WorldWideScience

Sample records for multiple processing steps

  1. Field theoretical approach to proton-nucleus reactions: II-Multiple-step excitation process

    Eiras, A.; Kodama, T.; Nemes, M.

    1989-01-01

    A field theoretical formulation to multiple step excitation process in proton-nucleus collision within the context of a relativistic eikonal approach is presented. A closed form expression for the double differential cross section can be obtained whose structure is very simple and makes the physics transparent. Glauber's formulation of the same process is obtained as a limit of ours and the necessary approximations are studied and discussed. (author) [pt

  2. Intracellular Calreticulin Regulates Multiple Steps in Fibrillar Collagen Expression, Trafficking, and Processing into the Extracellular Matrix*

    Van Duyn Graham, Lauren; Sweetwyne, Mariya T.; Pallero, Manuel A.; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.

    2009-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT), a chaperone and Ca2+ regulator, enhances wound healing, and its expression correlates with fibrosis in animal models, suggesting that CRT regulates production of the extracellular matrix. However, direct regulation of collagen matrix by CRT has not been previously demonstrated. We investigated the role of CRT in the regulation of fibrillar collagen expression, secretion, processing, and deposition in the extracellular matrix by fibroblasts. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts defi...

  3. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    Niven, W.A.; Shikany, S.D.; Shira, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed

  4. Step-by-step cyclic processes scheduling

    Bocewicz, G.; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaszak, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research is to pro......Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research...... is to provide a declarative model enabling to state a constraint satisfaction problem aimed at AGVs fleet scheduling subject to assumed itineraries of concurrently manufactured product types. In other words, assuming a given layout of FMS’s material handling and production routes of simultaneously manufactured...... orders, the main objective is to provide the declarative framework aimed at conditions allowing one to calculate the AGVs fleet schedule in online mode. An illustrative example of the relevant algebra-like driven step-by-stem cyclic scheduling is provided....

  5. Ten steps to successful software process improvement

    Kandt, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper identifies ten steps for managing change that address organizational and cultural issues. Four of these steps are critical, that if not done, will almost guarantee failure. This ten-step program emphasizes the alignment of business goals, change process goals, and the work performed by the employees of an organization.

  6. 'Steps in the learning Process'

    Cheung, Kyung Mo; Cheung, Hwan

    1984-01-01

    The process by which a student learns is extremely complicated. Whether he is simply learning facts, laws or formulae, changing his values or mastering a skill the way in which his brain functions is impossible to describe. The idea of learning domains is put forward not to explain in biological terms what happens in the brain but simply to attempt to break the system down into simpler units so that the learning process can be organized in an easier, more systematic way. In the most commonly used description of this process, the one described by BLOOM, this is BLOOM's Taxonomy. In addition to, I'd like to compare with the work of Lewis (Levels of Knowledge and Understanding). As a result, let us discuss about the most effective method in teaching in order to supply high-quality education

  7. High-multiplicity processes

    Shelkov, G.; Sisakyan, A.; Mandzhavidze, I.

    1999-01-01

    We wish to demonstrate that investigation of asymptotically high multiplicity (AHM) hadron reactions may solve, or at least clear up, a number of problems unsolvable by other ways. We would lean upon the idea: (i) the reactions final state entropy is proportional to multiplicity and, by this reason, just in the AHM domain one may expect the equilibrium final state and (ii) the AHM final state is cold because of the energy-momentum conservation laws. This means that the collective phenomena may become important in the AHM domain. The possibility of hard processes dominance is considered also

  8. The partner selection process : Steps, effectiveness, governance

    Duisters, D.; Duijsters, G.M.; de Man, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  9. The partner selection process : steps, effectiveness, governance

    Duisters, D.; Duysters, G.M.; Man, de A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  10. Multiple preequilibrium decay processes

    Blann, M.

    1987-11-01

    Several treatments of multiple preequilibrium decay are reviewed with emphasis on the exciton and hybrid models. We show the expected behavior of this decay mode as a function of incident nucleon energy. The algorithms used in the hybrid model treatment are reviewed, and comparisons are made between predictions of the hybrid model and a broad range of experimental results. 24 refs., 20 figs

  11. Lyondell develops one step isobutylene process

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Lyondell Petrochemical Co., Houston, has developed a one step process to convert normal butylenes to isobutylene, a key component of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). MTBE is expected to become the additive of choice among U.S. refiners to blend oxygenated gasolines required by 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act. Lyondell Pres. and Chief Executive Officer Bob Gower the the new process could help assure adequate supplies of MTBE to meet U.S. demand for cleaner burning fuels. Lyondell estimates the capital cost of building a grassroots plant to produce isobutylene with the new process would be less than half the cost of a grassroot plant to produce isobutylene with existing technology starting with normal butane

  12. HETC-3STEP included fragmentation process

    Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Iga, Kiminori; Ishibashi, Kenji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    High Energy Transport Code (HETC) based on the cascade-evaporation model is modified to calculate the fragmentation cross section. For the cascade process, nucleon-nucleon cross sections are used for collision computation; effective in-medium-corrected cross sections are adopted instead of the original free-nucleon collision. The exciton model is adopted for improvement of backward nucleon-emission cross section for low-energy nucleon-incident events. The fragmentation reaction is incorporated into the original HETC as a subroutine set by the use of the systematics of the reaction. The modified HETC (HETC-3STEP/FRG) reproduces experimental fragment yields to a reasonable degree. (author)

  13. Multiple time step integrators in ab initio molecular dynamics

    Luehr, Nathan; Martínez, Todd J.; Markland, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple time-scale algorithms exploit the natural separation of time-scales in chemical systems to greatly accelerate the efficiency of molecular dynamics simulations. Although the utility of these methods in systems where the interactions are described by empirical potentials is now well established, their application to ab initio molecular dynamics calculations has been limited by difficulties associated with splitting the ab initio potential into fast and slowly varying components. Here we present two schemes that enable efficient time-scale separation in ab initio calculations: one based on fragment decomposition and the other on range separation of the Coulomb operator in the electronic Hamiltonian. We demonstrate for both water clusters and a solvated hydroxide ion that multiple time-scale molecular dynamics allows for outer time steps of 2.5 fs, which are as large as those obtained when such schemes are applied to empirical potentials, while still allowing for bonds to be broken and reformed throughout the dynamics. This permits computational speedups of up to 4.4x, compared to standard Born-Oppenheimer ab initio molecular dynamics with a 0.5 fs time step, while maintaining the same energy conservation and accuracy

  14. Positive steps turning into a process

    Božičević Goran

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The conclusion of the research conducted in Croatia for QPSW in 2003 is there is no systematic, accountable and structural confrontation with the past in Croatia, but there is growing concern within the civil society about the problems incurred by the lack of such a confrontation. Two different approaches can be discerned: individual work with particular persons or target groups and advocacy that could influence the alteration of the public opinion and decision-making. Both levels are necessary and they should unfold simultaneously. The systematization and regional cooperation of documentation centers, cooperation between victim organizations and peace initiatives, the inclusion of former warriors into peace building processes the cooperation of artists and activists - represent some of the new and promising steps on the civilian scene in Croatia. The constant strengthening of the independent media and the judiciary, coupled with constant efforts on both levels - the personal and the public - raises hopes that the confrontation with the past in Croatia is a process and not a trend.

  15. One step processing for future diesel specifications

    Brierley, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    The trend in diesel fuel specifications is to limit the sulfur level to less than 0.05 wt- per cent. Many regions have also specified that diesel fuels must have lower aromatic levels, higher cetane numbers, and lower distillation end points. These changes will require significant refinery investment to meet the new diesel fuel specifications. The changes may also significantly affect the value of synthetic crude stocks. UOP has developed a new hydroprocessing catalyst which makes it possible to meet the new diesel specifications in one single processing step and at minimal cost. The catalyst saturates aromatics while opening ring structures at the same time. By selectively cracking heavy components into the diesel range with minimal cracking to gas or naphtha, heavier feedstocks can be upgraded to diesel, and refinery diesel yield can be augmented. Synthetic crude distillate is often high in aromatics and low in cetane number. This new UOP hydroprocessing system will allow synthetic crude producers and refiners to produce diesel fuels with higher cetane numbers, high-quality distillate blendstocks and distillate fuels. 26 figs

  16. Mechanisms of multiple production processes

    Dremin, I.M.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to multiple production processes are discussed. A large number of models proceeds from the notion about common excited system produced by colliding hadrons. This class of models includes the hydrodynamical, statistical, thermodynamical and statistical bootstrap models. Sometimes the production process is due to excitation and decay of two colliding particles. The fragmentation bremsstrahlung and inelastic diffraction models belong to this group. The largest group of models describes the multiple production process as a result of formation of many excited centers. The typical example is the multiperipheral model. An interesting direction is given by the attempts to interrelate the mechanism of multiple production with internal structure of particles that is with their constituents (C-group)'-quarks, gluons, etc. Besides the models there are phenomenological (p group) attempts to connect different features of multiple production. Experimental data indicate the existence of leading and pionization particles thus giving an evidence for applications of different models. The data about increase of total and inclusive cross sections, the behaviour of the mean multiplicity and correlations at high energies provide a clue for further development of multiple production theory

  17. The Effects of Multiple-Step and Single-Step Directions on Fourth and Fifth Grade Students' Grammar Assessment Performance

    Mazerik, Matthew B.

    2006-01-01

    The mean scores of English Language Learners (ELL) and English Only (EO) students in 4th and 5th grade (N = 110), across the teacher-administered Grammar Skills Test, were examined for differences in participants' scores on assessments containing single-step directions and assessments containing multiple-step directions. The results indicated no…

  18. Mean associative multiplicities in deep inelastic processes

    Dzhaparidze, G.Sh.; Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The associative hadron multiplicities in deep inelastic and Drell--Yan processes are studied. In particular the mean multiplicities in different hard processes in QCD are found to be determined by the mean multiplicity in parton jet [ru

  19. Two-Step Plasma Process for Cleaning Indium Bonding Bumps

    Greer, Harold F.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Jones, Todd J.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    A two-step plasma process has been developed as a means of removing surface oxide layers from indium bumps used in flip-chip hybridization (bump bonding) of integrated circuits. The two-step plasma process makes it possible to remove surface indium oxide, without incurring the adverse effects of the acid etching process.

  20. Multiple dual mode counter-current chromatography with variable duration of alternating phase elution steps.

    Kostanyan, Artak E; Erastov, Andrey A; Shishilov, Oleg N

    2014-06-20

    The multiple dual mode (MDM) counter-current chromatography separation processes consist of a succession of two isocratic counter-current steps and are characterized by the shuttle (forward and back) transport of the sample in chromatographic columns. In this paper, the improved MDM method based on variable duration of alternating phase elution steps has been developed and validated. The MDM separation processes with variable duration of phase elution steps are analyzed. Basing on the cell model, analytical solutions are developed for impulse and non-impulse sample loading at the beginning of the column. Using the analytical solutions, a calculation program is presented to facilitate the simulation of MDM with variable duration of phase elution steps, which can be used to select optimal process conditions for the separation of a given feed mixture. Two options of the MDM separation are analyzed: 1 - with one-step solute elution: the separation is conducted so, that the sample is transferred forward and back with upper and lower phases inside the column until the desired separation of the components is reached, and then each individual component elutes entirely within one step; 2 - with multi-step solute elution, when the fractions of individual components are collected in over several steps. It is demonstrated that proper selection of the duration of individual cycles (phase flow times) can greatly increase the separation efficiency of CCC columns. Experiments were carried out using model mixtures of compounds from the GUESSmix with solvent systems hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water. The experimental results are compared to the predictions of the theory. A good agreement between theory and experiment has been demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multivariate statistical analysis of a multi-step industrial processes

    Reinikainen, S.P.; Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring and quality control of industrial processes often produce information on how the data have been obtained. In batch processes, for instance, the process is carried out in stages; some process or control parameters are set at each stage. However, the obtained data might not be utilized...... efficiently, even if this information may reveal significant knowledge about process dynamics or ongoing phenomena. When studying the process data, it may be important to analyse the data in the light of the physical or time-wise development of each process step. In this paper, a unified approach to analyse...... multivariate multi-step processes, where results from each step are used to evaluate future results, is presented. The methods presented are based on Priority PLS Regression. The basic idea is to compute the weights in the regression analysis for given steps, but adjust all data by the resulting score vectors...

  2. Can Reduced-Step Polishers Be as Effective as Multiple-Step Polishers in Enhancing Surface Smoothness?

    Kemaloglu, Hande; Karacolak, Gamze; Turkun, L Sebnem

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various finishing and polishing systems on the final surface roughness of a resin composite. Hypotheses tested were: (1) reduced-step polishing systems are as effective as multiple-step systems on reducing the surface roughness of a resin composite and (2) the number of application steps in an F/P system has no effect on reducing surface roughness. Ninety discs of a nano-hybrid resin composite were fabricated and divided into nine groups (n = 10). Except the control, all of the specimens were roughened prior to be polished by: Enamel Plus Shiny, Venus Supra, One-gloss, Sof-Lex Wheels, Super-Snap, Enhance/PoGo, Clearfil Twist Dia, and rubber cups. The surface roughness was measured and the surfaces were examined under scanning electron microscope. Results were analyzed with analysis of variance and Holm-Sidak's multiple comparisons test (p One-gloss, Enamel Plus Shiny, and Venus Supra groups. (1) The number of application steps has no effect on the performance of F/P systems. (2) Reduced-step polishers used after a finisher can be preferable to multiple-step systems when used on nanohybrid resin composites. (3) The effect of F/P systems on surface roughness seems to be material-dependent rather than instrument- or system-dependent. Reduced-step systems used after a prepolisher can be an acceptable alternative to multiple-step systems on enhancing the surface smoothness of a nanohybrid composite; however, their effectiveness depends on the materials' properties. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29:31-40, 2017). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Multiple-time-stepping generalized hybrid Monte Carlo methods

    Escribano, Bruno, E-mail: bescribano@bcamath.org [BCAM—Basque Center for Applied Mathematics, E-48009 Bilbao (Spain); Akhmatskaya, Elena [BCAM—Basque Center for Applied Mathematics, E-48009 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Reich, Sebastian [Universität Potsdam, Institut für Mathematik, D-14469 Potsdam (Germany); Azpiroz, Jon M. [Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (UPV/EHU) and Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P.K. 1072, Donostia (Spain)

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method [1], which proved to be superior in sampling efficiency over its predecessors [2–4], molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo, can be further improved by combining it with multi-time-stepping (MTS) and mollification of slow forces. We demonstrate that the comparatively simple modifications of the method not only lead to better performance of GSHMC itself but also allow for beating the best performed methods, which use the similar force splitting schemes. In addition we show that the same ideas can be successfully applied to the conventional generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method (GHMC). The resulting methods, MTS-GHMC and MTS-GSHMC, provide accurate reproduction of thermodynamic and dynamical properties, exact temperature control during simulation and computational robustness and efficiency. MTS-GHMC uses a generalized momentum update to achieve weak stochastic stabilization to the molecular dynamics (MD) integrator. MTS-GSHMC adds the use of a shadow (modified) Hamiltonian to filter the MD trajectories in the HMC scheme. We introduce a new shadow Hamiltonian formulation adapted to force-splitting methods. The use of such Hamiltonians improves the acceptance rate of trajectories and has a strong impact on the sampling efficiency of the method. Both methods were implemented in the open-source MD package ProtoMol and were tested on a water and a protein systems. Results were compared to those obtained using a Langevin Molly (LM) method [5] on the same systems. The test results demonstrate the superiority of the new methods over LM in terms of stability, accuracy and sampling efficiency. This suggests that putting the MTS approach in the framework of hybrid Monte Carlo and using the natural stochasticity offered by the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo lead to improving stability of MTS and allow for achieving larger step sizes in the simulation of complex systems.

  4. Mean associated multiplicities in deep inelastic processes

    Dzhaparidze, G.Sh.; Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A formula is derived for the mean hadron multiplicity in the target fragmentation range of deep inelastic scattering processes. It is shown that in the high-x region the ratio of the mean multiplicities in the current fragmentation region and in the target fragmentation region tends to unity at high energies. The mean multiplicity for the Drell-Yan process is considered

  5. Step by Step: Biology Undergraduates’ Problem-Solving Procedures during Multiple-Choice Assessment

    Prevost, Luanna B.; Lemons, Paula P.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the theoretical framework of domain-specific problem solving to explore the procedures students use to solve multiple-choice problems about biology concepts. We designed several multiple-choice problems and administered them on four exams. We trained students to produce written descriptions of how they solved the problem, and this allowed us to systematically investigate their problem-solving procedures. We identified a range of procedures and organized them as domain general, domain specific, or hybrid. We also identified domain-general and domain-specific errors made by students during problem solving. We found that students use domain-general and hybrid procedures more frequently when solving lower-order problems than higher-order problems, while they use domain-specific procedures more frequently when solving higher-order problems. Additionally, the more domain-specific procedures students used, the higher the likelihood that they would answer the problem correctly, up to five procedures. However, if students used just one domain-general procedure, they were as likely to answer the problem correctly as if they had used two to five domain-general procedures. Our findings provide a categorization scheme and framework for additional research on biology problem solving and suggest several important implications for researchers and instructors. PMID:27909021

  6. Step by Step: Biology Undergraduates' Problem-Solving Procedures during Multiple-Choice Assessment.

    Prevost, Luanna B; Lemons, Paula P

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the theoretical framework of domain-specific problem solving to explore the procedures students use to solve multiple-choice problems about biology concepts. We designed several multiple-choice problems and administered them on four exams. We trained students to produce written descriptions of how they solved the problem, and this allowed us to systematically investigate their problem-solving procedures. We identified a range of procedures and organized them as domain general, domain specific, or hybrid. We also identified domain-general and domain-specific errors made by students during problem solving. We found that students use domain-general and hybrid procedures more frequently when solving lower-order problems than higher-order problems, while they use domain-specific procedures more frequently when solving higher-order problems. Additionally, the more domain-specific procedures students used, the higher the likelihood that they would answer the problem correctly, up to five procedures. However, if students used just one domain-general procedure, they were as likely to answer the problem correctly as if they had used two to five domain-general procedures. Our findings provide a categorization scheme and framework for additional research on biology problem solving and suggest several important implications for researchers and instructors. © 2016 L. B. Prevost and P. P. Lemons. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Very high multiplicity hadron processes

    Mandzhavidze, I.; Sisakyan, A.

    2000-01-01

    The paper contains a description of a first attempt to understand the extremely inelastic high energy hadron collisions, when the multiplicity of produced hadrons considerably exceeds its mean value. Problems with existing model predictions are discussed. The real-time finite-temperature S-matrix theory is built to have a possibility to find model-free predictions. This allows one to include the statistical effects into consideration and build the phenomenology. The questions to experiment are formulated at the very end of the paper

  8. On an efficient multiple time step Monte Carlo simulation of the SABR model

    Leitao Rodriguez, A.; Grzelak, L.A.; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we will present a multiple time step Monte Carlo simulation technique for pricing options under the Stochastic Alpha Beta Rho model. The proposed method is an extension of the one time step Monte Carlo method that we proposed in an accompanying paper Leitao et al. [Appl. Math.

  9. Mean associated multiplicities in deep inelastic processes

    Dzhaparidze, G.S.; Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A formula is derived for the mean multiplicity of hadrons in the target-fragmentation region in the process of deep inelastic scattering. It is shown that in the region of large x the ratio of the mean multiplicities in the current- and target-fragmentation regions tends to unity at high energies. The mean multiplicity in the Drell-Yan process is also discussed

  10. 48 CFR 15.202 - Advisory multi-step process.

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Solicitation and Receipt of Proposals and Information 15.202 Advisory multi-step process. (a) The agency may publish a presolicitation notice (see 5.204) that provides a general description of the scope or purpose of the acquisition and invites potential...

  11. Step wise, multiple objective calibration of a hydrologic model for a snowmelt dominated basin

    Hay, L.E.; Leavesley, G.H.; Clark, M.P.; Markstrom, S.L.; Viger, R.J.; Umemoto, M.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to apply a hydrologic model to large numbers of basins for forecasting purposes requires a quick and effective calibration strategy. This paper presents a step wise, multiple objective, automated procedure for hydrologic model calibration. This procedure includes the sequential calibration of a model's simulation of solar radiation (SR), potential evapotranspiration (PET), water balance, and daily runoff. The procedure uses the Shuffled Complex Evolution global search algorithm to calibrate the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation Runoff Modeling System in the Yampa River basin of Colorado. This process assures that intermediate states of the model (SR and PET on a monthly mean basis), as well as the water balance and components of the daily hydrograph are simulated, consistently with measured values.

  12. High pressure as an alternative processing step for ham production.

    Pingen, Sylvia; Sudhaus, Nadine; Becker, André; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Günter

    2016-08-01

    As high pressure processing (HPP) is becoming more and more important in the food industry, this study examined the application of HPP (500 and 600MPa) as a manufacturing step during simulated ham production. By replacing conventional heating with HPP steps, ham-like texture or color attributes could not be achieved. HPP products showed a less pale, less red appearance, softer texture and higher yields. However, a combination of mild temperature (53°C) and 500MPa resulted in parameters more comparable to cooked ham. We conclude that HPP can be used for novel food development, providing novel textures and colors. However, when it comes to ham production, a heating step seems to be unavoidable to obtain characteristic ham properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Strategic planning: the first step in the planning process.

    Gelinas, Marc A

    2003-01-01

    Strategic planning is a systematic process through which an organization builds commitment among key stakeholders to goals and priorities which are essential to its mission and vision, and responsive to the operating environment. Strategic planning is the first step in a comprehensive planning process that also includes business planning and implementation planning. If all three steps are carried out in sequence, strategic planning can be a very effective means of educating the stakeholders about where the cancer program is and where it is going, gaining support and commitment for the direction that the cancer program will take, and assuring that everyone's expectations can be managed effectively. Unfortunately, some organizations and cancer program leaders misunderstand the process. Too often, strategic planning is used as a stand-alone activity. This article will describe what strategic planning is, how it should smoothly lead into business planning and implementation planning, and how to avoid the pitfalls that sometimes arise during the strategic planning effort.

  14. Multi-Step Deep Reactive Ion Etching Fabrication Process for Silicon-Based Terahertz Components

    Jung-Kubiak, Cecile (Inventor); Reck, Theodore (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Perez, Jose Vicente Siles (Inventor); Lin, Robert H. (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Cooper, Ken B. (Inventor); Peralta, Alejandro (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A multi-step silicon etching process has been developed to fabricate silicon-based terahertz (THz) waveguide components. This technique provides precise dimensional control across multiple etch depths with batch processing capabilities. Nonlinear and passive components such as mixers and multipliers waveguides, hybrids, OMTs and twists have been fabricated and integrated into a small silicon package. This fabrication technique enables a wafer-stacking architecture to provide ultra-compact multi-pixel receiver front-ends in the THz range.

  15. Modified random hinge transport mechanics and multiple scattering step-size selection in EGS5

    Wilderman, S.J.; Bielajew, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    The new transport mechanics in EGS5 allows for significantly longer electron transport step sizes and hence shorter computation times than required for identical problems in EGS4. But as with all Monte Carlo electron transport algorithms, certain classes of problems exhibit step-size dependencies even when operating within recommended ranges, sometimes making selection of step-sizes a daunting task for novice users. Further contributing to this problem, because of the decoupling of multiple scattering and continuous energy loss in the dual random hinge transport mechanics of EGS5, there are two independent step sizes in EGS5, one for multiple scattering and one for continuous energy loss, each of which influences speed and accuracy in a different manner. Further, whereas EGS4 used a single value of fractional energy loss (ESTEPE) to determine step sizes at all energies, to increase performance by decreasing the amount of effort expended simulating lower energy particles, EGS5 permits the fractional energy loss values which are used to determine both the multiple scattering and continuous energy loss step sizes to vary with energy. This results in requiring the user to specify four fractional energy loss values when optimizing computations for speed. Thus, in order to simplify step-size selection and to mitigate step-size dependencies, a method has been devised to automatically optimize step-size selection based on a single material dependent input related to the size of problem tally region. In this paper we discuss the new transport mechanics in EGS5 and describe the automatic step-size optimization algorithm. (author)

  16. Multiple paternity in reptiles: patterns and processes.

    Uller, Tobias; Olsson, Mats

    2008-06-01

    The evolution of female promiscuity poses an intriguing problem as benefits of mating with multiple males often have to arise via indirect, genetic, effects. Studies on birds have documented that multiple paternity is common in natural populations but strong evidence for selection via female benefits is lacking. In an attempt to evaluate the evidence more broadly, we review studies of multiple paternity in natural populations of all major groups of nonavian reptiles. Multiple paternity has been documented in all species investigated so far and commonly exists in over 50% of clutches, with particularly high levels in snakes and lizards. Marine turtles and lizards with prolonged pair-bonding have relatively low levels of multiple paternity but levels are nevertheless higher than in many vertebrates with parental care. There is no evidence that high levels of polyandry are driven by direct benefits to females and the evidence that multiple paternity arises from indirect genetic benefits is weak. Instead, we argue that the most parsimonious explanation for patterns of multiple paternity is that it represents the combined effect of mate-encounter frequency and conflict over mating rates between males and females driven by large male benefits and relatively small female costs, with only weak selection via indirect benefits. A crucial step for researchers is to move from correlative approaches to experimental tests of assumptions and predictions of theory under natural settings, using a combination of molecular techniques and behavioural observations.

  17. Two-step estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Guan, Yongtao

    This paper is concerned with parameter estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes with a regression model for the intensity function and tractable second order properties (K-function). Regression parameters are estimated using a Poisson likelihood score estimating function and in a second...... step minimum contrast estimation is applied for the residual clustering parameters. Asymptotic normality of parameter estimates is established under certain mixing conditions and we exemplify how the results may be applied in ecological studies of rain forests....

  18. Development process and data management of TurnSTEP, a STEP-compliant CNC system for turning

    Choi, I.; Suh, S.-H; Kim, K.; Song, M.S.; Jang, M.; Lee, B.-E.

    2006-01-01

    TurnSTEP is one of the earliest STEP-compliant CNC systems for turning. Based on the STEP-NC data model formalized as ISO 14649-12 and 121, it is designed to support intelligent and autonomous control of NC machines for e-manufacturing. The present paper introduces the development process and data

  19. A ten-step process to develop case management plans.

    Tahan, Hussein A

    2002-01-01

    The use of case management plans has contained cost and improved quality of care successfully. However, the process of developing these plans remains a great challenge for healthcare executives, in this article, the author presents the answer to this challenge by discussing a 10-step formal process that administrators of patient care services and case managers can adapt to their institutions. It also can be used by interdisciplinary team members as a practical guide to develop a specific case management plan. This process is applicable to any care setting (acute, ambulatory, long term, and home care), diagnosis, or procedure. It is particularly important for those organizations that currently do not have a deliberate and systematic process to develop case management plans and are struggling with how to improve the efficiency and productivity of interdisciplinary teams charged with developing case management plans.

  20. Multiple photon infrared processes in polyatomic molecules

    Harrison, R.G.; Butcher, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews current understanding of the process of multiple photon excitation and dissociation of polyatomic molecules, whereby in the presence of an intense infrared laser field a molecule may absorb upwards of 30 photons. The application of this process to new photochemistry and in particular laser isotope separation is also discussed. (author)

  1. On the sequentiality of the multiple Coulomb-excitation process

    Dannhaeuser, G.; Boer, J. de

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the results of 'computer experiments' illustrating the meaning of a new concept called 'sequentiality'. This concept applies to processes in which the excitation of a given state is mainly accomplished by a large multiple of steps, and it deals with the question as to what extent a transition close to the ground state occurs before one between the highest excited states. (orig.) [de

  2. Two-step estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Guan, Yongtao

    2009-01-01

    The paper is concerned with parameter estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes with a regression model for the intensity function and tractable second-order properties (K-function). Regression parameters are estimated by using a Poisson likelihood score estimating function and in the ...... and in the second step minimum contrast estimation is applied for the residual clustering parameters. Asymptotic normality of parameter estimates is established under certain mixing conditions and we exemplify how the results may be applied in ecological studies of rainforests....

  3. Binaural Processing of Multiple Sound Sources

    2016-08-18

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0298 Binaural Processing of Multiple Sound Sources William Yost ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY 660 S MILL AVE STE 312 TEMPE, AZ 85281...18-08-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Jul 2012 to 14 Jul 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Binaural Processing of...three topics cited above are entirely within the scope of the AFOSR grant. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Binaural hearing, Sound Localization, Interaural signal

  4. Neptunium control in co-decontamination step of purex process

    Zhang Zefu; He Jianyu; Zhu Zhaowu; Ye Guoan; Zhao Zhiqiang

    2002-01-01

    A new alternative method for separation of Np in the first co-decontamination step is proposed. It comprises two steps, namely, preconditioning of Np valence state in the dissolved solution of spent fuel by NO gas bubbling in HNO 3 medium to produce HNO 2 , which is considered as salt-free process to convert Np(VI) to Np(V) and stabilization of Np(V) with urea, finally, the demonstrative counter current cascade extraction of Np(IV) and Np(V) in a miniature mixer-settler was carried out. The batch experiments show that Np(V) produced after conditioning may be slowly oxidized again to Np(VI) during standing time. Addition of urea in the HNO 3 solution might enhance the stability of Np(V). On the other hand, the solvent extraction by 30% TBP/kerosene could greatly accelerate the oxidation rate of Np(V). The chemical flow sheet study at 25degC shows that, more than 98% of Np could be routed into HLLW if urea is added in the HNO 3 solution. The operating temperature has great influence on the kinetics of Np(V) oxidation. If operation temperature races to 36degC and urea is not added, about 38% of Np will go along with U and Pu into organic phase. The behavior of Np(IV) during extraction shows great accumulation in the middle stages of battery. (author)

  5. Magnetoresistance in hybrid organic spin valves at the onset of multiple-step tunneling.

    Schoonus, J J H M; Lumens, P G E; Wagemans, W; Kohlhepp, J T; Bobbert, P A; Swagten, H J M; Koopmans, B

    2009-10-02

    By combining experiments with simple model calculations, we obtain new insight in spin transport through hybrid, CoFeB/Al2O3(1.5 nm)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq3)/Co spin valves. We have measured the characteristic changes in the I-V behavior as well as the intrinsic loss of magnetoresistance at the onset of multiple-step tunneling. In the regime of multiple-step tunneling, under the condition of low hopping rates, spin precession in the presence of hyperfine coupling is conjectured to be the relevant source of spin relaxation. A quantitative analysis leads to the prediction of a symmetric magnetoresistance around zero magnetic field in addition to the hysteretic magnetoresistance curves, which are indeed observed in our experiments.

  6. Multiple Time-Step Dual-Hamiltonian Hybrid Molecular Dynamics - Monte Carlo Canonical Propagation Algorithm.

    Chen, Yunjie; Kale, Seyit; Weare, Jonathan; Dinner, Aaron R; Roux, Benoît

    2016-04-12

    A multiple time-step integrator based on a dual Hamiltonian and a hybrid method combining molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) is proposed to sample systems in the canonical ensemble. The Dual Hamiltonian Multiple Time-Step (DHMTS) algorithm is based on two similar Hamiltonians: a computationally expensive one that serves as a reference and a computationally inexpensive one to which the workload is shifted. The central assumption is that the difference between the two Hamiltonians is slowly varying. Earlier work has shown that such dual Hamiltonian multiple time-step schemes effectively precondition nonlinear differential equations for dynamics by reformulating them into a recursive root finding problem that can be solved by propagating a correction term through an internal loop, analogous to RESPA. Of special interest in the present context, a hybrid MD-MC version of the DHMTS algorithm is introduced to enforce detailed balance via a Metropolis acceptance criterion and ensure consistency with the Boltzmann distribution. The Metropolis criterion suppresses the discretization errors normally associated with the propagation according to the computationally inexpensive Hamiltonian, treating the discretization error as an external work. Illustrative tests are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  7. Somatic embryogenesis and in-vitro regeneration of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars under one-step and multiple-step salinity stresses

    Khattak, Mohammad S. K.; Abiri, Rambod; Valdiani, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of one-step and multiple-step salinity stress on the somatic embryogenesis of rice cultivars within the solid and liquid (cell suspension) culture media conditions. Five rice cultivars, including Puteh Perak, Mahsuri, Basmati-370, Nona Bokra and Khari......, and significant morphological changes were observed. In contrast, the multiple-step NaCl treatment of the calli and cell suspensions led to higher growth of the cultures in the presence of NaCl compared to the controls. The solid MS media, containing 3 μM IAA and 40 μM Kinetin performed as the best media...

  8. Multiple scattering processes: inverse and direct

    Kagiwada, H.H.; Kalaba, R.; Ueno, S.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the work is to formulate inverse problems in radiative transfer, to introduce the functions b and h as parameters of internal intensity in homogeneous slabs, and to derive initial value problems to replace the more traditional boundary value problems and integral equations of multiple scattering with high computational efficiency. The discussion covers multiple scattering processes in a one-dimensional medium; isotropic scattering in homogeneous slabs illuminated by parallel rays of radiation; the theory of functions b and h in homogeneous slabs illuminated by isotropic sources of radiation either at the top or at the bottom; inverse and direct problems of multiple scattering in slabs including internal sources; multiple scattering in inhomogeneous media, with particular reference to inverse problems for estimation of layers and total thickness of inhomogeneous slabs and to multiple scattering problems with Lambert's law and specular reflectors underlying slabs; and anisotropic scattering with reduction of the number of relevant arguments through axially symmetric fields and expansion in Legendre functions. Gaussian quadrature data for a seven point formula, a FORTRAN program for computing the functions b and h, and tables of these functions supplement the text

  9. Phase transitions in multiplicative competitive processes

    Shimazaki, Hideaki; Niebur, Ernst

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a discrete multiplicative process as a generic model of competition. Players with different abilities successively join the game and compete for finite resources. Emergence of dominant players and evolutionary development occur as a phase transition. The competitive dynamics underlying this transition is understood from a formal analogy to statistical mechanics. The theory is applicable to bacterial competition, predicting novel population dynamics near criticality

  10. Dynamics Of Innovation Diffusion With Two Step Decision Process

    Szymczyk Michał

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the dynamics of innovation diffusion among heterogeneous consumers. We assume that customers’ decision making process is divided into two steps: testing the innovation and later potential adopting. Such a model setup is designed to imitate the mobile applications market. An innovation provider, to some extent, can control the innovation diffusion by two parameters: product quality and marketing activity. Using the multi-agent approach we identify factors influencing the saturation level and the speed of innovation adaptation in the artificial population. The results show that the expected level of innovation adoption among customer’s friends and relative product quality and marketing campaign intensity are crucial factors explaining them. It has to be stressed that the product quality is more important for innovation saturation level and marketing campaign has bigger influence on the speed of diffusion. The topology of social network between customers is found important, but within investigated parameter range it has lover impact on innovation diffusion dynamics than the above mentioned factors

  11. Disciplinary Counseling: The First Step toward Due Process.

    Cunningham, Patrick J.

    1980-01-01

    The oral reprimand is seen as the most important step in a corrective discipline procedure. Steps of disciplinary counseling include: always counsel in a private place; identify the problem; identify the desired behavior; define the consequences; get commitment from employee; identify session as oral reprimand; and monitor and follow up.(MLW)

  12. Comprehension of Multiple Documents with Conflicting Information: A Two-Step Model of Validation

    Richter, Tobias; Maier, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we examine the cognitive processes that are involved when readers comprehend conflicting information in multiple texts. Starting from the notion of routine validation during comprehension, we argue that readers' prior beliefs may lead to a biased processing of conflicting information and a one-sided mental model of controversial…

  13. Kalman Filtering for Discrete Stochastic Systems with Multiplicative Noises and Random Two-Step Sensor Delays

    Dongyan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the optimal Kalman filtering problem for a class of discrete stochastic systems with multiplicative noises and random two-step sensor delays. Three Bernoulli distributed random variables with known conditional probabilities are introduced to characterize the phenomena of the random two-step sensor delays which may happen during the data transmission. By using the state augmentation approach and innovation analysis technique, an optimal Kalman filter is constructed for the augmented system in the sense of the minimum mean square error (MMSE. Subsequently, the optimal Kalman filtering is derived for corresponding augmented system in initial instants. Finally, a simulation example is provided to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed filtering method.

  14. Design and fabrication of a chitosan hydrogel with gradient structures via a step-by-step cross-linking process.

    Xu, Yongxiang; Yuan, Shenpo; Han, Jianmin; Lin, Hong; Zhang, Xuehui

    2017-11-15

    The development of scaffolds to mimic the gradient structure of natural tissue is an important consideration for effective tissue engineering. In the present study, a physical cross-linking chitosan hydrogel with gradient structures was fabricated via a step-by-step cross-linking process using sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium hydroxide as sequential cross-linkers. Chitosan hydrogels with different structures (single, double, and triple layers) were prepared by modifying the gelling process. The properties of the hydrogels were further adjusted by varying the gelling conditions, such as gelling time, pH, and composition of the crosslinking solution. Slight cytotoxicity was showed in MTT assay for hydrogels with uncross-linking chitosan solution and non-cytotoxicity was showed for other hydrogels. The results suggest that step-by-step cross-linking represents a practicable method to fabricate scaffolds with gradient structures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Simulation of Unique Pressure Changing Steps and Situations in Psa Processes

    Ebner, Armin D.; Mehrotra, Amal; Knox, James C.; LeVan, Douglas; Ritter, James A.

    2007-01-01

    A more rigorous cyclic adsorption process simulator is being developed for use in the development and understanding of new and existing PSA processes. Unique features of this new version of the simulator that Ritter and co-workers have been developing for the past decade or so include: multiple absorbent layers in each bed, pressure drop in the column, valves for entering and exiting flows and predicting real-time pressurization and depressurization rates, ability to account for choked flow conditions, ability to pressurize and depressurize simultaneously from both ends of the columns, ability to equalize between multiple pairs of columns, ability to equalize simultaneously from both ends of pairs of columns, and ability to handle very large pressure ratios and hence velocities associated with deep vacuum systems. These changes to the simulator now provide for unique opportunities to study the effects of novel pressure changing steps and extreme process conditions on the performance of virtually any commercial or developmental PSA process. This presentation will provide an overview of the cyclic adsorption process simulator equations and algorithms used in the new adaptation. It will focus primarily on the novel pressure changing steps and their effects on the performance of a PSA system that epitomizes the extremes of PSA process design and operation. This PSA process is a sorbent-based atmosphere revitalization (SBAR) system that NASA is developing for new manned exploration vehicles. This SBAR system consists of a 2-bed 3-step 3-layer system that operates between atmospheric pressure and the vacuum of space, evacuates from both ends of the column simultaneously, experiences choked flow conditions during pressure changing steps, and experiences a continuously changing feed composition, as it removes metabolic CO2 and H20 from a closed and fixed volume, i.e., the spacecraft cabin. Important process performance indicators of this SBAR system are size, and the

  16. Validation of patient determined disease steps (PDDS) scale scores in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Learmonth, Yvonne C; Motl, Robert W; Sandroff, Brian M; Pula, John H; Cadavid, Diego

    2013-04-25

    The Patient Determined Disease Steps (PDDS) is a promising patient-reported outcome (PRO) of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, there is limited evidence regarding the validity of PDDS scores, despite its sound conceptual development and broad inclusion in MS research. This study examined the validity of the PDDS based on (1) the association with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores and (2) the pattern of associations between PDDS and EDSS scores with Functional System (FS) scores as well as ambulatory and other outcomes. 96 persons with MS provided demographic/clinical information, completed the PDDS and other PROs including the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12), and underwent a neurological examination for generating FS and EDSS scores. Participants completed assessments of cognition, ambulation including the 6-minute walk (6 MW), and wore an accelerometer during waking hours over seven days. There was a strong correlation between EDSS and PDDS scores (ρ = .783). PDDS and EDSS scores were strongly correlated with Pyramidal (ρ = .578 &ρ = .647, respectively) and Cerebellar (ρ = .501 &ρ = .528, respectively) FS scores as well as 6 MW distance (ρ = .704 &ρ = .805, respectively), MSWS-12 scores (ρ = .801 &ρ = .729, respectively), and accelerometer steps/day (ρ = -.740 &ρ = -.717, respectively). This study provides novel evidence supporting the PDDS as valid PRO of disability in MS.

  17. Sequential multiple-step europium ion implantation and annealing of GaN

    Miranda, S. M C; Edwards, Paul R.; O'Donnell, Kevin Peter; Boćkowski, Michał X.; Alves, Eduardo Jorge; Roqan, Iman S.; Vantomme, André ; Lorenz, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Sequential multiple Eu ion implantations at low fluence (1×1013 cm-2 at 300 keV) and subsequent rapid thermal annealing (RTA) steps (30 s at 1000 °C or 1100 °C) were performed on high quality nominally undoped GaN films grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and medium quality GaN:Mg grown by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE). Compared to samples implanted in a single step, multiple implantation/annealing shows only marginal structural improvement for the MOCVD samples, but a significant improvement of crystal quality and optical activation of Eu was achieved in the HVPE films. This improvement is attributed to the lower crystalline quality of the starting material, which probably enhances the diffusion of defects and acts to facilitate the annealing of implantation damage and the effective incorporation of the Eu ions in the crystal structure. Optical activation of Eu3+ ions in the HVPE samples was further improved by high temperature and high pressure annealing (HTHP) up to 1400 °C. After HTHP annealing the main room temperature cathodo- and photoluminescence line in Mg-doped samples lies at ∼ 619 nm, characteristic of a known Mg-related Eu3+ centre, while after RTA treatment the dominant line lies at ∼ 622 nm, typical for undoped GaN:Eu. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Sequential multiple-step europium ion implantation and annealing of GaN

    Miranda, S. M C

    2014-01-20

    Sequential multiple Eu ion implantations at low fluence (1×1013 cm-2 at 300 keV) and subsequent rapid thermal annealing (RTA) steps (30 s at 1000 °C or 1100 °C) were performed on high quality nominally undoped GaN films grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and medium quality GaN:Mg grown by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE). Compared to samples implanted in a single step, multiple implantation/annealing shows only marginal structural improvement for the MOCVD samples, but a significant improvement of crystal quality and optical activation of Eu was achieved in the HVPE films. This improvement is attributed to the lower crystalline quality of the starting material, which probably enhances the diffusion of defects and acts to facilitate the annealing of implantation damage and the effective incorporation of the Eu ions in the crystal structure. Optical activation of Eu3+ ions in the HVPE samples was further improved by high temperature and high pressure annealing (HTHP) up to 1400 °C. After HTHP annealing the main room temperature cathodo- and photoluminescence line in Mg-doped samples lies at ∼ 619 nm, characteristic of a known Mg-related Eu3+ centre, while after RTA treatment the dominant line lies at ∼ 622 nm, typical for undoped GaN:Eu. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Computer experiments of the time-sequence of individual steps in multiple Coulomb-excitation

    Boer, J. de; Dannhaueser, G.

    1982-01-01

    The way in which the multiple E2 steps in the Coulomb-excitation of a rotational band of a nucleus follow one another is elucidated for selected examples using semiclassical computer experiments. The role a given transition plays for the excitation of a given final state is measured by a quantity named ''importance function''. It is found that these functions, calculated for the highest rotational state, peak at times forming a sequence for the successive E2 transitions starting from the ground state. This sequential behaviour is used to approximately account for the effects on the projectile orbit of the sequential transfer of excitation energy and angular momentum from projectile to target. These orbits lead to similar deflection functions and cross sections as those obtained from a symmetrization procedure approximately accounting for the transfer of angular momentum and energy. (Auth.)

  20. One Step at a Time: SBM as an Incremental Process.

    Conrad, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Discusses incremental SBM budgeting and answers questions regarding resource equity, bookkeeping requirements, accountability, decision-making processes, and purchasing. Approaching site-based management as an incremental process recognizes that every school system engages in some level of site-based decisions. Implementation can be gradual and…

  1. A Ten-Step Process for Developing Teaching Units

    Butler, Geoffrey; Heslup, Simon; Kurth, Lara

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum design and implementation can be a daunting process. Questions quickly arise, such as who is qualified to design the curriculum and how do these people begin the design process. According to Graves (2008), in many contexts the design of the curriculum and the implementation of the curricular product are considered to be two mutually…

  2. Multi-step wrought processing of TiAl-based alloys

    Fuchs, G.E.

    1997-04-01

    Wrought processing will likely be needed for fabrication of a variety of TiAl-based alloy structural components. Laboratory and development work has usually relied on one-step forging to produce test material. Attempts to scale-up TiAl-based alloy processing has indicated that multi-step wrought processing is necessary. The purpose of this study was to examine potential multi-step processing routes, such as two-step isothermal forging and extrusion + isothermal forging. The effects of processing (I/M versus P/M), intermediate recrystallization heat treatments and processing route on the tensile and creep properties of Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr alloys were examined. The results of the testing were then compared to samples from the same heats of materials processed by one-step routes. Finally, by evaluating the effect of processing on microstructure and properties, optimized and potentially lower cost processing routes could be identified

  3. Supramyl, a process step for the preparation of energy alcohol

    Misselhorn, K.

    1981-01-01

    A continuous process for EtOH manufacture from starch-containing materials (potato, manioc, maize, and wheat) is described and the energy requirements for the process and the conventional process are compared. The materials are mixed with alpha-amylase and CaO and heated with steam in a continuous starch-digestion unit. The temperature effect on viscosity of the mash, the dextrose equivalent as function of time and enzyme concentration, and retrogradation for various raw materials are discussed. The respective energy consumption for starch mashing, distillation, and spent-wash evaporation and drying for the conventional process are 8.0, 10.9, and 10.9 and the respective energy consumptions for the continuous process are 0.7, 5.8, and 8.1 MJ/l EtOH.

  4. Efficient Processing of Multiple DTW Queries in Time Series Databases

    Kremer, Hardy; Günnemann, Stephan; Ivanescu, Anca-Maria

    2011-01-01

    . In many of today’s applications, however, large numbers of queries arise at any given time. Existing DTW techniques do not process multiple DTW queries simultaneously, a serious limitation which slows down overall processing. In this paper, we propose an efficient processing approach for multiple DTW...... for multiple DTW queries....

  5. Guideline validation in multiple trauma care through business process modeling.

    Stausberg, Jürgen; Bilir, Hüseyin; Waydhas, Christian; Ruchholtz, Steffen

    2003-07-01

    Clinical guidelines can improve the quality of care in multiple trauma. In our Department of Trauma Surgery a specific guideline is available paper-based as a set of flowcharts. This format is appropriate for the use by experienced physicians but insufficient for electronic support of learning, workflow and process optimization. A formal and logically consistent version represented with a standardized meta-model is necessary for automatic processing. In our project we transferred the paper-based into an electronic format and analyzed the structure with respect to formal errors. Several errors were detected in seven error categories. The errors were corrected to reach a formally and logically consistent process model. In a second step the clinical content of the guideline was revised interactively using a process-modeling tool. Our study reveals that guideline development should be assisted by process modeling tools, which check the content in comparison to a meta-model. The meta-model itself could support the domain experts in formulating their knowledge systematically. To assure sustainability of guideline development a representation independent of specific applications or specific provider is necessary. Then, clinical guidelines could be used for eLearning, process optimization and workflow management additionally.

  6. Formulation of an explicit-multiple-time-step time integration method for use in a global primitive equation grid model

    Chao, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    With appropriate modifications, a recently proposed explicit-multiple-time-step scheme (EMTSS) is incorporated into the UCLA model. In this scheme, the linearized terms in the governing equations that generate the gravity waves are split into different vertical modes. Each mode is integrated with an optimal time step, and at periodic intervals these modes are recombined. The other terms are integrated with a time step dictated by the CFL condition for low-frequency waves. This large time step requires a special modification of the advective terms in the polar region to maintain stability. Test runs for 72 h show that EMTSS is a stable, efficient and accurate scheme.

  7. More steps towards process automation for optical fabrication

    Walker, David; Yu, Guoyu; Beaucamp, Anthony; Bibby, Matt; Li, Hongyu; McCluskey, Lee; Petrovic, Sanja; Reynolds, Christina

    2017-06-01

    In the context of Industrie 4.0, we have previously described the roles of robots in optical processing, and their complementarity with classical CNC machines, providing both processing and automation functions. After having demonstrated robotic moving of parts between a CNC polisher and metrology station, and auto-fringe-acquisition, we have moved on to automate the wash-down operation. This is part of a wider strategy we describe in this paper, leading towards automating the decision-making operations required before and throughout an optical manufacturing cycle.

  8. Downstream processing of Isochrysis galbana: a step towards microalgal biorefinery

    Gilbert-López, B.; Mendiola, J.A.; Fontecha, J.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Sijtsma, L.; Cifuentes, A.; Herrero, M.; Ibáñez, E.

    2015-01-01

    An algae-based biorefinery relies on the efficient use of algae biomass through its fractionation of several valuable/bioactive compounds that can be used in industry. If this biorefinery includes green platforms as downstream processing technologies able to fulfill the requirements of green

  9. Boosting the IGCLC process efficiency by optimizing the desulfurization step

    Hamers, H.P.; Romano, M.C.; Spallina, V.; Chiesa, P.; Gallucci, F.; Sint Annaland, M. van

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-CLC hot gas desulfurization and post-CLC desulfurization are assessed. • Process efficiency increases by 0.5–1% points with alternative desulfurization methods. • Alternative desulfurization methods are more beneficial for CFB configurations. - Abstract: In this paper the influence of the desulfurization method on the process efficiency of an integrated gasification chemical-looping combustion (IGCLC) systems is investigated for both packed beds and circulating fluidized bed CLC systems. Both reactor types have been integrated in an IGCLC power plant, in which three desulfurization methods have been compared: conventional cold gas desulfurization with Selexol (CGD), hot gas desulfurization with ZnO (HGD) and flue gas desulfurization after the CLC reactors (post-CLC). For CLC with packed bed reactors, the efficiency gain of the alternative desulfurization methods is about 0.5–0.7% points. This is relatively small, because of the relatively large amount of steam that has to be mixed with the fuel to avoid carbon deposition on the oxygen carrier. The HGD and post-CLC configurations do not contain a saturator and therefore more steam has to be mixed with a negative influence on the process efficiency. Carbon deposition is not an issue for circulating fluidized bed systems and therefore a somewhat higher efficiency gain of 0.8–1.0% point can be reached for this reactor system, assuming that complete fuel conversion can be reached and no sulfur species are formed on the solid, which is however thermodynamically possible for iron and manganese based oxygen carriers. From this study, it can be concluded that the adaptation of the desulfurization method results in higher process efficiencies, especially for the circulating fluidized bed system, while the number of operating units is reduced.

  10. An FPGA-Based Multiple-Axis Velocity Controller and Stepping Motors Drives Design

    Lai Chiu-Keng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Field Programmable Gate Array based system is a great hardware platform to support the implementation of hardware controllers such as PID controller and fuzzy controller. It is also programmed as hardware accelerator to speed up the mathematic calculation and greatly enhance the performance as applied to motor drive and motion control. Furthermore, the open structure of FPGA-based system is suitable for those designs with the ability of parallel processing or soft code processor embedded. In this paper, we apply the FPGA to a multi-axis velocity controller design. The developed system integrated three functions inside the FPGA chip, which are respectively the stepping motor drive, the multi-axis motion controller and the motion planning. Furthermore, an embedded controller with a soft code processor compatible to 8051 micro-control unit (MCU is built to handle the data transfer between the FPGA board and host PC. The MCU is also used to initialize the motion control and run the interpolator. The designed system is practically applied to a XYZ motion platform which is driven by stepping motors to verify its performance.

  11. Mediator independently orchestrates multiple steps of preinitiation complex assembly in vivo.

    Eyboulet, Fanny; Wydau-Dematteis, Sandra; Eychenne, Thomas; Alibert, Olivier; Neil, Helen; Boschiero, Claire; Nevers, Marie-Claire; Volland, Hervé; Cornu, David; Redeker, Virginie; Werner, Michel; Soutourina, Julie

    2015-10-30

    Mediator is a large multiprotein complex conserved in all eukaryotes, which has a crucial coregulator function in transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). However, the molecular mechanisms of its action in vivo remain to be understood. Med17 is an essential and central component of the Mediator head module. In this work, we utilised our large collection of conditional temperature-sensitive med17 mutants to investigate Mediator's role in coordinating preinitiation complex (PIC) formation in vivo at the genome level after a transfer to a non-permissive temperature for 45 minutes. The effect of a yeast mutation proposed to be equivalent to the human Med17-L371P responsible for infantile cerebral atrophy was also analyzed. The ChIP-seq results demonstrate that med17 mutations differentially affected the global presence of several PIC components including Mediator, TBP, TFIIH modules and Pol II. Our data show that Mediator stabilizes TFIIK kinase and TFIIH core modules independently, suggesting that the recruitment or the stability of TFIIH modules is regulated independently on yeast genome. We demonstrate that Mediator selectively contributes to TBP recruitment or stabilization to chromatin. This study provides an extensive genome-wide view of Mediator's role in PIC formation, suggesting that Mediator coordinates multiple steps of a PIC assembly pathway. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. SAR processing with stepped chirps and phased array antennas.

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Wideband radar signals are problematic for phased array antennas. Wideband radar signals can be generated from series or groups of narrow-band signals centered at different frequencies. An equivalent wideband LFM chirp can be assembled from lesser-bandwidth chirp segments in the data processing. The chirp segments can be transmitted as separate narrow-band pulses, each with their own steering phase operation. This overcomes the problematic dilemma of steering wideband chirps with phase shifters alone, that is, without true time-delay elements.

  13. "Silicon millefeuille": From a silicon wafer to multiple thin crystalline films in a single step

    Hernández, David; Trifonov, Trifon; Garín, Moisés; Alcubilla, Ramon

    2013-04-01

    During the last years, many techniques have been developed to obtain thin crystalline films from commercial silicon ingots. Large market applications are foreseen in the photovoltaic field, where important cost reductions are predicted, and also in advanced microelectronics technologies as three-dimensional integration, system on foil, or silicon interposers [Dross et al., Prog. Photovoltaics 20, 770-784 (2012); R. Brendel, Thin Film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany 2003); J. N. Burghartz, Ultra-Thin Chip Technology and Applications (Springer Science + Business Media, NY, USA, 2010)]. Existing methods produce "one at a time" silicon layers, once one thin film is obtained, the complete process is repeated to obtain the next layer. Here, we describe a technology that, from a single crystalline silicon wafer, produces a large number of crystalline films with controlled thickness in a single technological step.

  14. Assembly and benign step-by-step post-treatment of oppositely charged reduced graphene oxides for transparent conductive thin films with multiple applications

    Zhu, Jiayi; He, Junhui

    2012-05-01

    We report a new approach for the fabrication of flexible and transparent conducting thin films via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of oppositely charged reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and the benign step-by-step post-treatment on substrates with a low glass-transition temperature, such as glass and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The RGO dispersions and films were characterized by means of atomic force microscopy, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometery, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, contact angle/interface systems and a four-point probe. It was found that the graphene thin films exhibited a significant increase in electrical conductivity after the step-by-step post-treatments. The graphene thin film on the PET substrate had a good conductivity retainability after multiple cycles (30 cycles) of excessively bending (bending angle: 180°), while tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films on PET showed a significant decrease in electrical conductivity. In addition, the graphene thin film had a smooth surface with tunable wettability.We report a new approach for the fabrication of flexible and transparent conducting thin films via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of oppositely charged reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and the benign step-by-step post-treatment on substrates with a low glass-transition temperature, such as glass and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The RGO dispersions and films were characterized by means of atomic force microscopy, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometery, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, contact angle/interface systems and a four-point probe. It was found that the graphene thin films exhibited a significant increase in electrical conductivity after the step-by-step post-treatments. The graphene thin film on the PET substrate had a good conductivity retainability after multiple cycles (30 cycles) of excessively bending (bending angle: 180°), while tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films on

  15. The Material Supply Adjustment Process in RAMF-SM, Step 2

    2016-06-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S The Material Supply Adjustment Process in RAMF-SM, Step 2 Eleanor L. Schwartz James S...5564 The Material Supply Adjustment Process in RAMF-SM, Step 2 Eleanor L. Schwartz James S. Thomason, Project Leader This page is intentionally blank...9 1. Inputs and Outputs .......................................................................................10 2. Specific Steps of the PEAP

  16. Main Steps in the Dutch SEA and EIA process

    2002-06-01

    This is the fifth volume in a series which presents papers in English by the Netherlands Commission for EIA to an international audience of impact assessment practitioners. The Netherlands Commission has gained considerable experience in the execution and management of EIA and SEA (Strategic Environmental Assessments) in The Netherlands and in developing countries as an independent advisor to the relevant competent authorities. This volume contains five papers grouped into two categories: new developments and practical experience. The two papers on new developments deal with sustainability assessment and biodiversity in EIA. The three papers on practical experience focus attention on the added values of EIA in The Netherlands to decision making: transparency of the EIA process, importance of considering alternatives and independent review by the Commission for EIA and following decision making by the judiciary

  17. Main Steps in the Dutch SEA and EIA process

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    This is the fifth volume in a series which presents papers in English by the Netherlands Commission for EIA to an international audience of impact assessment practitioners. The Netherlands Commission has gained considerable experience in the execution and management of EIA and SEA (Strategic Environmental Assessments) in The Netherlands and in developing countries as an independent advisor to the relevant competent authorities. This volume contains five papers grouped into two categories: new developments and practical experience. The two papers on new developments deal with sustainability assessment and biodiversity in EIA. The three papers on practical experience focus attention on the added values of EIA in The Netherlands to decision making: transparency of the EIA process, importance of considering alternatives and independent review by the Commission for EIA and following decision making by the judiciary.

  18. Effect of the processing steps on compositions of table olive since harvesting time to pasteurization.

    Nikzad, Nasim; Sahari, Mohammad A; Vanak, Zahra Piravi; Safafar, Hamed; Boland-nazar, Seyed A

    2013-08-01

    Weight, oil, fatty acids, tocopherol, polyphenol, and sterol properties of 5 olive cultivars (Zard, Fishomi, Ascolana, Amigdalolia, and Conservalia) during crude, lye treatment, washing, fermentation, and pasteurization steps were studied. Results showed: oil percent was higher and lower in Ascolana (crude step) and in Fishomi (pasteurization step), respectively; during processing steps, in all cultivars, oleic, palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids were higher; the highest changes in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were in fermentation step; the highest and the lowest ratios of ω3 / ω6 were in Ascolana (washing step) and in Zard (pasteurization step), respectively; the highest and the lowest tocopherol were in Amigdalolia and Fishomi, respectively, and major damage occurred in lye step; the highest and the lowest polyphenols were in Ascolana (crude step) and in Zard and Ascolana (pasteurization step), respectively; the major damage among cultivars occurred during lye step, in which the polyphenol reduced to 1/10 of first content; sterol did not undergo changes during steps. Reviewing of olive patents shows that many compositions of fruits such as oil quality, fatty acids, quantity and its fraction can be changed by alteration in cultivar and process.

  19. Multiple production of hadrons in deep inelastic processes

    Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    Formulas are proposed for the description of the mean multiplicity of hadrons in deep inelastic processes. On the basis of the existing data, predictions are made for the behavior of the mean multiplicity at higher energies

  20. Netherlands : An ‘Echternach’ Procession in Different Directions: Oscillating Steps Towards Reform

    Westerheijden, Donald F.; de Boer, Harry F.; Enders, Jürgen; Paradeise, C.; Reale, E.; Bleiklie, I.; Ferlie, E.

    2009-01-01

    The annual procession in the Luxemburg town of Echternach is famous for its laborious manner of reaching its end: two steps forward, one step back. In this paper, we will maintain that the policy of the Dutch government over the period of c.1982–2007 resembles an Echternach procession in reverse:

  1. Calculation of the MSD two-step process with the sudden approximation

    Yoshida, Shiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kawano, Toshihiko [Kyushu Univ., Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    A calculation of the two-step process with the sudden approximation is described. The Green's function which connects the one-step matrix element to the two-step one is represented in {gamma}-space to avoid the on-energy-shell approximation. Microscopically calculated two-step cross sections are averaged together with an appropriate level density to give a two-step cross section. The calculated cross sections are compared with the experimental data, however the calculation still contains several simplifications at this moment. (author)

  2. The method validation step of biological dosimetry accreditation process

    Roy, L.; Voisin, P.A.; Guillou, A.C.; Busset, A.; Gregoire, E.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    One of the missions of the Laboratory of Biological Dosimetry (L.D.B.) of the Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.) is to assess the radiological dose after an accidental overexposure suspicion to ionising radiation, by using radio-induced changes of some biological parameters. The 'gold standard' is the yield of dicentrics observed in patients lymphocytes, and this yield is converted in dose using dose effect relationships. This method is complementary to clinical and physical dosimetry, for medical team in charge of the patients. To obtain a formal recognition of its operational activity, the laboratory decided three years ago, to require an accreditation, by following the recommendations of both 17025 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories and 19238 Performance criteria for service laboratories performing biological dosimetry by cyto-genetics. Diagnostics, risks analysis were realized to control the whole analysis process leading to documents writing. Purchases, personnel department, vocational training were also included in the quality system. Audits were very helpful to improve the quality system. One specificity of this technique is that it is not normalized therefore apart from quality management aspects, several technical points needed some validations. An inventory of potentially influent factors was carried out. To estimate their real effect on the yield of dicentrics, a Placket-Burman experimental design was conducted. The effect of seven parameters was tested: the BUdr (bromodeoxyuridine), PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and colcemid concentration, the culture duration, the incubator temperature, the blood volume and the medium volume. The chosen values were calculated according to the uncertainties on the way they were measured i.e. pipettes, thermometers, test tubes. None of the factors has a significant impact on the yield of dicentrics. Therefore the uncertainty linked to their use was considered as

  3. The method validation step of biological dosimetry accreditation process

    Roy, L.; Voisin, P.A.; Guillou, A.C.; Busset, A.; Gregoire, E.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, LDB, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    One of the missions of the Laboratory of Biological Dosimetry (L.D.B.) of the Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.) is to assess the radiological dose after an accidental overexposure suspicion to ionising radiation, by using radio-induced changes of some biological parameters. The 'gold standard' is the yield of dicentrics observed in patients lymphocytes, and this yield is converted in dose using dose effect relationships. This method is complementary to clinical and physical dosimetry, for medical team in charge of the patients. To obtain a formal recognition of its operational activity, the laboratory decided three years ago, to require an accreditation, by following the recommendations of both 17025 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories and 19238 Performance criteria for service laboratories performing biological dosimetry by cyto-genetics. Diagnostics, risks analysis were realized to control the whole analysis process leading to documents writing. Purchases, personnel department, vocational training were also included in the quality system. Audits were very helpful to improve the quality system. One specificity of this technique is that it is not normalized therefore apart from quality management aspects, several technical points needed some validations. An inventory of potentially influent factors was carried out. To estimate their real effect on the yield of dicentrics, a Placket-Burman experimental design was conducted. The effect of seven parameters was tested: the BUdr (bromodeoxyuridine), PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and colcemid concentration, the culture duration, the incubator temperature, the blood volume and the medium volume. The chosen values were calculated according to the uncertainties on the way they were measured i.e. pipettes, thermometers, test tubes. None of the factors has a significant impact on the yield of dicentrics. Therefore the uncertainty linked to their use was

  4. Biodiesel production from microalgae Spirulina maxima by two step process: Optimization of process variable

    M.A. Rahman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from green energy source is gaining tremendous attention for ecofriendly and economically aspect. In this investigation, a two-step process was developed for the production of biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima and determined best operating conditions for the steps. In the first stage, acid esterification was conducted to lessen acid value (AV from 10.66 to 0.51 mgKOH/g of the feedstock and optimal conditions for maximum esterified oil yielding were found at molar ratio 12:1, temperature 60°C, 1% (wt% H2SO4, and mixing intensity 400 rpm for a reaction time of 90 min. The second stage alkali transesterification was carried out for maximum biodiesel yielding (86.1% and optimal conditions were found at molar ratio 9:1, temperature 65°C, mixing intensity 600 rpm, catalyst concentration 0.75% (wt% KOH for a reaction time of 20 min. Biodiesel were analyzed according to ASTM standards and results were within standards limit. Results will helpful to produce third generation algal biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima in an efficient manner.

  5. One-step isothermal detection of multiple KRAS mutations by forming SNP specific hairpins on a gold nanoshell.

    Chung, Chan Ho; Kim, Joong Hyun

    2018-04-24

    We developed a one-step isothermal method for typing multiple KRAS mutations using a designed set of primers to form a hairpin on a gold nanoshell upon being ligated by a SNP specific DNA ligase after binding of targets. As a result, we could detect as low as 20 attomoles of KRAS mutations within 1 h.

  6. 42 CFR 50.406 - What are the steps in the process?

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the steps in the process? 50.406 Section 50.406 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Public Health Service Grant Appeals Procedure § 50.406 What are the steps in...

  7. The Telomerase Inhibitor MST-312 Interferes with Multiple Steps in the Herpes Simplex Virus Life Cycle.

    Haberichter, Jarod; Roberts, Scott; Abbasi, Imran; Dedthanou, Phonphanh; Pradhan, Prajakta; Nguyen, Marie L

    2015-10-01

    , telomerase, is the cellular enzyme that synthesizes DNA repeats at the ends of chromosomes during replication to prevent DNA shortening. In this study, we investigate role of telomerase in HSV infection. The data demonstrate that the telomerase inhibitor MST-312 suppressed HSV replication at multiple steps of viral infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. A multi-step electrochemical etching process for a three-dimensional micro probe array

    Kim, Yoonji; Youn, Sechan; Cho, Young-Ho; Park, HoJoon; Chang, Byeung Gyu; Oh, Yong Soo

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple, fast, and cost-effective process for three-dimensional (3D) micro probe array fabrication using multi-step electrochemical metal foil etching. Compared to the previous electroplating (add-on) process, the present electrochemical (subtractive) process results in well-controlled material properties of the metallic microstructures. In the experimental study, we describe the single-step and multi-step electrochemical aluminum foil etching processes. In the single-step process, the depth etch rate and the bias etch rate of an aluminum foil have been measured as 1.50 ± 0.10 and 0.77 ± 0.03 µm min −1 , respectively. On the basis of the single-step process results, we have designed and performed the two-step electrochemical etching process for the 3D micro probe array fabrication. The fabricated 3D micro probe array shows the vertical and lateral fabrication errors of 15.5 ± 5.8% and 3.3 ± 0.9%, respectively, with the surface roughness of 37.4 ± 9.6 nm. The contact force and the contact resistance of the 3D micro probe array have been measured to be 24.30 ± 0.98 mN and 2.27 ± 0.11 Ω, respectively, for an overdrive of 49.12 ± 1.25 µm.

  9. One-step electrodeposition process of CuInSe2: Deposition time effect

    Administrator

    CuInSe2 thin films were prepared by one-step electrodeposition process using a simplified two- electrodes system. ... homojunctions or heterojunctions (Rincon et al 1983). Efficiency of ... deposition times onto indium thin oxide (ITO)-covered.

  10. Cognitive processing for step precision increases beta and gamma band modulation during overground walking

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Arguissain, Federico Gabriel; Andersen, Ole Kæseler

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cognitive processing for defining step precision during walking could induce changes in electrocortical activity. Ten healthy adults (21-36 years) were asked to walk overground in three different conditions: (1) normal walking in a straight path (N...... activity in cognitive, motor and sensorimotor areas may be relevant to produce patterned and safe locomotion through challenging paths.......The aim of this study was to investigate whether cognitive processing for defining step precision during walking could induce changes in electrocortical activity. Ten healthy adults (21-36 years) were asked to walk overground in three different conditions: (1) normal walking in a straight path (NW....../sensorimotor regions, a phase in the gait cycle in which participants define the correct foot placement for the next step. These results suggest that greater cognitive demands during precision stepping influences electrocortical dynamics especially towards step transitions. Therefore, increased electrocortical...

  11. Adaptive multiple importance sampling for Gaussian processes

    Xiong, X.; Šmídl, Václav; Filippone, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 8 (2017), s. 1644-1665 ISSN 0094-9655 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14287 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Gaussian Process * Bayesian estimation * Adaptive importance sampling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 0.757, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/AS/smidl-0469804.pdf

  12. Investigating the Variation of Volatile Compound Composition in Maotai-Flavoured Liquor During Its Multiple Fermentation Steps Using Statistical Methods

    Zheng-Yun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of multiple fermentations is one of the most specific characteristics of Maotai-flavoured liquor production. In this research, the variation of volatile composition of Maotai-flavoured liquor during its multiple fermentations is investigated using statistical approaches. Cluster analysis shows that the obtained samples are grouped mainly according to the fermentation steps rather than the distillery they originate from, and the samples from the first two fermentation steps show the greatest difference, suggesting that multiple fermentation and distillation steps result in the end in similar volatile composition of the liquor. Back-propagation neural network (BNN models were developed that satisfactorily predict the number of fermentation steps and the organoleptic evaluation scores of liquor samples from their volatile compositions. Mean impact value (MIV analysis shows that ethyl lactate, furfural and some high-boiling-point acids play important roles, while pyrazine contributes much less to the improvement of the flavour and taste of Maotai-flavoured liquor during its production. This study contributes to further understanding of the mechanisms of Maotai-flavoured liquor production.

  13. Development of the Multiple Gene Knockout System with One-Step PCR in Thermoacidophilic Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    Shoji Suzuki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple gene knockout systems developed in the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius are powerful genetic tools. However, plasmid construction typically requires several steps. Alternatively, PCR tailing for high-throughput gene disruption was also developed in S. acidocaldarius, but repeated gene knockout based on PCR tailing has been limited due to lack of a genetic marker system. In this study, we demonstrated efficient homologous recombination frequency (2.8 × 104 ± 6.9 × 103 colonies/μg DNA by optimizing the transformation conditions. This optimized protocol allowed to develop reliable gene knockout via double crossover using short homologous arms and to establish the multiple gene knockout system with one-step PCR (MONSTER. In the MONSTER, a multiple gene knockout cassette was simply and rapidly constructed by one-step PCR without plasmid construction, and the PCR product can be immediately used for target gene deletion. As an example of the applications of this strategy, we successfully made a DNA photolyase- (phr- and arginine decarboxylase- (argD- deficient strain of S. acidocaldarius. In addition, an agmatine selection system consisting of an agmatine-auxotrophic strain and argD marker was also established. The MONSTER provides an alternative strategy that enables the very simple construction of multiple gene knockout cassettes for genetic studies in S. acidocaldarius.

  14. Coupling of Spinosad Fermentation and Separation Process via Two-Step Macroporous Resin Adsorption Method.

    Zhao, Fanglong; Zhang, Chuanbo; Yin, Jing; Shen, Yueqi; Lu, Wenyu

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a two-step resin adsorption technology was investigated for spinosad production and separation as follows: the first step resin addition into the fermentor at early cultivation period to decrease the timely product concentration in the broth; the second step of resin addition was used after fermentation to adsorb and extract the spinosad. Based on this, a two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process for spinosad fermentation, separation, and purification was established. Spinosad concentration in 5-L fermentor increased by 14.45 % after adding 50 g/L macroporous at the beginning of fermentation. The established two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process got the 95.43 % purity and 87 % yield for spinosad, which were both higher than that of the conventional crystallization of spinosad from aqueous phase that were 93.23 and 79.15 % separately. The two-step macroporous resin adsorption method has not only carried out the coupling of spinosad fermentation and separation but also increased spinosad productivity. In addition, the two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process performs better in spinosad yield and purity.

  15. An approach to eliminate stepped features in multistage incremental sheet forming process: Experimental and FEA analysis

    Nirala, Harish Kumar; Jain, Prashant K.; Tandon, Puneet [PDPM Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing Jabalpur Jabalpur-482005, Madhya Pradesh (India); Roy, J. J.; Samal, M. K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2017-02-15

    Incremental sheet forming (ISF) is a recently developed manufacturing technique. In ISF, forming is done by applying deformation force through the motion of Numerically controlled (NC) single point forming tool on the clamped sheet metal blank. Single Point Incremental sheet forming (SPISF) is also known as a die-less forming process because no die is required to fabricate any component by using this process. Now a day it is widely accepted for rapid manufacturing of sheet metal components. The formability of SPISF process improves by adding some intermediate stages into it, which is known as Multi-stage SPISF (MSPISF) process. However during forming in MSPISF process because of intermediate stages stepped features are generated. This paper investigates the generation of stepped features with simulation and experimental results. An effective MSPISF strategy is proposed to remove or eliminate this generated undesirable stepped features.

  16. Data-based control of a multi-step forming process

    Schulte, R.; Frey, P.; Hildenbrand, P.; Vogel, M.; Betz, C.; Lechner, M.; Merklein, M.

    2017-09-01

    The fourth industrial revolution represents a new stage in the organization and management of the entire value chain. However, concerning the field of forming technology, the fourth industrial revolution has only arrived gradually until now. In order to make a valuable contribution to the digital factory the controlling of a multistage forming process was investigated. Within the framework of the investigation, an abstracted and transferable model is used to outline which data have to be collected, how an interface between the different forming machines can be designed tangible and which control tasks must be fulfilled. The goal of this investigation was to control the subsequent process step based on the data recorded in the first step. The investigated process chain links various metal forming processes, which are typical elements of a multi-step forming process. Data recorded in the first step of the process chain is analyzed and processed for an improved process control of the subsequent process. On the basis of the gained scientific knowledge, it is possible to make forming operations more robust and at the same time more flexible, and thus create the fundament for linking various production processes in an efficient way.

  17. The US Network of Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Centers: Development, Progress, and Next Steps

    Casper, T. Charles; Rose, John W.; Roalstad, Shelly; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Aaen, Gregory; Belman, Anita; Chitnis, Tanuja; Gorman, Mark; Krupp, Lauren; Lotze, Timothy E.; Ness, Jayne; Patterson, Marc; Rodriguez, Moses; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Browning, Brittan; Graves, Jennifer; Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; Benson, Leslie; Harris, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases in the pediatric population have received an increasing level of attention by clinicians and researchers. The low incidence of these diseases in children creates a need for the involvement of multiple clinical centers in research efforts. The Network of Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Centers was created initially in 2006 to improve the diagnosis and care of children with demyelinating diseases. In 2010, the Network shifted its focus to multicenter research while continuing to advance the care of patients. The Network has obtained support from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, the Guthy-Jackson Charitable Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health. The Network will continue to serve as a platform for conducting impactful research in pediatric demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. This article provides a description of the history and development, organization, mission, research priorities, current studies, and future plans of the Network. PMID:25270659

  18. Contactless multiple wavelength photoplethysmographic imaging: a first step toward "spO2 camera" technology

    Wieringa, F.P.; Mastik, F.; Steen, A.F.W. van der

    2005-01-01

    We describe a route toward contactless imaging of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) distribution within tissue, based upon detection of a two-dimensional matrix of spatially resolved optical plethysmographic signals at different wavelengths. As a first step toward SpO 2-imaging we built a monochrome

  19. Two-step flash light sintering process for crack-free inkjet-printed Ag films

    Park, Sung-Hyeon; Kim, Hak-Sung; Jang, Shin; Lee, Dong-Jun; Oh, Jehoon

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a two-step flash light sintering process for inkjet-printed Ag films is investigated with the aim of improving the quality of sintered Ag films. The flash light sintering process is divided into two steps: a preheating step and a main sintering step. The preheating step is used to remove the organic binder without abrupt vaporization. The main sintering step is used to complete the necking connections among the silver nanoparticles and achieve high electrical conductivity. The process minimizes the damage on the polymer substrate and the interface between the sintered Ag film and polymer substrate. The electrical conductivity is calculated by measuring the resistance and cross-sectional area with an LCR meter and 3D optical profiler, respectively. It is found that the resistivity of the optimal flash light-sintered Ag films (36.32 nΩ m), which is 228.86% of that of bulk silver, is lower than that of thermally sintered ones (40.84 nΩ m). Additionally, the polyimide film used as the substrate is preserved with the inkjet-printed pattern shape during the flash light sintering process without delamination or defects. (paper)

  20. Stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trials: a generic framework including parallel and multiple-level designs.

    Hemming, Karla; Lilford, Richard; Girling, Alan J

    2015-01-30

    Stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials (SW-CRTs) are being used with increasing frequency in health service evaluation. Conventionally, these studies are cross-sectional in design with equally spaced steps, with an equal number of clusters randomised at each step and data collected at each and every step. Here we introduce several variations on this design and consider implications for power. One modification we consider is the incomplete cross-sectional SW-CRT, where the number of clusters varies at each step or where at some steps, for example, implementation or transition periods, data are not collected. We show that the parallel CRT with staggered but balanced randomisation can be considered a special case of the incomplete SW-CRT. As too can the parallel CRT with baseline measures. And we extend these designs to allow for multiple layers of clustering, for example, wards within a hospital. Building on results for complete designs, power and detectable difference are derived using a Wald test and obtaining the variance-covariance matrix of the treatment effect assuming a generalised linear mixed model. These variations are illustrated by several real examples. We recommend that whilst the impact of transition periods on power is likely to be small, where they are a feature of the design they should be incorporated. We also show examples in which the power of a SW-CRT increases as the intra-cluster correlation (ICC) increases and demonstrate that the impact of the ICC is likely to be smaller in a SW-CRT compared with a parallel CRT, especially where there are multiple levels of clustering. Finally, through this unified framework, the efficiency of the SW-CRT and the parallel CRT can be compared. © 2014 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Measuring Strategic Processing when Students Read Multiple Texts

    Braten, Ivar; Stromso, Helge I.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the dimensionality of multiple-text comprehension strategies in a sample of 216 Norwegian education undergraduates who read seven separate texts on a science topic and immediately afterwards responded to a self-report inventory focusing on strategic multiple-text processing in that specific task context. Two dimensions were…

  2. PID controller auto-tuning based on process step response and damping optimum criterion.

    Pavković, Danijel; Polak, Siniša; Zorc, Davor

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method of PID controller tuning suitable for higher-order aperiodic processes and aimed at step response-based auto-tuning applications. The PID controller tuning is based on the identification of so-called n-th order lag (PTn) process model and application of damping optimum criterion, thus facilitating straightforward algebraic rules for the adjustment of both the closed-loop response speed and damping. The PTn model identification is based on the process step response, wherein the PTn model parameters are evaluated in a novel manner from the process step response equivalent dead-time and lag time constant. The effectiveness of the proposed PTn model parameter estimation procedure and the related damping optimum-based PID controller auto-tuning have been verified by means of extensive computer simulations. © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simulation of dynamic processes when machining transition surfaces of stepped shafts

    Maksarov, V. V.; Krasnyy, V. A.; Viushin, R. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper addresses the characteristics of stepped surfaces of parts categorized as "solids of revolution". It is noted that in the conditions of transition modes during the switch to end surface machining, there is cutting with varied load intensity in the section of the cut layer, which leads to change in cutting force, onset of vibrations, an increase in surface layer roughness, a decrease of size precision, and increased wear of a tool's cutting edge. This work proposes a method that consists in developing a CNC program output code that allows one to process complex forms of stepped shafts with only one machine setup. The authors developed and justified a mathematical model of a technological system for mechanical processing with consideration for the resolution of tool movement at the stages of transition processes to assess the dynamical stability of a system in the process of manufacturing stepped surfaces of parts of “solid of revolution” type.

  4. Step-up multiple regression model to compute Chlorophyll a in the coastal waters off Cochin, southwest coast of India

    Balachandran, K.K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Laluraj, C.M.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.; Sheeba, P.

    The interaction effects of abiotic processes in the production of phytoplankton in a coastal marine region off Cochin are evaluated using multiple regression models. The study shows that chlorophyll production is not limited by nutrients...

  5. Highly transparent films from carboxymethylated microfibrillated cellulose: The effect of multiple homogenization steps on key properties

    Siró, Istvan; Plackett, David; Hedenqvist, M.

    2011-01-01

    We produced microfibrillated cellulose by passing carboxymethylated sulfite-softwood-dissolving pulp with a relatively low hemicellulose content (4.5%) through a high-shear homogenizer. The resulting gel was subjected to as many as three additional homogenization steps and then used to prepare...... solvent-cast films. The optical, mechanical, and oxygen-barrier properties of these films were determined. A reduction in the quantity and appearance of large fiber fragments and fiber aggregates in the films as a function of increasing homogenization was illustrated with optical microscopy, atomic force...... microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Film opacity decreased with increasing homogenization, and the use of three additional homogenization steps after initial gel production resulted in highly transparent films. The oxygen permeability of the films was not significantly influenced by the degree...

  6. Optical properties and surface morphology of ZnTe thin films prepared by multiple potential steps

    Gromboni, Murilo F.; Lucas, Francisco W. S.; Mascaro, Lucia H., E-mail: lmascaro@ufscar.br [Universidade de Federal de Sao Carlos (LIEC/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica. Lab. de Eletroquimica e Ceramica

    2014-03-15

    In this work, the ZnTe thin films were electrodeposited using potentiostatic steps, on Pt substrate. The effect of steps number, the deposition time for each element (Zn or Te) and layer order (Zn/Te or Te/Zn) in the morphology, composition, band gap energy and photocurrent was evaluated. Microanalysis data showed that the ratio Zn/Te ranged from 0.12 and 0.30 and the film was not stoichiometric. However, the band-gap value obtained from in all experimental conditions used in this work was 2.28 eV, indicating film growth of ZnTe. The samples with higher Zn showed higher photocurrent, which was of the order of 2.64 μA cm{sup -2} and dendritic morphology (author)

  7. Optical Multiple Access Network (OMAN) for advanced processing satellite applications

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.; Park, Eugene; Ivancic, William D.; Sherman, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    An OMAN breadboard for exploring advanced processing satellite circuit switch applications is introduced. Network architecture, hardware trade offs, and multiple user interference issues are presented. The breadboard test set up and experimental results are discussed.

  8. Efficient Hydrolysis of Rice Straw into Xylose and Glucose by a Two-step Process

    YAN Lu-lu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolysis of rice straw into xylose and glucose in dilute sulfuric acid aqueous solution was studied with a two-step process in batch autoclave reactor. The results showed that compared with the traditional one-step acid hydrolysis, both xylose and glucose could be produced in high yields from rice straw by using the two-step acid hydrolysis process. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time, the amount of rice straw and acid concentration on the hydrolysis of rice straw were systematically studied, and showed that except initial rice straw loading amount, the other parameters had remarkable influence on the products distribution and yields. In the first-step of the hydrolysis process, a high xylose yield of 162.6 g·kg-1 was obtained at 140℃ after 120 min reaction time. When the solid residues from the first step were subjected to a second-step hydrolysis, a glucose yield as high as 216.5 g·kg-1 could be achieved at 180℃ after 120 min. This work provides a promising strategy for the efficient and value-added utilization of agricultural wastes such as rice straw.

  9. Comparison of microbial community shifts in two parallel multi-step drinking water treatment processes.

    Xu, Jiajiong; Tang, Wei; Ma, Jun; Wang, Hong

    2017-07-01

    Drinking water treatment processes remove undesirable chemicals and microorganisms from source water, which is vital to public health protection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of treatment processes and configuration on the microbiome by comparing microbial community shifts in two series of different treatment processes operated in parallel within a full-scale drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) in Southeast China. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of water samples demonstrated little effect of coagulation/sedimentation and pre-oxidation steps on bacterial communities, in contrast to dramatic and concurrent microbial community shifts during ozonation, granular activated carbon treatment, sand filtration, and disinfection for both series. A large number of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at these four treatment steps further illustrated their strong shaping power towards the drinking water microbial communities. Interestingly, multidimensional scaling analysis revealed tight clustering of biofilm samples collected from different treatment steps, with Nitrospira, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, noted at higher relative abundances in biofilm compared to water samples. Overall, this study provides a snapshot of step-to-step microbial evolvement in multi-step drinking water treatment systems, and the results provide insight to control and manipulation of the drinking water microbiome via optimization of DWTP design and operation.

  10. Average multiplications in deep inelastic processes and their interpretation

    Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Inclusive production of hadrons in deep inelastic proceseseus is considered. It is shown that at high energies the jet evolution in deep inelastic processes is mainly of nonperturbative character. With the increase of a final hadron state energy the leading contribution to an average multiplicity comes from a parton subprocess due to production of massive quark and gluon jets and their further fragmentation as diquark contribution becomes less and less essential. The ratio of the total average multiplicity in deep inelastic processes to the average multiplicity in e + e - -annihilation at high energies tends to unity

  11. Ultrasonic transesterification of Jatrophacurcas L. oil to biodiesel by a two-step process

    Deng, Xin; Fang, Zhen; Liu, Yun-hu [Biomass Group, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 88 Xuefulu, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650223 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Transesterification of high free fatty acid content Jatropha oil with methanol to biodiesel catalyzed directly by NaOH and high-concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or by two-step process were studied in an ultrasonic reactor at 60 C. If NaOH was used as catalyst, biodiesel yield was only 47.2% with saponification problem. With H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst, biodiesel yield was increased to 92.8%. However, longer reaction time (4 h) was needed and the biodiesel was not stable. A two-step, acid-esterification and base-transesterification process was further used for biodiesel production. It was found that after the first-step pretreatment with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 1 h, the acid value of Jatropha oil was reduced from 10.45 to 1.2 mg KOH/g, and subsequently, NaOH was used for the second-step transesterification. Stable and clear yellowish biodiesel was obtained with 96.4% yield after reaction for 0.5 h. The total production time was only 1.5 h that is just half of the previous reported. The two-step process with ultrasonic radiation is effective and time-saving for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil. (author)

  12. Ultrasonic transesterification of Jatrophacurcas L. oil to biodiesel by a two-step process

    Deng Xin [Biomass Group, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 88 Xuefulu, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650223 (China); Fang Zhen, E-mail: zhenfang@xtbg.ac.c [Biomass Group, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 88 Xuefulu, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650223 (China); Liu Yunhu [Biomass Group, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 88 Xuefulu, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650223 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Transesterification of high free fatty acid content Jatropha oil with methanol to biodiesel catalyzed directly by NaOH and high-concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or by two-step process were studied in an ultrasonic reactor at 60 deg. C. If NaOH was used as catalyst, biodiesel yield was only 47.2% with saponification problem. With H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst, biodiesel yield was increased to 92.8%. However, longer reaction time (4 h) was needed and the biodiesel was not stable. A two-step, acid-esterification and base-transesterification process was further used for biodiesel production. It was found that after the first-step pretreatment with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 1 h, the acid value of Jatropha oil was reduced from 10.45 to 1.2 mg KOH/g, and subsequently, NaOH was used for the second-step transesterification. Stable and clear yellowish biodiesel was obtained with 96.4% yield after reaction for 0.5 h. The total production time was only 1.5 h that is just half of the previous reported. The two-step process with ultrasonic radiation is effective and time-saving for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil.

  13. Ultrasonic transesterification of Jatrophacurcas L. oil to biodiesel by a two-step process

    Deng Xin; Fang Zhen; Liu Yunhu

    2010-01-01

    Transesterification of high free fatty acid content Jatropha oil with methanol to biodiesel catalyzed directly by NaOH and high-concentrated H 2 SO 4 or by two-step process were studied in an ultrasonic reactor at 60 deg. C. If NaOH was used as catalyst, biodiesel yield was only 47.2% with saponification problem. With H 2 SO 4 as catalyst, biodiesel yield was increased to 92.8%. However, longer reaction time (4 h) was needed and the biodiesel was not stable. A two-step, acid-esterification and base-transesterification process was further used for biodiesel production. It was found that after the first-step pretreatment with H 2 SO 4 for 1 h, the acid value of Jatropha oil was reduced from 10.45 to 1.2 mg KOH/g, and subsequently, NaOH was used for the second-step transesterification. Stable and clear yellowish biodiesel was obtained with 96.4% yield after reaction for 0.5 h. The total production time was only 1.5 h that is just half of the previous reported. The two-step process with ultrasonic radiation is effective and time-saving for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil.

  14. Models for multiple relaxation processes in collagen fiber

    ... originate from stress strain induced changes in hydrogen bond network whereas the other seems to be more strongly coupled to salt like bridges and electrostatic interactions. Urea alters the activation energy for one relaxation step while pH and solvent dielectric constant alter the relaxation behavior one set of processes.

  15. Aligning business processes and IT of multiple collaborating organisations

    Kassahun, Ayalew

    2017-01-01

    When multiple organisations want to collaborate with one another they have to integrate their business processes. This requires aligning the collaborative business processes and the underlying IT (Information Technology). Realizing the required alignment is, however, not trivial and is the

  16. Stability of gas atomized reactive powders through multiple step in-situ passivation

    Anderson, Iver E.; Steinmetz, Andrew D.; Byrd, David J.

    2017-05-16

    A method for gas atomization of oxygen-reactive reactive metals and alloys wherein the atomized particles are exposed as they solidify and cool in a very short time to multiple gaseous reactive agents for the in-situ formation of a protective reaction film on the atomized particles. The present invention is especially useful for making highly pyrophoric reactive metal or alloy atomized powders, such as atomized magnesium and magnesium alloy powders. The gaseous reactive species (agents) are introduced into the atomization spray chamber at locations downstream of a gas atomizing nozzle as determined by the desired powder or particle temperature for the reactions and the desired thickness of the reaction film.

  17. Imputation and quality control steps for combining multiple genome-wide datasets

    Shefali S Verma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The electronic MEdical Records and GEnomics (eMERGE network brings together DNA biobanks linked to electronic health records (EHRs from multiple institutions. Approximately 52,000 DNA samples from distinct individuals have been genotyped using genome-wide SNP arrays across the nine sites of the network. The eMERGE Coordinating Center and the Genomics Workgroup developed a pipeline to impute and merge genomic data across the different SNP arrays to maximize sample size and power to detect associations with a variety of clinical endpoints. The 1000 Genomes cosmopolitan reference panel was used for imputation. Imputation results were evaluated using the following metrics: accuracy of imputation, allelic R2 (estimated correlation between the imputed and true genotypes, and the relationship between allelic R2 and minor allele frequency. Computation time and memory resources required by two different software packages (BEAGLE and IMPUTE2 were also evaluated. A number of challenges were encountered due to the complexity of using two different imputation software packages, multiple ancestral populations, and many different genotyping platforms. We present lessons learned and describe the pipeline implemented here to impute and merge genomic data sets. The eMERGE imputed dataset will serve as a valuable resource for discovery, leveraging the clinical data that can be mined from the EHR.

  18. Multiple time step molecular dynamics in the optimized isokinetic ensemble steered with the molecular theory of solvation: Accelerating with advanced extrapolation of effective solvation forces

    Omelyan, Igor; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2013-01-01

    We develop efficient handling of solvation forces in the multiscale method of multiple time step molecular dynamics (MTS-MD) of a biomolecule steered by the solvation free energy (effective solvation forces) obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation (three-dimensional reference interaction site model complemented with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure approximation). To reduce the computational expenses, we calculate the effective solvation forces acting on the biomolecule by using advanced solvation force extrapolation (ASFE) at inner time steps while converging the 3D-RISM-KH integral equations only at large outer time steps. The idea of ASFE consists in developing a discrete non-Eckart rotational transformation of atomic coordinates that minimizes the distances between the atomic positions of the biomolecule at different time moments. The effective solvation forces for the biomolecule in a current conformation at an inner time step are then extrapolated in the transformed subspace of those at outer time steps by using a modified least square fit approach applied to a relatively small number of the best force-coordinate pairs. The latter are selected from an extended set collecting the effective solvation forces obtained from 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps over a broad time interval. The MTS-MD integration with effective solvation forces obtained by converging 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps and applying ASFE at inner time steps is stabilized by employing the optimized isokinetic Nosé-Hoover chain (OIN) ensemble. Compared to the previous extrapolation schemes used in combination with the Langevin thermostat, the ASFE approach substantially improves the accuracy of evaluation of effective solvation forces and in combination with the OIN thermostat enables a dramatic increase of outer time steps. We demonstrate on a fully flexible model of alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution that the MTS-MD/OIN/ASFE/3D-RISM-KH multiscale method of molecular dynamics

  19. Speckle evolution with multiple steps of least-squares phase removal

    Chen, M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available vortex density and scintillation index. Statistical results show that almost all the optical vortices can be removed from a speckle field, which finally decays into a quasiplane wave after such an iterative process....

  20. Process and representation in multiple-cue judgment

    Olsson, Anna-Carin

    2002-01-01

    This thesis investigates the cognitive processes and representations underlying human judgment in a multiple-cue judgment task. Several recent models assume that people have several qualitatively distinct and competing levels of knowledge representations (Ashby, Alfonso-Reese, Turken, & Waldron, 1998; Erickson & Kruschke, 1998; Nosofsky, Palmeri, & McKinley, 1994; Sloman, 1996). The most successful cognitive models in categorization and multiple-cue judgment are, respectively, exe...

  1. A note on the nucleation with multiple steps: Parallel and series nucleation

    Iwamatsu, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Parallel and series nucleation are the basic elements of the complex nucleation process when two saddle points exist on the free-energy landscape. It is pointed out that the nucleation rates follow formulas similar to those of parallel and series connection of resistors or conductors in an electric circuit. Necessary formulas to calculate individual nucleation rates at the saddle points and the total nucleation rate are summarized and the extension to the more complex nucleation process is su...

  2. Xylose Isomerization with Zeolites in a Two-Step Alcohol–Water Process

    Paniagua, Marta; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Melián Rodriguez, Mayra

    2015-01-01

    Isomerization of xylose to xylulose was efficiently catalyzed by large-pore zeolites in a two-step methanol–water process that enhanced the product yield significantly. The reaction pathway involves xylose isomerization to xylulose, which, in part, subsequently reacts with methanol to form methyl...

  3. Preparation of biodiesel from waste cooking oil via two-step catalyzed process

    Wang Yong; Liu Pengzhan; Ou Shiyi; Zhang Zhisen

    2007-01-01

    Waste cooking oils (WCO), which contain large amounts of free fatty acids produced in restaurants, are collected by the environmental protection agency in the main cities of China and should be disposed in a suitable way. In this research, a two step catalyzed process was adopted to prepare biodiesel from waste cooking oil whose acid value was 75.92 ± 0.036 mgKOH/g. The free fatty acids of WCO were esterified with methanol catalyzed by ferric sulfate in the first step, and the triglycerides (TGs) in WCO were transesterified with methanol catalyzed by potassium hydroxide in the second step. The results showed that ferric sulfate had high activity to catalyze the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) with methanol, The conversion rate of FFA reached 97.22% when 2 wt% of ferric sulfate was added to the reaction system containing methanol to TG in10:1 (mole ratio) composition and reacted at 95 deg. C for 4 h. The methanol was vacuum evaporated, and transesterification of the remained triglycerides was performed at 65 deg. C for 1 h in a reaction system containing 1 wt% of potassium hydroxide and 6:1 mole ratio of methanol to TG. The final product with 97.02% of biodiesel, obtained after the two step catalyzed process, was analyzed by gas chromatography. This new process has many advantages compared with the old processes, such as no acidic waste water, high efficiency, low equipment cost and easy recovery of the catalyst

  4. The Mixing of Methods: a three-step process for improving rigour in impact evaluations

    Ton, G.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a systematic process that is helpful in improving impact evaluation assignments, within restricted budgets and timelines. It involves three steps: a rethink of the key questions of the evaluation to develop more relevant, specific questions; a way of designing a mix of

  5. Two-step estimation procedures for inhomogeneous shot-noise Cox processes

    Prokesová, Michaela; Dvorák, Jirí; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    In the present paper we develop several two-step estimation procedures for inhomogeneous shot-noise Cox processes. The intensity function is parametrized by the inhomogeneity parameters while the pair-correlation function is parametrized by the interaction parameters. The suggested procedures...

  6. Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on automated processing: evidence from the double-step paradigm.

    Vorstius, Christian; Radach, Ralph; Lang, Alan R

    2012-02-01

    Reflexive and voluntary levels of processing have been studied extensively with respect to possible impairments due to alcohol intoxication. This study examined alcohol effects at the 'automated' level of processing essential to many complex visual processing tasks (e.g., reading, visual search) that involve ongoing modifications or reprogramming of well-practiced routines. Data from 30 participants (16 male) were collected in two counterbalanced sessions (alcohol vs. no-alcohol control; mean breath alcohol concentration = 68 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL). Eye movements were recorded during a double-step task where 75% of trials involved two target stimuli in rapid succession (inter-stimulus interval [ISI]=40, 70, or 100 ms) so that they could elicit two distinct saccades or eye movements (double steps). On 25% of trials a single target appeared. Results indicated that saccade latencies were longer under alcohol. In addition, the proportion of single-step responses and the mean saccade amplitude (length) of primary saccades decreased significantly with increasing ISI. The key novel finding, however, was that the reprogramming time needed to cancel the first saccade and adjust saccade amplitude was extended significantly by alcohol. The additional time made available by prolonged latencies due to alcohol was not utilized by the saccade programming system to decrease the number of two-step responses. These results represent the first demonstration of specific alcohol-induced programming deficits at the automated level of oculomotor processing.

  7. Low-temperature process steps for realization of non-volatile memory devices

    Brunets, I.; Boogaard, A.; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Holleman, J.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the low-temperature process steps required for the realization of nano-crystal non-volatile memory cells are discussed. An amorphous silicon film, crystallized using a diode pumped solid state green laser irradiating at 532 nm, is proposed as an active layer. The deposition of the

  8. The typical steps of radiation processes development. Experience in investigation, designing and application

    Babkin, I. Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The typical steps of radiation processes development are discussed as: primary laboratory investigations; primary economic evaluation; more exact estimation of situation in industry; comparative analysis; development of a flow sheet; pilot plant; obtaining of initial data for designing of industrial scale plant; prediction of industrial situation; designing of semi-industrial or industrial plant; industrial plant. (U.K.)

  9. Multiple electron processes of He and Ne by proton impact

    Terekhin, Pavel Nikolaevich; Montenegro, Pablo; Quinto, Michele; Monti, Juan; Fojon, Omar; Rivarola, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    A detailed investigation of multiple electron processes (single and multiple ionization, single capture, transfer-ionization) of He and Ne is presented for proton impact at intermediate and high collision energies. Exclusive absolute cross sections for these processes have been obtained by calculation of transition probabilities in the independent electron and independent event models as a function of impact parameter in the framework of the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state theory. A binomial analysis is employed to calculate exclusive probabilities. The comparison with available theoretical and experimental results shows that exclusive probabilities are needed for a reliable description of the experimental data. The developed approach can be used for obtaining the input database for modeling multiple electron processes of charged particles passing through the matter.

  10. Efficient Adoption and Assessment of Multiple Process Improvement Reference Models

    Simona Jeners

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A variety of reference models such as CMMI, COBIT or ITIL support IT organizations to improve their processes. These process improvement reference models (IRMs cover different domains such as IT development, IT Services or IT Governance but also share some similarities. As there are organizations that address multiple domains and need to coordinate their processes in their improvement we present MoSaIC, an approach to support organizations to efficiently adopt and conform to multiple IRMs. Our solution realizes a semantic integration of IRMs based on common meta-models. The resulting IRM integration model enables organizations to efficiently implement and asses multiple IRMs and to benefit from synergy effects.

  11. A note on the nucleation with multiple steps: parallel and series nucleation.

    Iwamatsu, Masao

    2012-01-28

    Parallel and series nucleation are the basic elements of the complex nucleation process when two saddle points exist on the free-energy landscape. It is pointed out that the nucleation rates follow formulas similar to those of parallel and series connection of resistors or conductors in an electric circuit. Necessary formulas to calculate individual nucleation rates at the saddle points and the total nucleation rate are summarized, and the extension to the more complex nucleation process is suggested. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  12. Experimental study of the pressure discharge process for the hydraulic control rod drive system stepped cylinder

    Wang, Jinhua; Bo, Hanliang; Zheng, Wenxiang

    2002-01-01

    The pressure discharge process from the stepped cylinder of the Hydraulic Control Rod Drive System (HCRDS) was studied experimentally in the HCRDS experimental loop for the 200 MW Nuclear Heating Reactor (NHR-200). The results showed that the differential pressure between the outside and the inside of the stepped cylinder increased rapidly to the desired value so that the force induced by the differential pressure which pushes the out tube of stepped cylinder was large enough. Therefore, if the hydraulic control rod were jammed, the pressure could push the hydraulic control rod to overcome the frictional resistance to insert the control rod into the reactor core. The experimental results verified that this design would solve the problem of hydraulic control rod jamming during an accident. (author)

  13. Impacting student anxiety for the USMLE Step 1 through process-oriented preparation

    Roy E. Strowd

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Standardized examinations are the key components of medical education. The USMLE Step 1 is the first of these important milestones. Success on this examination requires both content competency and efficient strategies for study and review. Students employ a wide variety of techniques in studying for this examination, with heavy reliance on personal study habits and advice from other students. Nevertheless, few medical curricula formally address these strategies. Methods: In response to student-generated critique at our institution, a five-part seminar series on process-oriented preparation was developed and implemented to address such concerns. The series focused on early guidance and preparation strategies for Step 1 and the many other important challenges in medical school. Emphasis was placed on facilitating conversation and mentorship opportunities between students. Results & Conclusions: A profoundly positive experience was reported by our medical students that included a decreased anxiety level for the Step 1 examination.

  14. Core-shell polymer nanorods by a two-step template wetting process

    Dougherty, S; Liang, J

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional core-shell polymer nanowires offer many advantages and great potential for many different applications. In this paper we introduce a highly versatile two-step template wetting process to fabricate two-component core-shell polymer nanowires with controllable shell thickness. PLLA and PMMA were chosen as model polymers to demonstrate the feasibility of this process. Solution wetting with different concentrations of polymer solutions was used to fabricate the shell layer and melt wetting was used to fill the shell with the core polymer. The shell thickness was analyzed as a function of the polymer solution concentration and viscosity, and the core-shell morphology was observed with TEM. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating polymer core-shell nanostructures using our two-step template wetting process and opens the arena for optimization and future experiments with polymers that are desirable for specific applications.

  15. Changing physical activity behaviour for people with multiple sclerosis: protocol of a randomised controlled feasibility trial (iStep-MS).

    Ryan, Jennifer M; Fortune, Jennifer; Stennett, Andrea; Kilbride, Cherry; Anokye, Nana; Victor, Christina; Hendrie, Wendy; Abdul, Mohamed; DeSouza, Lorraine; Lavelle, Grace; Brewin, Debbie; David, Lee; Norris, Meriel

    2017-11-15

    Although physical activity may reduce disease burden, fatigue and disability, and improve quality of life among people with multiple sclerosis (MS), many people with MS are physically inactive and spend significant time in sedentary behaviour. Behaviour change interventions may assist people with MS to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour. However, few studies have investigated their effectiveness using objective measures of physical activity, particularly in the long term. Further, interventions that have proven effective in the short term may not be feasible in clinical practice because of the large amount of support provided. The iStep-MS trial aims to determine the safety, feasibility and acceptability of a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour among people with MS. Sixty people with MS will be randomised (1:1 ratio) to receive a 12-week intervention or usual care only. The intervention consists of four physical activity consultations with a physiotherapist supported by a handbook and pedometer. Outcomes assessed at baseline, 12 weeks and 9 months are physical activity (ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer), sedentary behaviour (activPAL3µ), self-reported activity and sitting time, walking capability, fatigue, self-efficacy, participation, quality of life and health service use. The safety of the intervention will be determined by assessing change in pain and fatigue and the incidence of adverse events during the follow-up period. A parallel process evaluation will assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention through assessment of fidelity to the programme and semistructured interviews exploring participants' and therapists' experiences of the intervention. The feasibility of conducting an economic evaluation will be determined by collecting data on quality of life and resource use. Research ethics committee approval has been granted from Brunel University London. Results of

  16. Temperature feedback effects in a supercritical water reactor concept with multiple heat-up steps

    Barragan-Martinez, A.M., E-mail: albrm29@yahoo.com [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Jiutepec, Mor (Mexico); Espinosa-Paredes, G.; Vazquez-Rodriguez, A., E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx, E-mail: vara@xanum.uam.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria en Rescursos Energeticos, Col. Vicentina (Mexico); Martin-del-Campo, C.; Francois, J.L., E-mail: cecilia.martin.del.campo@gmail.com, E-mail: juan.louis.francois@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Jiutepec, Mor (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    The Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is one of the most promising and innovative designs selected by the Generation IV International Forum. One of the concepts being studied is the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR), which is the European version of the SCWR. In this paper we present the numerical analysis of the behavior of a HPLWR with temperature feedback effects. The neutronic process, the heat transfer in the fuel rod and the thermalhydraulics in the core of the HPLWR were considered in this study. The neutronic calculations were performed with HELIOS-2 and the obtained results were used to evaluate the reactivity due to fuel temperature and supercritical water density. (author)

  17. Temperature feedback effects in a supercritical water reactor concept with multiple heat-up steps

    Barragan-Martinez, A.M.; Espinosa-Paredes, G.; Vazquez-Rodriguez, A.; Martin-del-Campo, C.; Francois, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is one of the most promising and innovative designs selected by the Generation IV International Forum. One of the concepts being studied is the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR), which is the European version of the SCWR. In this paper we present the numerical analysis of the behavior of a HPLWR with temperature feedback effects. The neutronic process, the heat transfer in the fuel rod and the thermalhydraulics in the core of the HPLWR were considered in this study. The neutronic calculations were performed with HELIOS-2 and the obtained results were used to evaluate the reactivity due to fuel temperature and supercritical water density. (author)

  18. Efficient multitasking: parallel versus serial processing of multiple tasks.

    Fischer, Rico; Plessow, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    In the context of performance optimizations in multitasking, a central debate has unfolded in multitasking research around whether cognitive processes related to different tasks proceed only sequentially (one at a time), or can operate in parallel (simultaneously). This review features a discussion of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence regarding parallel versus serial task processing in multitasking. In addition, we highlight how methodological differences and theoretical conceptions determine the extent to which parallel processing in multitasking can be detected, to guide their employment in future research. Parallel and serial processing of multiple tasks are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, questions focusing exclusively on either task-processing mode are too simplified. We review empirical evidence and demonstrate that shifting between more parallel and more serial task processing critically depends on the conditions under which multiple tasks are performed. We conclude that efficient multitasking is reflected by the ability of individuals to adjust multitasking performance to environmental demands by flexibly shifting between different processing strategies of multiple task-component scheduling.

  19. Multiple k Nearest Neighbor Query Processing in Spatial Network Databases

    Xuegang, Huang; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Saltenis, Simonas

    2006-01-01

    This paper concerns the efficient processing of multiple k nearest neighbor queries in a road-network setting. The assumed setting covers a range of scenarios such as the one where a large population of mobile service users that are constrained to a road network issue nearest-neighbor queries...... for points of interest that are accessible via the road network. Given multiple k nearest neighbor queries, the paper proposes progressive techniques that selectively cache query results in main memory and subsequently reuse these for query processing. The paper initially proposes techniques for the case...... where an upper bound on k is known a priori and then extends the techniques to the case where this is not so. Based on empirical studies with real-world data, the paper offers insight into the circumstances under which the different proposed techniques can be used with advantage for multiple k nearest...

  20. Multiple-predators-based capture process on complex networks

    Sharafat, Rajput Ramiz; Pu Cunlai; Li Jie; Chen Rongbin; Xu Zhongqi

    2017-01-01

    The predator/prey (capture) problem is a prototype of many network-related applications. We study the capture process on complex networks by considering multiple predators from multiple sources. In our model, some lions start from multiple sources simultaneously to capture the lamb by biased random walks, which are controlled with a free parameter α . We derive the distribution of the lamb’s lifetime and the expected lifetime 〈 T 〉. Through simulation, we find that the expected lifetime drops substantially with the increasing number of lions. Moreover, we study how the underlying topological structure affects the capture process, and obtain that locating on small-degree nodes is better than on large-degree nodes to prolong the lifetime of the lamb. The dense or homogeneous network structures are against the survival of the lamb. We also discuss how to improve the capture efficiency in our model. (paper)

  1. Multiple-electron processes in fast ion-atom collisions

    Schlachter, A.S.

    1989-03-01

    Research in atomic physics at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Super-HILAC and Bevalac accelerators on multiple-electron processes in fast ion-atom collisions is described. Experiments have studied various aspects of the charge-transfer, ionization, and excitation processes. Examples of processes in which electron correlation plays a role are resonant transfer and excitation and Auger-electron emission. Processes in which electron behavior can generally be described as uncorrelated include ionization and charge transfer in high-energy ion-atom collisions. A variety of experiments and results for energies from 1 MeV/u to 420 MeV/u are presented. 20 refs., 15 figs

  2. Comparison of the phenolic composition of fruit juices by single step gradient HPLC analysis of multiple components versus multiple chromatographic runs optimised for individual families.

    Bremner, P D; Blacklock, C J; Paganga, G; Mullen, W; Rice-Evans, C A; Crozier, A

    2000-06-01

    After minimal sample preparation, two different HPLC methodologies, one based on a single gradient reversed-phase HPLC step, the other on multiple HPLC runs each optimised for specific components, were used to investigate the composition of flavonoids and phenolic acids in apple and tomato juices. The principal components in apple juice were identified as chlorogenic acid, phloridzin, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid. Tomato juice was found to contain chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, naringenin and rutin. The quantitative estimates of the levels of these compounds, obtained with the two HPLC procedures, were very similar, demonstrating that either method can be used to analyse accurately the phenolic components of apple and tomato juices. Chlorogenic acid in tomato juice was the only component not fully resolved in the single run study and the multiple run analysis prior to enzyme treatment. The single run system of analysis is recommended for the initial investigation of plant phenolics and the multiple run approach for analyses where chromatographic resolution requires improvement.

  3. Propagation of Uncertainty in Bayesian Kernel Models - Application to Multiple-Step Ahead Forecasting

    Quinonero, Joaquin; Girard, Agathe; Larsen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    The object of Bayesian modelling is predictive distribution, which, in a forecasting scenario, enables evaluation of forecasted values and their uncertainties. We focus on reliably estimating the predictive mean and variance of forecasted values using Bayesian kernel based models such as the Gaus......The object of Bayesian modelling is predictive distribution, which, in a forecasting scenario, enables evaluation of forecasted values and their uncertainties. We focus on reliably estimating the predictive mean and variance of forecasted values using Bayesian kernel based models...... such as the Gaussian process and the relevance vector machine. We derive novel analytic expressions for the predictive mean and variance for Gaussian kernel shapes under the assumption of a Gaussian input distribution in the static case, and of a recursive Gaussian predictive density in iterative forecasting...

  4. Photon Production through Multi-step Processes Important in Nuclear Fluorescence Experiments

    Hagmann, C; Pruet, J

    2006-01-01

    The authors present calculations describing the production of photons through multi-step processes occurring when a beam of gamma rays interacts with a macroscopic material. These processes involve the creation of energetic electrons through Compton scattering, photo-absorption and pair production, the subsequent scattering of these electrons, and the creation of energetic photons occurring as these electrons are slowed through Bremsstrahlung emission. Unlike single Compton collisions, during which an energetic photon that is scattered through a large angle loses most of its energy, these multi-step processes result in a sizable flux of energetic photons traveling at large angles relative to an incident photon beam. These multi-step processes are also a key background in experiments that measure nuclear resonance fluorescence by shining photons on a thin foil and observing the spectrum of back-scattered photons. Effective cross sections describing the production of backscattered photons are presented in a tabular form that allows simple estimates of backgrounds expected in a variety of experiments. Incident photons with energies between 0.5 MeV and 8 MeV are considered. These calculations of effective cross sections may be useful for those designing NRF experiments or systems that detect specific isotopes in well-shielded environments through observation of resonance fluorescence

  5. Multi-step process for concentrating magnetic particles in waste sludges

    Watson, John L.

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a multi-step, multi-force process for dewatering sludges which have high concentrations of magnetic particles, such as waste sludges generated during steelmaking. This series of processing steps involves (1) mixing a chemical flocculating agent with the sludge; (2) allowing the particles to aggregate under non-turbulent conditions; (3) subjecting the mixture to a magnetic field which will pull the magnetic aggregates in a selected direction, causing them to form a compacted sludge; (4) preferably, decanting the clarified liquid from the compacted sludge; and (5) using filtration to convert the compacted sludge into a cake having a very high solids content. Steps 2 and 3 should be performed simultaneously. This reduces the treatment time and increases the extent of flocculation and the effectiveness of the process. As partially formed aggregates with active flocculating groups are pulled through the mixture by the magnetic field, they will contact other particles and form larger aggregates. This process can increase the solids concentration of steelmaking sludges in an efficient and economic manner, thereby accomplishing either of two goals: (a) it can convert hazardous wastes into economic resources for recycling as furnace feed material, or (b) it can dramatically reduce the volume of waste material which must be disposed.

  6. Multiple multichannel spectra acquisition and processing system with intelligent interface

    Chen Ying; Wei Yixiang; Qu Jianshi; Zheng Futang; Xu Shengkui; Xie Yuanming; Qu Xing; Ji Weitong; Qiu Xuehua

    1986-01-01

    A Multiple multichannel spectra acquisition and processing system with intelligent interface is described. Sixteen spectra measured with various lengths, channel widths, back biases and acquisition times can be identified and collected by the intelligent interface simultaneously while the connected computer is doing data processing. The execution time for the Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrum analysis software on IBM PC-XT is about 55 seconds

  7. Cumulative effect in multiple production processes on nuclei

    Golubyatnikova, E.S.; Shmonin, V.L.; Kalinkin, B.N.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the cumulative effect is a natural result of the process of hadron multiple production in nuclear reactions. Interpretation is made of the universality of slopes of inclusive spectra and other characteristics of cumulative hadrons. The character of information from such reactions is discussed, which could be helpful in studying the mechanism of multiparticle production. 27 refs.; 4 figs

  8. Diffusion welding. [heat treatment of nickel alloys following single step vacuum welding process

    Holko, K. H. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Dispersion-strengthened nickel alloys are sanded on one side and chemically polished. This is followed by a single-step welding process wherein the polished surfaces are forced into intimate contact at 1,400 F for one hour in a vacuum. Diffusion, recrystallization, and grain growth across the original weld interface are obtained during postheating at 2,150 F for two hours in hydrogen.

  9. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of analog random multiplicative processes

    Silva, L.B.M.; Vermelho, M.V.D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceio - AL, 57072-970 (Brazil); Lyra, M.L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceio - AL, 57072-970 (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelo@if.ufal.br; Viswanathan, G.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceio - AL, 57072-970 (Brazil)

    2009-09-15

    We investigate non-Gaussian statistical properties of stationary stochastic signals generated by an analog circuit that simulates a random multiplicative process with weak additive noise. The random noises are originated by thermal shot noise and avalanche processes, while the multiplicative process is generated by a fully analog circuit. The resulting signal describes stochastic time series of current interest in several areas such as turbulence, finance, biology and environment, which exhibit power-law distributions. Specifically, we study the correlation properties of the signal by employing a detrended fluctuation analysis and explore its multifractal nature. The singularity spectrum is obtained and analyzed as a function of the control circuit parameter that tunes the asymptotic power-law form of the probability distribution function.

  10. Multiple production of hadrons in deep-inelastic processes

    Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    A formula to describe an average hadron multiplicity on deep-inelastic processes has been proposed. On the basis of available experimental data predictions are made about the behaviour of average multiplicity at higher energies. The W-dependence of obserVed in experiments at present remains invariable up to energies W approximately 20-25 GeV. At W> or approXimately 25 GeV there will begin a rapid ibcrease of , which is analogous to the increase, observed for sub(esup(+)esup(-)) and is of the same nature

  11. An investigation of multidisciplinary complex health care interventions - steps towards an integrative treatment model in the rehabilitation of People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Skovgaard Lasse

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Society initiated a large-scale bridge building and integrative treatment project to take place from 2004–2010 at a specialized Multiple Sclerosis (MS hospital. In this project, a team of five conventional health care practitioners and five alternative practitioners was set up to work together in developing and offering individualized treatments to 200 people with MS. The purpose of this paper is to present results from the six year treatment collaboration process regarding the development of an integrative treatment model. Discussion The collaborative work towards an integrative treatment model for people with MS, involved six steps: 1 Working with an initial model 2 Unfolding the different treatment philosophies 3 Discussing the elements of the Intervention-Mechanism-Context-Outcome-scheme (the IMCO-scheme 4 Phrasing the common assumptions for an integrative MS program theory 5 Developing the integrative MS program theory 6 Building the integrative MS treatment model. The model includes important elements of the different treatment philosophies represented in the team and thereby describes a common understanding of the complexity of the courses of treatment. Summary An integrative team of practitioners has developed an integrative model for combined treatments of People with Multiple Sclerosis. The model unites different treatment philosophies and focuses on process-oriented factors and the strengthening of the patients’ resources and competences on a physical, an emotional and a cognitive level.

  12. Integrating social media and social marketing: a four-step process.

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Keller, Heidi

    2012-03-01

    Social media is a group of Internet-based applications that allows individuals to create, collaborate, and share content with one another. Practitioners can realize social media's untapped potential by incorporating it as part of the larger social marketing strategy, beyond promotion. Social media, if used correctly, may help organizations increase their capacity for putting the consumer at the center of the social marketing process. The purpose of this article is to provide a template for strategic thinking to successfully include social media as part of the social marketing strategy by using a four-step process.

  13. Noise Suppression in ECG Signals through Efficient One-Step Wavelet Processing Techniques

    E. Castillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the application of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT for wandering and noise suppression in electrocardiographic (ECG signals. A novel one-step implementation is presented, which allows improving the overall denoising process. In addition an exhaustive study is carried out, defining threshold limits and thresholding rules for optimal wavelet denoising using this presented technique. The system has been tested using synthetic ECG signals, which allow accurately measuring the effect of the proposed processing. Moreover, results from real abdominal ECG signals acquired from pregnant women are presented in order to validate the presented approach.

  14. Development of F2 two-step fluorination process for non-aqueous reprocessing

    1976-02-01

    To establish the F 2 two-step fluorination for stable and high recoveries of plutonium, the fluorination process has been studied with the simulated fuel to a FBR containing UO 2 - PuO 2 and non-radioactive fission products in the 2''phi fluid-bed. The process principle was demonstrated and the effect of FPs on fluorination of U and Pu and the possibility of reducing the Pu loss could be clarified. The feasibility of separating PuF 6 from UF 6 onto UO 2 F 2 by adsorption, was also indicated. (auth.)

  15. Extended Kalman filter (EKF) application in vitamin C two-step fermentation process.

    Wei, D; Yuan, W; Yuan, Z; Yin, G; Chen, M

    1993-01-01

    Based on kinetic model study of vitamin C two-step fermentation, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) theory is conducted for studying the process which is disturbed by white noise to some extent caused by the model, the fermentation system and operation fluctuation. EKF shows that calculated results from estimated process parameters agree with the experimental results considerably better than model prediction without using estimated parameters. Parameter analysis gives a better understanding of the kinetics and provides a basis for state estimation and state prediction.

  16. Feasibility study design and methods for a home-based, square-stepping exercise program among older adults with multiple sclerosis: The SSE-MS project.

    Sebastião, Emerson; McAuley, Edward; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Motl, Robert W

    2017-09-01

    We propose a randomized controlled trial (RCT) examining the feasibility of square-stepping exercise (SSE) delivered as a home-based program for older adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). We will assess feasibility in the four domains of process, resources, management and scientific outcomes. The trial will recruit older adults (aged 60 years and older) with mild-to-moderate MS-related disability who will be randomized into intervention or attention control conditions. Participants will complete assessments before and after completion of the conditions delivered over a 12-week period. Participants in the intervention group will have biweekly meetings with an exercise trainer in the Exercise Neuroscience Research Laboratory and receive verbal and visual instruction on step patterns for the SSE program. Participants will receive a mat for home-based practice of the step patterns, an instruction manual, and a logbook and pedometer for monitoring compliance. Compliance will be further monitored through weekly scheduled Skype calls. This feasibility study will inform future phase II and III RCTs that determine the actual efficacy and effectiveness of a home-based exercise program for older adults with MS.

  17. Discrete pre-processing step effects in registration-based pipelines, a preliminary volumetric study on T1-weighted images.

    Muncy, Nathan M; Hedges-Muncy, Ariana M; Kirwan, C Brock

    2017-01-01

    Pre-processing MRI scans prior to performing volumetric analyses is common practice in MRI studies. As pre-processing steps adjust the voxel intensities, the space in which the scan exists, and the amount of data in the scan, it is possible that the steps have an effect on the volumetric output. To date, studies have compared between and not within pipelines, and so the impact of each step is unknown. This study aims to quantify the effects of pre-processing steps on volumetric measures in T1-weighted scans within a single pipeline. It was our hypothesis that pre-processing steps would significantly impact ROI volume estimations. One hundred fifteen participants from the OASIS dataset were used, where each participant contributed three scans. All scans were then pre-processed using a step-wise pipeline. Bilateral hippocampus, putamen, and middle temporal gyrus volume estimations were assessed following each successive step, and all data were processed by the same pipeline 5 times. Repeated-measures analyses tested for a main effects of pipeline step, scan-rescan (for MRI scanner consistency) and repeated pipeline runs (for algorithmic consistency). A main effect of pipeline step was detected, and interestingly an interaction between pipeline step and ROI exists. No effect for either scan-rescan or repeated pipeline run was detected. We then supply a correction for noise in the data resulting from pre-processing.

  18. DOA Estimation of Low Altitude Target Based on Adaptive Step Glowworm Swarm Optimization-multiple Signal Classification Algorithm

    Zhou Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC algorithm requires significant computational effort and can not be employed for the Direction Of Arrival (DOA estimation of targets in a low-altitude multipath environment. As such, a novel MUSIC approach is proposed on the basis of the algorithm of Adaptive Step Glowworm Swarm Optimization (ASGSO. The virtual spatial smoothing of the matrix formed by each snapshot is used to realize the decorrelation of the multipath signal and the establishment of a fullorder correlation matrix. ASGSO optimizes the function and estimates the elevation of the target. The simulation results suggest that the proposed method can overcome the low altitude multipath effect and estimate the DOA of target readily and precisely without radar effective aperture loss.

  19. ELECTRODIALYSIS IN THE CONVERSION STEP OF THE CONCENTRATED SALT SOLUTIONS IN THE PROCESS OF BATTERY SCRAP

    S. I. Niftaliev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The concentrated sodium sulfate solution is formed during the processing of waste battery scrap. A promising way to further treatment of the concentrated salt solution could be the conversion of these salts into acid and bases by electrodialysis, that can be reused in the same technical process cycle. For carrying out the process of conversion of salts into the corresponding acid and base several cells schemes with different combinations of cation, anion and bipolar membranes are used. At this article a comparative analysis of these cells is carried out. In the cells there were used the membranes МC-40, МА-41 and МB-2I. Acid and base solutions with higher concentration may be obtained during the process of electrodialysis in the circulation mode, when a predetermined amount of salt in the closed loop is run through a set of membranes to obtain the desired concentration of the product. The disadvantages of this method are the high cost of buffer tanks and the need to work with small volumes of treated solutions. In industrial applications it is advisable to use continuous electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, since this configuration allows to increase the number of repeating sections, which is necessary to reduce the energy costs. The increase of the removal rate of salts can be achieved by increasing the process steps, and to produce a more concentrated products after the conversion step can be applied electrodialysis-concentrator or evaporator.

  20. The defense waste processing facility: the final processing step for defense high-level waste disposal

    Cowan, S.P.; Sprecher, W.M.; Walton, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The policy of the U.S. Department of Energy is to pursue an aggressive and credible waste management program that advocates final disposal of government generated (defense) high-level nuclear wastes in a manner consistent with environmental, health, and safety responsibilities and requirements. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is an essential component of the Department's program. It is the first project undertaken in the United States to immobilize government generated high-level nuclear wastes for geologic disposal. The DWPF will be built at the Department's Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. When construction is complete in 1989, the DWPF will begin processing the high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant into a borosilicate glass form, a highly insoluble and non-dispersable product, in easily handled canisters. The immobilized waste will be stored on site followed by transportation to and disposal in a Federal repository. The focus of this paper is on the DWPF. The paper discusses issues which justify the project, summarizes its technical attributes, analyzes relevant environmental and insitutional factors, describes the management approach followed in transforming technical and other concepts into concrete and steel, and concludes with observations about the future role of the facility

  1. A simple test of choice stepping reaction time for assessing fall risk in people with multiple sclerosis.

    Tijsma, Mylou; Vister, Eva; Hoang, Phu; Lord, Stephen R

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To determine (a) the discriminant validity for established fall risk factors and (b) the predictive validity for falls of a simple test of choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Method People with MS (n = 210, 21-74y) performed the CSRT, sensorimotor, balance and neuropsychological tests in a single session. They were then followed up for falls using monthly fall diaries for 6 months. Results The CSRT test had excellent discriminant validity with respect to established fall risk factors. Frequent fallers (≥3 falls) performed significantly worse in the CSRT test than non-frequent fallers (0-2 falls). With the odds of suffering frequent falls increasing 69% with each SD increase in CSRT (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.27-2.26, p = falls in people with MS. This test may prove useful in documenting longitudinal changes in fall risk in relation to MS disease progression and effects of interventions. Implications for rehabilitation Good choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) is required for maintaining balance. A simple low-tech CSRT test has excellent discriminative and predictive validity in relation to falls in people with MS. This test may prove useful documenting longitudinal changes in fall risk in relation to MS disease progression and effects of interventions.

  2. Observation of laser multiple filamentation process and multiple electron beams acceleration in a laser wakefield accelerator

    Li, Wentao; Liu, Jiansheng; Wang, Wentao; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Hui; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Zhijun; Qi, Rong; Wang, Cheng; Leng, Yuxin; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2013-01-01

    The multiple filaments formation process in the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) was observed by imaging the transmitted laser beam after propagating in the plasma of different density. During propagation, the laser first self-focused into a single filament. After that, it began to defocus with energy spreading in the transverse direction. Two filaments then formed from it and began to propagate independently, moving away from each other. We have also demonstrated that the laser multiple filamentation would lead to the multiple electron beams acceleration in the LWFA via ionization-induced injection scheme. Besides, its influences on the accelerated electron beams were also analyzed both in the single-stage LWFA and cascaded LWFA

  3. Roles of multi-step transfer in fusion process induced by heavy-ion reactions

    Imanishi, B.; Oertzen, W. von.

    1993-06-01

    In nucleus-nucleus collisions of the systems, 12 C+ 13 C and 13 C+ 16 O- 12 C+ 17 O, the effects of the multi-step transfers and inelastic excitations on the fusion cross sections are investigated in the framework of the coupled-reaction-channel (CRC) method. Strong CRC effects of the multi-step processes are observed. Namely, the valence neutron in 13 C or 17 O plays an important role in the enhancement of the fusion. The potential barrier is effectively lowered with the formation of the covalent molecule of the configuration, 12 C+n+ 12 C or 12 C+n+ 16 O. In the analyses of the system 12 C+ 13 C, however, it is still required to introduce core-core optical potential of lower barrier height in the state of the positive total parity. This could be due to the neck formation with the nucleons contained in two core nuclei. (author)

  4. Controllable 3D architectures of aligned carbon nanotube arrays by multi-step processes

    Huang, Shaoming

    2003-06-01

    An effective way to fabricate large area three-dimensional (3D) aligned CNTs pattern based on pyrolysis of iron(II) phthalocyanine (FePc) by two-step processes is reported. The controllable generation of different lengths and selective growth of the aligned CNT arrays on metal-patterned (e.g., Ag and Au) substrate are the bases for generating such 3D aligned CNTs architectures. By controlling experimental conditions 3D aligned CNT arrays with different lengths/densities and morphologies/structures as well as multi-layered architectures can be fabricated in large scale by multi-step pyrolysis of FePc. These 3D architectures could have interesting properties and be applied for developing novel nanotube-based devices.

  5. Microstructural and mechanical evolutions during the forging step of the COBAPRESS, a casting/forging process

    Perrier, Frédéric; Desrayaud, Christophe; Bouvier, Véronique

    Aluminum casting/forging processes are used to produce parts for the automotive industry. In this study, we examined the influence of the forging step on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of an A356 aluminum alloy modified with strontium. Firstly, a design of samples which allows us to test mechanically the alloy before and after forging was created. A finite element analysis with the ABAQUS software predicts a maximum of strain in the core of the specimens. Observations with the EBSD technique confirm a more intense sub-structuration of the dendrite cells in this zone. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elongation and fatigue lives were then improved for the casting/forging samples compared to the only cast specimens. The closure of the porosities and the improvement of the surface quality during the forging step enhance also the fatigue resistance of the samples.

  6. System and process for pulsed multiple reaction monitoring

    Belov, Mikhail E

    2013-05-17

    A new pulsed multiple reaction monitoring process and system are disclosed that uses a pulsed ion injection mode for use in conjunction with triple-quadrupole instruments. The pulsed injection mode approach reduces background ion noise at the detector, increases amplitude of the ion signal, and includes a unity duty cycle that provides a significant sensitivity increase for reliable quantitation of proteins/peptides present at attomole levels in highly complex biological mixtures.

  7. Pedagogical Affordances of Multiple External Representations in Scientific Processes

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Puntambekar, Sadhana

    2012-12-01

    Multiple external representations (MERs) have been widely used in science teaching and learning. Theories such as dual coding theory and cognitive flexibility theory have been developed to explain why the use of MERs is beneficial to learning, but they do not provide much information on pedagogical issues such as how and in what conditions MERs could be introduced and used to support students' engagement in scientific processes and develop competent scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning investigations, and analyzing data). Additionally, little is understood about complex interactions among scientific processes and affordances of MERs. Therefore, this article focuses on pedagogical affordances of MERs in learning environments that engage students in various scientific processes. By reviewing literature in science education and cognitive psychology and integrating multiple perspectives, this article aims at exploring (1) how MERs can be integrated with science processes due to their different affordances, and (2) how student learning with MERs can be scaffolded, especially in a classroom situation. We argue that pairing representations and scientific processes in a principled way based on the affordances of the representations and the goals of the activities is a powerful way to use MERs in science education. Finally, we outline types of scaffolding that could help effective use of MERs including dynamic linking, model progression, support in instructional materials, teacher support, and active engagement.

  8. Step by step control of a deep drawing process with piezo-electric actuators in serial operation

    Bäume Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the design-driven increase in complexity of forming car body parts, it becomes more difficult to ensure a stable forming process. Piezoelectric actuators can influence the material flow of stamping parts effectively. In this article the implementation of piezoelectric actuators in a large scale sheet metal forming tool of a car manufacturer is described. Additionally, it is shown that part quality can be assessed with the help of triangulation laser sensors, which are mounted on the blankholder. The resulting flange draw-in signals were used to reduce the occurrence of wrinkling or the rate of cracking. It was shown that process control improved the quality of the stamping parts significantly.

  9. Is it Feasible to Use Students' Self-reported Step Data in a Local School Policy Process?

    Bonde, Ane Høstgaard; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We examined students’ self-reported step data and discussed the feasibility of using these data in a local school policy process. Methods: For 5 days during school hours, 281 stu- dents from grades 5–7 participating in a health education program, measured their steps using a pedometer......: Student-collected data showed similar patterns as reported in the literature, and therefore, a feasible perspective could be to use students’ self-reported step data in a local school policy process....

  10. Transport processes investigation: A necessary first step in site scale characterization plans

    Roepke, C.; Glass, R.J.; Brainard, J.; Mann, M.; Kriel, K.; Holt, R.; Schwing, J.

    1995-01-01

    We propose an approach, which we call the Transport Processes Investigation or TPI, to identify and verify site-scale transport processes and their controls. The TPI aids in the formulation of an accurate conceptual model of flow and transport, an essential first step in the development of a cost effective site characterization strategy. The TPI is demonstrated in the highly complex vadose zone of glacial tills that underlie the Fernald Environmental Remediation Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. As a result of the TPI, we identify and verify the pertinent flow processes and their controls, such as extensive macropore and fracture flow through layered clays, which must be included in an accurate conceptual model of site-scale contaminant transport. We are able to conclude that the classical modeling and sampling methods employed in some site characterization programs will be insufficient to characterize contaminant concentrations or distributions at contaminated or hazardous waste facilities sited in such media

  11. Synthesis of highly ordered nanopores on alumina by two-step anodization process

    Bwana, Nicholas N. [University of Oxford, Department of Engineering Science (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Nicholas.Bwana@eng.ox.ac.uk

    2008-02-15

    Highly ordered anodic alumina was produced, on RF sputtered aluminium on a conductive glass substrate, by two step anodizing process in 0.4 M sulphuric acid at constant cell potentials of between 5 and 25 V and at a constant current density of 20 mA cm{sup -2}. The temperature was kept constant at 15 deg. C during both anodization processes. The effects of the anodizing potential, current density, and time on the pore diameters were established. Longer anodization periods result in wider irregular pores with reduced porosity for both constant potential and constant current density anodization processes. The current density increases with increasing constant anodizing potential and generally remains constant with time after a sharp rise. Potential drop during constant current density anodization behaves in a similar manner. We confirm that sulphuric acid has a self-ordering potential of 25 V above which burning occurs.

  12. Antibacterial and cytocompatible nanotextured Ti surface incorporating silver via single step hydrothermal processing

    Mohandas, Anu; Krishnan, Amit G.; Biswas, Raja; Menon, Deepthy, E-mail: deepthymenon@aims.amrita.edu; Nair, Manitha B., E-mail: manithanair@aims.amrita.edu

    2017-06-01

    Nanosurface modification of Titanium (Ti) implants and prosthesis is proved to enhance osseointegration at the tissue–implant interface. However, many of these products lack adequate antibacterial capability, which leads to implant loosening. As a curative strategy, in this study, nanotextured Ti substrates embedded with silver nanoparticles were developed through a single step hydrothermal processing in an alkaline medium containing silver nitrate at different concentrations (15, 30 and 75 μM). Scanning electron micrographs revealed a non-periodically oriented nanoleafy structure on Ti (TNL) decorated with Ag nanoparticles (nanoAg), which was verified by XPS, XRD and EDS analysis. This TNLAg substrate proved to be mechanically stable upon nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests. Silver ions at detectable levels were released for a period of ~ 28 days only from substrates incorporating higher nanoAg content. The samples demonstrated antibacterial activity towards both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, with a more favorable response to the former. Simultaneously, Ti substrates incorporating nanoAg at all concentrations supported the viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Overall, nanoAg incorporation into surface modified Ti via a simple one-step thermochemical method is a favorable strategy for producing implants with dual characteristics of antibacterial activity and cell compatibility. - Highlights: • Nanosilver was incorporated within Ti nanoleafy topography by simple one-step thermochemical method • The nanosurface demonstrated antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria • The nanosurface promoted the viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

  13. The analysis of forming and strain state of the hollow step forgings during the enlarging process

    Олег Євгенійович Марков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving safety, accelerating construction and extending the life of nuclear power plants is one of the main directions of the development of the energy industry. From this point of view, much attention is being paid to the production of forgings, which combine a few details today. This requires the use of new technologies with the use of non-standard tools. The purpose of the work is analyze of the shape and the deformation state of the conical stepped forging when rolling the stepped workpiece with the simultaneous deformation of the protuberance and the ledge. The simulation was performed using finite element method, which is consistent with experimental data. Experimental studies were carried out on lead models. Rolling of stepped workpiece with simultaneous deformation of the protrusion and ledge leads to the appearance of conical forging. Taper on the side of the ledge occurs at the initial stage of rolling and during the whole process increases. The emergence of a conical shape is explained by the fact that during slipping, with the same absolute deformation (stroke, the ledge gets more accumulated deformation through a more precise wall.

  14. Two step esterification-transesterification process of wet greasy sewage sludge for biodiesel production.

    Urrutia, C; Sangaletti-Gerhard, N; Cea, M; Suazo, A; Aliberti, A; Navia, R

    2016-01-01

    Sewage sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants was used as a feedstock for biodiesel production via esterification/transesterification in a two-step process. In the first esterification step, greasy and secondary sludge were tested using acid and enzymatic catalysts. The results indicate that both catalysts performed the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) simultaneously with the transesterification of triacylglycerols (TAG). Acid catalyst demonstrated better performance in FFA esterification compared to TAG transesterification, while enzymatic catalyst showed the ability to first hydrolyze TAG in FFA, which were esterified to methyl esters. In addition, FAME concentration using greasy sludge were higher (63.9% and 58.7%), compared with those of secondary sludge (11% and 16%), using acid and enzymatic catalysts, respectively. Therefore, only greasy sludge was used in the second step of alkaline transesterification. The alkaline transesterification of the previously esterified greasy sludge reached a maximum FAME concentration of 65.4% when using acid catalyst. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A First Step in Learning Analytics: Pre-Processing Low-Level Alice Logging Data of Middle School Students

    Werner, Linda; McDowell, Charlie; Denner, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Educational data mining can miss or misidentify key findings about student learning without a transparent process of analyzing the data. This paper describes the first steps in the process of using low-level logging data to understand how middle school students used Alice, an initial programming environment. We describe the steps that were…

  16. Improving the two-step remediation process for CCA-treated wood. Part I, Evaluating oxalic acid extraction

    Carol Clausen

    2004-01-01

    In this study, three possible improvements to a remediation process for chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) treated wood were evaluated. The process involves two steps: oxalic acid extraction of wood fiber followed by bacterial culture with Bacillus licheniformis CC01. The three potential improvements to the oxalic acid extraction step were (1) reusing oxalic acid for...

  17. FEA Simulation of Free-Bending - a Preforming Step in the Hydroforming Process Chain

    Beulich, N.; Craighero, P.; Volk, W.

    2017-09-01

    High-strength steel and aluminum alloys are essential for developing innovative, lightly-weighted space frame concepts. The intended design is built from car body parts with high geometrical complexity and reduced material-thickness. Over the past few years, many complex car body parts have been produced using hydroforming. To increase the accuracy of hydroforming in relation to prospective car concepts, the virtual manufacturing of forming becomes more important. As a part of process digitalization, it is necessary to develop a simulation model for the hydroforming process chain. The preforming of longitudinal welded tubes is therefore implemented by the use of three-dimensional free-bending. This technique is able to reproduce complex deflection curves in combination with innovative low-thickness material design for hydroforming processes. As a first step to the complete process simulation, the content of this paper deals with the development of a finite element simulation model for the free-bending process with 6 degrees of freedom. A mandrel built from spherical segments connected by a steel rope is located inside of the tube to prevent geometrical instability. Critical parameters for the result of the bending process are therefore evaluated and optimized. The simulation model is verified by surface measurements of a two-dimensional bending test.

  18. Hydrothermal decomposition of industrial jarosite in alkaline media: The rate determining step of the process kinetics

    González-Ibarra A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the role of NaOH and Ca(OH2 on the hydrothermal decomposition of industrial jarosite deposited by a Mexican company in a tailings dam. The industrial jarosite is mainly composed by natrojarosite and contains 150 g Ag/t, showing a narrow particle size distribution, as revealed by XRD, fire assay, SEM-EDS and laser-diffraction analysis. The effect of the pH, when using NaOH or Ca(OH2 as alkalinizing agent was studied by carrying out decomposition experiments at different pH values and 60°C in a homogeneous size particle system (pH = 8, 9, 10 and 11 and in a heterogeneous size particle system (pH = 11. Also, the kinetic study of the process and the controlling step of the decomposition reaction when NaOH and Ca(OH2 are used was determined by fitting the data obtained to the shrinking core model for spherical particles of constant size. These results, supported by chemical (EDS, morphological (SEM and mapping of elements (EDS analysis of a partially reacted jarosite particle allowed to conclude that when NaOH is used, the process kinetics is controlled by the chemical reaction and when Ca(OH2 is used, the rate determining step is changed to a diffusion control through a layer of solid products.

  19. Fabrication of porous anodic alumina films by using two-step anodization process

    Xu Zhan; Zhou Bin; Xu Xiang; Wang Xiaoli; Wu Di; Shen Jun

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces the fabrication of the porous anodic alumina films which have ordered pore arrangement by using a two-step anodization process. The films have a parallel channel structure which nanopore diameter can be 20-100 nm, and depth can reach 50 μm. The change of pore structure in the first and second anodization, moving the alumina layer, widening process was analysed. The effect of the parameters such as different electrolytes, anodization temperature and the voltage on the nanopore structure was studied. The surface and profile structure through FE-SEM (field emission scanning electron microscope), the element composition in tiny area of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) surface were studied. The result indicates the pore diameter of AAO which is anodized in oxalic acid solution is larger than which anodized in sulfuric acid solution. The anodization temperature and voltage can enlarge the nanopore diameter of AAO in a range. (authors)

  20. Physical Analysis of Cross-Wedge Rolling Process of a Stepped Shaft

    Łukasz Wójcik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental- model research results on the process of cross-wedge rolling of an axially-symmetrical element (stepped shaft. During research was used plastic mass on the basis of waxes in black and white colour. The aim of this experimental research was to determine the best option of forming in terms of values obtained and the course of forces. Physical examination was carried out using specialist machines, that is model and laboratory cross-wedge rolling mill. Experimental analysis was carried out using billets with the temperature of 15°C, whereas the actual process was carried out for billet from C45 carbon steel of temperature 1150°C. The study compared the dimensions of the components obtained during rolling tests and forming forces obtained in the result of physical modeling with forces obtained during real tests.

  1. Ultralow-density SiO2 aerogels prepared by a two-step sol-gel process

    Wang Jue; Li Qing; Shen Jun; Zhou Bin; Chen Lingyan; Jiang; Weiyang

    1996-01-01

    Low density SiO 2 gels are prepared by a two-step sol-gel process from TEOS. The influence of various solution ratios on the gelation process is investigated. The comparative characterization of gels using different solvent, such as ethanol, acetone and methyl cyanide, is also given. The ultralow-density SiO 2 aerogels with density less than 10 kg/m 3 are prepared by CO 2 supercritical drying technique. The structure difference between SiO 2 aerogels prepared by conventional single-step process and the two-step process is also presented

  2. Multiple particle production processes in the ''light'' of quantum optics

    Friedlander, E.M.

    1990-09-01

    Ever since the observation that high-energy ''nuclear active'' cosmic-ray particles create bunches of penetrating particles upon hitting targets, a controversy has raged about whether these secondaries are created in a ''single act'' or whether many hadrons are just the result of an intra-nuclear cascade, yielding one meson in every step. I cannot escape the impression that: the latter kind of model appeals naturally as a consequence of an innate bio-morphism in our way of thinking and that in one guise or another it has tenaciously survived to this day, also for hadron-hadron collisions, via multi-peripheral models to the modern parton shower approach. Indeed, from the very beginning of theoretical consideration of multiparticle production, the possibility of many particles arising from a single ''hot'' system has been explored, with many fruitful results, not the least of which are the s 1/4 dependence of the mean produced particle multiplicity and the ''thermal'' shape of the P T spectra. An important consequence of the thermodynamical-hydrodynamical models is that particle emission is treated in analogy to black-body radiation, implying for the secondaries a set of specific Quantum-Statistical properties, very similar to those observed in quantum optics. From here on I shall try to review a number of implications and applications of this QS analogy in the study of multiplicity distributions of the produced secondaries. I will touch only in passing another very important topic of this class, the Bose-Einstein two-particle correlations

  3. [Information processing speed and influential factors in multiple sclerosis].

    Zhang, M L; Xu, E H; Dong, H Q; Zhang, J W

    2016-04-19

    To study the information processing speed and the influential factors in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A total of 36 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 21 patients with secondary progressive MS (SPMS), and 50 healthy control subjects from Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University between April 2010 and April 2012 were included into this cross-sectional study.Neuropsychological tests was conducted after the disease had been stable for 8 weeks, including information processing speed, memory, executive functions, language and visual perception.Correlation between information processing speed and depression, fatigue, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) were studied. (1)MS patient groups demonstrated cognitive deficits compared to healthy controls.The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) (control group 57±12; RRMS group 46±17; SPMS group 35±10, Pinformation processing (Pinformation processing speed, verbal memory and executive functioning are seen in MS patients, especially in SPMS subtype, while visual-spatial function is relatively reserved.Age, white matter change scales, EDSS scores, depression are negatively associated with information processing speed.

  4. Enhanced pharmaceutical removal from water in a three step bio-ozone-bio process.

    de Wilt, Arnoud; van Gijn, Koen; Verhoek, Tom; Vergnes, Amber; Hoek, Mirit; Rijnaarts, Huub; Langenhoff, Alette

    2018-07-01

    Individual treatment processes like biological treatment or ozonation have their limitations for the removal of pharmaceuticals from secondary clarified effluents with high organic matter concentrations (i.e. 17 mg TOC/L). These limitations can be overcome by combining these two processes for a cost-effective pharmaceutical removal. A three-step biological-ozone-biological (BO 3 B) treatment process was therefore designed for the enhanced pharmaceutical removal from wastewater effluent. The first biological step removed 38% of ozone scavenging TOC, thus proportionally reducing the absolute ozone input for the subsequent ozonation. Complementariness between biological and ozone treatment, i.e. targeting different pharmaceuticals, resulted in cost-effective pharmaceutical removal by the overall BO 3 B process. At a low ozone dose of 0.2 g O 3 /g TOC and an HRT of 1.46 h in the biological reactors, the removal of 8 out of 9 pharmaceuticals exceeded 85%, except for metoprolol (60%). Testing various ozone doses and HRTs revealed that pharmaceuticals were ineffectively removed at 0.1 g O3/g TOC and an HRT of 0.3 h. At HRTs of 0.47 and 1.46 h easily and moderately biodegradable pharmaceuticals such as caffeine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen and sulfamethoxazole were over 95% removed by biological treatment. The biorecalcitrant carbamazepine was completely ozonated at a dose of 0.4 g O 3 /g TOC. Ozonation products are likely biodegraded in the last biological reactor as a 17% TOC removal was found. No appreciable acute toxicity towards D. magna, P. subcapitata and V. fischeri was found after exposure to the influents and effluents of the individual BO 3 B reactors. The BO 3 B process is estimated to increase the yearly wastewater treatment tariff per population equivalent in the Netherlands by less than 10%. Overall, the BO 3 B process is a cost-effective treatment process for the removal of pharmaceuticals from secondary clarified effluents. Copyright

  5. Walk Ratio (Step Length/Cadence) as a Summary Index of Neuromotor Control of Gait: Application to Multiple Sclerosis

    Rota, Viviana; Perucca, Laura; Simone, Anna; Tesio, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    In healthy adults, the step length/cadence ratio [walk ratio (WR) in mm/(steps/min) and normalized for height] is known to be constant around 6.5 mm/(step/min). It is a speed-independent index of the overall neuromotor gait control, in as much as it reflects energy expenditure, balance, between-step variability, and attentional demand. The speed…

  6. Behavioral training promotes multiple adaptive processes following acute hearing loss.

    Keating, Peter; Rosenior-Patten, Onayomi; Dahmen, Johannes C; Bell, Olivia; King, Andrew J

    2016-03-23

    The brain possesses a remarkable capacity to compensate for changes in inputs resulting from a range of sensory impairments. Developmental studies of sound localization have shown that adaptation to asymmetric hearing loss can be achieved either by reinterpreting altered spatial cues or by relying more on those cues that remain intact. Adaptation to monaural deprivation in adulthood is also possible, but appears to lack such flexibility. Here we show, however, that appropriate behavioral training enables monaurally-deprived adult humans to exploit both of these adaptive processes. Moreover, cortical recordings in ferrets reared with asymmetric hearing loss suggest that these forms of plasticity have distinct neural substrates. An ability to adapt to asymmetric hearing loss using multiple adaptive processes is therefore shared by different species and may persist throughout the lifespan. This highlights the fundamental flexibility of neural systems, and may also point toward novel therapeutic strategies for treating sensory disorders.

  7. Reverse pattern duplication utilizing a two-step metal lift-off process via nanoimprint lithography

    Song, Sun-Sik; Kim, Eun-Uk; Jung, Hee-Soo; Kim, Ki-Seok; Jung, Gun-Young

    2009-01-01

    A two-step metal lift-off process using a selective etching recipe was demonstrated as a new technique for the reverse pattern fabrication of the features of a master stamp via a UV-based nanoimprint lithography technique. A transparent master stamp with repeated pillars (150 nm diameter at 300 nm pitch) was fabricated by using laser interference lithography and the subsequent dry-etching process. After nanoimprint lithography and the following gold (Au) lift-off process, the corresponding gold dots (20 nm height) were generated. A thin chromium layer (Cr, 5 nm) was then deposited and subjected to the aqua regia solution, which dissolved only Au dots. By using a selective wet etching recipe between gold (Au) and chromium (Cr) materials, a Cr layer with holes was reliably generated, which was used as an etching mask to transfer holes into the silicon substrate in the subsequent dry-etching process. Hole patterns with a diameter of 146 nm were inversely replicated faithfully from the master stamp with the corresponding pillars without a notable feature size distortion

  8. Focused particle beam nano-machining: the next evolution step towards simulation aided process prediction

    Plank, Harald

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, focused ion beam processing has been developed from traditionally used Ga + liquid ion sources towards higher resolution gas field ion sources (He + and Ne + ). Process simulations not only improve the fundamental understanding of the relevant ion–matter interactions, but also enable a certain predictive power to accelerate advances. The historic ‘gold’ standard in ion–solid simulations is the SRIM/TRIM Monte Carlo package released by Ziegler, Ziegler and Biersack 2010 Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 268 1818–23. While SRIM/TRIM is very useful for a myriad of applications, it is not applicable for the understanding of the nanoscale evolution associated with ion beam nano-machining as the substrate does not evolve with the sputtering process. As a solution for this problem, a new, adapted simulation code is briefly overviewed and finally addresses these contributions. By that, experimentally observed Ne + beam sputter profiles can be explained from a fundamental point of view. Due to their very good agreement, these simulations contain the potential for computer aided optimization towards predictable sputter processes for different nanotechnology applications. With these benefits in mind, the discussed simulation approach represents an enormous step towards a computer based master tool for adaptable ion beam applications in the context of industrial applications. (viewpoint)

  9. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-03-24

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the

  10. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-01-01

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO 3 ) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the dissolver

  11. Design of Sensor Data Processing Steps in an Air Pollution Monitoring System

    Kwang Woo Nam

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring is required to understand the effects of various kinds of phenomena such as a flood, a typhoon, or a forest fire. To detect the environmental conditions in remote places, monitoring applications employ the sensor networks to detect conditions, context models to understand phenomena, and computing technology to process the large volumes of data. In this paper, we present an air pollution monitoring system to provide alarm messages about potentially dangerous areas with sensor data analysis. We design the data analysis steps to understand the detected air pollution regions and levels. The analyzed data is used to track the pollution and to give an alarm. This implemented monitoring system is used to mitigate the damages caused by air pollution.

  12. Process Mining: A Two-Step Approach to Balance Between Underfitting and Overfitting

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such "overfitting" by generalizing the model to allow for more...... behavior. This generalization is often driven by the representation language and very crude assumptions about completeness. As a result, parts of the model are "overfitting" (allow only what has actually been observed) while other parts may be "underfitting" (allow for much more behavior without strong...... support for it). None of the existing techniques enables the user to control the balance between "overfitting" and "underfitting". To address this, we propose a two-step approach. First, using a configurable approach, a transition system is constructed. Then, using the "theory of regions", the model...

  13. Two-step optimization of pressure and recovery of reverse osmosis desalination process.

    Liang, Shuang; Liu, Cui; Song, Lianfa

    2009-05-01

    Driving pressure and recovery are two primary design variables of a reverse osmosis process that largely determine the total cost of seawater and brackish water desalination. A two-step optimization procedure was developed in this paper to determine the values of driving pressure and recovery that minimize the total cost of RO desalination. It was demonstrated that the optimal net driving pressure is solely determined by the electricity price and the membrane price index, which is a lumped parameter to collectively reflect membrane price, resistance, and service time. On the other hand, the optimal recovery is determined by the electricity price, initial osmotic pressure, and costs for pretreatment of raw water and handling of retentate. Concise equations were derived for the optimal net driving pressure and recovery. The dependences of the optimal net driving pressure and recovery on the electricity price, membrane price, and costs for raw water pretreatment and retentate handling were discussed.

  14. Global seismic inversion as the next standard step in the processing sequence

    Maver, Kim G.; Hansen, Lars S.; Jepsen, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Klaus B.

    1998-12-31

    Seismic inversion of post stack seismic data has until recently been regarded as a reservoir oriented method since the standard inversion techniques rely on extensive well control and a detailed user derived input model. Most seismic inversion techniques further requires a stable wavelet. As a consequence seismic inversion is mainly utilised in mature areas focusing of specific zones only after the seismic data has been interpreted and is well understood. By using an advanced 3-D global technique, seismic inversion is presented as the next standard step in the processing sequence. The technique is robust towards noise within the seismic data, utilizes a time variant wavelet, and derives a low frequency model utilizing the stacking velocities and only limited well control. 4 figs.

  15. Characteristic analysis of laser isotope separation process by two-step photodissociation method

    Okamoto, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Kiyose, Ryohei

    1981-01-01

    A large number of laser isotope separation experiments have been performed actively in many countries. In this paper, the selective two-step photodissociation method is chosen and simultaneous nonlinear differential equations that express the separation process are solved directly by using computer. Predicted separation factors are investigated in relation to the incident pulse energy and the concentration of desired molecules. Furthermore, the concept of separative work is used to evaluate the results of separation for this method. It is shown from an example of numerical calculation that a very large separation factor can be obtained if the concentration of desired molecules is lowered and two laser pulses to be closely synchronized are not always required in operation for the photodissociation of molecules. (author)

  16. Mechanical, thermal and morphological characterization of polycarbonate/oxidized carbon nanofiber composites produced with a lean 2-step manufacturing process.

    Lively, Brooks; Kumar, Sandeep; Tian, Liu; Li, Bin; Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2011-05-01

    In this study we report the advantages of a 2-step method that incorporates an additional process pre-conditioning step for rapid and precise blending of the constituents prior to the commonly used melt compounding method for preparing polycarbonate/oxidized carbon nanofiber composites. This additional step (equivalent to a manufacturing cell) involves the formation of a highly concentrated solid nano-nectar of polycarbonate/carbon nanofiber composite using a solution mixing process followed by melt mixing with pure polycarbonate. This combined method yields excellent dispersion and improved mechanical and thermal properties as compared to the 1-step melt mixing method. The test results indicated that inclusion of carbon nanofibers into composites via the 2-step method resulted in dramatically reduced ( 48% lower) coefficient of thermal expansion compared to that of pure polycarbonate and 30% lower than that from the 1-step processing, at the same loading of 1.0 wt%. Improvements were also found in dynamic mechanical analysis and flexural mechanical properties. The 2-step approach is more precise and leads to better dispersion, higher quality, consistency, and improved performance in critical application areas. It is also consistent with Lean Manufacturing principles in which manufacturing cells are linked together using less of the key resources and creates a smoother production flow. Therefore, this 2-step process can be more attractive for industry.

  17. Multiple-step fault estimation for interval type-II T-S fuzzy system of hypersonic vehicle with time-varying elevator faults

    Jin Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a multiple-step fault estimation algorithm for hypersonic flight vehicles that uses an interval type-II Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy model. An interval type-II Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy model is developed to approximate the nonlinear dynamic system and handle the parameter uncertainties of hypersonic firstly. Then, a multiple-step time-varying additive fault estimation algorithm is designed to estimate time-varying additive elevator fault of hypersonic flight vehicles. Finally, the simulation is conducted in both aspects of modeling and fault estimation; the validity and availability of such method are verified by a series of the comparison of numerical simulation results.

  18. Process analysis and modeling of a single-step lutein extraction method for wet microalgae.

    Gong, Mengyue; Wang, Yuruihan; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2017-11-01

    Lutein is a commercial carotenoid with potential health benefits. Microalgae are alternative sources for the lutein production in comparison to conventional approaches using marigold flowers. In this study, a process analysis of a single-step simultaneous extraction, saponification, and primary purification process for free lutein production from wet microalgae biomass was carried out. The feasibility of binary solvent mixtures for wet biomass extraction was successfully demonstrated, and the extraction kinetics of lutein from chloroplast in microalgae were first evaluated. The effects of types of organic solvent, solvent polarity, cell disruption method, and alkali and solvent usage on lutein yields were examined. A mathematical model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was applied to model the experimental data. The mass transfer coefficients were used to estimate the extraction rates. The extraction rate was found more significantly related with alkali ratio to solvent than to biomass. The best conditions for extraction efficiency were found to be pre-treatment with ultrasonication at 0.5 s working cycle per second, react 0.5 h in 0.27 L/g solvent to biomass ratio, and 1:3 ether/ethanol (v/v) with 1.25 g KOH/L. The entire process can be controlled within 1 h and yield over 8 mg/g lutein, which is more economical for scale-up.

  19. Time ordering of two-step processes in energetic ion-atom collisions: Basic formalism

    Stolterfoht, N.

    1993-01-01

    The semiclassical approximation is applied in second order to describe time ordering of two-step processes in energetic ion-atom collisions. Emphasis is given to the conditions for interferences between first- and second-order terms. In systems with two active electrons, time ordering gives rise to a pair of associated paths involving a second-order process and its time-inverted process. Combining these paths within the independent-particle frozen orbital model, time ordering is lost. It is shown that the loss of time ordering modifies the second-order amplitude so that its ability to interfere with the first-order amplitude is essentially reduced. Time ordering and the capability for interference is regained, as one path is blocked by means of the Pauli exclusion principle. The time-ordering formalism is prepared for papers dealing with collision experiments of single excitation [Stolterfoht et al., following paper, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2986 (1993)] and double excitation [Stolterfoht et al. (unpublished)

  20. Scour process caused by multiple subvertical non-crossing jets

    Stefano Pagliara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The scour process induced by plunging jets is an important topic for hydraulic engineers. In recent decades, several researchers have developed new strategies and methodologies to control the scour morphology, including different jet arrangements and structures located in the stilling basin. It has been found that multiple jets can cause less scouring than single plunging jets. Based on this evidence, this study aimed to investigate the equilibrium morphology caused by multiple non-crossing jets. A dedicated laboratory model was built and experimental tests were carried out under different combinations of jet inclination angles, by varying the tailwater level and the virtual crossing point location, which was set below the original channel bed level. It was experimentally shown that the equilibrium scour morphology depends on the jet discharge, the differences in non-crossing jet inclination angles, the downstream water level, and the distance of the virtual crossing point from the original channel bed level. In particular, the last parameter was found to be one of the most influential parameters, because of the resulting flow patterns inside the water body. Furthermore, the analysis of experimental evidence allowed for a complete and detailed classification of the scour hole typologies. Three different scour typologies were distinguished and classified. Finally, based on previous studies, two novel relationships have been proposed to predict both the maximum scour depth and length within a large range of hydraulic and geometric parameters.

  1. Multiple pass and multiple layer friction stir welding and material enhancement processes

    Feng, Zhili [Knoxville, TN; David, Stan A [Knoxville, TN; Frederick, David Alan [Harriman, TN

    2010-07-27

    Processes for friction stir welding, typically for comparatively thick plate materials using multiple passes and multiple layers of a friction stir welding tool. In some embodiments a first portion of a fabrication preform and a second portion of the fabrication preform are placed adjacent to each other to form a joint, and there may be a groove adjacent the joint. The joint is welded and then, where a groove exists, a filler may be disposed in the groove, and the seams between the filler and the first and second portions of the fabrication preform may be friction stir welded. In some embodiments two portions of a fabrication preform are abutted to form a joint, where the joint may, for example, be a lap joint, a bevel joint or a butt joint. In some embodiments a plurality of passes of a friction stir welding tool may be used, with some passes welding from one side of a fabrication preform and other passes welding from the other side of the fabrication preform.

  2. Exploring the initial steps of the testing process: frequency and nature of pre-preanalytic errors.

    Carraro, Paolo; Zago, Tatiana; Plebani, Mario

    2012-03-01

    Few data are available on the nature of errors in the so-called pre-preanalytic phase, the initial steps of the testing process. We therefore sought to evaluate pre-preanalytic errors using a study design that enabled us to observe the initial procedures performed in the ward, from the physician's test request to the delivery of specimens in the clinical laboratory. After a 1-week direct observational phase designed to identify the operating procedures followed in 3 clinical wards, we recorded all nonconformities and errors occurring over a 6-month period. Overall, the study considered 8547 test requests, for which 15 917 blood sample tubes were collected and 52 982 tests undertaken. No significant differences in error rates were found between the observational phase and the overall study period, but underfilling of coagulation tubes was found to occur more frequently in the direct observational phase (P = 0.043). In the overall study period, the frequency of errors was found to be particularly high regarding order transmission [29 916 parts per million (ppm)] and hemolysed samples (2537 ppm). The frequency of patient misidentification was 352 ppm, and the most frequent nonconformities were test requests recorded in the diary without the patient's name and failure to check the patient's identity at the time of blood draw. The data collected in our study confirm the relative frequency of pre-preanalytic errors and underline the need to consensually prepare and adopt effective standard operating procedures in the initial steps of laboratory testing and to monitor compliance with these procedures over time.

  3. Process of motion by unit steps over a surface provided with elements regularly arranged

    Cooper, D.E.; Hendee, L.C. III; Hill, W.G. Jr.; Leshem, Adam; Marugg, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    This invention concerns a process for moving by unit steps an apparatus travelling over a surface provided with an array of orifices aligned and evenly spaced in several lines and several parallel rows regularly spaced, the lines and rows being parallel to axes x and y of Cartesian co-ordinates, each orifice having a separate address in the Cartesian co-ordinate system. The surface travelling apparatus has two previously connected arms aranged in directions transversal to each other thus forming an angle corresponding to the intersection of axes x and y. In the inspection and/or repair of nuclear or similar steam generator tubes, it is desirable that such an apparatus should be able to move in front of a surface comprising an array of orifices by the selective alternate introduction and retraction of two sets of anchoring claws of the two respective arms, in relation to the orifices of the array, it being possible to shift the arms in a movement of translation, transversally to each other, as a set of claws is withdrawn from the orifices. The invention concerns a process and aparatus as indicated above that reduces to a minimum the path length of the apparatus between the orifices it is effectively opposite and a given orifice [fr

  4. Implementation of Real-Time Machining Process Control Based on Fuzzy Logic in a New STEP-NC Compatible System

    Po Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementing real-time machining process control at shop floor has great significance on raising the efficiency and quality of product manufacturing. A framework and implementation methods of real-time machining process control based on STEP-NC are presented in this paper. Data model compatible with ISO 14649 standard is built to transfer high-level real-time machining process control information between CAPP systems and CNC systems, in which EXPRESS language is used to define new STEP-NC entities. Methods for implementing real-time machining process control at shop floor are studied and realized on an open STEP-NC controller, which is developed using object-oriented, multithread, and shared memory technologies conjunctively. Cutting force at specific direction of machining feature in side mill is chosen to be controlled object, and a fuzzy control algorithm with self-adjusting factor is designed and embedded in the software CNC kernel of STEP-NC controller. Experiments are carried out to verify the proposed framework, STEP-NC data model, and implementation methods for real-time machining process control. The results of experiments prove that real-time machining process control tasks can be interpreted and executed correctly by the STEP-NC controller at shop floor, in which actual cutting force is kept around ideal value, whether axial cutting depth changes suddenly or continuously.

  5. Microwave assisted step-by-step process for the production of fucoidan, alginate sodium, sugars and biochar from Ascophyllum nodosum through a biorefinery concept.

    Yuan, Yuan; Macquarrie, Duncan J

    2015-12-01

    The biorefinery is an important concept for the development of alternative routes to a range of interesting and important materials from renewable resources. It ensures that the resources are used fully and that all parts of them are valorized. This paper develops this concept, using brown macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum as an example, by assistance of microwave technology. A step-by-step process was designed to obtain fucoidan, alginates, sugars and biochar (alga residue) consecutively. The yields of fucoidan, alginates, sugars and biochar were 14.09%, 18.24%, 10.87% and 21.44%, respectively. To make an evaluation of the biorefinery process, seaweed sample was also treated for fucoidan extraction only, alginate extraction only and hydrothermal treatment for sugars and biochar only. The chemical composition and properties of each product were also analyzed. The results indicated that A. nodosum could be potentially used as feedstock for a biorefinery process to produce valuable chemicals and fuels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence for simultaneous syntactic processing of multiple words during reading.

    Joshua Snell

    Full Text Available A hotly debated issue in reading research concerns the extent to which readers process parafoveal words, and how parafoveal information might influence foveal word recognition. We investigated syntactic word processing both in sentence reading and in reading isolated foveal words when these were flanked by parafoveal words. In Experiment 1 we found a syntactic parafoveal preview benefit in sentence reading, meaning that fixation durations on target words were decreased when there was a syntactically congruent preview word at the target location (n during the fixation on the pre-target (n-1. In Experiment 2 we used a flanker paradigm in which participants had to classify foveal target words as either noun or verb, when those targets were flanked by syntactically congruent or incongruent words (stimulus on-time 170 ms. Lower response times and error rates in the congruent condition suggested that higher-order (syntactic information can be integrated across foveal and parafoveal words. Although higher-order parafoveal-on-foveal effects have been elusive in sentence reading, results from our flanker paradigm show that the reading system can extract higher-order information from multiple words in a single glance. We propose a model of reading to account for the present findings.

  7. Prognosis of the individual course of disease--steps in developing a decision support tool for Multiple Sclerosis.

    Daumer, M; Neuhaus, A; Lederer, C; Scholz, M; Wolinsky, J S; Heiderhoff, M

    2007-05-08

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of uncertain aetiology. Variations in its disease course make it difficult to impossible to accurately determine the prognosis of individual patients. The Sylvia Lawry Centre for Multiple Sclerosis Research (SLCMSR) developed an "online analytical processing (OLAP)" tool that takes advantage of extant clinical trials data and allows one to model the near term future course of this chronic disease for an individual patient. For a given patient the most similar patients of the SLCMSR database are intelligently selected by a model-based matching algorithm integrated into an OLAP-tool to enable real time, web-based statistical analyses. The underlying database (last update April 2005) contains 1,059 patients derived from 30 placebo arms of controlled clinical trials. Demographic information on the entire database and the portion selected for comparison are displayed. The result of the statistical comparison is provided as a display of the course of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) for individuals in the database with regions of probable progression over time, along with their mean relapse rate. Kaplan-Meier curves for time to sustained progression in the EDSS and time to requirement of constant assistance to walk (EDSS 6) are also displayed. The software-application OLAP anticipates the input MS patient's course on the basis of baseline values and the known course of disease for similar patients who have been followed in clinical trials. This simulation could be useful for physicians, researchers and other professionals who counsel patients on therapeutic options. The application can be modified for studying the natural history of other chronic diseases, if and when similar datasets on which the OLAP operates exist.

  8. Prognosis of the individual course of disease - steps in developing a decision support tool for Multiple Sclerosis

    Scholz M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of uncertain aetiology. Variations in its disease course make it difficult to impossible to accurately determine the prognosis of individual patients. The Sylvia Lawry Centre for Multiple Sclerosis Research (SLCMSR developed an "online analytical processing (OLAP" tool that takes advantage of extant clinical trials data and allows one to model the near term future course of this chronic disease for an individual patient. Results For a given patient the most similar patients of the SLCMSR database are intelligently selected by a model-based matching algorithm integrated into an OLAP-tool to enable real time, web-based statistical analyses. The underlying database (last update April 2005 contains 1,059 patients derived from 30 placebo arms of controlled clinical trials. Demographic information on the entire database and the portion selected for comparison are displayed. The result of the statistical comparison is provided as a display of the course of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS for individuals in the database with regions of probable progression over time, along with their mean relapse rate. Kaplan-Meier curves for time to sustained progression in the EDSS and time to requirement of constant assistance to walk (EDSS 6 are also displayed. The software-application OLAP anticipates the input MS patient's course on the basis of baseline values and the known course of disease for similar patients who have been followed in clinical trials. Conclusion This simulation could be useful for physicians, researchers and other professionals who counsel patients on therapeutic options. The application can be modified for studying the natural history of other chronic diseases, if and when similar datasets on which the OLAP operates exist.

  9. Prognosis of the individual course of disease - steps in developing a decision support tool for Multiple Sclerosis

    Daumer, M; Neuhaus, A; Lederer, C; Scholz, M; Wolinsky, JS; Heiderhoff, M

    2007-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of uncertain aetiology. Variations in its disease course make it difficult to impossible to accurately determine the prognosis of individual patients. The Sylvia Lawry Centre for Multiple Sclerosis Research (SLCMSR) developed an "online analytical processing (OLAP)" tool that takes advantage of extant clinical trials data and allows one to model the near term future course of this chronic disease for an individual patient. Results For a given patient the most similar patients of the SLCMSR database are intelligently selected by a model-based matching algorithm integrated into an OLAP-tool to enable real time, web-based statistical analyses. The underlying database (last update April 2005) contains 1,059 patients derived from 30 placebo arms of controlled clinical trials. Demographic information on the entire database and the portion selected for comparison are displayed. The result of the statistical comparison is provided as a display of the course of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) for individuals in the database with regions of probable progression over time, along with their mean relapse rate. Kaplan-Meier curves for time to sustained progression in the EDSS and time to requirement of constant assistance to walk (EDSS 6) are also displayed. The software-application OLAP anticipates the input MS patient's course on the basis of baseline values and the known course of disease for similar patients who have been followed in clinical trials. Conclusion This simulation could be useful for physicians, researchers and other professionals who counsel patients on therapeutic options. The application can be modified for studying the natural history of other chronic diseases, if and when similar datasets on which the OLAP operates exist. PMID:17488517

  10. Simultaneous processing of information on multiple errors in visuomotor learning.

    Kasuga, Shoko; Hirashima, Masaya; Nozaki, Daichi

    2013-01-01

    The proper association between planned and executed movements is crucial for motor learning because the discrepancies between them drive such learning. Our study explored how this association was determined when a single action caused the movements of multiple visual objects. Participants reached toward a target by moving a cursor, which represented the right hand's position. Once every five to six normal trials, we interleaved either of two kinds of visual perturbation trials: rotation of the cursor by a certain amount (±15°, ±30°, and ±45°) around the starting position (single-cursor condition) or rotation of two cursors by different angles (+15° and -45°, 0° and 30°, etc.) that were presented simultaneously (double-cursor condition). We evaluated the aftereffects of each condition in the subsequent trial. The error sensitivity (ratio of the aftereffect to the imposed visual rotation) in the single-cursor trials decayed with the amount of rotation, indicating that the motor learning system relied to a greater extent on smaller errors. In the double-cursor trials, we obtained a coefficient that represented the degree to which each of the visual rotations contributed to the aftereffects based on the assumption that the observed aftereffects were a result of the weighted summation of the influences of the imposed visual rotations. The decaying pattern according to the amount of rotation was maintained in the coefficient of each imposed visual rotation in the double-cursor trials, but the value was reduced to approximately 40% of the corresponding error sensitivity in the single-cursor trials. We also found a further reduction of the coefficients when three distinct cursors were presented (e.g., -15°, 15°, and 30°). These results indicated that the motor learning system utilized multiple sources of visual error information simultaneously to correct subsequent movement and that a certain averaging mechanism might be at work in the utilization process.

  11. Multiplicative point process as a model of trading activity

    Gontis, V.; Kaulakys, B.

    2004-11-01

    Signals consisting of a sequence of pulses show that inherent origin of the 1/ f noise is a Brownian fluctuation of the average interevent time between subsequent pulses of the pulse sequence. In this paper, we generalize the model of interevent time to reproduce a variety of self-affine time series exhibiting power spectral density S( f) scaling as a power of the frequency f. Furthermore, we analyze the relation between the power-law correlations and the origin of the power-law probability distribution of the signal intensity. We introduce a stochastic multiplicative model for the time intervals between point events and analyze the statistical properties of the signal analytically and numerically. Such model system exhibits power-law spectral density S( f)∼1/ fβ for various values of β, including β= {1}/{2}, 1 and {3}/{2}. Explicit expressions for the power spectra in the low-frequency limit and for the distribution density of the interevent time are obtained. The counting statistics of the events is analyzed analytically and numerically, as well. The specific interest of our analysis is related with the financial markets, where long-range correlations of price fluctuations largely depend on the number of transactions. We analyze the spectral density and counting statistics of the number of transactions. The model reproduces spectral properties of the real markets and explains the mechanism of power-law distribution of trading activity. The study provides evidence that the statistical properties of the financial markets are enclosed in the statistics of the time interval between trades. A multiplicative point process serves as a consistent model generating this statistics.

  12. Decision-Oriented Health Technology Assessment: One Step Forward in Supporting the Decision-Making Process in Hospitals.

    Ritrovato, Matteo; Faggiano, Francesco C; Tedesco, Giorgia; Derrico, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    This article outlines the Decision-Oriented Health Technology Assessment: a new implementation of the European network for Health Technology Assessment Core Model, integrating the multicriteria decision-making analysis by using the analytic hierarchy process to introduce a standardized methodological approach as a valued and shared tool to support health care decision making within a hospital. Following the Core Model as guidance (European network for Health Technology Assessment. HTA core model for medical and surgical interventions. Available from: http://www.eunethta.eu/outputs/hta-core-model-medical-and-surgical-interventions-10r. [Accessed May 27, 2014]), it is possible to apply the analytic hierarchy process to break down a problem into its constituent parts and identify priorities (i.e., assigning a weight to each part) in a hierarchical structure. Thus, it quantitatively compares the importance of multiple criteria in assessing health technologies and how the alternative technologies perform in satisfying these criteria. The verbal ratings are translated into a quantitative form by using the Saaty scale (Saaty TL. Decision making with the analytic hierarchy process. Int J Serv Sci 2008;1:83-98). An eigenvectors analysis is used for deriving the weights' systems (i.e., local and global weights' system) that reflect the importance assigned to the criteria and the priorities related to the performance of the alternative technologies. Compared with the Core Model, this methodological approach supplies a more timely as well as contextualized evidence for a specific technology, making it possible to obtain data that are more relevant and easier to interpret, and therefore more useful for decision makers to make investment choices with greater awareness. We reached the conclusion that although there may be scope for improvement, this implementation is a step forward toward the goal of building a "solid bridge" between the scientific evidence and the final decision

  13. Mother Vocal Recognition in Antarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus gazella Pups: A Two-Step Process.

    Thierry Aubin

    Full Text Available In otariids, mother's recognition by pups is essential to their survival since females nurse exclusively their own young and can be very aggressive towards non-kin. Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, come ashore to breed and form dense colonies. During the 4-month lactation period, females alternate foraging trips at sea with suckling period ashore. On each return to the colony, females and pups first use vocalizations to find each other among several hundred conspecifics and olfaction is used as a final check. Such vocal identification has to be highly efficient. In this present study, we investigated the components of the individual vocal signature used by pups to identify their mothers by performing playback experiments on pups with synthetic signals. We thus tested the efficiency of this individual vocal signature by performing propagation tests and by testing pups at different playback distances. Pups use both amplitude and frequency modulations to identify their mother's voice, as well as the energy spectrum. Propagation tests showed that frequency modulations propagated reliably up to 64m, whereas amplitude modulations and spectral content greatly were highly degraded for distances over 8m. Playback on pups at different distances suggested that the individual identification is a two-step process: at long range, pups identified first the frequency modulation pattern of their mother's calls, and other components of the vocal signature at closer range. The individual vocal recognition system developed by Antarctic fur seals is well adapted to face the main constraint of finding kin in a crowd.

  14. Effect of Processing Steps on the Mechanical Properties and Surface Appearance of 6063 Aluminium Extruded Products

    Asensio-Lozano, Juan; Suárez-Peña, Beatriz; Vander Voort, George F.

    2014-01-01

    6063 aluminum anodized extrusions may exhibit a common surface defect known as streaking, characterized by the formation of narrow bands with a surface gloss different from the surrounding material. The origin of this banding lies in the differential surface topography produced after etching during the anodizing stage, shown to be connected to certain microstructural characteristics. The present study has attempted to determine the origin of these defects and measure the mechanical properties in these zones, properties which were either barely acceptable or did not meet the specification’s requirements. Quantitative metallography and mechanical testing, both tensile and microhardness, were used for materials assessment at the different steps of the process of manufacturing 6063 anodized extrusions. The results of this research show that nonequilibrium solidification rates during billet casting could lead to the formation of coarse eutectic Mg2Si particles which have a deleterious effect on both mechanical properties and surface appearance in the anodized condition. However, differences in the size and density of the coarse Mg2Si particles have been found to exist in the streak profile compared to the surrounding zones. The study revealed the importance of these particles in explaining the origin of the marginal or sub-marginal properties and anodizing surface defects found. PMID:28788673

  15. Effect of Processing Steps on the Mechanical Properties and Surface Appearance of 6063 Aluminium Extruded Products

    Juan Asensio-Lozano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 6063 aluminum anodized extrusions may exhibit a common surface defect known as streaking, characterized by the formation of narrow bands with a surface gloss different from the surrounding material. The origin of this banding lies in the differential surface topography produced after etching during the anodizing stage, shown to be connected to certain microstructural characteristics. The present study has attempted to determine the origin of these defects and measure the mechanical properties in these zones, properties which were either barely acceptable or did not meet the specification’s requirements. Quantitative metallography and mechanical testing, both tensile and microhardness, were used for materials assessment at the different steps of the process of manufacturing 6063 anodized extrusions. The results of this research show that nonequilibrium solidification rates during billet casting could lead to the formation of coarse eutectic Mg2Si particles which have a deleterious effect on both mechanical properties and surface appearance in the anodized condition. However, differences in the size and density of the coarse Mg2Si particles have been found to exist in the streak profile compared to the surrounding zones. The study revealed the importance of these particles in explaining the origin of the marginal or sub-marginal properties and anodizing surface defects found.

  16. Two-Step Process for ED UTI Screening in Febrile Young Children: Reducing Catheterization Rates.

    Lavelle, Jane M; Blackstone, Mercedes M; Funari, Mary Kate; Roper, Christine; Lopez, Patricia; Schast, Aileen; Taylor, April M; Voorhis, Catherine B; Henien, Mira; Shaw, Kathy N

    2016-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) screening in febrile young children can be painful and time consuming. We implemented a screening protocol for UTI in a high-volume pediatric emergency department (ED) to reduce urethral catheterization, limiting catheterization to children with positive screens from urine bag specimens. This quality-improvement initiative was implemented using 3 Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, beginning with a small test of the proposed change in 1 ED area. To ensure appropriate patients received timely screening, care teams discussed patient risk factors and created patient-specific, appropriate procedures. The intervention was extended to the entire ED after providing education. Finally, visual cues were added into the electronic health record, and nursing scripts were developed to enlist family participation. A time-series design was used to study the impact of the 6-month intervention by using a p-chart to determine special cause variation. The primary outcome measure for the study was defined as the catheterization rate in febrile children ages 6 to 24 months. The ED reduced catheterization rates among febrile young children from 63% to UTIs among those followed within the hospital's network. A 2-step less-invasive process for screening febrile young children for UTI can be instituted in a high-volume ED without increasing length of stay or missing cases of UTI. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. A two-step annealing process for enhancing the ferroelectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) devices

    Park, Jihoon

    2015-01-01

    We report a simple two-step annealing scheme for the fabrication of stable non-volatile memory devices employing poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer thin-films. The proposed two-step annealing scheme comprises the crystallization of the ferroelectric gamma-phase during the first step and enhancement of the PVDF film dense morphology during the second step. Moreover, when we extended the processing time of the second step, we obtained good hysteresis curves down to 1 Hz, the first such report for ferroelectric PVDF films. The PVDF films also exhibit a coercive field of 113 MV m-1 and a ferroelectric polarization of 5.4 μC cm-2. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  18. Multi-step chemical and radiation process for the production of gas

    O'Neal, R.D.; Leffert, C.B.; Teichmann, T.; Teitel, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    It has previously been proposed to use the radiation energy within the central reaction chamber of a thermonuclear reactor for the dissociation of water into hydrogen and oxygen in one step. However, the coefficient of recombination of pure hydrogen and oxygen at the elevated reaction chamber temperature is relatively high so that the overall yield is low. Furthermore, it is desirable to recover any unspent tritium from the reaction chamber exhaust, but separation of residual tritium from pure hydrogen in the chamber exhaust is relatively difficult. In the process provided in this patent pure carbon dioxide rather than steam is injected into the central reaction chamber of a thermonuclear reactor. Radiolysis of carbon dioxide yields carbon monoxide and pure oxygen. While the oxygen may be separated and collected at the exhaust vent of the reaction chamber, the carbon monoxide is separated and then combined with water to produce pure hydrogen and reconstituted carbon dioxide, which may be collected and recycled so that the overall closed-loop system produces pure hydrogen and oxygen at the expense of water. The efficiency of the process is high due, in large part, to the relatively low coefficient of recombination of carbon monoxide and oxygen at the reaction chamber temperature. Heat required for the reaction of carbon monoxide with water may be provided by suitable heat transfer from the heated reaction chamber. The chamber exhaust contains carbon monoxide and oxygen, so that any unburnt tritium in the exhaust stream may be easily collected and recycled to form additional pellet fuel. The carbon dioxide molecules injected into the reaction chamber provide protection for the reaction chamber walls from the deleterious effects of charged-particle and x-ray bombardment. (LL)

  19. The main steps on implementation of radiation processing technology - portuguese experience

    Luisa Botelho, M.

    2010-11-01

    The development of applications of ionizing radiation for Industrial purposes in Portugal began near of 1982 with the support of IAEA under the program of Cooperation and Technical Assistance - project POR/8/002. The IAEA program of Cooperation and Technical Assistance permitted that POR/08/002 took place between 1983 up to 1988. The collaboration of the International Experts and the personnel of National Laboratory of Industrial Engineering and Technology, nowadays Nuclear and Technologic Institute (ITN), allowed the construction of a Co-60 irradiation plant, designed by Tecnabexport (Russia). This facility is located in the ITN campus in Sacavem, Portugal. The main parameters studied prior to the implementation (sitting, design, construction, commissioning, operation, maintenance and foreseen decommission) were planned and executed according with the Portuguese legislation which is based on the International rules (IAEA Safety series) and Directive EURATOM 836/80, nowadays EURATOM 1493/93. A study of the geological stability of the site for future placement of the irradiation facility was done preceding the construction. The facility was constructed under Portuguese responsibility but designed and loaded with Co-60 by the Russian business rganization: Technabexport between 1987 and 1988. The whole process was supervised and approved by the ITN's Nuclear Protection and Safety Department. The Cobalt-60 irradiation facility was initially named GammaPi and later on Radiation Technologies Unit (UTR) and its management was under ITN's authority until 2003. Once established a quality system for the gamma facility, the following phase is to develop, validate and control the sterilization/disinfection process. In this step, a multidisciplinary approach and a continuous dialog with product managers and personnel must be taken into consideration in the experimental design for the correct and effective establishment of irradiation process. The knowledge of product's elements

  20. The RiverFish Approach to Business Process Modeling: Linking Business Steps to Control-Flow Patterns

    Zuliane, Devanir; Oikawa, Marcio K.; Malkowski, Simon; Alcazar, José Perez; Ferreira, João Eduardo

    Despite the recent advances in the area of Business Process Management (BPM), today’s business processes have largely been implemented without clearly defined conceptual modeling. This results in growing difficulties for identification, maintenance, and reuse of rules, processes, and control-flow patterns. To mitigate these problems in future implementations, we propose a new approach to business process modeling using conceptual schemas, which represent hierarchies of concepts for rules and processes shared among collaborating information systems. This methodology bridges the gap between conceptual model description and identification of actual control-flow patterns for workflow implementation. We identify modeling guidelines that are characterized by clear phase separation, step-by-step execution, and process building through diagrams and tables. The separation of business process modeling in seven mutually exclusive phases clearly delimits information technology from business expertise. The sequential execution of these phases leads to the step-by-step creation of complex control-flow graphs. The process model is refined through intuitive table and diagram generation in each phase. Not only does the rigorous application of our modeling framework minimize the impact of rule and process changes, but it also facilitates the identification and maintenance of control-flow patterns in BPM-based information system architectures.

  1. The multi-step process of building TB/HIV collaboration in Cambodia

    Eang Mao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS have synergistic health impacts in terms of disease development and progression. Therefore, collaborative TB and HIV/AIDS activities are a logical health systems response. However, the establishment of these activities presents a challenge for countries that have strong vertical disease programs that differ in their implementation philosophies. Here, we review the process by which TB/HIV collaboration was established in Cambodia. A cycle of overlapping and mutually reinforcing initiatives – local research; piloted implementation with multiple options; and several rounds of policy formulation guided by a cross-functional Technical Working Group – was used to drive nationwide introduction of a full set of TB/HIV collaborative activities. Senior Ministry of Health officials and partner organizations brought early attention to TB/HIV. Both national programs implemented initial screening and testing interventions, even in the absence of a detailed, overarching framework. The use of multiple options for HIV testing identified which programmatic options worked best, and early implementation and pilots determined what unanswered questions required further research. Local conduct of this research – on co-treatment timing and TB symptom screening – speeded adoption of the results into policy guidance, and clarified the relative roles of the two programs. Roll-out is continuing, and results for a variety of key indicators, including screening PLHIV for TB, and testing TB patients for HIV, are at 70-80% and climbing. This experience in Cambodia illustrates the influence of health research on policy, and demonstrates that clear policy guidance, the pursuit of incremental advances, and the use of different approaches to generate evidence can overcome structural barriers to change and bring direct benefits to patients.

  2. Supporting Multiple Cognitive Processing Styles Using Tailored Support Systems

    Tuan Q. Tran; Karen M. Feigh; Amy R. Pritchett

    2007-01-01

    According to theories of cognitive processing style or cognitive control mode, human performance is more effective when an individual's cognitive state (e.g., intuition/scramble vs. deliberate/strategic) matches his/her ecological constraints or context (e.g., utilize intuition to strive for a 'good-enough' response instead of deliberating for the 'best' response under high time pressure). Ill-mapping between cognitive state and ecological constraints are believed to lead to degraded task performance. Consequently, incorporating support systems which are designed to specifically address multiple cognitive and functional states e.g., high workload, stress, boredom, and initiate appropriate mitigation strategies (e.g., reduce information load) is essential to reduce plant risk. Utilizing the concept of Cognitive Control Models, this paper will discuss the importance of tailoring support systems to match an operator's cognitive state, and will further discuss the importance of these ecological constraints in selecting and implementing mitigation strategies for safe and effective system performance. An example from the nuclear power plant industry illustrating how a support system might be tailored to support different cognitive states is included

  3. Critical steps in learning from incidents: using learning potential in the process from reporting an incident to accident prevention.

    Drupsteen, Linda; Groeneweg, Jop; Zwetsloot, Gerard I J M

    2013-01-01

    Many incidents have occurred because organisations have failed to learn from lessons of the past. This means that there is room for improvement in the way organisations analyse incidents, generate measures to remedy identified weaknesses and prevent reoccurrence: the learning from incidents process. To improve that process, it is necessary to gain insight into the steps of this process and to identify factors that hinder learning (bottlenecks). This paper presents a model that enables organisations to analyse the steps in a learning from incidents process and to identify the bottlenecks. The study describes how this model is used in a survey and in 3 exploratory case studies in The Netherlands. The results show that there is limited use of learning potential, especially in the evaluation stage. To improve learning, an approach that considers all steps is necessary.

  4. The Multiple-Patient Simulation Toolkit: Purpose, Process, and Pilot.

    Beroz, Sabrina; Sullivan, Nancy; Kramasz, Vanessa; Morgan, Patricia

    Educating nursing students to safely care for multiple patients has become an important but challenging focus for nurse educators. New graduate nurses are expected to manage care for multiple patients in a complex and multifaceted health care system. With patient safety as a priority, multiple-patient assignments are necessary in order for nursing students to learn how to effectively prioritize and delegate care. The purpose of this project was the construction of an adaptable and flexible template for the development of multiple-patient simulations. Through utilization, the template moved to a toolkit adding an operational guide, sample-populated template, and bibliography.

  5. Single-step solution processing of small-molecule organic semiconductor field-effect transistors at high yield

    Yu, Liyang; Li, X.; Pavlica, E.; Loth, M.A.; Anthony, J.E.; Bratina, G.; Kjellander, B.K.C.; Gelinck, G.H.; Stutzmann, N.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report a simple, alternative route towards high-mobility structures of the small-molecular semiconductor 5,11-bis(triethyl silylethynyl) anthradithiophene that requires one single processing step without the need for any post-deposition processing. The method relies on careful control of

  6. Single-step brazing process for mono-block joints and mechanical testing

    Casalegno, V.; Ferraris, M.; Salvo, M.; Rizzo, S.; Merola, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Plasma facing components act as actively cooled thermal shields to sustain thermal and particle loads during normal and transient operations in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). The plasma-facing layer is referred to as 'armour', which is made of either carbon fibre reinforced carbon composite (CFC) or tungsten (W). CFC is the reference design solution for the lower part of the vertical target of the ITER divertor. The armour is joined onto an actively cooled substrate, the heat sink, made of precipitation hardened copper alloy CuCrZr through a thin pure copper interlayer to decrease, by plastic deformation, the joint interface stresses; in fact, the CFC to Cu joint is affected by the CTE mismatch between the ceramic and metallic material. A new method of joining CFC to copper and CFC/Cu to CuCrZr alloy was effectively developed for the flat-type configuration; the feasibility of this process also for mono-block geometry and the development of a procedure for testing mono-block-type mock-ups is described in this work. The mono-block configuration consists of copper alloy pipe shielded by CFC blocks. It is worth noting that in mono-block configuration, the large thermal expansion mismatch between CFC and copper alloy is more significant than for flat-tile configuration, due to curved interfaces. The joining technique foresees a single-step brazing process: the brazing of the three materials (CFC-Cu-CuCrZr) can be performed in a single heat treatment using the same Cu/Ge based braze. The composite surface was modified by solid state reaction with chromium with the purpose of increasing the wettability of CFC by the brazing alloy. The CFC substrate reacts with Cr which, forming a carbide layer, allows a large reduction of the contact angle; then, the brazing of CFC to pure copper and pure copper to CuCrZr by the same treatment is feasible. This process allows to obtain good joints using a non-active brazing

  7. Single-step brazing process for mono-block joints and mechanical testing

    Casalegno, V.; Ferraris, M.; Salvo, M.; Rizzo, S. [Politecnico di Torino, Materials Science and Chemical Engineering Dept., Torino (Italy); Merola, M. [ITER International Team, llER Joint Work Site, Cadarache, 13 - St Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Plasma facing components act as actively cooled thermal shields to sustain thermal and particle loads during normal and transient operations in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). The plasma-facing layer is referred to as 'armour', which is made of either carbon fibre reinforced carbon composite (CFC) or tungsten (W). CFC is the reference design solution for the lower part of the vertical target of the ITER divertor. The armour is joined onto an actively cooled substrate, the heat sink, made of precipitation hardened copper alloy CuCrZr through a thin pure copper interlayer to decrease, by plastic deformation, the joint interface stresses; in fact, the CFC to Cu joint is affected by the CTE mismatch between the ceramic and metallic material. A new method of joining CFC to copper and CFC/Cu to CuCrZr alloy was effectively developed for the flat-type configuration; the feasibility of this process also for mono-block geometry and the development of a procedure for testing mono-block-type mock-ups is described in this work. The mono-block configuration consists of copper alloy pipe shielded by CFC blocks. It is worth noting that in mono-block configuration, the large thermal expansion mismatch between CFC and copper alloy is more significant than for flat-tile configuration, due to curved interfaces. The joining technique foresees a single-step brazing process: the brazing of the three materials (CFC-Cu-CuCrZr) can be performed in a single heat treatment using the same Cu/Ge based braze. The composite surface was modified by solid state reaction with chromium with the purpose of increasing the wettability of CFC by the brazing alloy. The CFC substrate reacts with Cr which, forming a carbide layer, allows a large reduction of the contact angle; then, the brazing of CFC to pure copper and pure copper to CuCrZr by the same treatment is feasible. This process allows to obtain good joints using a non

  8. Validation of the baking process as a kill-step for controlling Salmonella in muffins.

    Channaiah, Lakshmikantha H; Michael, Minto; Acuff, Jennifer C; Phebus, Randall K; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Olewnik, Maureen; Milliken, George

    2017-06-05

    This research investigates the potential risk of Salmonella in muffins when contamination is introduced via flour, the main ingredient. Flour was inoculated with a 3-strain cocktail of Salmonella serovars (Newport, Typhimurium, and Senftenberg) and re-dried to achieve a target concentration of ~8logCFU/g. The inoculated flour was then used to prepare muffin batter following a standard commercial recipe. The survival of Salmonella during and after baking at 190.6°C for 21min was analyzed by plating samples on selective and injury-recovery media at regular intervals. The thermal inactivation parameters (D and z values) of the 3-strain Salmonella cocktail were determined. A ≥5logCFU/g reduction in Salmonella population was demonstrated by 17min of baking, and a 6.1logCFU/g reduction in Salmonella population by 21min of baking. The D-values of Salmonella serovar cocktail in muffin batter were 62.2±3.0, 40.1±0.9 and 16.5±1.7min at 55, 58 and 61°C, respectively; and the z-value was 10.4±0.6°C. The water activity (a w ) of the muffin crumb (0.928) after baking and 30min of cooling was similar to that of pre-baked muffin batter, whereas the a w of the muffin crust decreased to (0.700). This study validates a typical commercial muffin baking process utilizing an oven temperature of 190.6°C for at least 17min as an effective kill-step in reducing a Salmonella serovar population by ≥5logCFU/g. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Step process for selecting and testing surrogates and indicators of afrotemperate forest invertebrate diversity.

    Charmaine Uys

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diversity and complexity of invertebrate communities usually result in their exclusion from conservation activities. Here we provide a step process for assessing predominantly ground-dwelling Afrotemperate forest invertebrates' (earthworms, centipedes, millipedes, ants, molluscs potential as surrogates for conservation and indicators for monitoring. We also evaluated sampling methods (soil and litter samples, pitfall traps, active searching quadrats and tree beating and temporal (seasonal effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lack of congruence of species richness across taxa indicated poor surrogacy potential for any of the focus taxa. Based on abundance and richness, seasonal stability, and ease of sampling, molluscs were the most appropriate taxon for use in monitoring of disturbance impacts. Mollusc richness was highest in March (Antipodal late summer wet season. The most effective and efficient methods were active searching quadrats and searching litter samples. We tested the effectiveness of molluscs as indicators for monitoring by contrasting species richness and community structure in burned relative to unburned forests. Both species richness and community structure changed significantly with burning. Some mollusc species (e.g. Macroptychia africana showed marked negative responses to burning, and these species have potential for use as indicators. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite habitat type (i.e., Afrotemperate forest being constant, species richness and community structure varied across forest patches. Therefore, in conservation planning, setting targets for coarse filter features (e.g., habitat type requires fine filter features (e.g., localities for individual species. This is especially true for limited mobility taxa such as those studied here. Molluscs have high potential for indicators for monitoring, and this requires broader study.

  10. In situ biosynthesis of bacterial nanocellulose-CaCO3 hybrid bionanocomposite: One-step process

    Mohammadkazemi, Faranak; Faria, Marisa; Cordeiro, Nereida

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a simple and green route to the synthesis of the bacterial nanocellulose-calcium carbonate (BNC/CaCO 3 ) hybrid bionanocomposites using one-step in situ biosynthesis was studied. The CaCO 3 was incorporated in the bacterial nanocellulose structure during the cellulose biosynthesis by Gluconacetobacter xylinus PTCC 1734 bacteria. Hestrin-Schramm (HS) and Zhou (Z) culture media were used to the hybrid bionanocomposites production and the effect of ethanol addition was investigated. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inverse gas chromatography and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the samples. The experimental results demonstrated that the ethanol and culture medium play an important role in the BNC/CaCO 3 hybrid bionanocomposites production, structure and properties. The BNC/CaCO 3 biosynthesized in Z culture medium revealed higher O/C ratio and amphoteric surface character, which justify the highest CaCO 3 content incorporation. The CaCO 3 was incorporated into the cellulosic matrix decreasing the bacterial nanocellulose crystallinity. This work reveals the high potential of in situ biosynthesis of BNC/CaCO 3 hybrid bionanocomposites and opens a new way to the high value-added applications of bacterial nanocellulose. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • BNC/CaCO 3 hybrid bionanocomposites were produced using in situ biosynthesis process. • Ethanol and culture medium play an important role in the production and properties. • Z-BNC/CaCO 3 bionanocomposites revealed higher O/C ratio and amphoteric surface character. • CaCO 3 incorporated into the BNC decreased crystallinity.

  11. Step responses of a torsional system with multiple clearances: Study of vibro-impact phenomenon using experimental and computational methods

    Oruganti, Pradeep Sharma; Krak, Michael D.; Singh, Rajendra

    2018-01-01

    Recently Krak and Singh (2017) proposed a scientific experiment that examined vibro-impacts in a torsional system under a step down excitation and provided preliminary measurements and limited non-linear model studies. A major goal of this article is to extend the prior work with a focus on the examination of vibro-impact phenomena observed under step responses in a torsional system with one, two or three controlled clearances. First, new measurements are made at several locations with a higher sampling frequency. Measured angular accelerations are examined in both time and time-frequency domains. Minimal order non-linear models of the experiment are successfully constructed, using piecewise linear stiffness and Coulomb friction elements; eight cases of the generic system are examined though only three are experimentally studied. Measured and predicted responses for single and dual clearance configurations exhibit double sided impacts and time varying periods suggest softening trends under the step down torque. Non-linear models are experimentally validated by comparing results with new measurements and with those previously reported. Several metrics are utilized to quantify and compare the measured and predicted responses (including peak to peak accelerations). Eigensolutions and step responses of the corresponding linearized models are utilized to better understand the nature of the non-linear dynamic system. Finally, the effect of step amplitude on the non-linear responses is examined for several configurations, and hardening trends are observed in the torsional system with three clearances.

  12. X-Ray Computed Tomography: The First Step in Mars Sample Return Processing

    Welzenbach, L. C.; Fries, M. D.; Grady, M. M.; Greenwood, R. C.; McCubbin, F. M.; Zeigler, R. A.; Smith, C. L.; Steele, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars 2020 rover mission will collect and cache samples from the martian surface for possible retrieval and subsequent return to Earth. If the samples are returned, that mission would likely present an opportunity to analyze returned Mars samples within a geologic context on Mars. In addition, it may provide definitive information about the existence of past or present life on Mars. Mars sample return presents unique challenges for the collection, containment, transport, curation and processing of samples [1] Foremost in the processing of returned samples are the closely paired considerations of life detection and Planetary Protection. In order to achieve Mars Sample Return (MSR) science goals, reliable analyses will depend on overcoming some challenging signal/noise-related issues where sparse martian organic compounds must be reliably analyzed against the contamination background. While reliable analyses will depend on initial clean acquisition and robust documentation of all aspects of developing and managing the cache [2], there needs to be a reliable sample handling and analysis procedure that accounts for a variety of materials which may or may not contain evidence of past or present martian life. A recent report [3] suggests that a defined set of measurements should be made to effectively inform both science and Planetary Protection, when applied in the context of the two competing null hypotheses: 1) that there is no detectable life in the samples; or 2) that there is martian life in the samples. The defined measurements would include a phased approach that would be accepted by the community to preserve the bulk of the material, but provide unambiguous science data that can be used and interpreted by various disciplines. Fore-most is the concern that the initial steps would ensure the pristine nature of the samples. Preliminary, non-invasive techniques such as computed X-ray tomography (XCT) have been suggested as the first method to interrogate and

  13. Microstructure and superconducting properties of Bi-2223/Ag tapes fabricated in the two-step sintering process

    Lu, X.Y.; Nagata, A.; Sugawara, K.

    2008-01-01

    The microstructure and superconducting properties of Bi-2223/Ag tapes fabricated in the two-step sintering process were investigated. The tapes were then subjected to two heat treatments with an intermediate rolling. All the tapes were sintered at 835 deg. C for 24 h at initial sintering stage. A two-step sintering procedure was then used in the final sintering stage. In the first step, the tapes are sintered at 840-865 deg. C for 1 h. In the second step, they were sintered at 835 deg. C for 120 h. The results show that the first step sintering temperature has significant influence on the microstructure and the critical current density J c . The observed microstructures are consistent well with the different J c performances of the tapes first-step-sintered at different temperatures. The tape first-step-sintered at 850 deg. C, which has small secondary phases, stronger c-axis grain alignment, higher proportion of Bi-2223 phase, and no cracks, exhibits the highest J c value

  14. Hydrogen with intrinsic CO{sub 2} sequestration: the ENI 'One Step Hydrogen' process

    Rossini, S.; Cornaro, U.; Mizia, F.; Malandrino, A.; Piccoli, V. [Enitecnologie SpA, S. Donata Milanese (Italy); Sanfilippo, D.; Miracca, I. [Snamprogetti SpA, S. Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    The new process, under development in our companies, is aimed to hydrogen production with intrinsic carbon dioxide sequestration. This is made possible combining in a cycle the water oxidative potential with a reverse action by a reducing agent like hydrocarbons, the preferred being natural gas. In the first step a suitable oxide takes up the oxygen from water splitting producing hydrogen. The solid act as an oxygen storage medium. Such 'lattice' oxygen is in turn released through one or more elemental steps. The process fits very well with a circulating fluid bed reactor which allows the movement of the solid from one reactive environment to the other. (orig.)

  15. Proximal processes of children with profound multiple disabilities

    Wilder, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis four empirical studies dealt with children with profound multiple disabilities and their parents with regard to: (a) how parents perceived interaction with their children (b) how observed child/parent interaction was linked to behavior style of the children as perceived by the parents (c) how parents of children with profound multiple disabilities perceived child/parent interaction and behavior style of their children in comparison to parents to children without disabilities ma...

  16. Fully solar-driven thermo- and electrochemistry for advanced oxidation processes (STEP-AOPs) of 2-nitrophenol wastewater.

    Nie, Chunhong; Shao, Nan; Wang, Baohui; Yuan, Dandan; Sui, Xin; Wu, Hongjun

    2016-07-01

    The STEP (Solar Thermal Electrochemical Process) for Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs, combined to STEP-AOPs), fully driven by solar energy without the input of any other forms of energy and chemicals, is introduced and demonstrated from the theory to experiments. Exemplified by the persistent organic pollutant 2-nitrophenol in water, the fundamental model and practical system are exhibited for the STEP-AOPs to efficiently transform 2-nitrophenol into carbon dioxide, water, and the other substances. The results show that the STEP-AOPs system performs more effectively than classical AOPs in terms of the thermodynamics and kinetics of pollutant oxidation. Due to the combination of solar thermochemical reactions with electrochemistry, the STEP-AOPs system allows the requisite electrolysis voltage of 2-nitrophenol to be experimentally decreased from 1.00 V to 0.84 V, and the response current increases from 18 mA to 40 mA. STEP-AOPs also greatly improve the kinetics of the oxidation at 30 °C and 80 °C. As a result, the removal rate of 2-nitrophenol after 1 h increased from 19.50% at 30 °C to 32.70% at 80 °C at constant 1.90 V. Mechanistic analysis reveals that the oxidation pathway is favorably changed because of thermal effects. The tracking of the reaction displayed that benzenediol and hydroquinone are initial products, with maleic acid and formic acid as sequential carboxylic acid products, and carbon dioxide as the final product. The theory and experiments on STEP-AOPs system exemplified by the oxidation of 2-nitrophenol provide a broad basis for extension of the STEP and AOPs for rapid and efficient treatment of organic wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of a Stepped Si(100) Surface on the Nucleation Process of Ge Islands

    Yesin, M. Yu.; Nikiforov, A. I.; Timofeev, V. A.; Mashanov, V. I.; Tuktamyshev, A. R.; Loshkarev, I. D.; Pchelyakov, O. P.

    2018-03-01

    Nucleation of Ge islands on a stepped Si(100) surface is studied. It is shown by diffraction of fast electrons that at a temperature of 600°C, constant flux of Si, and deposition rate of 0.652 Å/s, a series of the 1×2 superstructure reflections completely disappears, if the Si (100) substrate deviated by an angle of 0.35° to the (111) face is preliminarily heated to 1000°C. The disappearance of the 1×2 superstructure reflexes is due to the transition from the surface with monoatomic steps to that with diatomic ones. Investigations of the Ge islands' growth were carried out on the Si(100) surface preliminarily annealed at temperatures of 800 and 1000°C. It is shown that the islands tend to nucleate at the step edges.

  18. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: II. Process efficiency in event pyramiding and trait fixation.

    Peng, Ting; Sun, Xiaochun; Mumm, Rita H

    2014-01-01

    Multiple trait integration (MTI) is a multi-step process of converting an elite variety/hybrid for value-added traits (e.g. transgenic events) through backcross breeding. From a breeding standpoint, MTI involves four steps: single event introgression, event pyramiding, trait fixation, and version testing. This study explores the feasibility of marker-aided backcross conversion of a target maize hybrid for 15 transgenic events in the light of the overall goal of MTI of recovering equivalent performance in the finished hybrid conversion along with reliable expression of the value-added traits. Using the results to optimize single event introgression (Peng et al. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: I. Minimizing linkage drag in single event introgression. Mol Breed, 2013) which produced single event conversions of recurrent parents (RPs) with ≤8 cM of residual non-recurrent parent (NRP) germplasm with ~1 cM of NRP germplasm in the 20 cM regions flanking the event, this study focused on optimizing process efficiency in the second and third steps in MTI: event pyramiding and trait fixation. Using computer simulation and probability theory, we aimed to (1) fit an optimal breeding strategy for pyramiding of eight events into the female RP and seven in the male RP, and (2) identify optimal breeding strategies for trait fixation to create a 'finished' conversion of each RP homozygous for all events. In addition, next-generation seed needs were taken into account for a practical approach to process efficiency. Building on work by Ishii and Yonezawa (Optimization of the marker-based procedures for pyramiding genes from multiple donor lines: I. Schedule of crossing between the donor lines. Crop Sci 47:537-546, 2007a), a symmetric crossing schedule for event pyramiding was devised for stacking eight (seven) events in a given RP. Options for trait fixation breeding strategies considered selfing and doubled haploid approaches to achieve homozygosity

  19. A two-step patterning process increases the robustness of periodic patterning in the fly eye.

    Gavish, Avishai; Barkai, Naama

    2016-06-01

    Complex periodic patterns can self-organize through dynamic interactions between diffusible activators and inhibitors. In the biological context, self-organized patterning is challenged by spatial heterogeneities ('noise') inherent to biological systems. How spatial variability impacts the periodic patterning mechanism and how it can be buffered to ensure precise patterning is not well understood. We examine the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the periodic patterning of the fruit fly eye, an organ composed of ∼800 miniature eye units (ommatidia) whose periodic arrangement along a hexagonal lattice self-organizes during early stages of fly development. The patterning follows a two-step process, with an initial formation of evenly spaced clusters of ∼10 cells followed by a subsequent refinement of each cluster into a single selected cell. Using a probabilistic approach, we calculate the rate of patterning errors resulting from spatial heterogeneities in cell size, position and biosynthetic capacity. Notably, error rates were largely independent of the desired cluster size but followed the distributions of signaling speeds. Pre-formation of large clusters therefore greatly increases the reproducibility of the overall periodic arrangement, suggesting that the two-stage patterning process functions to guard the pattern against errors caused by spatial heterogeneities. Our results emphasize the constraints imposed on self-organized patterning mechanisms by the need to buffer stochastic effects. Author summary Complex periodic patterns are common in nature and are observed in physical, chemical and biological systems. Understanding how these patterns are generated in a precise manner is a key challenge. Biological patterns are especially intriguing, as they are generated in a noisy environment; cell position and cell size, for example, are subject to stochastic variations, as are the strengths of the chemical signals mediating cell-to-cell communication. The need

  20. Effect of the selective adsorption on the reactive scattering process of molecular beams from stepped surfaces

    Garcia, N.

    1977-01-01

    An indicative proposal which may explain the diffusion of incident atomic beams scattered by a crystal surface is made in terms of the selective adsorption mechanism. In this sense, the stepped metallic surfaces present characteristics which enhance the displacements and the lifetimes of the beams on the surface. This may be important for increasing the exchange reactive scattering of molecules from crystal surfaces

  1. Fast nanostructured carbon microparticle synthesis by one-step high-flux plasma processing

    Aussems, D. U. B.; Bystrov, K.; Dogan, I.; Arnas, C.; Cabié, M.; Neisius, T.; Rasinski, M.; Zoethout, E.; Lipman, P.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Morgan, T. W.

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates a fast one-step synthesis method for nanostructured carbon microparticles on graphite samples using high-flux plasma exposure. These structures are considered as potential candidates for energy applications such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors. The samples were

  2. Fast nanostructured carbon microparticle synthesis by one-step high-flux plasma processing

    Aussems, D.U.B.; Bystrov, K.E.; Doǧan, I.; Arnas, C.; Cabié, M.; Neisius, T.; Rasinski, M.; Lipman, P.J.L.; van de Sanden, M.C.M.; Morgan, T.W.

    This study demonstrates a fast one-step synthesis method for nanostructured carbon microparticles on graphite samples using high-flux plasma exposure. These structures are considered as potential candidates for energy applications such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors. The samples were

  3. First step in the process of calculating the cross section for muonic antihydrogen

    Maher, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    The end goal of the project is to measure the charge radius of the antiproton with muons. However a necessary step first is to calculate cross section of Muonium and antiprotons in the production of antihydrogen to determine the feasibility of such an experiment.

  4. One-step process of hydrothermal and alkaline treatment of wheat straw for improving the enzymatic saccharification.

    Sun, Shaolong; Zhang, Lidan; Liu, Fang; Fan, Xiaolin; Sun, Run-Cang

    2018-01-01

    To increase the production of bioethanol, a two-step process based on hydrothermal and dilute alkaline treatment was applied to reduce the natural resistance of biomass. However, the process required a large amount of water and a long operation time due to the solid/liquid separation before the alkaline treatment, which led to decrease the pure economic profit for production of bioethanol. Therefore, four one-step processes based on order of hydrothermal and alkaline treatment have been developed to enhance concentration of glucose of wheat straw by enzymatic saccharification. The aim of the present study was to systematically evaluated effect for different one-step processes by analyzing the physicochemical properties (composition, structural change, crystallinity, surface morphology, and BET surface area) and enzymatic saccharification of the treated substrates. In this study, hemicelluloses and lignins were removed from wheat straw and the morphologic structures were destroyed to various extents during the four one-step processes, which were favorable for cellulase absorption on cellulose. A positive correlation was also observed between the crystallinity and enzymatic saccharification rate of the substrate under the conditions given. The surface area of the substrate was positively related to the concentration of glucose in this study. As compared to the control (3.0 g/L) and treated substrates (11.2-14.6 g/L) obtained by the other three one-step processes, the substrate treated by one-step process based on successively hydrothermal and alkaline treatment had a maximum glucose concentration of 18.6 g/L, which was due to the high cellulose concentration and surface area for the substrate, accompanying with removal of large amounts of lignins and hemicelluloses. The present study demonstrated that the order of hydrothermal and alkaline treatment had significant effects on the physicochemical properties and enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw. The one-step

  5. How the Use of ICT can Contribute to a Misleading Picture of Conditions – A Five-Step Process

    Stefan Holgersson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the limited research on roles ICT can play in impression-management strategies and is based on case studies done in the Swedish Police. It also gives a theoretical contribution by adopting a holistic approach to explain how ICT can contribute to giving a misleading picture of conditions. Output generated by ICT has nowadays a central role in follow-up activities and decision-making. Even if this type of output, often in colourful, presentable, graphical arrangements, gives the impression of being accurate and reliable there is a risk of defective data quality. The phenomena can be described as a process divided into five steps. The first step is about how the data is generated and/or collected. The second step is linked to how the data is registered. The third step is about the output generated from the ICT-systems. The fourth step is how the output of ICT is selected for presentation. The fifth step concerns how output generated by ICT is interpreted. This paper shows that ICT can easily be used in impression-management strategies. For example, that personnel take shortcuts to affect the statistics rather than applying methods that may give the desired effects.

  6. Conversation on data mining strategies in LC-MS untargeted metabolomics: pre-processing and pre-treatment steps

    Tugizimana, F

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available -MS)-based untargeted metabolomic dataset, this study explored the influence of collection parameters in the data pre-processing step, scaling and data transformation on the statistical models generated, and feature selection, thereafter. Data obtained in positive mode...

  7. Pedagogical Affordances of Multiple External Representations in Scientific Processes

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Puntambekar, Sadhana

    2012-01-01

    Multiple external representations (MERs) have been widely used in science teaching and learning. Theories such as dual coding theory and cognitive flexibility theory have been developed to explain why the use of MERs is beneficial to learning, but they do not provide much information on pedagogical issues such as how and in what conditions MERs…

  8. Prescription-induced jump distributions in multiplicative Poisson processes.

    Suweis, Samir; Porporato, Amilcare; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos

    2011-06-01

    Generalized Langevin equations (GLE) with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual prescription dilemma leading to different evolution equations (master equations) for the probability distribution. Contrary to the case of multiplicative Gaussian white noise, the Stratonovich prescription does not correspond to the well-known midpoint (or any other intermediate) prescription. By introducing an inertial term in the GLE, we show that the Itô and Stratonovich prescriptions naturally arise depending on two time scales, one induced by the inertial term and the other determined by the jump event. We also show that, when the multiplicative noise is linear in the random variable, one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We apply these results to a recently proposed stochastic model describing the dynamics of primary soil salinization, in which the salt mass balance within the soil root zone requires the analysis of different prescriptions arising from the resulting stochastic differential equation forced by multiplicative white Poisson noise, the features of which are tailored to the characters of the daily precipitation. A method is finally suggested to infer the most appropriate prescription from the data.

  9. Prescription-induced jump distributions in multiplicative Poisson processes

    Suweis, Samir; Porporato, Amilcare; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos

    2011-06-01

    Generalized Langevin equations (GLE) with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual prescription dilemma leading to different evolution equations (master equations) for the probability distribution. Contrary to the case of multiplicative Gaussian white noise, the Stratonovich prescription does not correspond to the well-known midpoint (or any other intermediate) prescription. By introducing an inertial term in the GLE, we show that the Itô and Stratonovich prescriptions naturally arise depending on two time scales, one induced by the inertial term and the other determined by the jump event. We also show that, when the multiplicative noise is linear in the random variable, one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We apply these results to a recently proposed stochastic model describing the dynamics of primary soil salinization, in which the salt mass balance within the soil root zone requires the analysis of different prescriptions arising from the resulting stochastic differential equation forced by multiplicative white Poisson noise, the features of which are tailored to the characters of the daily precipitation. A method is finally suggested to infer the most appropriate prescription from the data.

  10. Bainitic transformation during the two-step quenching and partitioning process in a medium carbon steel containing silicon

    Li, H.Y.; Lu, X.W. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wu, X.C.; Min, Y.A. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Jin, X.J., E-mail: jin@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Research highlights: In this paper, SEM and TEM were used to characterize microstructure of Q and P steels with different partitioning time at 300 deg. C. The interesting phenomena were discovered and discussed: 1.Lower bainite (bainitic ferrite plus {epsilon}-carbide) rather than carbide-free bainite was observed during partitioning process. 2.The mechanical properties of Q and P steels can be tailored and adjusted through balance volume fraction of retained austenite and lower bainite during partitioning process. 3.The final amount of austenite was influenced by the transformation kinetics of lower bainite during partitioning process. According to the analysis, it can be concluded that associated with carbon partitioning from martensite to austenite, lower bainite transformation inevitably occurred. More importantly, lower bainite transformation seriously affected the mechanical properties of Q and P steels and final amount of austenite. - Abstract: A study of 40SiMnNiCr steel subjected to a two-step quenching and partitioning process (Q and P) is presented. The result suggests that strength variation of Q and P steels during the two-step Q and P process was a cumulative effect of increase of retained austenite fraction, decrease of carbon supersaturation of virgin martensite, and particularly much of lower bainite formation. A trade-off between high strength and good ductility of two-step Q and P steels can be tailored and adjusted by controlling lower bainite fraction. The final amount of austenite was influenced by the transformation kinetics of lower bainite during the partitioning process.

  11. Bainitic transformation during the two-step quenching and partitioning process in a medium carbon steel containing silicon

    Li, H.Y.; Lu, X.W.; Wu, X.C.; Min, Y.A.; Jin, X.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: In this paper, SEM and TEM were used to characterize microstructure of Q and P steels with different partitioning time at 300 deg. C. The interesting phenomena were discovered and discussed: 1.Lower bainite (bainitic ferrite plus ε-carbide) rather than carbide-free bainite was observed during partitioning process. 2.The mechanical properties of Q and P steels can be tailored and adjusted through balance volume fraction of retained austenite and lower bainite during partitioning process. 3.The final amount of austenite was influenced by the transformation kinetics of lower bainite during partitioning process. According to the analysis, it can be concluded that associated with carbon partitioning from martensite to austenite, lower bainite transformation inevitably occurred. More importantly, lower bainite transformation seriously affected the mechanical properties of Q and P steels and final amount of austenite. - Abstract: A study of 40SiMnNiCr steel subjected to a two-step quenching and partitioning process (Q and P) is presented. The result suggests that strength variation of Q and P steels during the two-step Q and P process was a cumulative effect of increase of retained austenite fraction, decrease of carbon supersaturation of virgin martensite, and particularly much of lower bainite formation. A trade-off between high strength and good ductility of two-step Q and P steels can be tailored and adjusted by controlling lower bainite fraction. The final amount of austenite was influenced by the transformation kinetics of lower bainite during the partitioning process.

  12. The average angular distribution of emitted particles in multi-step compound processes

    Bonetti, R.; Carlson, B.V.; Hussein, M.S.; Toledo, A.S. de

    1983-05-01

    A simple model for the differential cross-section that describes the angular distribution of emitted particles in heavy-ion induced multi-step compound reactions, is constructed. It is suggested that through a careful analysis of the deviations of the experimental data from the pure Hauser-Feshbach behaviour may shed light on the physical nature of the pre-compound, heavy-ion configuration. (Author) [pt

  13. Step out - Step in Sequencing Games

    Musegaas, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Quant, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new class of relaxed sequencing games is introduced: the class of Step out - Step in sequencing games. In this relaxation any player within a coalition is allowed to step out from his position in the processing order and to step in at any position later in the processing order.

  14. Step out-step in sequencing games

    Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new class of relaxed sequencing games is introduced: the class of Step out–Step in sequencing games. In this relaxation any player within a coalition is allowed to step out from his position in the processing order and to step in at any position later in the processing order. First,

  15. The portal protein plays essential roles at different steps of the SPP1 DNA packaging process

    Isidro, Anabela; Henriques, Adriano O.; Tavares, Paulo

    2004-01-01

    A large number of viruses use a specialized portal for entry of DNA to the viral capsid and for its polarized exit at the beginning of infection. These families of viruses assemble an icosahedral procapsid containing a portal protein oligomer in one of its 12 vertices. The viral ATPase (terminase) interacts with the portal vertex to form a powerful molecular motor that translocates DNA to the procapsid interior against a steep concentration gradient. The portal protein is an essential component of this DNA packaging machine. Characterization of single amino acid substitutions in the portal protein gp6 of bacteriophage SPP1 that block DNA packaging identified sequential steps in the packaging mechanism that require its action. Gp6 is essential at early steps of DNA packaging and for DNA translocation to the capsid interior, it affects the efficiency of DNA packaging, it is a central component of the headful sensor that determines the size of the packaged DNA molecule, and is essential for closure of the portal pore by the head completion proteins to prevent exit of the DNA encapsidated. Functional regions of gp6 necessary at each step are identified within its primary structure. The similarity between the architecture of portal oligomers and between the DNA packaging strategies of viruses using portals strongly suggests that the portal protein plays the same roles in a large number of viruses

  16. Developing a framework to model the primary drying step of a continuous freeze-drying process based on infrared radiation

    Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Corver, Jos; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.

    2018-01-01

    . These results assist in the selection of proper materials which could serve as IR window in the continuous freeze-drying prototype. The modelling framework presented in this paper fits the model-based design approach used for the development of this prototype and shows the potential benefits of this design...... requires the fundamental mechanistic modelling of each individual process step. Therefore, a framework is presented for the modelling and control of the continuous primary drying step based on non-contact IR radiation. The IR radiation emitted by the radiator filaments passes through various materials...

  17. Multiplicity distributions and multiplicity correlations in sequential, off-equilibrium fragmentation process

    Botet, R.

    1996-01-01

    A new kinetic fragmentation model, the Fragmentation - Inactivation -Binary (FIB) model is described where a dissipative process stops randomly the sequential, conservative and off-equilibrium fragmentation process. (K.A.)

  18. elementary mechanistic steps and the influence of process variables in isobutane alkylation over H-BEA

    Nivarthy, G.S.; He, Y.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Liquid phase conversion of n-butene in excess iso-butane was investigated over zeolite BEA as catalyst in a continuously operated slurry reactor. Single and multiple alkylation and cracking were the main reaction pathways. Only saturated products were observed indicating that hydride transfer

  19. Tailoring structures through two-step annealing process in nanostructured aluminum produced by accumulative roll-bonding

    Kamikawa, Naoya; Huang, Xiaoxu; Hansen, Niels

    2008-01-01

    temperature before annealing at high temperature. By this two-step process, the structure is homogenized and the stored energy is reduced significantly during the first annealing step. As an example, high-purity aluminum has been deformed to a total reduction of 98.4% (equivalent strain of 4.......8) by accumulative roll-bonding at room temperature. Isochronal annealing for 0.5 h of the deformed samples shows the occurrence of recrystallization at 200 °C and above. However, when introducing an annealing step for 6 h at 175 °C, no significant recrystallization is observed and relatively homogeneous structures...... are obtained when the samples afterwards are annealed at higher temperatures up to 300 °C. To underpin these observations, the structural evolution has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy, showing that significant annihilation of high-angle boundaries, low-angle dislocation boundaries...

  20. A direct, single-step plasma arc-vitreous ceramic process for stabilizing spent nuclear fuels, sludges, and associated wastes

    Feng, X.; Einziger, R.E.; Eschenbach, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    A single-step plasma arc-vitreous ceramic (PAVC) process is described for converting spent nuclear fuel (SNF), SNF sludges, and associated wastes into a vitreous ceramic waste form. This proposed technology is built on extensive experience of nuclear waste form development and nuclear waste treatment using the commercially available plasma arc centrifugal (PAC) system. SNF elements will be loaded directly into a PAC furnace with minimum additives and converted into vitreous ceramics with up to 90 wt% waste loading. The vitreous ceramic waste form should meet the functional requirements for borosilicate glasses for permanent disposal in a geologic repository and for interim storage. Criticality safety would be ensured through the use of batch modes, and controlling the amount of fuel processed in one batch. The minimum requirements on SNF characterization and pretreatment, the one-step process, and minimum secondary waste generation may reduce treatment duration, radiation exposure, and treatment cost

  1. A Multiple Time-Step Finite State Projection Algorithm for the Solution to the Chemical Master Equation

    Munsky, Brian; Khammash, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    At the mesoscopic scale, chemical processes have probability distributions that evolve according to an infinite set of linear ordinary differential equations known as the chemical master equation (CME...

  2. An overview of steps and tools for the corporate real estate strategy alignment process

    Appel - Meulenbroek, H.A.J.A.; Haynes, B.

    2014-01-01

    Strategic thinking is a continuous process, alternating between thinking, planning and evaluating. Corporate real estate management (CREM) practitioners need to align their strategy and activities with corporate strategy during the entire process that the organisation goes through. Along the way,

  3. Two-Step Cycle for Producing Multiple Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Films with Increasing Long-Range Order.

    Choudhary, Eric; Szalai, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are being used for an increasing number of applications. However, the original two-step anodization method in which the first anodization is sacrificial to pre-pattern the second is still widely used to produce them. This method provides relatively low throughput and material utilization as half of the films are discarded. An alternative scheme that relies on alternating anodization and cathodic delamination is demonstrated that allows for the fabrication of several AAO films with only one sacrificial layer thus greatly improving total aluminum to alumina yield. The thickness for which the cathodic delamination performs best to yield full, unbroken AAO sheets is around 85 μm. Additionally, an image analysis method is used to quantify the degree of long-range ordering of the unit cells in the AAO films which was found to increase with each successive iteration of the fabrication cycle.

  4. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides in Foods: An Overview of Sources, Downstream Processing Steps and Associated Bioactivities.

    Hayes, Maria; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2015-09-17

    Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to production processes. This review discusses the health benefits and bioactivities associated with peptides and carbohydrates of natural origin and downstream processing methodologies and novel processes which may be used to overcome these.

  5. Optimized spray drying process for preparation of one-step calcium-alginate gel microspheres

    Popeski-Dimovski, Riste [Department of physic, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, “ss. Cyril and Methodius” University, Arhimedova 3, 1000 Skopje, R. Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2016-03-25

    Calcium-alginate micro particles have been used extensively in drug delivery systems. Therefore we establish a one-step method for preparation of internally gelated micro particles with spherical shape and narrow size distribution. We use four types of alginate with different G/M ratio and molar weight. The size of the particles is measured using light diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Measurements showed that with this method, micro particles with size distribution around 4 micrometers can be prepared, and SEM imaging showed that those particles are spherical in shape.

  6. Exercise Training in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Comparison of Recumbent Stepping and Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training.

    Pilutti, Lara A; Paulseth, John E; Dove, Carin; Jiang, Shucui; Rathbone, Michel P; Hicks, Audrey L

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence of the benefits of exercise training in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, few studies have been conducted in individuals with progressive MS and severe mobility impairment. A potential exercise rehabilitation approach is total-body recumbent stepper training (TBRST). We evaluated the safety and participant-reported experience of TBRST in people with progressive MS and compared the efficacy of TBRST with that of body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on outcomes of function, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods: Twelve participants with progressive MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, 6.0-8.0) were randomized to receive TBRST or BWSTT. Participants completed three weekly sessions (30 minutes) of exercise training for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes included safety assessed as adverse events and patient-reported exercise experience assessed as postexercise response and evaluation of exercise equipment. Secondary outcomes included the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, and the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire scores. Assessments were conducted at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results: Safety was confirmed in both exercise groups. Participants reported enjoying both exercise modalities; however, TBRST was reviewed more favorably. Both interventions reduced fatigue and improved HRQOL (P ≤ .05); there were no changes in function. Conclusions: Both TBRST and BWSTT seem to be safe, well tolerated, and enjoyable for participants with progressive MS with severe disability. Both interventions may also be efficacious for reducing fatigue and improving HRQOL. TBRST should be further explored as an exercise rehabilitation tool for patients with progressive MS.

  7. A stochastic model of multiple scattering of charged particles: process, transport equation and solutions

    Papiez, L.; Moskvin, V.; Tulovsky, V.

    2001-01-01

    The process of angular-spatial evolution of multiple scattering of charged particles can be described by a special case of Boltzmann integro-differential equation called Lewis equation. The underlying stochastic process for this evolution is the compound Poisson process on the surface of the unit sphere. The significant portion of events that constitute compound Poisson process that describes multiple scattering have diffusional character. This property allows to analyze the process of angular-spatial evolution of multiple scattering of charged particles as combination of soft and hard collision processes and compute appropriately its transition densities. These computations provide a method of the approximate solution to the Lewis equation. (orig.)

  8. Evidence for simultaneous syntactic processing of multiple words during reading

    Snell, Joshua; Meeter, Martijn; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    A hotly debated issue in reading research concerns the extent to which readers process parafoveal words, and how parafoveal information might influence foveal word recognition. We investigated syntactic word processing both in sentence reading and in reading isolated foveal words when these were

  9. Effect of multiplicative noise on stationary stochastic process

    Kargovsky, A. V.; Chikishev, A. Yu.; Chichigina, O. A.

    2018-03-01

    An open system that can be analyzed using the Langevin equation with multiplicative noise is considered. The stationary state of the system results from a balance of deterministic damping and random pumping simulated as noise with controlled periodicity. The dependence of statistical moments of the variable that characterizes the system on parameters of the problem is studied. A nontrivial decrease in the mean value of the main variable with an increase in noise stochasticity is revealed. Applications of the results in several physical, chemical, biological, and technical problems of natural and humanitarian sciences are discussed.

  10. A green two-step process for adipic acid production from cyclohexene. A study on parameters affecting selectivity

    Cavani, F.; Macchia, F.; Pino, R.; Raabova, K.; Rozhko, E. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale e dei Materiali; Alini, S.; Accorinti, P.; Babini, G. [Radici Chimica SpA, Novara (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we report about the effect of reaction parameters on catalytic behavior in a twostep process aimed at the synthesis of adipic acid from cyclohexene. In the first step, cyclohexene reacts with an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide, under conditions leading to the formation of trans-1,2-cyclohexandiol as the prevailing product; the reaction is catalysed by tungstic acid, in the presence of phosphoric acid and of a PT agent. In the second step, 1,2-cyclohexandiol is oxidized with air, in the presence of an heterogeneous catalyst made of alumina-supported Ru(OH){sub 3}. This process is aimed at using the minimal amount of the costly hydrogen peroxide, since only one mole is theoretically needed per mole of cyclohexene. The first step afforded very high yield to the glycol, using only a slight excess of hydrogen peroxide. However, the second step turned out to be the more critical one, since the selectivity to adipic acid was very low because of the concomitant occurrence of several undesired side reactions. The latter were in part due to the reaction conditions used, which were necessary for the activation of cyclohexandiol. (orig.)

  11. The design of a real-time formative evaluation of the implementation process of lifestyle interventions at two worksites using a 7-step strategy (BRAVO@Work).

    Wierenga, Debbie; Engbers, Luuk H; van Empelen, Pepijn; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; van Mechelen, Willem

    2012-08-07

    Worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs) offer an attractive opportunity to improve the lifestyle of employees. Nevertheless, broad scale and successful implementation of WHPPs in daily practice often fails. In the present study, called BRAVO@Work, a 7-step implementation strategy was used to develop, implement and embed a WHPP in two different worksites with a focus on multiple lifestyle interventions.This article describes the design and framework for the formative evaluation of this 7-step strategy under real-time conditions by an embedded scientist with the purpose to gain insight into whether this this 7-step strategy is a useful and effective implementation strategy. Furthermore, we aim to gain insight into factors that either facilitate or hamper the implementation process, the quality of the implemented lifestyle interventions and the degree of adoption, implementation and continuation of these interventions. This study is a formative evaluation within two different worksites with an embedded scientist on site to continuously monitor the implementation process. Each worksite (i.e. a University of Applied Sciences and an Academic Hospital) will assign a participating faculty or a department, to implement a WHPP focusing on lifestyle interventions using the 7-step strategy. The primary focus will be to describe the natural course of development, implementation and maintenance of a WHPP by studying [a] the use and adherence to the 7-step strategy, [b] barriers and facilitators that influence the natural course of adoption, implementation and maintenance, and [c] the implementation process of the lifestyle interventions. All data will be collected using qualitative (i.e. real-time monitoring and semi-structured interviews) and quantitative methods (i.e. process evaluation questionnaires) applying data triangulation. Except for the real-time monitoring, the data collection will take place at baseline and after 6, 12 and 18 months. This is one of the few

  12. The design of a real-time formative evaluation of the implementation process of lifestyle interventions at two worksites using a 7-step strategy (BRAVO@Work

    Wierenga Debbie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs offer an attractive opportunity to improve the lifestyle of employees. Nevertheless, broad scale and successful implementation of WHPPs in daily practice often fails. In the present study, called BRAVO@Work, a 7-step implementation strategy was used to develop, implement and embed a WHPP in two different worksites with a focus on multiple lifestyle interventions. This article describes the design and framework for the formative evaluation of this 7-step strategy under real-time conditions by an embedded scientist with the purpose to gain insight into whether this this 7-step strategy is a useful and effective implementation strategy. Furthermore, we aim to gain insight into factors that either facilitate or hamper the implementation process, the quality of the implemented lifestyle interventions and the degree of adoption, implementation and continuation of these interventions. Methods and design This study is a formative evaluation within two different worksites with an embedded scientist on site to continuously monitor the implementation process. Each worksite (i.e. a University of Applied Sciences and an Academic Hospital will assign a participating faculty or a department, to implement a WHPP focusing on lifestyle interventions using the 7-step strategy. The primary focus will be to describe the natural course of development, implementation and maintenance of a WHPP by studying [a] the use and adherence to the 7-step strategy, [b] barriers and facilitators that influence the natural course of adoption, implementation and maintenance, and [c] the implementation process of the lifestyle interventions. All data will be collected using qualitative (i.e. real-time monitoring and semi-structured interviews and quantitative methods (i.e. process evaluation questionnaires applying data triangulation. Except for the real-time monitoring, the data collection will take place at baseline and

  13. Newly Developed Software Application for Multiple Access Process Planning

    Katarina Monkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purchase of a complex system for computer aided process planning (CAPP can be expensive for little and some middle sized plants, sometimes an inaccessible investment, with a long recoupment period. According to this fact and the author's experience with Eastern European plants, they decided to design a new database application which is suitable for production, stock, and economic data holding as well as processing and exploitation within the manufacturing process. The application can also be used to process a plan according to the selected criteria, for technological documentation and NC program creation. It was based on the theory of a multivariant approach to computer aided plan generation. Its fundamental features, the internal mathematical structure and new code system of processed objects, were prepared by the authors. The verification of the designed information system in real practice has shown that it enables about 30% cost and production time reduction and decreases input material assortment variability.

  14. How to define 'best practice' for use in Knowledge Translation research: a practical, stepped and interactive process.

    Bosch, Marije; Tavender, Emma; Bragge, Peter; Gruen, Russell; Green, Sally

    2013-10-01

    Defining 'best practice' is one of the first and crucial steps in any Knowledge Translation (KT) research project. Without a sound understanding of what exactly should happen in practice, it is impossible to measure the extent of existing gaps between 'desired' and 'actual' care, set implementation goals, and monitor performance. The aim of this paper is to present a practical, stepped and interactive process to develop best practice recommendations that are actionable, locally applicable and in line with the best available research-based evidence, with a view to adapt these into process measures (quality indicators) for KT research purposes. Our process encompasses the following steps: (1) identify current, high-quality clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and extract recommendations; (2) select strong recommendations in key clinical management areas; (3) update evidence and create evidence overviews; (4) discuss evidence and produce agreed 'evidence statements'; (5) discuss the relevance of the evidence with local stakeholders; and (6) develop locally applicable actionable best practice recommendations, suitable for use as the basis of quality indicators. Actionable definitions of local best practice are a prerequisite for doing KT research. As substantial resources go into rigorously synthesizing evidence and developing CPGs, it is important to make best use of such available resources. We developed a process for efficiently developing locally applicable actionable best practice recommendations from existing high-quality CPGs that are in line with current research evidence. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. FEM simulation of multi step forming of thick sheet

    Wisselink, H.H.; Huetink, Han

    2004-01-01

    A case study has been performed on the forming of an industrial product. This product, a bracket, is made of 5mm thick sheet in multiple steps. The process exists of a bending step followed by a drawing and a flanging step. FEM simulations have been used to investigate this forming process. First,

  16. Simultaneous energy harvesting and information processing in wireless multiple relays with multiple antennas

    Albaaj, Azhar; Makki, S. Vahab A.; Alabkhat, Qassem; Zahedi, Abdulhamid

    2017-07-01

    Wireless networks suffer from battery discharging specially in cooperative communications when multiple relays have an important role but they are energy constrained. To overcome this problem, energy harvesting from radio frequency signals is applied to charge the node battery. These intermediate nodes have the ability to harvest energy from the source signal and use the energy harvested to transmit information to the destination. In fact, the node tries to harvest energy and then transmit the data to destination. Division of energy harvesting and data transmission can be done in two algorithms: time-switching-based relaying protocol and power-splitting-based relaying protocol. These two algorithms also can be applied in delay-limited and delay-tolerant transmission systems. The previous works have assumed a single relay for energy harvesting, but in this article, the proposed method is concentrated on improving the outage probability and throughput by using multiple antennas in each relay node instead of using single antenna. According to our simulation results, when using multi-antenna relays, ability of energy harvesting is increased and thus system performance will be improved to great extent. Maximum ratio combining scheme has been used when the destination chooses the best signal of relays and antennas satisfying the required signal-to-noise ratio.

  17. A novel, substrate independent three-step process for the growth of uniform ZnO nanorod arrays

    Byrne, D.; McGlynn, E.; Henry, M.O.; Kumar, K.; Hughes, G.

    2010-01-01

    We report a three-step deposition process for uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods, involving chemical bath deposition of aligned seed layers followed by nanorod nucleation sites and subsequent vapour phase transport growth of nanorods. This combines chemical bath deposition techniques, which enable substrate independent seeding and nucleation site generation with vapour phase transport growth of high crystalline and optical quality ZnO nanorod arrays. Our data indicate that the three-step process produces uniform nanorod arrays with narrow and rather monodisperse rod diameters (∼ 70 nm) across substrates of centimetre dimensions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to study the growth mechanism and characterise the nanostructures.

  18. The lost steps of infancy: symbolization, analytic process and the growth of the self.

    Feldman, Brian

    2002-07-01

    In 'The Lost Steps' the Latin American novelist Alejo Carpentier describes the search by the protagonist for the origins of music among native peoples in the Amazon jungle. This metaphor can be utilized as a way of understanding the search for the pre-verbal origins of the self in analysis. The infant's experience of the tempo and rhythmicity of the mother/infant interaction and the bathing in words and sounds of the infant by the mother are at the core of the infant's development of the self. The infant observation method (Tavistock model) will be looked at as a way of developing empathy in the analyst to better understand infantile, pre-verbal states of mind. A case vignette from an adult analysis will be utilized to illustrate the theoretical concepts.

  19. Process analytical technology (PAT) tools for the cultivation step in biopharmaceutical production

    Streefland, M.; Martens, D.E.; Beuvery, E.C.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    The process analytical technology (PAT) initiative is now 10 years old. This has resulted in the development of many tools and software packages dedicated to PAT application on pharmaceutical processes. However, most applications are restricted to small molecule drugs, mainly for the relatively

  20. Enhanced pharmaceutical removal from water in a three step bio-ozone-bio process

    Wilt, de Arnoud; Gijn, van Koen; Verhoek, Tom; Vergnes, Amber; Hoek, Mirit; Rijnaarts, Huub; Langenhoff, Alette

    2018-01-01

    Individual treatment processes like biological treatment or ozonation have their limitations for the removal of pharmaceuticals from secondary clarified effluents with high organic matter concentrations (i.e. 17 mg TOC/L). These limitations can be overcome by combining these two processes for a

  1. Modelling of Sub-daily Hydrological Processes Using Daily Time-Step Models: A Distribution Function Approach to Temporal Scaling

    Kandel, D. D.; Western, A. W.; Grayson, R. B.

    2004-12-01

    Mismatches in scale between the fundamental processes, the model and supporting data are a major limitation in hydrologic modelling. Surface runoff generation via infiltration excess and the process of soil erosion are fundamentally short time-scale phenomena and their average behaviour is mostly determined by the short time-scale peak intensities of rainfall. Ideally, these processes should be simulated using time-steps of the order of minutes to appropriately resolve the effect of rainfall intensity variations. However, sub-daily data support is often inadequate and the processes are usually simulated by calibrating daily (or even coarser) time-step models. Generally process descriptions are not modified but rather effective parameter values are used to account for the effect of temporal lumping, assuming that the effect of the scale mismatch can be counterbalanced by tuning the parameter values at the model time-step of interest. Often this results in parameter values that are difficult to interpret physically. A similar approach is often taken spatially. This is problematic as these processes generally operate or interact non-linearly. This indicates a need for better techniques to simulate sub-daily processes using daily time-step models while still using widely available daily information. A new method applicable to many rainfall-runoff-erosion models is presented. The method is based on temporal scaling using statistical distributions of rainfall intensity to represent sub-daily intensity variations in a daily time-step model. This allows the effect of short time-scale nonlinear processes to be captured while modelling at a daily time-step, which is often attractive due to the wide availability of daily forcing data. The approach relies on characterising the rainfall intensity variation within a day using a cumulative distribution function (cdf). This cdf is then modified by various linear and nonlinear processes typically represented in hydrological and

  2. Novel scaling of the multiplicity distributions in the sequential fragmentation process and in the percolation

    Botet, R.

    1996-01-01

    A novel scaling of the multiplicity distributions is found in the shattering phase of the sequential fragmentation process with inhibition. The same scaling law is shown to hold in the percolation process. (author)

  3. Associated multiplicity of γ-particles in processes of lepton pair production on nuclei

    Gevorkyan, S.R.; Gulkanyan, H.R.; Vartanyan, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    An expression has been obtained for mean multiplicity of g-particles accompanying the process of deep-inelastic lepton pair production on nuclei. The expression allows one to get information on structure peculiarities of leading hadron in this process

  4. Expression of RNA virus proteins by RNA polymerase II dependent expression plasmids is hindered at multiple steps

    Überla Klaus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins of human and animal viruses are frequently expressed from RNA polymerase II dependent expression cassettes to study protein function and to develop gene-based vaccines. Initial attempts to express the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV and the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV by eukaryotic promoters revealed restrictions at several steps of gene expression. Results Insertion of an intron flanked by exonic sequences 5'-terminal to the open reading frames (ORF of VSV-G and RSV-F led to detectable cytoplasmic mRNA levels of both genes. While the exonic sequences were sufficient to stabilise the VSV-G mRNA, cytoplasmic mRNA levels of RSV-F were dependent on the presence of a functional intron. Cytoplasmic VSV-G mRNA levels led to readily detectable levels of VSV-G protein, whereas RSV-F protein expression remained undetectable. However, RSV-F expression was observed after mutating two of four consensus sites for polyadenylation present in the RSV-F ORF. Expression levels could be further enhanced by codon optimisation. Conclusion Insufficient cytoplasmic mRNA levels and premature polyadenylation prevent expression of RSV-F by RNA polymerase II dependent expression plasmids. Since RSV replicates in the cytoplasm, the presence of premature polyadenylation sites and elements leading to nuclear instability should not interfere with RSV-F expression during virus replication. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the destabilisation of the RSV-F and VSV-G mRNAs and the different requirements for their rescue by insertion of an intron remain to be defined.

  5. Development of the thermal denitration in-storage-can step in the CEUSP process

    Vedder, R.J.; Collins, E.D.; Haas, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    A thermal denitration in-the-storage-can process has been developed for use in the Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Program Facility. This process is being used to convert approx.1000 kg of highly fissile and radioactive uranium to a solid form for safe long-term storage. The material being solidified also contains approx.300 kg of cadmium and approx.40 kg of gadolinium which had been combined with the uranium to provide criticality safety. The unique thermal denitration process was found to be extremely susceptible to entrainment of solids by splattering, foaming, or expulsion actions. The process connection nozzle, through which the feed solution and purging air are supplied and the emerging off-gases are discharged, and the off-gas handling system were modified extensively to permit operation without development of nozzle or line pluggage due to accumulation of solid deposits. A process study was made to determine the effects of feed components and process variables on the tendency of the reacting mixture to splatter, foam, or be expelled. Because of the equipment modifications and the selection of appropriate processing conditions, the feed material is being denitrated without significant problems

  6. Friction modeling on multiple scales for Deep drawing processes

    Karupannasamy, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A deep drawing process is one of the widely used manufacturing techniques in the automotive industry because of its capability to produce complex shapes with sheet material, often performed using lubricants to ease the forming. Finite Element Methods (FEM) are popularly used at the design stage to

  7. Fostering Autonomy through Syllabus Design: A Step-by-Step Guide for Success

    Ramírez Espinosa, Alexánder

    2016-01-01

    Promoting learner autonomy is relevant in the field of applied linguistics due to the multiple benefits it brings to the process of learning a new language. However, despite the vast array of research on how to foster autonomy in the language classroom, it is difficult to find step-by-step processes to design syllabi and curricula focused on the…

  8. Developing novel one-step processes for obtaining food-grade O/W emulsions from pressurized fluid extracts: processes description, state of the art and perspectives

    SANTOS, Diego Tresinari; MEIRELES, Maria Angela de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this work, a novel on-line process for production of food-grade emulsions containing oily extracts, i.e. oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, in only one step is presented. This process has been called ESFE, Emulsions from Supercritical Fluid Extraction. With this process, emulsions containing supercritical fluid extracts can be obtained directly from plant materials. The aim in the conception of this process is to propose a new rapid way to obtain emulsions from supercritical fluid extr...

  9. Demystifying process mapping: a key step in neurosurgical quality improvement initiatives.

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Rodstein, Jennifer; Burke, Michael A; Martin, Neil A

    2014-08-01

    Reliable delivery of optimal care can be challenging for care providers. Health care leaders have integrated various business tools to assist them and their teams in ensuring consistent delivery of safe and top-quality care. The cornerstone to all quality improvement strategies is the detailed understanding of the current state of a process, captured by process mapping. Process mapping empowers caregivers to audit how they are currently delivering care to subsequently strategically plan improvement initiatives. As a community, neurosurgery has clearly shown dedication to enhancing patient safety and delivering quality care. A care redesign strategy named NERVS (Neurosurgery Enhanced Recovery after surgery, Value, and Safety) is currently being developed and piloted within our department. Through this initiative, a multidisciplinary team led by a clinician neurosurgeon has process mapped the way care is currently being delivered throughout the entire episode of care. Neurosurgeons are becoming leaders in quality programs, and their education on the quality improvement strategies and tools is essential. The authors present a comprehensive review of process mapping, demystifying its planning, its building, and its analysis. The particularities of using process maps, initially a business tool, in the health care arena are discussed, and their specific use in an academic neurosurgical department is presented.

  10. Migration of additive molecules in a polymer filament obtained by melt spinning: Influence of the fiber processing steps

    Gesta, E.; Skovmand, O.; Espuche, E.; Fulchiron, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of the yarn processing on the migration of additives molecules, especially insecticide, within polyethylene (PE) yarns. Yarns were manufactured in the laboratory focusing on three key-steps (spinning, post-stretching and heat-setting). Influence of each step on yarn properties was investigated using tensile tests, differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The post-stretching step was proved to be critical in defining yarn mechanical and structural properties. Although a first orientation of polyethylene crystals was induced during spinning, the optimal orientation was only reached by post-stretching. The results also showed that the heat-setting did not significantly change these properties. The presence of additives crystals at the yarn surface was evidenced by scanning-electron microscopy. These studies performed at each yarn production step allowed a detailed analysis of the additives' ability to migrate. It is concluded that while post-stretching decreased the migration rate, heat-setting seems to boost this migration.

  11. Migration of additive molecules in a polymer filament obtained by melt spinning: Influence of the fiber processing steps

    Gesta, E. [Ingénierie des Matériaux Polymères - UMR CNRS 5223, Université de Lyon - Université Lyon 1, Bâtiment POLYTECH Lyon - 15 boulevard Latarjet, 69622, Villeurbanne (France); Intelligent Insect Control, 118 Chemin des Alouettes, Castelnau-le-Lez, 34170 (France); Skovmand, O., E-mail: osk@insectcontrol.net [Intelligent Insect Control, 118 Chemin des Alouettes, Castelnau-le-Lez, 34170 (France); Espuche, E., E-mail: eliane.espuche@univ-lyon1.fr; Fulchiron, R., E-mail: rene.fulchiron@univ-lyon1.fr [Ingénierie des Matériaux Polymères - UMR CNRS 5223, Université de Lyon - Université Lyon 1, Bâtiment POLYTECH Lyon - 15 boulevard Latarjet, 69622, Villeurbanne (France)

    2015-12-17

    The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of the yarn processing on the migration of additives molecules, especially insecticide, within polyethylene (PE) yarns. Yarns were manufactured in the laboratory focusing on three key-steps (spinning, post-stretching and heat-setting). Influence of each step on yarn properties was investigated using tensile tests, differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The post-stretching step was proved to be critical in defining yarn mechanical and structural properties. Although a first orientation of polyethylene crystals was induced during spinning, the optimal orientation was only reached by post-stretching. The results also showed that the heat-setting did not significantly change these properties. The presence of additives crystals at the yarn surface was evidenced by scanning-electron microscopy. These studies performed at each yarn production step allowed a detailed analysis of the additives’ ability to migrate. It is concluded that while post-stretching decreased the migration rate, heat-setting seems to boost this migration.

  12. Migration of additive molecules in a polymer filament obtained by melt spinning: Influence of the fiber processing steps

    Gesta, E.; Skovmand, O.; Espuche, E.; Fulchiron, R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of the yarn processing on the migration of additives molecules, especially insecticide, within polyethylene (PE) yarns. Yarns were manufactured in the laboratory focusing on three key-steps (spinning, post-stretching and heat-setting). Influence of each step on yarn properties was investigated using tensile tests, differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The post-stretching step was proved to be critical in defining yarn mechanical and structural properties. Although a first orientation of polyethylene crystals was induced during spinning, the optimal orientation was only reached by post-stretching. The results also showed that the heat-setting did not significantly change these properties. The presence of additives crystals at the yarn surface was evidenced by scanning-electron microscopy. These studies performed at each yarn production step allowed a detailed analysis of the additives’ ability to migrate. It is concluded that while post-stretching decreased the migration rate, heat-setting seems to boost this migration

  13. A two-step acid-catalyzed process for the production of biodiesel from rice bran oil

    Zullaikah, S.; Lai, Chao Chin; Vali, S.R.; Ju, Yi Hsu [National Taiwan Univ. of Science and Technology, Taipei (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-11-15

    A study was undertaken to examine the effect of temperature, moisture and storage time on the accumulation of free fatty acid in the rice bran. Rice bran stored at room temperature showed that most triacylglyceride was hydrolyzed and free fatty acid (FFA) content was raised up to 76% in six months. A two-step acid-catalyzed methanolysis process was employed for the efficient conversion of rice bran oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The first step was carried out at 60 {sup o}C. Depending on the initial FFA content of oil, 55-90% FAME content in the reaction product was obtained. More than 98% FFA and less than 35% of TG were reacted in 2 h. The organic phase of the first step reaction product was used as the substrate for a second acid-catalyzed methanolysis at 100 {sup o}C. By this two-step methanolysis reaction, more than 98% FAME in the product can be obtained in less than 8 h. Distillation of reaction product gave 99.8% FAME (biodiesel) with recovery of more than 96%. The residue contains enriched nutraceuticals such as {gamma}-oryzanol (16-18%), mixture of phytosterol, tocol and steryl ester (19-21%). (author)

  14. Developing novel one-step processes for obtaining food-grade O/W emulsions from pressurized fluid extracts: processes description, state of the art and perspectives

    Diego Tresinari SANTOS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this work, a novel on-line process for production of food-grade emulsions containing oily extracts, i.e. oil-in-water (O/W emulsions, in only one step is presented. This process has been called ESFE, Emulsions from Supercritical Fluid Extraction. With this process, emulsions containing supercritical fluid extracts can be obtained directly from plant materials. The aim in the conception of this process is to propose a new rapid way to obtain emulsions from supercritical fluid extracts. Nowadays the conventional emulsion formulation method is a two-step procedure, i.e. first supercritical fluid extraction for obtaining an extract; secondly emulsion formulation using another device. Other variation of the process was tested and successfully validated originating a new acronymed process: EPFE (Emulsions from Pressurized Fluid Extractions. Both processes exploit the supercritical CO2-essential oils miscibility, in addition, EPFE process exploits the emulsification properties of saponin-rich pressurized aqueous plant extracts. The feasibility of this latter process was demonstrated using Pfaffia glomerata roots as source of saponin-rich extract, water as extracting solvent and clove essential oil, directly extracted using supercritical CO2, as a model dispersed phase. In addition, examples of pressurized fluid-based coupled processes applied for adding value to food bioactive compounds developed in the past five years are reviewed.

  15. All solution roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cells free from indium-tin-oxide and vacuum coating steps

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    of a bottom electrode comprising silver nanoparticles on a 130 micron thick polyethyleneternaphthalate (PEN) substrate. Subsequently an electron transporting layer of zinc oxide nanoparticles was applied from solution followed by an active layer of P3HT-PCBM and a hole transporting layer of PEDOT......, 3 and 8 stripes. All five layers in the device were processed from solution in air and no vacuum steps were employed. An additional advantage is that the use of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) is avoided in this process. The devices were tested under simulated sunlight (1000 W m−2, AM1.5G) and gave a typical...

  16. MRI study of degenerative process in multiple system atrophy

    Yagishita, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Hirayama, Keizo

    1995-01-01

    The characteristic morphological changes of the brainstem and cerebellar regions of multiple system atrophy (MSA) were studied by MRI in varing subtypes, that is olivoponto cerebellar atrophy (OPCA: 23 cases), striatonigral degeneration (SND: 7 cases) and Shy-Drager's syndrome (SDS: 9 cases). OPCA was characterized by atrophy of the entire regions of the brainstem and the cerebellum. SND and SDS tended to show atrophy similar in type but lessin extent to OPCA. The common lesions in MSA were atrophy of the pontine base and cerebellum, and dilation of the fourth ventricle. Atrophy of the pontine base was more dominant in the inferior part than in the superior part, and cerebellar atrophy was more dominant in the superior part than in the inferior part, indicating that degeneration of the pontocerebellar pathway proceeds principally along fibers connecting the inferior part of the pons and the superior part of the cerebellum. Dilation of the fourth ventricle indicated atrophy of the middle cerebellar peduncle. In almost all the cases of OPCA and about a half the cases of SND and SDS, the pontine base and the middle cerebellar peduncle appeared as high signal intensity on T 2 weighted image and as low intensity on T 1 , suggesting degeneration and demyelination. In a few cases of OPCA, the dorsolateral part of the putamen were demonstrated as low signal intensity on T 2 weighted image. (author)

  17. MRI study of degenerative process in multiple system atrophy

    Yagishita, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Hirayama, Keizo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-02-01

    The characteristic morphological changes of the brainstem and cerebellar regions of multiple system atrophy (MSA) were studied by MRI in varing subtypes, that is olivoponto cerebellar atrophy (OPCA: 23 cases), striatonigral degeneration (SND: 7 cases) and Shy-Drager`s syndrome (SDS: 9 cases). OPCA was characterized by atrophy of the entire regions of the brainstem and the cerebellum. SND and SDS tended to show atrophy similar in type but lessin extent to OPCA. The common lesions in MSA were atrophy of the pontine base and cerebellum, and dilation of the fourth ventricle. Atrophy of the pontine base was more dominant in the inferior part than in the superior part, and cerebellar atrophy was more dominant in the superior part than in the inferior part, indicating that degeneration of the pontocerebellar pathway proceeds principally along fibers connecting the inferior part of the pons and the superior part of the cerebellum. Dilation of the fourth ventricle indicated atrophy of the middle cerebellar peduncle. In almost all the cases of OPCA and about a half the cases of SND and SDS, the pontine base and the middle cerebellar peduncle appeared as high signal intensity on T{sub 2} weighted image and as low intensity on T{sub 1}, suggesting degeneration and demyelination. In a few cases of OPCA, the dorsolateral part of the putamen were demonstrated as low signal intensity on T{sub 2} weighted image. (author).

  18. In situ biosynthesis of bacterial nanocellulose-CaCO3 hybrid bionanocomposite: One-step process.

    Mohammadkazemi, Faranak; Faria, Marisa; Cordeiro, Nereida

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a simple and green route to the synthesis of the bacterial nanocellulose-calcium carbonate (BNC/CaCO3) hybrid bionanocomposites using one-step in situ biosynthesis was studied. The CaCO3 was incorporated in the bacterial nanocellulose structure during the cellulose biosynthesis by Gluconacetobacter xylinus PTCC 1734 bacteria. Hestrin-Schramm (HS) and Zhou (Z) culture media were used to the hybrid bionanocomposites production and the effect of ethanol addition was investigated. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inverse gas chromatography and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the samples. The experimental results demonstrated that the ethanol and culture medium play an important role in the BNC/CaCO3 hybrid bionanocomposites production, structure and properties. The BNC/CaCO3 biosynthesized in Z culture medium revealed higher O/C ratio and amphoteric surface character, which justify the highest CaCO3 content incorporation. The CaCO3 was incorporated into the cellulosic matrix decreasing the bacterial nanocellulose crystallinity. This work reveals the high potential of in situ biosynthesis of BNC/CaCO3 hybrid bionanocomposites and opens a new way to the high value-added applications of bacterial nanocellulose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. One-step electrodeposition process to fabricate corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy.

    Liu, Qin; Chen, Dexin; Kang, Zhixin

    2015-01-28

    A simple, one-step method has been developed to construct a superhydrophobic surface by electrodepositing Mg-Mn-Ce magnesium plate in an ethanol solution containing cerium nitrate hexahydrate and myristic acid. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to characterize the surfaces. The shortest electrodeposition time to obtain a superhydrophobic surface was about 1 min, and the as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces had a maximum contact angle of 159.8° and a sliding angle of less than 2°. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the superhydrophobic surface greatly improved the corrosion properties of magnesium alloy in 3.5 wt % aqueous solutions of NaCl, Na2SO4, NaClO3, and NaNO3. Besides, the chemical stability and mechanical durability of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface were also examined. The presented method is rapid, low-cost, and environmentally friendly and thus should be of significant value for the industrial fabrication of anticorrosive superhydrophobic surfaces and should have a promising future in expanding the applications of magnesium alloys.

  20. Significant internal quantum efficiency enhancement of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells emitting at ~350 nm via step quantum well structure design

    Wu, Feng; Sun, Haiding; Ajia, Idris A.; Roqan, Iman S.; Zhang, Daliang; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Li, Xiaohang

    2017-01-01

    Significant internal quantum efficiency (IQE) enhancement of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) emitting at similar to 350 nm was achieved via a step quantum well (QW) structure design. The MQW structures were grown on AlGaN/AlN/sapphire templates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). High resolution x-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were performed, showing sharp interface of the MQWs. Weak beam dark field imaging was conducted, indicating a similar dislocation density of the investigated MQWs samples. The IQE of GaN/AlGaN MQWs was estimated by temperature dependent photoluminescence (TDPL). An IQE enhancement of about two times was observed for the GaN/AlGaN step QW structure, compared with conventional QW structure. Based on the theoretical calculation, this IQE enhancement was attributed to the suppressed polarization-induced field, and thus the improved electron-hole wave-function overlap in the step QW.

  1. Significant internal quantum efficiency enhancement of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells emitting at ~350 nm via step quantum well structure design

    Wu, Feng

    2017-05-03

    Significant internal quantum efficiency (IQE) enhancement of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) emitting at similar to 350 nm was achieved via a step quantum well (QW) structure design. The MQW structures were grown on AlGaN/AlN/sapphire templates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). High resolution x-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were performed, showing sharp interface of the MQWs. Weak beam dark field imaging was conducted, indicating a similar dislocation density of the investigated MQWs samples. The IQE of GaN/AlGaN MQWs was estimated by temperature dependent photoluminescence (TDPL). An IQE enhancement of about two times was observed for the GaN/AlGaN step QW structure, compared with conventional QW structure. Based on the theoretical calculation, this IQE enhancement was attributed to the suppressed polarization-induced field, and thus the improved electron-hole wave-function overlap in the step QW.

  2. Stepped MS(All) Relied Transition (SMART): An approach to rapidly determine optimal multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry parameters for small molecules.

    Ye, Hui; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Lin; Liu, Huiying; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-02-11

    Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is a universal approach for quantitative analysis because of its high specificity and sensitivity. Nevertheless, optimization of MRM parameters remains as a time and labor-intensive task particularly in multiplexed quantitative analysis of small molecules in complex mixtures. In this study, we have developed an approach named Stepped MS(All) Relied Transition (SMART) to predict the optimal MRM parameters of small molecules. SMART requires firstly a rapid and high-throughput analysis of samples using a Stepped MS(All) technique (sMS(All)) on a Q-TOF, which consists of serial MS(All) events acquired from low CE to gradually stepped-up CE values in a cycle. The optimal CE values can then be determined by comparing the extracted ion chromatograms for the ion pairs of interest among serial scans. The SMART-predicted parameters were found to agree well with the parameters optimized on a triple quadrupole from the same vendor using a mixture of standards. The parameters optimized on a triple quadrupole from a different vendor was also employed for comparison, and found to be linearly correlated with the SMART-predicted parameters, suggesting the potential applications of the SMART approach among different instrumental platforms. This approach was further validated by applying to simultaneous quantification of 31 herbal components in the plasma of rats treated with a herbal prescription. Because the sMS(All) acquisition can be accomplished in a single run for multiple components independent of standards, the SMART approach are expected to find its wide application in the multiplexed quantitative analysis of complex mixtures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Two step estimation for Neyman-Scott point process with inhomogeneous cluster centers

    Mrkvička, T.; Muška, Milan; Kubečka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2014), s. 91-100 ISSN 0960-3174 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/07/1392 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bayesian method * clustering * inhomogeneous point process Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.623, year: 2014

  4. Single step preparation of NdFeB alloy by magnesiothermic reduction-diffusion process

    Singha, Vinay Kant; Surendranathana, A.O.; John Berchmans, L.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesiothermic reduction is a new approach to produce the NdFeB alloy on a commercial scale. Similar studies were conducted for the preparation of LaNi 5 and SmCo 5 using magnesium as the reductant. In the present investigation NdFeB Hard magnetic bulk materials were synthesized by metallothermic 'Reduction – Diffusion (R-D) Process' using Magnesium as a reductant. For this process oxide precursors of Nd, Fe and B were blended with flux (LiCl/CaCl 2 ) and Mg chips were sandwiched in alternate layers. Thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) was carried out to find the dissociation and decomposition temperature of the reactants. The phase analysis, structure, and elemental composition were assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The infrared (IR) spectra were recorded by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The morphological features and particle size was assessed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The magnetic behaviour of the alloy was assessed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and vibratory sample magnetometer (VSM). From these studies it has been concluded that the NdFeB magnetic particles can be prepared using magnesium as the reductant. The process is faster and consumes very less amount of energy for the completion as compared to conventional calciothermic reduction process. Traces of MgO were detected in the alloy which increases the perpendicular anisotropy, thus increasing the coercivity of the material

  5. A Risk Management Process for Consumers: The Next Step in Information Security

    van Cleeff, A.

    2010-01-01

    Simply by using information technology, consumers expose themselves to considerable security risks. Because no technical or legal solutions are readily available, and awareness programs have limited impact, the only remedy is to develop a risk management process for consumers. Consumers need to

  6. Scapegoating: Another Step towards Understanding the Processes Generating Bullying in Groups?

    Dixon, Roz

    2007-01-01

    Within the group therapy literature scapegoating is understood as an unconscious process that plays an important function in preventing groups from being split asunder as a result of unexpressed frustration towards the leader. When a group successfully challenges its leader to share power, the need for a scapegoat passes. In the search for theory…

  7. ACSEPT a European project for a new step in the future demonstration of advanced fuel processing

    Bourg, S.; Hill, C.; Caravaca, C.; Espartero, A.; Rhodes, C.; Taylor, R.; Harrison, M.; EKBERG, C.; GEIST, A.; Modolo, G.; Cassayre, L.; Malmbeck, R.; De Angelis, G.; Bouvet, S.; Klaassen, F.

    2010-01-01

    For more than fifteen years, a European scientific community has joined its effort to develop and optimise processes for the partitioning of actinides from fission products. In an international context of 'nuclear renaissance', the upcoming of a new generation of nuclear reactor (Gen IV) will require the development of associated advanced closed fuel cycles which answer the needs of a sustainable nuclear energy: the minimization of the production of long lived radioactive waste but also the optimization of the use of natural resources with an increased resistance to proliferation. Actually, Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T), associated to a multi-recycling of all transuranics (TRUs), should play a key role in the development of this sustainable nuclear energy. By joining together 34 Partners coming from European universities, nuclear research bodies and major industrial players in a multidisciplinary consortium, the FP7 EURATOM-Fission Collaborative Project ACSEPT (Actinide recycling by Separation and Transmutation), started in 2008 for four year duration, provides the sound basis and fundamental improvements for future demonstrations of fuel treatment in strong connection with fuel fabrication techniques. Consistently with potentially viable recycling strategies, ACSEPT therefore provides a structured R and D framework to develop chemical separation processes compatible with fuel fabrication techniques, with a view to their future demonstration at the pilot level. ACSEPT is organized into three technical domains: (i) Considering technically mature aqueous separation processes, ACSEPT works to optimize and select the most promising ones dedicated either to actinide partitioning or to group actinide separation. (ii) Concerning high temperature pyrochemical separation processes, ACSEPT focuses on the enhancement of the two reference cores of process selected within previous projects. R and D efforts are now devoted to key scientific and technical points

  8. Multiple Monte Carlo Testing with Applications in Spatial Point Processes

    Mrkvička, Tomáš; Myllymäki, Mari; Hahn, Ute

    with a function as the test statistic, 3) several Monte Carlo tests with functions as test statistics. The rank test has correct (global) type I error in each case and it is accompanied with a p-value and with a graphical interpretation which shows which subtest or which distances of the used test function......(s) lead to the rejection at the prescribed significance level of the test. Examples of null hypothesis from point process and random set statistics are used to demonstrate the strength of the rank envelope test. The examples include goodness-of-fit test with several test functions, goodness-of-fit test...

  9. Graphical analysis of processes with multiple activation energies

    Lachter, J.; Bragg, R.H.; Close, E.

    1986-01-01

    The activation energies characterizing a kinetic process are derived from the slopes of the Arrhenius diagrams obtained by plotting rate constants versus reciprocal temperature. Those rate constants correspond to the shifts along the time axis needed to superpose the successive isotherms. A general method based on Chebyshev interpolation is proposed for the optimization of the superposition of the experimental data points. This method is applied to determine the activation energies of the graphitization kinetics of the interlayer spacings of pitch coke and pyrocarbon samples

  10. Process mapping evaluation of medication reconciliation in academic teaching hospitals: a critical step in quality improvement.

    Holbrook, Anne; Bowen, James M; Patel, Harsit; O'Brien, Chris; You, John J; Tahavori, Roshan; Doleweerd, Jeff; Berezny, Tim; Perri, Dan; Nieuwstraten, Carmine; Troyan, Sue; Patel, Ameen

    2016-12-30

    Medication reconciliation (MedRec) has been a mandated or recommended activity in Canada, the USA and the UK for nearly 10 years. Accreditation bodies in North America will soon require MedRec for every admission, transfer and discharge of every patient. Studies of MedRec have revealed unintentional discrepancies in prescriptions but no clear evidence that clinically important outcomes are improved, leading to widely variable practices. Our objective was to apply process mapping methodology to MedRec to clarify current processes and resource usage, identify potential efficiencies and gaps in care, and make recommendations for improvement in the light of current literature evidence of effectiveness. Process engineers observed and recorded all MedRec activities at 3 academic teaching hospitals, from initial emergency department triage to patient discharge, for general internal medicine patients. Process maps were validated with frontline staff, then with the study team, managers and patient safety leads to summarise current problems and discuss solutions. Across all of the 3 hospitals, 5 general problem themes were identified: lack of use of all available medication sources, duplication of effort creating inefficiency, lack of timeliness of completion of the Best Possible Medication History, lack of standardisation of the MedRec process, and suboptimal communication of MedRec issues between physicians, pharmacists and nurses. MedRec as practised in this environment requires improvements in quality, timeliness, consistency and dissemination. Further research exploring efficient use of resources, in terms of personnel and costs, is required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Bioconversion of starch to ethanol in a single-step process by coculture of amylolytic yeasts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 21

    Verma, G.; Singh, D.; Chaudhary, K. [CCS Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hisar (India). Dept. of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology; Nigam, P. [Ulster Univ., Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences

    2000-05-01

    Ethanol production by a coculture of Saccharomyces diastaticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 21 was 24.8 g/l using raw unhydrolysed starch in a single-step fermentation. This was 48% higher than the yield obtained with the monoculture of S. diastaticus (16.8 g/l). The maximum ethanol fermentation efficiency was achieved (93% of the theoretical value) using 60 g/l starch concentration. In another coculture fermentation with E. capsularis and S. cerevisiae 21, maximum ethanol yield was 16.0 g/l, higher than the yield with the monoculture of Endomycopsis capsularis. In batch fermentations using cocultures maximum ethanol production occurred in 48 h of fermentation at 30{sup o}C using 60 g/l starch. Fermentation efficiency was found lower in a two-step process using {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase-treated starch. (Author)

  12. Study the effect of striping in two-step anodizing process on pore arrangement of nano-porous alumina

    Rahimi, M.H.; Saramad, S.; Tabaian, S.H.; Marashi, S.P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mohammadalinezhad, M.

    2009-01-01

    Two-step anodic oxidation of aluminum is generally employed to produce the ordered porous anodized alumina (PAA). Dissolving away (striping) the oxide film after the first anodizing step plays a key role in the final arrangement of nano-pores. In this work, different striping durations between 1 and 6 h were applied to the sample that was initially anodized at a constant voltage of 40 V at 17 deg. C for 15 h. The striping duration of 3 h was realized as the optimum time for achieving the best ordering degree for the pores. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used during and at the end of the process to examine the cross section and finishing surface of the specimens. Linear-angular fast Fourier transform (LA-FFT), an in-house technique based on MATLAB software, was employed to assess the ordering degree of the anodized samples.

  13. Study the effect of striping in two-step anodizing process on pore arrangement of nano-porous alumina

    Rahimi, M.H. [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saramad, S., E-mail: ssaramad@aut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabaian, S.H.; Marashi, S.P. [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zolfaghari, A. [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Research Centre of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadalinezhad, M. [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Two-step anodic oxidation of aluminum is generally employed to produce the ordered porous anodized alumina (PAA). Dissolving away (striping) the oxide film after the first anodizing step plays a key role in the final arrangement of nano-pores. In this work, different striping durations between 1 and 6 h were applied to the sample that was initially anodized at a constant voltage of 40 V at 17 deg. C for 15 h. The striping duration of 3 h was realized as the optimum time for achieving the best ordering degree for the pores. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used during and at the end of the process to examine the cross section and finishing surface of the specimens. Linear-angular fast Fourier transform (LA-FFT), an in-house technique based on MATLAB software, was employed to assess the ordering degree of the anodized samples.

  14. Study the effect of striping in two-step anodizing process on pore arrangement of nano-porous alumina

    Rahimi, M. H.; Saramad, S.; Tabaian, S. H.; Marashi, S. P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mohammadalinezhad, M.

    2009-10-01

    Two-step anodic oxidation of aluminum is generally employed to produce the ordered porous anodized alumina (PAA). Dissolving away (striping) the oxide film after the first anodizing step plays a key role in the final arrangement of nano-pores. In this work, different striping durations between 1 and 6 h were applied to the sample that was initially anodized at a constant voltage of 40 V at 17 °C for 15 h. The striping duration of 3 h was realized as the optimum time for achieving the best ordering degree for the pores. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used during and at the end of the process to examine the cross section and finishing surface of the specimens. Linear-angular fast Fourier transform (LA-FFT), an in-house technique based on MATLAB software, was employed to assess the ordering degree of the anodized samples.

  15. A positive and multi-element conserving time stepping scheme for biogeochemical processes in marine ecosystem models

    Radtke, H.; Burchard, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an unconditionally positive and multi-element conserving time stepping scheme for systems of non-linearly coupled ODE's is presented. These systems of ODE's are used to describe biogeochemical transformation processes in marine ecosystem models. The numerical scheme is a positive-definite modification of the Runge-Kutta method, it can have arbitrarily high order of accuracy and does not require time step adaption. If the scheme is combined with a modified Patankar-Runge-Kutta method from Burchard et al. (2003), it also gets the ability to solve a certain class of stiff numerical problems, but the accuracy is restricted to second-order then. The performance of the new scheme on two test case problems is shown.

  16. ACSEPT, a new step in the future demonstration of advanced fuel processing

    Bourg, Stephane; Hill, Clement; Caravaca, Concha; Ekberg, Christian; Rhodes, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Actinide recycling by separation and transmutation is considered world wide and particularly in several European countries as one of the most promising strategies to reduce the inventory of radioactive waste, thus contributing to making nuclear energy sustainable. By joining together European universities, nuclear research bodies and major industrial players in a multi-disciplinary consortium, the FP7 EURATOM Fission Project ACSEPT provides the sound basis and fundamental improvements for future demonstrations of fuel treatment in strong connection with fuel fabrication techniques. In accordance with the Strategic Research Agenda of the Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNE-TP), the timelines of this four-year R and D project (2008-2012) should allow the offering of technical solutions in terms of separation process that may be reviewed by governments, European utilities as well as technology providers at that time horizon. By showing a technically feasible recycling of actinides strategy, ACSEPT will certainly produce positive arguments in the sense that European decision makers, and more globally public opinion, could be convinced that technical solutions for a better management of nuclear wastes are now technologically feasible. ACSEPT is thus an essential contribution to the demonstration, in the long term, of the potential benefits of actinide recycling to minimise the burden on geological repositories. To succeed, ACSEPT is organised in three technical domains: i) Considering technically mature aqueous separation processes, ACSEPT will optimise and select the most promising ones dedicated either to actinide partitioning or to group actinide separation. These developments are appropriately balanced with an exploratory research focused on the design of new molecules. ii) Concerning pyrochemical separation processes, ACSEPT first focuses on the enhancement of the two reference cores of process selected within EUROPART. R and D efforts shall also be

  17. From Nanoparticles to Process An Aberration Corrected TEM Study of Fischer Tropsch Catalysts at Various Steps of the Process

    Braidy, N.; Blanchard, J.; Abatzoglou, N.; Andrei, C.

    2011-01-01

    χThe nanostructure of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Fe carbides are investigated using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The plasma-generated Fe carbides are analyzed just after synthesis, following reduction via a H2 treatment step and once used as FT catalyst and deactivated. The as-produced nanoparticles (NPs) are seen to be abundantly covered with graphitic and amorphous carbon. Using the extended information limit from the spherical aberration-corrected TEM, the NPs could be indexed as a mixture of NPs in the θ-Fe 3 C and χ-Fe 5 C 2 phases. The reduction treatment exposed the NPs by removing most of the carbonaceous speSubscript textcies while retaining the χ-Fe 5 C 2 . Fe-carbides NPs submitted to conditions typical to FT synthesis develop a Fe3O4 shell which eventually consumes the NPs up to a point where 3-4 nm residual carbide is left at the center of the particle. Subscript textVarious mechanisms explaining the formation of such a microstructure are discussed. (author)

  18. Multidisciplinary Simulation Acceleration using Multiple Shared-Memory Graphical Processing Units

    Kemal, Jonathan Yashar

    For purposes of optimizing and analyzing turbomachinery and other designs, the unsteady Favre-averaged flow-field differential equations for an ideal compressible gas can be solved in conjunction with the heat conduction equation. We solve all equations using the finite-volume multiple-grid numerical technique, with the dual time-step scheme used for unsteady simulations. Our numerical solver code targets CUDA-capable Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) produced by NVIDIA. Making use of MPI, our solver can run across networked compute notes, where each MPI process can use either a GPU or a Central Processing Unit (CPU) core for primary solver calculations. We use NVIDIA Tesla C2050/C2070 GPUs based on the Fermi architecture, and compare our resulting performance against Intel Zeon X5690 CPUs. Solver routines converted to CUDA typically run about 10 times faster on a GPU for sufficiently dense computational grids. We used a conjugate cylinder computational grid and ran a turbulent steady flow simulation using 4 increasingly dense computational grids. Our densest computational grid is divided into 13 blocks each containing 1033x1033 grid points, for a total of 13.87 million grid points or 1.07 million grid points per domain block. To obtain overall speedups, we compare the execution time of the solver's iteration loop, including all resource intensive GPU-related memory copies. Comparing the performance of 8 GPUs to that of 8 CPUs, we obtain an overall speedup of about 6.0 when using our densest computational grid. This amounts to an 8-GPU simulation running about 39.5 times faster than running than a single-CPU simulation.

  19. Two-step sulfonation process for the conversion of polymer fibers to carbon fibers

    Barton, Bryan E.; Patton, Jasson T.; Hukkanen, Eric J.; Bernius, Mark T.

    2017-11-14

    Disclosed herein are processes for preparing carbon fibers, comprising: sulfonating a polymer fiber with a sulfonating agent that is fuming sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, or a combination thereof; treating the sulfonated polymer with a heated solvent, wherein the temperature of the heated solvent is at least 95.degree. C.; and carbonizing the resulting product by heating it to a temperature of 501-3000.degree. C. Carbon fibers prepared according to these methods are also disclosed herein.

  20. Process and structures for fabrication of solar cells with laser ablation steps to form contact holes

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D; Dennis, Tim; Waldhauer, Ann; Kim, Taeseok; Cousins, Peter John

    2013-11-19

    Contact holes of solar cells are formed by laser ablation to accomodate various solar cell designs. Use of a laser to form the contact holes is facilitated by replacing films formed on the diffusion regions with a film that has substantially uniform thickness. Contact holes may be formed to deep diffusion regions to increase the laser ablation process margins. The laser configuration may be tailored to form contact holes through dielectric films of varying thickness.

  1. Biohythane system using two steps of POME fermentation process for supplying electrical energi : economic evaluation

    Zuldian, P.; Hastuti, Z. D.; Murti, S. D. S.; Adiarso

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia as the largest producer of palm oil in the world has the prospective to generate additional benefits such as electricity by utilizing Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). The high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) content of 35,000 ppm POME is a great potential for conversion to hydrogen and methane through a fermentation process. In this study, two stages of fermentation using a microbial consortium have been performed in the 1 m3 BioHythane reactor system to produce biohydrogen and biomethane. After two-stage fermentation process for 24 hours in this system, the microbial consortium succeeds in producing biohydrogen and biomethane of 32 and 60 vol. %, respectively. This gas product after the purification process could be converted to electricity to be 0.02 and 0.75 kWe, respectively. Furthermore, as result of economic calculation analysis, this biohythane system showed up the value of Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) of US 26,39540 and Operating Expenses (OPEX) of US 14,712 per year, and resulted total generated electricity cost of US 2.478 / kWh.

  2. Effects of the multi-step activation process on the carrier concentration of p-type GaN

    Kim, Jae-Kwan [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Sunchon National University, Sunchon, Chonnam 540-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Seong-Ran [LED Research and Business Division, Korea Photonics Technology Institute, Gwanju 500-779 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji-Myon, E-mail: jimlee@sunchon.ac.kr [Department of Printed Electronics Engineering, Sunchon National University, Sunchon, Chonnam 540-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-25

    Highlights: • Hole concentration of p-GaN was enhanced by multi-step activation process. • The O{sub 2} plasma treatment is attributed to the enhanced hole concentration of p-GaN. • PL peak intensity was also enhanced by MS activation process. - Abstract: A multi-step activation method, which include an oxygen plasma treatment, chemical treatment, and post annealing in N{sub 2} was proposed to enhance the hole concentration of a p-type GaN epitaxial layer. This process was found to effectively activate p-GaN by increasing the hole concentration compared to that of the conventionally annealed sample. After the optimal oxygen plasma treatment (10 min at a source and table power of 500 W and 100 W, respectively), followed by a HCl and buffered oxide etchant treatment, and then by a post-RTA process in a N{sub 2} environment, the hole concentration was increased from 4.0 × 10{sup 17} to 2.0 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}. The oxygen plasma was found to effectively remove the remaining H atoms and subsequent wet treatment can effectively remove the GaO{sub x} that had formed during O plasma treatment, resulting in the higher intensity of photoluminescence.

  3. Conservative two-step procedure including uterine artery embolization with embosphere and surgical myomectomy for the treatment of multiple fibroids: Preliminary experience

    Malartic, Cécile; Morel, Olivier; Fargeaudou, Yann; Le Dref, Olivier; Fazel, Afchine; Barranger, Emmanuel; Soyer, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of combined uterine artery embolization (UAE) using embosphere and surgical myomectomy as an alternative to radical hysterectomy in premenopausal women with multiple fibroids. Materials and methods: Mid-term clinical outcome (mean, 25 months) of 12 premenopausal women (mean age, 38 years) with multiple and large symptomatic fibroids who desired to retain their uterus and who were treated using combined UAE and surgical myomectomy were retrospectively analyzed. In all women, UAE alone was contraindicated because of large (>10 cm) or subserosal or submucosal fibroids and myomectomy alone was contraindicated because of too many (>10) fibroids. Results: UAE and surgical myomectomy were successfully performed in all women. Myomectomy was performed using laparoscopy (n = 6), open laparotomy (n = 3), hysteroscopy (n = 2), or laparoscopy and hysteroscopy (n = 1). Mean serum hemoglobin level drop was 0.97 g/dL and no blood transfusion was needed. No immediate complications were observed and all women reported resumption of normal menses. During a mean follow-up period of 25 months (range, 14–37 months), complete resolution of initial symptoms along with decrease in uterine volume (mean, 48%) was observed in all women. No further hysterectomy was required in any woman. Conclusion: In premenopausal women with multiple fibroids, the two-step procedure is safe and effective alternative to radical hysterectomy, which allows preserving the uterus. Further prospective studies, however, should be done to determine the actual benefit of this combined approach on the incidence of subsequent pregnancies.

  4. TiSi2 integrity within a doped silicide process step

    Crean, G.M.; Cole, P.D.; Stoemenos, J.

    1993-01-01

    Degradation of arsenic implanted titanium silicide (TiSi 2 ) thin films as a result of thermal processing for shallow junction formation is investigated. Significant arsenic diffusion from the silicide overlayer into the silicon substrate has been detected by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry at drive-in temperatures > 1,050 C. Cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs have shown the silicide film become increasingly non-uniform as the thermal budget increases, ultimately leading to discontinuities forming in the silicide film. This observed degradation of the titanium silicide film is also supported by sheet resistance measurements which show the film to degrade significantly above a threshold thermal budget

  5. Duration of the first steps of the human rRNA processing

    Popov, A.; Smirnov, E.; Kováčik, L.; Raška, O.; Hagen, G.; Stixová, Lenka; Raška, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2013), s. 134-141 ISSN 1949-1034 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G157; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0030 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/12/1885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : rRNA processing * cleavage * half-life time Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.148, year: 2013

  6. Multiplicative Process in Turbulent Velocity Statistics: A Simplified Analysis

    Chillà, F.; Peinke, J.; Castaing, B.

    1996-04-01

    A lot of models in turbulence links the energy cascade process and intermittency, the characteristic of which being the shape evolution of the probability density functions (pdf) for longitudinal velocity increments. Using recent models and experimental results, we show that the flatness factor of these pdf gives a simple and direct estimate for what is called the deepness of the cascade. We analyse in this way the published data of a Direct Numerical Simulation and show that the deepness of the cascade presents the same Reynolds number dependence as in laboratory experiments. Plusieurs modèles de turbulence relient la cascade d'énergie et l'intermittence, caractérisée par l'évolution des densités de probabilité (pdf) des incréments longitudinaux de vitesse. Nous appuyant aussi bien sur des modèles récents que sur des résultats expérimentaux, nous montrons que la Curtosis de ces pdf permet une estimation simple et directe de la profondeur de la cascade. Cela nous permet de réanalyser les résultats publiés d'une simulation numérique et de montrer que la profondeur de la cascade y évolue de la même façon que pour les expériences de laboratoire en fonction du nombre de Reynolds.

  7. Multiple-scale stochastic processes: Decimation, averaging and beyond

    Bo, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.bo@nordita.org [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Celani, Antonio [Quantitative Life Sciences, The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Strada Costiera 11, I-34151 - Trieste (Italy)

    2017-02-07

    The recent experimental progresses in handling microscopic systems have allowed to probe them at levels where fluctuations are prominent, calling for stochastic modeling in a large number of physical, chemical and biological phenomena. This has provided fruitful applications for established stochastic methods and motivated further developments. These systems often involve processes taking place on widely separated time scales. For an efficient modeling one usually focuses on the slower degrees of freedom and it is of great importance to accurately eliminate the fast variables in a controlled fashion, carefully accounting for their net effect on the slower dynamics. This procedure in general requires to perform two different operations: decimation and coarse-graining. We introduce the asymptotic methods that form the basis of this procedure and discuss their application to a series of physical, biological and chemical examples. We then turn our attention to functionals of the stochastic trajectories such as residence times, counting statistics, fluxes, entropy production, etc. which have been increasingly studied in recent years. For such functionals, the elimination of the fast degrees of freedom can present additional difficulties and naive procedures can lead to blatantly inconsistent results. Homogenization techniques for functionals are less covered in the literature and we will pedagogically present them here, as natural extensions of the ones employed for the trajectories. We will also discuss recent applications of these techniques to the thermodynamics of small systems and their interpretation in terms of information-theoretic concepts.

  8. Acquisition and processing of multiple functional investigations in cardiology

    Baruthio, J.; Constantinesco, A.; Chavas, M.; Meyer, P.; Dumitresco, B.; Chambron, J.; Nikitine, S.; Voegtlin, R.

    1978-01-01

    This work is based on a acquisition and pretreating Service of data and signals resulting from several types of functional explorations in cardiology. This Service, through a specialised phone-line, is connected to the Medical Centre of Informatic where the different treatments and on occasion the recording of data are carried out. This functions according to the Real Time Executive System and the clinical results are send back to the investigation unit. The main types of cardiologic analysis as studied by the system are envisaged: measure in real time of the cardiac output and analysis of the radiocardiogram, measure and display of the thoracic potentials, spectral analysis of the vectorcardiogram, quantitative cineangiocardiography and analysis of intracardiac pressures. This system is particularly interesting in that it may treat several processes which could ask for a great capacity of storing and an important calculus power, see for instance the study of thoracic potentials. This type of analysis could not be envisaged financially with isolated calculators. The set of results obtained enables us to investigate thoroughly and precisely the cardiac performance [fr

  9. Use of Anion Exchange Resins for One-Step Processing of Algae from Harvest to Biofuel

    Martin Poenie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Some microalgae are particularly attractive as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel production due to their rapid growth, high content of triacylglycerols, and ability to be grown on non-arable land. Unfortunately, obtaining oil from algae is currently cost prohibitive in part due to the need to pump and process large volumes of dilute algal suspensions. In an effort to circumvent this problem, we have explored the use of anion exchange resins for simplifying the processing of algae to biofuel. Anion exchange resins can bind and accumulate the algal cells out of suspension to form a dewatered concentrate. Treatment of the resin-bound algae with sulfuric acid/methanol elutes the algae and regenerates the resin while converting algal lipids to biodiesel. Hydrophobic polymers can remove biodiesel from the sulfuric acid/methanol, allowing the transesterification reagent to be reused. We show that in situ transesterification of algal lipids can efficiently convert algal lipids to fatty acid methyl esters while allowing the resin and transesterification reagent to be recycled numerous times without loss of effectiveness.

  10. Fuzzy sets on step of planning of experiment for organization and management of construction processes

    Lapidus Azariy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, problems of mathematical modeling and experiment planning of the organization and management of construction. The authors designated the basic restrictions and the difficulties in this field. Concluded that the planning of research experiment is possible in the information sphere with using of heuristic, graphical, mathematical models, as well as neural networks and genetic algorithms. The authors note the need for use of expert information in the case of the formalization of quality parameters. The article presented an overview of the translation methods of qualitative information into mathematical language. Comparison of methods the qualimetry of USSR scientists, the analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy set theory were performed. The benefits of the latter for interpretation of qualitative parameters were identified. The authors have given many examples of application fuzzy sets for formalization of organizational factors of construction processes. Finally, there conclusion was made about progressiveness and effectiveness of fuzzy set theory to describe the qualitative parameters of organization and management of construction.

  11. Stepping back to see the big picture: when obstacles elicit global processing.

    Marguc, Janina; Förster, Jens; Van Kleef, Gerben A

    2011-11-01

    Can obstacles prompt people to look at the "big picture" and open up their minds? Do the cognitive effects of obstacles extend beyond the tasks with which they interfere? These questions were addressed in 6 studies involving both physical and nonphysical obstacles and different measures of global versus local processing styles. Perceptual scope increased after participants solved anagrams in the presence, rather than the absence, of an auditory obstacle (random words played in the background; Study 1), particularly among individuals low in volatility (i.e., those who are inclined to stay engaged and finish what they do; Study 4). It also increased immediately after participants encountered a physical obstacle while navigating a maze (Study 3A) and when compared with doing nothing (Study 3B). Conceptual scope increased after participants solved anagrams while hearing random numbers framed as an "obstacle to overcome" rather than a "distraction to ignore" (Study 2) and after participants navigated a maze with a physical obstacle, compared with a maze without a physical obstacle, but only when trait (Study 5) or state (Study 6) volatility was low. Results suggest that obstacles trigger an "if obstacle, then start global processing" response, primarily when people are inclined to stay engaged and finish ongoing activities. Implications for dealing with life's obstacles and related research are discussed.

  12. Effects of a modular two-step ozone-water and annealing process on silicon carbide graphene

    Webb, Matthew J., E-mail: matthew.webb@cantab.net; Lundstedt, Anna; Grennberg, Helena [Department of Chemistry—BMC, Uppsala University, Box 576, SE-751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Polley, Craig; Niu, Yuran; Zakharov, Alexei A.; Balasubramanian, Thiagarajan [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Dirscherl, Kai [DFM—Danish Fundamental Metrology, Matematiktorvet 307, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Burwell, Gregory; Guy, Owen J. [College of Engineering, Faraday Tower, Singleton Park, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Palmgren, Pål [VG Scienta Scientific AB, Box 15120, Vallongatan 1, SE-750 15 Uppsala (Sweden); Yakimova, Rositsa [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-08-25

    By combining ozone and water, the effect of exposing epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide to an aggressive wet-chemical process has been evaluated after high temperature annealing in ultra high vacuum. The decomposition of ozone in water produces a number of oxidizing species, however, despite long exposure times to the aqueous-ozone environment, no graphene oxide was observed after the two-step process. The systems were comprehensively characterized before and after processing using Raman spectroscopy, core level photoemission spectroscopy, and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy together with low energy electron diffraction, low energy electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. In spite of the chemical potential of the aqueous-ozone reaction environment, the graphene domains were largely unaffected raising the prospect of employing such simple chemical and annealing protocols to clean or prepare epitaxial graphene surfaces.

  13. Off-line real-time FTIR analysis of a process step in imipenem production

    Boaz, Jhansi R.; Thomas, Scott M.; Meyerhoffer, Steven M.; Staskiewicz, Steven J.; Lynch, Joseph E.; Egan, Richard S.; Ellison, Dean K.

    1992-08-01

    We have developed an FT-IR method, using a Spectra-Tech Monit-IR 400 systems, to monitor off-line the completion of a reaction in real-time. The reaction is moisture-sensitive and analysis by more conventional methods (normal-phase HPLC) is difficult to reproduce. The FT-IR method is based on the shift of a diazo band when a conjugated beta-diketone is transformed into a silyl enol ether during the reaction. The reaction mixture is examined directly by IR and does not require sample workup. Data acquisition time is less than one minute. The method has been validated for specificity, precision and accuracy. The results obtained by the FT-IR method for known mixtures and in-process samples compare favorably with those from a normal-phase HPLC method.

  14. THE BC CRIBS & TRENCHES GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT ONE STEP FORWARD IN HANFORDS CLEANUP PROCESS

    BENECKE, MN.W.

    2006-02-22

    A geophysical characterization project was conducted at the BC Cribs and Trenches Area, located south of 200 East at the Hanford Site. The area consists of 26 waste disposal trenches and cribs, which received approximately 30 million gallons of liquid waste from the uranium recovery process and the ferrocyanide processes associated with wastes generated by reprocessing nuclear fuel. Waste discharges to BC Cribs contributed perhaps the largest liquid fraction of contaminants to the ground in the 200 Areas. The site also includes possibly the largest inventory of Tc-99 ever disposed to the soil at Hanford with an estimated quantity of 400 Ci. Other waste constituents included high volumes of nitrate and U-238. The geophysical characterization at the 50 acre site primarily included high resolution resistivity (HRR). The resistivity technique is a non-invasive method by which electrical resistivity data are collected along linear transects, and data are presented as continuous profiles of subsurface electrical properties. The transects ranged in size from about 400-700 meters and provided information down to depths of 60 meters. The site was characterized by a network of 51 HRR lines with a total of approximately 19.7 line kilometers of data collected parallel and perpendicular to the trenches and cribs. The data were compiled to form a three-dimensional representation of low resistivity values. Low resistivity, or high conductivity, is indicative of high ionic strength soil and porewater resulting from the migration of nitrate and other inorganic constituents through the vadose zone. High spatial density soil data from a single borehole, that included coincident nitrate concentrations, electrical conductivity, and Tc-99, were used to transform the electrical resistivity data into a nitrate plume. The plume was shown to extend laterally beyond the original boundaries of the waste site and, in one area, to depths that exceeded the characterization strategy. It is

  15. THE BC CRIBS and TRENCHES GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT: ONE STEP FORWARD IN HANFORD'S CLEANUP PROCESS

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    A geophysical characterization project was conducted at the BC Cribs and Trenches Area, located south of 200 East at the Hanford Site. The area consists of 26 waste disposal trenches and cribs, which received approximately 30 million gallons of liquid waste from the uranium recovery process and the ferrocyanide processes associated with wastes generated by reprocessing nuclear fuel. Waste discharges to BC Cribs contributed perhaps the largest liquid fraction of contaminants to the ground in the 200 Areas. The site also includes possibly the largest inventory of Tc-99 ever disposed to the soil at Hanford with an estimated quantity of 400 Ci. Other waste constituents included high volumes of nitrate and U-238. The geophysical characterization at the 50-acre site primarily included high resolution resistivity (HRR). The resistivity technique is a non-invasive method by which electrical resistivity data are collected along linear transects, and data are presented as continuous profiles of subsurface electrical properties. The transects ranged in size from about 400-700 meters and provided information down to depths of 60 meters. The site was characterized by a network of 51 HRR lines with a total of approximately 19.7 line kilometers of data collected parallel and perpendicular to the trenches and cribs. The data were compiled to form a three-dimensional representation of low resistivity values. Low resistivity, or high conductivity, is indicative of high ionic strength soil and porewater resulting from the migration of nitrate and other inorganic constituents through the vadose zone. High spatial density soil data from a single borehole, that included coincident nitrate concentrations, electrical conductivity. and Tc-99, were used to transform the electrical resistivity data into a nitrate plume. The plume was shown to extend laterally beyond the original boundaries of the waste site and, in one area, to depths that exceeded the characterization strategy

  16. From seed production to seedling establishment: Important steps in an invasive process

    Ferreras, Ana Elisa; Galetto, Leonardo

    2010-03-01

    It is widely accepted that exotic invasive species are one of the most important ecological and economic problems. Reproductive and establishment traits are considered key features of a population expansion process, but few works have studied many of these simultaneously. This work examines how large the differences are in reproductive and establishment traits between two Fabaceae, the exotic invasive, Gleditsia triacanthos and the native, Acacia aroma. Gleditsia is a serious leguminous woody invader in various parts of the world and Acacia is a common native tree of Argentina. Both species have similar dispersal mechanisms and their reproductive phenology overlaps. We chose 17 plants of each species in a continuous forest of the Chaco Serrano Forest of Córdoba, Argentina. In each plant we measured fruit production, fruit removal (exclusion experiments), seed predation (pre- and post-dispersal), seed germination, seed bank (on each focal tree, three sampling periods during the year), and density of seedlings (around focal individuals and randomly in the study site). Gleditsia presented some traits that could favour the invasion process, such as a higher number of seeds per plant, percentage of scarified seed germination and density of seedlings around the focal individuals, than Acacia. On the other hand, Gleditsia presented a higher percentage of seed predation. The seed bank was persistent in both species and no differences were observed in fruit removal. This work highlights the importance of simultaneously studying reproductive and establishment variables involved in the spreading of an exotic invasive species. It also gives important insight into the variables to be considered when planning management strategies. The results are discussed from the perspective of some remarkable hypotheses on invasive species and may contribute to rethinking some aspects of the theory on invasive species.

  17. One step transesterification process of sludge palm oil (SPO) by using deep eutectic solvent (DES) in biodiesel production

    Manurung, Renita; Ramadhani, Debbie Aditia; Maisarah, Siti

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel production by using sludge palm oil (SPO) as raw material is generally synthesized in two step reactions, namely esterification and transesterification, because the free fatty acid (FFA) content of SPO is relatively high. However, the presence of choline chloride (ChCl), glycerol based deep eutectic solvent (DES), in transesterification may produce biodiesel from SPO in just one step. In this study, DES was produced by the mixture of ChCl and glycerol at molar ratio of 1:2 at a temperature of 80°C and stirring speed of 400 rpm for 1 hour. DES was characterized by its density and viscosity. The transesterification process was performed at reaction temperature of 70 °C, ethanol to oil molar with ratio of 9:1, sodium hydroxide as catalyst concentration of 1 % wt, DES as cosolvent with concentration of 0 to 5 % wt, stirring speed of 400 rpm, and one hour reaction time. The obtained biodiesel was then assessed with density, viscosity, and ester content as the parameters. FFA content of SPO as the raw material was 7.5290 %. In this case, DES as cosolvent in one step transesterification process of low feedstock could reduce the side reaction (saponification), decrease the time reaction, decrease the surface tension between ethanol and oil, and increase the mass transfer that simultaneously simplified the purification process and obtained the highest yield. The esters properties met the international standards of ASTM D 6751, with the highest yield obtained was 83.19% with 99.55% of ester content and the ratio of ethanol:oil of 9:1, concentration of DES of 4%, catalyst amount of 1%, temperature of reaction at 70°C and stirring speed of 400 rpm.

  18. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences with Preferred Science Teaching and Science Process Skills

    Mohd Ali Samsudin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the relationship between multiple intelligences with preferred science teaching and science process skills. The design of the study is a survey using three questionnaires reported in the literature: Multiple Intelligences Questionnaire, Preferred Science Teaching Questionnaire and Science Process Skills Questionnaire. The study selected 300 primary school students from five (5 primary schools in Penang, Malaysia. The findings showed a relationship between kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial and naturalistic intelligences with the preferred science teaching. In addition there was a correlation between kinesthetic and visual-spatial intelligences with science process skills, implying that multiple intelligences are related to science learning.

  19. Smith predictor-based multiple periodic disturbance compensation for long dead-time processes

    Tan, Fang; Li, Han-Xiong; Shen, Ping

    2018-05-01

    Many disturbance rejection methods have been proposed for processes with dead-time, while these existing methods may not work well under multiple periodic disturbances. In this paper, a multiple periodic disturbance rejection is proposed under the Smith predictor configuration for processes with long dead-time. One feedback loop is added to compensate periodic disturbance while retaining the advantage of the Smith predictor. With information of the disturbance spectrum, the added feedback loop can remove multiple periodic disturbances effectively. The robust stability can be easily maintained through the rigorous analysis. Finally, simulation examples demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method for processes with long dead-time.

  20. Highly Magneto-Responsive Elastomeric Films Created by a Two-Step Fabrication Process

    Marchi, Sophie

    2015-08-24

    An innovative method for the preparation of elastomeric magnetic films with increased magneto-responsivity is presented. Polymeric films containing aligned magnetic microchains throughout their thickness are formed upon the magnetophoretic transport and assembly of microparticles during polymer curing. The obtained films are subsequently magnetized at a high magnetic field of 3 T directed parallel to the orientation of the microchains. We prove that the combination of both alignment of the particles along a favorable direction during curing and the subsequent magnetization of the solid films induces an impressive increase of the films’ deflection. Specifically, the displacements reach few millimeters, up to 85 times higher than those of the nontreated films with the same particle concentration. Such a process can improve the performance of the magnetic films without increasing the amount of magnetic fillers and, thus, without compromising the mechanical properties of the resulting composites. The proposed method can be used for the fabrication of magnetic films suitable as components in systems in which large displacements at relatively low magnetic fields are required, such as sensors and drug delivery or microfluidic systems, especially where remote control of valves is requested to achieve appropriate flow and mixing of liquids.

  1. Highly Magneto-Responsive Elastomeric Films Created by a Two-Step Fabrication Process

    Marchi, Sophie; Casu, Alberto; Bertora, Franco; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Fragouli, Despina

    2015-01-01

    An innovative method for the preparation of elastomeric magnetic films with increased magneto-responsivity is presented. Polymeric films containing aligned magnetic microchains throughout their thickness are formed upon the magnetophoretic transport and assembly of microparticles during polymer curing. The obtained films are subsequently magnetized at a high magnetic field of 3 T directed parallel to the orientation of the microchains. We prove that the combination of both alignment of the particles along a favorable direction during curing and the subsequent magnetization of the solid films induces an impressive increase of the films’ deflection. Specifically, the displacements reach few millimeters, up to 85 times higher than those of the nontreated films with the same particle concentration. Such a process can improve the performance of the magnetic films without increasing the amount of magnetic fillers and, thus, without compromising the mechanical properties of the resulting composites. The proposed method can be used for the fabrication of magnetic films suitable as components in systems in which large displacements at relatively low magnetic fields are required, such as sensors and drug delivery or microfluidic systems, especially where remote control of valves is requested to achieve appropriate flow and mixing of liquids.

  2. Technological, physicochemical and sensory changes of upland rice in soaking step of the parboiling process

    Flávia de Araújo Fonseca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combinations of soaking temperature and time during the parboiling on the technological, physicochemical and sensory quality of two upland rice cultivars. The milling degree for BRS Primavera and BRS Sertaneja cultivars ranged from 7.11 to 8.89 g100 g-1 and 7.62 to 8.91 g 100 g-1and the head yield from 63.77 to 69.26 g 100 g-1 and from 73.22 to 75.40 g 100 g-1, respectively. The ash content for parboiled BRS Sertaneja increased up to 68%; regarding protein, the content increased up to 10% and for lipids, the values increased up to 86%, approximately, after processing. The higher the soaking temperature, the lower the milling degree and head yield. The parboiled rice BRS Primavera achieved higher contents of ash and lipid in relation to non-parboiled milled rice, while the BRS Sertaneja obtained higher ash, protein, lipid, and crude fiber contents. Parboiled rice samples had higher yield and cooking time than milled rice samples. The condition of soaking at 65°C for 60 min. and 60oC for 112 min. was sufficient for the acceptance of all sensory attributes evaluated in BRS Primavera, and 65oC for 420 min. in BRS Sertaneja.

  3. Effects of multiple-step thermal ageing treatment on the hardness characteristics of A356.0-type Al-Si-Mg alloy

    Abdulwahab, M.; Madugu, I.A.; Yaro, S.A.; Hassan, S.B.; Popoola, A.P.I.

    2011-01-01

    The work outlined the hardness characteristics of thermally aged high chromium sodium modified A356.0-type Al-Si-Mg alloy using the multiple-step thermal ageing treatment (MSTAT) approach. This novel approach consists of double thermal ageing (DTAT) and single thermal ageing treatment (STAT). The investigation also includes the development of a new temperature-compensated-time parameter, P, for the studied alloy at different ageing temperatures and time considered. The results obtained in the DTAT developed for the A356.0-type Al-Si-Mg alloy showed an improvement in the precipitation hardening (PH) ability and hardness characteristics as compared to the convectional STAT temper. The observations were evidenced from the X-ray diffractometry (XRD) pattern indicating the possible strengthening phases. Equally, the hardness behavior was correlated with the microstructures using optical microscope (OPM) and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectroscope (SEM-EDS).

  4. The Answering Process for Multiple-Choice Questions in Collaborative Learning: A Mathematical Learning Model Analysis

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nishi, Shinnosuke; Muramatsu, Yuta; Yasutake, Koichi; Yamakawa, Osamu; Tagawa, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a mathematical model for collaborative learning and the answering process for multiple-choice questions. The collaborative learning model is inspired by the Ising spin model and the model for answering multiple-choice questions is based on their difficulty level. An intensive simulation study predicts the possibility of…

  5. The Environmental Protection Agency's waste isolation pilot plant certification process: The steps leading to our decision

    Wene, C.; Kruger, M.

    1999-01-01

    On May 13, 1998, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its 'final certification decision' to certify that the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will comply with the radioactive waste disposal regulations set and the WIPP Compliance Criteria set forth at 40 CFR Parts 191 (US EPA, 1993) and 194 (US EPA, 1996) respectively. The WIPP will be the nation's first deep underground disposal facility for transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated as a result of defence activities. Since WIPP is a first-of-a-kind facility EPA's regulatory program contains an abundance of unique technical questions, as well as controversial policy considerations and legal issues. This paper presents the process that EPA undertook to reach its final decision. Oversight of the WIPP facility by EPA is governed by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (WIPP LWA), passed initially by Congress in 1992 and amended in 1996. The LWA required EPA to evaluate whether the WIPP will comply with Subparts B and C of 40 CFR Part 191, known as the disposal regulations. The EPA's final certification of compliance will allow the emplacement of radioactive waste in the WIPP to begin, provided that all other applicable health and safety standards have been met. The certification also allows Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to strip TRU waste from specific waste streams for disposal at the WIPP. However, the certification is subject to several conditions, most notably that EPA must approve site-specific waste characterisation measures and quality assurance plans before allowing sites other than LANL to ship waste for disposal at the WIPP

  6. Rapid gas chromatography with flame photometric detection of multiple organophosphorus pesticides in Salvia miltiorrhizae after ultrasonication assisted one-step extraction.

    Zhang, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaofei; Qin, Jia'an; Yang, Meihua; Zhao, Hongzheng; Wang, Yong; Guo, Weiying; Ma, Zhijie; Kong, Weijun

    2017-11-15

    A simple and rapid gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) method was developed for the determination of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in Salvia miltiorrhizae by using ultrasonication assisted one-step extraction (USAE) without any clean-up steps. Some crucial parameters such as type of extraction solvent were optimized to improve the method performance for trace analysis. Any clean-up steps were negligent as no interferences were detected in the GC-FPD chromatograms for sensitive detection. Under the optimized conditions, limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) for all pesticides were in the range of 0.001-0.002mg/kg and 0.002-0.01mg/kg and 0.002-0.01mg/kg, respectively, which were all below the regulatory maximum residue limits suggested. RSDs for method precision (intra- and inter-day variations) were lower than 6.8% in approval with international regulations. Average recovery rates for all pesticides at three fortification levels (0.5, 1.0 and 5.0mg/kg) were in the range of 71.2-101.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) pesticide (dimethoate) out of the 12 targets was simultaneously detected in four samples at concentrations of 0.016-0.02mg/kg. Dichlorvos and omethoate were found in the same sample from Sichuan province at 0.004 and 0.027mg/kg, respectively. Malathion and monocrotophos were determined in the other two samples at 0.014 and 0.028mg/kg, respectively. All the positive samples were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. The simple, reliable and rapid USAE-GC-FPD method with many advantages over traditional techniques would be preferred for trace analysis of multiple pesticides in more complex matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Polyuridylylation and processing of transcripts from multiple gene minicircles in chloroplasts of the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae

    Barbrook, Adrian C.; Dorrell, Richard G.; Burrows, Jennifer; Plenderleith, Lindsey J.; Nisbet, R. Ellen R.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    -PCR to study transcription and transcript processing in the chloroplasts of Amphidinium carterae, a model peridinin-containing dinoflagellate. These organisms have a highly unusual chloroplast genome, with genes located on multiple small 'minicircle' elements

  8. Surface Activity of Sulfactin Recovered and Purified from Fermentation Broth Using a Two-Step Ultrafiltration (UF) Process

    Mohd Hafez Mohd Isa; Frazier, A.R.; Jauregi, P.

    2011-01-01

    B. subtilis under certain types of media and fermentation conditions can produce surfactant, a bio surfactant which belongs to the lipo peptide class. Surfactant has exceptional surfactant activity, and exhibits some interesting biological characteristics such as antibacterial activity, anti tumoral activity against ascites carcinoma cells, and a hypercholesterolaemia activity that inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase, as well as having anti-HIV properties. A cost effective recovery and purification of surfactant from fermentation broth using a two-step ultrafiltration (UF) process has been developed in order to reduce the cost of surfactant production. In this study, competitive adsorption of surfactant and proteins at the air-water interface was studied using surface pressure measurements. Small volumes of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and β-casein solutions were added to the air-water interface on a Langmuir trough and allowed to stabilise before the addition of surfactant to the sub phase. Contrasting interfacial behaviour of proteins was observed with β-casein showing faster initial adsorption compared to BSA. On introduction of surfactant both proteins were displaced but a longer time were taken to displace β-casein. Overall the results showed surfactant were highly surface-active by forming a β-sheet structure at the air-water interface after reaching its critical micelle concentration (CMC) and were effective in removing both protein films, which can be explained following the orogenic mechanism. Results showed that the two-step UF process was effective to achieve high purity and fully functional surfactant. (author)

  9. Synthesis of monoclinic Celsian from Coal Fly Ash by using a one-step solid-state reaction process

    Long-Gonzalez, D.; Lopez-Cuevas, J.; Gutierrez-Chavarria, C.A.; Pena, P.; Baudin, C.; Turrillas, X. [CINVESTAV, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Monoclinic (Celsian) and hexagonal (Hexacelsian) Ba1-xSrxAl{sub 2}Si2O8 solid solutions, where x=0, 0.25, 0.375, 0.5, 0.75 or 1, were synthesized by using Coal Fly Ash (CFA) as main raw material, employing a simple one-step solid-state reaction process involving thermal treatment for 5 h at 850-1300{sup o}C. Fully monoclinic Celsian was obtained at 1200{sup o} C/5 h, for SrO contents of 0.25 {<=} x {<=} 0.75. However, an optimum SrO level of 0.25 {<=} x {<=} 0.375 was recommended for the stabilization of Celsian. These synthesis conditions represent a significant improvement over the higher temperatures, longer times and/or multi-step processes needed to obtain fully monoclinic Celsian, when other raw materials are used for this purpose, according to previous literature. These results were attributed to the role of the chemical and phase constitution of CFA as well as to a likely mineralizing effect of CaO and TiO{sub 2} present in it, which enhanced the Hexacelsian to Celsian conversion.

  10. A novel multimodal chromatography based single step purification process for efficient manufacturing of an E. coli based biotherapeutic protein product.

    Bhambure, Rahul; Gupta, Darpan; Rathore, Anurag S

    2013-11-01

    Methionine oxidized, reduced and fMet forms of a native recombinant protein product are often the critical product variants which are associated with proteins expressed as bacterial inclusion bodies in E. coli. Such product variants differ from native protein in their structural and functional aspects, and may lead to loss of biological activity and immunogenic response in patients. This investigation focuses on evaluation of multimodal chromatography for selective removal of these product variants using recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) as the model protein. Unique selectivity in separation of closely related product variants was obtained using combined pH and salt based elution gradients in hydrophobic charge induction chromatography. Simultaneous removal of process related impurities was also achieved in flow-through leading to single step purification process for the GCSF. Results indicate that the product recovery of up to 90.0% can be obtained with purity levels of greater than 99.0%. Binding the target protein at pHproduct variants using the combined pH and salt based elution gradient and removal of the host cell impurities in flow-through are the key novel features of the developed multimodal chromatographic purification step. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling of the steam hydrolysis in a two-step process for hydrogen production by solar concentrated energy

    Valle-Hernández, Julio; Romero-Paredes, Hernando; Pacheco-Reyes, Alejandro

    2017-06-01

    In this paper the simulation of the steam hydrolysis for hydrogen production through the decomposition of cerium oxide is presented. The thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production consists of the endothermic reduction of CeO2 to lower-valence cerium oxide, at high temperature, where concentrated solar energy is used as a source of heat; and of the subsequent steam hydrolysis of the resulting cerium oxide to produce hydrogen. The modeling of endothermic reduction step was presented at the Solar Paces 2015. This work shows the modeling of the exothermic step; the hydrolysis of the cerium oxide (III) to form H2 and the corresponding initial cerium oxide made at lower temperature inside the solar reactor. For this model, three sections of the pipe where the reaction occurs were considered; the steam water inlet, the porous medium and the hydrogen outlet produced. The mathematical model describes the fluid mechanics; mass and energy transfer occurring therein inside the tungsten pipe. Thermochemical process model was simulated in CFD. The results show a temperature distribution in the solar reaction pipe and allow obtaining the fluid dynamics and the heat transfer within the pipe. This work is part of the project "Solar Fuels and Industrial Processes" from the Mexican Center for Innovation in Solar Energy (CEMIE-Sol).

  12. Biohydrogen and methane production via a two-step process using an acid pretreated native microalgae consortium.

    Carrillo-Reyes, Julian; Buitrón, Germán

    2016-12-01

    A native microalgae consortium treated under thermal-acidic hydrolysis was used to produce hydrogen and methane in a two-step sequential process. Different acid concentrations were tested, generating hydrogen and methane yields of up to 45mLH 2 gVS -1 and 432mLCH 4 gVS -1 , respectively. The hydrogen production step solubilized the particulate COD (chemical oxygen demand) up to 30%, creating considerable amounts of volatile fatty acids (up to 10gCODL -1 ). It was observed that lower acid concentration presented higher hydrogen and methane production potential. The results revealed that thermal acid hydrolysis of a native microalgae consortium is a simple but effective strategy for producing hydrogen and methane in the sequential process. In addition to COD removal (50-70%), this method resulted in an energy recovery of up to 15.9kJ per g of volatile solids of microalgae biomass, one of the highest reported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Double-step processes in the 12C(p,d)11C reaction at 45 MeV

    Couvert, Pierre.

    1974-01-01

    12 C(p,d) 11 C pick-up reaction was performed with a 45 MeV proton beam. A 130keV energy resolution was obtained and angular distributions of nine of the ten first levels of 11 C have been extracted within a large angular range. Assuming only neutron direct transfert, the strong relative excitation of high spin levels cannot be reproduced by a DWBA analysis. The double-step process assumption seems to be verified by a systematical analysis of the (p,d) reaction mechanisms. This analysis is done in the coupled-channel formalism for the five first negative parity states of 11 C. The 3/2 - ground state is essentially populated by the direct transfer of a Psub(3/2) neutron. The contribution of a double-step process, via the 2 + inelastic excitation of 12 C, is important for the four other states. A mechanism which assumes a deuteron inelastic scattering on the 11 C final nucleus after the neutron transfer cannot be neglected and improves the fits when it is taken into account [fr

  14. Pipe-dependent ventral processing of Easter by Snake is the defining step in Drosophila embryo DV axis formation.

    Cho, Yong Suk; Stevens, Leslie M; Stein, David

    2010-06-22

    The establishment of Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral (DV) polarity relies on serine proteolytic activity in the perivitelline space between the embryonic membrane and the eggshell. Gastrulation Defective cleaves and activates Snake, which processes and activates Easter, which cleaves Spätzle to form the activating ligand for the Toll receptor. Ventral restriction of ligand formation depends on the Pipe sulfotransferase, which is expressed in ventral cells of the follicular epithelium surrounding the developing oocyte. Pipe modifies components of the developing eggshell to produce a ventral cue embedded in the vitelline membrane. This ventral cue is believed to promote one or more of the proteolysis steps in the perivitelline space. By examining the processing of transgenic, tagged versions of the perivitelline proteins during DV patterning, we find that the proteolysis of Easter by Snake is the first Pipe-dependent step and therefore the key ventrally restricted event in the protease cascade. We also find that Snake and Easter associate together in a complex in both wild-type and pipe mutant-derived embryos. This observation suggests a mechanism in which the sulfated target of Pipe promotes a productive interaction between Snake and Easter, perhaps by facilitating conformational changes in a complex containing the two proteins. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Conversation on Data Mining Strategies in LC-MS Untargeted Metabolomics: Pre-Processing and Pre-Treatment Steps

    Fidele Tugizimana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Untargeted metabolomic studies generate information-rich, high-dimensional, and complex datasets that remain challenging to handle and fully exploit. Despite the remarkable progress in the development of tools and algorithms, the “exhaustive” extraction of information from these metabolomic datasets is still a non-trivial undertaking. A conversation on data mining strategies for a maximal information extraction from metabolomic data is needed. Using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomic dataset, this study explored the influence of collection parameters in the data pre-processing step, scaling and data transformation on the statistical models generated, and feature selection, thereafter. Data obtained in positive mode generated from a LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomic study (sorghum plants responding dynamically to infection by a fungal pathogen were used. Raw data were pre-processed with MarkerLynxTM software (Waters Corporation, Manchester, UK. Here, two parameters were varied: the intensity threshold (50–100 counts and the mass tolerance (0.005–0.01 Da. After the pre-processing, the datasets were imported into SIMCA (Umetrics, Umea, Sweden for more data cleaning and statistical modeling. In addition, different scaling (unit variance, Pareto, etc. and data transformation (log and power methods were explored. The results showed that the pre-processing parameters (or algorithms influence the output dataset with regard to the number of defined features. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that the pre-treatment of data prior to statistical modeling affects the subspace approximation outcome: e.g., the amount of variation in X-data that the model can explain and predict. The pre-processing and pre-treatment steps subsequently influence the number of statistically significant extracted/selected features (variables. Thus, as informed by the results, to maximize the value of untargeted metabolomic data

  16. Charged particle multiplicity distributions in e+e--annihilation processes in the LEP experiments

    Shlyapnikov, P.V.

    1992-01-01

    Results of studies of the charged particle multiplicity distributions in the process of e + e - -annihilation into hadrons obtained in experiments at LEP accelerator in CERN are reviewed. Universality in energy dependence of the average charged particle multiplicity in e + e - and p ± p collisions, evidence for KNO-scaling in e + e - data, structure in multiplicity distribution and its relation to the jet structure of events, average particle multiplicities or quark and gluon jets, 'clan' picture and other topics are discussed. 73 refs.; 20 figs.; 3 tabs

  17. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences with Preferred Science Teaching and Science Process Skills

    Mohd Ali Samsudin; Noor Hasyimah Haniza; Corrienna Abdul-Talib; Hayani Marlia Mhd Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the relationship between multiple intelligences with preferred science teaching and science process skills. The design of the study is a survey using three questionnaires reported in the literature: Multiple Intelligences Questionnaire, Preferred Science Teaching Questionnaire and Science Process Skills Questionnaire. The study selected 300 primary school students from five (5) primary schools in Penang, Malaysia. The findings showed a relationship betwee...

  18. Improvement of Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Short Natural Fiber Reinforced Recycled Polypropylene Composites through Double Step Grafting Process

    Saputra, O. A.; Rini, K. S.; Susanti, T. D.; Mustofa, R. E.; Prameswari, M. D.; Pramono, E.

    2017-07-01

    This study focused on the effect of a compatibilizer addition, maleic anhydrides (MAH) on mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) fiber reinforced recycled polypropylene (rPP) biocomposites. The double steps grafting process were conducted by incorporated MAH on both rPP and EFB to improve the surface adhesion between these materials, to result in a good mechanical properties as well as biocompatibility to nature. The chemical test was carried out using FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red) spectroscopy technique to evaluated grafting process. The mechanical test was investigated and found that the addition of 10 phr MAH to both rPP and EFB improved mechanical strength of the biocomposites higher than another formulas. In this study, thermal properties of biocomposites also characterized. Water absorption (WA) analysis showed the presence of EFB fiber increased the water uptake of the material.

  19. Preparation of TiC/W core–shell structured powders by one-step activation and chemical reduction process

    Ding, Xiao-Yu; Luo, Lai-Ma; Huang, Li-Mei; Luo, Guang-Nan; Zhu, Xiao-Yong; Cheng, Ji-Gui; Wu, Yu-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel wet chemical method was used to prepare TiC/W core–shell structure powders. • TiC nanoparticles were well-encapsulated by W shells. • TiC phase was present in the interior of tungsten grains. - Abstract: In the present study, one-step activation and chemical reduction process as a novel wet-chemical route was performed for the preparation of TiC/W core–shell structured ultra-fine powders. The XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and EDS results demonstrated that the as-synthesized powders are of high purity and uniform with a diameter of approximately 500 nm. It is also found that the TiC nanoparticles were well-encapsulated by W shells. Such a unique process suggests a new method for preparing X/W (X refers the water-insoluble nanoparticles) core–shell nanoparticles with different cores

  20. Influence of parameters controlling the extrusion step in fused filament fabrication (FFF) process applied to polymers using numerical simulation

    Shahriar, Bakrani Balani; Arthur, Cantarel; France, Chabert; Valérie, Nassiet

    2018-05-01

    Extrusion is one of the oldest manufacturing processes; it is widely used for manufacturing finished and semi-finished products. Moreover, extrusion is also the main process in additive manufacturing technologies such as Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF). In FFF process, the parts are manufactured layer by layer using thermoplastic material. The latter in form of filament, is melted in the liquefier and then it is extruded and deposited on the previous layer. The mechanical properties of the printed parts rely on the coalescence of each extrudate with another one. The coalescence phenomenon is driven by the flow properties of the melted polymer when it comes out the nozzle just before the deposition step. This study aims to master the quality of the printed parts by controlling the effect of the parameters of the extruder on the flow properties in the FFF process. In the current study, numerical simulation of the polymer coming out of the extruder was carried out using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and two phase flow (TPF) simulation Level Set (LS) method by 2D axisymmetric module of COMSOL Multiphysics software. In order to pair the heat transfer with the flow simulation, an advection-diffusion equation was used. Advection-diffusion equation was implemented as a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) in the software. In order to define the variation of viscosity of the polymer with temperature, the rheological behaviors of two thermoplastics were measured by extensional rheometer and using a parallel-plate configuration of an oscillatory rheometer. The results highlight the influence of the environment temperature and the cooling rate on the temperature and viscosity of the extrudate exiting from the nozzle. Moreover, the temperature and its corresponding viscosity at different times have been determined using numerical simulation. At highest shear rates, the extrudate undergoes deformation from typical cylindrical shape. These results are required to predict the

  1. Application of single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction with a multiple-lactation random regression test-day model for Japanese Holsteins.

    Baba, Toshimi; Gotoh, Yusaku; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Abe, Hayato; Masuda, Yutaka; Kawahara, Takayoshi

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate a validation reliability of single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP) with a multiple-lactation random regression test-day model and investigate an effect of adding genotyped cows on the reliability. Two data sets for test-day records from the first three lactations were used: full data from February 1975 to December 2015 (60 850 534 records from 2 853 810 cows) and reduced data cut off in 2011 (53 091 066 records from 2 502 307 cows). We used marker genotypes of 4480 bulls and 608 cows. Genomic enhanced breeding values (GEBV) of 305-day milk yield in all the lactations were estimated for at least 535 young bulls using two marker data sets: bull genotypes only and both bulls and cows genotypes. The realized reliability (R 2 ) from linear regression analysis was used as an indicator of validation reliability. Using only genotyped bulls, R 2 was ranged from 0.41 to 0.46 and it was always higher than parent averages. The very similar R 2 were observed when genotyped cows were added. An application of ssGBLUP to a multiple-lactation random regression model is feasible and adding a limited number of genotyped cows has no significant effect on reliability of GEBV for genotyped bulls. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Developmental Steps in Metaphorical Language Abilities: The Influence of Age, Gender, Cognitive Flexibility, Information Processing Speed, and Analogical Reasoning.

    Willinger, Ulrike; Deckert, Matthias; Schmöger, Michaela; Schaunig-Busch, Ines; Formann, Anton K; Auff, Eduard

    2017-12-01

    Metaphor is a specific type of figurative language that is used in various important fields such as in the work with children in clinical or teaching contexts. The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental course, developmental steps, and possible cognitive predictors regarding metaphor processing in childhood and early adolescence. One hundred sixty-four typically developing children (7-year-olds, 9-year-olds) and early adolescents (11-year-olds) were tested for metaphor identification, comprehension, comprehension quality, and preference by the Metaphoric Triads Task as well as for analogical reasoning, information processing speed, cognitive flexibility under time pressure, and cognitive flexibility without time pressure. Metaphor identification and comprehension consecutively increased with age. Eleven-year-olds showed significantly higher metaphor comprehension quality and preference scores than seven- and nine-year-olds, whilst these younger age groups did not differ. Age, cognitive flexibility under time pressure, information processing speed, analogical reasoning, and cognitive flexibility without time pressure significantly predicted metaphor comprehension. Metaphorical language ability shows an ongoing development and seemingly changes qualitatively at the beginning of early adolescence. These results can possibly be explained by a greater synaptic reorganization in early adolescents. Furthermore, cognitive flexibility under time pressure and information processing speed possibly facilitate the ability to adapt metaphor processing strategies in a flexible, quick, and appropriate way.

  3. Process evaluation of a stepped-care program to prevent depression in primary care: patients' and practice nurses' experiences.

    Pols, Alide D; Schipper, Karen; Overkamp, Debbie; van Dijk, Susan E; Bosmans, Judith E; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Adriaanse, Marcel C; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2017-02-23

    Depression is common in patients with diabetes type 2 (DM2) and/or coronary heart disease (CHD), with high personal and societal burden and may even be preventable. Recently, a cluster randomized trial of stepped care to prevent depression among patients with DM2 and/or CHD and subthreshold depression in Dutch primary care (Step-Dep) versus usual care showed no effectiveness. This paper presents its process evaluation, exploring in-depth experiences from a patient and practice nurse perspective to further understand the results. A qualitative study was conducted. Using a purposive sampling strategy, data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 24 participants (15 patients and nine practice nurses). All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Atlas.ti 5.7.1 software was used for coding and structuring of themes. A thematic analysis of the data was performed. The process evaluation showed, even through a negative trial, that Step-Dep was perceived as valuable by both patients and practice nurses; perceived effectiveness on improving depressive symptoms varied greatly, but most felt that it had been beneficial for patients' well-being. Facilitators were: increased awareness of mental health problems in chronic disease management and improved accessibility and decreased experienced stigma of receiving mental health care. The Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), used to determine depression severity, functioned as a useful starting point for the conversation on mental health and patients gained more insight into their mental health by regularly filling out the PHQ-9. However, patients and practice nurses did not widely support its use for monitoring depressive symptoms or making treatment decisions. Monitoring mental health was deemed important in chronically ill patients by both patients and practice nurses and was suggested to start at the time of diagnosis of a chronic disease. Appointed barriers were that patients were primarily

  4. The effects of polymers' visco-elastoplastic properties on the micro cavities filling step of hot embossing process

    Cheng, Gang; Barrière, Thierry

    2018-05-01

    The hot embossing process has been widely used in the manufacturing of polymer components, especially for the fabrication of micro or nano components. The significant advantage of the hot embossing process compared to the traditional injection moulding process is the excellent effective filling ratio for the high aspect ratio components and large surface structural components. The lack of material behavior modeling and numerical simulation limits the further development the hot embossing process, especially at the micro and nano scales. In this paper, a visco-elastoplastic behavior law has been proposed to describe the amorphous thermoplastic polymer mechanical properties in the hot embossing processing temperature range, which is lightly above their glass transition temperature. Uniaxial compression tests have been carried out in order to investigate the amorphous thermoplastic polymers properties. The material parameters in the visco-elastoplastic model have been identified according to the experimental results. A 3D numerical model has been created in the simulation software, which is based on the finite element method. The numerical simulation of the filling step of the hot embossing process has been effectuated by taking into account the viscous, elastic and plastic behaviors of thermoplastic polymers. The micro hot embossing process has been carried out using horizontal injection compression moulding equipment. A complete compression mould tool, equipped with the heating system, the cooling system, the ejection system and the vacuum system, has been designed and elaborated for this research work. The microfluidic devices based on the amorphous thermoplastic polymers have been successfully elaborated by hot embossing process. Proper agreement between the numerical simulation and the experimental elaboration has been obtained.

  5. First steps in translating human cognitive processes of cane pruning grapevines into AI rules for automated robotic pruning

    Saxton Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cane pruning of grapevines is a skilled task for which, internationally, there is a dire shortage of human pruners. As part of a larger project developing an automated robotic pruner, we have used artificial intelligence (AI algorithms to create an expert system for selecting new canes and cutting off unwanted canes. A domain and ontology has been created for AI, which reflects the expertise of expert human pruners. The first step in the creation of an expert system was to generate virtual vines, which were then ‘pruned’ by human pruners and also by the expert system in its infancy. Here we examined the decisions of 12 human pruners, for consistency of decision, on 60 virtual vines. 96.7% of the 12 pruners agreed on at least one cane choice after which there was diminishing agreement on which further canes to select for laying. Our results indicate that techniques developed in computational intelligence can be used to co-ordinate and synthesise the expertise of human pruners into a best practice format. This paper describes first steps in this knowledge elicitation process, and discusses the fit between cane pruning expertise and the expertise that can be elicited using AI based expert system techniques.

  6. Novel structure formation at the bottom surface of porous anodic alumina fabricated by single step anodization process.

    Ali, Ghafar; Ahmad, Maqsood; Akhter, Javed Iqbal; Maqbool, Muhammad; Cho, Sung Oh

    2010-08-01

    A simple approach for the growth of long-range highly ordered nanoporous anodic alumina film in H(2)SO(4) electrolyte through a single step anodization without any additional pre-anodizing procedure is reported. Free-standing porous anodic alumina film of 180 microm thickness with through hole morphology was obtained. A simple and single step process was used for the detachment of alumina from aluminum substrate. The effect of anodizing conditions, such as anodizing voltage and time on the pore diameter and pore ordering is discussed. The metal/oxide and oxide/electrolyte interfaces were examined by high resolution scanning transmission electron microscope. The arrangement of pores on metal/oxide interface was well ordered with smaller diameters than that of the oxide/electrolyte interface. The inter-pore distance was larger in metal/oxide interface as compared to the oxide/electrolyte interface. The size of the ordered domain was found to depend strongly upon anodizing voltage and time. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Statistical modeling of tear strength for one step fixation process of reactive printing and easy care finishing

    Asim, F.; Mahmood, M.

    2017-01-01

    Statistical modeling imparts significant role in predicting the impact of potential factors affecting the one step fixation process of reactive printing and easy care finishing. Investigation of significant factors on tear strength of cotton fabric for single step fixation of reactive printing and easy care finishing has been carried out in this research work using experimental design technique. The potential design factors were; concentration of reactive dye, concentration of crease resistant, fixation method and fixation temperature. The experiments were designed using DoE (Design of Experiment) and analyzed through software Design Expert. The detailed analysis of significant factors and interactions including ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), residuals, model accuracy and statistical model for tear strength has been presented. The interaction and contour plots of vital factors has been examined. It has been found from the statistical analysis that each factor has an interaction with other factor. Most of the investigated factors showed curvature effect on other factor. After critical examination of significant plots, quadratic model of tear strength with significant terms and their interaction at alpha = 0.05 has been developed. The calculated correlation coefficient, R2 of the developed model is 0.9056. The high values of correlation coefficient inferred that developed equation of tear strength will precisely predict the tear strength over the range of values. (author)

  8. Hybrid models for the simulation of microstructural evolution influenced by coupled, multiple physical processes

    Tikare, Veena [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez-Rivera, Efrain [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Madison, Jonathan D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Holm, Elizabeth Ann [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Patterson, Burton R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Homer, Eric R. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2013-09-01

    Most materials microstructural evolution processes progress with multiple processes occurring simultaneously. In this work, we have concentrated on the processes that are active in nuclear materials, in particular, nuclear fuels. These processes are coarsening, nucleation, differential diffusion, phase transformation, radiation-induced defect formation and swelling, often with temperature gradients present. All these couple and contribute to evolution that is unique to nuclear fuels and materials. Hybrid model that combines elements from the Potts Monte Carlo, phase-field models and others have been developed to address these multiple physical processes. These models are described and applied to several processes in this report. An important feature of the models developed are that they are coded as applications within SPPARKS, a Sandiadeveloped framework for simulation at the mesoscale of microstructural evolution processes by kinetic Monte Carlo methods. This makes these codes readily accessible and adaptable for future applications.

  9. Superthermostability of nanoscale TIC-reinforced copper alloys manufactured by a two-step ball-milling process

    Wang, Fenglin; Li, Yunping; Xu, Xiandong; Koizumi, Yuichiro; Yamanaka, Kenta; Bian, Huakang; Chiba, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    A Cu-TiC alloy, with nanoscale TiC particles highly dispersed in the submicron-grained Cu matrix, was manufactured by a self-developed two-step ball-milling process on Cu, Ti and C powders. The thermostability of the composite was evaluated by high-temperature isothermal annealing treatments, with temperatures ranging from 727 to 1273 K. The semicoherent nanoscale TiC particles with Cu matrix, mainly located along the grain boundaries, were found to exhibit the promising trait of blocking grain boundary migrations, which leads to a super-stabilized microstructures up to approximately the melting point of copper (1223 K). Furthermore, the Cu-TiC alloys after annealing at 1323 K showed a slight decrease in Vickers hardness as well as the duplex microstructure due to selective grain growth, which were discussed in terms of hardness contributions from various mechanisms.

  10. Northern Steps of EU Enlargement: The Impact of “Cohesion” Policies on Iceland’s Accession Process

    Adriana Di Stefano

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the EU accession process of Iceland, reading the latest northern steps of EU enlargement under a “cohesion” perspective, i.e., through the lens of the cohesion “theory”, namely the method resulting from interactions of the general principles of subsidiarity and cooperation or partnership. From the Mediterranean to the Arctic, the territorial dimension of cohesion policies, as grounded in different EU policies, plays different roles and meets a wide range of economic and social needs. By implementing Nordicum-Mediterraneum analogies, a cohesion-minded EU enlargement approach requires the overall reframing of territorial-based policies and a better allocation of shared responsibilities at the more efficient level of governance.

  11. One-step spray-coating process for the fabrication of colorful superhydrophobic coatings with excellent corrosion resistance.

    Li, Jian; Wu, Runni; Jing, Zhijiao; Yan, Long; Zha, Fei; Lei, Ziqiang

    2015-10-06

    A simple method was used to generate colorful hydrophobic stearate particles via chemical reactions between inorganic salts and sodium stearate. Colored self-cleaning superhydrophobic coatings were prepared through a facile one-step spray-coating process by spraying the stearate particle suspensions onto stainless steel substrates. Furthermore, the colorful superhydrophobic coating maintains excellent chemical stability under both harsh acidic and alkaline circumstances. After being immersed in a 3.5 wt % NaCl aqueous solution for 1 month, the as-prepared coatings remained superhydrophobic; however, they lost their self-cleaning property with a sliding angle of about 46 ± 3°. The corrosion behavior of the superhydrophobic coatings on the Al substrate was characterized by the polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical corrosion test results indicated that the superhydrophobic coatings possessed excellent corrosion resistance, which could supply efficient and long-term preservation for the bare Al substrate.

  12. Global Sensitivity Analysis as Good Modelling Practices tool for the identification of the most influential process parameters of the primary drying step during freeze-drying

    Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; Corver, Jos

    2018-01-01

    Pharmaceutical batch freeze-drying is commonly used to improve the stability of biological therapeutics. The primary drying step is regulated by the dynamic settings of the adaptable process variables, shelf temperature Ts and chamber pressure Pc. Mechanistic modelling of the primary drying step...

  13. Modelling the Dynamics of Intracellular Processes as an Organisation of Multiple Agents

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Armano, G.; Merelli, E.; Denzinger, J.; Martin, A.; Miles, S.; Tianfield, H.; Unland, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how the dynamics of complex biological processes can be modeled as an organisation of multiple agents. This modelling perspective identifies organisational structure occurring in complex decentralised processes and handles complexity of the analysis of the dynamics by structuring

  14. Description of multiple processes on the basis of triangulation in the velocity space

    Baldin, A.M.; Baldin, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    A method of the construction of polyhedrons in the relative four-velocity space is suggested which gives a complete description of multiple processes. A method of the consideration of a general case, when the total number of the relative velocity variables exceeds the number of the degrees of freedom, is also given. The account of the particular features of the polyhedrons due to the clusterization in the velocity space, as well as the account of the existence of intermediate asymptotics and the correlation depletion principle makes it possible to propose an algorithm for processing much larger bulk of experimental information on multiple processes as compared to the inclusive approach

  15. A two-step annealing process for enhancing the ferroelectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) devices

    Park, Jihoon; Kurra, Narendra; AlMadhoun, M. N.; Odeh, Ihab N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    We report a simple two-step annealing scheme for the fabrication of stable non-volatile memory devices employing poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer thin-films. The proposed two-step annealing scheme comprises the crystallization

  16. Simultaneous enhancement of phenolic compound degradations by Acinetobacter strain V2 via a step-wise continuous acclimation process.

    Lin, Johnson; Sharma, Vikas; Milase, Ridwaan; Mbhense, Ntuthuko

    2016-06-01

    Phenol degradation enhancement of Acinetobacter strain V2 by a step-wise continuous acclimation process was investigated. At the end of 8 months, three stable adapted strains, designated as R, G, and Y, were developed with the sub-lethal concentration of phenol at 800, 1100, and 1400 mg/L, respectively, from 400 mg/L of V2 parent strain. All strains degraded phenol at their sub-lethal level within 24 h, their growth rate increased as the acclimation process continued and retained their degradation properties even after storing at -80 °C for more than 3 years. All adapted strains appeared coccoid with an ungranulated surface under electron microscope compared to typical rod-shaped parental strain V2 . The adapted Y strain also possessed superior degradation ability against aniline, benzoate, and toluene. This study demonstrated the use of long term acclimation process to develop efficient and better pollutant degrading bacterial strains with potentials in industrial and environmental bioremediation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A 2-D process-based model for suspended sediment dynamics: a first step towards ecological modeling

    Achete, F. M.; van der Wegen, M.; Roelvink, D.; Jaffe, B.

    2015-06-01

    In estuaries suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is one of the most important contributors to turbidity, which influences habitat conditions and ecological functions of the system. Sediment dynamics differs depending on sediment supply and hydrodynamic forcing conditions that vary over space and over time. A robust sediment transport model is a first step in developing a chain of models enabling simulations of contaminants, phytoplankton and habitat conditions. This works aims to determine turbidity levels in the complex-geometry delta of the San Francisco estuary using a process-based approach (Delft3D Flexible Mesh software). Our approach includes a detailed calibration against measured SSC levels, a sensitivity analysis on model parameters and the determination of a yearly sediment budget as well as an assessment of model results in terms of turbidity levels for a single year, water year (WY) 2011. Model results show that our process-based approach is a valuable tool in assessing sediment dynamics and their related ecological parameters over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The model may act as the base model for a chain of ecological models assessing the impact of climate change and management scenarios. Here we present a modeling approach that, with limited data, produces reliable predictions and can be useful for estuaries without a large amount of processes data.

  18. A 2-D process-based model for suspended sediment dynamics: A first step towards ecological modeling

    Achete, F. M.; van der Wegen, M.; Roelvink, D.; Jaffe, B.

    2015-01-01

    In estuaries suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is one of the most important contributors to turbidity, which influences habitat conditions and ecological functions of the system. Sediment dynamics differs depending on sediment supply and hydrodynamic forcing conditions that vary over space and over time. A robust sediment transport model is a first step in developing a chain of models enabling simulations of contaminants, phytoplankton and habitat conditions. This works aims to determine turbidity levels in the complex-geometry delta of the San Francisco estuary using a process-based approach (Delft3D Flexible Mesh software). Our approach includes a detailed calibration against measured SSC levels, a sensitivity analysis on model parameters and the determination of a yearly sediment budget as well as an assessment of model results in terms of turbidity levels for a single year, water year (WY) 2011. Model results show that our process-based approach is a valuable tool in assessing sediment dynamics and their related ecological parameters over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The model may act as the base model for a chain of ecological models assessing the impact of climate change and management scenarios. Here we present a modeling approach that, with limited data, produces reliable predictions and can be useful for estuaries without a large amount of processes data.

  19. Application of neural networks to multiple alarm processing and diagnosis in nuclear power plants

    Cheon, Se Woo; Chang Soon Heung; Chung, Hak Yeong

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents feasibility studies of multiple alarm processing and diagnosis using neural networks. The back-propagation neural network model is applied to the training of multiple alarm patterns for the identification of failure in a reactor coolant pump (RCP) system. The general mapping capability of the neural network enables to identify a fault easily. The case studies are performed with emphasis on the applicability of the neural network to pattern recognition problems. It is revealed that the neural network model can identify the cause of multiple alarms properly, even when untrained or sensor-failed alarm symptoms are given. It is also shown that multiple failures are easily identified using the symptoms of multiple alarms

  20. Statistical process control and verifying positional accuracy of a cobra motion couch using step-wedge quality assurance tool.

    Binny, Diana; Lancaster, Craig M; Trapp, Jamie V; Crowe, Scott B

    2017-09-01

    This study utilizes process control techniques to identify action limits for TomoTherapy couch positioning quality assurance tests. A test was introduced to monitor accuracy of the applied couch offset detection in the TomoTherapy Hi-Art treatment system using the TQA "Step-Wedge Helical" module and MVCT detector. Individual X-charts, process capability (cp), probability (P), and acceptability (cpk) indices were used to monitor a 4-year couch IEC offset data to detect systematic and random errors in the couch positional accuracy for different action levels. Process capability tests were also performed on the retrospective data to define tolerances based on user-specified levels. A second study was carried out whereby physical couch offsets were applied using the TQA module and the MVCT detector was used to detect the observed variations. Random and systematic variations were observed for the SPC-based upper and lower control limits, and investigations were carried out to maintain the ongoing stability of the process for a 4-year and a three-monthly period. Local trend analysis showed mean variations up to ±0.5 mm in the three-monthly analysis period for all IEC offset measurements. Variations were also observed in the detected versus applied offsets using the MVCT detector in the second study largely in the vertical direction, and actions were taken to remediate this error. Based on the results, it was recommended that imaging shifts in each coordinate direction be only applied after assessing the machine for applied versus detected test results using the step helical module. User-specified tolerance levels of at least ±2 mm were recommended for a test frequency of once every 3 months to improve couch positional accuracy. SPC enables detection of systematic variations prior to reaching machine tolerance levels. Couch encoding system recalibrations reduced variations to user-specified levels and a monitoring period of 3 months using SPC facilitated in detecting

  1. 1998 Annual Study Report. Standardization of manufacturing process systems; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Seisan process system no hyojunka (STEP kiban kikaku no kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The standards for exchanging and sharing product model data are being internationalized, mainly by ISO-10303 (STEP). The current specifications are not fully developed to include all of the functions needed by the industrial circles, e.g., the functions capable of expressing dynamic product models useful for design alterations and manufacturing processes. In order to solve these problems, and, in particular, to propose the specifications which meet the functions required by the domestic industries, the necessary conditions which the STEP basic specifications should satisfy are investigate to propose the Japan-developed international specifications. One of the major results of the efforts in this year is development of the functional model (I-AAM) which allows to analyze the functions to be proposed for the specifications for the mechanical production processes in the Japanese industries. The necessary data model candidates can be selected by the aid of the model. The efforts will be further continued in and after the next year, based on the results obtained in this year, to eventually develop the specifications which can be registered by NWI. (NEDO)

  2. Uncoupled hydrogen and volatile fatty acids generation in a two-step biotechnological anaerobic process fed with actual site wastewater.

    Monti, Matilde; Scoma, Alberto; Martinez, Gonzalo; Bertin, Lorenzo; Fava, Fabio

    2015-05-25

    Among agro-wastes, olive mill wastewater (OMW) truly qualifies as a high impact organic residue due to its biochemical-rich composition and high annual production. In the present investigation, dephenolized OMW (OMWdeph) was employed as the feedstock for a biotechnological two-stage anaerobic process dedicated to the production of biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), respectively. To this end, two identically configured packed-bed biofilm reactors were operated sequentially. In the first, the hydraulic retention time was set to 1 day, whereas in the second it was equal to 5 days. The rationale was to decouple the hydrolysis of the organic macronutrients held by the OMWdeph, so as to quantitatively generate a biogas enriched in H2 (first stage aim), for the acidogenesis of the residual components left after hydrolysis, to then produce a highly concentrated mixture of VFAs (second stage aim). Results showed that the generation of H2 and VFAs was effectively split, with carbohydrates and lipids, respectively, being the main substrates of the two processes. About 250 ml H2 L(-1) day(-1) was produced, corresponding to a yield of 0.36 mol mol(-1) of consumed carbohydrates (expressed as glucose equivalents). The overall concentration of VFAs in the acidogenic process was 13.80 g COD L(-1), so that 2.76 g COD L(-1) day(-1) was obtained. Second generation biorefineries use a selected fraction of an organic waste to conduct a microbiologically-driven pathway towards the generation of one target molecule. With the proposed approach, a greater value of the waste was attained, since the multi-purpose two-stage process did not entail competition for substrates between the first and the second steps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ATMS Step By Step.

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    This manual is designed to provide an introduction and basic guide to the use of IBM's Advanced Text Management System (ATMS), the text processing system to be used for the creation of Australian data bases within AUSINET. Instructions are provided for using the system to enter, store, retrieve, and modify data, which may then be displayed at the…

  4. Cintichem modified process - {sup 99}Mo precipitation step: application of statistical analysis tools over the reaction parameters

    Teodoro, Rodrigo; Dias, Carla R.B.R.; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: jaosso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandez Nunez, Eutimio Gustavo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2011-07-01

    Precipitation of {sup 99}Mo by {alpha}-benzoin oxime ({alpha}-Bz) is a standard precipitation method for molybdenum due the high selectivity of this agent. Nowadays, statistical analysis tools have been employed in analytical systems to prove its efficiency and feasibility. IPEN has a project aiming the production of {sup 99}Mo by the fission of {sup 235}U route. The processing uses as the first step the precipitation of {sup 99}Mo with {alpha}-Bz. This precipitation step involves many key reaction parameters. The aim of this work is based on the development of the already known acidic route to produce {sup 99}Mo as well as the optimization of the reactional parameters applying statistical tools. In order to simulate {sup 99}Mo precipitation, the study was conducted in acidic media using HNO{sub 3}, {alpha}Bz as precipitant agent and NaOH /1%H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as dissolver solution. Then, a Mo carrier, KMnO{sub 4} solutions and {sup 99}Mo tracer were added to the reaction flask. The reactional parameters ({alpha}-Bz/Mo ratio, Mo carrier, reaction time and temperature, and cooling reaction time before filtration) were evaluated under a fractional factorial design of resolution V. The best values of each reactional parameter were determined by a response surface statistical planning. The precipitation and recovery yields of {sup 99}Mo were measured using HPGe detector. Statistical analysis from experimental data suggested that the reactional parameters {alpha}-Bz/Mo ratio, reaction time and temperature have a significant impact on {sup 99}Mo precipitation. Optimization statistical planning showed that higher {alpha}Bz/Mo ratios, room temperature, and lower reaction time lead to higher {sup 99}Mo yields. (author)

  5. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of low-carbon steel treated by a two-step quenching and partitioning process

    Yan, Shu [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling & Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Xianghua, E-mail: liuxh@mail.neu.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling & Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Research Academy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Wayne J [Research Academy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Lan, Huifang; Wu, Hongyan [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling & Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2015-07-29

    The quenching and partitioning (Q&P) process is studied in Ti-bearing low-carbon steel. Detailed characterization of the microstructural evolution is performed by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that the investigated steel subjected to the Q&P process forms a multiphase microstructure of primarily lath martensite, with small amounts of plate-type martensite and retained austenite. The distribution and morphology of the retained austenite are observed; moreover the relationship between the phase fraction of the retained austenite, its carbon concentration, and the partitioning conditions is established. Carbides preferentially precipitate within the plate-type martensite at first, and gradually form in the martensitic laths over time during the partitioning step. Additionally, titanium precipitations contribute to both the refinement of prior austenite grains and the improvement of strength by precipitation strengthening. The results of mechanical properties testing indicate that the samples partitioned at 400 °C exhibit a superior combination of strength and elongation, with products of the two properties ranging between 19.6 and 20.9 GPa%. Based on analysis of work hardening behavior it is determined that the higher ductility is closely related to the higher phase fraction and/or stability of retained austenite.

  6. Spectral Difference in the Image Domain for Large Neighborhoods, a GEOBIA Pre-Processing Step for High Resolution Imagery

    Roeland de Kok

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Contrast plays an important role in the visual interpretation of imagery. To mimic visual interpretation and using contrast in a Geographic Object Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA environment, it is useful to consider an analysis for single pixel objects. This should be done before applying homogeneity criteria in the aggregation of pixels for the construction of meaningful image objects. The habit or “best practice” to start GEOBIA with pixel aggregation into homogeneous objects should come with the awareness that feature attributes for single pixels are at risk of becoming less accessible for further analysis. Single pixel contrast with image convolution on close neighborhoods is a standard technique, also applied in edge detection. This study elaborates on the analysis of close as well as much larger neighborhoods inside the GEOBIA domain. The applied calculations are limited to the first segmentation step for single pixel objects in order to produce additional feature attributes for objects of interest to be generated in further aggregation processes. The equation presented functions at a level that is considered an intermediary product in the sequential processing of imagery. The procedure requires intensive processor and memory capacity. The resulting feature attributes highlight not only contrasting pixels (edges but also contrasting areas of local pixel groups. The suggested approach can be extended and becomes useful in classifying artificial areas at national scales using high resolution satellite mosaics.

  7. Tubing-Electrospinning: A One-Step Process for Fabricating Fibrous Matrices with Spatial, Chemical, and Mechanical Gradients.

    Kim, Jung-Suk; Im, Byung Gee; Jin, Gyuhyung; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2016-08-31

    Guiding newly generated tissues in a gradient pattern, thereby precisely mimicking inherent tissue morphology and subsequently arranging the intimate networks between adjacent tissues, is essential to raise the technical levels of tissue engineering and facilitate its transition into the clinic. In this study, a straightforward electrospinning method (the tubing-electrospinning technique) was developed to create fibrous matrices readily with diverse gradient patterns and to induce patterned cellular responses. Gradient fibrous matrices can be produced simply by installing a series of polymer-containing lengths of tubing into an electrospinning circuit and sequentially processing polymers without a time lag. The loading of polymer samples with different characteristics, including concentration, wettability, and mechanical properties, into the tubing system enabled unique features in fibrous matrices, such as longitudinal gradients in fiber density, surface properties, and mechanical stiffness. The resulting fibrous gradients were shown to arrange cellular migration and residence in a gradient manner, thereby offering efficient cues to mediate patterned tissue formation. The one-step process using tubing-electrospinning apparatus can be used without significant modifications regardless of the type of fibrous gradient. Hence, the tubing-electrospinning system can serve as a platform that can be readily used by a wide-range of users to induce patterned tissue formation in a gradient manner, which will ultimately improve the functionality of tissue engineering scaffolds.

  8. RT-CaCCO process: an improved CaCCO process for rice straw by its incorporation with a step of lime pretreatment at room temperature.

    Shiroma, Riki; Park, Jeung-yil; Al-Haq, Muhammad Imran; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Ike, Masakazu; Tokuyasu, Ken

    2011-02-01

    We improved the CaCCO process for rice straw by its incorporation with a step of lime pretreatment at room temperature (RT). We firstly optimized the RT-lime pretreatment for the lignocellulosic part. When the ratio of lime/dry-biomass was 0.2 (w/w), the RT lime-pretreatment for 7-d resulted in an effect on the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose and xylan equivalent to that of the pretreatment at 120°C for 1h. Sucrose, starch and β-1,3-1,4-glucan, which could be often detected in rice straw, were mostly stable under the RT-lime pretreatment condition. Then, the pretreatment condition in the conventional CaCCO process was modified by the adaptation of the optimized RT lime-pretreatment, resulting in significantly better carbohydrate recoveries via enzymatic saccharification than those of the CaCCO process (120°C for 1 h). Thus, the improved CaCCO process (the RT-CaCCO process) could preserve/pretreat the feedstock at RT in a wet form with minimum loss of carbohydrates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A data-driven multiplicative fault diagnosis approach for automation processes.

    Hao, Haiyang; Zhang, Kai; Ding, Steven X; Chen, Zhiwen; Lei, Yaguo

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new data-driven method for diagnosing multiplicative key performance degradation in automation processes. Different from the well-established additive fault diagnosis approaches, the proposed method aims at identifying those low-level components which increase the variability of process variables and cause performance degradation. Based on process data, features of multiplicative fault are extracted. To identify the root cause, the impact of fault on each process variable is evaluated in the sense of contribution to performance degradation. Then, a numerical example is used to illustrate the functionalities of the method and Monte-Carlo simulation is performed to demonstrate the effectiveness from the statistical viewpoint. Finally, to show the practical applicability, a case study on the Tennessee Eastman process is presented. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Langevin equation with multiplicative white noise: Transformation of diffusion processes into the Wiener process in different prescriptions

    Kwok, Sau Fa

    2012-01-01

    A Langevin equation with multiplicative white noise and its corresponding Fokker–Planck equation are considered in this work. From the Fokker–Planck equation a transformation into the Wiener process is provided for different orders of prescription in discretization rule for the stochastic integrals. A few applications are also discussed. - Highlights: ► Fokker–Planck equation corresponding to the Langevin equation with mul- tiplicative white noise is presented. ► Transformation of diffusion processes into the Wiener process in different prescriptions is provided. ► The prescription parameter is associated with the growth rate for a Gompertz-type model.

  11. Defining process design space for a hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) purification step: application of quality by design (QbD) principles.

    Jiang, Canping; Flansburg, Lisa; Ghose, Sanchayita; Jorjorian, Paul; Shukla, Abhinav A

    2010-12-15

    The concept of design space has been taking root under the quality by design paradigm as a foundation of in-process control strategies for biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. This paper outlines the development of a design space for a hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) process step. The design space included the impact of raw material lot-to-lot variability and variations in the feed stream from cell culture. A failure modes and effects analysis was employed as the basis for the process characterization exercise. During mapping of the process design space, the multi-dimensional combination of operational variables were studied to quantify the impact on process performance in terms of yield and product quality. Variability in resin hydrophobicity was found to have a significant influence on step yield and high-molecular weight aggregate clearance through the HIC step. A robust operating window was identified for this process step that enabled a higher step yield while ensuring acceptable product quality. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Tunable hydrogel composite with two-step processing in combination with innovative hardware upgrade for cell-based three-dimensional bioprinting.

    Wüst, Silke; Godla, Marie E; Müller, Ralph; Hofmann, Sandra

    2014-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) bioprinting is the layer-by-layer deposition of biological material with the aim of achieving stable 3-D constructs for application in tissue engineering. It is a powerful tool for the spatially directed placement of multiple materials and/or cells within the 3-D sample. Encapsulated cells are protected by the bioink during the printing process. Very few materials are available that fulfill requirements for bioprinting as well as provide adequate properties for cell encapsulation during and after the printing process. A hydrogel composite including alginate and gelatin precursors was tuned with different concentrations of hydroxyapatite (HA) and characterized in terms of rheology, swelling behavior and mechanical properties to assess the versatility of the system. Instantaneous as well as long-term structural integrity of the printed hydrogel was achieved with a two-step mechanism combining the thermosensitive properties of gelatin with chemical crosslinking of alginate. Novel syringe tip heaters were developed for improved temperature control of the bioink to avoid clogging. Human mesenchymal stem cells mixed into the hydrogel precursor survived the printing process and showed high cell viability of 85% living cells after 3 days of subsequent in vitro culture. HA enabled the visualization of the printed structures with micro-computed tomography. The inclusion of HA also favors the use of the bioink for bone tissue engineering applications. By adding factors other than HA, the composite could be used as a bioink for applications in drug delivery, microsphere deposition or soft tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Single-step Process to Convert Karanja Oil to Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Using Amberlyst15 as a Catalyst

    Arun K. Gupta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Karanja oil was successfully converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME in a single- step process using Amberlyst15 as a catalyst. A methanol to oil ratio of 6 was required to retain the physical structure of the Amberlyst15 catalyst. At higher methanol to oil ratios, the Amberlyst15 catalyst disintegrated. Disintegration of Amberlyst15 caused an irreversible loss in catalytic activity. This loss in activity was due to a decrease in surface area of Amberlyst15, which was caused by a decrease in its mesoporous volume. It appeared that the chemical nature of Amberlyst15 was unaffected. Reuse of Amberlyst15 with a methanol to oil ratio of 6:1 also revealed a loss in FAME yield. However, this loss in activity was recovered by heating the used Amberlyst15 catalyst to 393 K. The kinetic parameters of a power law model were successfully determined for a methanol to oil ratio of 6:1. An activation energy of 54.9 kJ mol–1 was obtained.

  14. Exogenous ROS-induced cell sheet transfer based on hematoporphyrin-polyketone film via a one-step process.

    Koo, Min-Ah; Lee, Mi Hee; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Kim, Min Sung; Kim, Dohyun; Nam, Ki Chang; Park, Jong-Chul

    2018-04-01

    To date, most of invasive cell sheet harvesting methods have used culture surface property variations, such as wettability, pH, electricity, and magnetism, to induce cell detachment. These methods that rely on surface property changes are effective when cell detachment prior to application is necessary, but of limited use when used for cell sheet transfer to target regions. The study reports a new reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced strategy based on hematoporphyrin-incorporated polyketone film (Hp-PK film) to transfer cell sheets directly to target areas without an intermediate harvesting process. After green LED (510 nm) irradiation, production of exogenous ROS from the Hp-PK films induces cell sheet detachment and transfer. The study suggests that ROS-induced cell detachment property of the Hp-PK film is closely related to conformational changes of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Also, this strategy with the Hp-PK film can be applied by regulating production rate of exogenous ROS in various types of cells, including fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells and keratinocytes. In conclusion, ROS-induced method using the Hp-PK film can be used for one-step cell sheet transplantation and has potential in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Near-Space TOPSAR Large-Scene Full-Aperture Imaging Scheme Based on Two-Step Processing

    Qianghui Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Free of the constraints of orbit mechanisms, weather conditions and minimum antenna area, synthetic aperture radar (SAR equipped on near-space platform is more suitable for sustained large-scene imaging compared with the spaceborne and airborne counterparts. Terrain observation by progressive scans (TOPS, which is a novel wide-swath imaging mode and allows the beam of SAR to scan along the azimuth, can reduce the time of echo acquisition for large scene. Thus, near-space TOPS-mode SAR (NS-TOPSAR provides a new opportunity for sustained large-scene imaging. An efficient full-aperture imaging scheme for NS-TOPSAR is proposed in this paper. In this scheme, firstly, two-step processing (TSP is adopted to eliminate the Doppler aliasing of the echo. Then, the data is focused in two-dimensional frequency domain (FD based on Stolt interpolation. Finally, a modified TSP (MTSP is performed to remove the azimuth aliasing. Simulations are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed imaging scheme for near-space large-scene imaging application.

  16. Life cycle assessment of the transesterification double step process for biodiesel production from refined soybean oil in Brazil.

    Carvalho, Monica; da Silva, Elson Santos; Andersen, Silvia L F; Abrahão, Raphael

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel has been attracting considerable attention as being a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel that can contribute to the solution of some energy issues as it presents potential to help mitigate climate change. The Life Cycle Assessment of biodiesel from soybean oil (transesterification double step process) was carried out herein. A pilot plant was considered, designed to produce 72 L of biodiesel in daily continuous flow, throughout a lifetime of 15 years (8000 annual hours). The materials and equipment utilized in the construction of the plant were considered as well as the energy and substances required for the production of biodiesel. Environmental impact assessment method IPCC 2013 GWP 100a was utilized within the SimaPro software to express the final result in kg CO2-equivalent. The results quantified the CO2 emissions associated with biodiesel production throughout the lifetime of the production plant (15 years), resulting in a total value of 1,441,426.05 kg CO2-eq. (96,095.07 kg CO2-eq. per year), which was equivalent to 4.01 kg CO2-eq. per liter of biodiesel produced. Decrease of environmental loads associated with the production of biodiesel could include improvements on the handling of biomass agriculture and on the technology production of biodiesel.

  17. Multifractal properties of diffusion-limited aggregates and random multiplicative processes

    Canessa, E.

    1991-04-01

    We consider the multifractal properties of irreversible diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) from the point of view of the self-similarity of fluctuations in random multiplicative processes. In particular we analyse the breakdown of multifractal behaviour and phase transition associated with the negative moments of the growth probabilities in DLA. (author). 20 refs, 5 figs

  18. Optimization of high free fatty acid reduction in mixed crude palm oils using circulation process through static mixer reactor and pilot-scale of two-step process

    Somnuk, Krit; Niseng, Suhdee; Prateepchaikul, Gumpon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reducing FFA in MCPO was circulated through static mixer alone in the lab-scale. • Methanol and sulfuric acid were varied in the esterification reaction. • RSM was employed to optimize the acid-catalyzed esterification in lab-scale. • 60 L of pilot-scale was designed on the basis of a simple operation and maintenance. - Abstract: High free fatty acid (FFA) reduction in mixed crude palm oil (MCPO) was performed with methanol (MeOH) and sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) as acid catalyst using the circulation process through static mixer reactor. In this study, the response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to optimize the acid value in esterified oil after esterification process (first-step) in lab-scale. The results showed that acid value was reduced from 30 mgKOH g −1 to 2 mgKOH g −1 , when 19.8 vol.% MeOH, 2.0 vol.% H 2 SO 4 , reaction temperature 60 °C, 40 L h −1 of MCPO, 50 min reaction time, and 5-m of static mixer in length, were used in the lab-scale. This recommended condition was used to develop the pilot-scale process in which the scaling up of the FFA reduction from 5 L MCPO of lab-scale to 60 L MCPO of pilot-scale, which was designed on the basis of a simple operation and maintenance. In the pilot-scale process, the lower 1 mgKOH g −1 of acid value was achieved when it was conducted at the reaction time of 50 min. In the base-catalyzed transesterification (second-step) of pilot-scale process, the 98.65 wt.% of methyl ester purity was achieved when the following condition: 20 vol.% MeOH, 8 gKOH L −1 oil, and 60 min reaction time at 60 °C, was used to produce biodiesel

  19. Hidden symmetries and equilibrium properties of multiplicative white-noise stochastic processes

    González Arenas, Zochil; Barci, Daniel G.

    2012-12-01

    Multiplicative white-noise stochastic processes continue to attract attention in a wide area of scientific research. The variety of prescriptions available for defining them makes the development of general tools for their characterization difficult. In this work, we study equilibrium properties of Markovian multiplicative white-noise processes. For this, we define the time reversal transformation for such processes, taking into account that the asymptotic stationary probability distribution depends on the prescription. Representing the stochastic process in a functional Grassmann formalism, we avoid the necessity of fixing a particular prescription. In this framework, we analyze equilibrium properties and study hidden symmetries of the process. We show that, using a careful definition of the equilibrium distribution and taking into account the appropriate time reversal transformation, usual equilibrium properties are satisfied for any prescription. Finally, we present a detailed deduction of a covariant supersymmetric formulation of a multiplicative Markovian white-noise process and study some of the constraints that it imposes on correlation functions using Ward-Takahashi identities.

  20. Hidden symmetries and equilibrium properties of multiplicative white-noise stochastic processes

    Arenas, Zochil González; Barci, Daniel G

    2012-01-01

    Multiplicative white-noise stochastic processes continue to attract attention in a wide area of scientific research. The variety of prescriptions available for defining them makes the development of general tools for their characterization difficult. In this work, we study equilibrium properties of Markovian multiplicative white-noise processes. For this, we define the time reversal transformation for such processes, taking into account that the asymptotic stationary probability distribution depends on the prescription. Representing the stochastic process in a functional Grassmann formalism, we avoid the necessity of fixing a particular prescription. In this framework, we analyze equilibrium properties and study hidden symmetries of the process. We show that, using a careful definition of the equilibrium distribution and taking into account the appropriate time reversal transformation, usual equilibrium properties are satisfied for any prescription. Finally, we present a detailed deduction of a covariant supersymmetric formulation of a multiplicative Markovian white-noise process and study some of the constraints that it imposes on correlation functions using Ward–Takahashi identities. (paper)

  1. Machining of AISI D2 Tool Steel with Multiple Hole Electrodes by EDM Process

    Prasad Prathipati, R.; Devuri, Venkateswarlu; Cheepu, Muralimohan; Gudimetla, Kondaiah; Uzwal Kiran, R.

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, with the increasing of technology the demand for machining processes is increasing for the newly developed materials. The conventional machining processes are not adequate to meet the accuracy of the machining of these materials. The non-conventional machining processes of electrical discharge machining is one of the most efficient machining processes is being widely used to machining of high accuracy products of various industries. The optimum selection of process parameters is very important in machining processes as that of an electrical discharge machining as they determine surface quality and dimensional precision of the obtained parts, even though time consumption rate is higher for machining of large dimension features. In this work, D2 high carbon and chromium tool steel has been machined using electrical discharge machining with the multiple hole electrode technique. The D2 steel has several applications such as forming dies, extrusion dies and thread rolling. But the machining of this tool steel is very hard because of it shard alloyed elements of V, Cr and Mo which enhance its strength and wear properties. However, the machining is possible by using electrical discharge machining process and the present study implemented a new technique to reduce the machining time using a multiple hole copper electrode. In this technique, while machining with multiple holes electrode, fin like projections are obtained, which can be removed easily by chipping. Then the finishing is done by using solid electrode. The machining time is reduced to around 50% while using multiple hole electrode technique for electrical discharge machining.

  2. Multi-step processes in the (d, t) and (d, 3He) reactions on 116Sn and 208Pb targets at Ed = 200 MeV

    Langevin-Joliot, H.; Van de Wiele, J.; Guillot, J.; Koning, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The role of multi-step processes in the reactions 116 Sn(d,t), 208 Pb(d,t) and 116 Sn(d, 3 He), previously studied at E d = 200 MeV at forward angles and for relatively low energy transfers, has been investigated. We have performed for the first time multi-step calculations taking into account systematically collective excitations in the second and higher order step inelastic transitions. A calculation code based on the Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin model has been modified to handle explicitly these collective excitations, most important in the forward angle domain. One step double differential pick-up cross sections were built from finite range distorted wave results spread in energy using known or estimated hole state characteristics. It is shown that two-step cross sections calculated using the above method compare rather well with those deduced via coupled channel calculations for the same collective excitations. The multi-step calculations performed up to 6 steps reproduce reasonably well the 115 Sn, 207 Pb and 115 In experimental spectra measured up to E x ∼- 40 MeV and 15 deg. The relative contributions of steps of increasing order to pick-up cross sections at E d = 200 MeV and 150 MeV are discussed. (authors)

  3. Visual processing of multiple elements in the dyslexic brain: evidence for a superior parietal dysfunction

    Muriel Anne Lobier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The visual attention (VA span deficit hypothesis of developmental dyslexia posits that impaired multiple element processing can be responsible for poor reading outcomes. In VA span impaired dyslexic children, poor performance on letter report tasks is associated with reduced parietal activations for multiple letter processing. While this hints towards a non-specific, attention-based dysfunction, it is still unclear whether reduced parietal activity generalizes to other types of stimuli. Furthermore, putative links between reduced parietal activity and reduced ventral occipito-temporal (vOT in dyslexia have yet to be explored. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in 12 VA span impaired dyslexic adults and 12 adult skilled readers while they carried out a categorization task on single or multiple alphanumeric or non-alphanumeric characters. While healthy readers activated parietal areas more strongly for multiple than single element processing (right-sided for alphanumeric and bilateral for non-alphanumeric, similar stronger multiple element right parietal activations were absent for dyslexic participants. Contrasts between skilled and dyslexic readers revealed significantly reduced right superior parietal lobule (SPL activity for dyslexic readers regardless of stimuli type. Using a priori anatomically defined ROI, we showed that neural activity was reduced for dyslexic participants in both SPL and vOT bilaterally. Finally, we used multiple regressions to test whether SPL activity could predict vOT activity in each group. In the left hemisphere, SPL activity modulated vOT activity for both normal and dyslexic readers. In contrast, in the right hemisphere, SPL activity modulated vOT activity only for dyslexic readers. These results bring critical support to the visual attention interpretation of the VA Span deficit. In addition, they offer a new insight on how deficits in automatic vOT based word recognition could arise in developmental dyslexia.

  4. 25 CFR 256.14 - What are the steps that must be taken to process my application for the Housing Improvement Program?

    2010-04-01

    ... to process my application for the Housing Improvement Program? (a) The servicing housing office must... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the steps that must be taken to process my application for the Housing Improvement Program? 256.14 Section 256.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS...

  5. In situ biosynthesis of bacterial nanocellulose-CaCO{sub 3} hybrid bionanocomposite: One-step process

    Mohammadkazemi, Faranak, E-mail: f_mkazemi@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Cellulose and Paper Technology, Faculty of New Technologies Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Science and Research Campus, Zirab, Savadkooh, Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faria, Marisa; Cordeiro, Nereida [Faculty of Exact Science and Engineering, University of Madeira, Funchal (Portugal)

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a simple and green route to the synthesis of the bacterial nanocellulose-calcium carbonate (BNC/CaCO{sub 3}) hybrid bionanocomposites using one-step in situ biosynthesis was studied. The CaCO{sub 3} was incorporated in the bacterial nanocellulose structure during the cellulose biosynthesis by Gluconacetobacter xylinus PTCC 1734 bacteria. Hestrin-Schramm (HS) and Zhou (Z) culture media were used to the hybrid bionanocomposites production and the effect of ethanol addition was investigated. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inverse gas chromatography and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the samples. The experimental results demonstrated that the ethanol and culture medium play an important role in the BNC/CaCO{sub 3} hybrid bionanocomposites production, structure and properties. The BNC/CaCO{sub 3} biosynthesized in Z culture medium revealed higher O/C ratio and amphoteric surface character, which justify the highest CaCO{sub 3} content incorporation. The CaCO{sub 3} was incorporated into the cellulosic matrix decreasing the bacterial nanocellulose crystallinity. This work reveals the high potential of in situ biosynthesis of BNC/CaCO{sub 3} hybrid bionanocomposites and opens a new way to the high value-added applications of bacterial nanocellulose. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • BNC/CaCO{sub 3} hybrid bionanocomposites were produced using in situ biosynthesis process. • Ethanol and culture medium play an important role in the production and properties. • Z-BNC/CaCO{sub 3} bionanocomposites revealed higher O/C ratio and amphoteric surface character. • CaCO{sub 3} incorporated into the BNC decreased crystallinity.

  6. The Effect of Multi-step Oral-revision Processes on Iranian EFL Learners’ Argumentative Writing Achievement

    Farrokhlagha Heidari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the role of two multi-step oral-revision processes as feedback providing tools on Iranian EFL learners’ argumentative writing achievement. The participants taking part in this study were 45 Iranian EFL students who were randomly assigned into three groups. The participants of the groups were given three argumentative writing assignments, each assignment demanding three separate drafts. In the control group, the participants revised their essays in response to teacher's written feedback, while the participants of the two experimental groups experienced oral-revision talks with their teacher or a peer. Two sets of quantitative and qualitative data were collected: Argumentative essays written at the beginning and the end of the semester and interviews. The results of the quantitative aspect of the study revealed the significant outperformance of the two experimental groups. Moreover, the data provided through interviews revealed some differences in terms of the effectiveness of feedback between the two experimental groups. The participants of the peer-led group reported more awareness of the rhetorical structures and an ability to revise surface errors. While, the teacher-led group reported more global writing concerns like content, organization of ideas,   and discourse. The obtained results point out that the mutual co-construction of participation roles and certain combinations of negotiation and scaffolding let the teacher provide a supportive conversational environment and assistance in accordance with the proficiency of learners of the teacher-led group to promote greater learner participation.

  7. GaN microring waveguide resonators bonded to silicon substrate by a two-step polymer process.

    Hashida, Ryohei; Sasaki, Takashi; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2018-03-20

    Using a polymer bonding technique, GaN microring waveguide resonators were fabricated on a Si substrate for future hybrid integration of GaN and Si photonic devices. The designed GaN microring consisted of a rib waveguide having a core of 510 nm in thickness, 1000 nm in width, and a clad of 240 nm in thickness. A GaN crystalline layer of 1000 nm in thickness was grown on a Si(111) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition using a buffer layer of 300 nm in thickness for the compensation of lattice constant mismatch between GaN and Si crystals. The GaN/Si wafer was bonded to a Si(100) wafer by a two-step polymer process to prevent it from trapping air bubbles. The bonded GaN layer was thinned from the backside by a fast atom beam etching to remove the buffer layer and to generate the rib waveguides. The transmission characteristics of the GaN microring waveguide resonators were measured. The losses of the straight waveguides were measured to be 4.0±1.7  dB/mm around a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The microring radii ranged from 30 to 60 μm, where the measured free-spectral ranges varied from 2.58 to 5.30 nm. The quality factors of the microring waveguide resonators were from 1710 to 2820.

  8. Optimization of Multiple Responses of Ultrasonic Machining (USM Process: A Comparative Study

    Rina Chakravorty

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic machining (USM process has multiple performance measures, e.g. material removal rate (MRR, tool wear rate (TWR, surface roughness (SR etc., which are affected by several process parameters. The researchers commonly attempted to optimize USM process with respect to individual responses, separately. In the recent past, several systematic procedures for dealing with the multi-response optimization problems have been proposed in the literature. Although most of these methods use complex mathematics or statistics, there are some simple methods, which can be comprehended and implemented by the engineers to optimize the multiple responses of USM processes. However, the relative optimization performance of these approaches is unknown because the effectiveness of different methods has been demonstrated using different sets of process data. In this paper, the computational requirements for four simple methods are presented, and two sets of past experimental data on USM processes are analysed using these methods. The relative performances of these methods are then compared. The results show that weighted signal-to-noise (WSN ratio method and utility theory (UT method usually give better overall optimisation performance for the USM process than the other approaches.

  9. A Three-Step Atomic Layer Deposition Process for SiN x Using Si2Cl6, CH3NH2, and N2 Plasma.

    Ovanesyan, Rafaiel A; Hausmann, Dennis M; Agarwal, Sumit

    2018-06-06

    We report a novel three-step SiN x atomic layer deposition (ALD) process using Si 2 Cl 6 , CH 3 NH 2 , and N 2 plasma. In a two-step process, nonhydrogenated chlorosilanes such as Si 2 Cl 6 with N 2 plasmas lead to poor-quality SiN x films that oxidize rapidly. The intermediate CH 3 NH 2 step was therefore introduced in the ALD cycle to replace the NH 3 plasma step with a N 2 plasma, while using Si 2 Cl 6 as the Si precursor. This three-step process lowers the atomic H content and improves the film conformality on high-aspect-ratio nanostructures as Si-N-Si bonds are formed during a thermal CH 3 NH 2 step in addition to the N 2 plasma step. During ALD, the reactive surface sites were monitored using in situ surface infrared spectroscopy. Our infrared spectra show that, on the post-N 2 plasma-treated SiN x surface, Si 2 Cl 6 reacts primarily with the surface -NH 2 species to form surface -SiCl x ( x = 1, 2, or 3) bonds, which are the reactive sites during the CH 3 NH 2 cycle. In the N 2 plasma step, reactive -NH 2 surface species are created because of the surface H available from the -CH 3 groups. At 400 °C, the SiN x films have a growth per cycle of ∼0.9 Å with ∼12 atomic percent H. The films grown on high-aspect-ratio nanostructures have a conformality of ∼90%.

  10. Neuroimaging of language processes: fMRI of silent and overt lexical processing and the promise of multiple process imaging in single brain studies

    Borowsky, R.; Owen, W.J.; Wile, T.L.; Friesen, C.K.; Martin, J.L.; Sarty, G.E.

    2005-01-01

    To implement and evaluate a multiple-process functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm designed to effectively and efficiently activate several language-related regions for use with neurosurgical patients. Both overt and covert response conditions were examined. The fMRI experiments compared the traditional silent word-generation condition versus an overt one as they engage frontal language regions (Experiment 1) and silent versus overt semantic association conditions as they engage multiple language processing regions (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1 the overt condition yielded greater magnitude of activation, but not volume of activation, in the left inferior frontal and insular cortices than did the silent condition for most, but not all, participants. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the activation of multiple established language processing regions (ie, orthographic, phonological and semantic) can be achieved in a significant number of participants, particularly under overt semantic association conditions and that such activation varies in predictable ways. The traditional silent response condition cannot be considered as equivalent to the overt response condition during word generation or semantic association. The multiple-process imaging method introduced here was sensitive to processing robust orthographic, phonological, and semantic regions, particularly under the overt response condition. (author)

  11. Temporal brain dynamics of multiple object processing: the flexibility of individuation.

    Veronica Mazza

    Full Text Available The ability to process concurrently multiple visual objects is fundamental for a coherent perception of the world. A core component of this ability is the simultaneous individuation of multiple objects. Many studies have addressed the mechanism of object individuation but it remains unknown whether the visual system mandatorily individuates all relevant elements in the visual field, or whether object indexing depends on task demands. We used a neural measure of visual selection, the N2pc component, to evaluate the flexibility of multiple object individuation. In three ERP experiments, participants saw a variable number of target elements among homogenous distracters and performed either an enumeration task (Experiment 1 or a detection task, reporting whether at least one (Experiment 2 or a specified number of target elements (Experiment 3 was present. While in the enumeration task the N2pc response increased as a function of the number of targets, no such modulation was found in Experiment 2, indicating that individuation of multiple targets is not mandatory. However, a modulation of the N2pc similar to the enumeration task was visible in Experiment 3, further highlighting that object individuation is a flexible mechanism that binds indexes to object properties and locations as needed for further object processing.

  12. Reflow Process Parameters Analysis and Reliability Prediction Considering Multiple Characteristic Values

    Guo Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a major step surface mount technology, reflow process is the key factor affecting the quality of the final product. The setting parameters and characteristic value of temperature curve shows a nonlinear relationship. So parameter impacts on characteristic values are analyzed and the parameters adjustment process based on orthogonal experiment is proposed in the paper. First, setting parameters are determined and the orthogonal test is designed according to production conditions. Then each characteristic value for temperature profile is calculated. Further, multi-index orthogonal experiment is analyzed for acquiring the setting parameters which impacts the PCBA product quality greater. Finally, reliability prediction is carried out considering the main influencing parameters for providing a theoretical basis of parameters adjustment and product quality evaluation in engineering process.

  13. Process for obtaining multiple sheet resistances for thin film hybrid microcircuit resistors

    Norwood, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A standard thin film circuit containing Ta/sub 2/N (100 ohms/square) resistors is fabricated by depositing on a dielectric substrate successive layers of Ta/sub 2/N, Ti and Pd, with a gold layer to provide conductors. The addition of a few simple photoprocessing steps to the standard TFN manufacturing process enables the formation of Ta/sub 2/N + Ti (10 ohms/square) and Ta/sub 2/N + Ti + Pd (1 ohm/square) resistors in the same otherwise standard thin film circuit structure

  14. A Comprehensive Study of One-Step Selenization Process for Cu(In1-x Ga x )Se2 Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Chen, Shih-Chen; Wang, Sheng-Wen; Kuo, Shou-Yi; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Lee, Po-Tsung; Luo, Chih Wei; Wu, Kaung-Hsiung; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2017-12-01

    In this work, aiming at developing a rapid and environmental-friendly process for fabricating CuIn 1-x Ga x Se 2 (CIGS) solar cells, we demonstrated the one-step selenization process by using selenium vapor as the atmospheric gas instead of the commonly used H 2 Se gas. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics indicate that there exists an optimal location with superior crystalline quality in the CIGS thin films obtained by one-step selenization. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the Ga lateral distribution in the one-step selenized CIGS thin film is intimately correlated to the blue-shifted PL spectra. The surface morphologies examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) further suggested that voids and binary phase commonly existing in CIGS films could be successfully eliminated by the present one-step selenization process. The agglomeration phenomenon attributable to the formation of MoSe 2 layer was also observed. Due to the significant microstructural improvement, the current-voltage (J-V) characteristics and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the devices made of the present CIGS films have exhibited the remarkable carrier transportation characteristics and photon utilization at the optimal location, resulting in a high conversion efficiency of 11.28%. Correlations between the defect states and device performance of the one-step selenized CIGS thin film were convincingly delineated by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy.

  15. Enhancement of the photo conversion efficiencies in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} solar cells fabricated by two-step sulfurization process

    Yang, JungYup; Nam, Junggyu; Kim, Dongseop; Lee, Dongho, E-mail: dhlee0333@gmail.com, E-mail: ddang@korea.ac.kr [Photovoltaic Development Team, Energy Storage Business Division, Samsung SDI, Cheonan-si 331-300 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, GeeYeong; Jo, William [Department of Physics and New and Renewable Energy Research Center, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yoonmook, E-mail: dhlee0333@gmail.com, E-mail: ddang@korea.ac.kr [KUKIST Green School, Graduate School of Energy and Environment, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-09

    Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} (CIGSS) absorber layers were fabricated by using a modified two-stage sputter and a sequential selenization/sulfurization method, and the sulfurization process is changed from one-step to two-step. The two-step sulfurization was controlled with two different H{sub 2}S gas concentrations during the sulfurization treatment. This two-step process yielded remarkable improvements in the efficiency (+0.7%), open circuit voltage (+14 mV), short circuit current (+0.23 mA/cm{sup 2}), and fill factor (+0.21%) of a CIGSS device with 30 × 30 cm{sup 2} in size, owing to the good passivation at the grain boundary surface, uniform material composition among the grain boundaries, and modified depth profile of Ga and S. The deterioration of the P/N junction quality was prevented by the optimized S content in the CIGSS absorber layer. The effects of the passivation quality at the grain boundary surface, the material uniformity, the compositional depth profiles, the microstructure, and the electrical characteristics were examined by Kelvin probe force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and current-voltage curves, respectively. The two-step sulfurization process is experimentally found to be useful for obtaining good surface conditions and, enhancing the efficiency, for the mass production of large CIGSS modules.

  16. The relative contributions of processing speed and cognitive load to working memory accuracy in multiple sclerosis.

    Leavitt, Victoria M; Lengenfelder, Jean; Moore, Nancy B; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; DeLuca, John

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include processing-speed deficits and working memory impairment. The precise manner in which these deficits interact in individuals with MS remains to be explicated. We hypothesized that providing more time on a complex working memory task would result in performance benefits for individuals with MS relative to healthy controls. Fifty-three individuals with clinically definite MS and 36 matched healthy controls performed a computerized task that systematically manipulated cognitive load. The interval between stimuli presentations was manipulated to provide increasing processing time. The results confirmed that individuals with MS who have processing-speed deficits significantly improve in performance accuracy when given additional time to process the information in working memory. Implications of these findings for developing appropriate cognitive rehabilitation interventions are discussed.

  17. Effects of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} addition on NiZn ferrite synthesized using two-step sintering process

    Hu Jun [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Shi Gang; Ni Zheming; Zheng Li [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Chen Aimin, E-mail: hjzjut@zjut.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2012-06-15

    The combined influence of a two-step sintering (TSS) process and addition of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} on the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiZn ferrite was investigated. As comparison, samples prepared by the conventional single-step sintering (SSS) procedure were also studied. It was found that with 0.3 wt% V{sub 2}O{sub 5} additive, the sample sintered by the two-step sintering process at a high temperature of 1250 Degree-Sign C for 30 min and a lower temperature of 1180 Degree-Sign C for 3 h exhibited more homogeneous microstructure and higher permeability with a high Q-factor. The results showed that the TSS method with suitable additive brought positive improvement of the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiZn ferrite.

  18. A two-step process of nitrous oxide before carbon dioxide for humanely euthanizing piglets: on-farm trials

    The current methods of euthanizing neonatal piglets are raising concerns from the public and scientists. Our experiment tests the use of a two-step euthanasia method using nitrous oxide (N2O) for six minutes and then carbon dioxide (CO2) as a more humane way to euthanize piglets compared to just usi...

  19. Neutron Detector Signal Processing to Calculate the Effective Neutron Multiplication Factor of Subcritical Assemblies

    Talamo, Alberto [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Gohar, Yousry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-06-01

    This report describes different methodologies to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor of subcritical assemblies by processing the neutron detector signals using MATLAB scripts. The subcritical assembly can be driven either by a spontaneous fission neutron source (e.g. californium) or by a neutron source generated from the interactions of accelerated particles with target materials. In the latter case, when the particle accelerator operates in a pulsed mode, the signals are typically stored into two files. One file contains the time when neutron reactions occur and the other contains the times when the neutron pulses start. In both files, the time is given by an integer representing the number of time bins since the start of the counting. These signal files are used to construct the neutron count distribution from a single neutron pulse. The built-in functions of MATLAB are used to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor through the application of the prompt decay fitting or the area method to the neutron count distribution. If the subcritical assembly is driven by a spontaneous fission neutron source, then the effective multiplication factor can be evaluated either using the prompt neutron decay constant obtained from Rossi or Feynman distributions or the Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) method.

  20. Neutron Detector Signal Processing to Calculate the Effective Neutron Multiplication Factor of Subcritical Assemblies

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-01-01

    This report describes different methodologies to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor of subcritical assemblies by processing the neutron detector signals using MATLAB scripts. The subcritical assembly can be driven either by a spontaneous fission neutron source (e.g. californium) or by a neutron source generated from the interactions of accelerated particles with target materials. In the latter case, when the particle accelerator operates in a pulsed mode, the signals are typically stored into two files. One file contains the time when neutron reactions occur and the other contains the times when the neutron pulses start. In both files, the time is given by an integer representing the number of time bins since the start of the counting. These signal files are used to construct the neutron count distribution from a single neutron pulse. The built-in functions of MATLAB are used to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor through the application of the prompt decay fitting or the area method to the neutron count distribution. If the subcritical assembly is driven by a spontaneous fission neutron source, then the effective multiplication factor can be evaluated either using the prompt neutron decay constant obtained from Rossi or Feynman distributions or the Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) method.

  1. A dynamic dual role of IL-2 signaling in the two-step differentiation process of adaptive regulatory T cells.

    Guo, Zhiyong; Khattar, Mithun; Schroder, Paul M; Miyahara, Yoshihiro; Wang, Guohua; He, Xiaoshung; Chen, Wenhao; Stepkowski, Stanislaw M

    2013-04-01

    The molecular mechanism of the extrathymic generation of adaptive, or inducible, CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (iTregs) remains incompletely defined. We show that exposure of splenic CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(-) cells to IL-2, but not other common γ-chain cytokines, resulted in Stat5 phosphorylation and induced Foxp3 expression in ∼10% of the cells. Thus, IL-2/Stat5 signaling may be critical for Foxp3 induction in peripheral CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(-) iTreg precursors. In this study, to further define the role of IL-2 in the formation of iTreg precursors as well as their subsequent Foxp3 expression, we designed a two-step iTreg differentiation model. During the initial "conditioning" step, CD4(+)CD25(-)Foxp3(-) naive T cells were activated by TCR stimulation. Inhibition of IL-2 signaling via Jak3-Stat5 was required during this step to generate CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(-) cells containing iTreg precursors. During the subsequent Foxp3-induction step driven by cytokines, IL-2 was the most potent cytokine to induce Foxp3 expression in these iTreg precursors. This two-step method generated a large number of iTregs with relatively stable expression of Foxp3, which were able to prevent CD4(+)CD45RB(high) cell-mediated colitis in Rag1(-/-) mice. In consideration of this information, whereas initial inhibition of IL-2 signaling upon T cell priming generates iTreg precursors, subsequent activation of IL-2 signaling in these precursors induces the expression of Foxp3. These findings advance the understanding of iTreg differentiation and may facilitate the therapeutic use of iTregs in immune disorders.

  2. Processing ultrasonic inspection data from multiple scan patterns for turbine rotor weld build-up evaluations

    Guan, Xuefei; Rasselkorde, El Mahjoub; Abbasi, Waheed; Zhou, S. Kevin

    2015-03-01

    The study presents a data processing methodology for weld build-up using multiple scan patterns. To achieve an overall high probability of detection for flaws with different orientations, an inspection procedure with three different scan patterns is proposed. The three scan patterns are radial-tangential longitude wave pattern, axial-radial longitude wave pattern, and tangential shear wave pattern. Scientific fusion of the inspection data is implemented using volume reconstruction techniques. The idea is to perform spatial domain forward data mapping for all sampling points. A conservative scheme is employed to handle the case that multiple sampling points are mapped to one grid location. The scheme assigns the maximum value for the grid location to retain the largest equivalent reflector size for the location. The methodology is demonstrated and validated using a realistic ring of weld build-up. Tungsten balls and bars are embedded to the weld build-up during manufacturing process to represent natural flaws. Flat bottomed holes and side drilled holes are installed as artificial flaws. Automatic flaw identification and extraction are demonstrated. Results indicate the inspection procedure with multiple scan patterns can identify all the artificial and natural flaws.

  3. A System for Acquisition, Processing and Visualization of Image Time Series from Multiple Camera Networks

    Cemal Melih Tanis

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A system for multiple camera networks is proposed for continuous monitoring of ecosystems by processing image time series. The system is built around the Finnish Meteorological Image PROcessing Toolbox (FMIPROT, which includes data acquisition, processing and visualization from multiple camera networks. The toolbox has a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI for which only minimal computer knowledge and skills are required to use it. Images from camera networks are acquired and handled automatically according to the common communication protocols, e.g., File Transfer Protocol (FTP. Processing features include GUI based selection of the region of interest (ROI, automatic analysis chain, extraction of ROI based indices such as the green fraction index (GF, red fraction index (RF, blue fraction index (BF, green-red vegetation index (GRVI, and green excess (GEI index, as well as a custom index defined by a user-provided mathematical formula. Analysis results are visualized on interactive plots both on the GUI and hypertext markup language (HTML reports. The users can implement their own developed algorithms to extract information from digital image series for any purpose. The toolbox can also be run in non-GUI mode, which allows running series of analyses in servers unattended and scheduled. The system is demonstrated using an environmental camera network in Finland.

  4. The Instrument Implementation of Two-tier Multiple Choice to Analyze Students’ Science Process Skill Profile

    Sukarmin Sukarmin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to analyze the profile of students’ science process skill (SPS by using instrument two-tier multiple choice. This is a descriptive research that describes the profile of students’ SPS. Subjects of the research were 10th-grade students from high, medium and low categorized school. Instrument two-tier multiple choice consists of 30 question that contains an indicator of SPS. The indicator of SPS namely formulating a hypothesis, designing experiment, analyzing data, applying the concept, communicating, making a conclusion. Based on the result of the research and analysis, it shows that: 1 the average of indicator achievement of science process skill at high categorized school on formulating hypothesis is 74,55%, designing experiment is 74,89%, analyzing data is 67,89%, applying concept is 52,89%, communicating is 80,22%, making conclusion is 76%, 2. the average of indicator achievement of science process skill at medium categorized school on formulating hypothesis is 53,47%, designing experiment is 59,86%, analyzing data is 42,22%, applying concept is 33,19%, communicating is 76,25%, making conclusion is 61,53%, 3 the average of indicator achievement of science process skill at low categorized school on formulating hypothesis is 51%, designing experiment is 55,17%, analyzing data is 39,17%, applying concept is 35,83%, communicating is 58,83%, making conclusion is 58%.

  5. Information Compression, Multiple Alignment, and the Representation and Processing of Knowledge in the Brain.

    Wolff, J Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The SP theory of intelligence , with its realization in the SP computer model , aims to simplify and integrate observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. This paper describes how abstract structures and processes in the theory may be realized in terms of neurons, their interconnections, and the transmission of signals between neurons. This part of the SP theory- SP-neural -is a tentative and partial model for the representation and processing of knowledge in the brain. Empirical support for the SP theory-outlined in the paper-provides indirect support for SP-neural. In the abstract part of the SP theory (SP-abstract), all kinds of knowledge are represented with patterns , where a pattern is an array of atomic symbols in one or two dimensions. In SP-neural, the concept of a "pattern" is realized as an array of neurons called a pattern assembly , similar to Hebb's concept of a "cell assembly" but with important differences. Central to the processing of information in SP-abstract is information compression via the matching and unification of patterns (ICMUP) and, more specifically, information compression via the powerful concept of multiple alignment , borrowed and adapted from bioinformatics. Processes such as pattern recognition, reasoning and problem solving are achieved via the building of multiple alignments, while unsupervised learning is achieved by creating patterns from sensory information and also by creating patterns from multiple alignments in which there is a partial match between one pattern and another. It is envisaged that, in SP-neural, short-lived neural structures equivalent to multiple alignments will be created via an inter-play of excitatory and inhibitory neural signals. It is also envisaged that unsupervised learning will be achieved by the creation of pattern assemblies from sensory information and from the

  6. Information Compression, Multiple Alignment, and the Representation and Processing of Knowledge in the Brain

    James Gerard Wolff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The SP theory of intelligence, with its realisation in the SP computer model, aims to simplify and integrate observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. This paper describes how abstract structures and processes in the theory may be realised in terms of neurons, their interconnections, and the transmission of signals between neurons. This part of the SP theory -- SP-neural -- is a tentative and partial model for the representation and processing of knowledge in the brain. Empirical support for the SP theory -- outlined in the paper -- provides indirect support for SP-neural.In the abstract part of the SP theory (SP-abstract, all kinds of knowledge are represented with patterns, where a pattern is an array of atomic symbols in one or two dimensions. In SP-neural, the concept of a ‘pattern’ is realised as an array of neurons called a pattern assembly, similar to Hebb's concept of a ‘cell assembly’ but with important differences.Central to the processing of information in SP-abstract is information compression via the matching and unification of patterns (ICMUP and, more specifically, information compression via the powerful concept of multiple alignment, borrowed and adapted from bioinformatics. Processes such as pattern recognition, reasoning and problem solving are achieved via the building of multiple alignments, while unsupervised learning is achieved by creating patterns from sensory information and also by creating patterns from multiple alignments in which there is a partial match between one pattern and another.It is envisaged that, in SP-neural, short-lived neural structures equivalent to multiple alignments will be created via an inter-play of excitatory and inhibitory neural signals. It is also envisaged that unsupervised learning will be achieved by the creation of pattern assemblies from

  7. Influence of processing steps in cold-smoked salmon production on survival and growth of persistent and presumed non-persistent Listeria monocytogenes

    Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Mohr, Mona

    2008-01-01

    conditions, (ii) fillets of salmon cold-smoked in a pilot plant and finally, (iii) assessment of the bacterial levels before and after processing during commercial scale production. L. monocytogenes proliferated on salmon blocks that were brined or dipped in liquid smoke and left at 25 degrees C......Cold-smoked salmon is a ready-to-eat product in which Listeria monocytogenes sometimes can grow to high numbers. The bacterium can colonize the processing environment and it is believed to survive or even grow during the processing steps. The purpose of the present study was to determine...... if the steps in the processing of cold-smoked salmon affect Survival and subsequent growth of a persistent strain of L. monocytogenes to a lesser degree than presumed non-persistent strains. We used a sequence of experiments increasing in complexity: (i) small salmon blocks salted, smoked or dried under model...

  8. Dual process theory and intermediate effect: are faculty and residents' performance on multiple-choice, licensing exam questions different?

    Dong, Ting; Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R; van der Vleuten, Cees; Holmboe, Eric; Lipner, Rebecca; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2015-04-01

    Clinical reasoning is essential for the practice of medicine. Dual process theory conceptualizes reasoning as falling into two general categories: nonanalytic reasoning (pattern recognition) and analytic reasoning (active comparing and contrasting of alternatives). The debate continues regarding how expert performance develops and how individuals make the best use of analytic and nonanalytic processes. Several investigators have identified the unexpected finding that intermediates tend to perform better on licensing examination items than experts, which has been termed the "intermediate effect." We explored differences between faculty and residents on multiple-choice questions (MCQs) using dual process measures (both reading and answering times) to inform this ongoing debate. Faculty (board-certified internists; experts) and residents (internal medicine interns; intermediates) answered live licensing examination MCQs (U.S. Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Knowledge and American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination) while being timed. We conducted repeated analysis of variance to compare the 2 groups on average reading time, answering time, and accuracy on various types of items. Faculty and residents did not differ significantly in reading time [F (1,35) = 0.01, p = 0.93], answering time [F (1,35) = 0.60, p = 0.44], or accuracy [F (1,35) = 0.24, p = 0.63] regardless of easy or hard items. Dual process theory was not evidenced in this study. However, this lack of difference between faculty and residents may have been affected by the small sample size of participants and MCQs may not reflect how physicians made decisions in actual practice setting. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Information processing speed and attention in multiple sclerosis: Reconsidering the Attention Network Test (ANT).

    Roth, Alexandra K; Denney, Douglas R; Lynch, Sharon G

    2015-01-01

    The Attention Network Test (ANT) assesses attention in terms of discrepancies between response times to items that differ in the burden they place on some facet of attention. However, simple arithmetic difference scores commonly used to capture these discrepancies fail to provide adequate control for information processing speed, leading to distorted findings when patient and control groups differ markedly in the speed with which they process and respond to stimulus information. This study examined attention networks in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) using simple difference scores, proportional scores, and residualized scores that control for processing speed through statistical regression. Patients with relapsing-remitting (N = 20) or secondary progressive (N = 20) MS and healthy controls (N = 40) of similar age, education, and gender completed the ANT. Substantial differences between patients and controls were found on all measures of processing speed. Patients exhibited difficulties in the executive control network, but only when difference scores were considered. When deficits in information processing speed were adequately controlled using proportional or residualized score, deficits in the alerting network emerged. The effect sizes for these deficits were notably smaller than those for overall information processing speed and were also limited to patients with secondary progressive MS. Deficits in processing speed are more prominent in MS than those involving attention, and when the former are properly accounted for, differences in the latter are confined to the alerting network.

  10. Integration of multiple theories for the simulation of laser interference lithography processes.

    Lin, Te-Hsun; Yang, Yin-Kuang; Fu, Chien-Chung

    2017-11-24

    The periodic structure of laser interference lithography (LIL) fabrication is superior to other lithography technologies. In contrast to traditional lithography, LIL has the advantages of being a simple optical system with no mask requirements, low cost, high depth of focus, and large patterning area in a single exposure. Generally, a simulation pattern for the periodic structure is obtained through optical interference prior to its fabrication through LIL. However, the LIL process is complex and combines the fields of optical and polymer materials; thus, a single simulation theory cannot reflect the real situation. Therefore, this research integrates multiple theories, including those of optical interference, standing waves, and photoresist characteristics, to create a mathematical model for the LIL process. The mathematical model can accurately estimate the exposure time and reduce the LIL process duration through trial and error.

  11. Integration of multiple theories for the simulation of laser interference lithography processes

    Lin, Te-Hsun; Yang, Yin-Kuang; Fu, Chien-Chung

    2017-11-01

    The periodic structure of laser interference lithography (LIL) fabrication is superior to other lithography technologies. In contrast to traditional lithography, LIL has the advantages of being a simple optical system with no mask requirements, low cost, high depth of focus, and large patterning area in a single exposure. Generally, a simulation pattern for the periodic structure is obtained through optical interference prior to its fabrication through LIL. However, the LIL process is complex and combines the fields of optical and polymer materials; thus, a single simulation theory cannot reflect the real situation. Therefore, this research integrates multiple theories, including those of optical interference, standing waves, and photoresist characteristics, to create a mathematical model for the LIL process. The mathematical model can accurately estimate the exposure time and reduce the LIL process duration through trial and error.

  12. Energy policy implementation process : BC Hydro information session and workshop on stepped rates and access principles. draft ed.

    2003-01-01

    The government of British Columbia recognizes that some changes are needed in the energy sector to promote new investment and increase trade while maintaining low power rates and environmentally responsible energy development. BC Hydro held a workshop where several rate design parameters were presented in accordance with the Energy Plan objectives. The workshop identified some key implementation measures and invited input from customers. This paper describes 8 policy actions that will be implemented, or which are already underway to achieve objectives of the Energy Plan. Policy Action number 14 states that under the new rate structures, large electricity consumers will be able to choose a supplier other than the local distributor. Policy Action number 21 states that new rate structures will offer better price signals to large electricity consumers for conservation and energy efficiency. A new stepped rate has been proposed to implement the policy actions. The stepped rate design features different rates for different blocks of energy consumption. The stepped rate design encourages customers to invest in cost-effective conservation and self generation. The disadvantage is that customers shut down facilities and receive financial benefits as if they had invested in conservation. Customers will also continually switch back and forth between rate designs or suppliers, depending on which one provides immediate gains. It was noted that a stepped rate design requires a choice of where to place the cutoff between various Tier rates. Market options for calculating Tier 1 and Tier 2 rates were described. The three causes for reductions in energy consumption were identified as being energy efficiency, self generation, and partial or full shutdown. 4 tabs., 10 figs

  13. Dissolution Processes at Step Edges of Calcite in Water Investigated by High-Speed Frequency Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy and Simulation.

    Miyata, Kazuki; Tracey, John; Miyazawa, Keisuke; Haapasilta, Ville; Spijker, Peter; Kawagoe, Yuta; Foster, Adam S; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Fukuma, Takeshi

    2017-07-12

    The microscopic understanding of the crystal growth and dissolution processes have been greatly advanced by the direct imaging of nanoscale step flows by atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical interferometry, and X-ray microscopy. However, one of the most fundamental events that govern their kinetics, namely, atomistic events at the step edges, have not been well understood. In this study, we have developed high-speed frequency modulation AFM (FM-AFM) and enabled true atomic-resolution imaging in liquid at ∼1 s/frame, which is ∼50 times faster than the conventional FM-AFM. With the developed AFM, we have directly imaged subnanometer-scale surface structures around the moving step edges of calcite during its dissolution in water. The obtained images reveal that the transition region with typical width of a few nanometers is formed along the step edges. Building upon insight in previous studies, our simulations suggest that the transition region is most likely to be a Ca(OH) 2 monolayer formed as an intermediate state in the dissolution process. On the basis of this finding, we improve our understanding of the atomistic dissolution model of calcite in water. These results open up a wide range of future applications of the high-speed FM-AFM to the studies on various dynamic processes at solid-liquid interfaces with true atomic resolution.

  14. Cognitive processing speed is related to fall frequency in older adults with multiple sclerosis.

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Balantrapu, Swathi; Pilutti, Lara A; Sandroff, Brian M; Morrison, Steven; Motl, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    To examine mobility, balance, fall risk, and cognition in older adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) as a function of fall frequency. Retrospective, cross-sectional design. University research laboratory. Community-dwelling persons with MS (N=27) aged between 50 and 75 years were divided into 2 groups-single-time (n=11) and recurrent (n=16; >2 falls/12 mo) fallers-on the basis of fall history. Not applicable. Mobility was assessed using a variety of measures including Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12, walking speed (Timed 25-Foot Walk test), endurance (6-Minute Walk test), and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test). Balance was assessed with the Berg Balance Scale, posturography, and self-reported balance confidence. Fall risk was assessed with the Physiological Profile Assessment. Cognitive processing speed was quantified with the Symbol Digit Modalities Test and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test. Recurrent fallers had slower cognitive processing speed than single-time fallers (P ≤.01). There was no difference in mobility, balance, or fall risk between recurrent and single-time fallers (P>.05). Results indicated that cognitive processing speed is associated with fall frequency and may have implications for fall prevention strategies targeting recurrent fallers with MS. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. “The Relationship between Executive Functioning, Processing Speed and White Matter Integrity in Multiple Sclerosis”

    Genova, Helen M.; DeLuca, John; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Wylie, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between performance on executive tasks and white matter integrity, assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A second aim was to examine how processing speed affects the relationship between executive functioning and FA. This relationship was examined in two executive tasks that rely heavily on processing speed: the Color-Word Interference Test and Trail-Making Test (Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System). It was hypothesized that reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) is related to poor performance on executive tasks in MS, but that this relationship would be affected by the statistical correction of processing speed from the executive tasks. 15 healthy controls and 25 persons with MS participated. Regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between executive functioning and FA, both before and after processing speed was removed from the executive scores. Before processing speed was removed from the executive scores, reduced FA was associated with poor performance on Color-Word Interference Test and Trail-Making Test in a diffuse network including corpus callosum and superior longitudinal fasciculus. However, once processing speed was removed, the relationship between executive functions and FA was no longer significant on the Trail Making test, and significantly reduced and more localized on the Color-Word Interference Test. PMID:23777468

  16. The Process of Becoming an Embedded Curriculum Librarian in Multiple Health Sciences Programs.

    Wilson, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is moving to offer more fully online programs, and the health science fields are no different. These programs are either hybrid or completely online. It is up to the health sciences librarian to adapt services offered by the academic library to these types of courses. This column discusses the multiple ways a librarian can be an embedded librarian in a course using a learning management system (LMS). The process of creating a customized embedded librarian program, results, and lessons learned from the different embedded librarian roles are also discussed.

  17. Formation Process of Non-Neutral Plasmas by Multiple Electron Beams on BX-U

    Sanpei, Akio; Himura, Haruhiko; Masamune, Sadao

    An imaging diagnostic system, which is composed of a handmade phosphor screen and a high-speed camera, has been applied to identify the dynamics of multiple electron beams on BX-U. The relaxation process of those toward a non-neutral plasma is experimentally identified. Also, the radial density profile of the plasma is measured as a function of time. Assuming that the plasma is a spheroidal shape, the value of electron density ne is in the range between 2.2 × 106 and 4.4 × 108 cm-3 on BX-U.

  18. Balancing Opposing Forces—A Nested Process Evaluation Study Protocol for a Stepped Wedge Designed Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Experience Based Codesign Intervention

    Victoria Jane Palmer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Process evaluations are essential to understand the contextual, relational, and organizational and system factors of complex interventions. The guidance for developing process evaluations for randomized controlled trials (RCTs has until recently however, been fairly limited. Method/Design: A nested process evaluation (NPE was designed and embedded across all stages of a stepped wedge cluster RCT called the CORE study. The aim of the CORE study is to test the effectiveness of an experience-based codesign methodology for improving psychosocial recovery outcomes for people living with severe mental illness (service users. Process evaluation data collection combines qualitative and quantitative methods with four aims: (1 to describe organizational characteristics, service models, policy contexts, and government reforms and examine the interaction of these with the intervention; (2 to understand how the codesign intervention works, the cluster variability in implementation, and if the intervention is or is not sustained in different settings; (3 to assist in the interpretation of the primary and secondary outcomes and determine if the causal assumptions underpinning the codesign interventions are accurate; and (4 to determine the impact of a purposefully designed engagement model on the broader study retention and knowledge transfer in the trial. Discussion: Process evaluations require prespecified study protocols but finding a balance between their iterative nature and the structure offered by protocol development is an important step forward. Taking this step will advance the role of qualitative research within trials research and enable more focused data collection to occur at strategic points within studies.

  19. Transesterification double step process for biodiesel preparation and its chromatographic characterization: oils and fats in practical organic chemistry

    Oliveira, Diogo Mueller de; Ongaratto, Diego Paulo; Fontoura, Luiz Antonio Mazzini; Naciuk, Fabricio Fredo; Santos, Vinicius Oliveira Batista dos; Kunz, Jessica Danieli; Marques, Marcelo Volpatto, E-mail: lmazzini@uol.com.br [Departamento de Engenharia de Processos, Fundacao de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Curso de Quimica, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Canoas RS (Brazil); Souza, Alexander Ossanes de; Pereira, Claudio Martin Pereira de [Centro de Ciencias Quimicas, Farmaceuticas e de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Samios, Dimitrios [Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    Methanolic transesterification of oils and fats was carried out in a two steps procedure, under basic and acidic catalysis. Palm, soybean, canola, corn, rice, grape seed, sunflower, peanut, pequi and olive oils, besides tallow and lard were used as feedstock. Specific gravity, relative viscosity, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography were used to characterize the biodiesel. Biodiesel was obtained in high yield and purity. Results were used to discuss the following key-concepts: 1 - triglycerides, composition and properties; 2 - nucleophilic acyl substitution under basic and acid conditions, 3 - thin layer chromatography, 4 - as chromatography and its quantitative methods. (author)

  20. Research and development needs in a step-wise process for the nuclear waste programme in Sweden

    Ström, A.; Andersson, J.; Ekeroth, E.; Hedin, A.; Pers, K.

    2016-01-01

    Concluding remarks: • The SKB RD&D Programme 2016 − contains an overview of all the measures that may be necessary for treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste from Swedish nuclear reactors and SKB's facilities; − clarifies how research and technology development are justified and evaluated in a step-wise procedure on the basis of the measures planned; − presents a strategic plan for the research and development necessary to establish and implement future activities; − Published as SKB TR 16-15 in December 2016

  1. Transesterification double step process for biodiesel preparation and its chromatographic characterization: oils and fats in practical organic chemistry

    Oliveira, Diogo Müller de; Ongaratto, Diego Paulo; Fontoura, Luiz Antonio Mazzini; Naciuk, Fabrício Fredo; Santos, Vinícius Oliveira Batista dos; Kunz, Jéssica Danieli; Marques, Marcelo Volpatto; Souza, Alexander Ossanes de; Pereira, Claudio Martin Pereira de; Samios, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Methanolic transesterification of oils and fats was carried out in a two steps procedure, under basic and acidic catalysis. Palm, soybean, canola, corn, rice, grape seed, sunflower, peanut, pequi and olive oils, besides tallow and lard were used as feedstock. Specific gravity, relative viscosity, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography were used to characterize the biodiesel. Biodiesel was obtained in high yield and purity. Results were used to discuss the following key-concepts: 1 – triglycerides, composition and properties; 2 – nucleophilic acyl substitution under basic and acid conditions, 3 – thin layer chromatography, 4 – as chromatography and its quantitative methods. (author)

  2. On correctness of some processing operations for two-step cascade intensities data from the (nth, 2γ) reaction

    Sukhovoj, A.M.; Khitrov, V.A.; Chol, Li

    2004-01-01

    An influence of some incorrectness of analysis on the level densities and radiative strength functions derived from the experimental γ spectra is considered. It was shown that the obtaining of reliable data from the reaction (n, 2γ) requires deriving dependence of the two-step cascade intensities on their primary transition energy. The influence of some conditions of an analysis of the experimental γ-spectra from the reaction ( 3 He, α) on the expected value of both level density and radiative strength functions was estimated. The ways to decrease these uncertainties are suggested

  3. Cross-Sectional Associations between Multiple Lifestyle Behaviors and Health-Related Quality of Life in the 10,000 Steps Cohort

    Duncan, Mitch J.; Kline, Christopher E.; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Sargent, Charli; Rogers, Naomi L.; Di Milia, Lee

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The independent and combined influence of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet, sitting time, and sleep duration and quality on health status is not routinely examined. This study investigates the relationships between these lifestyle behaviors, independently and in combination, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). METHODS: Adult members of the 10,000 Steps project (n = 159,699) were invited to participate in an online survey in November-December 2011. Part...

  4. Log-normal distribution from a process that is not multiplicative but is additive.

    Mouri, Hideaki

    2013-10-01

    The central limit theorem ensures that a sum of random variables tends to a Gaussian distribution as their total number tends to infinity. However, for a class of positive random variables, we find that the sum tends faster to a log-normal distribution. Although the sum tends eventually to a Gaussian distribution, the distribution of the sum is always close to a log-normal distribution rather than to any Gaussian distribution if the summands are numerous enough. This is in contrast to the current consensus that any log-normal distribution is due to a product of random variables, i.e., a multiplicative process, or equivalently to nonlinearity of the system. In fact, the log-normal distribution is also observable for a sum, i.e., an additive process that is typical of linear systems. We show conditions for such a sum, an analytical example, and an application to random scalar fields such as those of turbulence.

  5. MULTIPLE CRITERA METHODS WITH FOCUS ON ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS AND GROUP DECISION MAKING

    Lidija Zadnik-Stirn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing natural resources is a group multiple criteria decision making problem. In this paper the analytic hierarchy process is the chosen method for handling the natural resource problems. The one decision maker problem is discussed and, three methods: the eigenvector method, data envelopment analysis method, and logarithmic least squares method are presented for the derivation of the priority vector. Further, the group analytic hierarchy process is discussed and six methods for the aggregation of individual judgments or priorities: weighted arithmetic mean method, weighted geometric mean method, and four methods based on data envelopment analysis are compared. The case study on land use in Slovenia is applied. The conclusions review consistency, sensitivity analyses, and some future directions of research.

  6. A signal processing framework for simultaneous detection of multiple environmental contaminants

    Chakraborty, Subhadeep; Mench, Matthew M; Manahan, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of large-scale attacks using chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has exposed the critical need for fundamental research enabling the reliable, unambiguous and early detection of trace CWAs and toxic industrial chemicals. This paper presents a unique approach for the identification and classification of simultaneously present multiple environmental contaminants by perturbing an electrochemical (EC) sensor with an oscillating potential for the extraction of statistically rich information from the current response. The dynamic response, being a function of the degree and mechanism of contamination, is then processed with a symbolic dynamic filter for the extraction of representative patterns, which are then classified using a trained neural network. The approach presented in this paper promises to extend the sensing power and sensitivity of these EC sensors by augmenting and complementing sensor technology with state-of-the-art embedded real-time signal processing capabilities. (paper)

  7. The Energy Integration Strategies in the Great Caribbean: Multiple Processes and Regional Leadership in Dispute

    María Camila Moncada Guevara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate, through the paradigm of the complex interdependency that the energy integration processes in the Caribbean during the 21st Century have been multiple, given the integrationist traditions and the strategic regional leadership interests displayed by Venezuela, Mexico and the United States. Therefore, gendas proposed to supply the energy demand in the region deepen the existence of hegemonic projects in dispute. In the first part, political, economic and military aspects of the integration processes in the Caribbean are defined. Then, energy agendas of the 90’s with the Hemisphere Integration Strategy are characterized. Finally, the most recent experience of CARICOM on the matter is analyzed and it is concluded that the region is going through a period of recomposition of the regional powers.

  8. Dual processing theory and experts' reasoning: exploring thinking on national multiple-choice questions.

    Durning, Steven J; Dong, Ting; Artino, Anthony R; van der Vleuten, Cees; Holmboe, Eric; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2015-08-01

    An ongoing debate exists in the medical education literature regarding the potential benefits of pattern recognition (non-analytic reasoning), actively comparing and contrasting diagnostic options (analytic reasoning) or using a combination approach. Studies have not, however, explicitly explored faculty's thought processes while tackling clinical problems through the lens of dual process theory to inform this debate. Further, these thought processes have not been studied in relation to the difficulty of the task or other potential mediating influences such as personal factors and fatigue, which could also be influenced by personal factors such as sleep deprivation. We therefore sought to determine which reasoning process(es) were used with answering clinically oriented multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and if these processes differed based on the dual process theory characteristics: accuracy, reading time and answering time as well as psychometrically determined item difficulty and sleep deprivation. We performed a think-aloud procedure to explore faculty's thought processes while taking these MCQs, coding think-aloud data based on reasoning process (analytic, nonanalytic, guessing or combination of processes) as well as word count, number of stated concepts, reading time, answering time, and accuracy. We also included questions regarding amount of work in the recent past. We then conducted statistical analyses to examine the associations between these measures such as correlations between frequencies of reasoning processes and item accuracy and difficulty. We also observed the total frequencies of different reasoning processes in the situations of getting answers correctly and incorrectly. Regardless of whether the questions were classified as 'hard' or 'easy', non-analytical reasoning led to the correct answer more often than to an incorrect answer. Significant correlations were found between self-reported recent number of hours worked with think-aloud word count

  9. Cavitation assisted synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters from sustainable feedstock in presence of heterogeneous catalyst using two step process.

    Dubey, Sumit M; Gole, Vitthal L; Gogate, Parag R

    2015-03-01

    The present work reports the intensification aspects for the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from a non-edible high acid value Nagchampa oil (31 mg of KOH/g of oil) using two stage acid esterification (catalyzed by H₂SO₄) followed by transesterification in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst (CaO). Intensification aspects of both stages have been investigated using sonochemical reactors and the obtained degree of intensification has been established by comparison with the conventional approach based on mechanical agitation. It has been observed that reaction temperature for esterification reduced from 65 to 40 °C for the ultrasonic approach whereas there was a significant reduction in the optimum reaction time for transesterification from 4h for the conventional approach to 2.5h for the ultrasound assisted approach. Also the reaction temperature reduced marginally from 65 to 60 °C and yield increased from 76% to 79% for the ultrasound assisted approach. Energy requirement and activation energy for both esterification and transesterification was lower for the ultrasound based approach as compared to the conventional approach. The present work has clearly established the intensification obtained due to the use of ultrasound and also illustrated the two step approach for the synthesis of FAME from high acid value feedstock based on the use of heterogeneous catalyst for the transesterification step. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrophysiological evidence for a defect in the processing of temporal sound patterns in multiple sclerosis.

    Jones, S J; Sprague, L; Vaz Pato, M

    2002-11-01

    To assess the processing of spectrotemporal sound patterns in multiple sclerosis by using auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to complex harmonic tones. 22 patients with definite multiple sclerosis but mild disability and no auditory complaints were compared with 15 normal controls. Short latency AEPs were recorded using standard methods. Long latency AEPs were recorded to synthesised musical instrument tones, at onset every two seconds, at abrupt frequency changes every two seconds, and at the end of a two second period of 16/s frequency changes. The subjects were inattentive but awake, reading irrelevant material. Short latency AEPs were abnormal in only 4 of 22 patients, whereas long latency AEPs were abnormal to one or more stimuli in 17 of 22. No significant latency prolongation was seen in response to onset and infrequent frequency changes (P1, N1, P2) but the potentials at the end of 16/s frequency modulations, particularly the P2 peaking approximately 200 ms after the next expected change, were significantly delayed. The delayed responses appear to be a mild disorder in the processing of change in temporal sound patterns. The delay may be conceived of as extra time taken to compare the incoming sound with the contents of a temporally ordered sensory memory store (the long auditory store or echoic memory), which generates a response when the next expected frequency change fails to occur. The defect cannot be ascribed to lesions of the afferent pathways and so may be due to disseminated brain lesions visible or invisible on magnetic resonance imaging.

  11. Extension lifetime for dye-sensitized solar cells through multiple dye adsorption/desorption process

    Chiang, Yi-Fang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Shen, Po-Shen; Chen, Peter; Guo, Tzung-Fang

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we propose a novel concept of extending the lifetime of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and reducing the costs of re-conditioning DSCs by recycling the FTO/TiO2 substrates. The photovoltaic performances of DSCs using substrates with various cycles of dye uptake and rinse off history are tested. The results show that dye adsorption and Voc are significantly increased under multiple dye adsorption/desorption process and resulted in the improvement of power conversion efficiency. Moreover, the dyeing kinetics is faster after multiple recycling processes, which is favorable for the industrial application. With surface analysis and charge transport characteristics, we also demonstrate the optimal functionality of TiO2/dye interface for the improved Voc and efficiency. The results confirm that the improved performances are due to increased dye loading and dense packing of dye molecules. Our results are beneficial for the understanding on the extension of DSCs lifetime after long-term operation in the application of DSC modules. This approach may also be applied in the replacement of newly synthesized photosensitizes to the active cells.

  12. Supervised pre-processing approaches in multiple class variables classification for fish recruitment forecasting

    Fernandes, José Antonio

    2013-02-01

    A multi-species approach to fisheries management requires taking into account the interactions between species in order to improve recruitment forecasting of the fish species. Recent advances in Bayesian networks direct the learning of models with several interrelated variables to be forecasted simultaneously. These models are known as multi-dimensional Bayesian network classifiers (MDBNs). Pre-processing steps are critical for the posterior learning of the model in these kinds of domains. Therefore, in the present study, a set of \\'state-of-the-art\\' uni-dimensional pre-processing methods, within the categories of missing data imputation, feature discretization and feature subset selection, are adapted to be used with MDBNs. A framework that includes the proposed multi-dimensional supervised pre-processing methods, coupled with a MDBN classifier, is tested with synthetic datasets and the real domain of fish recruitment forecasting. The correctly forecasting of three fish species (anchovy, sardine and hake) simultaneously is doubled (from 17.3% to 29.5%) using the multi-dimensional approach in comparison to mono-species models. The probability assessments also show high improvement reducing the average error (estimated by means of Brier score) from 0.35 to 0.27. Finally, these differences are superior to the forecasting of species by pairs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Recognizing the multiple reasons for Bushmeat consumption in urban areas: a necessary step towards the sustainable use of wildlife for food in Cenral Africa

    van Vliet, Nathalie; Mbazza, P.

    2011-01-01

    conclusions based on available case studies. First, as the most highly valued bushmeat species are among the most common, there is a non-negligible potential to reduce the trade to the most resilient species without having to ban all bushmeat trade. Second, because bushmeat serves multiple functions above...

  14. Enhanced extraction of heavy metals in the two-step process with the mixed culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Chang, Young-Cheol; Choi, DuBok; Kikuchi, Shintaro

    2012-01-01

    For biological extraction of heavy metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood, different bacteria were investigated. The extraction rates of heavy metals using Lactobacillusbulgaricus and Streptococcusthermophilus were highest. The chemical extraction rates were depended on the amounts of pyruvic acid and lactic acid. Especially, the extraction rates using mixed pyruvic acid and lactic acid were increased compared to those of sole one. They were also enhanced in the mixed culture of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. To improve the extraction of CCA, a two-step processing procedure with the mixed culture of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus was conducted. A maximum of 93% of copper, 86.5% of chromium, and 97.8% of arsenic were extracted after 4 days. These results suggest that a two-step process with the mixed culture of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus is most effective to extract heavy metals from CCA treated wood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. First step to reducing infection risk as a system: evaluation of infection prevention processes for 71 hospitals.

    Fakih, Mohamad G; Heavens, Michelle; Ratcliffe, Carol J; Hendrich, Ann

    2013-11-01

    Hospitals can better focus their efforts to prevent health care-associated infections (HAIs) if they identify specific areas for improvement. We administered a 96-question survey to infection preventionists at 71 Ascension Health hospitals to evaluate opportunities for the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection, central line-associated bloodstream infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and surgical site infection. Seventy-one (100%) infection preventionists completed the survey. The majority of hospitals had established policies for urinary catheter placement and maintenance (55/70, 78.6%), central venous catheter maintenance (68/71, 95.8%), and care for the mechanically ventilated patient (62/66, 93.9%). However, there was variation in health care worker practice and evaluation of competencies and outcomes. When addressing device need, 55 of 71 (77.5%) hospitals used a nurse-driven evaluation of urinary catheter need, 26 of 71 (36.6%) had a team evaluation for central venous catheters on transfer out of intensive care, and 53 of 57 (93%) assessed daily ventilator support for continued need. Only 19 of 71 (26.8%) hospitals had annual nursing competencies for urinary catheter placement and maintenance, 29 of 71 (40.8%) for nursing venous catheter maintenance, and 38 of 66 (57.6%) for appropriate health care worker surgical scrubbing. We suggest evaluating infection prevention policies and practices as a first step to improvement efforts. The next steps include implementing spread of evidence-based practices, with focus on competencies and feedback on performance. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrating RFID Technology and EPC Network into a B2B Retail Supply Chain: A Step Toward Intelligent Business Processes

    Samuel Fosso Wamba

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces RFID technology and the EPC Network and investigates their potential for B-to-B eCommerce supply chain management. Based on empirical data gathered from four tightly interrelated firms from three layers of a supply chain, several scenarios integrating RFID and the EPC Network have been tested and evaluated. In the context of warehousing activities in one specific retail supply chain, the results indicate that i the business process approach seems quite appropriate to capture the real potential of RFID and the EPC Network; ii RFID technology and the EPC Network can improve the “shipping” and the “receiving” processes; iii they can automatically trigger some business processes; iv they foster a higher level of information sharing between supply chain members; and v they promote the emergence of new business processes such as “process-to-process,” “process-to-machine,” and “machine-to-machine.” The paper helps to improve our understanding of the real potential of RFID and the EPC Network for business processes.

  17. Two-step process of regeneration of acid(s) from ZrF{sub 4} containing spent pickle liquor and recovery of zirconium metal

    Nersisyan, Hayk [Graduate School of Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehakro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); RASOM, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seul Ki; Choi, Jeong Hun [Graduate School of Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehakro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Energy Science & Technology, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young-Jun; Yoo, Bung Uk [Graduate School of Energy Science & Technology, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ri, Vladislav E. [Graduate School of Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehakro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Hyeon, E-mail: jonglee@cnu.ac.kr [Graduate School of Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehakro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Energy Science & Technology, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); RASOM, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we describe a progressive two-step process that allows zirconium fluoride (ZrF{sub 4}) contained in spent baths for etched zirconium alloys to be effectively recycled on a pilot scale and produce a high purity regenerated pickling acid. In the first step, a spent pickling liquor is treated by a BaF{sub 2} suspension to produce water insoluble Ba{sub 2}ZrF{sub 8}. After filtration of Ba{sub 2}ZrF{sub 8} more than 99.9 wt % purity pickling acid is regenerated. The precipitation mechanism of Ba{sub 2}ZrF{sub 8} is discussed and the role of BaF{sub 2} particles size on the precipitation process is demonstrated. In the second step the as-precipitated Ba{sub 2}ZrF{sub 8} is mixed with Mg and Cu metal powders and heat-treated at 1200 °C (or above) to produce CuZr alloy ingot. The characteristics of the ingot are discussed in regard to Cu concentration and the heating temperature. - Highlights: •Two-step process for recycling ZrF{sub 4} containing pickling acid on a pilot scale is developed. •Water insoluble Ba{sub 2}ZrF{sub 8} is precipitated by mixing spent pickling liquor with BaF{sub 2}. •The recycled pickling acid demonstrates more than 99.9 wt % purity. •The processing of Ba{sub 2}ZrF{sub 8} with Cu and Mg metals at 1200 °C yielded CuZr alloy. •The recovery depth of Zr was more than 95 wt%.

  18. Suitable post processing algorithms for X-ray imaging using oversampled displaced multiple images

    Thim, J; Reza, S; Nawaz, K; Norlin, B; O'Nils, M; Oelmann, B

    2011-01-01

    X-ray imaging systems such as photon counting pixel detectors have a limited spatial resolution of the pixels, based on the complexity and processing technology of the readout electronics. For X-ray imaging situations where the features of interest are smaller than the imaging system pixel size, and the pixel size cannot be made smaller in the hardware, alternative means of resolution enhancement require to be considered. Oversampling with the usage of multiple displaced images, where the pixels of all images are mapped to a final resolution enhanced image, has proven a viable method of reaching a sub-pixel resolution exceeding the original resolution. The effectiveness of the oversampling method declines with the number of images taken, the sub-pixel resolution increases, but relative to a real reduction of imaging pixel sizes yielding a full resolution image, the perceived resolution from the sub-pixel oversampled image is lower. This is because the oversampling method introduces blurring noise into the mapped final images, and the blurring relative to full resolution images increases with the oversampling factor. One way of increasing the performance of the oversampling method is by sharpening the images in post processing. This paper focus on characterizing the performance increase of the oversampling method after the use of some suitable post processing filters, for digital X-ray images specifically. The results show that spatial domain filters and frequency domain filters of the same type yield indistinguishable results, which is to be expected. The results also show that the effectiveness of applying sharpening filters to oversampled multiple images increase with the number of images used (oversampling factor), leaving 60-80% of the original blurring noise after filtering a 6 x 6 mapped image (36 images taken), where the percentage is depending on the type of filter. This means that the effectiveness of the oversampling itself increase by using sharpening

  19. Evaluating the quality of medical multiple-choice items created with automated processes.

    Gierl, Mark J; Lai, Hollis

    2013-07-01

    Computerised assessment raises formidable challenges because it requires large numbers of test items. Automatic item generation (AIG) can help address this test development problem because it yields large numbers of new items both quickly and efficiently. To date, however, the quality of the items produced using a generative approach has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether automatic processes yield items that meet standards of quality that are appropriate for medical testing. Quality was evaluated firstly by subjecting items created using both AIG and traditional processes to rating by a four-member expert medical panel using indicators of multiple-choice item quality, and secondly by asking the panellists to identify which items were developed using AIG in a blind review. Fifteen items from the domain of therapeutics were created in three different experimental test development conditions. The first 15 items were created by content specialists using traditional test development methods (Group 1 Traditional). The second 15 items were created by the same content specialists using AIG methods (Group 1 AIG). The third 15 items were created by a new group of content specialists using traditional methods (Group 2 Traditional). These 45 items were then evaluated for quality by a four-member panel of medical experts and were subsequently categorised as either Traditional or AIG items. Three outcomes were reported: (i) the items produced using traditional and AIG processes were comparable on seven of eight indicators of multiple-choice item quality; (ii) AIG items can be differentiated from Traditional items by the quality of their distractors, and (iii) the overall predictive accuracy of the four expert medical panellists was 42%. Items generated by AIG methods are, for the most part, equivalent to traditionally developed items from the perspective of expert medical reviewers. While the AIG method produced comparatively fewer plausible

  20. Pep3p/Pep5p complex: a putative docking factor at multiple steps of vesicular transport to the vacuole of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Srivastava, A; Woolford, C A; Jones, E W

    2000-01-01

    Pep3p and Pep5p are known to be necessary for trafficking of hydrolase precursors to the vacuole and for vacuolar biogenesis. These proteins are present in a hetero-oligomeric complex that mediates transport at the vacuolar membrane. PEP5 interacts genetically with VPS8, implicating Pep5p in the earlier Golgi to endosome step and/or in recycling from the endosome to the Golgi. To understand further the cellular roles of Pep3p and Pep5p, we isolated and characterized a set of pep3 conditional ...

  1. Welding fumes from stainless steel gas metal arc processes contain multiple manganese chemical species.

    Keane, Michael; Stone, Samuel; Chen, Bean

    2010-05-01

    Fumes from a group of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes used on stainless steel were generated using three different metal transfer modes and four different shield gases. The objective was to identify and measure manganese (Mn) species in the fumes, and identify processes that are minimal generators of Mn species. The robotic welding system was operated in short-circuit (SC) mode (Ar/CO2 and He/Ar), axial spray (AXS) mode (Ar/O2 and Ar/CO2), and pulsed axial-spray (PAXS) mode (Ar/O2). The fumes were analyzed for Mn by a sequential extraction process followed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, and by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Total elemental Mn, iron (Fe), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) were separately measured after aqua regia digestion and ICP-AES analysis. Soluble Mn2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, and Ni2+ in a simple biological buffer (phosphate-buffered saline) were determined at pH 7.2 and 5.0 after 2 h incubation at 37 C by ion chromatography. Results indicate that Mn was present in soluble form, acid-soluble form, and acid-soluble form after reduction by hydroxylamine, which represents soluble Mn0 and Mn2+ compounds, other Mn2+ compounds, and (Mn3+ and Mn4+) compounds, respectively. The dominant fraction was the acid-soluble Mn2+ fraction, but results varied with the process and shield gas. Soluble Mn mass percent in the fume ranged from 0.2 to 0.9%, acid-soluble Mn2+ compounds ranged from 2.6 to 9.3%, and acid plus reducing agent-soluble (Mn3+ and Mn4+) compounds ranged from 0.6 to 5.1%. Total Mn composition ranged from 7 to 15%. XRD results showed fumes had a crystalline content of 90-99% Fe3O4, and showed evidence of multiple Mn oxides, but overlaps and weak signals limited identification. Small amounts of the Mn2+ in the fume (welding process. Mn generation rates for the fractions were tabulated, and the influence of ozone is discussed. The conclusions are that exposures to welding fumes include multiple Mn species, both

  2. Carotenoid content of the varieties Jaranda and Jariza (Capsicumannuum L.) and response during the industrial slow drying and grinding steps in paprika processing.

    Mínguez-Mosquera, M I; Pérez-Gálvez, A; Garrido-Fernández, J

    2000-07-01

    Fruits of the pepper varieties Jaranda and Jariza (Capsicum annuum L. ) ripen as a group, enabling a single harvesting, showed a uniform carotenoid content that is high enough (7.9 g/kg) for the production of paprika. The drying system at mild temperature showed that fruits with moisture content of 85-88% generated a dry product with carotenoid content equal to or higher than the initial one. Those high moisture levels allowed the fruits to have a longer period of metabolic activity, increasing the yellow fraction, the red fraction, or both as a function of what biosynthetic process was predominant. This fact indicates under-ripeness of the fruits in the drying step. The results obtained allow us to establish that both varieties, Jaranda and Jariza, fit the dehydration process employed, yielding a dry fruit with carotenoid concentration similar to that the initial one. During the grinding step of the dry fruit, the heat generated by the hammers of the mill caused degradation of the yellow fraction, while the red fraction is maintained. The ripeness state of the harvested fruits and the appropriateness or severity of the processing steps are indicated by the ratio of red to yellow (R/Y) and/or red to total (R/T) pigments, since fluctuations in both fractions and in total pigments are reflected in and monitored by these parameters.

  3. Single-step syngas-to-distillates (S2D) process based on biomass-derived syngas--a techno-economic analysis.

    Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B; Biddy, Mary J; Dagle, Robert A; Palo, Daniel R

    2012-08-01

    This study compared biomass gasification based syngas-to-distillate (S2D) systems using techno-economic analysis (TEA). Three cases, state of technology (SOT), goal, and conventional, were compared in terms of performance and cost. The SOT case represented the best available experimental results for a process starting with syngas using a single-step dual-catalyst reactor for distillate generation. The conventional case mirrored a conventional two-step S2D process consisting of separate syngas-to-methanol and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) processes. The goal case assumed the same performance as the conventional, but with a single-step S2D technology. TEA results revealed that the SOT was more expensive than the conventional and goal cases. The SOT case suffers from low one-pass yield and high selectivity to light hydrocarbons, both of which drive up production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that light hydrocarbon yield and single pass conversion efficiency were the key factors driving the high cost for the SOT case. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Intra-individual variability in information processing speed reflects white matter microstructure in multiple sclerosis.

    Mazerolle, Erin L; Wojtowicz, Magdalena A; Omisade, Antonina; Fisk, John D

    2013-01-01

    Slowed information processing speed is commonly reported in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), and is typically investigated using clinical neuropsychological tests, which provide sensitive indices of mean-level information processing speed. However, recent studies have demonstrated that within-person variability or intra-individual variability (IIV) in information processing speed may be a more sensitive indicator of neurologic status than mean-level performance on clinical tests. We evaluated the neural basis of increased IIV in mildly affected relapsing-remitting MS patients by characterizing the relation between IIV (controlling for mean-level performance) and white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty women with relapsing-remitting MS and 20 matched control participants completed the Computerized Test of Information Processing (CTIP), from which both mean response time and IIV were calculated. Other clinical measures of information processing speed were also collected. Relations between IIV on the CTIP and DTI metrics of white matter microstructure were evaluated using tract-based spatial statistics. We observed slower and more variable responses on the CTIP in MS patients relative to controls. Significant relations between white matter microstructure and IIV were observed for MS patients. Increased IIV was associated with reduced integrity in more white matter tracts than was slowed information processing speed as measured by either mean CTIP response time or other neuropsychological test scores. Thus, despite the common use of mean-level performance as an index of cognitive dysfunction in MS, IIV may be more sensitive to the overall burden of white matter disease at the microstructural level. Furthermore, our study highlights the potential value of considering within-person fluctuations, in addition to mean-level performance, for uncovering brain-behavior relationships in neurologic disorders with widespread white matter pathology.

  5. [Eight-step structured decision-making process to assign criminal responsibility and seven focal points for describing relationship between psychopathology and offense].

    Okada, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    The author suggested that it is essential for lawyers and psychiatrists to have a common understanding of the mutual division of roles between them when determining criminal responsibility (CR) and, for this purpose, proposed an 8-step structured CR decision-making process. The 8 steps are: (1) gathering of information related to mental function and condition, (2) recognition of mental function and condition,(3) psychiatric diagnosis, (4) description of the relationship between psychiatric symptom or psychopathology and index offense, (5) focus on capacities of differentiation between right and wrong and behavioral control, (6) specification of elements of cognitive/volitional prong in legal context, (7) legal evaluation of degree of cognitive/volitional prong, and (8) final interpretation of CR as a legal conclusion. The author suggested that the CR decision-making process should proceed not in a step-like pattern from (1) to (2) to (3) to (8), but in a step-like pattern from (1) to (2) to (4) to (5) to (6) to (7) to (8), and that not steps after (5), which require the interpretation or the application of section 39 of the Penal Code, but Step (4), must be the core of psychiatric expert evidence. When explaining the relationship between the mental disorder and offense described in Step (4), the Seven Focal Points (7FP) are often used. The author urged basic precautions to prevent the misuse of 7FP, which are: (a) the priority of each item is not equal and the relative importance differs from case to case; (b) each item is not exclusively independent, there may be overlap between items; (c) the criminal responsibility shall not be judged because one item is applicable or because a number of items are applicable, i. e., 7FP are not "criteria," for example, the aim is not to decide such things as 'the motive is understandable' or 'the conduct is appropriate', but should be to describe how psychopathological factors affected the offense specifically in the context of

  6. Step-Tapered Active-Region Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers and Novel Fabrication Processes for Buried Heterostructures

    2015-07-28

    phase- locked arrays, buried heterostructures REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ARO...to realizing BH-QCLs than the conventional process. Moreover, new processes for achieving on-chip, large-emitting aperture QCL phase- locked arrays...Hsing Hsu, Edwin Ramayya, and Tzu-Hsuan Chang. Last but not least, the author would like to thank his families, including his parents and

  7. Quantitative assessment of the multiple processes responsible for bilirubin homeostasis in health and disease

    Levitt DG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available David G Levitt,1 Michael D Levitt2 1Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Research Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Serum bilirubin measurements are commonly obtained for the evaluation of ill patients and to screen for liver disease in routine physical exams. An enormous research effort has identified the multiple mechanisms involved in the production and metabolism of conjugated (CB and unconjugated bilirubin (UB. While the qualitative effects of these mechanisms are well understood, their expected quantitative influence on serum bilirubin homeostasis has received less attention. In this review, each of the steps involved in bilirubin production, metabolism, hepatic cell uptake, and excretion is quantitatively examined. We then attempt to predict the expected effect of normal and defective function on serum UB and CB levels in health and disease states including hemolysis, extra- and intrahepatic cholestasis, hepatocellular diseases (eg, cirrhosis, hepatitis, and various congenital defects in bilirubin conjugation and secretion (eg, Gilbert's, Dubin–Johnson, Crigler–Najjar, Rotor syndromes. Novel aspects of this review include: 1 quantitative estimates of the free and total UB and CB in the plasma, hepatocyte, and bile; 2 detailed discussion of the important implications of the recently recognized role of the hepatic OATP transporters in the maintenance of CB homeostasis; 3 discussion of the differences between the standard diazo assay versus chromatographic measurement of CB and UB; 4 pharmacokinetic implications of the extremely high-affinity albumin binding of UB; 5 role of the enterohepatic circulation in physiologic jaundice of newborn and fasting hyperbilirubinemia; and 6 insights concerning the clinical interpretation of bilirubin measurements.Keywords: liver, conjugation, diazo, albumin, Rotor

  8. TCP (truncated compound Poisson) process for multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions

    Srivastave, P.P.

    1990-01-01

    On using the Poisson distribution truncated at zero for intermediate cluster decay in a compound Poisson process, the authors obtain TCP distribution which describes quite well the multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions. A detailed comparison is made between TCP and NB for UA5 data. The reduced moments up to the fifth agree very well with the observed ones. The TCP curves are narrower than NB at high multiplicity tail, look narrower at very high energy and develop shoulders and oscillations which become increasingly pronounced as the energy grows. At lower energies the distributions, of the data for fixed intervals of rapidity for UA5 data and for the data (at low energy) for e + e - annihilation and pion-proton, proton-proton and muon-proton scattering. A discussion of compound Poisson distribution, expression of reduced moments and Poisson transforms are also given. The TCP curves and curves of the reduced moments for different values of the parameters are also presented

  9. Electron pumping of the ground state of 21Ne. Transfers and multiple diffusion processes

    Stoeckel, F.; Lombardi, M.

    1978-01-01

    The electron-pumping process of the ground state of 21 Ne has been studied. It is demonstrated how in a neon cell at a pressure of 10 -4 to 10 -2 torr, a high frequency discharge can create a nuclear spin alignment in the fundamental level (I=3/2) when the excited levels are themselves aligned. The nuclear alignment is observed by monitoring the change of the linear polarization of several optical transitions during the magnetic resonance of the fundamental level. Various transfers of the alignments are investigated and a detailed study of the influence of the multiple diffusion is carried out. The multiple diffusion produces a depolarization and a relaxation of the nuclear spin. A theoretical calculation has been made for a two-level system with a J=1 radiative level and a J=0 ground state. Experimentally a relaxation time of the nuclear alignment varying from 37 ms to 240 ms is observed when the neon pressure decreases from 10 -2 to 10 -4 torr [fr

  10. Reduction of radiation fields in the cooling water circuits of PWRs: a one-step or a multistep process

    Lassau, R.T.; Cherepakhov, G.; Smee, J.L.; Berger, J.

    1988-01-01

    A basic problem for nuclear power plants is the formation or radioactive corrosion products in crud particles and oxide films found mainly in the primary side of the reactor cooling water circuits. The activated corrosion products produce radiation fields, which are the major source of exposure for personnel during maintenance and operation of the system. As a health safeguard for personnel, and for the considerable economic benefit to a plant that can be realized by the reduction of radiation fields, the nuclear industry implements physical and chemical decontamination methods to dissolve oxide films and to assist in the removal of crud during plant shutdowns. These procedures impact on the scheduling of activities that must be accomplished before the reactor can be returned to full operation and are therefore carefully planned to minimize the time for decontamination while maximizing the radioactive field reductions. Of considerable importance to the industry, therefore, are procedures that might be implemented during normal reactor operation and as a reactor approaches shutdown that would assist in the removal of radioactive material while controlling the recontamination during reactor operation. A study program was therefore undertaken to compare radioactive field reductions and corrosion rates obtained from a dilute multistep chemical decontamination with data obtained from a single-step parametric cycling experiment on PWR materials

  11. Multi-layered nanoparticles for penetrating the endosome and nuclear membrane via a step-wise membrane fusion process.

    Akita, Hidetaka; Kudo, Asako; Minoura, Arisa; Yamaguti, Masaya; Khalil, Ikramy A; Moriguchi, Rumiko; Masuda, Tomoya; Danev, Radostin; Nagayama, Kuniaki; Kogure, Kentaro; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2009-05-01

    Efficient targeting of DNA to the nucleus is a prerequisite for effective gene therapy. The gene-delivery vehicle must penetrate through the plasma membrane, and the DNA-impermeable double-membraned nuclear envelope, and deposit its DNA cargo in a form ready for transcription. Here we introduce a concept for overcoming intracellular membrane barriers that involves step-wise membrane fusion. To achieve this, a nanotechnology was developed that creates a multi-layered nanoparticle, which we refer to as a Tetra-lamellar Multi-functional Envelope-type Nano Device (T-MEND). The critical structural elements of the T-MEND are a DNA-polycation condensed core coated with two nuclear membrane-fusogenic inner envelopes and two endosome-fusogenic outer envelopes, which are shed in stepwise fashion. A double-lamellar membrane structure is required for nuclear delivery via the stepwise fusion of double layered nuclear membrane structure. Intracellular membrane fusions to endosomes and nuclear membranes were verified by spectral imaging of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between donor and acceptor fluorophores that had been dually labeled on the liposome surface. Coating the core with the minimum number of nucleus-fusogenic lipid envelopes (i.e., 2) is essential to facilitate transcription. As a result, the T-MEND achieves dramatic levels of transgene expression in non-dividing cells.

  12. A Two-Step Bioconversion Process for Canolol Production from Rapeseed Meal Combining an Aspergillus niger Feruloyl Esterase and the Fungus Neolentinus lepideus.

    Odinot, Elise; Fine, Frédéric; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Navarro, David; Laguna, Oscar; Bisotto, Alexandra; Peyronnet, Corinne; Ginies, Christian; Lecomte, Jérôme; Faulds, Craig B; Lomascolo, Anne

    2017-10-14

    Rapeseed meal is a cheap and abundant raw material, particularly rich in phenolic compounds of biotechnological interest. In this study, we developed a two-step bioconversion process of naturally occurring sinapic acid (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamic acid) from rapeseed meal into canolol by combining the complementary potentialities of two filamentous fungi, the micromycete Aspergillus niger and the basidiomycete Neolentinus lepideus . Canolol could display numerous industrial applications because of its high antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. In the first step of the process, the use of the enzyme feruloyl esterase type-A (named AnFaeA) produced with the recombinant strain A. niger BRFM451 made it possible to release free sinapic acid from the raw meal by hydrolysing the conjugated forms of sinapic acid in the meal (mainly sinapine and glucopyranosyl sinapate). An amount of 39 nkat AnFaeA per gram of raw meal, at 55 °C and pH 5, led to the recovery of 6.6 to 7.4 mg of free sinapic acid per gram raw meal, which corresponded to a global hydrolysis yield of 68 to 76% and a 100% hydrolysis of sinapine. Then, the XAD2 adsorbent (a styrene and divinylbenzene copolymer resin), used at pH 4, enabled the efficient recovery of the released sinapic acid, and its concentration after elution with ethanol. In the second step, 3-day-old submerged cultures of the strain N. lepideus BRFM15 were supplied with the recovered sinapic acid as the substrate of bioconversion into canolol by a non-oxidative decarboxylation pathway. Canolol production reached 1.3 g/L with a molar yield of bioconversion of 80% and a productivity of 100 mg/L day. The same XAD2 resin, when used at pH 7, allowed the recovery and purification of canolol from the culture broth of N. lepideus . The two-step process used mild conditions compatible with green chemistry.

  13. Polyuridylylation and processing of transcripts from multiple gene minicircles in chloroplasts of the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae

    Barbrook, Adrian C.

    2012-05-05

    Although transcription and transcript processing in the chloroplasts of plants have been extensively characterised, the RNA metabolism of other chloroplast lineages across the eukaryotes remains poorly understood. In this paper, we use RT-PCR to study transcription and transcript processing in the chloroplasts of Amphidinium carterae, a model peridinin-containing dinoflagellate. These organisms have a highly unusual chloroplast genome, with genes located on multiple small \\'minicircle\\' elements, and a number of idiosyncratic features of RNA metabolism including transcription via a rolling circle mechanism, and 3′ terminal polyuridylylation of transcripts. We demonstrate that transcription occurs in A. carterae via a rolling circle mechanism, as previously shown in the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa, and present evidence for the production of both polycistronic and monocistronic transcripts from A. carterae minicircles, including several regions containing ORFs previously not known to be expressed. We demonstrate the presence of both polyuridylylated and non-polyuridylylated transcripts in A. carterae, and show that polycistronic transcripts can be terminally polyuridylylated. We present a model for RNA metabolism in dinoflagellate chloroplasts where long polycistronic precursors are processed to form mature transcripts. Terminal polyuridylylation may mark transcripts with the correct 3′ end. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  14. Numerical simulation on multiple pouring process for a 292 t steel ingot

    Tu Wutao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A ladle-tundish-mould transportation model considering the entire multiple pouring (MP process is proposed. Numerical simulation is carried out to study the carbon distribution and variation in both the tundish and the mould for making a 292 t steel ingot. Firstly, the fluid flow as well as the heat and mass transfer of the molten steel in the tundish is simulated based on the multiphase transient turbulence model. Then, the carbon mixing in the mould is calculated by using the species concentration at the tundish outlet as the inlet condition during the teeming process. The results show a high concentration of carbon at the bottom and a low concentration of carbon at the top of the mould after a MP process with carbon content high in the first ladle and low in the last ladle. Such carbon concentration distribution would help reduce the negative segregation at the bottom and the positive segregation at the top of the solidified ingot.

  15. Stroop performance in multiple sclerosis: information processing, selective attention, or executive functioning?

    Macniven, J A B; Davis, C; Ho, M-Y; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E; Constantinescu, C S

    2008-09-01

    Cognitive impairments in information processing speed, attention and executive functioning are widely reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Several studies have identified impaired performance on the Stroop test in people with MS, yet uncertainty remains over the cause of this phenomenon. In this study, 25 patients with MS were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery including a computerized Stroop test and a computerized test of information processing speed, the Graded Conditional Discrimination Tasks (GCDT). The patient group was compared with an individually age, sex and estimated premorbid IQ-matched healthy control group. The patients' reaction times (RTs) were significantly longer than those of the controls on all Stroop test trials and there was a significantly enhanced absolute (RT(incongruent)-RT(neutral)) and relative (100 x [RT(incongruent)-RT(neutral)]/RT(neutral)) Stroop interference effect for the MS group. The linear function relating RT to stimulus complexity in the GCDT was significantly steeper in the patient group, indicating slowed information processing. The results are discussed with reference to the difference engine model, a theory of diversity in speeded cognition. It is concluded that, in the assessment of people with MS, great caution must be used in the interpretation of performance on neuropsychological tests which rely on RT as the primary measure.

  16. Enhancement of Cognitive Processing by Multiple Sclerosis Patients Using Liquid Cooling Technology: A Case Study

    Montgomery, Leslie D.; Montgomery, Richard W.; Ku, Yu-Tsuan; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a common symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This can have a significant impact on the quality of life of both the patient and of their primary care giver. This case study explores the possibility that liquid cooling therapy may be used to enhance the cognitive processing of MS patients in the same way that it provides temporary relief of some physical impairment. Two MS patients were presented a series of pattern discrimination tasks before and after being cooled with a liquid cooling garment for a one hour period. The subject whose ear temperature was reduced during cooling showed greater electroencephalographic (EEG) activity and scored much better on the task after cooling. The patient whose ear temperature was unaffected by cooling showed less EEG activity and degraded performance after the one hour cooling period.

  17. Resilience Processes Supporting Adolescents With Intellectual Disability: A Multiple Case Study.

    Hall, Anna-Marié; Theron, Linda C

    2016-02-01

    Resilience, or the process of adjusting well to risk, relies on constructive collaboration between youths and their social ecologies. Although the literature details the risks of an intellectual disability (ID), there is little explanation of why some young people cope well despite these risks. Accordingly, we report a multiple case study that affords insight into the resilience of 24 adolescents with ID. Using a draw-and-talk methodology, these young people explained their resilience as enabled primarily by supportive social ecologies (which facilitated behavioral and emotional regulation, encouraged mastery, treated them as agentic beings, and offered safe spaces). Adolescents' positive orientation to their life-worlds co-facilitated their resilience. These insights advance effective ways to champion the resilience of young people with ID.

  18. MGUPGMA: A Fast UPGMA Algorithm With Multiple Graphics Processing Units Using NCCL.

    Hua, Guan-Jie; Hung, Che-Lun; Lin, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Fu-Che; Chan, Yu-Wei; Tang, Chuan Yi

    2017-01-01

    A phylogenetic tree is a visual diagram of the relationship between a set of biological species. The scientists usually use it to analyze many characteristics of the species. The distance-matrix methods, such as Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean and Neighbor Joining, construct a phylogenetic tree by calculating pairwise genetic distances between taxa. These methods have the computational performance issue. Although several new methods with high-performance hardware and frameworks have been proposed, the issue still exists. In this work, a novel parallel Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean approach on multiple Graphics Processing Units is proposed to construct a phylogenetic tree from extremely large set of sequences. The experimental results present that the proposed approach on a DGX-1 server with 8 NVIDIA P100 graphic cards achieves approximately 3-fold to 7-fold speedup over the implementation of Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean on a modern CPU and a single GPU, respectively.

  19. Mixed-order phase transition of the contact process near multiple junctions.

    Juhász, Róbert; Iglói, Ferenc

    2017-02-01

    We have studied the phase transition of the contact process near a multiple junction of M semi-infinite chains by Monte Carlo simulations. As opposed to the continuous transitions of the translationally invariant (M=2) and semi-infinite (M=1) system, the local order parameter is found to be discontinuous for M>2. Furthermore, the temporal correlation length diverges algebraically as the critical point is approached, but with different exponents on the two sides of the transition. In the active phase, the estimate is compatible with the bulk value, while in the inactive phase it exceeds the bulk value and increases with M. The unusual local critical behavior is explained by a scaling theory with an irrelevant variable, which becomes dangerous in the inactive phase. Quenched spatial disorder is found to make the transition continuous in agreement with earlier renormalization group results.

  20. Lactate production as representative of the fermentation potential of Corynebacterium glutamicum 2262 in a one-step process.

    Khuat, Hoang Bao Truc; Kaboré, Abdoul Karim; Olmos, Eric; Fick, Michel; Boudrant, Joseph; Goergen, Jean-Louis; Delaunay, Stéphane; Guedon, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The fermentative properties of thermo-sensitive strain Corynebacterium glutamicum 2262 were investigated in processes coupling aerobic cell growth and the anaerobic fermentation phase. In particular, the influence of two modes of fermentation on the production of lactate, the fermentation product model, was studied. In both processes, lactate was produced in significant amount, 27 g/L in batch culture, and up to 55.8 g/L in fed-batch culture, but the specific production rate in the fed-batch culture was four times lower than that in the batch culture. Compared to other investigated fermentation processes, our strategy resulted in the highest yield of lactic acid from biomass. Lactate production by C. glutamicum 2262 thus revealed the capability of the strain to produce various fermentation products from pyruvate.

  1. Using pyrolytic acid leaching as a pretreatment step in a biomass fast pyrolysis plant: process design and economic evaluation

    Oudenhoven, Stijn; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; van den Berg, Henderikus; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Removing alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs) from biomass, with pyrolytic acids, before pyrolysis leads to increased organic oil and sugar yields. These pyrolytic acids are produced and concentrated within the pyrolysis process itself. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate under which

  2. Critical Steps in Learning From Incidents: Using Learning Potential in the Process From Reporting an Incident to Accident Prevention

    Drupsteen, L.; Groeneweg, J.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Many incidents have occurred because organisations have failed to learn from lessons of the past. This means that there is room for improvement in the way organisations analyse incidents, generate measures to remedy identified weaknesses and prevent reoccurrence: the learning from incidents process.

  3. Development of a process envelope for friction stir welding of DH36 steel – A step change

    Toumpis, Athanasios; Galloway, Alexander; Cater, Stephen; McPherson, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The friction stir welding speed on DH36 steel has been substantially increased. • Excellent quality welds offering potential economic advantages are obtained. • Friction stir welding of steel generates a very complex metallurgical system. • Slow and intermediate welding speed tensile samples fractured in the parent material. • Increasing traverse speed is seen to improve the impact toughness of the weld. - Abstract: Friction stir welding of steel presents an array of advantages across many industrial sectors compared to conventional fusion welding techniques. However, the fundamental knowledge of the friction stir welding process in relation to steel remains relatively limited. A microstructure and property evaluation of friction stir welded low alloy steel grade DH36 plate, commonly used in ship and marine applications has been undertaken. In this comprehensive study, plates of 2000 × 200 × 6 mm were butt welded together at varying rotational and traverse speeds. Samples were examined microscopically and by transverse tensile tests. In addition, the work was complemented by Charpy impact testing and micro-hardness testing in various regions of the weld. The study examined a wide range of process parameters; from this, a preliminary process parameter envelope has been developed and initial process parameter sets established that produce commercially attractive excellent quality welds through a substantial increase in the conventionally recognised weld traverse speed

  4. Thermal design of heat-exchangeable reactors using a dry-sorbent CO2 capture multi-step process

    Moon, Hokyu; Yoo, Hoanju; Seo, Hwimin; Park, Yong-Ki; Cho, Hyung Hee

    2015-01-01

    The present study proposes a multi-stage CO 2 capture process that incorporates heat-exchangeable fluidized-bed reactors. For continuous multi-stage heat exchange, three dry regenerable sorbents: K 2 CO 3 , MgO, and CaO, were used to create a three-stage temperature-dependent reaction chain for CO 2 capture, corresponding to low (50–150 °C), middle (350–650 °C), and high (750–900 °C) temperature stages, respectively. Heat from carbonation in the high and middle temperature stages was used for regeneration for the middle and low temperature stages. The feasibility of this process is depending on the heat-transfer performance of the heat-exchangeable fluidized bed reactors as the focus of this study. The three-stage CO 2 capture process for a 60 Nm 3 /h CO 2 flow rate required a reactor area of 0.129 and 0.130 m 2 for heat exchange between the mid-temperature carbonation and low-temperature regeneration stages and between the high-temperature carbonation and mid-temperature regeneration stages, respectively. The reactor diameter was selected to provide dense fluidization conditions for each bed with respect to the desired flow rate. The flow characteristics and energy balance of the reactors were confirmed using computational fluid dynamics and thermodynamic analysis, respectively. - Highlights: • CO 2 capture process is proposed using a multi-stage process. • Reactor design is conducted considering heat exchangeable scheme. • Reactor surface is designed by heat transfer characteristics of fluidized bed

  5. The Contribution of Numerical Magnitude Comparison and Phonological Processing to Individual Differences in Fourth Graders' Multiplication Fact Ability.

    Tamara M J Schleepen

    Full Text Available Although numerical magnitude processing has been related to individual differences in arithmetic, its role in children's multiplication performance remains largely unknown. On the other hand, studies have indicated that phonological awareness is an important correlate of individual differences in children's multiplication performance, but the involvement of phonological memory, another important phonological processing skill, has not been studied in much detail. Furthermore, knowledge about the relative contribution of above mentioned processes to the specific arithmetic operation of multiplication in children is lacking. The present study therefore investigated for the first time the unique contributions of numerical magnitude comparison and phonological processing in explaining individual differences in 63 fourth graders' multiplication fact ability (mean age = 9.6 years, SD = .67. The results showed that children's multiplication fact competency correlated significantly with symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude comparison as well as with phonological short-term memory. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that, after controlling for intellectual ability and general reaction time, both symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude comparison and phonological short-term memory accounted for unique variance in multiplication fact performance. The ability to compare symbolic magnitudes was found to contribute the most, indicating that the access to numerical magnitudes by means of Arabic digits is a key factor in explaining individual differences in children's multiplication fact ability.

  6. Developing a workbook to support the contextualisation of global health systems guidance: a case study identifying steps and critical factors for success in this process at WHO.

    Alvarez, Elizabeth; Lavis, John N; Brouwers, Melissa; Schwartz, Lisa

    2018-03-02

    Global guidance can help countries strengthen their health systems to deliver effective interventions to their populations. However, to have an impact, guidance needs to be contextualised or adapted to local settings; this process includes consideration of health system arrangements and political system factors. To date, methods to support contextualisation do not exist. In response, a workbook was designed to provide specific methods and strategies to enable the contextualisation of WHO's 'Optimizing health worker roles to improve maternal and newborn health' (OptimizeMNH) guidance at the national or subnational level. The objective of this study was to describe the process of developing the workbook and identify key steps of the development process, barriers that arose and facilitators that helped overcome some of these barriers. A qualitative single case study design was carried out. Interviews, documents and a reflexive journal were used. Constant comparison and an edit-style of organisation were used during data analysis to develop concepts, themes, subthemes and relationships among them. Thirteen interviews were conducted and 52 documents were reviewed. Three main steps were identified in the process of developing the workbook for health systems guidance contextualisation, namely (1) determining the need for and gaining approval to develop the workbook, (2) developing the workbook (taking on the task, creating the structure of the workbook, operationalising its components, undergoing approval processes and editing it), and (3) implementing the workbook both at the WHO level and at the national/subnational level. Five barriers and/or facilitators emerged relevant to each step, namely (1) having well-placed and credible champions, (2) creating and capitalising on opportunities, (3) finding the right language to engage various actors and obtain buy-in, (4) obtaining and maintaining meaningful buy-in, and (5) ensuring access to resources. Understanding the key

  7. Cell therapy-processing economics: small-scale microfactories as a stepping stone toward large-scale macrofactories.

    Harrison, Richard P; Medcalf, Nicholas; Rafiq, Qasim A

    2018-03-01

    Manufacturing methods for cell-based therapies differ markedly from those established for noncellular pharmaceuticals and biologics. Attempts to 'shoehorn' these into existing frameworks have yielded poor outcomes. Some excellent clinical results have been realized, yet emergence of a 'blockbuster' cell-based therapy has so far proved elusive.  The pressure to provide these innovative therapies, even at a smaller scale, remains. In this process, economics research paper, we utilize cell expansion research data combined with operational cost modeling in a case study to demonstrate the alternative ways in which a novel mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy could be provided at small scale. This research outlines the feasibility of cell microfactories but highlighted that there is a strong pressure to automate processes and split the quality control cost-burden over larger production batches. The study explores one potential paradigm of cell-based therapy provisioning as a potential exemplar on which to base manufacturing strategy.

  8. Using Field Data for Energy Efficiency Based on Maintenance and Operational Optimisation. A Step towards PHM in Process Plants

    Micaela Demichela

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is an important issue for any industrial sector; in particular, for the process industry, it can help to minimize both energy costs and environmental impact. Maintenance optimization and operational procedures can offer margins to increase energy efficiency in process plants, even if they are seldom explicitly taken into account in the predictive models guiding the energy saving policies. To ensure that the plant achieves the desired performance, maintenance operations and maintenance results should be monitored, and the connection between the inputs and the outcomes of the maintenance process, in terms of total contribution to manufacturing performance, should be explicit. In this study, a model for the energy efficiency analysis was developed, based on cost and benefits balance. It is aimed at supporting the decision making in terms of technical and operational solutions for energy efficiency, through the optimization of maintenance interventions and operational procedures. A case study is here described: the effects on energy efficiency of technical and operational optimization measures for bituminous materials production process equipment. The idea of the Conservation Supply Curve (CSC was used to capture both the cost effectiveness of the measures and the energy efficiency effectiveness. The optimization was thus based on the energy consumption data registered on-site: data collection and modelling of the relevant data were used as a base to implement a prognostic and health management (PHM policy in the company. Based on the results from the analysis, efficiency measures for the industrial case study were proposed, also in relation to maintenance optimization and operating procedures. In the end, the impacts of the implementation of energy saving measures on the performance of the system, in terms of technical and economic feasibility, were demonstrated. The results showed that maintenance optimization could help in reaching

  9. Synthesis and Application of Amine Functionalized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Menaquinone-7 Fermentation: A Step towards Process Intensification

    Alireza Ebrahiminezhad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production of menaquione-7 by Bacillus subtilis natto is associated with major drawbacks. To address the current challenges in menaquione-7 fermentation, studying the effect of magnetic nanoparticles on the bacterial cells can open up a new domain for intensified menqainone-7 process. This article introduces the new concept of production and application of l-lysine coated iron oxide nanoparticles (l-Lys@IONs as a novel tool for menaquinone-7 biosynthesis. l-Lys@IONs with the average size of 7 nm were successfully fabricated and were examined in a fermentation process of l-Lys@IONs decorated Bacillus subtilis natto. Based on the results, higher menaquinone-7 specific yield was observed for l-Lys@IONs decorated bacterial cells as compared to untreated bacteria. In addition, more than 92% removal efficacy was achieved by using integrated magnetic separation process. The present study demonstrates that l-Lys@IONs can be successfully applied during a fermentation of menaquinone-7 without any negative consequences on the culture conditions. This study provides a novel biotechnological application for IONs and their future role in bioprocess intensification.

  10. Global Sensitivity Analysis as Good Modelling Practices tool for the identification of the most influential process parameters of the primary drying step during freeze-drying.

    Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Corver, Jos; Nopens, Ingmar; Gernaey, Krist V; De Beer, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Pharmaceutical batch freeze-drying is commonly used to improve the stability of biological therapeutics. The primary drying step is regulated by the dynamic settings of the adaptable process variables, shelf temperature T s and chamber pressure P c . Mechanistic modelling of the primary drying step leads to the optimal dynamic combination of these adaptable process variables in function of time. According to Good Modelling Practices, a Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is essential for appropriate model building. In this study, both a regression-based and variance-based GSA were conducted on a validated mechanistic primary drying model to estimate the impact of several model input parameters on two output variables, the product temperature at the sublimation front T i and the sublimation rate ṁ sub . T s was identified as most influential parameter on both T i and ṁ sub , followed by P c and the dried product mass transfer resistance α Rp for T i and ṁ sub , respectively. The GSA findings were experimentally validated for ṁ sub via a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach. The results indicated that GSA is a very useful tool for the evaluation of the impact of different process variables on the model outcome, leading to essential process knowledge, without the need for time-consuming experiments (e.g., DoE). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance and economic assessments of a solid oxide fuel cell system with a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming process using CaO sorbent

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2016-02-01

    The hydrogen production process is known to be important to a fuel cell system. In this study, a carbon-free hydrogen production process is proposed by using a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming procedure, which consists of ethanol dehydrogenation and steam reforming, as a fuel processor in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. An addition of CaO in the reformer for CO2 capture is also considered to enhance the hydrogen production. The performance of the SOFC system is analyzed under thermally self-sufficient conditions in terms of the technical and economic aspects. The simulation results show that the two-step reforming process can be run in the operating window without carbon formation. The addition of CaO in the steam reformer, which runs at a steam-to-ethanol ratio of 5, temperature of 900 K and atmospheric pressure, minimizes the presence of CO2; 93% CO2 is removed from the steam-reforming environment. This factor causes an increase in the SOFC power density of 6.62%. Although the economic analysis shows that the proposed fuel processor provides a higher capital cost, it offers a reducing active area of the SOFC stack and the most favorable process economics in term of net cost saving.

  12. A test of multiple correlation temporal window characteristic of non-Markov processes

    Arecchi, F. T.; Farini, A.; Megna, N.

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a sensitive test of memory effects in successive events. The test consists of a combination K of binary correlations at successive times. K decays monotonically from K = 1 for uncorrelated events as a Markov process. For a monotonic memory fading, K1 temporal window in cognitive tasks consisting of the visual identification of the front face of the Necker cube after a previous presentation of the same. We speculate that memory effects provide a temporal window with K>1 and this experiment could be a possible first step towards a better comprehension of this phenomenon. The K>1 behaviour is maximal at an inter-measurement time τ around 2s with inter-subject differences. The K>1 persists over a time window of 1s around τ; outside this window the K1 window in pairs of successive perceptions suggests that, at variance with single visual stimuli eliciting a suitable response, a pair of stimuli shortly separated in time displays mutual correlations.

  13. Directional phonon-assisted cascading of photoexcited carriers in stepped Inx(Al0.17Ga0.83)1-xAs/Al0.17Ga0.83As multiple quantum wells

    Machida, S.; Matsuo, M.; Fujiwara, K.

    2002-01-01

    Perpendicular motion of photoexcited electron and hole pairs assisted by phononscattering is investigated in a novel step-graded staircase heterostructure consisting of strained In-1(Al0.17Ga0.83)(1-x). As multiple quantum wells (QWs) with similar widths but five different x values by cw and time...... amplitude in the inter-mediate temperature range, These variations reveal that the photoexcited carriers directionally move from shallower to deeper QWs via phonon-assisted activation above the barrier hand edge state. The PL dynamics directly indicate the perpendicular flowing of photoexcited carriers...

  14. A latent process model for forecasting multiple time series in environmental public health surveillance.

    Morrison, Kathryn T; Shaddick, Gavin; Henderson, Sarah B; Buckeridge, David L

    2016-08-15

    This paper outlines a latent process model for forecasting multiple health outcomes arising from a common environmental exposure. Traditionally, surveillance models in environmental health do not link health outcome measures, such as morbidity or mortality counts, to measures of exposure, such as air pollution. Moreover, different measures of health outcomes are treated as independent, while it is known that they are correlated with one another over time as they arise in part from a common underlying exposure. We propose modelling an environmental exposure as a latent process, and we describe the implementation of such a model within a hierarchical Bayesian framework and its efficient computation using integrated nested Laplace approximations. Through a simulation study, we compare distinct univariate models for each health outcome with a bivariate approach. The bivariate model outperforms the univariate models in bias and coverage of parameter estimation, in forecast accuracy and in computational efficiency. The methods are illustrated with a case study using healthcare utilization and air pollution data from British Columbia, Canada, 2003-2011, where seasonal wildfires produce high levels of air pollution, significantly impacting population health. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Generation and monitoring of discrete stable random processes using multiple immigration population models

    Matthews, J O; Hopcraft, K I; Jakeman, E [Applied Mathematics Division, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2003-11-21

    Some properties of classical population processes that comprise births, deaths and multiple immigrations are investigated. The rates at which the immigrants arrive can be tailored to produce a population whose steady state fluctuations are described by a pre-selected distribution. Attention is focused on the class of distributions with a discrete stable law, which have power-law tails and whose moments and autocorrelation function do not exist. The separate problem of monitoring and characterizing the fluctuations is studied, analysing the statistics of individuals that leave the population. The fluctuations in the size of the population are transferred to the times between emigrants that form an intermittent time series of events. The emigrants are counted with a detector of finite dynamic range and response time. This is modelled through clipping the time series or saturating it at an arbitrary but finite level, whereupon its moments and correlation properties become finite. Distributions for the time to the first counted event and for the time between events exhibit power-law regimes that are characteristic of the fluctuations in population size. The processes provide analytical models with which properties of complex discrete random phenomena can be explored, and in addition provide generic means by which random time series encompassing a wide range of intermittent and other discrete random behaviour may be generated.

  16. Generation and monitoring of discrete stable random processes using multiple immigration population models

    Matthews, J O; Hopcraft, K I; Jakeman, E

    2003-01-01

    Some properties of classical population processes that comprise births, deaths and multiple immigrations are investigated. The rates at which the immigrants arrive can be tailored to produce a population whose steady state fluctuations are described by a pre-selected distribution. Attention is focused on the class of distributions with a discrete stable law, which have power-law tails and whose moments and autocorrelation function do not exist. The separate problem of monitoring and characterizing the fluctuations is studied, analysing the statistics of individuals that leave the population. The fluctuations in the size of the population are transferred to the times between emigrants that form an intermittent time series of events. The emigrants are counted with a detector of finite dynamic range and response time. This is modelled through clipping the time series or saturating it at an arbitrary but finite level, whereupon its moments and correlation properties become finite. Distributions for the time to the first counted event and for the time between events exhibit power-law regimes that are characteristic of the fluctuations in population size. The processes provide analytical models with which properties of complex discrete random phenomena can be explored, and in addition provide generic means by which random time series encompassing a wide range of intermittent and other discrete random behaviour may be generated

  17. A distributive peptide cyclase processes multiple microviridin core peptides within a single polypeptide substrate.

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Kunhua; Yang, Guang; McBride, Joshua L; Bruner, Steven D; Ding, Yousong

    2018-05-03

    Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are an important family of natural products. Their biosynthesis follows a common scheme in which the leader peptide of a precursor peptide guides the modifications of a single core peptide. Here we describe biochemical studies of the processing of multiple core peptides within a precursor peptide, rare in RiPP biosynthesis. In a cyanobacterial microviridin pathway, an ATP-grasp ligase, AMdnC, installs up to two macrolactones on each of the three core peptides within AMdnA. The enzyme catalysis occurs in a distributive fashion and follows an unstrict N-to-C overall directionality, but a strict order in macrolactonizing each core peptide. Furthermore, AMdnC is catalytically versatile to process unnatural substrates carrying one to four core peptides, and kinetic studies provide insights into its catalytic properties. Collectively, our results reveal a distinct biosynthetic logic of RiPPs, opening up the possibility of modular production via synthetic biology approaches.

  18. Stochastic production phase design for an open pit mining complex with multiple processing streams

    Asad, Mohammad Waqar Ali; Dimitrakopoulos, Roussos; van Eldert, Jeroen

    2014-08-01

    In a mining complex, the mine is a source of supply of valuable material (ore) to a number of processes that convert the raw ore to a saleable product or a metal concentrate for production of the refined metal. In this context, expected variation in metal content throughout the extent of the orebody defines the inherent uncertainty in the supply of ore, which impacts the subsequent ore and metal production targets. Traditional optimization methods for designing production phases and ultimate pit limit of an open pit mine not only ignore the uncertainty in metal content, but, in addition, commonly assume that the mine delivers ore to a single processing facility. A stochastic network flow approach is proposed that jointly integrates uncertainty in supply of ore and multiple ore destinations into the development of production phase design and ultimate pit limit. An application at a copper mine demonstrates the intricacies of the new approach. The case study shows a 14% higher discounted cash flow when compared to the traditional approach.

  19. Embedded-Based Graphics Processing Unit Cluster Platform for Multiple Sequence Alignments

    Jyh-Da Wei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available High-end graphics processing units (GPUs, such as NVIDIA Tesla/Fermi/Kepler series cards with thousands of cores per chip, are widely applied to high-performance computing fields in a decade. These desktop GPU cards should be installed in personal computers/servers with desktop CPUs, and the cost and power consumption of constructing a GPU cluster platform are very high. In recent years, NVIDIA releases an embedded board, called Jetson Tegra K1 (TK1, which contains 4 ARM Cortex-A15 CPUs and 192 Compute Unified Device Architecture cores (belong to Kepler GPUs. Jetson Tegra K1 has several advantages, such as the low cost, low power consumption, and high applicability, and it has been applied into several specific applications. In our previous work, a bioinformatics platform with a single TK1 (STK platform was constructed, and this previous work is also used to prove that the Web and mobile services can be implemented in the STK platform with a good cost-performance ratio by comparing a STK platform with the desktop CPU and GPU. In this work, an embedded-based GPU cluster platform will be constructed with multiple TK1s (MTK platform. Complex system installation and setup are necessary procedures at first. Then, 2 job assignment modes are designed for the MTK platform to provide services for users. Finally, ClustalW v2.0.11 and ClustalWtk will be ported to the MTK platform. The experimental results showed that the speedup ratios achieved 5.5 and 4.8 times for ClustalW v2.0.11 and ClustalWtk, respectively, by comparing 6 TK1s with a single TK1. The MTK platform is proven to be useful for multiple sequence alignments.

  20. Embedded-Based Graphics Processing Unit Cluster Platform for Multiple Sequence Alignments.

    Wei, Jyh-Da; Cheng, Hui-Jun; Lin, Chun-Yuan; Ye, Jin; Yeh, Kuan-Yu

    2017-01-01

    High-end graphics processing units (GPUs), such as NVIDIA Tesla/Fermi/Kepler series cards with thousands of cores per chip, are widely applied to high-performance computing fields in a decade. These desktop GPU cards should be installed in personal computers/servers with desktop CPUs, and the cost and power consumption of constructing a GPU cluster platform are very high. In recent years, NVIDIA releases an embedded board, called Jetson Tegra K1 (TK1), which contains 4 ARM Cortex-A15 CPUs and 192 Compute Unified Device Architecture cores (belong to Kepler GPUs). Jetson Tegra K1 has several advantages, such as the low cost, low power consumption, and high applicability, and it has been applied into several specific applications. In our previous work, a bioinformatics platform with a single TK1 (STK platform) was constructed, and this previous work is also used to prove that the Web and mobile services can be implemented in the STK platform with a good cost-performance ratio by comparing a STK platform with the desktop CPU and GPU. In this work, an embedded-based GPU cluster platform will be constructed with multiple TK1s (MTK platform). Complex system installation and setup are necessary procedures at first. Then, 2 job assignment modes are designed for the MTK platform to provide services for users. Finally, ClustalW v2.0.11 and ClustalWtk will be ported to the MTK platform. The experimental results showed that the speedup ratios achieved 5.5 and 4.8 times for ClustalW v2.0.11 and ClustalWtk, respectively, by comparing 6 TK1s with a single TK1. The MTK platform is proven to be useful for multiple sequence alignments.