple-scatter point kernel sizes. Increased agreement between CC and MC is achieved when the point kernel is comparable to breast dimensions. The investigated approximation in multiple scatter dose depends on the choice of point kernel in relation to phantom size and yields a significant fraction of the total dose only at distances of several centimeters from a source/implant which correspond to volumes of low doses. The current implementation of the CC algorithm utilizes a point kernel derived in a comparatively large (radius 20 cm) water phantom. A fixed point kernel leads to predictable behaviour of the algorithm with the worst case being a source/implant located well within a patient

  11. Multiple causes of nonstationarity in the Weihe annual low-flow series

    Xiong, Bin; Xiong, Lihua; Chen, Jie; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Lingqi

    2018-02-01

    Under the background of global climate change and local anthropogenic activities, multiple driving forces have introduced various nonstationary components into low-flow series. This has led to a high demand on low-flow frequency analysis that considers nonstationary conditions for modeling. In this study, through a nonstationary frequency analysis framework with the generalized linear model (GLM) to consider time-varying distribution parameters, the multiple explanatory variables were incorporated to explain the variation in low-flow distribution parameters. These variables are comprised of the three indices of human activities (HAs; i.e., population, POP; irrigation area, IAR; and gross domestic product, GDP) and the eight measuring indices of the climate and catchment conditions (i.e., total precipitation P, mean frequency of precipitation events λ, temperature T, potential evapotranspiration (EP), climate aridity index AIEP, base-flow index (BFI), recession constant K and the recession-related aridity index AIK). This framework was applied to model the annual minimum flow series of both Huaxian and Xianyang gauging stations in the Weihe River, China (also known as the Wei He River). The results from stepwise regression for the optimal explanatory variables show that the variables related to irrigation, recession, temperature and precipitation play an important role in modeling. Specifically, analysis of annual minimum 30-day flow in Huaxian shows that the nonstationary distribution model with any one of all explanatory variables is better than the one without explanatory variables, the nonstationary gamma distribution model with four optimal variables is the best model and AIK is of the highest relative importance among these four variables, followed by IAR, BFI and AIEP. We conclude that the incorporation of multiple indices related to low-flow generation permits tracing various driving forces. The established link in nonstationary analysis will be beneficial

  12. High temperature series expansions with a multiple-exchange Hamiltonian for the bcc and hcp phases of solid 3He

    Roger, M.; Suaudeau, E.; Bernier, M.E.R.

    1987-08-01

    High temperature series expansions with a multiple-exchange Hamiltonian are performed to fourth order in arbitrary magnetic field for both phases of solid 3 He. The susceptibility series are analysed with Pade approximants and compared with recent experimental results. For the hcp phase we estimate the ferromagnetic ordering temperature from susceptibility series and discuss the influence of four-particle exchange in lowering the transition

  13. Iterative solution of multiple radiation and scattering problems in structural acoustics using the BL-QMR algorithm

    Malhotra, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Finite-element discretizations of time-harmonic acoustic wave problems in exterior domains result in large sparse systems of linear equations with complex symmetric coefficient matrices. In many situations, these matrix problems need to be solved repeatedly for different right-hand sides, but with the same coefficient matrix. For instance, multiple right-hand sides arise in radiation problems due to multiple load cases, and also in scattering problems when multiple angles of incidence of an incoming plane wave need to be considered. In this talk, we discuss the iterative solution of multiple linear systems arising in radiation and scattering problems in structural acoustics by means of a complex symmetric variant of the BL-QMR method. First, we summarize the governing partial differential equations for time-harmonic structural acoustics, the finite-element discretization of these equations, and the resulting complex symmetric matrix problem. Next, we sketch the special version of BL-QMR method that exploits complex symmetry, and we describe the preconditioners we have used in conjunction with BL-QMR. Finally, we report some typical results of our extensive numerical tests to illustrate the typical convergence behavior of BL-QMR method for multiple radiation and scattering problems in structural acoustics, to identify appropriate preconditioners for these problems, and to demonstrate the importance of deflation in block Krylov-subspace methods. Our numerical results show that the multiple systems arising in structural acoustics can be solved very efficiently with the preconditioned BL-QMR method. In fact, for multiple systems with up to 40 and more different right-hand sides we get consistent and significant speed-ups over solving the systems individually.

  14. Oxygen-metal bonding in Ti-bearing compounds from O 1s spectra and ab initio full multiple-scattering calculations

    Ziyu Wu; Paris, E.; Langenhorst, F.; Seifert, F.

    2002-01-01

    The O K-edge spectra of a series of Ti-bearing compounds with Ti in diffrent structural and chemical environments have been measured using electron energy-loss spectroscopy and analyzed using ab initio full multiple-scattering (MS) calculations. The near-edge structures arise mainly from covalency by direct and/or indirect interaction between O and metal atoms and between O and Si atoms. The coordination number of the cation and the site symmetry also influence the spectral shape and structures. Using different size clusters around the excited atom in the full MS simulation, it is possible to interpret and assign the features present in the spectra of each compund to its specific atomic arrangement and electronic structure. (au)

  15. Multiple scattering of a zero-order Bessel beam with arbitrary incidence by an aggregate of uniaxial anisotropic spheres

    Li, Z.J.; Wu, Z.S.; Qu, T.; Shang, Q.C.; Bai, L.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the generalized multiparticle Mie theory, multiple scattering of an aggregate of uniaxial anisotropic spheres illuminated by a zero-order Bessel beam (ZOBB) with arbitrary propagation direction is investigated. The particle size and configuration are arbitrary. The arbitrary incident Bessel beam is expanded in terms of spherical vector wave functions (SVWFs). Utilizing the vector addition theorem of SVWFs, interactive and total scattering coefficients are derived through the continuous boundary conditions on which the interaction of the particles is considered. The accuracy of the theory and codes are verified by comparing results with those obtained for arbitrary plane wave incidence by CST simulation, and for ZOBB incidence by a numerical method. The effects of angle of incidence, pseudo-polarization angle, half-conical angle, beam center position, and permittivity tensor elements on the radar cross sections (RCSs) of several types of collective uniaxial anisotropic spheres, such as a linear chain, a 4×4×4 cube-shaped array, and other periodical structures consisting of massive spheres, are numerically analyzed. Selected results on the properties of typical particles such as TiO 2 , SiO 2 , or other particle lattices are calculated. This investigation could provide an effective test for further research on the scattering characteristics of an aggregate of anisotropic spheres by a high-order Bessel vortex beam. The results have important application in optical tweezers and particle manipulation. - Highlights: • Scattering of Bessel beam by an aggregate of uniaxial anisotropic spheres is studied. • The zero-order Bessel beam propagates and polarizes along arbitrary direction. • The accuracy of expansion coefficients, the scattering theory and codes is verified. • Effects of various parameters on scattering properties are numerically discussed. • Scattering properties of several type of periodical array are numerically analyzed.

  16. Performance analysis of 2D asynchronous hard-limiting optical code-division multiple access system through atmospheric scattering channel

    Zhao, Yaqin; Zhong, Xin; Wu, Di; Zhang, Ye; Ren, Guanghui; Wu, Zhilu

    2013-09-01

    Optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) systems usually allocate orthogonal or quasi-orthogonal codes to the active users. When transmitting through atmospheric scattering channel, the coding pulses are broadened and the orthogonality of the codes is worsened. In truly asynchronous case, namely both the chips and the bits are asynchronous among each active user, the pulse broadening affects the system performance a lot. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of a 2D asynchronous hard-limiting wireless OCDMA system through atmospheric scattering channel. The probability density function of multiple access interference in truly asynchronous case is given. The bit error rate decreases as the ratio of the chip period to the root mean square delay spread increases and the channel limits the bit rate to different levels when the chip period varies.

  17. Multiple scattering of MeV ions: Comparison between the analytical theory and Monte-Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations

    Mayer, M.; Arstila, K.; Nordlund, K.; Edelmann, E.; Keinonen, J.

    2006-01-01

    Angular and energy distributions due to multiple small angle scattering were calculated with different models, namely from the analytical Szilagyi theory, the Monte-Carlo code MCERD in binary collision approximation and the molecular dynamics code MDRANGE, for 2 MeV 4 He in Au at backscattering geometry and for 20 MeV 127 I recoil analysis of carbon. The widths and detailed shapes of the distributions are compared, and reasons for deviations between the different models are discussed

  18. A Path Loss Model for Non-Line-of-Sight Ultraviolet Multiple Scattering Channels

    2010-01-01

    scattering is self -governed, and the distances and angles for different scattering events are conditioned on previous quantities. Therefore, the arrival...solid angle of the receiver determined by the receiver area and distance rn. Note that no integration over rn is needed because it is a function of...www.eurasip.org). This year edition will take place in Barcelona, capital city of Catalonia (Spain), and will be jointly organized by the Centre Tecnològic de

  19. Light focusing through a multiple scattering medium: ab initio computer simulation

    Danko, Oleksandr; Danko, Volodymyr; Kovalenko, Andrey

    2018-01-01

    The present study considers ab initio computer simulation of the light focusing through a complex scattering medium. The focusing is performed by shaping the incident light beam in order to obtain a small focused spot on the opposite side of the scattering layer. MSTM software (Auburn University) is used to simulate the propagation of an arbitrary monochromatic Gaussian beam and obtain 2D distribution of the optical field in the selected plane of the investigated volume. Based on the set of incident and scattered fields, the pair of right and left eigen bases and corresponding singular values were calculated. The pair of right and left eigen modes together with the corresponding singular value constitute the transmittance eigen channel of the disordered media. Thus, the scattering process is described in three steps: 1) initial field decomposition in the right eigen basis; 2) scaling of decomposition coefficients for the corresponding singular values; 3) assembling of the scattered field as the composition of the weighted left eigen modes. Basis fields are represented as a linear combination of the original Gaussian beams and scattered fields. It was demonstrated that 60 independent control channels provide focusing the light into a spot with the minimal radius of approximately 0.4 μm at half maximum. The intensity enhancement in the focal plane was equal to 68 that coincided with theoretical prediction.

  20. A Path Loss Model for Non-Line-of-Sight Ultraviolet Multiple Scattering Channels

    Sadler BrianM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultraviolet (UV signal transmission undergoes rich scattering and strong absorption by atmospheric particulates. We develop a path loss model for a Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS link. The model is built upon probability theory governing random migration of photons in free space, undergoing scattering, in terms of angular direction and distance. The model analytically captures the contributions of different scattering orders. Thus it relaxes the assumptions of single scattering theory and provides more realistic results. This allows us to assess the importance of high-order scattering, such as in a thick atmosphere environment, where short range NLOS UV communication is enhanced by hazy or foggy weather. By simulation, it is shown that the model coincides with a previously developed Monte Carlo model. Additional numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effects of link geometry and atmospheric conditions. The results indicate the inherent tradeoffs in beamwidth, pointing angles, range, absorption, and scattering and so are valuable for NLOS communication system design.

  1. Velocity landscape correlation resolves multiple flowing protein populations from fluorescence image time series.

    Pandžić, Elvis; Abu-Arish, Asmahan; Whan, Renee M; Hanrahan, John W; Wiseman, Paul W

    2018-02-16

    Molecular, vesicular and organellar flows are of fundamental importance for the delivery of nutrients and essential components used in cellular functions such as motility and division. With recent advances in fluorescence/super-resolution microscopy modalities we can resolve the movements of these objects at higher spatio-temporal resolutions and with better sensitivity. Previously, spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy has been applied to map molecular flows by correlation analysis of fluorescence fluctuations in image series. However, an underlying assumption of this approach is that the sampled time windows contain one dominant flowing component. Although this was true for most of the cases analyzed earlier, in some situations two or more different flowing populations can be present in the same spatio-temporal window. We introduce an approach, termed velocity landscape correlation (VLC), which detects and extracts multiple flow components present in a sampled image region via an extension of the correlation analysis of fluorescence intensity fluctuations. First we demonstrate theoretically how this approach works, test the performance of the method with a range of computer simulated image series with varying flow dynamics. Finally we apply VLC to study variable fluxing of STIM1 proteins on microtubules connected to the plasma membrane of Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial (CFBE) cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural dynamics of surfaces by ultrafast electron crystallography: experimental and multiple scattering theory.

    Schäfer, Sascha; Liang, Wenxi; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2011-12-07

    Recent studies in ultrafast electron crystallography (UEC) using a reflection diffraction geometry have enabled the investigation of a wide range of phenomena on the femtosecond and picosecond time scales. In all these studies, the analysis of the diffraction patterns and their temporal change after excitation was performed within the kinematical scattering theory. In this contribution, we address the question, to what extent dynamical scattering effects have to be included in order to obtain quantitative information about structural dynamics. We discuss different scattering regimes and provide diffraction maps that describe all essential features of scatterings and observables. The effects are quantified by dynamical scattering simulations and examined by direct comparison to the results of ultrafast electron diffraction experiments on an in situ prepared Ni(100) surface, for which structural dynamics can be well described by a two-temperature model. We also report calculations for graphite surfaces. The theoretical framework provided here allows for further UEC studies of surfaces especially at larger penetration depths and for those of heavy-atom materials. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  3. Quantum multiple scattering: Eigenmode expansion and its applications to proximity resonance

    Li Sheng; Heller, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    We show that for a general system of N s-wave point scatterers, there are always N eigenmodes. These eigenmodes or eigenchannels play the same role as spherical harmonics for a spherically symmetric target--they give a phase shift only. In other words, the T matrix of the system is of rank N, and the eigenmodes are eigenvectors corresponding to nonzero eigenvalues of the T matrix. The eigenmode expansion approach can give insight to the total scattering cross section; the position, width, and superradiant or subradiant nature of resonance peaks; the unsymmetric Fano line shape of sharp proximity resonance peaks based on the high-energy tail of a broadband; and other properties. Off-resonant eigenmodes for identical proximate scatterers are approximately angular-momentum eigenstates

  4. Analysis of pp scattering at the CERN ISR energies in the multiple Regge pole model

    Bugrij, A.I.; Kobylinsky, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    The simple Regge model is suggested for describing data on proton-proton elastic scattering at high energies. The simplest variant of the Regge model can be formulated as a sum of two pomerons, the first being a moving double pole and the second - a fixed simple pole. Comparison with known data is given. The model gives an infinite rise of the total cross section of pp-scattering. The differential cross section changes slowly with energy. The models of two pomerons reproduce many features of the geometric scaling, in particular, the shift of the dip and rise of scattering total cross section at the second maximum. The considered model is rather simple and is well consistent with experiment

  5. Second-order multiple-scattering theory associated with backscattering enhancement for a millimeter wavelength weather radar with a finite beam width

    Kobayashi, Satoru; Tanelli, Simone; Im, Eastwood

    2005-01-01

    Effects of multiple scattering on reflectivity are studied for millimeter wavelength weather radars. A time-independent vector theory, including up to second-order scattering, is derived for a single layer of hydrometeors of a uniform density and a uniform diameter. In this theory, spherical waves with a Gaussian antenna pattern are used to calculate ladder and cross terms in the analytical scattering theory. The former terms represent the conventional multiple scattering, while the latter terms cause backscattering enhancement in both the copolarized and cross-polarized components. As the optical thickness of the hydrometeor layer increases, the differences from the conventional plane wave theory become more significant, and essentially, the reflectivity of multiple scattering depends on the ratio of mean free path to radar footprint radius. These results must be taken into account when analyzing radar reflectivity for use in remote sensing.

  6. Solving protein nanocrystals by cryo-EM diffraction: Multiple scattering artifacts

    Subramanian, Ganesh [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Basu, Shibom [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Liu, Haiguang [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Zuo, Jian-Min [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Spence, John C.H., E-mail: spence@asu.edu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    The maximum thickness permissible within the single-scattering approximation for the determination of the structure of perfectly ordered protein microcrystals by transmission electron diffraction is estimated for tetragonal hen-egg lysozyme protein crystals using several approaches. Multislice simulations are performed for many diffraction conditions and beam energies to determine the validity domain of the required single-scattering approximation and hence the limit on crystal thickness. The effects of erroneous experimental structure factor amplitudes on the charge density map for lysozyme are noted and their threshold limits calculated. The maximum thickness of lysozyme permissible under the single-scattering approximation is also estimated using R-factor analysis. Successful reconstruction of density maps is found to result mainly from the use of the phase information provided by modeling based on the protein data base through molecular replacement (MR), which dominates the effect of poor quality electron diffraction data at thicknesses larger than about 200 Å. For perfectly ordered protein nanocrystals, a maximum thickness of about 1000 Å is predicted at 200 keV if MR can be used, using R-factor analysis performed over a subset of the simulated diffracted beams. The effects of crystal bending, mosaicity (which has recently been directly imaged by cryo-EM) and secondary scattering are discussed. Structure-independent tests for single-scattering and new microfluidic methods for growing and sorting nanocrystals by size are reviewed. - Highlights: • Validity domain of single-scattering approximation for protein electron diffraction is assessed • Electron Diffraction for tetragonal hen-egg lysozyme is simulated using multislice. • Bias from the use of phase information in modeling by molecular replacement (MR) is evaluated. • We find an approximate upper thickness limit, if MR is used, of 100 nm. • A 35% error in structure factor magnitudes may be

  7. Comparison of approximate methods for multiple scattering in high-energy collisions. II

    Nolan, A.M.; Tobocman, W.; Werby, M.F.

    1976-01-01

    The scattering in one dimension of a particle by a target of N like particles in a bound state has been studied. The exact result for the transmission probability has been compared with the predictions of the Glauber theory, the Watson optical potential model, and the adiabatic (or fixed scatterer) approximation. The approximate methods optical potential model is second best. The Watson method is found to work better when the kinematics suggested by Foldy and Walecka are used rather than that suggested by Watson, that is to say, when the two-body of the nucleon-nucleon reduced mass

  8. Light scattering by multiple spheres: comparison between Maxwell theory and radiative-transfer-theory calculations.

    Voit, Florian; Schäfer, Jan; Kienle, Alwin

    2009-09-01

    We present a methodology to compare results of classical radiative transfer theory against exact solutions of Maxwell theory for a high number of spheres. We calculated light propagation in a cubic scattering region (20 x 20 x 20 microm(3)) consisting of different concentrations of polystyrene spheres in water (diameter 2 microm) by an analytical solution of Maxwell theory and by a numerical solution of radiative transfer theory. The relative deviation of differential as well as total scattering cross sections obtained by both approaches was evaluated for each sphere concentration. For the considered case, we found that deviations due to radiative transfer theory remain small, even for concentrations up to ca. 20 vol. %.

  9. Multiple refraction switches realized by stretching elastomeric scatterers in sonic crystals

    Y. Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of out-of-plane pre-stretch on the 2D sonic crystal with stretchable elastomeric scatterers is explored. The hyperelastic scatterers are characterized by a compressible neo-Hookean model. The Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN map is adopted to obtain the band structure and equi-frequency contours. We focus on the first passband and find that a variety of switching functionalities for refraction behaviors can be realized in selected frequencies under a specific pre-stretch range. These refraction switches enable an active control of wave propagation and are applicable in advanced technologies where switchable and multifunctional sonic crystals are required.

  10. Multiplicities of charged pions and kaons from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering by the proton and the deuteron

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Lab. of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY Hamburg (Germany)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Collaboration

    2012-12-15

    Multiplicities in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering are presented for each charge state of {pi}{sup {+-}} and K{sup {+-}} mesons. The data were collected by the HERMES experiment at the HERA storage ring using 27.6 GeV electron and positron beams incident on a hydrogen or deuterium gas target. The results are presented as a function of the kinematic quantities x{sub B}, Q{sup 2}, z, and P{sub h} {sub perpendicular} {sub to}. They represent a unique data set for identified hadrons that will significantly enhance our understanding of the fragmentation of quarks into final-state hadrons in deep-inelastic scattering.

  11. Influence of multiple small-angle neutron scattering on diffraction peak broadening in ferritic steel

    Woo, W.; Em, V.; Shin, E.; Mikula, Pavol; Ryukhtin, Vasyl

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, APR (2015), s. 350-356 ISSN 0021-8898 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : peak broadening * small-angle neutron scattering * neutron diffraction * magnetic domain Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2014

  12. Multiple scattering modeling pipeline for spectroscopy and photometry of airless Solar System objects

    Penttilä, Antti; Väisänen, Timo; Markkanen, Johannes; Martikainen, Julia; Gritsevich, Maria; Muinonen, Karri

    2017-10-01

    We combine numerical tools to analyze the reflectance spectra of granular materials. Our motivation comes from the lack of tools when it comes to intimate mixing of materials and modeling space-weathering effects with nano- or micron-sized inclusions. The current practice is to apply a semi-physical models such as the Hapke models (e.g., Icarus 195, 2008). These are expressed in a closed form so that they are fast to apply. The problem is that the validity of the model is not guaranteed, and the derived properties related to particle scattering can be unrealistic (JQSRT 113, 2012).Our pipeline consists of individual scattering simulation codes and a main program that chains them together. The chain for analyzing a macroscopic target with space-weathered mineral would go as: (1) Scattering properties of small inclusions inside a host matrix are derived using exact Maxwell equation solvers. From the scattering properties, we use the so-called incoherent fields and Mueller matrices as input for the next step; (2) Scattering by a regolith grain is solved using a geometrical optics method with surface reflections, internal absorption, and internal diffuse scattering; (3) The radiative transfer simulation is executed inputting the regolith grains from the previous step as the scatterers in a macroscopic planar volume element.For the most realistic asteroid reflectance model, the chain would produce the properties of a planar surface element. Then, a shadowing simulation over the surface elements would be considered, and finally the asteroid phase function would be solved by integrating the bidirectional reflectance distribution function of the planar element over the object's realistic shape model.The tools in the proposed chain already exist, and practical task for us is to tie these together into an easy-to-use public pipeline. We plan to open the pipeline as a web-based open service a dedicated server, using Django application server and Python environment for the

  13. Multiple scattering in grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction: impact on lattice-constant determination in thin films

    Resel, Roland, E-mail: roland.resel@tugraz.at; Bainschab, Markus; Pichler, Alexander [Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Dingemans, Theo [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Simbrunner, Clemens [Johannes Kepler University, Linz (Austria); University of Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Stangl, Julian [Johannes Kepler University, Linz (Austria); Salzmann, Ingo [Humboldt University, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-04-20

    The use of grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction to determine the crystal structure from thin films requires accurate positions of Bragg peaks. Refraction effects and multiple scattering events have to be corrected or minimized. Dynamical scattering effects are observed in grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction experiments using an organic thin film of 2,2′:6′,2′′-ternaphthalene grown on oxidized silicon as substrate. Here, a splitting of all Bragg peaks in the out-of-plane direction (z-direction) has been observed, the magnitude of which depends both on the incidence angle of the primary beam and the out-of-plane angle of the scattered beam. The incident angle was varied between 0.09° and 0.25° for synchrotron radiation of 10.5 keV. This study reveals comparable intensities of the split peaks with a maximum for incidence angles close to the critical angle of total external reflection of the substrate. This observation is rationalized by two different scattering pathways resulting in diffraction peaks at different positions at the detector. In order to minimize the splitting, the data suggest either using incident angles well below the critical angle of total reflection or angles well above, which sufficiently attenuates the contributions from the second scattering path. This study highlights that the refraction of X-rays in (organic) thin films has to be corrected accordingly to allow for the determination of peak positions with sufficient accuracy. Based thereon, a reliable determination of the lattice constants becomes feasible, which is required for crystallographic structure solutions from thin films.

  14. Evaluation of Multiple Kernel Learning Algorithms for Crop Mapping Using Satellite Image Time-Series Data

    Niazmardi, S.; Safari, A.; Homayouni, S.

    2017-09-01

    Crop mapping through classification of Satellite Image Time-Series (SITS) data can provide very valuable information for several agricultural applications, such as crop monitoring, yield estimation, and crop inventory. However, the SITS data classification is not straightforward. Because different images of a SITS data have different levels of information regarding the classification problems. Moreover, the SITS data is a four-dimensional data that cannot be classified using the conventional classification algorithms. To address these issues in this paper, we presented a classification strategy based on Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) algorithms for SITS data classification. In this strategy, initially different kernels are constructed from different images of the SITS data and then they are combined into a composite kernel using the MKL algorithms. The composite kernel, once constructed, can be used for the classification of the data using the kernel-based classification algorithms. We compared the computational time and the classification performances of the proposed classification strategy using different MKL algorithms for the purpose of crop mapping. The considered MKL algorithms are: MKL-Sum, SimpleMKL, LPMKL and Group-Lasso MKL algorithms. The experimental tests of the proposed strategy on two SITS data sets, acquired by SPOT satellite sensors, showed that this strategy was able to provide better performances when compared to the standard classification algorithm. The results also showed that the optimization method of the used MKL algorithms affects both the computational time and classification accuracy of this strategy.

  15. Ant system for reliability optimization of a series system with multiple-choice and budget constraints

    Nahas, Nabil; Nourelfath, Mustapha

    2005-01-01

    Many researchers have shown that insect colonies behavior can be seen as a natural model of collective problem solving. The analogy between the way ants look for food and combinatorial optimization problems has given rise to a new computational paradigm, which is called ant system. This paper presents an application of ant system in a reliability optimization problem for a series system with multiple-choice constraints incorporated at each subsystem, to maximize the system reliability subject to the system budget. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear binary integer programming problem and characterized as an NP-hard problem. This problem is solved by developing and demonstrating a problem-specific ant system algorithm. In this algorithm, solutions of the reliability optimization problem are repeatedly constructed by considering the trace factor and the desirability factor. A local search is used to improve the quality of the solutions obtained by each ant. A penalty factor is introduced to deal with the budget constraint. Simulations have shown that the proposed ant system is efficient with respect to the quality of solutions and the computing time

  16. Quasi-elastic shadowing in nucleus-nucleus elastic scattering

    Dymarz, R; Malecki, A [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Gluski, K [Institute of Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Picchi, P [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica)

    1979-01-06

    The complete evaluation of the Glauber multiple-scattering series for nucleus-nucleus collisions is a very difficult task and that is why various approximate formulae were proposed. In this work some of these approximations are discussed.

  17. Experimental characterization of a prototype secondary spectrometer for vertically scattering multiple energy analysis at cold-neutron triple axis spectrometers

    Toft-Petersen, Rasmus; Groitl, Felix; Kure, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    A thorough experimental characterization of a multiplexing backend with multiple energy analysis on a cold-neutron triple axis spectrometer (cTAS) is presented. The prototype employs two angular segments (2 theta-segments) each containing five vertically scattering analyzers (energy channels...... to the energy resolution of a standard cTAS. The dispersion relation of the antiferromagnetic excitations in MnF2 has been mapped out by performing constant energy transfer maps. These results show that the tested setup is virtually spurion free. In addition, focusing effects due to (mis...

  18. High-efficiency γ-ray flash generation via multiple-laser scattering in ponderomotive potential well.

    Gong, Z; Hu, R H; Shou, Y R; Qiao, B; Chen, C E; He, X T; Bulanov, S S; Esirkepov, T Zh; Bulanov, S V; Yan, X Q

    2017-01-01

    γ-ray flash generation in near-critical-density target irradiated by four symmetrical colliding laser pulses is numerically investigated. With peak intensities about 10^{23} W/cm^{2}, the laser pulses boost electron energy through direct laser acceleration, while pushing them inward with the ponderomotive force. After backscattering with counterpropagating laser, the accelerated electron is trapped in the electromagnetic standing waves or the ponderomotive potential well created by the coherent overlapping of the laser pulses, and emits γ-ray photons in a multiple-laser-scattering regime, where electrons act as a medium transferring energy from the laser to γ rays in the ponderomotive potential valley.

  19. All orders transport theory from the multiple scattering expansion of the self-energy. The central cuts

    Gagnon, J.S.; Fillion-Gourdeau, F.; Sangyong Jeong; RIKEN Research Center, Upton, NY

    2006-01-01

    We use the full multiple scattering expansion of the retarded self-energy to obtain the gain and loss rates present in the Kadanoff-Baym relativistic transport equation. The rates we obtain include processes with any number of particles. As a first approximation, we only consider central cuts in the self-energies, but otherwise our results are general. We specialize to the case of scalar field theory to compare with lowest order results. The main application of this work is relativistic transport theory of very dense systems, such as the quark-gluon plasma or the early universe, where multi-particle interactions are important. (author)

  20. Sum of ratios of products forα-μ random variables in wireless multihop relaying and multiple scattering

    Wang, Kezhi; Wang, Tian; Chen, Yunfei; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    The sum of ratios of products of independent 2642 2642α-μ random variables (RVs) is approximated by using the Generalized Gamma ratio approximation (GGRA) with Gamma ratio approximation (GRA) as a special case. The proposed approximation is used to calculate the outage probability of the equal gain combining (EGC) or maximum ratio combining (MRC) receivers for wireless multihop relaying or multiple scattering systems considering interferences. Numerical results show that the newly derived approximation works very well verified by the simulation, while GRA has a slightly worse performance than GGRA when outage probability is below 0.1 but with a more simplified form.

  1. Sum of ratios of products forα-μ random variables in wireless multihop relaying and multiple scattering

    Wang, Kezhi

    2014-09-01

    The sum of ratios of products of independent 2642 2642α-μ random variables (RVs) is approximated by using the Generalized Gamma ratio approximation (GGRA) with Gamma ratio approximation (GRA) as a special case. The proposed approximation is used to calculate the outage probability of the equal gain combining (EGC) or maximum ratio combining (MRC) receivers for wireless multihop relaying or multiple scattering systems considering interferences. Numerical results show that the newly derived approximation works very well verified by the simulation, while GRA has a slightly worse performance than GGRA when outage probability is below 0.1 but with a more simplified form.

  2. Revisit the spin-FET: Multiple reflection, inelastic scattering, and lateral size effects

    Xu, Luting; Li, Xin-Qi; Sun, Qing-feng

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the spin-injected field effect transistor (spin-FET) by simulating a lattice model based on recursive lattice Green's function approach. In the one-dimensional case and coherent regime, the simulated results reveal noticeable differences from the celebrated Datta-Das model, which motivate thus an improved treatment and lead to analytic and generalized result. The simulation also allows us to address inelastic scattering (using B\\"uttiker's fictitious reservoir approach) and lateral...

  3. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the translation matrices of spherical waves of multiple-scattering theory

    Torrini, M.

    1983-01-01

    The exponential nature of the translation matrix G of spherical free waves has been set forth in a previous paper.The explicit expression of the exponential form of the translation matrix is given here, once the eigenvectros and the eigenvalues of G have been found. In addition, the eigenproblem relative to the matrix which transforms outgoing waves scattered by a centre in a set of spherical free waves centered at a different point is solved

  4. Multiple Scattering of Gamma Radiation in a Spherical Concrete Wall Room

    Leimdoerfer, M

    1962-12-15

    The Monte Carlo method has been applied for the calculation of the energy flux of scattered gamma radiation in a spherical room surrounded by an infinitely thick spherical wall and with a point source at the centre. Source energies were I, 2, 4, 6, and 10 MeV. The main investigation was carried out at a room radius of 500 cm but, for the 1 MeV source, the influence of varying the room radius down to 1 cm was analysed. The results contain energy distributions of the first four successive reflection components at the centre of the room and at the wall surface, as well as spatial distributions of the successive energy flux components. The neglect of reflection contributions of order five and higher was estimated to introduce an error of less than 0. 2 % of the total scattered energy flux. An analytical approximation is shown to produce a useful and easily applicable method of predicting the amount of scattered radiation in a spherical room.

  5. Multiple Scattering of Gamma Radiation in a Spherical Concrete Wall Room

    Leimdoerfer, M.

    1962-12-01

    The Monte Carlo method has been applied for the calculation of the energy flux of scattered gamma radiation in a spherical room surrounded by an infinitely thick spherical wall and with a point source at the centre. Source energies were I, 2, 4, 6, and 10 MeV. The main investigation was carried out at a room radius of 500 cm but, for the 1 MeV source, the influence of varying the room radius down to 1 cm was analysed. The results contain energy distributions of the first four successive reflection components at the centre of the room and at the wall surface, as well as spatial distributions of the successive energy flux components. The neglect of reflection contributions of order five and higher was estimated to introduce an error of less than 0. 2 % of the total scattered energy flux. An analytical approximation is shown to produce a useful and easily applicable method of predicting the amount of scattered radiation in a spherical room

  6. Simultaneous distribution between the deflection angle and the lateral displacement under the Moliere theory of multiple scattering

    Nakatsuka, Takao [Okayama Shoka University, Laboratory of Information Science, Okayama (Japan); Okei, Kazuhide [Kawasaki Medical School, Dept. of Information Sciences, Kurashiki (Japan); Iyono, Atsushi [Okayama university of Science, Dept. of Fundamental Science, Faculty of Science, Okayama (Japan); Bielajew, Alex F. [Univ. of Michigan, Dept. Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Simultaneous distribution between the deflection angle and the lateral displacement of fast charged particles traversing through matter is derived by applying numerical inverse Fourier transforms on the Fourier spectral density solved analytically under the Moliere theory of multiple scattering, taking account of ionization loss. Our results show the simultaneous Gaussian distribution at the region of both small deflection angle and lateral displacement, though they show the characteristic contour patterns of probability density specific to the single and the double scatterings at the regions of large deflection angle and/or lateral displacement. The influences of ionization loss on the distribution are also investigated. An exact simultaneous distribution is derived under the fixed energy condition based on a well-known model of screened single scattering, which indicates the limit of validity of the Moliere theory applied to the simultaneous distribution. The simultaneous distribution will be valuable for improving the accuracy and the efficiency of experimental analyses and simulation studies relating to charged particle transports. (orig.)

  7. Multiplicities of charged pions and unidentified charged hadrons from deep-inelastic scattering of muons off an isoscalar target

    Adolph, C.; Aghasyan, M.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N.V.; Anosov, V.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buechele, M.; Capozza, L.; Chang, W. -C.; Chatterjee, C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S. -U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Duennweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmueller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; dHose, N.; Hsieh, C. -Y.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Joerg, P.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Koenigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.M.; Kuhn, R.; Kraemer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.V.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Mitrofanov, E.; Mitrofanov, N.; Miyachi, Y.; Montuenga, P.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J. -C.; Pereira, F.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Pierre, N.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Roskot, M.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salac, R.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schoenning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Steffen, D.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smolik, J.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Zaremba, K.; Zavada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2017-01-10

    Multiplicities of charged pions and unidentified hadrons produced in deep-inelastic scattering were measured in bins of the Bjorken scaling variable $x$, the relative virtual-photon energy $y$ and the relative hadron energy $z$. Data were obtained by the COMPASS Collaboration using a 160 GeV muon beam and an isoscalar target ($^6$LiD). They cover the kinematic domain in the photon virtuality $Q^2$ > 1(GeV/c$)^2$, $0.004 < x < 0.4$, $0.2 < z < 0.85$ and $0.1 < y < 0.7$. In addition, a leading-order pQCD analysis was performed using the pion multiplicity results to extract quark fragmentation functions.

  8. Multiplicities of charged pions and charged hadrons from deep-inelastic scattering of muons off an isoscalar target

    C. Adolph

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiplicities of charged pions and charged hadrons produced in deep-inelastic scattering were measured in three-dimensional bins of the Bjorken scaling variable x, the relative virtual-photon energy y and the relative hadron energy z. Data were obtained by the COMPASS Collaboration using a 160GeV muon beam and an isoscalar target (6LiD. They cover the kinematic domain in the photon virtuality Q2>1(GeV/c2, 0.004multiplicity results to extract quark fragmentation functions.

  9. Statistics of α-μ Random Variables and Their Applications inWireless Multihop Relaying and Multiple Scattering Channels

    Wang, Kezhi

    2015-06-01

    Exact results for the probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the sum of ratios of products (SRP) and the sum of products (SP) of independent α-μ random variables (RVs) are derived. They are in the form of 1-D integral based on the existing works on the products and ratios of α-μ RVs. In the derivation, generalized Gamma (GG) ratio approximation (GGRA) is proposed to approximate SRP. Gamma ratio approximation (GRA) is proposed to approximate SRP and the ratio of sums of products (RSP). GG approximation (GGA) and Gamma approximation (GA) are used to approximate SP. The proposed results of the SRP can be used to calculate the outage probability (OP) for wireless multihop relaying systems or multiple scattering channels with interference. The proposed results of the SP can be used to calculate the OP for these systems without interference. In addition, the proposed approximate result of the RSP can be used to calculate the OP of the signal-To-interference ratio (SIR) in a multiple scattering system with interference. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  10. Statistics of α-μ Random Variables and Their Applications inWireless Multihop Relaying and Multiple Scattering Channels

    Wang, Kezhi; Wang, Tian; Chen, Yunfei; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    Exact results for the probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the sum of ratios of products (SRP) and the sum of products (SP) of independent α-μ random variables (RVs) are derived. They are in the form of 1-D integral based on the existing works on the products and ratios of α-μ RVs. In the derivation, generalized Gamma (GG) ratio approximation (GGRA) is proposed to approximate SRP. Gamma ratio approximation (GRA) is proposed to approximate SRP and the ratio of sums of products (RSP). GG approximation (GGA) and Gamma approximation (GA) are used to approximate SP. The proposed results of the SRP can be used to calculate the outage probability (OP) for wireless multihop relaying systems or multiple scattering channels with interference. The proposed results of the SP can be used to calculate the OP for these systems without interference. In addition, the proposed approximate result of the RSP can be used to calculate the OP of the signal-To-interference ratio (SIR) in a multiple scattering system with interference. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  11. Continuity in Λ-variation of functions of several variables and convergence of multiple Fourier series

    Bakhvalov, A N

    2002-01-01

    The behaviour of rectangular partial sums of the Fourier series of functions of several variables having bounded Λ-variation is considered. It is proved that if a continuous function is also continuous in harmonic variation, then its Fourier series uniformly converges in the sense of Pringsheim. On the other hand, it is demonstrated that in dimensions greater than 2 there always exists a continuous function of bounded harmonic variation with Fourier series divergent over cubes at the origin

  12. Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy in multiple-scattering environments: an application to biotechnology

    Cerussi, Albert E.; Gratton, Enrico; Fantini, Sergio

    1999-07-01

    Over the past few years, there has been significant research activity devoted to the application of fluorescence spectroscopy to strongly scattering media, where photons propagate diffusely. Much of this activity focused on fluorescence as a source of contrast enhancement in optical tomography. Our efforts have emphasized the quantitative recovery of fluorescence parameters for spectroscopy. Using a frequency-domain diffusion-based model, we have successfully recovered the lifetime, the absolute quantum yield, the fluorophore concentration, and the emission spectrum of the fluorophore, as well as the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients at the emission wavelength of the medium in different measurements. In this contribution, we present a sensitive monitor of the binding between ethidium bromide and bovine cells in fresh milk. The spectroscopic contrast was the approximately tenfold increase in the ethidium bromide lifetime upon binding to DNA. The measurement clearly demonstrated that we could quantitatively measure the density of cells in the milk, which is an application vital to the tremendous economic burden of bovine subclinical mastitis detection. Furthermore, we may in principle use the spirit of this technique as a quantitative monitor of the binding of fluorescent drugs inside tissues. This is a first step towards lifetime spectroscopy in tissues.

  13. Studies on laser beam propagation and stimulated scattering in multiple beam experiments

    Labaune, C.; Lewis, K.; Bandulet, H.; Lewis, K.; Depierreux, S.; Huller, S.; Masson-Laborde, P.E.; Pesme, D.; Riazuelo, G.

    2006-01-01

    The propagation and stimulated scattering of intense laser beams interacting with underdense plasmas are two important issues for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The purpose of this work was to perform experiments under well-controlled interaction conditions and confront them with numerical simulations to test the physics included in the codes. Experimental diagnostics include time and space resolved images of incident and SBS light and of SBS-ion acoustic activity. New numerical diagnostics, including similar constraints as the experimental ones and the treatment of the propagation of the light between the emitting area and the detectors, have been developed. Particular care was put to include realistic plasma density and velocity profiles, as well as laser pulse shape in the simulations. In the experiments presented in this paper, the interaction beam was used with a random phase plate (RPP) to produce a statistical distribution of speckles in the focal volume. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) was described using a decomposition of the spatial scales which provides a predictive modeling of SBS in an expanding mm-scale plasma. Spatial and temporal behavior of the SBS-ion acoustic waves was found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones for two laser intensities. (authors)

  14. Nonlinear coupled mode approach for modeling counterpropagating solitons in the presence of disorder-induced multiple scattering in photonic crystal waveguides

    Mann, Nishan; Hughes, Stephen

    2018-02-01

    We present the analytical and numerical details behind our recently published article [Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 253901 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.253901], describing the impact of disorder-induced multiple scattering on counterpropagating solitons in photonic crystal waveguides. Unlike current nonlinear approaches using the coupled mode formalism, we account for the effects of intraunit cell multiple scattering. To solve the resulting system of coupled semilinear partial differential equations, we introduce a modified Crank-Nicolson-type norm-preserving implicit finite difference scheme inspired by the transfer matrix method. We provide estimates of the numerical dispersion characteristics of our scheme so that optimal step sizes can be chosen to either minimize numerical dispersion or to mimic the exact dispersion. We then show numerical results of a fundamental soliton propagating in the presence of multiple scattering to demonstrate that choosing a subunit cell spatial step size is critical in accurately capturing the effects of multiple scattering, and illustrate the stochastic nature of disorder by simulating soliton propagation in various instances of disordered photonic crystal waveguides. Our approach is easily extended to include a wide range of optical nonlinearities and is applicable to various photonic nanostructures where power propagation is bidirectional, either by choice, or as a result of multiple scattering.

  15. A note on the nucleation with multiple steps: Parallel and series nucleation

    Iwamatsu, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Parallel and series nucleation are the basic elements of the complex nucleation process when two saddle points exist on the free-energy landscape. It is pointed out that the nucleation rates follow formulas similar to those of parallel and series connection of resistors or conductors in an electric circuit. Necessary formulas to calculate individual nucleation rates at the saddle points and the total nucleation rate are summarized and the extension to the more complex nucleation process is su...

  16. Tunneling effects in electromagnetic wave scattering by nonspherical particles: A comparison of the Debye series and physical-geometric optics approximations

    Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of the physical-geometric optics (PG-O) approximation is examined for the simulation of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical dielectric particles. This study seeks a better understanding of the tunneling effect on the phase matrix by employing the invariant imbedding method to rigorously compute the zeroth-order Debye series, from which the tunneling efficiency and the phase matrix corresponding to the diffraction and external reflection are obtained. The tunneling efficiency is shown to be a factor quantifying the relative importance of the tunneling effect over the Fraunhofer diffraction near the forward scattering direction. Due to the tunneling effect, different geometries with the same projected cross section might have different diffraction patterns, which are traditionally assumed to be identical according to the Babinet principle. For particles with a fixed orientation, the PG-O approximation yields the external reflection pattern with reasonable accuracy, but ordinarily fails to predict the locations of peaks and minima in the diffraction pattern. The larger the tunneling efficiency, the worse the PG-O accuracy is at scattering angles less than 90°. If the particles are assumed to be randomly oriented, the PG-O approximation yields the phase matrix close to the rigorous counterpart, primarily due to error cancellations in the orientation-average process. Furthermore, the PG-O approximation based on an electric field volume-integral equation is shown to usually be much more accurate than the Kirchhoff surface integral equation at side-scattering angles, particularly when the modulus of the complex refractive index is close to unity. Finally, tunneling efficiencies are tabulated for representative faceted particles. - Highlights: • Concepts of diffraction, reflection and tunneling are refined. • The diffraction together with reflection is rigorously treated. • An improved invariant imbedding method is employed to compute the Debye

  17. Multiple scattering of light by water cloud droplets with external and internal mixing of black carbon aerosols

    Wang Hai-Hua; Sun Xian-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The mixture of water cloud droplets with black carbon impurities is modeled by external and internal mixing models. The internal mixing model is modeled with a two-layered sphere (water cloud droplets containing black carbon (BC) inclusions), and the single scattering and absorption characteristics are calculated at the visible wavelength of 0.55 μm by using the Lorenz—Mie theory. The external mixing model is developed assuming that the same amount of BC particles are mixed with the water droplets externally. The multiple scattering characteristics are computed by using the Monte Carlo method. The results show that when the size of the BC aerosol is small, the reflection intensity of the internal mixing model is bigger than that of the external mixing model. However, if the size of the BC aerosol is big, the absorption of the internal mixing model will be larger than that of the external mixing model. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  18. Multiple scattering corrections to the Beer-Lambert law. 2: Detector with a variable field of view.

    Zardecki, A; Tam, W G

    1982-07-01

    The multiple scattering corrections to the Beer-Lambert law in the case of a detector with a variable field of view are analyzed. We introduce transmission functions relating the received radiant power to reference power levels relevant to two different experimental situations. In the first case, the transmission function relates the received power to a reference power level appropriate to a nonattenuating medium. In the second case, the reference power level is established by bringing the receiver to the close-up position with respect to the source. To examine the effect of the variation of the detector field of view the behavior of the gain factor is studied. Numerical results modeling the laser beam propagation in fog, cloud, and rain are presented.

  19. A note on the nucleation with multiple steps: parallel and series nucleation.

    Iwamatsu, Masao

    2012-01-28

    Parallel and series nucleation are the basic elements of the complex nucleation process when two saddle points exist on the free-energy landscape. It is pointed out that the nucleation rates follow formulas similar to those of parallel and series connection of resistors or conductors in an electric circuit. Necessary formulas to calculate individual nucleation rates at the saddle points and the total nucleation rate are summarized, and the extension to the more complex nucleation process is suggested. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  20. Short-Term Bus Passenger Demand Prediction Based on Time Series Model and Interactive Multiple Model Approach

    Rui Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bus passenger demand prediction has attracted increased attention during recent years, limited research has been conducted in the context of short-term passenger demand forecasting. This paper proposes an interactive multiple model (IMM filter algorithm-based model to predict short-term passenger demand. After aggregated in 15 min interval, passenger demand data collected from a busy bus route over four months were used to generate time series. Considering that passenger demand exhibits various characteristics in different time scales, three time series were developed, named weekly, daily, and 15 min time series. After the correlation, periodicity, and stationarity analyses, time series models were constructed. Particularly, the heteroscedasticity of time series was explored to achieve better prediction performance. Finally, IMM filter algorithm was applied to combine individual forecasting models with dynamically predicted passenger demand for next interval. Different error indices were adopted for the analyses of individual and hybrid models. The performance comparison indicates that hybrid model forecasts are superior to individual ones in accuracy. Findings of this study are of theoretical and practical significance in bus scheduling.

  1. Experimental study of single-particle inclusive hadron scattering and associated multiplicities

    Brenner, A.E.; Carey, D.C.; Elias, J.E.; Garbincius, P.H.; Mikenberg, G.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Aitkenhead, W.; Barton, D.S.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Busza, W.; Dobrowolski, T.; Friedman, J.I.; Kendall, H.W.; Lyons, T.; Nelson, B.; Rosenson, L.; Toy, W.; Verdier, R.; Votta, L.; Chiaradia, M.T.; DeMarzo, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Germinario, G.; Guerriero, L.; LaVopa, P.; Maggi, G.; Posa, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Spinelli, P.; Waldner, F.; Meunier, R.; Cutts, D.; Dulude, R.S.; Lanou, R.E. Jr.; Massimo, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    An experiment using the Fermilab single arm spectrometer (SAS) facility and an associated nonmagnetic vertex detector studied the reactions a+p→c+X where a and c were π +- , K +- , p, or p-bar. Extensive measurements were made at 100 and 175 GeV/c beam momenta with the outgoing hadrons detected in the SAS covering a kinematic range 0.12< x<1.0 and p/sub T/<1.25 GeV/c. Additional data covering a more restricted range in x were also gathered at 70 GeV/c incident momentum. In this high-statistics experiment, the identification of both the incoming and outgoing charged hadrons were made with a total of eight Cerenkov counters. New and extensive single-particle inclusive data for charged-particle production in low-p/sub T/ hadronic fragmentation are presented. The average associated charged-particle multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions are also given

  2. Variation of multiplicity and transverse energy flow with W2 and Q2 in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Lohmander, H.

    1995-04-01

    Charged particle and transverse energy flow for deep inelastic ep scattering at HERA have been investigated in the hadronic center of mass systems as a function of pseudorapidity η* in different W 2 and Q 2 intervals. In addition, the mean charged particle multiplicity ch > and the mean transverse energy * Τ > as a function of W 2 and Q 2 have been studied. The measurements were made in the kinematic region 85 2 2 . The ch > was found to increase with increasing W 2 at fixed Q 2 but did not show any significant dependence on Q 2 at fixed W 2 . The best description of the mean charged multiplicity is given by ch >=a+b·ln(W 2 /GeV 2 ) with a=-1.38±0.07 and b=0.93±0.05. The * Τ > increased both with increasing W 2 at fixed Q 2 and with increasing Q 2 at fixed W 2 . The mean transverse energy is described by * Τ >=a+b·ln(W 2 /GeV 2 )+c·ln (Q 2 /GeV 2 )GeV with a=-5.93±0.07, b=1.28±0.06 and c=0.69±0.02. Different QCD models have been compared with data. Only the Color Dipole Model, as implemented in the Monte Carlo program Ariadne, describes the data satisfactorily. 29 refs

  3. Real-space multiple-scattering theory and the electronic structure of systems with full or reduced symmetry

    Zhang, X.; Gonis, A.; MacLaren, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    We present a new real-space multiple-scattering-theory method for the solution of the Schroedinger equation and the calculation of the electronic structure of solid materials with full or reduced symmetry. The method is based on the concept of semi-infinite periodicity (SIP), rather than translational invariance, and on the property of removal invariance of the scattering matrix of systems with SIP. This latter property allows one to replace the usual Brillouin-zone integrals in reciprocal space by a self-consistency equation for the t matrix, which is sufficient for the determination of the Green function and related properties. Because it is developed entirely in direct space, the method provides a unified treatment of the electronic structure of bulk materials, surfaces, interfaces and grain boundaries (coherent or incoherent), impurities of interstitial or substitutional kinds, and can be easily extended to treat concentrated, substitutionally disordered alloys. One of its advantages over methods based on Bloch's theorem and reciprocal space is the great simplicity of setting up and running the associated computer codes even for complex structures, and structures with reduced or no symmetry that lie outside the realm of applicability of conventional methods. We present the results of model calculations for one-dimensional and three-dimensional model systems as well as for three-dimensional realistic materials. Where appropriate, these results are compared with those obtained through conventional techniques, and give an indication of the method's flexibility and reliability. Our applications of this method to this point are discussed, and our plans for future development are presented

  4. Extended causal modeling to assess Partial Directed Coherence in multiple time series with significant instantaneous interactions.

    Faes, Luca; Nollo, Giandomenico

    2010-11-01

    The Partial Directed Coherence (PDC) and its generalized formulation (gPDC) are popular tools for investigating, in the frequency domain, the concept of Granger causality among multivariate (MV) time series. PDC and gPDC are formalized in terms of the coefficients of an MV autoregressive (MVAR) model which describes only the lagged effects among the time series and forsakes instantaneous effects. However, instantaneous effects are known to affect linear parametric modeling, and are likely to occur in experimental time series. In this study, we investigate the impact on the assessment of frequency domain causality of excluding instantaneous effects from the model underlying PDC evaluation. Moreover, we propose the utilization of an extended MVAR model including both instantaneous and lagged effects. This model is used to assess PDC either in accordance with the definition of Granger causality when considering only lagged effects (iPDC), or with an extended form of causality, when we consider both instantaneous and lagged effects (ePDC). The approach is first evaluated on three theoretical examples of MVAR processes, which show that the presence of instantaneous correlations may produce misleading profiles of PDC and gPDC, while ePDC and iPDC derived from the extended model provide here a correct interpretation of extended and lagged causality. It is then applied to representative examples of cardiorespiratory and EEG MV time series. They suggest that ePDC and iPDC are better interpretable than PDC and gPDC in terms of the known cardiovascular and neural physiologies.

  5. Multiple Victims of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Aftermath of a Wildfire: A Case Series

    Luís Ramos dos Santos

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Use of hyperbaric oxygen appears to have reduced the incidence of the syndrome. This seems to be the first Portuguese series reporting use of hyperbaric oxygen in carbon monoxide poisoning due to wildfires. The authors intend to alert to the importance of referral of these patients because the indications and benefits of this treatment are well documented. This is especially important given the ever-growing issue of wildfires in Portugal.

  6. Tunneling effects in electromagnetic wave scattering by nonspherical particles: A comparison of the Debye series and physical-geometric optics approximations

    Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    The accuracy of the physical-geometric optics (PG-O) approximation is examined for the simulation of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical dielectric particles. This study seeks a better understanding of the tunneling effect on the phase matrix by employing the invariant imbedding method to rigorously compute the zeroth-order Debye series, from which the tunneling efficiency and the phase matrix corresponding to the diffraction and external reflection are obtained. The tunneling efficiency is shown to be a factor quantifying the relative importance of the tunneling effect over the Fraunhofer diffraction near the forward scattering direction. Due to the tunneling effect, different geometries with the same projected cross section might have different diffraction patterns, which are traditionally assumed to be identical according to the Babinet principle. For particles with a fixed orientation, the PG-O approximation yields the external reflection pattern with reasonable accuracy, but ordinarily fails to predict the locations of peaks and minima in the diffraction pattern. The larger the tunneling efficiency, the worse the PG-O accuracy is at scattering angles less than 90°. If the particles are assumed to be randomly oriented, the PG-O approximation yields the phase matrix close to the rigorous counterpart, primarily due to error cancellations in the orientation-average process. Furthermore, the PG-O approximation based on an electric field volume-integral equation is shown to usually be much more accurate than the Kirchhoff surface integral equation at side-scattering angles, particularly when the modulus of the complex refractive index is close to unity. Finally, tunneling efficiencies are tabulated for representative faceted particles.

  7. A Hybrid Fuzzy Time Series Approach Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Artificial Neural Network with Single Multiplicative Neuron Model

    Ozge Cagcag Yolcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Particularly in recent years, artificial intelligence optimization techniques have been used to make fuzzy time series approaches more systematic and improve forecasting performance. Besides, some fuzzy clustering methods and artificial neural networks with different structures are used in the fuzzification of observations and determination of fuzzy relationships, respectively. In approaches considering the membership values, the membership values are determined subjectively or fuzzy outputs of the system are obtained by considering that there is a relation between membership values in identification of relation. This necessitates defuzzification step and increases the model error. In this study, membership values were obtained more systematically by using Gustafson-Kessel fuzzy clustering technique. The use of artificial neural network with single multiplicative neuron model in identification of fuzzy relation eliminated the architecture selection problem as well as the necessity for defuzzification step by constituting target values from real observations of time series. The training of artificial neural network with single multiplicative neuron model which is used for identification of fuzzy relation step is carried out with particle swarm optimization. The proposed method is implemented using various time series and the results are compared with those of previous studies to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  8. A novel String Banana Template Method for Tracks Reconstruction in High Multiplicity Events with significant Multiple Scattering and its Firmware Implementation

    Kulinich, P; Krylov, V

    2004-01-01

    Novel String Banana Template Method (SBTM) for track reconstruction in difficult conditions is proposed and implemented for off-line analysis of relativistic heavy ion collision events. The main idea of the method is in use of features of ensembles of tracks selected by 3-fold coincidence. Two steps model of track is used: the first one - averaged over selected ensemble and the second - per event dependent. It takes into account Multiple Scattering (MS) for this particular track. SBTM relies on use of stored templates generated by precise Monte Carlo simulation, so it's more time efficient for the case of 2D spectrometer. All data required for track reconstruction in such difficult conditions could be prepared in convenient format for fast use. Its template based nature and the fact that the SBTM track model is actually very close to the hits implies that it can be implemented in a firmware processor. In this report a block diagram of firmware based pre-processor for track reconstruction in CMS-like Si tracke...

  9. Novel approach to the Helmholtz integral equation solution by Fourier series expansion for acoustic radiation and scattering problems

    Shatalov, MY

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available -scale structure to guarantee the numerical accuracy of solution. In the present paper the authors propose to use a novel method of solution of the Helmholtz integral equation, which is based on expansion of the integrands in double Fourier series. The main...

  10. Polarized neutron scattering study of the multiple order parameter system NdB4

    Metoki, N.; Yamauchi, H.; Matsuda, M.; Fernandez-Baca, J. A.; Watanuki, R.; Hagihala, M.

    2018-05-01

    Neutron polarization analysis has been carried out in order to clarify the magnetic structures of multiple order parameter f -electron system NdB4. We confirmed the noncollinear "all-in all-out" structure (Γ4) of the in-plane moment, which is in good agreement with our previous neutron powder diffraction study. We found that the magnetic moment along the c -axis mc showed diagonally antiferromagnetic structure (Γ10), inconsistent with previously reported "vortex" structure (Γ2). The microscopic mixture of these two structures with q⃗0=(0 ,0 ,0 ) appears in phase II and remains stable in phases III and IV, where an incommensurate modulation coexists. The unusual magnetic ordering is phenomenologically understood via Landau theory with the primary order parameter Γ4 coupled with higher-order secondary order parameter Γ10. The magnetic moments were estimated to be 1.8 ±0.2 and 0.2 ±0.05 μB at T =7.5 K for Γ4 and Γ10, respectively. We also found a long-period incommensurate modulation of the q⃗1=(0 ,0 ,1 /2 ) antiferromagnetic structure of mc with the propagation q⃗s 1=(0.14 ,0.14 ,0.1 ) and q⃗s 2=(0.2 ,0 ,0.1 ) in phase III and IV, respectively. The amplitude of sinusoidal modulation was about mc=1.0 ±0.2 μB at T =1.5 K. The local (0 ,0 ,1 /2 ) structure consists of in-plane ferromagnetic and out-of-plane antiferromagnetic coupling of mc, opposite to the coexisting Γ10. The mc of Γ10 is significantly enhanced up to 0.6 μB at T =1.5 K, which is accompanied by the incommensurate modulations. The Landau phenomenological approach indicates that the higher-order magnetic and/or multipole interactions based on the pseudoquartet f -electron state play important roles.

  11. The Poincaré series of a local Gorenstein ring of multiplicity up to 10 ...

    As a by-product we prove the rationality of PR for all local, Gorenstein rings of multiplicity at most ..... Due to the choice of α4,...,αn we have. ∑n i=4 αiβi,j ∈ M. Thus aaj ..... [Ma] Matsumura H, Commutative ring theory (Univ. Press: Cambridge) ...

  12. Accuracy & Computational Considerations for Wide--Angle One--way Seismic Propagators and Multiple Scattering by Invariant Embedding

    Thomson, C. J.

    2004-12-01

    Pseudodifferential operators (PSDOs) yield in principle exact one--way seismic wave equations, which are attractive both conceptually and for their promise of computational efficiency. The one--way operators can be extended to include multiple--scattering effects, again in principle exactly. In practice approximations must be made and, as an example, the variable--wavespeed Helmholtz equation for scalar waves in two space dimensions is here factorized to give the one--way wave equation. This simple case permits clear identification of a sequence of physically reasonable approximations to be used when the mathematically exact PSDO one--way equation is implemented on a computer. As intuition suggests, these approximations hinge on the medium gradients in the direction transverse to the main propagation direction. A key point is that narrow--angle approximations are to be avoided in the interests of accuracy. Another key consideration stems from the fact that the so--called ``standard--ordering'' PSDO indicates how lateral interpolation of the velocity structure can significantly reduce computational costs associated with the Fourier or plane--wave synthesis lying at the heart of the calculations. The decision on whether a slow or a fast Fourier transform code should be used rests upon how many lateral model parameters are truly distinct. A third important point is that the PSDO theory shows what approximations are necessary in order to generate an exponential one--way propagator for the laterally varying case, representing the intuitive extension of classical integral--transform solutions for a laterally homogeneous medium. This exponential propagator suggests the use of larger discrete step sizes, and it can also be used to approach phase--screen like approximations (though the latter are not the main interest here). Numerical comparisons with finite--difference solutions will be presented in order to assess the approximations being made and to gain an understanding

  13. Recurrent Rearrangements of Human Amylase Genes Create Multiple Independent CNV Series.

    Shwan, Nzar A A; Louzada, Sandra; Yang, Fengtang; Armour, John A L

    2017-05-01

    The human amylase gene cluster includes the human salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic amylase genes (AMY2A and AMY2B), and is a highly variable and dynamic region of the genome. Copy number variation (CNV) of AMY1 has been implicated in human dietary adaptation, and in population association with obesity, but neither of these findings has been independently replicated. Despite these functional implications, the structural genomic basis of CNV has only been defined in detail very recently. In this work, we use high-resolution analysis of copy number, and analysis of segregation in trios, to define new, independent allelic series of amylase CNVs in sub-Saharan Africans, including a series of higher-order expansions of a unit consisting of one copy each of AMY1, AMY2A, and AMY2B. We use fiber-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) to define unexpected complexity in the accompanying rearrangements. These findings demonstrate recurrent involvement of the amylase gene region in genomic instability, involving at least five independent rearrangements of the pancreatic amylase genes (AMY2A and AMY2B). Structural features shared by fundamentally distinct lineages strongly suggest that the common ancestral state for the human amylase cluster contained more than one, and probably three, copies of AMY1. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  14. Comparison of the Born series and rational approximants in potential scattering. [Pade approximants, Yikawa and exponential potential

    Garibotti, C R; Grinstein, F F [Rosario Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenieria

    1976-05-08

    It is discussed the real utility of Born series for the calculation of atomic collision processes in the Born approximation. It is suggested to make use of Pade approximants and it is shown that this approach provides very fast convergent sequences over all the energy range studied. Yukawa and exponential potential are explicitly considered and the results are compared with high-order Born approximation.

  15. Three-particle one-hole multiple scattering formalism for the microscopic effective interaction between two valence nucleons

    Ando, K.; Bando, H.; Krenciglowa, E.M.

    1978-01-01

    A three-particle one-hole multiple scattering equation for the two-valence nucleon system is derived and used to give the 3p1h contribution to the Q-box. Full exchanges among the 3p1h intermediate configurations are incorporated and the energy dependence of the underlying reaction matrix is properly taken into account. The equation includes processes comparable in scope to a large scale [2p+3p1h] shell model but is embedded within the framework of the diagrammatic expansion for the effective interaction. Using an essentially 'exact', energy-dependent reaction matrix this formalism is applied to the mass-18 system. The roles of various correlations and proper energy dependence of the reaction matrix are closely examined. In comparison with previous calculations, the present results are significantly more attractive and give the experimental level ordering in both the Tsup(π) = 0 + and 1 + low-lying spectra. Low-lying particle-particle correlations are found to play a dominant role. (Auth.)

  16. Treatment of non-Gaussian tails of multiple Coulomb scattering in track fitting with a Gaussian-sum filter

    Strandlie, A.; Wroldsen, J.

    2006-01-01

    If any of the probability densities involved in track fitting deviate from the Gaussian assumption, it is plausible that a non-linear estimator which better takes the actual shape of the distribution into account can do better. One such non-linear estimator is the Gaussian-sum filter, which is adequate if the distributions under consideration can be approximated by Gaussian mixtures. The main purpose of this paper is to present a Gaussian-sum filter for track fitting, based on a two-component approximation of the distribution of angular deflections due to multiple scattering. In a simulation study within a linear track model the Gaussian-sum filter is shown to be a competitive alternative to the Kalman filter. Scenarios at various momenta and with various maximum number of components in the Gaussian-sum filter are considered. Particularly at low momenta the Gaussian-sum filter yields a better estimate of the uncertainties than the Kalman filter, and it is also slightly more precise than the latter

  17. Measurement of through-going particle momentum by means of multiple scattering with the ICARUS T600 TPC

    Ankowski, A.; Graczyk, K.; Nowak, J.; Sobczyk, J.; Antonello, M.; Cavanna, F.; Piano Mortari, G.; Segreto, E.; Aprili, P.; Arneodo, F.; Palamara, O.; Badertscher, A.; Ge, Y.; Laffranchi, M.; Messina, M.; Rubbia, A.; Baiboussinov, B.; Baldo Ceolin, M.; Centro, S.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Meng, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Varanini, F.; Ventura, S.; Battistoni, G.; Muraro, S.; Sala, P.R.; Benetti, P.; Borio di Tigliole, A.; Brunetti, R.; Calligarich, E.; De Vecchi, C.; Dolfini, R.; Gigli Berzolari, A.; Grandi, L.; Mauri, F.; Menegolli, A.; Montanari, C.; Piazzoli, A.; Prata, M.; Prata, M.C.; Przewlocki, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Scannicchio, D.; Vignoli, C.; Bueno, A.; Carmona, M.C.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Lozano, J.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Melgarejo, A.J.; Navas, S.; Carbonara, F.; Cocco, A.G.; Di Cicco, A.; Ereditato, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Rossi, B.; Cennini, P.; Ferrari, A.; Cesana, A.; Terrani, M.; Cline, D.B.; Lisowski, B.; Matthey, C.; Otwinowski, S.; Seo, Y.; Wang, H.; Yang, X.; Cieslik, K.; Dabrowska, A.; Markiewicz, M.; Stefan, D.; Szarska, M.; Wachala, T.; Zalewska, A.; Gil-Botella, I.; Holeczek, J.; Kisiel, J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lagoda, J.; Posiadala, M.; Kozlowski, T.; Mijakowski, P.; Rondio, E.; Stepaniak, J.; Szeptycka, M.; Periale, L.; Picchi, P.; Polchlopek, W.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sulej, R.

    2006-01-01

    The ICARUS collaboration has demonstrated, following the operation of a 600 ton (T600) detector at shallow depth, that the technique based on liquid argon time projection chambers is now mature. The study of rare events, not contemplated in the standard model, can greatly benefit from the use of this kind of detectors. In particular, a deeper understanding of atmospheric neutrino properties will be obtained thanks to the unprecedented quality of the data ICARUS provides. However if we concentrate on the T600 performance, most of the ν μ charged current sample will be partially contained, due to the reduced dimensions of the detector. In this article, we address the problem of how well we can determine the kinematics of events having partially contained tracks. The analysis of a large sample of atmospheric muons collected during the T600 test run demonstrates that, in case the recorded track is at least one meter long, the muon momentum can be reconstructed by an algorithm that measures the multiple Coulomb scattering along the particle's path. Moreover, we show that momentum resolution can be improved by almost a factor two using an algorithm based on the Kalman filtering technique. (orig.)

  18. Sound propagation in dilute suspensions of spheres: Analytical comparison between coupled phase model and multiple scattering theory.

    Valier-Brasier, Tony; Conoir, Jean-Marc; Coulouvrat, François; Thomas, Jean-Louis

    2015-10-01

    Sound propagation in dilute suspensions of small spheres is studied using two models: a hydrodynamic model based on the coupled phase equations and an acoustic model based on the ECAH (ECAH: Epstein-Carhart-Allegra-Hawley) multiple scattering theory. The aim is to compare both models through the study of three fundamental kinds of particles: rigid particles, elastic spheres, and viscous droplets. The hydrodynamic model is based on a Rayleigh-Plesset-like equation generalized to elastic spheres and viscous droplets. The hydrodynamic forces for elastic spheres are introduced by analogy with those of droplets. The ECAH theory is also modified in order to take into account the velocity of rigid particles. Analytical calculations performed for long wavelength, low dilution, and weak absorption in the ambient fluid show that both models are strictly equivalent for the three kinds of particles studied. The analytical calculations show that dilatational and translational mechanisms are modeled in the same way by both models. The effective parameters of dilute suspensions are also calculated.

  19. Mutational profiles of breast cancer metastases from a rapid autopsy series reveal multiple evolutionary trajectories.

    Avigdor, Bracha Erlanger; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Hicks, Jessica L; Shin, James; Sukumar, Saraswati; Fetting, John; Argani, Pedram; Park, Ben H; Wheelan, Sarah J

    2017-12-21

    Heterogeneity within and among tumors in a metastatic cancer patient is a well-established phenomenon that may confound treatment and accurate prognosis. Here, we used whole-exome sequencing to survey metastatic breast cancer tumors from 5 patients in a rapid autopsy program to construct the origin and genetic development of metastases. Metastases were obtained from 5 breast cancer patients using a rapid autopsy protocol and subjected to whole-exome sequencing. Metastases were evaluated for sharing of somatic mutations, correlation of copy number variation and loss of heterozygosity, and genetic similarity scores. Pathological features of the patients' disease were assessed by immunohistochemical analyses. Our data support a monoclonal origin of metastasis in 3 cases, but in 2 cases, metastases arose from at least 2 distinct subclones in the primary tumor. In the latter 2 cases, the primary tumor presented with mixed histologic and pathologic features, suggesting early divergent evolution within the primary tumor with maintenance of metastatic capability in multiple lineages. We used genetic and histopathological evidence to demonstrate that metastases can be derived from a single or multiple independent clones within a primary tumor. This underscores the complexity of breast cancer clonal evolution and has implications for how best to determine and implement therapies for early- and late-stage disease.

  20. Time-series analysis of multiple foreign exchange rates using time-dependent pattern entropy

    Ishizaki, Ryuji; Inoue, Masayoshi

    2018-01-01

    Time-dependent pattern entropy is a method that reduces variations to binary symbolic dynamics and considers the pattern of symbols in a sliding temporal window. We use this method to analyze the instability of daily variations in multiple foreign exchange rates. The time-dependent pattern entropy of 7 foreign exchange rates (AUD/USD, CAD/USD, CHF/USD, EUR/USD, GBP/USD, JPY/USD, and NZD/USD) was found to be high in the long period after the Lehman shock, and be low in the long period after Mar 2012. We compared the correlation matrix between exchange rates in periods of high and low of the time-dependent pattern entropy.

  1. Cutaneous involvement in multiple myeloma (MM): A case series with clinicopathologic correlation.

    Malysz, Jozef; Talamo, Giampaolo; Zhu, Junjia; Clarke, Loren E; Bayerl, Michael G; Ali, Liaqat; Helm, Klaus F; Chung, Catherine G

    2016-05-01

    Disease-specific skin lesions are rare in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We sought to further characterize the clinical and pathologic features of patients with cutaneous involvement with MM. We identified 13 patients with cutaneous lesions of MM. Cutaneous lesions consisted of pink, red, and violaceous papules, nodules, and/or plaques that varied in size. Histopathology revealed atypical plasma cells with occasional plasmablastic features. MM had aggressive biologic features and was at an advanced stage in the majority of patients. Despite aggressive management, including chemotherapy and stem-cell transplantation, most patients died of progressive disease within a few months after the development of cutaneous lesions. The study group was relatively small. Cutaneous involvement with MM is associated with aggressive biologic behavior and short survival. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved vertical streambed flux estimation using multiple diurnal temperature methods in series

    Irvine, Dylan J.; Briggs, Martin A.; Cartwright, Ian; Scruggs, Courtney; Lautz, Laura K.

    2017-01-01

    Analytical solutions that use diurnal temperature signals to estimate vertical fluxes between groundwater and surface water based on either amplitude ratios (Ar) or phase shifts (Δϕ) produce results that rarely agree. Analytical solutions that simultaneously utilize Ar and Δϕ within a single solution have more recently been derived, decreasing uncertainty in flux estimates in some applications. Benefits of combined (ArΔϕ) methods also include that thermal diffusivity and sensor spacing can be calculated. However, poor identification of either Ar or Δϕ from raw temperature signals can lead to erratic parameter estimates from ArΔϕ methods. An add-on program for VFLUX 2 is presented to address this issue. Using thermal diffusivity selected from an ArΔϕ method during a reliable time period, fluxes are recalculated using an Ar method. This approach maximizes the benefits of the Ar and ArΔϕ methods. Additionally, sensor spacing calculations can be used to identify periods with unreliable flux estimates, or to assess streambed scour. Using synthetic and field examples, the use of these solutions in series was particularly useful for gaining conditions where fluxes exceeded 1 m/d.

  3. Removal of divergences in the problem of scattering of a particle beam by a medium

    Kuz'min, V.L.

    1977-01-01

    Scattering of a beam of particles (neutrons) by a medium is considered. After the averaging according to the statistical mechanics rules, the cross-section of the process is represented in the form of the series including many-particle distribution functions. The series describes the scattering processes of arbitrary multiplicity. Disconnected parts of the distribution functions give rise to divergences. A method of the re-summation of the original series is proposed, which removes all the divergences completely

  4. Development of novel series and parallel sensing system based on nanostructured surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate for biomedical application

    Chang, Te-Wei

    With the advance of nanofabrication, the capability of nanoscale metallic structure fabrication opens a whole new study in nanoplasmonics, which is defined as the investigation of photon-electron interaction in the vicinity of nanoscale metallic structures. The strong oscillation of free electrons at the interface between metal and surrounding dielectric material caused by propagating surface plasmon resonance (SPR) or localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) enables a variety of new applications in different areas, especially biological sensing techniques. One of the promising biological sensing applications by surface resonance polariton is surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), which significantly reinforces the feeble signal of traditional Raman scattering by at least 104 times. It enables highly sensitive and precise molecule identification with the assistance of a SERS substrate. Until now, the design of new SERS substrate fabrication process is still thriving since no dominant design has emerged yet. The ideal process should be able to achieve both a high sensitivity and low cost device in a simple and reliable way. In this thesis two promising approaches for fabricating nanostructured SERS substrate are proposed: thermal dewetting technique and nanoimprint replica technique. These two techniques are demonstrated to show the capability of fabricating high performance SERS substrate in a reliable and cost efficient fashion. In addition, these two techniques have their own unique characteristics and can be integrated with other sensing techniques to build a serial or parallel sensing system. The breakthrough of a combination system with different sensing techniques overcomes the inherent limitations of SERS detection and leverages it to a whole new level of systematic sensing. The development of a sensing platform based on thermal dewetting technique is covered as the first half of this thesis. The process optimization, selection of substrate material

  5. Evaluation of a scattered radiation field in a cluster relevant for multiple-energy X-ray holography

    Fonda, L.

    1996-09-01

    We analyze theoretically a recent proposal of utilizing synchrotron radiation to generate an electromagnetic scattering field at a specific target atom inside a material sample. The direct wave coming from a wiggler interferes there with the waves scattered by the surrounding atoms. The suggestion is relevant for obtaining atomic holographic images. (author). 23 refs, 2 figs

  6. Calculation of the flux attenuation and multiple scattering correction factors in time of flight technique for double differential cross section measurements

    Martin, G.; Coca, M.; Capote, R.

    1996-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo method technique , a computer code which simulates the time of flight experiment to measure double differential cross section was developed. The correction factor for flux attenuation and multiple scattering, that make a deformation to the measured spectrum, were calculated. The energy dependence of the correction factor was determined and a comparison with other works is shown. Calculations for Fe 56 at two different scattering angles were made. We also reproduce the experiment performed at the Nuclear Analysis Laboratory for C 12 at 25 celsius degree and the calculated correction factor for the is measured is shown. We found a linear relation between the scatter size and the correction factor for flux attenuation

  7. A latent process model for forecasting multiple time series in environmental public health surveillance.

    Morrison, Kathryn T; Shaddick, Gavin; Henderson, Sarah B; Buckeridge, David L

    2016-08-15

    This paper outlines a latent process model for forecasting multiple health outcomes arising from a common environmental exposure. Traditionally, surveillance models in environmental health do not link health outcome measures, such as morbidity or mortality counts, to measures of exposure, such as air pollution. Moreover, different measures of health outcomes are treated as independent, while it is known that they are correlated with one another over time as they arise in part from a common underlying exposure. We propose modelling an environmental exposure as a latent process, and we describe the implementation of such a model within a hierarchical Bayesian framework and its efficient computation using integrated nested Laplace approximations. Through a simulation study, we compare distinct univariate models for each health outcome with a bivariate approach. The bivariate model outperforms the univariate models in bias and coverage of parameter estimation, in forecast accuracy and in computational efficiency. The methods are illustrated with a case study using healthcare utilization and air pollution data from British Columbia, Canada, 2003-2011, where seasonal wildfires produce high levels of air pollution, significantly impacting population health. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Three-particle one-hole multiple scattering contribution to the nuclear effective interaction in mass-18 nuclei

    Bando, H.; Krenciglowa, E.M.; Ando, K.

    1979-01-01

    Within the systematic framework of the double partition approach, the three-particle one-hole multiple scattering and Q-box formalisms are combined to give the valence-linked and connected energy-independent effective interaction. All low-lying [2p+3p1h] contributions to the mass-18 effective interaction are evaluated using an essentially exact energy-dependent reaction matrix based on the Reid SC potential. The low-lying one-body field of the core nucleus is treated consistently with the underlying reaction matrix G through particle- and hole-line self-energy insertions. Center-of-mass motion, folded diagrams and starting energy dependence are properly taken into account throughout. The low-lying [2p+3p1h] correlations are strongly damped by self-energy insertions. By incorporating only the folded diagram contributions with origins in the low-lying space, the net effect of all low-lying [2p+3p1h] correlations is to give back the bare-G plus second-order core-polarization spectra which are found to be in respectable agreement with the experimental spectra. However, including the full folded diagram contribution, which has additional contributions from the high-lying space through the energy dependence of G, leads to final spectra which deviate sizably from experiment. The present results are conclusive in the sense that the treatment is essentially exact for low-lying [2p+3p1h] correlations which originate from the high-lying two-particle correlations through the reaction matrix G. (Auth.)

  9. Finite-Geometry and Polarized Multiple-Scattering Corrections of Experimental Fast- Neutron Polarization Data by Means of Monte Carlo Methods

    Aspelund, O; Gustafsson, B

    1967-05-15

    After an introductory discussion of various methods for correction of experimental left-right ratios for polarized multiple-scattering and finite-geometry effects necessary and sufficient formulas for consistent tracking of polarization effects in successive scattering orders are derived. The simplifying assumptions are then made that the scattering is purely elastic and nuclear, and that in the description of the kinematics of the arbitrary Scattering {mu}, only one triple-parameter - the so-called spin rotation parameter {beta}{sup ({mu})} - is required. Based upon these formulas a general discussion of the importance of the correct inclusion of polarization effects in any scattering order is presented. Special attention is then paid to the question of depolarization of an already polarized beam. Subsequently, the afore-mentioned formulas are incorporated in the comprehensive Monte Carlo program MULTPOL, which has been designed so as to correctly account for finite-geometry effects in the sense that both the scattering sample and the detectors (both having cylindrical shapes) are objects of finite dimensions located at finite distances from each other and from the source of polarized fast-neutrons. A special feature of MULTPOL is the application of the method of correlated sampling for reduction of the standard deviations .of the results of the simulated experiment. Typical data of performance of MULTPOL have been obtained by the application of this program to the correction of experimental polarization data observed in n + '{sup 12}C elastic scattering between 1 and 2 MeV. Finally, in the concluding remarks the possible modification of MULTPOL to other experimental geometries is briefly discussed.

  10. Classification of Small-Scale Eucalyptus Plantations Based on NDVI Time Series Obtained from Multiple High-Resolution Datasets

    Hailang Qiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus, a short-rotation plantation, has been expanding rapidly in southeast China in recent years owing to its short growth cycle and high yield of wood. Effective identification of eucalyptus, therefore, is important for monitoring land use changes and investigating environmental quality. For this article, we used remote sensing images over 15 years (one per year with a 30-m spatial resolution, including Landsat 5 thematic mapper images, Landsat 7-enhanced thematic mapper images, and HJ 1A/1B images. These data were used to construct a 15-year Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series for several cities in Guangdong Province, China. Eucalyptus reference NDVI time series sub-sequences were acquired, including one-year-long and two-year-long growing periods, using invested eucalyptus samples in the study region. In order to compensate for the discontinuity of the NDVI time series that is a consequence of the relatively coarse temporal resolution, we developed an inverted triangle area methodology. Using this methodology, the images were classified on the basis of the matching degree of the NDVI time series and two reference NDVI time series sub-sequences during the growing period of the eucalyptus rotations. Three additional methodologies (Bounding Envelope, City Block, and Standardized Euclidian Distance were also tested and used as a comparison group. Threshold coefficients for the algorithms were adjusted using commission–omission error criteria. The results show that the triangle area methodology out-performed the other methodologies in classifying eucalyptus plantations. Threshold coefficients and an optimal discriminant function were determined using a mosaic photograph that had been taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle platform. Good stability was found as we performed further validation using multiple-year data from the high-resolution Gaofen Satellite 1 (GF-1 observations of larger regions. Eucalyptus planting dates

  11. Experimental investigation of the multiple scatter peak of gamma rays in portland cement in the energy range 279-1332 keV

    Singh, Tejbir; Singh, Parjit S

    2011-01-01

    The pulse height spectra for different thicknesses of portland cement in the reflected geometry has been recorded with the help of a NaI(Tl) scintillator detector and 2 K MCA card using different gamma-ray sources such as Hg 203 (279 keV), Cs 137 (662 keV) and Co 60 (1173 and 1332 keV). It has been observed that the multiple scatter peak for portland cement appears at 110 (±7) keV in all the spectra irrespective of different incident photon energies in the range 279-1332 keV from different gamma-ray sources. Further, the variation in the intensity of the multiple scatter peak with the thickness of portland cement in the backward semi-cylinders has been investigated.

  12. Multiple linear regression and regression with time series error models in forecasting PM10 concentrations in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Ng, Kar Yong; Awang, Norhashidah

    2018-01-06

    Frequent haze occurrences in Malaysia have made the management of PM 10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic less than 10 μm) pollution a critical task. This requires knowledge on factors associating with PM 10 variation and good forecast of PM 10 concentrations. Hence, this paper demonstrates the prediction of 1-day-ahead daily average PM 10 concentrations based on predictor variables including meteorological parameters and gaseous pollutants. Three different models were built. They were multiple linear regression (MLR) model with lagged predictor variables (MLR1), MLR model with lagged predictor variables and PM 10 concentrations (MLR2) and regression with time series error (RTSE) model. The findings revealed that humidity, temperature, wind speed, wind direction, carbon monoxide and ozone were the main factors explaining the PM 10 variation in Peninsular Malaysia. Comparison among the three models showed that MLR2 model was on a same level with RTSE model in terms of forecasting accuracy, while MLR1 model was the worst.

  13. A multiple linear regression analysis of hot corrosion attack on a series of nickel base turbine alloys

    Barrett, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine an equation for estimating hot corrosion attack for a series of Ni base cast turbine alloys. The U transform (i.e., 1/sin (% A/100) to the 1/2) was shown to give the best estimate of the dependent variable, y. A complete second degree equation is described for the centered" weight chemistries for the elements Cr, Al, Ti, Mo, W, Cb, Ta, and Co. In addition linear terms for the minor elements C, B, and Zr were added for a basic 47 term equation. The best reduced equation was determined by the stepwise selection method with essentially 13 terms. The Cr term was found to be the most important accounting for 60 percent of the explained variability hot corrosion attack.

  14. Enhanced plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation using multiple high electron-mobility transistors connected in series

    Elkhatib, Tamer A.; Kachorovskiǐ, Valentin Yu; Stillman, William J.; Veksler, Dmitry B.; Salama, Khaled N.; Zhang, Xicheng; Shur, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    We report on enhanced room-temperature detection of terahertz radiation by several connected field-effect transistors. For this enhanced nonresonant detection, we have designed, fabricated, and tested plasmonic structures consisting of multiple InGaAs/GaAs pseudomorphic high electron-mobility transistors connected in series. Results show a 1.63-THz response that is directly proportional to the number of detecting transistors biased by a direct drain current at the same gate-to-source bias voltages. The responsivity in the saturation regime was found to be 170 V/W with the noise equivalent power in the range of 10-7 W/Hz0.5. The experimental data are in agreement with the detection mechanism based on the rectification of overdamped plasma waves excited by terahertz radiation in the transistor channel. © 2010 IEEE.

  15. Enhanced plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation using multiple high electron-mobility transistors connected in series

    Elkhatib, Tamer A.

    2010-02-01

    We report on enhanced room-temperature detection of terahertz radiation by several connected field-effect transistors. For this enhanced nonresonant detection, we have designed, fabricated, and tested plasmonic structures consisting of multiple InGaAs/GaAs pseudomorphic high electron-mobility transistors connected in series. Results show a 1.63-THz response that is directly proportional to the number of detecting transistors biased by a direct drain current at the same gate-to-source bias voltages. The responsivity in the saturation regime was found to be 170 V/W with the noise equivalent power in the range of 10-7 W/Hz0.5. The experimental data are in agreement with the detection mechanism based on the rectification of overdamped plasma waves excited by terahertz radiation in the transistor channel. © 2010 IEEE.

  16. A generalized Grubbs-Beck test statistic for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in flood series

    Cohn, T.A.; England, J.F.; Berenbrock, C.E.; Mason, R.R.; Stedinger, J.R.; Lamontagne, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    he Grubbs-Beck test is recommended by the federal guidelines for detection of low outliers in flood flow frequency computation in the United States. This paper presents a generalization of the Grubbs-Beck test for normal data (similar to the Rosner (1983) test; see also Spencer and McCuen (1996)) that can provide a consistent standard for identifying multiple potentially influential low flows. In cases where low outliers have been identified, they can be represented as “less-than” values, and a frequency distribution can be developed using censored-data statistical techniques, such as the Expected Moments Algorithm. This approach can improve the fit of the right-hand tail of a frequency distribution and provide protection from lack-of-fit due to unimportant but potentially influential low flows (PILFs) in a flood series, thus making the flood frequency analysis procedure more robust.

  17. Two-particle one-hole multiple-scattering contribution to 17O energies using an energy-dependent reaction matrix

    Bando, H.; Krenciglowa, E.M.

    1976-01-01

    The role of 2p1h correlations in 17 O is studied within a multiple-scattering formalism. An accurate, energy-dependent reaction matrix with orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate states is used to assess the relative importance of particle-particle and particle-hole correlations in the 17 O energies. The effect of energy dependence of the reaction matrix is closely examined. (Auth.)

  18. Measurements of stimulated-Raman-scattering-induced tilt in spectral-amplitude-coding optical code-division multiple-access systems

    Al-Qazwini, Zaineb A. T.; Abdullah, Mohamad K.; Mokhtar, Makhfudzah B.

    2009-01-01

    We measure the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS)-induced tilt in spectral-amplitude-coding optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA) systems as a function of system main parameters (transmission distance, power per chip, and number of users) via computer simulations. The results show that SRS-induced tilt significantly increases as transmission distance, power per chip, or number of users grows.

  19. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices.

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes "bad news" for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.

  20. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes “bad news” for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.

  1. Modeling multiple time series annotations as noisy distortions of the ground truth: An Expectation-Maximization approach.

    Gupta, Rahul; Audhkhasi, Kartik; Jacokes, Zach; Rozga, Agata; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2018-01-01

    Studies of time-continuous human behavioral phenomena often rely on ratings from multiple annotators. Since the ground truth of the target construct is often latent, the standard practice is to use ad-hoc metrics (such as averaging annotator ratings). Despite being easy to compute, such metrics may not provide accurate representations of the underlying construct. In this paper, we present a novel method for modeling multiple time series annotations over a continuous variable that computes the ground truth by modeling annotator specific distortions. We condition the ground truth on a set of features extracted from the data and further assume that the annotators provide their ratings as modification of the ground truth, with each annotator having specific distortion tendencies. We train the model using an Expectation-Maximization based algorithm and evaluate it on a study involving natural interaction between a child and a psychologist, to predict confidence ratings of the children's smiles. We compare and analyze the model against two baselines where: (i) the ground truth in considered to be framewise mean of ratings from various annotators and, (ii) each annotator is assumed to bear a distinct time delay in annotation and their annotations are aligned before computing the framewise mean.

  2. Multiple meningiomas CASE SERIES

    masses in the right parietal and parasagittal region (Figs 1a and b). Case 2: A ... scan showed hyperdense parasagittal and left cerebellopontine angle meningiomas (Figs ... Meningiomas are the most common primary non-glial brain tumours.

  3. Effects of multiple scatter on the propagation and absorption of electromagnetic waves in a field-aligned-striated cold magneto-plasma: implications for ionospheric modification experiments

    T. R. Robinson

    Full Text Available A new theory of the propagation of low power electromagnetic test waves through the upper-hybrid resonance layer in the presence of magnetic field-aligned plasma density striations, which includes the effects of multiple scatter, is presented. The case of sinusoidal striations in a cold magnetoplasma is treated rigorously and then extended, in an approximate manner, to the broad-band striation spectrum and warm plasma cases. In contrast to previous, single scatter theories, it is found that the interaction layer is much broader than the wavelength of the test wave. This is due to the combined electric fields of the scattered waves becoming localised on the contour of a fixed plasma density, which corresponds to a constant value for the local upper-hybrid resonance frequency over the whole interaction region. The results are applied to the calculation of the refractive index of an ordinary mode test wave during modification experiments in the ionospheric F-region. Although strong anomalous absorption arises, no new cutoffs occur at the upper-hybrid resonance, so that in contrast to the predictions of previous single scatter theories, no additional reflections occur there. These results are consistent with observations made during ionospheric modification experiments at Tromsø, Norway.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionospheric irregularities Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  4. Some applications of the multiple scattering theory to the study of the hadron-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    Dedonder, J.-P.

    1979-01-01

    This work is devoted to the study of elastic hadron nucleus scattering. At first, an asymptotic evaluation leads to a closed, analytic expression of the eikonal amplitude. This approximate expression displays the role and the influence of the nuclear paremeters in, e.g., p-nucleus scattering around 1 GeV. Pion-nucleus scattering around the 3-3 resonance is then studied. A 3 body model calculation (pion, bound nucleon and residual nucleus represented by a potential) allows to study the importance of binding effects in this problem dominated by the strong energy dependence of the elementary amplitude. The last part is devoted to the construction in momentum space of a realistic optical potential and its comparison with experimental data. The scalling of π + and π - on neighbouring isotopes should allow the measure of the differences between the proton and neutron distributions in nuclei [fr

  5. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry Processing of COSMO-SkyMed StripMap HIMAGE Time Series to Depict Deformation of the Historic Centre of Rome, Italy

    Francesca Cigna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We processed X-band COSMO-SkyMed 3-m resolution StripMap HIMAGE time series (March 2011–June 2013 with the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS, to retrieve an updated picture of the condition and structural health of the historic centre of Rome, Italy, and neighbouring quarters. Taking advantage of an average target density of over 2800 PS/km2, we analysed the spatial distribution of more than 310,000 radar targets against: (1 land cover; (2 the location of archaeological ruins and restoration activities; and (3 the size, orientation and morphology of historical buildings. Radar interpretation was addressed from the perspective of conservators, and the deformation estimates were correlated to local geohazards and triggering factors of structural collapse. In the context of overall stability, deformation was identified at the single-monument scale, e.g., for the Roman cistern and exedra in the Oppian Hill. Comparative assessment against InSAR processing of C-band imagery (1992–2010 published in the literature confirms the persistence of ground motions affecting monuments and subsidence in southern residential quarters adjacent to the Tiber River, due to the consolidation of compressible deposits. Vertical velocity estimated from COSMO-SkyMed PS exceeds −7.0 mm/y in areas of recent urbanization.

  6. Multiple Volume Scattering in Random Media and Periodic Structures with Applications in Microwave Remote Sensing and Wave Functional Materials

    Tan, Shurun

    The objective of my research is two-fold: to study wave scattering phenomena in dense volumetric random media and in periodic wave functional materials. For the first part, the goal is to use the microwave remote sensing technique to monitor water resources and global climate change. Towards this goal, I study the microwave scattering behavior of snow and ice sheet. For snowpack scattering, I have extended the traditional dense media radiative transfer (DMRT) approach to include cyclical corrections that give rise to backscattering enhancements, enabling the theory to model combined active and passive observations of snowpack using the same set of physical parameters. Besides DMRT, a fully coherent approach is also developed by solving Maxwell's equations directly over the entire snowpack including a bottom half space. This revolutionary new approach produces consistent scattering and emission results, and demonstrates backscattering enhancements and coherent layer effects. The birefringence in anisotropic snow layers is also analyzed by numerically solving Maxwell's equation directly. The effects of rapid density fluctuations in polar ice sheet emission in the 0.5˜2.0 GHz spectrum are examined using both fully coherent and partially coherent layered media emission theories that agree with each other and distinct from incoherent approaches. For the second part, the goal is to develop integral equation based methods to solve wave scattering in periodic structures such as photonic crystals and metamaterials that can be used for broadband simulations. Set upon the concept of modal expansion of the periodic Green's function, we have developed the method of broadband Green's function with low wavenumber extraction (BBGFL), where a low wavenumber component is extracted and results a non-singular and fast-converging remaining part with simple wavenumber dependence. We've applied the technique to simulate band diagrams and modal solutions of periodic structures, and to

  7. Extension and applications of switching model: Range theory, multiple scattering model of Goudsmit-Saunderson, and lateral spread treatment of Marwick-Sigmund

    Ikegami, Seiji

    2017-09-01

    The switching model (PSM) developed in the previous paper is extended to obtain an ;extended switching model (ESM). In the ESM, the mixt electronic-and-nuclear energy-loss region, in addition to the electronic and nuclear energy-loss regions in PSM, is taken into account analytically and appropriately. This model is combined with a small-angle multiple scattering range theory considering both nuclear and electronic stopping effects developed by Marwick-Sigmund and Valdes-Arista to formulate a improved range theory. The ESM is also combined with the multiple scattering theory with non-small angle approximation by Goudsmit-Saunderson. Furthermore, we applied ESM to lateral spread model of Marwick-Sigmund. Numerical calculations of the entire distribution functions including one of the mixt region are roughly and approximately possible. However, exact numerical calculation may be impossible. Consequently, several preliminary numerical calculations of the electronic, mixt, and nuclear regions are performed to examine their underlying behavior with respect to the incident energy, the scattering angle, the outgoing projectile intensity, and the target thickness. We show the numerical results not only of PSM and but also of ESM. Both numerical results are shown in the present paper for the first time. Since the theoretical relations are constructed using reduced variables, the calculations are made only on the case of C colliding on C.

  8. A mesh-free approach to acoustic scattering from multiple spheres nested inside a large sphere by using diagonal translation operators.

    Hesford, Andrew J; Astheimer, Jeffrey P; Greengard, Leslie F; Waag, Robert C

    2010-02-01

    A multiple-scattering approach is presented to compute the solution of the Helmholtz equation when a number of spherical scatterers are nested in the interior of an acoustically large enclosing sphere. The solution is represented in terms of partial-wave expansions, and a linear system of equations is derived to enforce continuity of pressure and normal particle velocity across all material interfaces. This approach yields high-order accuracy and avoids some of the difficulties encountered when using integral equations that apply to surfaces of arbitrary shape. Calculations are accelerated by using diagonal translation operators to compute the interactions between spheres when the operators are numerically stable. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method.

  9. Influence of multiple scattering of a relativistic electron in a periodic layered medium on coherent X-ray radiation

    Blazhevich, S. V.; Kos’kova, T. V.; Noskov, A. V., E-mail: noskovbupk@mail.ru [Belgorod State National Research University (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    A dynamic theory of coherent X-ray radiation generated in a periodic layered medium by a relativistic electron multiply scattered by target atoms has been developed. The expressions describing the spectral–angular characteristics of parametric X-ray radiation and diffracted transition radiation are derived. Numerical calculations based on the derived expressions have been performed.

  10. High energy scattering phenomena in the accelerators and colliders, and a study in the role of the 'leading particle effect' on the multiplicity of particles

    Bhattacharya, S.

    1989-01-01

    The role of the leading particles in high energy scattering phenomena has assumed much importance in recent times but it has not been duly considered in some theoretical studies. This oversight is pointed out, and some other shortcomings and insufficiencies of most of the contemporary theoretical studies not only from considerations of the leading particle effect (LPE) but also from some other viewpoints are mentio ned. A revised comparative study on the behaviour of the average multiplicity by taking into account some of the competing theoretical models and the influence of the leading particle effect on them is also presented. (author). 33 refs

  11. Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media

    Stamnes, Knut; Tsay, S.-CHEE; Jayaweera, Kolf; Wiscombe, Warren

    1988-01-01

    The transfer of monochromatic radiation in a scattering, absorbing, and emitting plane-parallel medium with a specified bidirectional reflectivity at the lower boundary is considered. The equations and boundary conditions are summarized. The numerical implementation of the theory is discussed with attention given to the reliable and efficient computation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Ways of avoiding fatal overflows and ill-conditioning in the matrix inversion needed to determine the integration constants are also presented.

  12. Outcomes of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Insomnia on Insomnia, Depression, and Fatigue for Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Series

    Clancy, Megan; Drerup, Michelle; Sullivan, Amy Burleson

    2015-01-01

    Background: This clinical case series examined outcomes of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Current literature links insomnia with higher rates of depression and fatigue in individuals with MS. However, no research to date evaluates a targeted psychotherapeutic intervention for insomnia in this population.

  13. Short-range order structures of self-assembled Ge quantum dots probed by multiple-scattering extended x-ray absorption fine structure

    Sun Zhihu; Wei Shiqiang; Kolobov, A.V.; Oyanagi, H.; Brunner, K.

    2005-01-01

    Multiple-scattering extended x-ray absorption fine structure (MS-EXAFS) has been used to investigate the local structures around Ge atoms in self-assembled Ge-Si quantum dots (QDs) grown on Si(001) substrate. The MS effect of Ge QDs is dominated by the scattering path Ge 0 →B 1 →B 2 →Ge 0 (DS2), which contributes a signal destructively interfering with that of the second shell single-scattering path (SS2). MS-EXAFS analysis reveals that the degree of Ge-Si intermixing for Ge-Si QDs strongly depends on the temperature at which the silicon cap layer is overgrown. It is found that the interatomic distances (R Ge-Ge and R Ge-Si ) within the third nearest-neighbor shells in Ge-Si QDs indicate the compressively strained nature of QDs. The present study demonstrates that the MS-EXAFS provides detailed information on the QDs strain and the Ge-Si mixing beyond the nearest neighbors

  14. Reaction Mechanism and Structure Interplay for Proton Elastic Scattering from Halo Nuclei

    Crespo, R.; Johnson, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to clarify what properties of the projectile w.f. are relevant to describe elastic scattering of halo nuclei from stable nuclei. In particular, we examine how far elastic scattering observables probe correlation effects among projectile nucleons. Our treatment is based on a multiple scattering expansion of the proton-projectile transition amplitude in a form which is well adapted to the weakly bound cluster picture of halo nuclei. In the specific case of 11 Li scattering from protons at 800 MeV/u we show that because core recoil effects are significant, scattering cross sections can not, in general, be deduced from knowledge of the total matter density alone. We advocate that the optical potential concept for the scattering of halo nuclei on protons should be avoided and that the multiple scattering series for the full transition amplitude should be used instead

  15. Reaction mechanism and structure interplay for proton elastic scattering from halo nuclei

    Crespo, R.; Johnson, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to clarify what properties of the projectile w.f. are relevant to describe elastic scattering of halo nuclei from stable nuclei. In particular, we examine how far elastic scattering observables probe correlation effects among projectile nucleons. Our treatment is based on a multiple scattering expansion of the proton-projectile transition amplitude in a form which is well adapted to the weakly bound cluster picture of halo nuclei. In the specific case of 11 Li scattering from protons at 800 MeV/u we show that because core recoil effects are significant, scattering crosssections cannot, in general, be deduced from knowledge of the total matter density alone. We advocate that the optical potential concept for the scattering of halo nuclei on protons should be avoided and that the multiple scattering series for the full transition amplitude should be used instead

  16. Multiple scattering effects on the Linear Depolarization Ratio (LDR) measured during CaPE by a Ka-band air-borne radar

    Iguchi, Toshio; Meneghini, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Air-borne radar measurements of thunderstorms were made as part of the CaPE (Convection and Precipitation/Electrification) experiment in Florida in July 1991. The radar has two channels, X-band (10 GHz) and Ka-band (34.5 GHz), and is capable of measuring cross-polarized returns as well as co-polarized returns. In stratiform rain, the cross-polarized components can be observed only at the bright band region and from the surface reflection. The linear depolarization ratios (LDR's) measured at X-band and Ka-band at the bright band are nearly equal. In convective rain, however, the LDR in Ka-band often exceeds the X-band LDR by several dB, and sometimes by more than 10 dB, reaching LDR values of up to -5 dB over heavy convective rain. For randomly oriented hydrometeors, such high LDR values cannot be explained by single scattering from non-spherical scattering particles alone. Because the LDR by single backscatter depends weakly on the wavelength, the difference between the Ka-band and X-band LDR's suggests that multiple scattering effects prevail in the Ka-band LDR. In order to test this inference, the magnitude of the cross-polarized component created by double scattering was calculated using the parameters of the airborne radar, which for both frequencies has beamwidths of 5.1 degrees and pulse widths of 0.5 microsecond. Uniform rain beyond the range of 3 km is assumed.

  17. Interrelating meteorite and asteroid spectra at UV-Vis-NIR wavelengths using novel multiple-scattering methods

    Martikainen, Julia; Penttilä, Antti; Gritsevich, Maria; Muinonen, Karri

    2017-10-01

    Asteroids have remained mostly the same for the past 4.5 billion years, and provide us information on the origin, evolution and current state of the Solar System. Asteroids and meteorites can be linked by matching their respective reflectance spectra. This is difficult, because spectral features depend strongly on the surface properties, and meteorite surfaces are free of regolith dust present in asteroids. Furthermore, asteroid surfaces experience space weathering which affects their spectral features.We present a novel simulation framework for assessing the spectral properties of meteorites and asteroids and matching their reflectance spectra. The simulations are carried out by utilizing a light-scattering code that takes inhomogeneous waves into account and simulates light scattering by Gaussian-random-sphere particles large compared to the wavelength of the incident light. The code uses incoherent input and computes phase matrices by utilizing incoherent scattering matrices. Reflectance spectra are modeled by combining olivine, pyroxene, and iron, the most common materials that dominate the spectral features of asteroids and meteorites. Space weathering is taken into account by adding nanoiron into the modeled asteroid spectrum. The complex refractive indices needed for the simulations are obtained from existing databases, or derived using an optimization that utilizes our ray-optics code and the measured spectrum of the material.We demonstrate our approach by applying it to the reflectance spectrum of (4) Vesta and the reflectance spectrum of the Johnstown meteorite measured with the University of Helsinki integrating-sphere UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer.Acknowledgments. The research is funded by the ERC Advanced Grant No. 320773 (SAEMPL).

  18. Study of multiple hard-scatter processes from different p p interactions in the same ATLAS event

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Given the large integrated luminosity and the large average pileup in the 2017 ATLAS dataset, the probability of having two leptonically decaying Z bosons originating from separate $pp$ interactions in the same LHC bunch crossing becomes non-negligible. Such events are searched for and the number observed compared with the expectation. These types of events (also for the case involving other hard scatter processes, such as W, photon or top quark production, in the same event) may cause additional backgrounds for particular physics analyses, and therefore this background must be accounted for when relevant.

  19. Hilbert-Schmidt expansion for the nucleon-deuteron scattering amplitude

    Moeller, K.; Narodetskii, I.M.

    1983-01-01

    The Hilbert-Schmidt method is used to sum the divergent iterative series for the partial amplitudes of nucleon-deuteron scattering in the energy region above the deuteron breakup threshold. It is observed that the Hilbert-Schmidt series for the partial amplitudes themselves diverges, which is due to the closeness of the logarithmic singularities. But if the first iterations in the series for multiple scattering are subtracted from the amplitude, the Hilbert-Schmidt series for the remainder converges rapidly. The final answer obtained in the present paper is in excellent agreement with the results obtained in exact calculations

  20. Development and performance test of a system available for generating multiple extreme conditions for neutron scattering experiments

    Kawano, Shinji; Fukui, Susumu; Moriai, Atsushi; Ohtomo, Akitoshi; Ichimura, Shigeki; Onodera, Akifumi; Amita, F.; Katano, Susumu

    1998-01-01

    We have developed unique system available for controlling sample environment during the neutron scattering experiments. The system can simultaneously generate triple extreme conditions of low temperature, high magnetic field and high pressure. The system consists of: (i) a liquid-helium cryostat variable for sample temperature from 1.7 K to 200 K, (ii) a superconducting magnet providing a vertical field up to ±5 T with an antisymmetric split-coil geometry for polarized-beam experiments, and (iii) a non-magnetic piston-cylinder high-pressure cell designed with the aim of generating hydrostatic pressure up to 2.5 GPa. In the presentation, we will report the outline of the system and some results of performance tests at KURRI and JRR-3M of JAERI. (author)

  1. Generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) using Feynman-like diagrams

    Zuberi, M. A. H.

    2014-05-19

    Single scattering events recorded in surface seismic data do not fully illuminate the subsurface structure, especially if it is complicated. In such cases, multiple internal scatterings (internal multiples) can help improve the illumination. We devise a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) procedure that maps internal multiple energy to their true location with a relatively mild addition to the computational cost. GIMI theory relies heavily on seismic interferometry, which often involves cumbersome algebra, especially when one is dealing with high-order terms in the perturbation series. To make the derivations, and inference of the results easier, we introduce Feynman-like diagrams to represent different terms of the perturbation series (solution to the Lippman–Schwinger equation). The rules we define for the diagrams allow operations like convolution and cross-correlation in the series to be compressed in diagram form. The application of the theory to a double scattering example demonstrates the power of the method.

  2. Generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) using Feynman-like diagrams

    Zuberi, M. A. H.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Single scattering events recorded in surface seismic data do not fully illuminate the subsurface structure, especially if it is complicated. In such cases, multiple internal scatterings (internal multiples) can help improve the illumination. We devise a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) procedure that maps internal multiple energy to their true location with a relatively mild addition to the computational cost. GIMI theory relies heavily on seismic interferometry, which often involves cumbersome algebra, especially when one is dealing with high-order terms in the perturbation series. To make the derivations, and inference of the results easier, we introduce Feynman-like diagrams to represent different terms of the perturbation series (solution to the Lippman–Schwinger equation). The rules we define for the diagrams allow operations like convolution and cross-correlation in the series to be compressed in diagram form. The application of the theory to a double scattering example demonstrates the power of the method.

  3. Multiple Scattering Effects in EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure): Comparison between Theory and Experiment for Pt Metal.

    1984-05-29

    radial distribution and inverse transform of this range. The region commonly used for the inverse transform usually corresponds to the first or second...r-space and comparing it with the corresponding model function. Figure 5 shows the filtered spectra (k weighting), where the pe. 48 allowed inverse ... transform range was successively increased from the radial distance corresponding to the first shell to all the first four shells. There are no multiple

  4. Department of Mathematics and Physics, University of Aston in Birmingham: multiple neutron scattering effects in /sup 7/Li

    Cox, A.J.; Warner, P.C.; Findlay, D.J.S.; Cookson, J.A. (eds.)

    1986-06-01

    Future fusion reactors will use lithium as a blanket material in order to breed tritium. Knowledge of the gamma ray production cross-sections associated with 14 MeV neutron interactions in lithium are therefore important for local heating and biological shielding calculations and neutron energy degradation studies. In the present work, the differential cross-sections have been measured for the production of 0.478 MeV gamma rays following the inelastic scattering of 14 MeV neutrons in large samples of LiF. The neutrons were produced using the /sup 3/H(d,n) /sup 4/He reaction, the deuterons being accelerated by a 150 kV SAMES type accelerator. In order to reduce the background level, the gamma ray signal was gated using a time-of-flight technique based on the alpha particle associated with neutron production. The gamma ray detector was a 3 x 3 inch NaI(T1) scintillator coupled to a 56AVP photomultiplier.

  5. TimesVector: a vectorized clustering approach to the analysis of time series transcriptome data from multiple phenotypes.

    Jung, Inuk; Jo, Kyuri; Kang, Hyejin; Ahn, Hongryul; Yu, Youngjae; Kim, Sun

    2017-12-01

    Identifying biologically meaningful gene expression patterns from time series gene expression data is important to understand the underlying biological mechanisms. To identify significantly perturbed gene sets between different phenotypes, analysis of time series transcriptome data requires consideration of time and sample dimensions. Thus, the analysis of such time series data seeks to search gene sets that exhibit similar or different expression patterns between two or more sample conditions, constituting the three-dimensional data, i.e. gene-time-condition. Computational complexity for analyzing such data is very high, compared to the already difficult NP-hard two dimensional biclustering algorithms. Because of this challenge, traditional time series clustering algorithms are designed to capture co-expressed genes with similar expression pattern in two sample conditions. We present a triclustering algorithm, TimesVector, specifically designed for clustering three-dimensional time series data to capture distinctively similar or different gene expression patterns between two or more sample conditions. TimesVector identifies clusters with distinctive expression patterns in three steps: (i) dimension reduction and clustering of time-condition concatenated vectors, (ii) post-processing clusters for detecting similar and distinct expression patterns and (iii) rescuing genes from unclassified clusters. Using four sets of time series gene expression data, generated by both microarray and high throughput sequencing platforms, we demonstrated that TimesVector successfully detected biologically meaningful clusters of high quality. TimesVector improved the clustering quality compared to existing triclustering tools and only TimesVector detected clusters with differential expression patterns across conditions successfully. The TimesVector software is available at http://biohealth.snu.ac.kr/software/TimesVector/. sunkim.bioinfo@snu.ac.kr. Supplementary data are available at

  6. Polarized Light Scattering from Perfect and Perturbed Surfaces and Fundamental Scattering Systems

    1992-02-29

    ob- one frequency, an extension of it to multiple-field interac- served in the elastically scattered light emitted from glass tions would follow the...that 8. V CeIll . A. A. Maradudin, A. M. Marvin, and A. R. McGurn, can explain only gross scattering features. It is inde "Some aspects of light...and a surface of index n a 10.0 - 0.01. Such a surface could be made with a series of 1/4-wave dielectric layers on a glass substrate. It Is more

  7. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in patients with multiple serrated polyps: a cross-sectional case series from genetics clinics.

    Daniel D Buchanan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with multiple serrated polyps are at an increased risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC. Recent reports have linked cigarette smoking with the subset of CRC that develops from serrated polyps. The aim of this work therefore was to investigate the association between smoking and the risk of CRC in high-risk genetics clinic patients presenting with multiple serrated polyps.We identified 151 Caucasian individuals with multiple serrated polyps including at least 5 outside the rectum, and classified patients into non-smokers, current or former smokers at the time of initial diagnosis of polyposis. Cases were individuals with multiple serrated polyps who presented with CRC. Controls were individuals with multiple serrated polyps and no CRC. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to estimate associations between smoking and CRC with adjustment for age at first presentation, sex and co-existing traditional adenomas, a feature that has been consistently linked with CRC risk in patients with multiple serrated polyps. CRC was present in 56 (37% individuals at presentation. Patients with at least one adenoma were 4 times more likely to present with CRC compared with patients without adenomas (OR = 4.09; 95%CI 1.27 to 13.14; P = 0.02. For females, the odds of CRC decreased by 90% in current smokers as compared to never smokers (OR = 0.10; 95%CI 0.02 to 0.47; P = 0.004 after adjusting for age and adenomas. For males, there was no relationship between current smoking and CRC. There was no statistical evidence of an association between former smoking and CRC for both sexes.A decreased odds for CRC was identified in females with multiple serrated polyps who currently smoke, independent of age and the presence of a traditional adenoma. Investigations into the biological basis for these observations could lead to non-smoking-related therapies being developed to decrease the risk of CRC and colectomy in these patients.

  8. Diffractive scattering

    De Wolf, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken-x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed.

  9. Diffractive Scattering

    Wolf, E.A. de

    2002-01-01

    We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken - x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wuesthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed. (author)

  10. Frequency-swept laser light source at 1050 nm with higher bandwidth due to multiple semiconductor optical amplifiers in series

    Marschall, Sebastian; Thrane, Lars; Andersen, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the development of an all-fiber frequency-swept laser light source in the 1050 nm range based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) with improved bandwidth due to multiple gain media. It is demonstrated that even two SOAs with nearly equal gain spectra can improve the performance...

  11. Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia: comments on a series of 250 cases, including 10 patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Broggi, G; Ferroli, P; Franzini, A; Servello, D; Dones, I

    2000-01-01

    To examine surgical findings and results of microvascular decompression (MVD) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN), including patients with multiple sclerosis, to bring new insight about the role of microvascular compression in the pathogenesis of the disorder and the role of MVD in its treatment. Between 1990 and 1998, 250 patients affected by trigeminal neuralgia underwent MVD in the Department of Neurosurgery of the "Istituto Nazionale Neurologico C Besta" in Milan. Limiting the review to the period 1991-6, to exclude the "learning period" (the first 50 cases) and patients with less than 1 year follow up, surgical findings and results were critically analysed in 148 consecutive cases, including 10 patients with multiple sclerosis. Vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve was found in all cases. The recurrence rate was 15.3% (follow up 1-7 years, mean 38 months). In five of 10 patients with multiple sclerosis an excellent result was achieved (follow up 12-39 months, mean 24 months). Patients with TN for more than 84 months did significantly worse than those with a shorter history (p<0.05). There was no mortality and most complications occurred in the learning period. Surgical complications were not related to age of the patients. Aetiopathogenesis of trigeminal neuralgia remains a mystery. These findings suggest a common neuromodulatory role of microvascular compression in both patients with or without multiple sclerosis rather than a direct causal role. MVD was found to be a safe and effective procedure to relieve typical TN in patients of all ages. It should be proposed as first choice surgery to all patients affected by TN, even in selected cases with multiple sclerosis, to give them the opportunity of pain relief without sensory deficits.

  12. The Hilbert-Schmidt method for nucleon-deuteron scattering

    Moeller, K.; Narodetskii, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Hilbert-Schmidt technique is used for computing the divergent multiple-scattering series for scattering of nucleons by deuterons at energies above the deuteron breakup. We have found that for each partial amplitude a series of s-channel resonances diverges because of the logarithmic singularities which reflect the t-channel singularities of the total amplitude. However, the convergence of the Hilbert-Schmidt series may be improved by iterating the Faddeev equations thereby extracting the most strong logarithmic singularities. We show that the series for the amplitudes with the first two iteration subtracted converges rapidly. Our final results are in excellent agreement with exact results obtained by a direct matrix technique. (orig.)

  13. Hilbert-Schmidt method for nucleon-deuteron scattering

    Moeller, K.; Narodetskij, I.M.

    1983-01-01

    The Hilbert-Schmidt technique is used for computing the divergent multiple-scattering series for scattering of nucleons by deuterons at energies above the deuteron breakup. It is found that for each partial amplitude a series of s-channel resonances diverges because of the logarithmic singularities which reflect the t-channel singularities of the total amplitude. However, the convergence of the Hilbert-Schmidt series may be improved by iterating the Faddeev equations thereby extracting the most strong logarithmic singularities. It is shown that the series for the amplitudes with first two iterations subtracted converges rapidly. Final results are in excellent agreement with exact results obtained by a direct matrix technique

  14. Detection of increase in corneal irregularity due to pterygium using Fourier series harmonic analyses with multiple diameters.

    Minami, Keiichiro; Miyata, Kazunori; Otani, Atsushi; Tokunaga, Tadatoshi; Tokuda, Shouta; Amano, Shiro

    2018-05-01

    To determine steep increase of corneal irregularity induced by advancement of pterygium. A total of 456 eyes from 456 consecutive patients with primary pterygia were examined for corneal topography and advancement of pterygium with respect to the corneal diameter. Corneal irregularity induced by the pterygium advancement was evaluated by Fourier harmonic analyses of the topographic data that were modified for a series of analysis diameters from 1 mm to 6 mm. Incidences of steep increases in the asymmetry or higher-order irregularity components (inflection points) were determined by using segmented regression analysis for each analysis diameter. The pterygium advancement ranged from 2% to 57%, with a mean of 22.0%. Both components showed steep increases from the inflection points. The inflection points in the higher-order irregularity component altered with the analysis diameter (14.0%-30.6%), while there was no alternation in the asymmetry components (35.5%-36.8%). For the former component, the values at the inflection points were obtained in a range of 0.16 to 0.25 D. The Fourier harmonic analyses for a series of analysis diameters revealed that the higher-order irregularity component increased with the pterygium advancement. The analysis results confirmed the precedence of corneal irregularity due to pterygium advancement.

  15. Multiple imputation for multivariate data with missing and below-threshold measurements: time-series concentrations of pollutants in the Arctic.

    Hopke, P K; Liu, C; Rubin, D B

    2001-03-01

    Many chemical and environmental data sets are complicated by the existence of fully missing values or censored values known to lie below detection thresholds. For example, week-long samples of airborne particulate matter were obtained at Alert, NWT, Canada, between 1980 and 1991, where some of the concentrations of 24 particulate constituents were coarsened in the sense of being either fully missing or below detection limits. To facilitate scientific analysis, it is appealing to create complete data by filling in missing values so that standard complete-data methods can be applied. We briefly review commonly used strategies for handling missing values and focus on the multiple-imputation approach, which generally leads to valid inferences when faced with missing data. Three statistical models are developed for multiply imputing the missing values of airborne particulate matter. We expect that these models are useful for creating multiple imputations in a variety of incomplete multivariate time series data sets.

  16. On the solution of a few problems of multiple scattering by Monte Carlo method; Sur la solution de quelques problemes de diffusions multiples par la methode de Monte-Carlo

    Bluet, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France)

    1966-02-01

    Three problems of multiple scattering arising from neutron cross sections experiments, are reported here. The common hypothesis are: - Elastic scattering is the only possible process - Angular distributions are isotropic - Losses of particle energy are negligible in successive collisions. In the three cases practical results, corresponding to actual experiments are given. Moreover the results are shown in more general way, using dimensionless variable such as the ratio of geometrical dimensions to neutron mean free path. The FORTRAN codes are given together with to the corresponding flow charts, and lexicons of symbols. First problem: Measurement of sodium capture cross-section. A sodium sample of given geometry is submitted to a neutron flux. Induced activity is then measured by means of a sodium iodide cristal. The distribution of active nuclei in the sample, and the counter efficiency are calculated by Monte-Carlo method taking multiple scattering into account. Second problem: absolute measurement of a neutron flux using a glass scintillator. The scintillator is a use of lithium 6 loaded glass, submitted to neutron flux perpendicular to its plane faces. If the glass thickness is not negligible compared with scattering mean free path {lambda}, the mean path e' of neutrons in the glass is different from the thickness. Monte-Carlo calculation are made to compute this path and a relative correction to efficiency equal to (e' - e)/e. Third problem: study of a neutron collimator. A neutron detector is placed at the bottom of a cylinder surrounded with water. A neutron source is placed on the cylinder axis, in front of the water shield. The number of neutron tracks going directly and indirectly through the water from the source to the detector are counted. (author) [French] On traite dans ce rapport de trois problemes avec les hypotheses communes suivantes: 1.- Le seul processus de collision possible est la diffusion electrique. 2.- La distribution angulaire est

  17. Variation of multiplicity and transverse energy flow with W{sup 2} and Q{sup 2} in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Lohmander, H

    1995-04-01

    Charged particle and transverse energy flow for deep inelastic ep scattering at HERA have been investigated in the hadronic center of mass systems as a function of pseudorapidity {eta}* in different W{sup 2} and Q{sup 2} intervals. In addition, the mean charged particle multiplicity and the mean transverse energy as a function of W{sup 2} and Q{sup 2} have been studied. The measurements were made in the kinematic region 85 < W < 230 GeV and 10 < Q{sup 2} < 7000 GeV{sup 2}. The < n{sub ch} > was found to increase with increasing W{sup 2} at fixed Q{sup 2} but did not show any significant dependence on Q{sup 2} at fixed W{sup 2}. The best description of the mean charged multiplicity is given by =a+b{center_dot}ln(W{sup 2}/GeV{sup 2}) with a=-1.38{+-}0.07 and b=0.93{+-}0.05. The increased both with increasing W{sup 2} at fixed Q{sup 2} and with increasing Q{sup 2} at fixed W{sup 2}. The mean transverse energy is described by =a+b{center_dot}ln(W{sup 2}/GeV{sup 2})+c{center_dot}ln (Q{sup 2}/GeV{sup 2})GeV with a=-5.93{+-}0.07, b=1.28{+-}0.06 and c=0.69{+-}0.02. Different QCD models have been compared with data. Only the Color Dipole Model, as implemented in the Monte Carlo program Ariadne, describes the data satisfactorily. 29 refs.

  18. 3D local structure around copper site of rabbit prion-related protein: Quantitative determination by XANES spectroscopy combined with multiple-scattering calculations

    Cui, P. X.; Lian, F. L.; Wang, Y.; Wen, Yi; Chu, W. S.; Zhao, H. F.; Zhang, S.; Li, J.; Lin, D. H.; Wu, Z. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Prion-related protein (PrP), a cell-surface copper-binding glycoprotein, is considered to be responsible for a number of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The structural conversion of PrP from the normal cellular isoform (PrPC) to the post-translationally modified form (PrPSc) is thought to be relevant to Cu2+ binding to histidine residues. Rabbits are one of the few mammalian species that appear to be resistant to TSEs, because of the structural characteristics of the rabbit prion protein (RaPrPC) itself. Here we determined the three-dimensional local structure around the C-terminal high-affinity copper-binding sites using X-ray absorption near-edge structure combined with ab initio calculations in the framework of the multiple-scattering (MS) theory. Result shows that two amino acid resides, Gln97 and Met108, and two histidine residues, His95 and His110, are involved in binding this copper(II) ion. It might help us understand the roles of copper in prion conformation conversions, and the molecular mechanisms of prion-involved diseases.

  19. A comparison of the effect of multiple scattering on first and second order X-ray diffraction from textured polycrystals, for the investigation of secondary extinction

    Palacios G, J., E-mail: jpalacios@ipn.mx [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, San Pedro Zacatenco 07738, Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-11-01

    The integrated intensity of Debye-Scherrer (D-S) rings, arising from an eventual second diffraction process of a diffracted X-ray beam, was calculated. This represents the amount of intensity not arriving at the detector as oriented to register the first diffraction process, and as result, a measure of secondary extinction. Thus the objective is to investigate in this way if secondary extinction affects measurements of X-ray diffraction from textured polycrystals. This has been suggested by differences of pole density maxima observed between measured first and second order pole figures in strongly textured materials. Calculations are performed for a detector scan (varying only 2θ), and the integrated intensity is determined for first and second order diffraction conditions of a general plane (hkl). Normalization through corresponding powder is performed. It is found that this special case of multiple scattering effect, indeed affects both orders essentially in the same way. If corresponding detector scan measurements verify this, then the observed differences between pole density maxima of pole figures of different order cannot be attributed to secondary extinction. Instead, they can be attributed to heterogeneous texture or error propagation. On the other hand, if the detector scans do exhibit a difference as that of pole density maxima, these differences can possibly be attributed to primary extinction. (Author)

  20. Three particle scattering at high energies in a model with eikonal Hamiltonian

    Kharchenko, V.F.; Kuzmichev, V.E.

    1980-04-01

    The three particle collision process 3 → 3 with relative motion of each pair of particles described by a model with eikonal Hamiltonian is investigated. No additional restrictions on the motion of the particles (such as the fixed scattering centre approximation) are imposed. A unique, exact analytical solution of the three-particle problem is then shown to exist. An explicit expression for the 3 → 3 amplitude in the general case off the energy shell is obtained as the result of the exact summation of the multiple scattering series. It is shown that this series terminates on the energy shell. A new formula for the mutual cancellation of terms in the multiple scattering series in a model with eikonal Hamiltonian is found. (orig.)

  1. Time Series Analysis of Soil Radon Data Using Multiple Linear Regression and Artificial Neural Network in Seismic Precursory Studies

    Singh, S.; Jaishi, H. P.; Tiwari, R. P.; Tiwari, R. C.

    2017-07-01

    This paper reports the analysis of soil radon data recorded in the seismic zone-V, located in the northeastern part of India (latitude 23.73N, longitude 92.73E). Continuous measurements of soil-gas emission along Chite fault in Mizoram (India) were carried out with the replacement of solid-state nuclear track detectors at weekly interval. The present study was done for the period from March 2013 to May 2015 using LR-115 Type II detectors, manufactured by Kodak Pathe, France. In order to reduce the influence of meteorological parameters, statistical analysis tools such as multiple linear regression and artificial neural network have been used. Decrease in radon concentration was recorded prior to some earthquakes that occurred during the observation period. Some false anomalies were also recorded which may be attributed to the ongoing crustal deformation which was not major enough to produce an earthquake.

  2. Treatment Failure after Multiple Courses of Triclabendazole among Patients with Fascioliasis in Cusco, Peru: A Case Series

    Cabada, Miguel M.; Lopez, Martha; Cruz, Maria; Delgado, Jennifer R.; Hill, Virginia; White, A. Clinton

    2016-01-01

    Triclabendazole is reported to be highly effective in treatment of human fascioliasis. We present 7 of 19 selected cases of human fascioliasis referred to our center in the Cusco region of Peru that failed to respond to triclabendazole. These were mostly symptomatic adults of both sexes that continued passing Fasciola eggs in the stool despite multiple treatments with 2 doses of triclabendazole at 10 mg/kg per dose. We documented the presence of eggs by rapid sedimentation and Kato Katz tests after each treatment course. We found that repeated triclabendazole courses were not effective against fascioliasis in this group of people. These findings suggest that resistance to triclabendazole may be an emerging problem in the Andes. PMID:26808543

  3. Treatment Failure after Multiple Courses of Triclabendazole among Patients with Fascioliasis in Cusco, Peru: A Case Series.

    Miguel M Cabada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triclabendazole is reported to be highly effective in treatment of human fascioliasis. We present 7 of 19 selected cases of human fascioliasis referred to our center in the Cusco region of Peru that failed to respond to triclabendazole. These were mostly symptomatic adults of both sexes that continued passing Fasciola eggs in the stool despite multiple treatments with 2 doses of triclabendazole at 10 mg/kg per dose. We documented the presence of eggs by rapid sedimentation and Kato Katz tests after each treatment course. We found that repeated triclabendazole courses were not effective against fascioliasis in this group of people. These findings suggest that resistance to triclabendazole may be an emerging problem in the Andes.

  4. Treatment Failure after Multiple Courses of Triclabendazole among Patients with Fascioliasis in Cusco, Peru: A Case Series.

    Cabada, Miguel M; Lopez, Martha; Cruz, Maria; Delgado, Jennifer R; Hill, Virginia; White, A Clinton

    2016-01-01

    Triclabendazole is reported to be highly effective in treatment of human fascioliasis. We present 7 of 19 selected cases of human fascioliasis referred to our center in the Cusco region of Peru that failed to respond to triclabendazole. These were mostly symptomatic adults of both sexes that continued passing Fasciola eggs in the stool despite multiple treatments with 2 doses of triclabendazole at 10 mg/kg per dose. We documented the presence of eggs by rapid sedimentation and Kato Katz tests after each treatment course. We found that repeated triclabendazole courses were not effective against fascioliasis in this group of people. These findings suggest that resistance to triclabendazole may be an emerging problem in the Andes.

  5. Research on Healthy Anomaly Detection Model Based on Deep Learning from Multiple Time-Series Physiological Signals

    Kai Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Health is vital to every human being. To further improve its already respectable medical technology, the medical community is transitioning towards a proactive approach which anticipates and mitigates risks before getting ill. This approach requires measuring the physiological signals of human and analyzes these data at regular intervals. In this paper, we present a novel approach to apply deep learning in physiological signals analysis that allows doctor to identify latent risks. However, extracting high level information from physiological time-series data is a hard problem faced by the machine learning communities. Therefore, in this approach, we apply model based on convolutional neural network that can automatically learn features from raw physiological signals in an unsupervised manner and then based on the learned features use multivariate Gauss distribution anomaly detection method to detect anomaly data. Our experiment is shown to have a significant performance in physiological signals anomaly detection. So it is a promising tool for doctor to identify early signs of illness even if the criteria are unknown a priori.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Multiple Cropping Indices in the North China Plain Using a Long Remote Sensing Data Time Series

    Yan Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cropping provides China with a very important system of intensive cultivation, and can effectively enhance the efficiency of farmland use while improving regional food production and security. A multiple cropping index (MCI, which represents the intensity of multiple cropping and reflects the effects of climate change on agricultural production and cropping systems, often serves as a useful parameter. Therefore, monitoring the dynamic changes in the MCI of farmland over a large area using remote sensing data is essential. For this purpose, nearly 30 years of MCIs related to dry land in the North China Plain (NCP were efficiently extracted from remotely sensed leaf area index (LAI data from the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS. Next, the characteristics of the spatial-temporal change in MCI were analyzed. First, 2162 typical arable sample sites were selected based on a gridded spatial sampling strategy, and then the LAI information was extracted from the samples. Second, the Savizky-Golay filter was used to smooth the LAI time-series data of the samples, and then the MCIs of the samples were obtained using a second-order difference algorithm. Finally, the geo-statistical Kriging method was employed to map the spatial distribution of the MCIs and to obtain a time-series dataset of the MCIs of dry land over the NCP. The results showed that all of the MCIs in the NCP showed an increasing trend over the entire study period and increased most rapidly from 1982 to 2002. Spatially, MCIs decreased from south to north; also, high MCIs were mainly concentrated in the relatively flat areas. In addition, the partial spatial changes of MCIs had clear geographical characteristics, with the largest change in Henan Province.

  7. Shifts in Arctic phenology in response to climate and anthropogenic factors as detected from multiple satellite time series

    Zeng, Heqing; Jia, Gensuo; Forbes, Bruce C

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need to reduce the uncertainties in remotely sensed detection of phenological shifts of high latitude ecosystems in response to climate changes in past decades. In this study, vegetation phenology in western Arctic Russia (the Yamal Peninsula) was investigated by analyzing and comparing Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and SPOT-Vegetation (VGT) during the decade 2000–2010. The spatial patterns of key phenological parameters were highly heterogeneous along the latitudinal gradients based on multi-satellite data. There was earlier SOS (start of the growing season), later EOS (end of the growing season), longer LOS (length of the growing season), and greater MaxNDVI from north to south in the region. The results based on MODIS and VGT data showed similar trends in phenological changes from 2000 to 2010, while quite a different trend was found based on AVHRR data from 2000 to 2008. A significantly delayed EOS (p < 0.01), thus increasing the LOS, was found from AVHRR data, while no similar trends were detected from MODIS and VGT data. There were no obvious shifts in MaxNDVI during the last decade. MODIS and VGT data were considered to be preferred data for monitoring vegetation phenology in northern high latitudes. Temperature is still a key factor controlling spatial phenological gradients and variability, while anthropogenic factors (reindeer husbandry and resource exploitation) might explain the delayed SOS in southern Yamal. Continuous environmental damage could trigger a positive feedback to the delayed SOS. (letter)

  8. Supramolecular structures in N-isonicotinoyl arylaldehydehydrazones: multiple hydrogen-bonding modes in series of geometric isomers.

    Wardell, Solange M S V; de Souza, Marcus V N; Wardell, James L; Low, John N; Glidewell, Christopher

    2007-12-01

    Sixteen N-isonicotinoyl arylaldehydehydrazones, NC(5)H(4)CONHN=CHC(6)H(4)R, have been studied and the structures of 14 of them have been determined, including the unsubstituted parent compound with R = H, and the complete sets of 2-, 3- and 4-substituted geometric isomers for R = F, Br and OMe, and two of the three isomers for R = Cl and OEt. The 2-chloro and 3-chloro derivatives are isostructural with the corresponding bromo isomers, and all compounds contain trans amide groups apart from the isostructural pair where R = 2-Cl and 2-Br, which contain cis amide groups. The structures exhibit a wide range of direction-specific intermolecular interactions, including eight types of hydrogen bonds, N-H...N, N-H...O, O-H...O, O-H...N, C-H...N, C-H...O, C-H...pi(arene) and C-H...pi(pyridyl), as well as pi...pi stacking interactions. The structures exhibit a very broad range of combinations of these interactions: the resulting hydrogen-bonded supramolecular structures range from one-dimensional when R = 2-F, 2-OMe or 2-OEt, via two-dimensional when R = 4-F, 3-Cl, 3-Br, 4-OMe or 3-OEt, to three-dimensional when R = H, 3-F, 2-Cl, 2-Br, 4-Br or 3-OMe. Minor changes in either the identity of the substituent or its location can lead to substantial changes in the pattern of supramolecular aggregation, posing significant problems of predictability. The new structures are compared with the recently published structures of the isomeric series having R = NO(2), with several monosubstituted analogues containing 2-pyridyl or 3-pyridyl units rather than 4-pyridyl, and with a number of examples having two or three substituents in the aryl ring: some 30 structures in all are discussed.

  9. Eikonal phase shift analyses of carbon-carbon scattering

    Townsend, L.W.; Bidasaria, H.B.; Wilson, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    A high-energy double-folding optical potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series is used to determine eikonal phase shifts for carbon-carbon scattering at 204.2, 242.7, and 288.6 MeV. The double-folding potentials are obtained by folding the energy-dependent free nucleon-nucleon interaction with densities for the projectile and target obtained by unfolding the finite nucleon charge density from harmonic-well carbon charge distributions. The charge parameters for the latter are taken from the results of electron scattering experiments. Predictions for total, reaction, and elastic differential cross sections, using standard partial wave analysis for the scattering of identical particles, are made and compared with recent experimental results. Excellent agreement is obtained although there are no arbitrarily adjusted parameters in the theory

  10. Polarized Raman spectroscopy of bone tissue: watch the scattering

    Raghavan, Mekhala; Sahar, Nadder D.; Wilson, Robert H.; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Pleshko, Nancy; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.

    2010-02-01

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy is widely used in the study of molecular composition and orientation in synthetic and natural polymer systems. Here, we describe the use of Raman spectroscopy to extract quantitative orientation information from bone tissue. Bone tissue poses special challenges to the use of polarized Raman spectroscopy for measurement of orientation distribution functions because the tissue is turbid and birefringent. Multiple scattering in turbid media depolarizes light and is potentially a source of error. Using a Raman microprobe, we show that repeating the measurements with a series of objectives of differing numerical apertures can be used to assess the contributions of sample turbidity and depth of field to the calculated orientation distribution functions. With this test, an optic can be chosen to minimize the systematic errors introduced by multiple scattering events. With adequate knowledge of the optical properties of these bone tissues, we can determine if elastic light scattering affects the polarized Raman measurements.

  11. Extraction of chemical information of suspensions using radiative transfer theory to remove multiple scattering effects: application to a model multicomponent system.

    Steponavičius, Raimundas; Thennadil, Suresh N

    2011-03-15

    The effectiveness of a scatter correction approach based on decoupling absorption and scattering effects through the use of the radiative transfer theory to invert a suitable set of measurements is studied by considering a model multicomponent suspension. The method was used in conjunction with partial least-squares regression to build calibration models for estimating the concentration of two types of analytes: an absorbing (nonscattering) species and a particulate (absorbing and scattering) species. The performances of the models built by this approach were compared with those obtained by applying empirical scatter correction approaches to diffuse reflectance, diffuse transmittance, and collimated transmittance measurements. It was found that the method provided appreciable improvement in model performance for the prediction of both types of analytes. The study indicates that, as long as the bulk absorption spectra are accurately extracted, no further empirical preprocessing to remove light scattering effects is required.

  12. Magnetic small-angle scattering of subthermal neutrons by internal stress fields in work-hardened nickel single crystals oriented for multiple glide

    Vorbrugg, W.; Schaerpf, O.

    1975-01-01

    The small-angle scattering of Ni single crystals with (111) and (100) axis orientation is measured by a photographic method in the work-hardened state after tensile deformation. Parameters are the external magnetic field H parallel to the axis (600 2 ]<=8,8), and the elastic stress tausub(el)(0<=tausub(el)<=tausub(pl)) applied to the deformed crystals during the experiments. The scattering is found to be anisotropic and characteristic for the chosen orientation. The quantitative photometric analysis shows that the parameters mentioned above only influence the intensity but not the distribution of the scattered neutrons. The scattering increases with the elastic stress and decreases with the magnetic field. In particular, in the unloaded state there is a linear relation between the scattered intensity and the plastic shear stress. (author)

  13. 3D local structure around copper site of rabbit prion-related protein: Quantitative determination by XANES spectroscopy combined with multiple-scattering calculations

    Cui, P.X.; Lian, F.L.; Wang, Y.; Wen, Yi; Chu, W.S.; Zhao, H.F.; Zhang, S.; Li, J.; Lin, D.H.; Wu, Z.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Prion-related protein (PrP), a cell-surface copper-binding glycoprotein, is considered to be responsible for a number of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The structural conversion of PrP from the normal cellular isoform (PrP C ) to the post-translationally modified form (PrP Sc ) is thought to be relevant to Cu 2+ binding to histidine residues. Rabbits are one of the few mammalian species that appear to be resistant to TSEs, because of the structural characteristics of the rabbit prion protein (RaPrP C ) itself. Here we determined the three-dimensional local structure around the C-terminal high-affinity copper-binding sites using X-ray absorption near-edge structure combined with ab initio calculations in the framework of the multiple-scattering (MS) theory. Result shows that two amino acid resides, Gln97 and Met108, and two histidine residues, His95 and His110, are involved in binding this copper(II) ion. It might help us understand the roles of copper in prion conformation conversions, and the molecular mechanisms of prion-involved diseases. - Highlights: ► The first structure of the metal ion binding site in RaPrP fifth copper-binding site. ► Quantitative determination by XANES spectroscopy combined with ab initio calculations. ► Provide a proof of the roles of copper in prion conformation conversions. ► Provide a proof of the molecular mechanisms of prion-involved diseases

  14. New Insight into the Local Structure of Hydrous Ferric Arsenate Using Full-Potential Multiple Scattering Analysis, Density Functional Theory Calculations, and Vibrational Spectroscopy.

    Wang, Shaofeng; Ma, Xu; Zhang, Guoqing; Jia, Yongfeng; Hatada, Keisuke

    2016-11-15

    Hydrous ferric arsenate (HFA) is an important arsenic-bearing precipitate in the mining-impacted environment and hydrometallurgical tailings. However, there is no agreement on its local atomic structure. The local structure of HFA was reprobed by employing a full-potential multiple scattering (FPMS) analysis, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and vibrational spectroscopy. The FPMS simulations indicated that the coordination number of the As-Fe, Fe-As, or both in HFA was approximately two. The DFT calculations constructed a structure of HFA with the formula of Fe(HAsO 4 ) x (H 2 AsO 4 ) 1-x (OH) y ·zH 2 O. The presence of protonated arsenate in HFA was also evidenced by vibrational spectroscopy. The As and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra of HFA were accurately reproduced by FPMS simulations using the chain structure, which was also a reasonable model for extended X-Ray absorption fine structure fitting. The FPMS refinements indicated that the interatomic Fe-Fe distance was approximately 5.2 Å, consistent with that obtained by Mikutta et al. (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2013, 47 (7), 3122-3131) using wavelet analysis. All of the results suggested that HFA was more likely to occur as a chain with AsO 4 tetrahedra and FeO 6 octahedra connecting alternately in an isolated bidentate-type fashion. This finding is of significance for understanding the fate of arsenic and the formation of ferric arsenate minerals in an acidic environment.

  15. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    Zuberi, M. A. H.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not have sharp contrasts to reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function through forward modeling

  16. Nuclear Data and Measurements Series: The energy dependence of the optical-model potential for fast-neutron scattering from bismuth

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.

    1987-05-01

    Neutron differential-elastic-scattering cross sections of bismuth were measured at 0.5 MeV intervals from 4.5 to 10.0 MeV. At each incident energy ≥40 differential values were obtained, distributed between 18 0 and 160 0 . The measured data were combined with lower-energy results previously reported from this laboratory, and others available in the literature, to provide a detailed data base extending from 1.5 to 10.0 MeV. This data base was interpreted in terms of the conventional optical-statistical model and also a model inclusive of the surface-peaked real potential predicted by the dispersion relation. Particular attention was given to the energy dependence of the volume-integral-per-nucleon of the real potential, J/sub v/, to see if there was evidence of the Fermi Surface Anomaly. In the range 3.0 to 10.0 MeV the present data indicate that dJ/sub v//dE is essentially constant, with a relatively large negative value of -6.0 to -9.0 fm 3 , depending on the model used in the analysis. Below 3.0 MeV, there is some evidence for a decrease in the magnitude of dJ/dE. However, the effect is very small and it is only when this trend is combined with considerations of the J/sub v/ values needed to give correct bound-state energies that evidence for the Fermi Surface Anomaly emerges. J/sub v/ and the geometry of the optical potentials found for 209 Bi become equal to those needed to explain the high-energy 208 Pb data at about 10.0 MeV. Since dJ/sub v//dE for the latter is smaller in magnitude than for 209 Bi, a change in dJ/sub v//dE is clearly indicated near 10.0 MeV. This may effect the extrapolation of higher-energy and charged-particle potentials into the lower-energy neutron domain. 47 refs., 9 figs

  17. Scattering of intermediate energy protons

    Chaumeaux, Alain.

    1980-06-01

    The scattering of 1 GeV protons appears to be a powerful means of investigating nuclear matter. We worked with SPESI and the formalism of Kerman-Mc Manus and Thaler. The amplitude of nucleon-nucleon scattering was studied as were the aspects of 1 GeV proton scattering (multiple scattering, absorption, spin-orbit coupling, N-N amplitude, KMT-Glauber comparison, second order effects). The results of proton scattering on 16 O, the isotopes of calcium, 58 Ni, 90 Zr and 208 Pb are given [fr

  18. Large-angle theory for pion-nucleus scattering at high energies

    Hoock, D.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    An approximate solution for high-energy, projectile-nucleus, multiple scattering is developed from the exact Watson series and applied to pion scattering for 12 C and 4 He. Agreement with measured differential cross sections available from the literature for the range 150 to 260 MeV pion laboratory energies is surprisingly good. The approximation method expands the propagators of the Watson series about the transverse component of the momentum transfer. Contributions of each of the first two terms to double scattering from a Gaussian potential are compared to the exact solution. The purely plane-wave propagation produces a scattering amplitude that agrees to order (k 0 a) -1 with the exact solution at the forward and backward directions at high energies. The second (off-axis) propagation term produces an amplitude that is one order smaller at forward angles and two orders smaller at 180 0 than the exact amplitude. At intermediate angles it is of the same order. The general multiple-scattering series is approximated with selection of plane-wave propagation as the fundamental process at large and small angles. This model suggests that a single nucleon accepts most of the momentum transfer for backward scattering. The resulting multiple-scattering formula agrees with the well-known high-energy eikonal theory at small angles and the backward-angle scattering formula of Chen at exactly 180 0 . A lowest-order formula that includes off-axis propagation is also derived. Predicted differential cross sections are found to be sensitive to nucleon motion and binding. For 4 He the effect of the nuclear potential on the pion kinetic energy is also examined and found to produce significant changes in the predicted cross sections

  19. Bronchoscopic intratumoral injection of tranexamic acid to prevent excessive bleeding during multiple forceps biopsies of lesions with a high risk of bleeding: a prospective case series

    Zamani, Adil

    2014-01-01

    Significant bleeding may occur following endobronchial forceps biopsy or brushing of necrotic or hypervascular tumors in the airways. In some cases, methods such as endobronchial instillation of iced saline lavage and epinephrine may fail to control bleeding. The present study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new bronchoscopic technique using intratumoral injection of tranexamic acid (IIT) for control of bleeding during forceps biopsy in patients with endobronchial tumors with a high risk of bleeding. The study was a prospective case series carried out in a single center. Bronchoscopic IIT was performed in those patients who had endoscopically visible tumoral lesions with persistent active bleeding following the first attempt at bronchoscopic sampling. Tranexamic acid (TEA) was injected through a 22-gauge Wang cytology needle into the lesion in nominal doses of 250–500 mg. After 2–3 minutes, multiple forceps biopsy specimens were obtained from the lesion. Of the 57 consecutive patients included in the study, 20 patients (35.1%) underwent bronchoscopic IIT. The first attempt in 18 patients was endobronchial forceps biopsy (EBB), and because of a high risk of bleeding, the first attempt for the remaining two patients, who were on continuous dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin and clopidogrel), employed endobronchial needle aspiration (EBNA) as a precautionary measure. Following IIT, subsequent specimens were obtained using EBB in all patients. Multiple forceps biopsy specimens (3–10) were obtained from the lesions (8 necrotic and 12 hypervascular) without incurring active bleeding. The following histopathologic diagnoses were made: squamous cell carcinoma (n = 14), adenocarcinoma (n = 2), small-cell lung cancer (n = 3), and malignant mesenchymal tumor (n = 1). No side effects of TEA were observed. Bronchoscopic IIT is a useful and safe technique for controlling significant bleeding from a forceps biopsy procedure and can be considered as a pre

  20. Treatment of Multiple Actinic Keratosis and Field of Cancerization with Topical Piroxicam 0.8% and Sunscreen 50+ in Organ Transplant Recipients: A Series of 10 Cases

    Virginia Garofalo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplant recipient (OTR subjects are at high risk of skin cancer such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Actinic keratosis (AK is considered the precursor of these non-melanoma skin cancers. Sun protection is mandatory in subjects with AK and this preventive strategy is very important in OTR. Treatment of the field of cancerization is also crucial to reduce the risk of recurrence of skin lesions in AK and non-melanoma skin cancer patients. Activation of cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 enzymes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of skin cancers. Topical application of cyclooxygenase inhibitors such as diclofenac and, more recently, piroxicam has shown to reduce AK lesions in immunocompetent subjects. A medical device containing piroxicam and SPF 50+ sunscreen filters (P+SS has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing AK lesions and improving the field of cancerization. We report the effect of P+SS, applied for 16 weeks, in a case series of 10 OTR subjects with multiple AK lesions. P+SS treatment was associated with a relevant AK lesion reduction (>75% in 7 patients (with a complete clearance in 3 subjects with an improvement in the field of cancerization. This medical device could be considered a promising long-term curative and preventive treatment in OTR patients at high risk of non-melanoma skin cancers.

  1. Path-length-resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase-modulated low-coherence interferometry

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2007-01-01

    In optical Doppler measurements, the path length of the light is unknown. To facilitate quantitative measurements, we develop a phase-modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer with separate fibers for illumination and detection. With this setup, path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering measurements

  2. Light scattering by soap films

    Vrij, A.

    A theory is constructed describing the scattering from a liquid film (e.g., a soap film) of a light beam polarized normal to the plane of incidence. This scattering is due to the small irregular corrugations caused by thermal motion. The interference of the reflected incident beam with its multiple

  3. Dynamic measurement of forward scattering

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rusch, W.

    1975-01-01

    A dynamic method for the measurement of forward scattering in a radio anechoic chamber is described. The quantity determined is the induced-field-ratio (IFR) of conducting cylinders. The determination of the IFR is highly sensitive to 1) multiple scattering between the cylinder and the obpring...

  4. Memory sparing, fast scattering formalism for rigorous diffraction modeling

    Iff, W.; Kämpfe, T.; Jourlin, Y.; Tishchenko, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    The basics and algorithmic steps of a novel scattering formalism suited for memory sparing and fast electromagnetic calculations are presented. The formalism, called ‘S-vector algorithm’ (by analogy with the known scattering-matrix algorithm), allows the calculation of the collective scattering spectra of individual layered micro-structured scattering objects. A rigorous method of linear complexity is applied to model the scattering at individual layers; here the generalized source method (GSM) resorting to Fourier harmonics as basis functions is used as one possible method of linear complexity. The concatenation of the individual scattering events can be achieved sequentially or in parallel, both having pros and cons. The present development will largely concentrate on a consecutive approach based on the multiple reflection series. The latter will be reformulated into an implicit formalism which will be associated with an iterative solver, resulting in improved convergence. The examples will first refer to 1D grating diffraction for the sake of simplicity and intelligibility, with a final 2D application example.

  5. A drift chamber tracking system for muon scattering tomography applications

    Burns, J.; Quillin, S.; Stapleton, M.; Steer, C.; Snow, S.

    2015-10-01

    Muon scattering tomography (MST) allows the identification of shielded high atomic number (high-Z) materials by measuring the scattering angle of cosmic ray muons passing through an inspection region. Cosmic ray muons scatter to a greater degree due to multiple Coulomb scattering in high-Z materials than low-Z materials, which can be measured as the angular difference between the incoming and outgoing trajectories of each muon. Measurements of trajectory are achieved by placing position sensitive particle tracking detectors above and below the inspection volume. By localising scattering information, the point at which a series of muons scatter can be used to reconstruct an image, differentiating high, medium and low density objects. MST is particularly useful for differentiating between materials of varying density in volumes that are difficult to inspect visually or by other means. This paper will outline the experimental work undertaken to develop a prototype MST system based on drift chamber technology. The planar drift chambers used in this prototype measure the longitudinal interaction position of an ionising particle from the time taken for elections, liberated in the argon (92.5%), carbon dioxide (5%), methane (2.5%) gas mixture, to reach a central anode wire. Such a system could be used to enhance the detection of shielded radiological material hidden within regular shipping cargo.

  6. Quasiresonant scattering

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia; Ionescu, Remus A.

    2004-01-01

    The quasiresonant scattering consists from a single channel resonance coupled by direct interaction transitions to some competing reaction channels. A description of quasiresonant Scattering, in terms of generalized reduced K-, R- and S- Matrix, is developed in this work. The quasiresonance's decay width is, due to channels coupling, smaller than the width of the ancestral single channel resonance (resonance's direct compression). (author)

  7. Thomson Scattering

    Donne, A. J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wave vector is much larger than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  8. Scattering theory

    Sitenko, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book emerged out of graduate lectures given by the author at the University of Kiev and is intended as a graduate text. The fundamentals of non-relativistic quantum scattering theory are covered, including some topics, such as the phase-function formalism, separable potentials, and inverse scattering, which are not always coverded in textbooks on scattering theory. Criticisms of the text are minor, but the reviewer feels an inadequate index is provided and the citing of references in the Russian language is a hindrance in a graduate text

  9. Critical scattering

    Stirling, W.G.; Perry, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO 3 is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs

  10. Prevalence of epilepsy in a case series of multiple sclerosis patients Prevalência de epilepsia numa coorte de pacientes com esclerose múltipla

    Cynthia Dumas Viveiros

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of epilepsy in multiple sclerosis (MS patients has been a subject of interest for some years. The objectives of this study were to describe the clinical, radiological and electroencephalographic characteristics of epileptic seizures and to calculate the prevalence of epilepsy in a case series of MS patients. METHOD: Medical charts of MS patients were reviewed and patients who had suffered epileptic seizures were identified. RESULTS: Of 160 cases analyzed, 5 had suffered epileptic seizures and one had comorbid mesial hippocampal sclerosis, confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with complex partial seizures that began fifteen years prior to her diagnosis of MS. In the other four patients, seizures occurred both during the acute phase of the disease and in the chronic phase. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of epileptic seizures in MS patients in this study was 2.5%, similar to that found in other studies.OBJETIVO: A prevalência da epilepsia em pacientes com esclerose múltipla (EM tem sido objeto de interesse há vários anos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram descrever as características clínicas, radiológicas e eletroencefalográficas das crises epilépticas e estimar a prevalência de epilepsia na EM numa série de casos. MÉTODO: Foram revisados prontuários de pacientes com EM e identificados os casos que apresentaram crise epiléptica. RESULTADOS: Dos 160 casos analisados, cinco apresentaram crise epiléptica, sendo que, um caso, houve a presença de comorbidade com esclerose mesial do hipocampo, comprovada através de ressonância magnética numa paciente com crises parciais complexas iniciadas quinze anos antes do diagnóstico de EM. Nos outros quatro pacientes, as crises ocorreram tanto na fase aguda da doença, como na fase crônica. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de crises epiléticas nos pacientes com EM neste estudo foi de 2,5%, semelhante à encontrada em outros estudos.

  11. Scattering in discrete random media with implications to propagation through rain. Ph.D. Thesis George Washingtion Univ., Washington, D.C.

    Ippolito, L. J., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The multiple scattering effects on wave propagation through a volume of discrete scatterers were investigated. The mean field and intensity for a distribution of scatterers was developed using a discrete random media formulation, and second order series expansions for the mean field and total intensity derived for one-dimensional and three-dimensional configurations. The volume distribution results were shown to proceed directly from the one-dimensional results. The multiple scattering intensity expansion was compared to the classical single scattering intensity and the classical result was found to represent only the first three terms in the total intensity expansion. The Foldy approximation to the mean field was applied to develop the coherent intensity, and was found to exactly represent all coherent terms of the total intensity.

  12. Scattering by two spheres: Theory and experiment

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1998-01-01

    of suspended sediments. The scattering properties of single regular-shaped particles have been studied in depth by several authors in the past. However, single particle scattering cannot explain all features of scattering by suspended sediment. When the concentration of particles exceeds a certain limit...... on three issues: (1) to develop a simplified theory for scattering by two elastical spheres; (2) to measure the scattering by two spheres in a water tank, and (3) to compare the theoretical/numerical results with the measured data. A number of factors influencing multiple scattering, including...

  13. Contributions to atomic microdynamics study in some liquid metals by means of soft neutrons scattering

    Rotarescu, G.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of inelastic scattering of soft neutrons on Bi and liquid Pb, applying all the necessary corrections in view of obtaining the dYnamic structure factor S(Q,ω) were performed. The F(Q,t) function of intermediate scattering was obtained by means of the Fourier transformation of S(Q,ω). Special attention was devoted to one multiple scattering correction, especially at small scattering angles, taking into account its influence on the results. A comparison of the experimental results with three recent theoretical models has shown a good agreement in the range of intermediate and high Q values. Measurements of neutron inelastic scattering on liquid sodium at a temperature of 233 Cdeg within a momentum transfer range of 1 A -1 -1 were performed. The scattering law S(α,β) that was compared to a series of theoretical models has been determined from the experimental data. The validity of the theoretical models for different ranges of energy and momenta was thoroughly checked. S(α,β) was calculated for each type of scattering since sodium proves a mixed, coherent and incoherent scattering agent. A study on the influence of the even interaction potential upon the S(Q,ω) dynamic structure factor, the fourth order momentum ω 4 (Q) and uoon the spectral function C(Q,ω) of longitudinal current correlations was performed. For this purpose, four potentials with oscillations at great distances and a Lennard-Jones type potential were used. (author)

  14. Faddeev and Glauber calculations at intermediate energies in a model for n+d scattering

    Elster, Ch.; Lin, T.; Gloeckle, W.; Jeschonnek, S.

    2008-01-01

    Obtaining cross sections for nuclear reactions at intermediate energies based on the Glauber formulation has a long tradition. Only recently the energy regime of a few hundred MeV has become accessible to ab initio Faddeev calculations of three-body scattering. In order to go to higher energies, the Faddeev equation for three-body scattering is formulated and directly solved without employing a partial wave decomposition. In the simplest form the Faddeev equation for interacting scalar particles is a three-dimensional integral equation in five variables, from which the total cross section, the cross sections for elastic scattering and breakup reactions, as well as differential cross sections are obtained. The same observables are calculated based on the Glauber formulation. The first order Glauber calculation and the Glauber rescattering corrections are compared in detail with the corresponding terms of the Faddeev multiple scattering series for projectile energies between 100 MeV and 2 GeV

  15. Compton scattering

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A -2 based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required

  16. Compton scattering

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A/sup -2/ based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required.

  17. Study of charged multiplicities and double scattering in anti pd interactions between 3 and 15 GeV/c incident momentum. General aspects of annihilation reactions

    Michalon-Mentzer, Marie-Eve.

    1979-01-01

    From a study of the charged multiplicity distributions, antipd and antipn interactions in the range of incident momentum going from 3 to 15 GeV/c have been analysed. The antipd and antipn topological cross sections have been calculated. The behavior of the different statistical moments obtained from the charged multiplicities as function of the incident momentum have been studied. We have analysed rescattering phenomena inside the deuteron and the rescattering fraction per antipd collisions was found to be of the order of 20%. Data are in good agreement with the predictions of the energy flux cascade model and the coherent tube model. General features of the antipn annihilation processes have been also studied in particular by means of collective variables like sphericity and thrust which describe jets properties or alignment effects of interactions [fr

  18. Fourier series

    Tolstov, Georgi P

    1962-01-01

    Richard A. Silverman's series of translations of outstanding Russian textbooks and monographs is well-known to people in the fields of mathematics, physics, and engineering. The present book is another excellent text from this series, a valuable addition to the English-language literature on Fourier series.This edition is organized into nine well-defined chapters: Trigonometric Fourier Series, Orthogonal Systems, Convergence of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Trigonometric Series with Decreasing Coefficients, Operations on Fourier Series, Summation of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Double Fourie

  19. Enhanced population of high-l states due to the interplay between multiple scattering and dynamical screening in ion-solid collisions

    Reinhold, C.O. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6373 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1200 (United States); Arbo, D.G. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6373 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1200 (United States); Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Burgdoerfer, J. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6373 (United States); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Gervais, B. [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche Ions Lasers, Laboratoire Mixte, CEA-CNRS-ISMRA, BP 5133, 14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Lamour, E. [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche Ions Lasers, Laboratoire Mixte, CEA-CNRS-ISMRA, BP 5133, 14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Groupe de Physique des Solides, CNRS UMR 75-88, Universites Paris 6 et Paris 7, 75251 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Vernhet, D.; Rozet, J.P. [Groupe de Physique des Solides, CNRS UMR 75-88, Universites Paris 6 et Paris 7, 75251 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2000-02-28

    We present a study of the sub-shell populations of 13.6 MeV/u Ar{sup 17+} ions after transmission through thin carbon foils. We show that the combined effect of the wake field induced by the ion in the solid and multiple collisions leads to a strongly enhanced population of high angular momentum states. These results explain new experimental data for absolute total line emission intensities. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  20. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    Zuberi, M. A. H.

    2014-08-05

    Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not have sharp contrasts to reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function through forward modeling. If properly imaged, internal multiples (internally scattered energy) can enhance the seismic image. Conventionally, to image internal multiples, accurate, sharp contrasts in the velocity model are required to construct a Green’s function with all the scattered energy. As an alternative, we have developed a generalized internal multiple imaging procedure that images any order internal scattering using the background Green’s function (from the surface to each image point), constructed from a smooth velocity model, usually used for conventional imaging. For the first-order internal multiples, the approach consisted of three steps, in which we first back propagated the recorded surface seismic data using the background Green’s function, then crosscorrelated the back-propagated data with the recorded data, and finally crosscorrelated the result with the original background Green’s function. This procedure images the contribution of the recorded first-order internal multiples, and it is almost free of the single-scattering recorded energy. The cost includes one additional crosscorrelation over the conventional single-scattering imaging application. We generalized this method to image internal multiples of any order separately. The resulting images can be added to the conventional single-scattering image, obtained, e.g., from Kirchhoff or reverse-time migration, to enhance the image. Application to synthetic data with reflectors illuminated by multiple scattering (double scattering) demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach.

  1. Unveiling multiple solid-state transitions in pharmaceutical solid dosage forms using multi-series hyperspectral imaging and different curve resolution approaches

    Alexandrino, Guilherme L; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel; Khorasani, Milad Rouhi

    2017-01-01

    Solid-state transitions at the surface of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms (SDF) were monitored using multi-series hyperspectral imaging (HSI) along with Multivariate Curve Resolution – Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC and PARAFAC2). First, the solid-stat...

  2. Analyzing Landsat time-series data across adjacent path/rows and across multiple cycles of FIA: Lessons learned in southern Missouri

    Mark Nelson; Sean Healey; W. Keith Moser; Mark Hansen; Warren Cohen; Mark Hatfield; Nancy Thomas; Jeff Masek

    2009-01-01

    The North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) Program is assessing disturbance and regrowth in the forests of the continent. These forest dynamics are interpreted from per-pixel estimates of forest biomass, which are produced for a time series of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced TM Plus images. Image data are combined with sample plot data from the...

  3. Vector boson scattering at CLIC

    Kilian, Wolfgang; Fleper, Christian [Department Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Reuter, Juergen [DESY Theory Group, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Sekulla, Marco [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Linear colliders operating in a range of multiple TeV are able to investigate the details of vector boson scattering and electroweak symmetry breaking. We calculate cross sections with the Monte Carlo generator WHIZARD for vector boson scattering processes at the future linear e{sup +} e{sup -} collider CLIC. By finding suitable cuts, the vector boson scattering signal processes are isolated from the background. Finally, we are able to determine exclusion sensitivities on the non-Standard Model parameters of the relevant dimension eight operators.

  4. Lectures on the inverse scattering method

    Zakharov, V.E.

    1983-06-01

    In a series of six lectures an elementary introduction to the theory of inverse scattering is given. The first four lectures contain a detailed theory of solitons in the framework of the KdV equation, together with the inverse scattering theory of the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation. In the fifth lecture the dressing method is described, while the sixth lecture gives a brief review of the equations soluble by the inverse scattering method. (author)

  5. Scattering theory and automorphic functions

    Lachaud, G.

    1982-01-01

    After a consideration of the Fourier expansion of an automorphic function corresponding to the group SL(2,R) and a description of the Eisenstein series the author describes the application of these results to the quantum mechanical scattering theory using the group SO(2,R). (HSI)

  6. Bibliography for thermal neutron scattering

    Sakamoto, Masanobu; Chihara, Junzo; Gotoh, Yorio; Kadotani, Hiroyuki; Sekiya, Tamotsu.

    1979-09-01

    Bibliographic references are given for measurements, calculations, reviews and basic studies of thermal neutron scattering and dynamical properties of condensed matter. This is the sixth edition covering 3,326 articles collected up to 1978. The edition being the final issue of the present bibliography series, a forthcoming edition will be published in a new form of bibliography. (author)

  7. 3N scattering in a three-dimensional operator formulation

    Gloeckle, W.; Fachruddin, I.; Elster, C.; Golak, J.; Skibinski, R.; Witala, H.

    2010-01-01

    A recently developed formulation for a direct treatment of the equations for two- and three-nucleon bound states as set of coupled equations of scalar functions depending only on vector momenta is extended to three-nucleon scattering. Starting from the spin-momentum dependence occurring as scalar products in two- and three-nucleon forces together with other scalar functions, we present the Faddeev multiple scattering series in which order by order the spin degrees can be treated analytically leading to 3D integrations over scalar functions depending on momentum vectors only. Such formulation is especially important in view of awaiting extension of 3N Faddeev calculations to projectile energies above the pion production threshold and applications of chiral perturbation theory 3N forces, which are to be most efficiently treated directly in such three-dimensional formulation without having to expand these forces into a partial-wave basis. (orig.)

  8. Light Scattering in Solid IX

    Cardona, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    This is the ninth volume of a well-established series in which expert practitioners discuss topical aspects of light scattering in solids. It reviews recent developments concerning mainly semiconductor nanostructures and inelastic x-ray scattering, including both coherent time-domain and spontaneous scattering studies. In the past few years, light scattering has become one of the most important research and characterization methods for studying carbon nanotubes and semiconducting quantum dots, and a crucial tool for exploring the coupled exciton--photon system in semiconductor cavities. Among the novel techniques discussed in this volume are pump--probe ultrafast measurements and those which use synchrotron radiation as light source. The book addresses improvements in the intensity, beam quality and time synchronization of modern synchrotron sources, which made it possible to measure the phonon dispersion in very small samples and to determine electronic energy bands as well as enabling real-time observations...

  9. Elastic scattering

    Leader, Elliot

    1991-01-01

    With very few unexplained results to challenge conventional ideas, physicists have to look hard to search for gaps in understanding. An area of physics which offers a lot more than meets the eye is elastic and diffractive scattering where particles either 'bounce' off each other, emerging unscathed, or just graze past, emerging relatively unscathed. The 'Blois' workshops provide a regular focus for this unspectacular, but compelling physics, attracting highly motivated devotees

  10. Neutron scattering

    1991-02-01

    The annual report on hand gives an overview of the research work carried out in the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering (LNS) of the ETH Zuerich in 1990. Using the method of neutron scattering, it is possible to examine in detail the static and dynamic properties of the condensed material. In accordance with the multidisciplined character of the method, the LNS has for years maintained a system of intensive co-operation with numerous institutes in the areas of biology, chemistry, solid-state physics, crystallography and materials research. In 1990 over 100 scientists from more than 40 research groups both at home and abroad took part in the experiments. It was again a pleasure to see the number of graduate students present, who were studying for a doctorate and who could be introduced into the neutron scattering during their stay at the LNS and thus were in the position to touch on central ways of looking at a problem in their dissertation using this modern experimental method of solid-state research. In addition to the numerous and interesting ways of formulating the questions to explain the structure, nowadays the scientific programme increasingly includes particularly topical studies in connection with high temperature-supraconductors and materials research

  11. Scattering theory

    Friedrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...

  12. The Diagnostic Drawing Series and the Tree Rating Scale: An Isomorphic Representation of Multiple Personality Disorder, Major Depression, and Schizophrenic Populations.

    Morris, Maureen Batza

    1995-01-01

    The tree drawings of 80 subjects, who were diagnosed with either multiple personality disorder, schizophrenia, or major depression, and a control group, were rated. Patterns were examined and graphs were used to depict results. Certain features were found to distinguish each category. The descriptive statistical findings were both consistent and…

  13. [Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces

    1993-01-01

    This program uses ab-initio and multiple scattering to study surface dynamical processes; high-resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy is used in particular. Off-specular excitation cross sections are much larger if electron energies are in the LEED range (50--300 eV). The analyses have been extended to surfaces of ordered alloys. Phonon eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies were used as inputs to electron-energy-loss multiple scattering cross section calculations. Work on low-energy electron and positron holography is mentioned

  14. Basic scattering theory

    Queen, N.M.

    1978-01-01

    This series of lectures on basic scattering theory were given as part of a course for postgraduate high energy physicists and were designed to acquaint the student with some of the basic language and formalism used for the phenomenological description of nuclear reactions and decay processes used for the study of elementary particle interactions. Well established and model independent aspects of scattering theory, which are the basis of S-matrix theory, are considered. The subject is considered under the following headings; the S-matrix, cross sections and decay rates, phase space, relativistic kinematics, the Mandelstam variables, the flux factor, two-body phase space, Dalitz plots, other kinematic plots, two-particle reactions, unitarity, the partial-wave expansion, resonances (single-channel case), multi-channel resonances, analyticity and crossing, dispersion relations, the one-particle exchange model, the density matrix, mathematical properties of the density matrix, the density matrix in scattering processes, the density matrix in decay processes, and the helicity formalism. Some exercises for the students are included. (U.K.)

  15. Measurements of refractive index and size of a spherical drop from Gaussian beam scattering in the primary rainbow region

    Yu, Haitao; Sun, Hui; Shen, Jianqi; Tropea, Cameron

    2018-03-01

    The primary rainbow observed when light is scattered by a spherical drop has been exploited in the past to measure drop size and relative refractive index. However, if higher spatial resolution is required in denser drop ensembles/sprays, and to avoid then multiple drops simultaneously appearing in the measurement volume, a highly focused beam is desirable, inevitably with a Gaussian intensity profile. The present study examines the primary rainbow pattern resulting when a Gaussian beam is scattered by a spherical drop and estimates the attainable accuracy when extracting size and refractive index. The scattering is computed using generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT) and Debye series decomposition of the Gaussian beam scattering. The results of these simulations show that the measurement accuracy is dependent on both the beam waist radius and the position of the drop in the beam waist.

  16. Infinite series

    Hirschman, Isidore Isaac

    2014-01-01

    This text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students presents a rigorous approach that also emphasizes applications. Encompassing more than the usual amount of material on the problems of computation with series, the treatment offers many applications, including those related to the theory of special functions. Numerous problems appear throughout the book.The first chapter introduces the elementary theory of infinite series, followed by a relatively complete exposition of the basic properties of Taylor series and Fourier series. Additional subjects include series of functions and the app

  17. Monitoring of multiple solid-state transformations at tablet surfaces using multi-series near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and multivariate curve resolution

    Alexandrino, Guilherme L; Khorasani, Milad Rouhi; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of the solid-state stability of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and/or excipients in solid dosage forms during manufacturing and storage is mandatory for safeguarding quality of the final products. In this work, the solid-state transformations in tablets prepared as blends...... of piroxicam monohydrate (API), polyvinylpyrrolidone and the lactose forms monohydrate or anhydrate were studied when the tablets were exposed to the 23-120°C range. Multi-series near-infrared hyperspectral images were obtained from the surface of each sample for unveiling the local evolution of the solid......-state transformations. The preprocessed spectra from the images (dataset) were arranged in augmented matrices, according to the composition of the tablets, and the profile of the overlapped compounds (relative concentration) along the solid-state transformations in the pixels was resolved by using multivariate curve...

  18. High resolution resonant Raman scattering in InP and GaAs

    Kernohan, E.T.M.

    1996-04-01

    Previous studies of III-V semiconductors using resonant Raman scattering have concentrated on measuring the variations in scattering intensity under different excitation conditions. The shape of the Raman line also contains important information, but this has usually been lost because the low signal strengths mean that resolution has been sacrificed for sensitivity. It might therefore be expected that further insights into the processes involved in Raman scattering could be obtained by using high resolution methods. In this thesis I have measured single- and multiple- phonon scattering from bulk GaAs and InP with a spectral resolution better than the intrinsic widths of the Raman lines. For scattering in the region of one longitudinal optic (LO) phonon energy, it is found that in InP the scattering in the allowed and forbidden configurations occur at different Raman shifts, above and below the zone-centre phonon energy respectively. These shifts are used to determine the scattering processes involved, and how they differ between InP and GaAs. The lineshapes obtained in multiple-phonon scattering are found to depend strongly on the excitation energy used, providing evidence for the presence of intermediate resonances. The measured spectra are used to provide information about the phonon dispersion of InP, whose dispersion it is difficult to measure in any other way, and the first evidence is found for an upward dispersion of the LO mode. Raman lineshapes are measured for InP in a magnetic field. The field alters the electronic bandstructure, leading to a series of strong resonances in the Raman efficiency due to interband magneto-optical transitions between Landau levels. This allows multiphonon processes up to sixth-order to be investigated. (author)

  19. Pion deuteron scattering at intermediate energies

    Ferreira, E.M.

    1978-09-01

    A comparison is made of results of calculations of πd elastic scattering cross section using multiple scattering and three-body equations, in relation to their ability to reproduce the experimental data at intermediate energies. It is shown that the two methods of theoretical calculation give quite similar curves for the elastic differential cross sections, and that both fail in reproducing backward scattering data above 200MeV. The new accurate experimental data on πd total cross section as a function of the energy are confronted with the theoretical values obtained from the multiple scattering calculation through the optical theorem. Comparison is made between the values of the real part of the forward amplitude evaluated using dispersion relations and using the multiple scattering method [pt

  20. Optical scattering measurement and analysis

    Stover, John C

    2012-01-01

    Newly included are scatter models for pits and particles as well as the use of wafer scanners to locate and size isolated surface features. New sections cover the multimillion-dollar wafer scanner business, establishing that microroughness is the noise, not the signal, in these systems. Scatter measurements, now routinely used to determine whether small-surface features are pits or particles and inspiring new technology that provides information on particle material, are also discussed. These new capabilities are now supported by a series of international standards, and a new chapter reviews t

  1. Neutron Inelastic Scattering Study of Liquid Argon

    Skoeld, K; Rowe, J M; Ostrowski, G [Solid State Science Div., Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (US); Randolph, P D [Nuclear Technology Div., Idaho Nuclear Corporation, Idaho Falls, Idaho (US)

    1972-02-15

    The inelastic scattering functions for liquid argon have been measured at 85.2 K. The coherent scattering function was obtained from a measurement on pure A-36 and the incoherent function was derived from the result obtained from the A-36 sample and the result obtained from a mixture of A-36 and A-40 for which the scattering is predominantly incoherent. The data, which are presented as smooth scattering functions at constant values of the wave vector transfer in the range 10 - 44/nm, are corrected for multiple scattering contributions and for resolution effects. Such corrections are shown to be essential in the derivation of reliable scattering functions from neutron scattering data. The incoherent data are compared to recent molecular dynamics results and the mean square displacement as a function of time is derived. The coherent data are compared to molecular dynamics results and also, briefly, to some recent theoretical models

  2. Radiation scatter apparatus and method

    Molbert, J. L.; Riddle, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    A radiation scatter gauge includes multiple detector locations for developing separate and independent sets of data from which multiple physical characteristics of a thin material and underlying substrate may be determined. In an illustrated embodiment, the apparatus and method of the invention are directed to determining characteristics of resurfaced pavement by nondestructive testing. More particularly, the density and thickness of a thin asphalt overlay and the density of the underlying pavement may be determined

  3. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of heparin and low molecular weight heparins using size exclusion chromatography with multiple angle laser scattering/refractive index and inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry detectors.

    Ouyang, Yilan; Zeng, Yangyang; Yi, Lin; Tang, Hong; Li, Duxin; Linhardt, Robert J; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2017-11-03

    Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan, has been used as a clinical anticoagulant over 80 years. Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), heparins partially depolymerized using different processes, are widely used as clinical anticoagulants. Qualitative molecular weight (MW) and quantitative mass content analysis are two important factors that contribute to LMWH quality control. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC), relying on multiple angle laser scattering (MALS)/refractive index (RI) detectors, has been developed for accurate analysis of heparin MW in the absence of standards. However, the cations, which ion-pair with the anionic polysaccharide chains of heparin and LMWHs, had not been considered in previous reports. In this study, SEC with MALS/RI and inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry detectors were used in a comprehensive analytical approach taking both anionic polysaccharide and ion-paired cations heparin products. This approach was also applied to quantitative analysis of heparin and LMWHs. Full profiles of MWs and mass recoveries for three commercial heparin/LMWH products, heparin sodium, enoxaparin sodium and nadroparin calcium, were obtained and all showed higher MWs than previously reported. This important improvement more precisely characterized the MW properties of heparin/LMWHs and potentially many other anionic polysaccharides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Light Scattering Reviews, Vol 6 Light Scattering and Remote Sensing of Atmosphere and Surface

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

    2012-01-01

    This is the next volume in series of Light Scattering Reviews. Volumes 1-5 have already been printed by Springer. The volume is composed of several papers ( usually, 10) of leading researchers in the respective field. The main focus of this book is light scattering, radiative transfer and optics of snow.

  5. Music algorithm for imaging of a sound-hard arc in limited-view inverse scattering problem

    Park, Won-Kwang

    2017-07-01

    MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm for a non-iterative imaging of sound-hard arc in limited-view inverse scattering problem is considered. In order to discover mathematical structure of MUSIC, we derive a relationship between MUSIC and an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order. This structure enables us to examine some properties of MUSIC in limited-view problem. Numerical simulations are performed to support the identified structure of MUSIC.

  6. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron scattering in contemporary research, neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  7. SAR Polarimetric Scattering from Natural Terrains

    2017-02-17

    land surfaces. In addition, NMM3D will also be useful for C-, X-, and Ku-bands. NMM3D results will also be implemented in the NASA Earth Observing...unlimited. (3) Multiple Scattering Effects with Cyclical Terms in Active Remote Sensing of Vegetated Surface Using Vector Radiative Transfer Theory...IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, vol. 9, pp. 1414-1429 (2016)) The multiple scattering and

  8. Elastic wave scattering from multiple voids (porosity)

    Thompson, D.O.; Rose, J.H.; Thompson, R.B.; Wormley, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an ultrasonic backscatter measurement technique which provides a convenient way to determine certain characteristics of a distribution of voids (porosity) in materials. A typical ultrasonic sample prepared by placing the ''frit'' in a crucible in an RF induction heater is shown. The results of the measurements were Fourier transformed into an amplitude-frequency description, and were then deconvolved with the transducer response function. Several properties needed to characterize a void distribution are obtained from the experimental results, including average void size, the spatial extent of the voids region, the average void separation, and the volume fraction of material contained in the void distribution. A detailed comparison of values obtained from the ultrasonic measurements with visually determined results is also given

  9. Relativistic multiple scattering X-alpha calculations

    Chermette, H.; Goursot, A.

    1986-01-01

    The necessity to include self-consistent relativistic corrections in molecular calculations has been pointed out for all compounds involving heavy atoms. Most of the changes in the electronic properties are due to the mass-velocity and the so-called Darwin terms so that the use of Wood and Boring's Hamiltonian is very convenient for this purpose as it can be easily included in MSXalpha programs. Although the spin orbit operator effects are only obtained by perturbation theory, the results compare fairly well with experiment and with other relativistic calculations, namely Hartree-Fock-Slater calculations

  10. Single and Multiple Scattered Solar Radiation

    1982-08-30

    quivalento of ANCLST and THrST I - oI O Caculate IIS I the rat in va at Zt FANC f(SltNZEN .PTIlZlNJ SCIANG of PTINZF N ) Figure 1,5 Flow chart of function...1.0 gene Va itv qna1,drntn re WCv ights t7 or OY1r011 2- LO 10 bdMv I)o j1!LS . The rslI L I 11g WCe igIILS C arco us ed to r a Gauss ,ian q 11/id

  11. Filling a gap in multiple scattering theory

    Hovenier, J.W.; Stam, D.M.; Videen, G.; et al,

    2007-01-01

    Horizontal incidence and reflection by a plane-parallel atmosphere is investigated. A peculiar discontinuity of the reflected intensity is discussed. Several interesting properties of the bidirectional reflection function are presented, together with some applications.

  12. Compton scattering revisited

    Pratt, R.H., E-mail: rpratt@pitt.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); LaJohn, L.A., E-mail: lal18@pitt.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Florescu, V., E-mail: flor@barutu.fizica.unibuc.r [Centre for Advanced Quantum Physics, University of Bucharest, MG-11 Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Suric, T., E-mail: suric@irb.h [R. Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Chatterjee, B.K., E-mail: barun_k_chatterjee@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700009 (India); Roy, S.C., E-mail: suprakash.roy@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2010-02-15

    We review the standard theory of Compton scattering from bound electrons, and we describe recent findings that require modification of the usual understanding, noting the nature of consequences for experiment. The subject began with Compton and scattering from free electrons. Experiment actually involved bound electrons, and this was accommodated with the use of impulse approximation (IA), which described inelastic scattering from bound electrons in terms of scattering from free electrons. This was good for the Compton peak but failed for soft final photons. The standard theory was formalized by Eisenberger and Platzman (EP) [1970. Phys. Rev. A 2, 415], whose work also suggested why impulse approximation was better than one would expect, for doubly differential cross sections (DDCS), but not for triply differential cross sections (TDCS). A relativistic version of IA (RIA) was worked out by Ribberfors [1975. Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067]. And Suric et al. [1991. Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 189] and Bergstrom et al. [1993. Phys. Rev. A 48, 1134] developed a full relativistic second order S-matrix treatment, not making impulse approximation, but within independent particle approximation (IPA). Newer developments in the theory of Compton scattering include: (1) Demonstration that the EP estimates of the validity of IA are incorrect, although the qualitative conclusion remains unchanged; IA is not to be understood as the first term in a standard series expansion. (2) The greater validity of IA for DDCS than for the TDCS, which when integrated give DDCS, is related to the existence of a sum rule, only valid for DDCS. (3) The so-called 'asymmetry' of a Compton profile is primarily to be understood as simply the shift of the peak position in the profile; symmetric and anti-symmetric deviations from a shifted Compton profile are very small, except for high Z inner shells where further p{sup -}>.A{sup -}> effects come into play. (4) Most relativistic effects, except at low

  13. Compton scattering revisited

    Pratt, R.H.; LaJohn, L.A.; Florescu, V.; Suric, T.; Chatterjee, B.K.; Roy, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    We review the standard theory of Compton scattering from bound electrons, and we describe recent findings that require modification of the usual understanding, noting the nature of consequences for experiment. The subject began with Compton and scattering from free electrons. Experiment actually involved bound electrons, and this was accommodated with the use of impulse approximation (IA), which described inelastic scattering from bound electrons in terms of scattering from free electrons. This was good for the Compton peak but failed for soft final photons. The standard theory was formalized by Eisenberger and Platzman (EP) [1970. Phys. Rev. A 2, 415], whose work also suggested why impulse approximation was better than one would expect, for doubly differential cross sections (DDCS), but not for triply differential cross sections (TDCS). A relativistic version of IA (RIA) was worked out by Ribberfors [1975. Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067]. And Suric et al. [1991. Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 189] and Bergstrom et al. [1993. Phys. Rev. A 48, 1134] developed a full relativistic second order S-matrix treatment, not making impulse approximation, but within independent particle approximation (IPA). Newer developments in the theory of Compton scattering include: (1) Demonstration that the EP estimates of the validity of IA are incorrect, although the qualitative conclusion remains unchanged; IA is not to be understood as the first term in a standard series expansion. (2) The greater validity of IA for DDCS than for the TDCS, which when integrated give DDCS, is related to the existence of a sum rule, only valid for DDCS. (3) The so-called 'asymmetry' of a Compton profile is primarily to be understood as simply the shift of the peak position in the profile; symmetric and anti-symmetric deviations from a shifted Compton profile are very small, except for high Z inner shells where further p → .A → effects come into play. (4) Most relativistic effects, except at low energies, are to be

  14. Progression of a series of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated for 7 years with natalizumab using the "no evidence of disease activity" parameter.

    Pato Pato, A; Costa Arpín, E; Rodríguez Regal, A; Rodríguez Constenla, I; Cimas Hernando, I; Muñoz Pousa, I; Naya Ríos, L; Lorenzo González, J R; Amigo Jorrín, M C; Prieto González, J M

    2018-05-10

    The safety and effectiveness of natalizumab in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) has been demonstrated in clinical trials. However, due to the limitations of these trials, it is important to know how the condition behaves under long-term clinical practice conditions. To determine the long-term effectiveness of natalizumab in patients with RRMS by means of annual evaluation of the "no evidence of disease activity" (NEDA) parameter, which includes number of relapses, disability (measured with the Expanded Disability Status Scale), and brain MRI parameters. We performed a retrospective study of patients with RRMS from 3 centres who were treated with one or more doses of natalizumab. Each year, we evaluated NEDA status and safety based on the percentage of patients who discontinued treatment with natalizumab and experienced adverse reactions. The study included 89 patients, most of whom received treatment for 2 to 4 years, with a follow-up period of up to 7 years. Natalizumab significantly reduces the radiological and clinical progression of the disease, as well as the annual rate of relapses. The NEDA parameter demonstrates the effectiveness of the drug, with values of 75.28% for year one and 66.67% for year 7. Twenty-five patients (28.1%) dropped out after a median of 4 years. Fourteen of these patients (56%) dropped out due to the appearance of anti-JC virus antibodies, either in isolation or associated with another cause. Four dropouts (16%) were due to treatment ineffectiveness, with one patient dying due to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Natalizumab is highly effective as measured by the NEDA long-term remission parameter. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple rare-earth ion environments in amorphous (Gd2O3)0.230(P2O5)0.770 revealed by gadolinium K-edge anomalous X-ray scattering

    Cole, Jacqueline M.; Cramer, Alisha J.; Shastri, Sarvjit D.; Mukaddem, Karim T.; Newport, Robert J

    2018-04-26

    A Gd K-edge anomalous X-ray scattering (AXS) study is performed on the rare-earth (R) phosphate glass, (Gd2O3)0.230(P2O5)0.770, in order to determine Gd…Gd separations in its local structure. The minimum rare-earth separation is of particular interest given that the optical properties of these glasses can quench when rare-earth ions become too close to each other. To this end, a weak Gd…Gd pairwise correlation is located at 4.2(1) Å which is representative of a meta-phosphate R…R separation. More intense first neighbor Gd…Gd pairwise correlations are found at the larger radial distributions, 4.8(1) Å, 5.1(1) Å and 5.4(1) Å. These reflect a mixed ultra-phosphate and meta-phosphate structural character, respectively. A second neighbor Gd…Gd pairwise correlation lies at 6.6(1) Å which is indicative of meta-phosphate structures. Meta- and ultra-phosphate classifications are made by comparing the R…R separations against those of rare-earth phosphate crystal structures, R(PO3)3 and RP5O14 respectively, or difference pair distribution function (PDF) features determined on similar glasses using difference neutron scattering methods. The local structure of this glass is therefore found to display multiple rare-earth ion environments, presumably because its composition lies between these two stoichiometric formulae. These Gd…Gd separations are well resolved in the PDFs that represent the AXS signal. Indeed, the spatial resolution is so good that it also enables the identification of R…X (X = R, P, O) pairwise correlations up to r ~ 9 Å; their average separations lie at r ~ 7.1(1) Å, 7.6(1) Å 7.9(1) Å, 8.4(1) Å and 8.7(1) Å. This is the first report of a Gd K-edge AXS study on an amorphous material. Its demonstrated ability to characterize the local structure of a glass up to such a long-range of r, heralds exciting prospects for AXS studies on other ternary non-crystalline materials. However, the technical challenge of such an experiment

  16. Mitoxantrone in secondarily progressive multiple sclerosis: a series of 18 patients Mitoxantrone na esclerose múltipla secundária progressiva relato de 18 casos

    María Belén Montú

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitoxantrone hydrochloride (Novantrone® is an anthracenedione that has been used as one of the latest in a long line of general immunosuppresive agents studied in multiple sclerosis (MS. We reviewed the clinical, laboratory, neuroimaging and echocardiography data of 18 patients from February 2001 to March 2004 out of a total number of 100 patients with definite MS. Fourteen patients were women (77.7% and four were men. The mean age of the patients was 41.6±10 years old (confidence intervals 95%: 36.4-46.7 years old. The mean duration of disease was 10.5±6.3 years. Fourteen patients had the secondarily progressive form of MS, and four had the relapsing-remitting form. Mitoxantrone is an useful and clinically effective drug in MS and its major limitation is the potencial cardiotoxicity due to cumulative dose (140 mg.Hidrocloridrato de mitoxantrone (Novantrone® é um antracenedione utilizado como o agente mais recente de uma longa linha de imunossupressivos gerais estudados em esclerose múltipla (EM. Realizamos revisão de dados clínicos, laboratoriais, de neuroimagem e ecocardiografia de 18 pacientes, no período de fevereiro de 2001 a março de 2004, a partir de um total de 100 pacientes com EM definida. Quatorze pacientes eram do sexo feminino (77,7% e quatro eram do sexo masculino. A idade média dos pacientes foi 41,6±10 anos (intervalo de confiança 95%: 36,4-46,7 anos. A duração média da doença foi 10,5±6,3 anos. Quatorze pacientes apresentavam a forma secundária progressiva de EM e quatro a forma surto-remissão. O mitoxantrone é uma droga útil e clinicamente eficaz , sendo a principal limitação sua potencial cardiotoxicidade devido à dose cumulativa (140 mg.

  17. Exact and approximate multiple diffraction calculations

    Alexander, Y.; Wallace, S.J.; Sparrow, D.A.

    1976-08-01

    A three-body potential scattering problem is solved in the fixed scatterer model exactly and approximately to test the validity of commonly used assumptions of multiple scattering calculations. The model problem involves two-body amplitudes that show diffraction-like differential scattering similar to high energy hadron-nucleon amplitudes. The exact fixed scatterer calculations are compared to Glauber approximation, eikonal-expansion results and a noneikonal approximation

  18. Bidirectional optical scattering facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI)The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from a...

  19. On the estimate of deviations of partial sums of a multiple Fourier-Walsh series of the form S2j,⋯,2jf (x ) of a function in the metric L1(Qk)

    Igenberlina, Alua; Matin, Dauren; Turgumbayev, Mendybay

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, deviations of the partial sums of a multiple Fourier-Walsh series of a function in the metric L1(Qk) on a dyadic group are investigated. This estimate plays an important role in the study of equivalent normalizations in this space by means of a difference, oscillation, and best approximation by polynomials in the Walsh system. The classical classical Besov space and its equivalent normalizations are set forth in the well-known monographs of Nikolsky S.M., Besov O.V., Ilyin V.P., Triebel H.; in the works of Kazakh scientists such as Amanov T.I., Mynbaev K.T., Otelbaev M.O., Smailov E.S.. The Besov spaces on the dyadic group and the Vilenkin groups in the one-dimensional case are considered in works by Ombe H., Bloom Walter R, Fournier J., Onneweer C.W., Weyi S., Jun Tateoka.

  20. Asymptotic behaviour of a rescattering series for nonlinear reggeons

    Akkelin, S.V.; Martynov, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    A series of elastic re-scattering (both quasi-eikonal and U-matrix ones) for reggeons with nonlinear trajectories are estimated asymptotically. The calculations are performed for models of supercritical and dipole pomerons. A weak dependence of the series of re-scattering on reggeon trajectory nonlinearity is revealed. 13 refs.; 3 figs