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Sample records for multiple prior losses

  1. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; Bernardi, L A; Christiansen, O B

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from...... different centres. In our opinion, terminology and definitions should be based on clinical findings, and when possible, transvaginal ultrasound. With this Early Pregnancy Consensus Statement, it is our goal to provide clear and consistent terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability....

  2. Acquisition of multiple prior distributions in tactile temporal order judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito eNagai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bayesian estimation theory proposes that the brain acquires the prior distribution of a task and integrates it with sensory signals to minimize the effect of sensory noise. Psychophysical studies have demonstrated that our brain actually implements Bayesian estimation in a variety of sensory-motor tasks. However, these studies only imposed one prior distribution on participants within a task period. In this study, we investigated the conditions that enable the acquisition of multiple prior distributions in temporal order judgment (TOJ of two tactile stimuli across the hands. In Experiment 1, stimulation intervals were randomly selected from one of two prior distributions (biased to right hand earlier and biased to left hand earlier in association with color cues (green and red, respectively. Although the acquisition of the two priors was not enabled by the color cues alone, it was significant when participants shifted their gaze (above or below in response to the color cues. However, the acquisition of multiple priors was not significant when participants moved their mouths (opened or closed. In Experiment 2, the spatial cues (above and below were used to identify which eye position or retinal cue position was crucial for the eye-movement-dependent acquisition of multiple priors in Experiment 1. The acquisition of the two priors was significant when participants moved their gaze to the cues (i.e., the cue positions on the retina were constant across the priors, as well as when participants did not shift their gazes (i.e., the cue positions on the retina changed according to the priors. Thus, both eye and retinal cue positions were effective in acquiring multiple priors. Based on previous neurophysiological reports, we discuss possible neural correlates that contribute to the acquisition of multiple priors.

  3. Generalized multiple kernel learning with data-dependent priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qi; Tsang, Ivor W; Gao, Shenghua; Wang, Li

    2015-06-01

    Multiple kernel learning (MKL) and classifier ensemble are two mainstream methods for solving learning problems in which some sets of features/views are more informative than others, or the features/views within a given set are inconsistent. In this paper, we first present a novel probabilistic interpretation of MKL such that maximum entropy discrimination with a noninformative prior over multiple views is equivalent to the formulation of MKL. Instead of using the noninformative prior, we introduce a novel data-dependent prior based on an ensemble of kernel predictors, which enhances the prediction performance of MKL by leveraging the merits of the classifier ensemble. With the proposed probabilistic framework of MKL, we propose a hierarchical Bayesian model to learn the proposed data-dependent prior and classification model simultaneously. The resultant problem is convex and other information (e.g., instances with either missing views or missing labels) can be seamlessly incorporated into the data-dependent priors. Furthermore, a variety of existing MKL models can be recovered under the proposed MKL framework and can be readily extended to incorporate these priors. Extensive experiments demonstrate the benefits of our proposed framework in supervised and semisupervised settings, as well as in tasks with partial correspondence among multiple views.

  4. Testability evaluation using prior information of multiple sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Testability plays an important role in improving the readiness and decreasing the life-cycle cost of equipment. Testability demonstration and evaluation is of significance in measuring such testability indexes as fault detection rate (FDR and fault isolation rate (FIR, which is useful to the producer in mastering the testability level and improving the testability design, and helpful to the consumer in making purchase decisions. Aiming at the problems with a small sample of testability demonstration test data (TDTD such as low evaluation confidence and inaccurate result, a testability evaluation method is proposed based on the prior information of multiple sources and Bayes theory. Firstly, the types of prior information are analyzed. The maximum entropy method is applied to the prior information with the mean and interval estimate forms on the testability index to obtain the parameters of prior probability density function (PDF, and the empirical Bayesian method is used to get the parameters for the prior information with a success-fail form. Then, a parametrical data consistency check method is used to check the compatibility between all the sources of prior information and TDTD. For the prior information to pass the check, the prior credibility is calculated. A mixed prior distribution is formed based on the prior PDFs and the corresponding credibility. The Bayesian posterior distribution model is acquired with the mixed prior distribution and TDTD, based on which the point and interval estimates are calculated. Finally, examples of a flying control system are used to verify the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is feasible and effective.

  5. Testability evaluation using prior information of multiple sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chao; Qiu Jing; Liu Guanjun; Zhang Yong

    2014-01-01

    Testability plays an important role in improving the readiness and decreasing the life-cycle cost of equipment. Testability demonstration and evaluation is of significance in measuring such testability indexes as fault detection rate (FDR) and fault isolation rate (FIR), which is useful to the producer in mastering the testability level and improving the testability design, and helpful to the consumer in making purchase decisions. Aiming at the problems with a small sample of testabil-ity demonstration test data (TDTD) such as low evaluation confidence and inaccurate result, a test-ability evaluation method is proposed based on the prior information of multiple sources and Bayes theory. Firstly, the types of prior information are analyzed. The maximum entropy method is applied to the prior information with the mean and interval estimate forms on the testability index to obtain the parameters of prior probability density function (PDF), and the empirical Bayesian method is used to get the parameters for the prior information with a success-fail form. Then, a parametrical data consistency check method is used to check the compatibility between all the sources of prior information and TDTD. For the prior information to pass the check, the prior credibility is calculated. A mixed prior distribution is formed based on the prior PDFs and the corresponding credibility. The Bayesian posterior distribution model is acquired with the mixed prior distribution and TDTD, based on which the point and interval estimates are calculated. Finally, examples of a flying control system are used to verify the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is feasible and effective.

  6. Estimating Ambiguity Preferences and Perceptions in Multiple Prior Models: Evidence from the Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G. Dimmock (Stephen); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy); O.S. Mitchell (Olivia); K. Peijnenburg (Kim)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractWe develop a tractable method to estimate multiple prior models of decision-making under ambiguity. In a representative sample of the U.S. population, we measure ambiguity attitudes in the gain and loss domains. We find that ambiguity aversion is common for uncertain events of

  7. Compressive Online Robust Principal Component Analysis with Multiple Prior Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Luong, Huynh; Deligiannis, Nikos; Seiler, Jürgen

    -rank components. Unlike conventional batch RPCA, which processes all the data directly, our method considers a small set of measurements taken per data vector (frame). Moreover, our method incorporates multiple prior information signals, namely previous reconstructed frames, to improve these paration...... and thereafter, update the prior information for the next frame. Using experiments on synthetic data, we evaluate the separation performance of the proposed algorithm. In addition, we apply the proposed algorithm to online video foreground and background separation from compressive measurements. The results show...

  8. Risk factors for islet loss during culture prior to transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin, Tatsuya; Senior, Peter; O'Gorman, Doug; Richer, Brad; Salam, Abdul; Shapiro, Andrew Mark James

    2008-11-01

    Culturing islets can add great flexibility to a clinical islet transplant program. However, a reduction in the islet mass has been frequently observed during culture and its degree varies. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with a significant islet loss during culture. One-hundred and four islet preparations cultured in an attempt to use for transplantation constituted this study. After culture for 20 h (median), islet yield significantly decreased from 363 309 +/- 12 647 to 313 035 +/- 10 862 islet equivalent yield (IE) (mean +/- SE), accompanied by a reduction in packed tissue volume from 3.9 +/- 0.1 to 3.0 +/- 0.1 ml and islet index (IE/islet particle count) from 1.20 +/- 0.04 to 1.05 +/- 0.04. Culture did not markedly alter islet purity or percent of trapped islet. Morphology score and viability were significantly improved after culture. Of 104 islet preparations, 37 suffered a substantial islet loss (> 20%) over culture. Factors significantly associated with risk of islet loss identified by univariate analysis were longer cold ischemia time, two-layer method (TLM) preservation, lower islet purity, and higher islet index. Multivariate analysis revealed that independent predictors of islet loss were higher islet index and the use of TLM. This study provides novel information on the link between donor- isolation factors and islet loss during culture.

  9. Estimating ambiguity preferences and perceptions in multiple prior models: Evidence from the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Stephen G.; Kouwenberg, Roy; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Peijnenburg, Kim

    2016-01-01

    We develop a tractable method to estimate multiple prior models of decision-making under ambiguity. In a representative sample of the U.S. population, we measure ambiguity attitudes in the gain and loss domains. We find that ambiguity aversion is common for uncertain events of moderate to high likelihood involving gains, but ambiguity seeking prevails for low likelihoods and for losses. We show that choices made under ambiguity in the gain domain are best explained by the α-MaxMin model, with one parameter measuring ambiguity aversion (ambiguity preferences) and a second parameter quantifying the perceived degree of ambiguity (perceptions about ambiguity). The ambiguity aversion parameter α is constant and prior probability sets are asymmetric for low and high likelihood events. The data reject several other models, such as MaxMin and MaxMax, as well as symmetric probability intervals. Ambiguity aversion and the perceived degree of ambiguity are both higher for men and for the college-educated. Ambiguity aversion (but not perceived ambiguity) is also positively related to risk aversion. In the loss domain, we find evidence of reflection, implying that ambiguity aversion for gains tends to reverse into ambiguity seeking for losses. Our model’s estimates for preferences and perceptions about ambiguity can be used to analyze the economic and financial implications of such preferences. PMID:26924890

  10. Estimating ambiguity preferences and perceptions in multiple prior models: Evidence from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Stephen G; Kouwenberg, Roy; Mitchell, Olivia S; Peijnenburg, Kim

    2015-12-01

    We develop a tractable method to estimate multiple prior models of decision-making under ambiguity. In a representative sample of the U.S. population, we measure ambiguity attitudes in the gain and loss domains. We find that ambiguity aversion is common for uncertain events of moderate to high likelihood involving gains, but ambiguity seeking prevails for low likelihoods and for losses. We show that choices made under ambiguity in the gain domain are best explained by the α-MaxMin model, with one parameter measuring ambiguity aversion (ambiguity preferences) and a second parameter quantifying the perceived degree of ambiguity (perceptions about ambiguity). The ambiguity aversion parameter α is constant and prior probability sets are asymmetric for low and high likelihood events. The data reject several other models, such as MaxMin and MaxMax, as well as symmetric probability intervals. Ambiguity aversion and the perceived degree of ambiguity are both higher for men and for the college-educated. Ambiguity aversion (but not perceived ambiguity) is also positively related to risk aversion. In the loss domain, we find evidence of reflection, implying that ambiguity aversion for gains tends to reverse into ambiguity seeking for losses. Our model's estimates for preferences and perceptions about ambiguity can be used to analyze the economic and financial implications of such preferences.

  11. [Multiple sclerosis, loss of functionality and gender].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-González, Félix; Álvarez-Roldán, Arturo

    2017-12-01

    To identify the type of support and assistance that patients with multiple sclerosis need in order to cope with the loss of functionality, and to show how gender affects the perception of these needs. Interpretative-phenomenological qualitative study. Granada (Spain). Year: 2014. Intentional sample: 30 patients and 20 family caregivers. Data were gathered from 26 interviews and 4 focus groups. The data were coded and analysed with the NVivo programme. The multiple sclerosis patients and family caregivers had different perceptions of the loss of capacity to undertake activities of daily living. Being able to self care was considered the last vestige of autonomy. The women with multiple sclerosis tried to take on the responsibility of housework, but the male caregivers became gradually involved in these tasks. Gender roles were redefined with respect to housekeeping. The multiple sclerosis patients showed a need for emotional support. Some of the men had abandoned the stereotype of the strong male as a result of the decline in their health. Adaptations in the home took place without planning them in advance. The use of mobility devices started on an occasional basis. A fear of stigma was an obstacle for regular use of assistive technology. Health care for people with multiple sclerosis should include family caregivers. Gender influences the perception that caregivers and patients have of the assistance they require to maximise their quality of life. This flags up several intervention areas for the follow-up and long-term care of these patients by the healthcare system. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Childhood Mourning: Prospective Case Analysis of Multiple Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Kenneth R.; Kaufman, Nathaniel D.

    2005-01-01

    Multiple losses within short time periods make one question life and can exponentially influence one's coping skills. But what are the effects on a child and what should be done when the next loss occurs? This case addresses the multiple losses suffered by a child while assessing coping skills of the child and coping strategies used by the parents…

  13. Prior rates of visual field loss and lifetime risk of blindness in glaucomatous patients undergoing trabeculectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulsham, W S; Fu, L; Tatham, A J

    2015-10-01

    Trend-based analyses examining rates of visual field (VF) loss in glaucoma are useful for predicting risk of vision-related morbidity. Although patients with faster losses are likely to require treatment escalation, little is known about rates that might trigger a decision to intervene surgically. The aims of this study were to investigate prior rates of VF loss in patients attending for trabeculectomy and to estimate, in the absence of surgical intervention, lifetime risk of visual impairment, and blindness. A retrospective analysis of 117 eyes of 86 consecutive patients with glaucoma attending for trabeculectomy, including 53 patients referred from general ophthalmology clinics and 33 patients from specialist glaucoma clinics. Rates of change in standard automated perimetry mean deviation were examined using linear regression and random coefficient models. Risk of lifetime visual impairment and blindness was calculated using life expectancy data. Mean age at surgery was 71.0±9.7 years. Patients were followed for 10.7±7.5 years prior to surgery with an average of seven useable fields per eye. On average patients referred from general clinics lost 1.04 dB/year compared with 0.77 dB/year in those referred from glaucoma clinics (P=0.070). Patients referred from general clinics had more medication changes prior to surgery (3.4 and 2.6 changes, respectively; P=0.004). Given Scottish life expectancy data, untreated, 61 eyes (52%) would have passed the threshold for visual impairment, whereas 40 (34%) would have passed the threshold demarcating blindness. Patients attending for trabeculectomy had faster average rates of field loss prior to surgery than published values for the general glaucoma population with over one-third of eyes studied predicted to have become blind without intervention. Those managed by glaucoma specialists had fewer changes in medication and tended to slower rates of VF loss, although the latter did not reach statistical significance.

  14. Are women with obesity and infertility willing to attempt weight loss prior to fertility treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, C R; Page, C M; Goldman, R H; Ginsburg, E S; Zera, C A

    To assess attitudes towards weight loss interventions in patients seeking infertility treatment. We evaluated prior weight loss experiences, attitudes towards future interventions by body mass index (BMI), and willingness to delay fertility treatment for weight loss interventions stratified by BMI using logistic regression amongst women ≤45years old with infertility over three months or recurrent pregnancy loss. The average age of our convenience sample of respondents (148 of 794 eligible women, 19%) was 34.5 years old, with a mean BMI of 26.7±7.4kg/m 2 , including 37 with a BMI >30kg/m 2 (25%). Most women had attempted conception over 1year. The majority of women with overweight or obesity were attempting weight loss at the time of survey completion (69%). While 47% of these women reported interest in a supervised medical weight loss program, 92% of overweight women and 84% of women with obesity were not willing to delay fertility treatment more than 3 months to attempt weight loss. Most women with obesity and infertility in our population are unwilling to postpone fertility treatment for weight loss interventions. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability: a consensus statement from the ESHRE early pregnancy special interest group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolte, A. M.; Bernardi, L. A.; Christiansen, O. B.; Quenby, S.; Farquharson, R. G.; Goddijn, M.; Stephenson, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from

  16. Vitamin D is associated with bioavailability of androgens in eumenorrheic women with prior pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhr, Daniel L; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Alkhalaf, Zeina; Omosigho, Ukpebo R; Connell, Matthew T; Silver, Robert M; Kim, Keewan; Perkins, Neil J; Holland, Tiffany L; Plowden, Torie C; Schisterman, Enrique F; Mumford, Sunni L

    2018-06-01

    Prior studies have reported mixed results regarding relationships between vitamin D, androgens, and sex hormone-binding globulin in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. However, less is known regarding these associations in eumenorrheic, premenopausal women. Our objective was to study the relationships between serum vitamin D and androgen biomarkers in eumenorrheic women with a history of pregnancy loss who were attempting pregnancy. This was an analysis of a cohort of 1191 participants from the Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction trial (2006-2012). Participants were attempting to conceive, aged 18-40 years, with 1-2 documented prior pregnancy losses and no history of infertility, and recruited from 4 academic medical centers in the United States. Serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) and hormone concentrations were measured at baseline. Vitamin D concentration was negatively associated with free androgen index (percentage change [95% confidence interval, -5% (-8% to -2%)] per 10 ng/mL increase) and positively associated with sex hormone-binding globulin (95% confidence interval, 4% [2-7%]), although not with total testosterone, free testosterone, or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, race, income, education, physical activity, and season of blood draw. Overall, vitamin D was associated with sex hormone-binding globulin and free androgen index in eumenorrheic women with prior pregnancy loss, suggesting that vitamin D may play a role in the bioavailability of androgens in eumenorrheic women. We are limited in making assessments regarding directionality, given the cross-sectional nature of our study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Adipose gene expression prior to weight loss can differentiate and weakly predict dietary responders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Mutch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to identify obese individuals who will successfully lose weight in response to dietary intervention will revolutionize disease management. Therefore, we asked whether it is possible to identify subjects who will lose weight during dietary intervention using only a single gene expression snapshot. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study involved 54 female subjects from the Nutrient-Gene Interactions in Human Obesity-Implications for Dietary Guidelines (NUGENOB trial to determine whether subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression could be used to predict weight loss prior to the 10-week consumption of a low-fat hypocaloric diet. Using several statistical tests revealed that the gene expression profiles of responders (8-12 kgs weight loss could always be differentiated from non-responders (<4 kgs weight loss. We also assessed whether this differentiation was sufficient for prediction. Using a bottom-up (i.e. black-box approach, standard class prediction algorithms were able to predict dietary responders with up to 61.1%+/-8.1% accuracy. Using a top-down approach (i.e. using differentially expressed genes to build a classifier improved prediction accuracy to 80.9%+/-2.2%. CONCLUSION: Adipose gene expression profiling prior to the consumption of a low-fat diet is able to differentiate responders from non-responders as well as serve as a weak predictor of subjects destined to lose weight. While the degree of prediction accuracy currently achieved with a gene expression snapshot is perhaps insufficient for clinical use, this work reveals that the comprehensive molecular signature of adipose tissue paves the way for the future of personalized nutrition.

  18. Integrating conflicting information from multiple texts: Effects of prior attitudes and text format

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Strien, Johan; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Els

    2011-01-01

    Van Strien, J. L. H., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2011, August). Integrating conflicting information from multiple texts: Effects of prior attitudes and text format. Round table session presented at the Junior Researchers pre-conference of the biannual meeting of the European

  19. Relation between quality of life and mental health in pregnant women with prior pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspoor, Zahra; Razmju, Parvanah Sarparast; Hekmat, Kadijah

    2016-10-01

    This paper intends to compare quality of life (QoL) and mental health among pregnant women with and without previous pregnancy loss. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 409 women between the 16th and 30th weeks of gestation in health centers in Ahvaz, Iran, including 145 women with prior pregnancy loss (group 1) and 264 women without such history (group 2). Data were collected using the QoL Short Form-36 questionnaire, the Mental Health Questionnaire 25 and a questionnaire for assessing sociodemographic variables. Data were analyzed using spss version 22. Results were analyzed using the χ 2 -test, the Student's t-test and logistic regression. P mental health. Women with previous pregnancy loss had lower scores in total and in all subscales of the QoL Short Form-36 (P Mental Health Questionnaire 25 compared to women without these histories. Women with history of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth seem to have poorer QoL and mental health during their subsequent pregnancy than those without such experience. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Parameter estimation of multivariate multiple regression model using bayesian with non-informative Jeffreys’ prior distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputro, D. R. S.; Amalia, F.; Widyaningsih, P.; Affan, R. C.

    2018-05-01

    Bayesian method is a method that can be used to estimate the parameters of multivariate multiple regression model. Bayesian method has two distributions, there are prior and posterior distributions. Posterior distribution is influenced by the selection of prior distribution. Jeffreys’ prior distribution is a kind of Non-informative prior distribution. This prior is used when the information about parameter not available. Non-informative Jeffreys’ prior distribution is combined with the sample information resulting the posterior distribution. Posterior distribution is used to estimate the parameter. The purposes of this research is to estimate the parameters of multivariate regression model using Bayesian method with Non-informative Jeffreys’ prior distribution. Based on the results and discussion, parameter estimation of β and Σ which were obtained from expected value of random variable of marginal posterior distribution function. The marginal posterior distributions for β and Σ are multivariate normal and inverse Wishart. However, in calculation of the expected value involving integral of a function which difficult to determine the value. Therefore, approach is needed by generating of random samples according to the posterior distribution characteristics of each parameter using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Gibbs sampling algorithm.

  1. Adipose Gene Expression Prior to Weight Loss Can Differentiate and Weakly Predict Dietary Responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, David M.; Temanni, M. Ramzi; Henegar, Corneliu; Combes, Florence; Pelloux, Véronique; Holst, Claus; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Saris, Wim H. M.; Viguerie, Nathalie; Langin, Dominique; Zucker, Jean-Daniel; Clément, Karine

    2007-01-01

    Background The ability to identify obese individuals who will successfully lose weight in response to dietary intervention will revolutionize disease management. Therefore, we asked whether it is possible to identify subjects who will lose weight during dietary intervention using only a single gene expression snapshot. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study involved 54 female subjects from the Nutrient-Gene Interactions in Human Obesity-Implications for Dietary Guidelines (NUGENOB) trial to determine whether subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression could be used to predict weight loss prior to the 10-week consumption of a low-fat hypocaloric diet. Using several statistical tests revealed that the gene expression profiles of responders (8–12 kgs weight loss) could always be differentiated from non-responders (diet is able to differentiate responders from non-responders as well as serve as a weak predictor of subjects destined to lose weight. While the degree of prediction accuracy currently achieved with a gene expression snapshot is perhaps insufficient for clinical use, this work reveals that the comprehensive molecular signature of adipose tissue paves the way for the future of personalized nutrition. PMID:18094752

  2. Phase II prospective randomized trial of weight loss prior to radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Susanne M; Galet, Colette; Gollapudi, Kiran; Byrd, Joshua B; Liang, Pei; Li, Zhaoping; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Magyar, Clara E; Said, Jonathan; Cohen, Pinchas; Aronson, William J

    2017-12-04

    Obesity is associated with poorly differentiated and advanced prostate cancer and increased mortality. In preclinical models, caloric restriction delays prostate cancer progression and prolongs survival. We sought to determine if weight loss (WL) in men with prostate cancer prior to radical prostatectomy affects tumor apoptosis and proliferation, and if WL effects other metabolic biomarkers. In this Phase II prospective trial, overweight and obese men scheduled for radical prostatectomy were randomized to a 5-8 week WL program consisting of standard structured energy-restricted meal plans (1200-1500 Kcal/day) and physical activity or to a control group. The primary endpoint was apoptotic index in the radical prostatectomy malignant epithelium. Secondary endpoints were proliferation (Ki67) in the radical prostatectomy tissue, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio, body composition, and serum PSA, insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, testosterone, estradiol, leptin, adiponectin, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, insulin-like growth factor 1, and IGF binding protein 1. In total 23 patients were randomized to the WL intervention and 21 patients to the control group. Subjects in the intervention group had significantly more weight loss (WL:-3.7 ± 0.5 kg; Control:-1.6 ± 0.5 kg; p = 0.007) than the control group and total fat mass was significantly reduced (WL:-2.1 ± 0.4; Control: 0.1 ± 0.3; p = 0.015). There was no significant difference in apoptotic or proliferation index between the groups. Among the other biomarkers, triglyceride, and insulin levels were significantly decreased in the WL compared with the control group. In summary, this short-term WL program prior to radical prostatectomy resulted in significantly more WL in the intervention vs. the control group and was accompanied by significant reductions in body fat mass, circulating triglycerides, and insulin. However, no significant changes were observed in malignant

  3. 26 CFR 1.996-8 - Effect of carryback of capital loss or net operating loss to prior DISC taxable year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of carryback of capital loss or net operating loss to prior DISC taxable year. 1.996-8 Section 1.996-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales...

  4. Metabolic Benefits of Prior Weight Loss with and without Exercise on Subsequent 6-Month Weight Regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alice S; Serra, Monica C; Goldberg, Andrew P

    2018-01-01

    To determine the 6-month follow-up effects after intentional 6-month weight loss alone (WL) and after weight loss with aerobic exercise (AEX + WL) on body composition, glucose metabolism, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in older postmenopausal women and to identify the mechanisms for weight regain. Women (n = 65, BMI > 25 kg/m 2 ) underwent maximal oxygen consumption testing, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography scans, and oral glucose tolerance tests before and after 6 months of AEX + WL or WL and at 12 months ad libitum follow-up. Insulin sensitivity (M) (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) was measured at baseline and 6 months. Thirty WL and thirty-five AEX + WL women completed a follow-up at 12 months. Similar weight loss was observed (-8%) in both groups from 0 to 6 months. Total fat mass, fat-free mass, visceral fat area, subcutaneous abdominal and midthigh fat areas, fasting glucose, insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin areas under the curve, and triglyceride levels decreased similarly after WL and AEX + WL and remained lower at 12 months than at baseline, despite weight regain at 12 months. Initial M was associated with weight regain (r = -0.40, P < 0.01). Weight regain was related to independent changes in leptin and HOMA-IR from 6 to 12 months in a multiple regression model (r = 0.77, P < 0.0001). Reductions in body fat and improvements in insulin sensitivity after AEX + WL and WL were maintained at 12 months despite modest weight regain. Baseline insulin resistance partially predicted the magnitude of weight regain in postmenopausal women. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  5. Improving the Pattern Reproducibility of Multiple-Point-Based Prior Models Using Frequency Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordua, Knud Skou; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Some multiple-point-based sampling algorithms, such as the snesim algorithm, rely on sequential simulation. The conditional probability distributions that are used for the simulation are based on statistics of multiple-point data events obtained from a training image. During the simulation, data...... events with zero probability in the training image statistics may occur. This is handled by pruning the set of conditioning data until an event with non-zero probability is found. The resulting probability distribution sampled by such algorithms is a pruned mixture model. The pruning strategy leads...... to a probability distribution that lacks some of the information provided by the multiple-point statistics from the training image, which reduces the reproducibility of the training image patterns in the outcome realizations. When pruned mixture models are used as prior models for inverse problems, local re...

  6. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P.; Frighetto, P.D.; Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension

  7. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Frighetto, P.D. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-02

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  8. Behavioral training promotes multiple adaptive processes following acute hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Peter; Rosenior-Patten, Onayomi; Dahmen, Johannes C; Bell, Olivia; King, Andrew J

    2016-03-23

    The brain possesses a remarkable capacity to compensate for changes in inputs resulting from a range of sensory impairments. Developmental studies of sound localization have shown that adaptation to asymmetric hearing loss can be achieved either by reinterpreting altered spatial cues or by relying more on those cues that remain intact. Adaptation to monaural deprivation in adulthood is also possible, but appears to lack such flexibility. Here we show, however, that appropriate behavioral training enables monaurally-deprived adult humans to exploit both of these adaptive processes. Moreover, cortical recordings in ferrets reared with asymmetric hearing loss suggest that these forms of plasticity have distinct neural substrates. An ability to adapt to asymmetric hearing loss using multiple adaptive processes is therefore shared by different species and may persist throughout the lifespan. This highlights the fundamental flexibility of neural systems, and may also point toward novel therapeutic strategies for treating sensory disorders.

  9. Axonal loss in the multiple sclerosis spinal cord revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Natalia; Carassiti, Daniele; Altmann, Daniel R; Baker, David; Schmierer, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    Preventing chronic disease deterioration is an unmet need in people with multiple sclerosis, where axonal loss is considered a key substrate of disability. Clinically, chronic multiple sclerosis often presents as progressive myelopathy. Spinal cord cross-sectional area (CSA) assessed using MRI predicts increasing disability and has, by inference, been proposed as an indirect index of axonal degeneration. However, the association between CSA and axonal loss, and their correlation with demyelination, have never been systematically investigated using human post mortem tissue. We extensively sampled spinal cords of seven women and six men with multiple sclerosis (mean disease duration= 29 years) and five healthy controls to quantify axonal density and its association with demyelination and CSA. 396 tissue blocks were embedded in paraffin and immuno-stained for myelin basic protein and phosphorylated neurofilaments. Measurements included total CSA, areas of (i) lateral cortico-spinal tracts, (ii) gray matter, (iii) white matter, (iv) demyelination, and the number of axons within the lateral cortico-spinal tracts. Linear mixed models were used to analyze relationships. In multiple sclerosis CSA reduction at cervical, thoracic and lumbar levels ranged between 19 and 24% with white (19-24%) and gray (17-21%) matter atrophy contributing equally across levels. Axonal density in multiple sclerosis was lower by 57-62% across all levels and affected all fibers regardless of diameter. Demyelination affected 24-48% of the gray matter, most extensively at the thoracic level, and 11-13% of the white matter, with no significant differences across levels. Disease duration was associated with reduced axonal density, however not with any area index. Significant association was detected between focal demyelination and decreased axonal density. In conclusion, over nearly 30 years multiple sclerosis reduces axonal density by 60% throughout the spinal cord. Spinal cord cross sectional area

  10. Bayesian Estimation of Two-Parameter Weibull Distribution Using Extension of Jeffreys' Prior Information with Three Loss Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bambey Guure

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Weibull distribution has been observed as one of the most useful distribution, for modelling and analysing lifetime data in engineering, biology, and others. Studies have been done vigorously in the literature to determine the best method in estimating its parameters. Recently, much attention has been given to the Bayesian estimation approach for parameters estimation which is in contention with other estimation methods. In this paper, we examine the performance of maximum likelihood estimator and Bayesian estimator using extension of Jeffreys prior information with three loss functions, namely, the linear exponential loss, general entropy loss, and the square error loss function for estimating the two-parameter Weibull failure time distribution. These methods are compared using mean square error through simulation study with varying sample sizes. The results show that Bayesian estimator using extension of Jeffreys' prior under linear exponential loss function in most cases gives the smallest mean square error and absolute bias for both the scale parameter α and the shape parameter β for the given values of extension of Jeffreys' prior.

  11. Designing Skin Cancer Prevention Messages: Should We Emphasize Gains or Losses? Message Framing, Risk Type, and Prior Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Kang, Hannah

    2018-05-01

    To test whether message framing (ie, gain vs. loss) and risk type (ie, health vs appearance risk) in skin cancer prevention messages interact with one's prior experience. Two experiments with a 2 (message framing: gain vs loss) × 2 (risk type: health vs appearance risk) factorial design were conducted. The participants were given a URL to the experiment website via e-mail. On the first page of the website, the participants were told that they would be asked to evaluate a skin cancer print public service announcement (PSA): Online experiments. A total of 397 individuals participated (236 for experiment 1 and 161 for experiment 2). Apparatus: Four versions of the skin cancer print PSAs were developed. Four PSAs were identical except for the 2 manipulated components: message framing and risk type. Measures were adopted from Cho and Boster (message framing), Jones and Leary and Kiene et al. (risk type), De Vries, Mesters, van't Riet, Willems, and Reubsaet and Knight, Kirincich, Farmer, and Hood (prior experience), and Hammond, Fong, Zanna, Thrasher, and Borland and Hoffner and Ye (behavioral intent). General linear models were used to test hypotheses. Three-way interactions among message framing, risk type, and prior experience were found: When the intent of the message was to encourage sunscreen use, the effects of message framing and risk type were shown to be the exact opposite directions from when the intent was to discourage indoor/outdoor tanning. To discourage tanning among those with prior experience, messages emphasizing losses in terms of one's health will work better. For those with no prior experience, messages emphasizing potential appearance losses will work better for discouraging tanning while messages emphasizing gains like improving appearance will do a better job in encouraging sunscreen use.

  12. Rapid heterogeneous assembly of multiple magma reservoirs prior to Yellowstone supereruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; Bindeman, Ilya N; Stern, Richard A; D'Abzac, Francois-Xavier; Schaltegger, Urs

    2015-09-10

    Large-volume caldera-forming eruptions of silicic magmas are an important feature of continental volcanism. The timescales and mechanisms of assembly of the magma reservoirs that feed such eruptions as well as the durations and physical conditions of upper-crustal storage remain highly debated topics in volcanology. Here we explore a comprehensive data set of isotopic (O, Hf) and chemical proxies in precisely U-Pb dated zircon crystals from all caldera-forming eruptions of Yellowstone supervolcano. Analysed zircons record rapid assembly of multiple magma reservoirs by repeated injections of isotopically heterogeneous magma batches and short pre-eruption storage times of 10(3) to 10(4) years. Decoupled oxygen-hafnium isotope systematics suggest a complex source for these magmas involving variable amounts of differentiated mantle-derived melt, Archean crust and hydrothermally altered shallow-crustal rocks. These data demonstrate that complex magma reservoirs with multiple sub-chambers are a common feature of rift- and hotspot related supervolcanoes. The short duration of reservoir assembly documents rapid crustal remelting and two to three orders of magnitude higher magma production rates beneath Yellowstone compared to continental arc volcanoes. The short pre-eruption storage times further suggest that the detection of voluminous reservoirs of eruptible magma beneath active supervolcanoes may only be possible prior to an impending eruption.

  13. Motivational interviewing: a part of the weight loss program for overweight and obese women prior to fertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H; Alsbjerg, Birgit; Ravn, Pernille

    2013-09-01

    This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg versus 7.3 kg, difference p = 0.01, 3.3 kg/m(2) versus 2.6 kg/m(2), difference p = 0.02). The mean period of intervention was comparable in the two groups, 7.9 month and 7.3 month, respectively, (difference non significant: NS). The study indicates that motivational interviewing may be a valuable tool in weight loss programs for obese and overweight women prior to fertility treatment.

  14. Quantifying natural delta variability using a multiple-point geostatistics prior uncertainty model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, Céline; Fernandes, Anjali M.; Paola, Chris; Caers, Jef

    2016-10-01

    We address the question of quantifying uncertainty associated with autogenic pattern variability in a channelized transport system by means of a modern geostatistical method. This question has considerable relevance for practical subsurface applications as well, particularly those related to uncertainty quantification relying on Bayesian approaches. Specifically, we show how the autogenic variability in a laboratory experiment can be represented and reproduced by a multiple-point geostatistical prior uncertainty model. The latter geostatistical method requires selection of a limited set of training images from which a possibly infinite set of geostatistical model realizations, mimicking the training image patterns, can be generated. To that end, we investigate two methods to determine how many training images and what training images should be provided to reproduce natural autogenic variability. The first method relies on distance-based clustering of overhead snapshots of the experiment; the second method relies on a rate of change quantification by means of a computer vision algorithm termed the demon algorithm. We show quantitatively that with either training image selection method, we can statistically reproduce the natural variability of the delta formed in the experiment. In addition, we study the nature of the patterns represented in the set of training images as a representation of the "eigenpatterns" of the natural system. The eigenpattern in the training image sets display patterns consistent with previous physical interpretations of the fundamental modes of this type of delta system: a highly channelized, incisional mode; a poorly channelized, depositional mode; and an intermediate mode between the two.

  15. Multiple losses of flight and recent speciation in steamer ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Tara L.; Letts, Brandon; Shapiro, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Steamer ducks (Tachyeres) comprise four species, three of which are flightless. The flightless species are believed to have diverged from a flying common ancestor during the Late Pleistocene; however, their taxonomy remains contentious. Of particular interest is the previously unstudied population of flying steamer ducks in the Falkland Islands. We present the first genetic data from this insular population, and illustrate that the flying and flightless steamer ducks on the Falkland Islands are genetically indistinguishable, in contrast to their traditional classification as separate species. The three species that reside in continental South America form a genetically distinct lineage from the Falkland Island ducks. The Falkland steamer ducks diverged from their continental relatives 2.2–0.6 million years ago, coincident with a probable land bridge connecting the Falkland Islands to the mainland. The three continental species share a common ancestor approximately 15 000 years ago, possibly owing to isolation during a recent glacial advance. The continental steamer duck species are not reciprocally monophyletic, but show some amount of genetic differentiation between them. Each lineage of Tachyeres represents a different stage between flight and flightlessness. Their phylogenetic relationships suggest multiple losses of flight and/or long-term persistence of mixed-flight capability. As such, steamer ducks may provide a model system to study the evolution of flightlessness. PMID:22319122

  16. Electrical source imaging of interictal spikes using multiple sparse volumetric priors for presurgical epileptogenic focus localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Strobbe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical source imaging of interictal spikes observed in EEG recordings of patients with refractory epilepsy provides useful information to localize the epileptogenic focus during the presurgical evaluation. However, the selection of the time points or time epochs of the spikes in order to estimate the origin of the activity remains a challenge. In this study, we consider a Bayesian EEG source imaging technique for distributed sources, i.e. the multiple volumetric sparse priors (MSVP approach. The approach allows to estimate the time courses of the intensity of the sources corresponding with a specific time epoch of the spike. Based on presurgical averaged interictal spikes in six patients who were successfully treated with surgery, we estimated the time courses of the source intensities for three different time epochs: (i an epoch starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending at 50% of the spike peak during the rising phase of the spike, (ii an epoch starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending at the spike peak and (iii an epoch containing the full spike time period starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending 230 ms after the spike peak. To identify the primary source of the spike activity, the source with the maximum energy from 50 ms before the spike peak till 50% of the spike peak was subsequently selected for each of the time windows. For comparison, the activity at the spike peaks and at 50% of the peaks was localized using the LORETA inversion technique and an ECD approach. Both patient-specific spherical forward models and patient-specific 5-layered finite difference models were considered to evaluate the influence of the forward model. Based on the resected zones in each of the patients, extracted from post-operative MR images, we compared the distances to the resection border of the estimated activity. Using the spherical models, the distances to the resection border for the MSVP approach and each of the different time

  17. Parallel Low-Loss Measurement of Multiple Atomic Qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Minho; Ebert, Matthew F; Walker, Thad G; Saffman, M

    2017-11-03

    We demonstrate low-loss measurement of the hyperfine ground state of rubidium atoms by state dependent fluorescence detection in a dipole trap array of five sites. The presence of atoms and their internal states are minimally altered by utilizing circularly polarized probe light and a strictly controlled quantization axis. We achieve mean state detection fidelity of 97% without correcting for imperfect state preparation or background losses, and 98.7% when corrected. After state detection and correction for background losses, the probability of atom loss due to the state measurement is state is preserved with >98% probability.

  18. Reduced Risk-Taking After Prior Losses in Pathological Gamblers Under Treatment and Healthy Control Group but not in Problem Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Nicolao; Grecucci, Alessandro; Nicolè, Manuel; Savadori, Lucia

    2018-06-01

    A group of pathological gamblers and a group of problem gamblers (i.e., gamblers at risk of becoming pathological) were compared to healthy controls on their risk-taking propensity after prior losses. Each participant played both the Balloon Analogue Risk Taking task (BART) and a modified version of the same task, where individuals face five repeated predetermined early losses at the onset of the game. No significant difference in risk-taking was found between groups on the standard BART task, while significant differences emerged when comparing behaviors in the two tasks: both pathological gamblers and controls reduced their risk-taking tendency after prior losses in the modified BART compared to the standard BART, whereas problem gamblers showed no reduction in risk-taking after prior losses. We interpret these results as a sign of a reduced sensitivity to negative feedback in problem gamblers which might contribute to explain their loss-chasing tendency.

  19. Presbycusis and Conversation: Elderly Interactants Adjusting to Multiple Hearing Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaume, William A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the hypothesis predicting that losses in a speaker's content and relational listening abilities associated with presbycusis will have significant actor effects on a speaker's own conversational behavior such that he will exhibit decreased aligning actions, decreased relational dynamism, and decreased verbal immediacy. (24 references) (CK)

  20. Tackling Energy Loss for High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells with Integrated Multiple Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lijian; Shi, Xueliang; Jo, Sae Byeok; Liu, Yun; Lin, Fracis; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2018-04-01

    Limited by the various inherent energy losses from multiple channels, organic solar cells show inferior device performance compared to traditional inorganic photovoltaic techniques, such as silicon and CuInGaSe. To alleviate these fundamental limitations, an integrated multiple strategy is implemented including molecular design, interfacial engineering, optical manipulation, and tandem device construction into one cell. Considering the close correlation among these loss channels, a sophisticated quantification of energy-loss reduction is tracked along with each strategy in a perspective to reach rational overall optimum. A novel nonfullerene acceptor, 6TBA, is synthesized to resolve the thermalization and V OC loss, and another small bandgap nonfullerene acceptor, 4TIC, is used in the back sub-cell to alleviate transmission loss. Tandem architecture design significantly reduces the light absorption loss, and compensates carrier dynamics and thermalization loss. Interfacial engineering further reduces energy loss from carrier dynamics in the tandem architecture. As a result of this concerted effort, a very high power conversion efficiency (13.20%) is obtained. A detailed quantitative analysis on the energy losses confirms that the improved device performance stems from these multiple strategies. The results provide a rational way to explore the ultimate device performance through molecular design and device engineering. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Prior selection for Gumbel distribution parameters using multiple-try metropolis algorithm for monthly maxima PM10 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nor Azrita Mohd; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma

    2014-09-01

    The Multiple-try Metropolis (MTM) algorithm is the new alternatives in the field of Bayesian extremes for summarizing the posterior distribution. MTM produce efficient estimation scheme for modelling extreme data in term of the convergence and small burn-in periods. The main objective is to explore the accuracy of the parameter estimation to the change of priors and compare the results with a classical likelihood-based analysis. Focus is on modelling the extreme data based on block maxima approach using Gumbel distribution. The comparative study between MTM and MLE is shown by the numerical problems. Several goodness of fit tests are compute for selecting the best model. The application is on the monthly maxima PM10 data for Johor state.

  2. Serological evidence for transmission of multiple dengue virus serotypes in Papua New Guinea and West Papua prior to 1963.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagwin Luang-Suarkia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the natural history of dengue in Papua New Guinea (PNG. We assessed dengue virus (DENV-specific neutralizing antibody profiles in serum samples collected from northern and southern coastal areas and the highland region of New Guinea between 1959 and 1963. Neutralizing antibodies were demonstrated in sera from the northern coast of New Guinea: from Sabron in Dutch New Guinea (now known as West Papua and from four villages in East Sepik in what is now PNG. Previous monotypic infection with DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-4 was identified, with a predominance of anti-DENV-2 neutralizing antibody. The majority of positive sera demonstrated evidence of multiple previous DENV infections and neutralizing activity against all four serotypes was detected, with anti-DENV-2 responses being most frequent and of greatest magnitude. No evidence of previous DENV infection was identified in the Asmat villages of the southern coast and a single anti-DENV-positive sample was identified in the Eastern Highlands of PNG. These findings indicate that multiple DENV serotypes circulated along the northern coast of New Guinea at different times in the decades prior to 1963 and support the notion that dengue has been a significant yet neglected tropical infection in PNG for many decades.

  3. Evaluation of heatup and recovery in a loss of feedwater accident with multiple failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Young Seok; Seul, Kwang Won; Kim, Hho Jung

    1991-01-01

    A loss of feedwater accident with multiple failure has been studied in order to identify the potential severity of the accident when compared with the design basis accident in PWR. The PCS heatup and recovery mode in a LOFA with multiple failure was evaluated using the LOFT L9-1/L3-3 experiment. From experimental result, 4 separable subphase were identified and the associated phenomena were also addressed

  4. Social stigma and compounded losses: quality-of-life issues for multiple-birth families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Marcia A; Hall, Janet E

    2003-08-01

    To determine the quality-of-life domains most impacted by multiple births. Focus groups, qualitative research. Human volunteers in a medical research environment.Forty-three mothers, 29 raising multiple-birth children, 13 raising singletons, identified from random and convenience samples. None. Maternal self-reports of the psychosocial sequelae of multiple or singleton births, based on qualitative data analysis of transcribed group discussions. The quality-of-life domains that were most impacted by raising multiple birth children were social stigma, pregnancy loss, marital satisfaction, children's health, unmet family needs, parenting stress, maternal depression, and the infertility experience. Qualitative methods identified two novel quality-of-life domains in iatrogenic multiple birth families: social stigma and compounded losses. An unexpected finding was the potential for increased marital solidification as parents coped with the inordinate stresses of multiple births. As anticipated, children's health, unmet family needs, maternal depression, and parental stress were key areas of concern. In addition, the infertility experience had a lasting impact. These findings are significant, given that at least 38% of all assisted conceptions result in a multiple birth. This study lays the groundwork for further research on the impact of iatrogenic multiple births.

  5. Predicting hearing thresholds and occupational hearing loss with multiple-frequency auditory steady-state responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ruey-Fen; Ho, Chi-Kung; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Chen, Shun-Sheng

    2010-10-01

    An objective investigation is needed to verify the existence and severity of hearing impairments resulting from work-related, noise-induced hearing loss in arbitration of medicolegal aspects. We investigated the accuracy of multiple-frequency auditory steady-state responses (Mf-ASSRs) between subjects with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) with and without occupational noise exposure. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary referral medical centre. Pure-tone audiometry and Mf-ASSRs were recorded in 88 subjects (34 patients had occupational noise-induced hearing loss [NIHL], 36 patients had SNHL without noise exposure, and 18 volunteers were normal controls). Inter- and intragroup comparisons were made. A predicting equation was derived using multiple linear regression analysis. ASSRs and pure-tone thresholds (PTTs) showed a strong correlation for all subjects (r = .77 ≈ .94). The relationship is demonstrated by the equationThe differences between the ASSR and PTT were significantly higher for the NIHL group than for the subjects with non-noise-induced SNHL (p tool for objectively evaluating hearing thresholds. Predictive value may be lower in subjects with occupational hearing loss. Regardless of carrier frequencies, the severity of hearing loss affects the steady-state response. Moreover, the ASSR may assist in detecting noise-induced injury of the auditory pathway. A multiple linear regression equation to accurately predict thresholds was shown that takes into consideration all effect factors.

  6. Modified distal shoe appliance for premature loss of multiple deciduous molars: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Prasanna Kumar; K, Navin H; Idris, Mohammed; Christopher, Pradeep; Rai, Niharika

    2014-08-01

    Preservation of the primary dentition until the normal time of exfoliation is one of the most important factor involved in preventive and interceptive dentistry. The premature loss of second primary molar before the eruption of permanent first molar can create a significant arch space/tooth size discrepancy. Distal shoe space maintainer is a valuable part of the Paediatric Dentist's armamentarium in those cases where the second primary molar is prematurely lost and it helps to guide the first permanent molar into place. Conventional design poses various limitations in cases of premature loss of multiple deciduous molars. Thus, it is required to modify the conventional designs according to the needs of the patient. This case report describes an innovative modification of distal shoe appliance in cases of premature loss of multiple deciduous molars. In the present case, modification of distal shoe space maintainer was advocated because of inadequate abutments caused due to multiple loss of deciduous molars. Bilateral design of distal shoe was planned for unilateral loss of deciduous molars.

  7. Negative affect prior to and following overeating-only, loss of control eating-only, and binge eating episodes in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Kelly C; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Crow, Scott J; Engel, Scott G; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Peterson, Carol B

    2015-09-01

    The objective was to examine the trajectory of five types of negative affect (global negative affect, fear, guilt, hostility, sadness) prior to and following three types of eating episodes (overeating in the absence of loss of control [OE-only], loss of control eating in the absence of overeating [LOC-only], and binge eating) among obese adults using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Fifty obese adults (84% female) completed a two-week EMA protocol during which they were asked to record all eating episodes and rate each episode on continua of overeating and loss of control. Momentary measures of global negative affect, fear, guilt, hostility, and sadness were assessed using an abbreviated version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Trajectories for each of the five types of negative affect were modeled prior to and following episodes of OE-only, LOC-only, and binge eating. Consistent with previous findings, global negative affect and Guilt increased prior to and decreased following binge eating episodes (all ps < .05). Guilt also decreased following OE-only episodes (p < .05). These results are consistent with the affect regulation model of binge eating and suggest that binge eating may function to regulate global negative affect, and more specifically, guilt among obese adults. These data suggest that the relationship between negative affect and binge eating may not be unique to individuals with clinical eating disorders and indicate that targeting negative affect may be an effective strategy for the treatment of binge eating in the context of obesity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS FOR PREDICTION OF BOILER LOSSES AND BOILER EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Chayalakshmi C.L

    2018-01-01

    MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS FOR PREDICTION OF BOILER LOSSES AND BOILER EFFICIENCY ABSTRACT Calculation of boiler efficiency is essential if its parameters need to be controlled for either maintaining or enhancing its efficiency. But determination of boiler efficiency using conventional method is time consuming and very expensive. Hence, it is not recommended to find boiler efficiency frequently. The work presented in this paper deals with establishing the statistical mo...

  9. Prediction of hearing outcomes by multiple regression analysis in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Tabata, Takahisa; Koizumi, Hiroki; Hohchi, Nobusuke; Takeuchi, Shoko; Kitamura, Takuro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to create a multiple regression model for predicting hearing outcomes of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). The participants were 205 consecutive patients (205 ears) with ISSNHL (hearing level ≥ 40 dB, interval between onset and treatment ≤ 30 days). They received systemic steroid administration combined with intratympanic steroid injection. Data were examined by simple and multiple regression analyses. Three hearing indices (percentage hearing improvement, hearing gain, and posttreatment hearing level [HLpost]) and 7 prognostic factors (age, days from onset to treatment, initial hearing level, initial hearing level at low frequencies, initial hearing level at high frequencies, presence of vertigo, and contralateral hearing level) were included in the multiple regression analysis as dependent and explanatory variables, respectively. In the simple regression analysis, the percentage hearing improvement, hearing gain, and HLpost showed significant correlation with 2, 5, and 6 of the 7 prognostic factors, respectively. The multiple correlation coefficients were 0.396, 0.503, and 0.714 for the percentage hearing improvement, hearing gain, and HLpost, respectively. Predicted values of HLpost calculated by the multiple regression equation were reliable with 70% probability with a 40-dB-width prediction interval. Prediction of HLpost by the multiple regression model may be useful to estimate the hearing prognosis of ISSNHL. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Multiple parton scattering in nuclei: heavy quark energy loss and modified fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Benwei; Wang, Enke; Wang Xinnian

    2005-01-01

    Multiple scattering, induced radiative energy loss and modified fragmentation functions of a heavy quark in nuclear matter are studied within the framework of generalized factorization in perturbative QCD. Modified heavy quark fragmentation functions and energy loss are derived in detail with illustration of the mass dependencies of the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal interference effects and heavy quark energy loss. Due to the quark mass dependence of the gluon formation time, the nuclear size dependencies of nuclear modification of the heavy quark fragmentation function and heavy quark energy loss are found to change from a linear to a quadratic form when the initial energy and momentum scale are increased relative to the quark mass. The radiative energy loss of the heavy quark is also significantly suppressed due to limited cone of gluon radiation imposed by the mass. Medium modification of the heavy quark fragmentation functions is found to be limited to the large z region due to the form of heavy quark fragmentation functions in vacuum

  11. Decentralized Model Predictive Control for Cooperative Multiple Vehicles Subject to Communication Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat A. Izadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The decentralized model predictive control (DMPC of multiple cooperative vehicles with the possibility of communication loss/delay is investigated. The neighboring vehicles exchange their predicted trajectories at every sample time to maintain the cooperation objectives. In the event of a communication loss (packet dropout, the most recent available information, which is potentially delayed, is used. Then the communication loss problem changes to a cooperative problem when random large communication delays are present. Such large communication delays can lead to poor cooperation performance and unsafe behaviors such as collisions. A new DMPC approach is developed to improve the cooperation performance and achieve safety in the presence of the large communication delays. The proposed DMPC architecture estimates the tail of neighbor's trajectory which is not available due to the large communication delays for improving the performance. The concept of the tube MPC is also employed to provide the safety of the fleet against collisions, in the presence of large intervehicle communication delays. In this approach, a tube shaped trajectory set is assumed around the trajectory of the neighboring vehicles whose trajectory is delayed/lost. The radius of tube is a function of the communication delay and vehicle's maneuverability (in the absence of model uncertainty. The simulation of formation problem of multiple vehicles is employed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Comparing population exposure to multiple Washington earthquake scenarios for prioritizing loss estimation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Ratliff, Jamie L.; Schelling, John; Weaver, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    Scenario-based, loss-estimation studies are useful for gauging potential societal impacts from earthquakes but can be challenging to undertake in areas with multiple scenarios and jurisdictions. We present a geospatial approach using various population data for comparing earthquake scenarios and jurisdictions to help emergency managers prioritize where to focus limited resources on data development and loss-estimation studies. Using 20 earthquake scenarios developed for the State of Washington (USA), we demonstrate how a population-exposure analysis across multiple jurisdictions based on Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) classes helps emergency managers understand and communicate where potential loss of life may be concentrated and where impacts may be more related to quality of life. Results indicate that certain well-known scenarios may directly impact the greatest number of people, whereas other, potentially lesser-known, scenarios impact fewer people but consequences could be more severe. The use of economic data to profile each jurisdiction’s workforce in earthquake hazard zones also provides additional insight on at-risk populations. This approach can serve as a first step in understanding societal impacts of earthquakes and helping practitioners to efficiently use their limited risk-reduction resources.

  13. Brief Report: Loss of Muscle Strength Prior to Knee Replacement: A Question of Anatomic Cross-Sectional Area or Specific Strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culvenor, Adam G; Hamler, Felix C; Kemnitz, Jana; Wirth, Wolfgang; Eckstein, Felix

    2018-02-01

    To determine whether loss in thigh muscle strength prior to knee replacement is caused by reductions of muscle strength in the anatomic cross-sectional area or by reductions of specific strength. All 100 of the participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative who underwent knee replacement and whose medical records included data on thigh isometric muscle strength and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (58 women, and 42 men, mean ± SD age 65 ± 8 years, mean ± SD body mass index [BMI] 29 ± 5 kg/m 2 ) were matched with a control (no knee replacement) for age, sex, height, BMI, and radiographic severity. Thigh muscle anatomic cross-sectional area was determined by MRI at the research visit before knee replacement (time 0) and 2 years before time 0 (time -2). Specific strength (strength/anatomic cross-sectional area) was calculated, and the measures were compared by conditional logistic regression (i.e., odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation). ORs adjusted for pain (OR adj ) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were also calculated. Knee replacement cases had significantly smaller extensor (but not flexor) anatomic cross-sectional areas than controls at time 0 (women, OR adj 1.89 [95% CI 1.05-3.90]; men, OR adj 2.22 [95% CI 1.04-4.76]), whereas no significant differences were found at time -2. Women who had knee replacement showed lower levels of extensor specific strength than controls at time 0 (OR 1.59 [95% CI 1.02-2.50]), although this difference was not observed in men and did not maintain significance after adjustment for pain (OR adj 1.22 [95% CI 0.71-2.08]). Female cases lost significantly more extensor specific strength between time -2 and time 0 than controls (OR adj 3.76 [95% CI 1.04-13.60]), whereas no significant differences were noted at time -2, or in men. Prior to knee replacement, a significant reduction in knee extensor strength appears to occur in women through 2 mechanisms: one driven by pain (loss of specific strength) and one independent of pain

  14. Interest of uterine artery embolization with gelatin sponge particles prior to myomectomy for large and/or multiple fibroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butori, Noemie; Tixier, Herve; Filipuzzi, Laurence; Mutamba, William; Guiu, Boris; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre; Douvier, Serge; Sagot, Paul; Krause, Denis; Loffroy, Romaric

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of pre-myomectomy uterine artery embolization with gelatin sponge particles to reduce operative blood loss and facilitate removal of fibroids. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 33 women (mean age, 36 years; range, 24-45 years), of whom at least 18 wished to preserve fertility. They presented with at least one large myoma (mean diameter, 90 mm; range, 50-150 mm) and had undergone preoperative uterine artery embolization with resorbable gelatin sponge by unilateral femoral approach between December 2001 and November 2008. Clinical, radiological and surgical data were available for all patients. Mean haemoglobin levels before and after surgery were compared with Student's t-test. Results: No complication or technical failure of embolization occurred. The myomectomies were performed during laparotomy (25 cases) or laparoscopy (8 cases). Dissection of fibroids was easier (mean, 3 per patient; range, 1-11), with a mean operating time of 108 ± 50 min (range, 30-260 min). Bloodless surgery was the rule with a mean estimated peroperative blood loss of 147 ± 249 mL (range, 0-800 mL). Mean pre-(12.9 ± 1.3 g/dL) and post-therapeutic (11.4 ± 1.2 g/dL) haemoglobin levels were not statistically different (p > 0.05). There was no need for blood transfusion. None of the patients required hysterectomy. The mean duration of hospital stay was 7.5 ± 1.3 days (range, 3-12 days). Conclusion: Preoperative uterine artery embolization is effective in reducing intraoperative blood loss and improves the chances of performing conservative surgery. It should be considered a useful adjunct to myomectomy in women at high hemorrhagic risk or who refuse blood transfusion.

  15. Interest of uterine artery embolization with gelatin sponge particles prior to myomectomy for large and/or multiple fibroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butori, Noemie [Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, University of Dijon School of Medicine, Bocage Teaching Hospital, 2 bd du Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, BP 77908, 21079 Dijon Cedex (France); Tixier, Herve; Filipuzzi, Laurence; Mutamba, William [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Dijon School of Medicine, Bocage Teaching Hospital, 2 bd du Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, BP 77908, 21079 Dijon Cedex (France); Guiu, Boris; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre [Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, University of Dijon School of Medicine, Bocage Teaching Hospital, 2 bd du Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, BP 77908, 21079 Dijon Cedex (France); Douvier, Serge; Sagot, Paul [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Dijon School of Medicine, Bocage Teaching Hospital, 2 bd du Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, BP 77908, 21079 Dijon Cedex (France); Krause, Denis [Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, University of Dijon School of Medicine, Bocage Teaching Hospital, 2 bd du Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, BP 77908, 21079 Dijon Cedex (France); Loffroy, Romaric, E-mail: romaric.loffroy@chu-dijon.fr [Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, University of Dijon School of Medicine, Bocage Teaching Hospital, 2 bd du Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, BP 77908, 21079 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of pre-myomectomy uterine artery embolization with gelatin sponge particles to reduce operative blood loss and facilitate removal of fibroids. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 33 women (mean age, 36 years; range, 24-45 years), of whom at least 18 wished to preserve fertility. They presented with at least one large myoma (mean diameter, 90 mm; range, 50-150 mm) and had undergone preoperative uterine artery embolization with resorbable gelatin sponge by unilateral femoral approach between December 2001 and November 2008. Clinical, radiological and surgical data were available for all patients. Mean haemoglobin levels before and after surgery were compared with Student's t-test. Results: No complication or technical failure of embolization occurred. The myomectomies were performed during laparotomy (25 cases) or laparoscopy (8 cases). Dissection of fibroids was easier (mean, 3 per patient; range, 1-11), with a mean operating time of 108 {+-} 50 min (range, 30-260 min). Bloodless surgery was the rule with a mean estimated peroperative blood loss of 147 {+-} 249 mL (range, 0-800 mL). Mean pre-(12.9 {+-} 1.3 g/dL) and post-therapeutic (11.4 {+-} 1.2 g/dL) haemoglobin levels were not statistically different (p > 0.05). There was no need for blood transfusion. None of the patients required hysterectomy. The mean duration of hospital stay was 7.5 {+-} 1.3 days (range, 3-12 days). Conclusion: Preoperative uterine artery embolization is effective in reducing intraoperative blood loss and improves the chances of performing conservative surgery. It should be considered a useful adjunct to myomectomy in women at high hemorrhagic risk or who refuse blood transfusion.

  16. Myeloablative radioimmunotherapies in the conditioning of patients with AML, MDS and multiple myeloma prior to stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmann, I.

    2008-01-01

    Aggressive consolidation chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have improved the prognosis of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodyplastic syndrome (MDS) and multiple myeloma. Nevertheless, only a minor fraction of patients achieve long-term disease-free survival after stem cell transplantation with disease recurrence being the most common cause of treatment failure. In addition, therapy-related effects such as toxicity of chemotherapy and complications of stem cell transplantation increase mortality rates significantly. Myeloablative radioimmunotherapy uses radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with affinity for the hematopoietic marrow. It applies high radiation doses in the bone marrow but spares normal organs. Adding myeloablative radioimmunotherapy to the conditioning schemes of AML, MDS and multiple myeloma before stem cell transplantation allows for the achievement of a pronounced antileukemic/antimyeloma effect for the reduction of relapse rates without significant increase of acute organ toxicity and therapy-related mortality. In order to optimise therapy, a rational design of the nuclide-antibody combination is necessary. 90 Y, 188 Re and 131 I are the most frequently used β - -particles. Of these, 90 Y is the most qualified nuclide for myeloablation. Backbone stabilised DTPA are ideal chelators to stably conjugate 90 Y to antibodies so far. For myeloablative conditioning, anti-CD66-, -45- and -33-mAb are used. The anti-CD66-antibody BW250/183 binds to normal hematopoietic cells but not to leukemic blasts and myeloma cells. The 90 Y-2B3M-DTPA-BW250/183 is the most suited radioimmunoconjugate for patients with an infiltration grade of leukemic blasts in the bone marrow 90 Y-anti-CD45-mAb YAML568 are 6.4 ± 1.2 (bone marrow), 3.9 ± 1.4 (liver) and 1.1 ± 0.4 (kidneys). CD45 is expressed also on the extramedullar clonogenic myeloma progenitor cell that circulates in the peripheral blood. Thus, the conditioning of

  17. LOFT/L9-3, Loss of Fluid Test, Anticipated Transients with Multiple Failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCA is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: This was the third of the NRC L9 series of experiments on Anticipated Transients with Multiple Failures. Loss-of-feedwater effects were studied. The experiment was conducted on 7 April 1982

  18. Does optic nerve head surface topography change prior to loss of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness: a test of the site of injury hypothesis in experimental glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Fortune

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that optic nerve head (ONH deformation manifesting as changes in its mean surface height precedes thinning of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL in experimental glaucoma (EG.68 rhesus macaque monkeys each had three or more baseline imaging sessions under manometric intraocular pressure (IOP control to obtain average RNFL thickness (RNFLT and the ONH surface topography parameter mean position of the disc (MPD. Laser photocoagulation was then applied to the trabecular meshwork of one eye to induce chronic, mild-to-moderate IOP elevation and bi-weekly imaging continued. Event analysis was applied to determine for each parameter when an 'endpoint' occurred (signficant change from baseline for eight different endpoint criteria. Specificity was assessed in the group of 68 fellow control eyes. Classical signal detection theory and survival analysis were used to compare MPD with RNFLT.Regardless of the endpoint criterion, endpoints were always more frequent for MPD than for RNFLT. The discriminability index (d' was 2.7 ± 0.2 for MPD and 1.9 ± 0.2 for RNFLT (p<0.0001. Endpoints were reached by MPD an average of 1-2 months earlier than by RNFLT (p<0.01. At the onset of the first specific, detectable MPD change in EG eyes, there was still no significant change in RNFLT on average (p=0.29 and only 25% of individual eyes exhibited signficant reduction. In contrast, at onset of signficant RNFLT change, MPD had already changed an average of 101 µm from baseline (p<0.0001 and 71% of the individual eyes had exhibited significant change. The magnitude of MPD change was more than could be explained on the basis of axon loss alone.This study demonstrates that the average surface height of the ONH changes prior to any detectable loss of average peripapillary RNFL thickness in non-human primate eyes with experimental glaucoma.

  19. Sleep loss and acute drug abuse can induce DNA damage in multiple organs of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, T A; Ribeiro, D A; Araujo, P; Hirotsu, C; Mazaro-Costa, R; Costa, J L; Battisti, M C; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the genetic damage induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) in combination with cocaine or ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA) in multiple organs of male mice using the single cell gel (comet) assay. C57BL/6J mice were submitted to PSD by the platform technique for 72 hours, followed by drug administration and evaluation of DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver and brain tissues. Cocaine was able to induce genetic damage in the blood, brain and liver cells of sleep-deprived mice at the majority of the doses evaluated. Ecstasy also induced increased DNA migration in peripheral blood cells for all concentrations tested. Analysis of damaged cells by the tail moment data suggests that ecstasy is a genotoxic chemical at the highest concentrations tested, inducing damage in liver or brain cells after sleep deprivation in mice. Taken together, our results suggest that cocaine and ecstasy/MDMA act as potent genotoxins in multiple organs of mice when associated with sleep loss.

  20. Intelligent Decision Support in Proportional–Stop-Loss Reinsurance Using Multiple Attribute Decision-Making (MADM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Jie Xuan Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the possibility of incorporating intelligent decision support systems into reinsurance decision-making. This involves the insurance company and the reinsurance company, and is negotiated through reinsurance intermediaries. The article proposes a decision flow to model the reinsurance design and selection process. This article focuses on adopting more than one optimality criteria under a more generic combinational design of commonly used reinsurance products, i.e., proportional reinsurance and stop-loss reinsurance. In terms of methodology, the significant contribution of the study the incorporation of the well-established decision analysis tool multiple-attribute decision-making (MADM into the modelling of reinsurance selection. To illustrate the feasibility of incorporating intelligent decision supporting systems in the reinsurance market, the study includes a numerical case study using the simulation software @Risk in modeling insurance claims, as well as programming in MATLAB to realize MADM. A list of managerial implications could be drawn from the case study results. Most importantly, when choosing the most appropriate type of reinsurance, insurance companies should base their decisions on multiple measurements instead of single-criteria decision-making models so that their decisions may be more robust.

  1. [Multiple time scales analysis of spatial differentiation characteristics of non-point source nitrogen loss within watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-bing; Chen, Xing-wei; Chen, Ying

    2015-07-01

    Identification of the critical source areas of non-point source pollution is an important means to control the non-point source pollution within the watershed. In order to further reveal the impact of multiple time scales on the spatial differentiation characteristics of non-point source nitrogen loss, a SWAT model of Shanmei Reservoir watershed was developed. Based on the simulation of total nitrogen (TN) loss intensity of all 38 subbasins, spatial distribution characteristics of nitrogen loss and critical source areas were analyzed at three time scales of yearly average, monthly average and rainstorms flood process, respectively. Furthermore, multiple linear correlation analysis was conducted to analyze the contribution of natural environment and anthropogenic disturbance on nitrogen loss. The results showed that there were significant spatial differences of TN loss in Shanmei Reservoir watershed at different time scales, and the spatial differentiation degree of nitrogen loss was in the order of monthly average > yearly average > rainstorms flood process. TN loss load mainly came from upland Taoxi subbasin, which was identified as the critical source area. At different time scales, land use types (such as farmland and forest) were always the dominant factor affecting the spatial distribution of nitrogen loss, while the effect of precipitation and runoff on the nitrogen loss was only taken in no fertilization month and several processes of storm flood at no fertilization date. This was mainly due to the significant spatial variation of land use and fertilization, as well as the low spatial variability of precipitation and runoff.

  2. Different loss of dopamine transporter according to subtype of multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hae Won [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Keimyung University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, School of Medicine, Jung-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Seung; Oh, Minyoung; Oh, Jungsu S.; Lee, Sang Joo; Oh, Seung Jun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sun Ju; Lee, Chong Sik [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) loss as measured by {sup 18}F-fluorinated-N-3-fluoropropyl-2-b-carboxymethoxy-3-b-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ([{sup 18}F]FP-CIT) PET differs according to the metabolic subtype of multiple system atrophy (MSA) as assessed by [{sup 18}F]FDG PET. This retrospective study included 50 patients with clinically diagnosed MSA who underwent [{sup 18}F]FP-CIT and [{sup 18}F]FDG brain PET scans. The PET images were analysed using 12 striatal subregional volume-of-interest templates (bilateral ventral striatum, anterior caudate, posterior caudate, anterior putamen, posterior putamen, and ventral putamen). The patients were classified into three metabolic subtypes according to the [{sup 18}F]FDG PET findings: MSA-P{sub m} (striatal hypometabolism only), MSA-mixed{sub m} (both striatal and cerebellar hypometabolism), and MSA-C{sub m} (cerebellar hypometabolism only). The subregional glucose metabolic ratio (MR{sub gluc}), subregional DAT binding ratio (BR{sub DAT}), and intersubregional ratio (ISR{sub DAT}; defined as the BR{sub DAT} ratio of one striatal subregion to that of another striatal subregion) were compared according to metabolic subtype. Of the 50 patients, 13 presented with MSA-P{sub m}, 16 presented with MSA-mixed{sub m}, and 21 presented with MSA-C{sub m}. The BR{sub DAT} of all striatal subregions in the MSA-P{sub m} and MSA-mixed{sub m} groups were significantly lower than those in the MSA-C{sub m} group. The posterior putamen/anterior putamen ISR{sub DAT} and anterior putamen/ventral striatum ISR{sub DAT} in the MSA-P{sub m} and MSA-mixed{sub m} groups were significantly lower than those in the MSA-C{sub m} group. Patients with MSA-P{sub m} and MSA-mixed{sub m} showed more severe DAT loss in the striatum than patients with MSA-C{sub m}. Patients with MSA-C{sub m} had more diffuse DAT loss than patients with MSA-P{sub m} and MSA-mixed{sub m}. (orig.)

  3. Loss of positional information when tracking multiple moving dots: the role of visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Sathyasri; Tripathy, Srimant P; Barrett, Brendan T

    2009-01-01

    Pylyshyn, Z.W. and Storm, R.W. (1988) (Tracking multiple independent targets: Evidence for a parallel tracking mechanism. Spatial Vision, 3(3), 179-197) proposed that human observers could simultaneously track up to five dots when presented with an array of dots moving in a random manner. In contrast, Tripathy, S.P., and Barrett, B.T. (2004) (Severe loss of positional information when detecting deviations in multiple trajectories. Journal of Vision, 4(12):4, 1020-1043, http://journalofvision.org/4/14/4/, doi: 10.1167/4.12.4) showed that when a threshold paradigm was employed, observers' ability to track deviations in straight-line trajectories is severely compromised when attending to two or more dots. In this study we present a series of four experiments that investigates the role of attention and visual memory while tracking deviations in multiple trajectories using a threshold paradigm. Our stimuli consisted of several linear, non-parallel, left-to-right trajectories, each moving at the same speed. At the trajectory mid-point (reached simultaneously by all dots), one of the dots (target) deviated clockwise or counter-clockwise. The observers' task was to identify the direction of deviation. The target trajectory was cued in the second half of the trial either by disappearance of distractors at the monitor's mid-line (Experiment 1) or by means of a change in colour of the target (Experiment 2); in both cases deviation thresholds rose steeply when the number of distractor trajectories was increased from 0 (typical threshold approximately 2 degrees) to 3 (typical threshold>20 degrees). When all the trajectories were presented statically in a single frame (Experiment 3), thresholds for identifying the orientation change of the target trajectory remained relatively unchanged as the number of distractor trajectories was increased. When a temporal delay of a few hundred milliseconds was introduced between the first and second halves of trajectories (Experiment 4

  4. Interaural multiple frequency tympanometry measures: clinical utility for unilateral conductive hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrix, Linda W; Burgan, Briana; Ramirez, Nicholas; Velenovsky, David S

    2013-03-01

    Tympanometry is a routine clinical measurement of the acoustic immittance of the ear as a function of ear canal air pressure. The 226 Hz tympanogram can provide clinical evidence for conditions such as a tympanic membrane perforation, Eustachian tube dysfunction, middle ear fluid, and ossicular discontinuity. Multiple frequency tympanometry using a range of probe tone frequencies from low to high has been shown to be more sensitive than a single probe tone tympanogram in distinguishing between mass- and stiffness-related middle ear pathologies (Colletti, 1975; Funasaka et al, 1984; Van Camp et al, 1986). In this study we obtained normative measures of middle ear resonance by using multiple probe tone frequency tympanometry. Ninety percent ranges for middle ear resonance and for interaural differences were calculated. In a mixed design, normative data were collected from both ears of male and female adults. Twelve male and 12 female adults with normal hearing and normal middle ear function participated in the study. Multiple frequency tympanograms were recorded with a commercially available immittance instrument (GSI Tympstar) to obtain estimates of middle ear resonant frequency (RF) using ΔB, positive tail, and negative tail methods. Data were analyzed using three-way mixed analyses of variance with gender as a between-subject variable and ear and method as within-subject variables. T-tests were performed, using the Bonferroni adjustment, to determine significant differences between means. Using the positive and negative tail methods, a wide range of approximately 500 Hz was found for middle ear resonance in adults with normal hearing and normal middle ear function. The difference in RF between an individual's ears is small with 90% ranges of approximately ±200 Hz, indicating that the right ear RF should be either 200 Hz higher or lower in frequency compared to the left ear. This was true for both negative and positive tail methods. Ninety percent ranges were

  5. Margins Associated with Loss of Assured Safety for Systems with Multiple Time-Dependent Failure Modes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Brooks, Dusty Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie. [Engineering Mechanics Corp. of Columbus, OH (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Representations for margins associated with loss of assured safety (LOAS) for weak link (WL)/strong link (SL) systems involving multiple time-dependent failure modes are developed. The following topics are described: (i) defining properties for WLs and SLs, (ii) background on cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) for link failure time, link property value at link failure, and time at which LOAS occurs, (iii) CDFs for failure time margins defined by (time at which SL system fails) – (time at which WL system fails), (iv) CDFs for SL system property values at LOAS, (v) CDFs for WL/SL property value margins defined by (property value at which SL system fails) – (property value at which WL system fails), and (vi) CDFs for SL property value margins defined by (property value of failing SL at time of SL system failure) – (property value of this SL at time of WL system failure). Included in this presentation is a demonstration of a verification strategy based on defining and approximating the indicated margin results with (i) procedures based on formal integral representations and associated quadrature approximations and (ii) procedures based on algorithms for sampling-based approximations.

  6. Deep gray matter volume loss drives disability worsening in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Ferran; Brownlee, Wallace J.; Altmann, Daniel R.; Tur, Carmen; Cardoso, M. Jorge; De Angelis, Floriana; van de Pavert, Steven H.; Cawley, Niamh; De Stefano, Nicola; Stromillo, M. Laura; Battaglini, Marco; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A.; Rovira, Alex; Sastre‐Garriga, Jaume; Vrenken, Hugo; Leurs, Cyra E.; Killestein, Joep; Pirpamer, Lukas; Enzinger, Christian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Wheeler‐Kingshott, Claudia A.M. Gandini; Chard, Declan; Thompson, Alan J.; Alexander, Daniel C.; Barkhof, Frederik; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-01-01

    Objective Gray matter (GM) atrophy occurs in all multiple sclerosis (MS) phenotypes. We investigated whether there is a spatiotemporal pattern of GM atrophy that is associated with faster disability accumulation in MS. Methods We analyzed 3,604 brain high‐resolution T1‐weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans from 1,417 participants: 1,214 MS patients (253 clinically isolated syndrome [CIS], 708 relapsing‐remitting [RRMS], 128 secondary‐progressive [SPMS], and 125 primary‐progressive [PPMS]), over an average follow‐up of 2.41 years (standard deviation [SD] = 1.97), and 203 healthy controls (HCs; average follow‐up = 1.83 year; SD = 1.77), attending seven European centers. Disability was assessed with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). We obtained volumes of the deep GM (DGM), temporal, frontal, parietal, occipital and cerebellar GM, brainstem, and cerebral white matter. Hierarchical mixed models assessed annual percentage rate of regional tissue loss and identified regional volumes associated with time‐to‐EDSS progression. Results SPMS showed the lowest baseline volumes of cortical GM and DGM. Of all baseline regional volumes, only that of the DGM predicted time‐to‐EDSS progression (hazard ratio = 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.65, 0.82; p < 0.001): for every standard deviation decrease in baseline DGM volume, the risk of presenting a shorter time to EDSS worsening during follow‐up increased by 27%. Of all longitudinal measures, DGM showed the fastest annual rate of atrophy, which was faster in SPMS (–1.45%), PPMS (–1.66%), and RRMS (–1.34%) than CIS (–0.88%) and HCs (–0.94%; p < 0.01). The rate of temporal GM atrophy in SPMS (–1.21%) was significantly faster than RRMS (–0.76%), CIS (–0.75%), and HCs (–0.51%). Similarly, the rate of parietal GM atrophy in SPMS (–1.24‐%) was faster than CIS (–0.63%) and HCs (–0.23%; all p values <0.05). Only the atrophy rate in DGM in patients was significantly associated

  7. Ganglion cell loss in relation to visual disability in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Scott D; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Galetta, Kristin M; Sakai, Reiko E; Feller, Daniel J; Henderson, Sam B; Wilson, James A; Maguire, Maureen G; Galetta, Steven L; Frohman, Elliot; Calabresi, Peter A; Schuman, Joel S; Balcer, Laura J

    2012-06-01

    We used high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with retinal segmentation to determine how ganglion cell loss relates to history of acute optic neuritis (ON), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning, visual function, and vision-related quality of life (QOL) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of patients with MS (n = 122; 239 eyes) and disease-free controls (n = 31; 61 eyes). Among MS eyes, 87 had a history of ON before enrollment. The SD-OCT images were captured using Macular Cube (200×200 or 512×128) and ONH Cube 200×200 protocols. Retinal layer segmentation was performed using algorithms established for glaucoma studies. Thicknesses of the ganglion cell layer/inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL), RNFL, outer plexiform/inner nuclear layers (OPL+INL), and outer nuclear/photoreceptor layers (ONL+PRL) were measured and compared in MS versus control eyes and MS ON versus non-ON eyes. The relation between changes in macular thickness and visual disability was also examined. The OCT measurements of GCL+IPL and RNFL thickness; high contrast visual acuity (VA); low-contrast letter acuity (LCLA) at 2.5% and 1.25% contrast; on the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) and 10-Item Neuro-Ophthalmic Supplement composite score. Macular RNFL and GCL+IPL were significantly decreased in MS versus control eyes (Pvisual function and vision-specific QOL in MS, and may serve as a useful structural marker of disease. Our findings parallel those of magnetic resonance imaging studies that show gray matter disease is a marker of neurologic disability in MS. Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychological Assessment of Children with Multiple Handicaps Who Have Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schum, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses issues involved in psychological assessment of children with hearing loss who have additional disabilities or special needs. It provides recommendations for appropriate methods of assessment that accommodate the communication difficulties associated with hearing loss. This article includes assessment procedures for children…

  9. Loss of the histone methyltransferase EZH2 induces resistance to multiple drugs in acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göllner, Stefanie; Oellerich, Thomas; Agrawal-Singh, Shuchi

    2017-01-01

    In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), therapy resistance frequently occurs, leading to high mortality among patients. However, the mechanisms that render leukemic cells drug resistant remain largely undefined. Here, we identified loss of the histone methyltransferase EZH2 and subsequent reduction...

  10. Modified Willet′s appliance for bilateral loss of multiple deciduous molars: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Dhindsa A; Pandit I

    2008-01-01

    No other factor plays a more significant role in preventive and interceptive dentistry than the preservation of deciduous dentition till its normal time of exfoliation. Premature loss of a deciduous tooth or a group of teeth might lead to wide range of implications. When the deciduous second molar is lost before the eruption of first permanent molar, intra-alveolar type of space maintainer is indicated. But in cases of bilateral loss of these teeth the conventional design generally poses a va...

  11. Impact of prior treatment status and reasons for discontinuation on the efficacy and safety of fingolimod: Subgroup analyses of the Fingolimod Research Evaluating Effects of Daily Oral Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis (FREEDOMS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremenchutzky, Marcelo; O'Connor, Paul; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Zhang-Auberson, Lixin; von Rosenstiel, Philipp; Meng, Xiangyi; Grinspan, Augusto; Hashmonay, Ron; Kappos, Ludwig

    2014-05-01

    Fingolimod is a once-daily, oral sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator approved for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis. This post-hoc analysis of phase 3 FREEDOMS data assessed whether the effects of fingolimod are consistent among subgroups of patients defined by prior treatment history. Annualized relapse rate and safety profile of treatment with fingolimod 0.5mg, 1.25mg, or placebo once-daily for 24 months were analyzed in 1272 relapsing multiple sclerosis patients, by subgroups based on disease-modifying therapy history (treatment-naive; prior interferon-β or glatiramer acetate), reason for discontinuation of prior disease-modifying therapy (unsatisfactory therapeutic response or adverse events), and prior disease-modifying therapy duration. Both fingolimod doses significantly reduced annualized relapse rate in patients that received prior interferon-β or glatiramer acetate, discontinued prior disease-modifying therapy owing to unsatisfactory therapeutic effect, were treatment-naive, or had prior disease-modifying therapy duration of >1-3 years (P≤0.0301 for all comparisons vs placebo). Fingolimod 1.25mg resulted in greater reductions in annualized relapse rate in patients that discontinued prior disease-modifying therapy for adverse events or had prior disease-modifying therapy duration of ≤1 year or >3 years (P≤0.0194 vs placebo). Fingolimod demonstrated similar efficacy in relapsing multiple sclerosis patients regardless of prior treatment history. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00289978. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid genome reshaping by multiple-gene loss after whole-genome duplication in teleost fish suggested by mathematical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukuto; Tsukamoto, Katsumi; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome duplication (WGD) is believed to be a significant source of major evolutionary innovation. Redundant genes resulting from WGD are thought to be lost or acquire new functions. However, the rates of gene loss and thus temporal process of genome reshaping after WGD remain unclear. The WGD shared by all teleost fish, one-half of all jawed vertebrates, was more recent than the two ancient WGDs that occurred before the origin of jawed vertebrates, and thus lends itself to analysis of gene loss and genome reshaping. Using a newly developed orthology identification pipeline, we inferred the post–teleost-specific WGD evolutionary histories of 6,892 protein-coding genes from nine phylogenetically representative teleost genomes on a time-calibrated tree. We found that rapid gene loss did occur in the first 60 My, with a loss of more than 70–80% of duplicated genes, and produced similar genomic gene arrangements within teleosts in that relatively short time. Mathematical modeling suggests that rapid gene loss occurred mainly by events involving simultaneous loss of multiple genes. We found that the subsequent 250 My were characterized by slow and steady loss of individual genes. Our pipeline also identified about 1,100 shared single-copy genes that are inferred to have become singletons before the divergence of clupeocephalan teleosts. Therefore, our comparative genome analysis suggests that rapid gene loss just after the WGD reshaped teleost genomes before the major divergence, and provides a useful set of marker genes for future phylogenetic analysis. PMID:26578810

  13. Modified Willet's appliance for bilateral loss of multiple deciduous molars: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, A; Pandit, I K

    2008-09-01

    No other factor plays a more significant role in preventive and interceptive dentistry than the preservation of deciduous dentition till its normal time of exfoliation. Premature loss of a deciduous tooth or a group of teeth might lead to wide range of implications. When the deciduous second molar is lost before the eruption of first permanent molar, intra-alveolar type of space maintainer is indicated. But in cases of bilateral loss of these teeth the conventional design generally poses a variety of problems. Thus, the conventional designs are required to be modified according to the needs of the patient. Therefore, this paper describes an entirely new design of the Willet's appliance in cases of bilateral loss of deciduous molars before the eruption of first permanent molar.

  14. Modified Willet′s appliance for bilateral loss of multiple deciduous molars: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhindsa A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available No other factor plays a more significant role in preventive and interceptive dentistry than the preservation of deciduous dentition till its normal time of exfoliation. Premature loss of a deciduous tooth or a group of teeth might lead to wide range of implications. When the deciduous second molar is lost before the eruption of first permanent molar, intra-alveolar type of space maintainer is indicated. But in cases of bilateral loss of these teeth the conventional design generally poses a variety of problems. Thus, the conventional designs are required to be modified according to the needs of the patient. Therefore, this paper describes an entirely new design of the Willet′s appliance in cases of bilateral loss of deciduous molars before the eruption of first permanent molar.

  15. Using Life Cycle Revenue Loss and Monte Carlo simulation as a prior and direct assessment of consequences of un-wished events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchiu, Chang; Lewins, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we address the importance of including the consideration of revenue loss into the safety analysis as well as system optimisation and modify the traditional Life Cycle Cost (LCC) into Life Cycle Revenue Loss (LCRL) as the criterion of optimisation and a quantitative assessment of the consequence of un-wished ebents, such as system unavailability. Through the Monte Carlo simulation technique and a simple scenario of decision making in a bidding process, we demonstrate the feasibility of our new LCRL model

  16. Simultaneous qubit-loss-free fusion of three multiple W states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meiyu; Hao, Quanzhi; Yan, Fengli; Gao, Ting

    2018-05-01

    Qubit-loss-free fusion for two W states introduced by Li K et al (2016 Phys. Rev. A 94 062315) clearly increases the final size of the obtained W state and greatly reduces the number of fusion steps to achieve a W state of a target size. Motivated by this idea, we propose a qubit-loss-free fusion scheme for fusing three polarization entangled W states simultaneously. The elements of a two-outcome positive-operator valued measurement and the appropriate joint unitary operation for realizing a positive-operator valued measurement measurement are given. As an example, with the assistance of weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, an optical setup for fusing three W states is proposed. We analyze the success probability of the scheme and the resource cost of the present scheme, as compared to previous work.

  17. Kinetic analysis of cooking losses from beef and other animal muscles heated in a water bath--effect of sample dimensions and prior freezing and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oillic, Samuel; Lemoine, Eric; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2011-07-01

    Cooking loss kinetics were measured on cubes and parallelepipeds of beef Semimembranosus muscle ranging from 1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm to 7 cm × 7 cm × 28 cm in size. The samples were water bath-heated at three different temperatures, i.e. 50°C, 70°C and 90°C, and for five different times. Temperatures were simulated to help interpret the results. Pre-freezing the sample, difference in ageing time, and in muscle fiber orientation had little influence on cooking losses. At longer treatment times, the effects of sample size disappeared and cooking losses depended only on the temperature. A selection of the tests was repeated on four other beef muscles and on veal, horse and lamb Semimembranosus muscle. Kinetics followed similar curves in all cases but resulted in different final water contents. The shape of the kinetics curves suggests first-order kinetics. Copyright © 2011 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modified Distal Shoe Appliance for Premature Loss of Multiple Deciduous Molars: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Prasanna Kumar; K., Navin H.; Idris, Mohammed; Christopher, Pradeep; Rai, Niharika

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of the primary dentition until the normal time of exfoliation is one of the most important factor involved in preventive and interceptive dentistry. The premature loss of second primary molar before the eruption of permanent first molar can create a significant arch space/tooth size discrepancy. Distal shoe space maintainer is a valuable part of the Paediatric Dentist’s armamentarium in those cases where the second primary molar is prematurely lost and it helps to guide the first...

  19. Multiple scattering in electron fluid and energy loss in multi-ionic targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, C., E-mail: claude.deutsch@u-psud.fr [LPGP, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Tahir, N.A. [GSI, 1Planck Str., 64291-Darmstadt (Germany); Barriga-Carrasco, M. [ETSII, UCastilla-la-Mancha, 13071 Ciudad-Real (Spain); Ceban, V. [LPGP, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Fromy, P. [CRI, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Gilles, D. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/IRFU/SAP, 91191-Gif-s-Yvette (France); Leger, D. [Laboratoire Monthouy, UValenciennes-Hainaut Cambresis (France); Maynard, G. [LPGP, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Tashev, B. [Department of Physics, KazNu, Tole Bi82, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Volpe, L. [Department of Physics, UMilano-Bicocca, Milano 20126 (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    Extensions of the standard stopping model (SSM) for ion projectiles interacting with dense targets of timely concern for ICF and WDM are reviewed. They include multiple scattering on partially degenerate electrons, low velocity ion slowing down in demixing H–He mixtures within Jovian planets core or multiionic target such as Kapton.

  20. Multiple scattering in electron fluid and energy loss in multi-ionic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, C.; Tahir, N.A.; Barriga-Carrasco, M.; Ceban, V.; Fromy, P.; Gilles, D.; Leger, D.; Maynard, G.; Tashev, B.; Volpe, L.

    2014-01-01

    Extensions of the standard stopping model (SSM) for ion projectiles interacting with dense targets of timely concern for ICF and WDM are reviewed. They include multiple scattering on partially degenerate electrons, low velocity ion slowing down in demixing H–He mixtures within Jovian planets core or multiionic target such as Kapton

  1. Substantial Early, But Nonprogressive Neuronal Loss in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Spinal Cord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmer, Lucas; Albert, Monika; Buss, Armin; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J.; Antel, Jack P.; Brueck, Wolfgang; Stadelmann, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Research in multiple sclerosis (MS) has recently been focusing on the extent of neuroaxonal damage and its contribution to disease outcome. In the present Study, we examined spinal cord tissue from 30 clinically well-characterized MS patients. MS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and control

  2. Characterization of multiple light damage paradigms reveals regional differences in photoreceptor loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer L; Nelson, Craig M; Luo, Xixia; Hyde, David R; Thummel, Ryan

    2012-04-01

    Zebrafish provide an attractive model to study the retinal response to photoreceptor apoptosis due to its remarkable ability to spontaneously regenerate retinal neurons following damage. There are currently two widely-used light-induced retinal degeneration models to damage photoreceptors in the adult zebrafish. One model uses constant bright light, whereas the other uses a short exposure to extremely intense ultraviolet light. Although both models are currently used, it is unclear whether they differ in regard to the extent of photoreceptor damage or the subsequent regeneration response. Here we report a thorough analysis of the photoreceptor damage and subsequent proliferation response elicited by each individual treatment, as well as by the concomitant use of both treatments. We show a differential loss of rod and cone photoreceptors with each treatment. Additionally, we show that the extent of proliferation observed in the retina directly correlates with the severity of photoreceptor loss. We also demonstrate that both the ventral and posterior regions of the retina are partially protected from light damage. Finally, we show that combining a short ultraviolet exposure followed by a constant bright light treatment largely eliminates the neuroprotected regions, resulting in widespread loss of rod and cone photoreceptors and a robust regenerative response throughout the retina. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantifying visual pathway axonal and myelin loss in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogaran, Praveena; Vavasour, Irene M; Lange, Alex P; Zhao, Yinshan; McMullen, Katrina; Rauscher, Alexander; Carruthers, Robert; Li, David K B; Traboulsee, Anthony L; Kolind, Shannon H

    2016-01-01

    The optic nerve is frequently injured in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica, resulting in visual dysfunction, which may be reflected by measures distant from the site of injury. To determine how retinal nerve fiber layer as a measure of axonal health, and macular volume as a measure of neuronal health are related to changes in myelin water fraction in the optic radiations of multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica participants with and without optic neuritis and compared to healthy controls. 12 healthy controls, 42 multiple sclerosis (16 with optic neuritis), and 10 neuromyelitis optica participants (8 with optic neuritis) were included in this study. Optical coherence tomography assessment involved measurements of the segmented macular layers (total macular, ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform layer, and inner nuclear layer volume) and paripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. The MRI protocol included a 32-echo T2-relaxation GRASE sequence. Average myelin water fraction values were calculated within the optic radiations as a measure of myelin density. Multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica eyes with optic neuritis history had lower retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, total macular, ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer volumes compared to eyes without optic neuritis history and controls. Inner nuclear layer volume increased in multiple sclerosis with optic neuritis history (mean = 0.99 mm(3), SD = 0.06) compared to those without (mean = 0.97 mm(3), SD = 0.06; p = 0.003). Mean myelin water fraction in the optic radiations was significantly lower in demyelinating diseases (neuromyelitis optica: mean = 0.098, SD = 0.01, multiple sclerosis with optic neuritis history: mean = 0.096, SD = 0.01, multiple sclerosis without optic neuritis history: mean = 0.098, SD = 0.02; F3,55 = 3.35, p = 0.03) compared to controls. Positive correlations between MRI and optical coherence tomography measures were also apparent

  4. Dominance, biomass and extinction resistance determine the consequences of biodiversity loss for multiple coastal ecosystem processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Thomas W; Jenkins, Stuart R; Kingham, Rachel; Kenworthy, Joseph; Hawkins, Stephen J; Hiddink, Jan G

    2011-01-01

    Key ecosystem processes such as carbon and nutrient cycling could be deteriorating as a result of biodiversity loss. However, currently we lack the ability to predict the consequences of realistic species loss on ecosystem processes. The aim of this study was to test whether species contributions to community biomass can be used as surrogate measures of their contribution to ecosystem processes. These were gross community productivity in a salt marsh plant assemblage and an intertidal macroalgae assemblage; community clearance of microalgae in sessile suspension feeding invertebrate assemblage; and nutrient uptake in an intertidal macroalgae assemblage. We conducted a series of biodiversity manipulations that represented realistic species extinction sequences in each of the three contrasting assemblages. Species were removed in a subtractive fashion so that biomass was allowed to vary with each species removal, and key ecosystem processes were measured at each stage of community disassembly. The functional contribution of species was directly proportional to their contribution to community biomass in a 1:1 ratio, a relationship that was consistent across three contrasting marine ecosystems and three ecosystem processes. This suggests that the biomass contributed by a species to an assemblage can be used to approximately predict the proportional decline in an ecosystem process when that species is lost. Such predictions represent "worst case scenarios" because, over time, extinction resilient species can offset the loss of biomass associated with the extinction of competitors. We also modelled a "best case scenario" that accounts for compensatory responses by the extant species with the highest per capita contribution to ecosystem processes. These worst and best case scenarios could be used to predict the minimum and maximum species required to sustain threshold values of ecosystem processes in the future.

  5. Dominance, biomass and extinction resistance determine the consequences of biodiversity loss for multiple coastal ecosystem processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Davies

    Full Text Available Key ecosystem processes such as carbon and nutrient cycling could be deteriorating as a result of biodiversity loss. However, currently we lack the ability to predict the consequences of realistic species loss on ecosystem processes. The aim of this study was to test whether species contributions to community biomass can be used as surrogate measures of their contribution to ecosystem processes. These were gross community productivity in a salt marsh plant assemblage and an intertidal macroalgae assemblage; community clearance of microalgae in sessile suspension feeding invertebrate assemblage; and nutrient uptake in an intertidal macroalgae assemblage. We conducted a series of biodiversity manipulations that represented realistic species extinction sequences in each of the three contrasting assemblages. Species were removed in a subtractive fashion so that biomass was allowed to vary with each species removal, and key ecosystem processes were measured at each stage of community disassembly. The functional contribution of species was directly proportional to their contribution to community biomass in a 1:1 ratio, a relationship that was consistent across three contrasting marine ecosystems and three ecosystem processes. This suggests that the biomass contributed by a species to an assemblage can be used to approximately predict the proportional decline in an ecosystem process when that species is lost. Such predictions represent "worst case scenarios" because, over time, extinction resilient species can offset the loss of biomass associated with the extinction of competitors. We also modelled a "best case scenario" that accounts for compensatory responses by the extant species with the highest per capita contribution to ecosystem processes. These worst and best case scenarios could be used to predict the minimum and maximum species required to sustain threshold values of ecosystem processes in the future.

  6. Analysis of neutron multiplicity measurements with allowance for dead-time losses between time-correlated detections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    An exact solution is found for dead-time losses between detections occurring within a gate interval, with constant dead time and with allowance for time correlation between detections from the same spontaneous initial event. This is used to obtain a close approximation to the losses with a multi-channel detection system, with allowance for dead times briding the gate opening. This is applied, inversely, to calculate the true detection multiplicity rates from the distribution of the recorded counts within that interval. A suggestion is made for a circuit change to give a major reduction in dead-time effects. The unavoidable statistical errors that would remain are calculated. Their minimization and the limits of such minimization are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Multiple Solutions for Reconfiguration to Address Partial Shading Losses in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nikesh; Pareek, Smita; Chaturvedi, Nitin; Dahiya, Ratna

    2018-03-01

    Solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems are steadily rising and considered as the best alternatives to meet the rising demand of energy. In developing countries like India, SPV’s contribution being a clean energy is the most favourable. However, experiences have shown that produced power of these systems is usually affected due to day, night, seasonal variations, insolation, partial shading conditions etc. Among these parameters, partial shading causes a huge reduction in output power of PV systems. This results in lack of confidence for this technology among users. Thus, it is important and a major challenge in PV systems to minimize the effect of partial shading on their energy production. The work in this paper aims to propose solutions for reconfiguration of solar photovoltaic arrays in order to reduce partial shading losses and thus to enhance power generation.

  8. Multiple loss processes of relativistic electrons outside the heart of outer radiation belt during a storm sudden commencement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J.

    2015-01-01

    By examining the compression-induced changes in the electron phase space density and pitch angle distribution observed by two satellites of Van Allen Probes (RBSP-A/B), we find that the relativistic electrons (>2 MeV) outside the heart of outer radiation belt (L*≥5) undergo multiple losses during a storm sudden commencement. The relativistic electron loss mainly occurs in the field-aligned direction (pitch angle α < 30° or >150°), and the flux decay of the field-aligned electrons is independent of the spatial location variations of the two satellites. However, the relativistic electrons in the pitch angle range of 30°–150° increase (decrease) with the decreasing (increasing) geocentric distance (|ΔL|<0.25) of the RBSP-B (RBSP-A) location, and the electron fluxes in the quasi-perpendicular direction display energy-dispersive oscillations in the Pc5 period range (2–10 min). The relativistic electron loss is confirmed by the decrease of electron phase space density at high-L shell after the magnetospheric compressions, and their loss is associated with the intense plasmaspheric hiss, electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, relativistic electron precipitation (observed by POES/NOAA satellites at 850 km), and magnetic field fluctuations in the Pc5 band. Finally, the intense EMIC waves and whistler mode hiss jointly cause the rapidly pitch angle scattering loss of the relativistic electrons within 10 h. Moreover, the Pc5 ULF waves also lead to the slowly outward radial diffusion of the relativistic electrons in the high-L region with a negative electron phase space density gradient.

  9. A Path Loss Model for Non-Line-of-Sight Ultraviolet Multiple Scattering Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadler BrianM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultraviolet (UV signal transmission undergoes rich scattering and strong absorption by atmospheric particulates. We develop a path loss model for a Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS link. The model is built upon probability theory governing random migration of photons in free space, undergoing scattering, in terms of angular direction and distance. The model analytically captures the contributions of different scattering orders. Thus it relaxes the assumptions of single scattering theory and provides more realistic results. This allows us to assess the importance of high-order scattering, such as in a thick atmosphere environment, where short range NLOS UV communication is enhanced by hazy or foggy weather. By simulation, it is shown that the model coincides with a previously developed Monte Carlo model. Additional numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effects of link geometry and atmospheric conditions. The results indicate the inherent tradeoffs in beamwidth, pointing angles, range, absorption, and scattering and so are valuable for NLOS communication system design.

  10. The Great Silk Alternative: Multiple Co-Evolution of Web Loss and Sticky Hairs in Spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonas O.; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Spiders are the most important terrestrial predators among arthropods. Their ecological success is reflected by a high biodiversity and the conquest of nearly every terrestrial habitat. Spiders are closely associated with silk, a material, often seen to be responsible for their great ecological success and gaining high attention in life sciences. However, it is often overlooked that more than half of all Recent spider species have abandoned web building or never developed such an adaptation. These species must have found other, more economic solutions for prey capture and retention, compensating the higher energy costs of increased locomotion activity. Here we show that hairy adhesive pads (scopulae) are closely associated with the convergent evolution of a vagrant life style, resulting in highly diversified lineages of at least, equal importance as the derived web building taxa. Previous studies often highlighted the idea that scopulae have the primary function of assisting locomotion, neglecting the fact that only the distal most pads (claw tufts) are suitable for those purposes. The former observations, that scopulae are used in prey capture, are largely overlooked. Our results suggest the scopulae evolved as a substitute for silk in controlling prey and that the claw tufts are, in most cases, a secondary development. Evolutionary trends towards specialized claw tufts and their composition from a low number of enlarged setae to a dense array of slender ones, as well as the secondary loss of those pads are discussed further. Hypotheses about the origin of the adhesive setae and their diversification throughout evolution are provided. PMID:23650526

  11. Ozone induced leaf loss and decreased leaf production of European Holly (Ilex aquifolium L.) over multiple seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranford, Jonathan; Reiling, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    European Holly (Ilex aquifolium L.) was used to study the impact of one short (28 day) ozone fumigation episode on leaf production, leaf loss and stomatal conductance (g s ), in order to explore potential longer term effects over 3 growing seasons. Young I. aquifolium plants received an episode of either charcoal-filtered air or charcoal-filtered air with 70 nl l -1 O 3 added for 7 h d -1 over a 28 day period from June 15th 1996, then placed into ambient environment, Stoke-on-Trent, U.K. Data were collected per leaf cohort over the next three growing seasons. Ozone exposure significantly increased leaf loss and stomatal conductance and reduced leaf production over all subsequent seasons. Impact of the initial ozone stress was still detected in leaves that had no direct experimental ozone exposure. This study has shown the potential of ozone to introduce long-term phenological perturbations into ecosystems by influencing productivity over a number of seasons. - Ozone significantly alters Ilex aquifolium leaf production and loss over multiple seasons

  12. Predicting loss of employment over three years in multiple sclerosis: clinically meaningful cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Sarah A; Drake, Allison; Zivadinov, Robert; Munschauer, Frederick; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H B

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), yet the magnitude of change on objective neuropsychological (NP) tests that is clinically meaningful is unclear. We endeavored to determine NP markers of the transition from employment to work disability in MS, as indicated by degree of decline on individual tests. Participants were 97 employed MS patients followed over 41.3 ± 17.6 months with a NP battery covering six domains of cognitive function. Deterioration at follow-up was designated as documented and paid disability benefits (conservative definition) or a reduction in hours/work responsibilities (liberal definition). Using the conservative definition, 28.9% reported deteriorated employment status and for the liberal definition, 45.4%. The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and California Verbal Learning Test, Total Learning (CVLT2-TL) measures distinguished employed and disabled patients at follow-up. Controlling for demographic and MS characteristics, the odds ratio of a deterioration based on a change of 2.0 on the CVLT2-TL was 3.7 (95% CI 1.2-11.4 and SDMT by 4.0 was 4.2 (95% CI 1.2-14.8), accounting for 86.7% of the area under the ROC curve. We conclude that decline on NP testing over time is predictive of deterioration in vocational status, establishing a magnitude of decline on NP tests that is clinically meaningful.

  13. Loss of laminin alpha 1 results in multiple structural defects and divergent effects on adhesion during vertebrate optic cup morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Chase D.; Chien, Chi-Bin; Kwan, Kristen M.

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate eye forms via a complex set of morphogenetic events. The optic vesicle evaginates and undergoes transformative shape changes to form the optic cup, in which neural retina and retinal pigmented epithelium enwrap the lens. It has long been known that a complex, glycoprotein-rich extracellular matrix layer surrounds the developing optic cup throughout the process, yet the functions of the matrix and its specific molecular components have remained unclear. Previous work established a role for laminin extracellular matrix in particular steps of eye development, including optic vesicle evagination, lens differentiation, and retinal ganglion cell polarization, yet it is unknown what role laminin might play in the early process of optic cup formation subsequent to the initial step of optic vesicle evagination. Here, we use the zebrafish lama1 mutant (lama1UW1) to determine the function of laminin during optic cup morphogenesis. Using live imaging, we find, surprisingly, that loss of laminin leads to divergent effects on focal adhesion assembly in a spatiotemporally-specific manner, and that laminin is required for multiple steps of optic cup morphogenesis, including optic stalk constriction, invagination, and formation of a spherical lens. Laminin is not required for single cell behaviors and changes in cell shape. Rather, in lama1UW1 mutants, loss of epithelial polarity and altered adhesion lead to defective tissue architecture and formation of a disorganized retina. These results demonstrate that the laminin extracellular matrix plays multiple critical roles regulating adhesion and polarity to establish and maintain tissue structure during optic cup morphogenesis. PMID:27339294

  14. A canonical correlation analysis-based dynamic bayesian network prior to infer gene regulatory networks from multiple types of biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Brittany; Bozdag, Serdar

    2015-04-01

    One of the challenging and important computational problems in systems biology is to infer gene regulatory networks (GRNs) of biological systems. Several methods that exploit gene expression data have been developed to tackle this problem. In this study, we propose the use of copy number and DNA methylation data to infer GRNs. We developed an algorithm that scores regulatory interactions between genes based on canonical correlation analysis. In this algorithm, copy number or DNA methylation variables are treated as potential regulator variables, and expression variables are treated as potential target variables. We first validated that the canonical correlation analysis method is able to infer true interactions in high accuracy. We showed that the use of DNA methylation or copy number datasets leads to improved inference over steady-state expression. Our results also showed that epigenetic and structural information could be used to infer directionality of regulatory interactions. Additional improvements in GRN inference can be gleaned from incorporating the result in an informative prior in a dynamic Bayesian algorithm. This is the first study that incorporates copy number and DNA methylation into an informative prior in dynamic Bayesian framework. By closely examining top-scoring interactions with different sources of epigenetic or structural information, we also identified potential novel regulatory interactions.

  15. Monitoring forest cover loss using multiple data streams, a case study of a tropical dry forest in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrieux, Loïc Paul; Verbesselt, Jan; Kooistra, Lammert; Herold, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Automatically detecting forest disturbances as they occur can be extremely challenging for certain types of environments, particularly those presenting strong natural variations. Here, we use a generic structural break detection framework (BFAST) to improve the monitoring of forest cover loss by combining multiple data streams. Forest change monitoring is performed using Landsat data in combination with MODIS or rainfall data to further improve the modelling and monitoring. We tested the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with varying spatial aggregation window sizes as well as a rainfall derived index as external regressors. The method was evaluated on a dry tropical forest area in lowland Bolivia where forest cover loss is known to occur, and we validated the results against a set of ground truth samples manually interpreted using the TimeSync environment. We found that the addition of an external regressor allows to take advantage of the difference in spatial extent between human induced and naturally induced variations and only detect the processes of interest. Of all configurations, we found the 13 by 13 km MODIS NDVI window to be the most successful, with an overall accuracy of 87%. Compared with a single pixel approach, the proposed method produced better time-series model fits resulting in increases of overall accuracy (from 82% to 87%), and decrease in omission and commission errors (from 33% to 24% and from 3% to 0% respectively). The presented approach seems particularly relevant for areas with high inter-annual natural variability, such as forests regularly experiencing exceptional drought events.

  16. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  17. Impact of prior treatment and depth of response on survival in MM-003, a randomized phase 3 study comparing pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone versus high-dose dexamethasone in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Jesus F.; Weisel, Katja C.; Song, Kevin W.; Delforge, Michel; Karlin, Lionel; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Moreau, Philippe; Banos, Anne; Oriol, Albert; Garderet, Laurent; Cavo, Michele; Ivanova, Valentina; Alegre, Adrian; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Chen, Christine; Renner, Christoph; Bahlis, Nizar Jacques; Yu, Xin; Teasdale, Terri; Sternas, Lars; Jacques, Christian; Zaki, Mohamed H.; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.

    2015-01-01

    Pomalidomide is a distinct oral IMiD® immunomodulatory agent with direct antimyeloma, stromal-support inhibitory, and immunomodulatory effects. The pivotal, multicenter, open-label, randomized phase 3 trial MM-003 compared pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone vs high-dose dexamethasone in 455 patients with refractory or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma after failure of bortezomib and lenalidomide treatment. Initial results demonstrated significantly longer progression-free survival and overall survival with an acceptable tolerability profile for pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone vs high-dose dexamethasone. This secondary analysis describes patient outcomes by treatment history and depth of response. Pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone significantly prolonged progression-free survival and favored overall survival vs high-dose dexamethasone for all subgroups analyzed, regardless of prior treatments or refractory status. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that no variable relating to either the number (≤ or > 3) or type of prior treatment was a significant predictor of progression-free survival or overall survival. No cross-resistance with prior lenalidomide or thalidomide treatment was observed. Patients achieving a minimal response or better to pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone treatment experienced a survival benefit, which was even higher in those achieving at least a partial response (17.2 and 19.9 months, respectively, as compared with 7.5 months for patients with less than minimal response). These data suggest that pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone should be considered a standard of care in patients with refractory or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma regardless of prior treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01311687; EudraCT: 2010-019820-30. PMID:26160879

  18. Acute-phase proteins investigation based on lectins affinity capture prior to 2-DE separation: application to serum from multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotti, Andrea; Natale, Massimo; Albo, Alessandra Giuliano; Lis, Katarzyna; Perga, Simona; Marnetto, Fabiana; Gilli, Francesca; Bertolotto, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Plasma acute-phase proteins (APPs) glyco-isoforms are important biomarkers of inflammatory processes such as those occurring in multiple sclerosis (MS). Specific analysis of these proteins is often hampered by sample biochemical complexity. The aim of our study was to set up a method to accurately visualize, identify and quantify APPs glyco-isoforms in human serum. An enrichment strategy based on affinity chromatography using the carbohydrate-binding proteins concanavalin A (ConA) and erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL) was applied to pooled serum samples from 15 patients and 9 healthy individuals. Image analysis of 2-DE detected 30 spots with a fold change higher than 1.5. A total of 14 were statistically significant (p valuewell known. Performing galectin-3 binding and Western blotting, we were able to demonstrate a correlation between hybrid type glyco-isoforms of β-haptoglobin and MS. In conclusion, although the patho-physiological role of the identified species still remains unclear and further validations are needed, these findings may have a relevant impact on disease-specific marker identification approaches.

  19. Effects of prior short multiple-sprint exercises with different intersprint recoveries on the slow component of oxygen uptake during high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Stefano; Borrani, Fabio; Wolf, Martin; Gojanovic, Boris; Malatesta, Davide

    2012-12-01

    This study compares the effects of two short multiple-sprint exercise (MSE) (6 × 6 s) sessions with two different recovery durations (30 s or 180 s) on the slow component of oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O(2)) during subsequent high-intensity exercise. Ten male subjects performed a 6-min cycling test at 50% of the difference between the gas exchange threshold and [Formula: see text]O(2peak) (Δ50). Then, the subjects performed two MSEs of 6 × 6 s separated by two intersprint recoveries of 30 s (MSE(30)) and 180 s (MSE(180)), followed 10 min later by the Δ50 (Δ50(30) and Δ50(180), respectively). Electromyography (EMG) activities of the vastus medialis and lateralis were measured throughout each exercise bout. During MSE(30), muscle activity (root mean square) increased significantly (p ≤ 0.04), with a significant leftward-shifted median frequency of the power density spectrum (MDF; p ≤ 0.01), whereas MDF was significantly rightward-shifted during MSE(180) (p = 0.02). The mean [Formula: see text]O(2) value was significantly higher in MSE(30) than in MSE(180) (p motor units recruitment profile (i.e., change in the type of muscle fibers recruited) and (or) an improved muscle O(2) delivery during subsequent exercise.

  20. Multiple loss-of-function mechanisms contribute to SCN5A-related familial sick sinus syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Gui

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To identify molecular mechanisms underlying SCN5A-related sick sinus syndrome (SSS, a rare type of SSS, in parallel experiments we elucidated the electrophysiological properties and the cell surface localization of thirteen human Na(v1.5 (hNa(v1.5 mutant channels previously linked to this disease.Mutant hNa(v1.5 channels expressed by HEK293 cells and Xenopus oocytes were investigated by whole-cell patch clamp and two-microelectrode voltage clamp, respectively. HEK293 cell surface biotinylation experiments quantified the fraction of correctly targeted channel proteins. Our data suggested three distinct mutant channel subtypes: Group 1 mutants (L212P, P1298L, DelF1617, R1632H gave peak current densities and cell surface targeting indistinguishable from wild-type hNa(v1.5. Loss-of-function of these mutants resulted from altered channel kinetics, including a negative shift of steady-state inactivation and a reduced voltage dependency of open-state inactivation. Group 2 mutants (E161K, T220I, D1275N gave significantly reduced whole-cell currents due to impaired cell surface localization (D1275N, altered channel properties at unchanged cell surface localization (T220I, or a combination of both (E161K. Group 3 mutant channels were non-functional, due to an almost complete lack of protein at the plasma membrane (T187I, W1421X, K1578fs/52, R1623X or a probable gating/permeation defect with normal surface localisation (R878C, G1408R.This study indicates that multiple molecular mechanisms, including gating abnormalities, trafficking defects, or a combination of both, are responsible for SCN5A-related familial SSS.

  1. Contingency management adapted for African-American adolescents with obesity enhances youth weight loss with caregiver participation: a multiple baseline pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlieb, Kathryn Brogan; Naar, Sylvie; Ledgerwood, David M; Templin, Thomas N; Ellis, Deborah A; Donohue, Bradley; Cunningham, Phillippe B

    2015-12-07

    Contingency management (CM) interventions, which use operant conditioning principles to encourage completion of target behavioral goals, may be useful for improving adherence to behavioral skills training (BST). Research-to-date has yet to explore CM for weight loss in minority adolescents. To examine the effects of CM in improving adolescent weight loss when added to BST. The study utilized an innovative experimental design that builds upon multiple baseline approaches as recommended by the National Institutes of Health. Six obese African-American youth and their primary caregivers living in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Adolescents received between 4 and 12 weeks of BST during a baseline period and subsequently received CM targeting weight loss. Youth weight. Linear mixed effects modeling was used in the analysis. CM did not directly affect adolescent weight loss above that of BST (p=0.053). However, when caregivers were involved in CM session treatment, contingency management had a positive effect on adolescent weight loss. The estimated weight loss due to CM when caregivers also attended was 0.66 kg/week (pcontingency management for minority youth weight loss. Lessons learned from contingency management program implementation are also discussed in order to inform practice.

  2. JS-X syndrome: A multiple congenital malformation with vocal cord paralysis, ear deformity, hearing loss, shoulder musculature underdevelopment, and X-linked recessive inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Hans L J; Brooks, Alice S; Smit, Liesbeth S

    2015-07-01

    We report on a family with a not earlier described multiple congenital malformation. Several male family members suffer from laryngeal obstruction caused by bilateral vocal cord paralysis, outer and middle ear deformity with conductive and sensorineural hearing loss, facial dysmorphisms, and underdeveloped shoulder musculature. The affected female members only have middle ear deformity and hearing loss. The pedigree is suggestive of an X-linked recessive inheritance pattern. SNP-array revealed a deletion and duplication on Xq28 in the affected family members. A possible aetiology is a neurocristopathy with most symptoms expressed in structures derived from branchial arches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of vinasse/aqua ammonia mixture applied to soil fertilization in sugar cane areas harvested lacking sugar cane trash without prior burning: losses of NH3 by volatilization and 15 N recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.W.; Trivelin, P.C.O.; Bendassolli, J.A.; Muraoka, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the losses of NH 3 by volatization, from the vinasse/aqua ammonia mixture and urea solution applied to the soil. The N dose applied for both sources was 80 Kg ha -1 , with the volume of vinasse and urea solution applied to the surface being 200 and 100 m 3 , respectively. The nitrogen sources were applied to soil covered or not by sugarcane trash. A semi-opened static collector device was used to evaluate the ammonia volatization. The isotopic technique with 15 N was used to quantify the N recovered in the soil from the nitrogen sources applied in microplots. These microplots consisted of 96 mm-diameter PVC cylinders which were buried in the soil at 200 mm. The results show that the volatization of ammonia from the vinasse/aqua ammonia mixture, applied to the soil covered or not by sugarcane trash, ranged from 5 to 7% of the N applied. These results were similar to those observed in the treatment where urea solution was applied to the soil lacking sugarcane trash, but lower when compared to the urea applied to the soil covered with trash confirmed the volatization results, with the least 15 N recovery (57%) being obtained in this treatment. In the other treatments, i.e. urea applied to soil lacking sugarcane trash; aqua annonia/vinasse mixture applied to soil covered or not with sugarcane trash, the mean recovery of 15 N were 60.2; 70.6 and 74.2 % respectively. These results support the recommendation of the use of a fluid mixture for nitrogen fertilization in ratoon cane areas after the mechanized sugarcane harvest without prior burning. (author). 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. The Effects of Gain- versus Loss-Framed Messages Following Health Risk Information on Physical Activity in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithopoulos, Alexander; Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2017-06-01

    Few people with multiple sclerosis engage in physical activity. Messaging interventions may motivate more physical activity among these individuals. The purpose of this online study was to evaluate an intervention presenting participants with multiple sclerosis (N = 237) with risk information (i.e., information demonstrating people with multiple sclerosis are more likely to experience certain health issues) or no risk information followed by gain- or loss-framed physical activity messages. Participants completed questionnaires on Days 1, 6, and 28 and received information material on Days 2-5. The dependent variables were as follows: physical activity intentions and behavior, response and task efficacy, perceived threat (i.e., perception of threat to health issues relevant to people with multiple sclerosis), and avoidance (i.e., avoiding thinking about/doing something about the health issues presented in the messages). Analyses indicated physical activity and response efficacy increased over time. Also, participants receiving risk information had higher levels of physical activity and perceived threat. However, manipulation checks showed no differences between participants regarding perceptions of risk information or gain/loss-framed messages. Despite the lack of impact of the framing intervention, this study suggests that a brief informational intervention can positively influence physical activity and certain correlates of physical activity among people with multiple sclerosis.

  5. Genomic analysis of a heterogeneous Mendelian phenotype: multiple novel alleles for inherited hearing loss in the Palestinian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh Tom

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recessively inherited phenotypes are frequent in the Palestinian population, as the result of a historical tradition of marriages within extended kindreds, particularly in isolated villages. In order to characterise the genetics of inherited hearing loss in this population, we worked with West Bank schools for the deaf to identify children with prelingual, bilateral, severe to profound hearing loss not attributable to infection, trauma or other known environmental exposure. Of 156 families enrolled, hearing loss in 17 families (11 per cent was due to mutations in GJB2 (connexin 26, a smaller fraction of GJB2-associated deafness than in other populations. In order to estimate how many different genes might be responsible for hearing loss in this population, we evaluated ten families for linkage to all 36 known human autosomal deafness-related genes, fully sequencing hearing-related genes at any linked sites in informative relatives. Four families harboured four novel alleles of TMPRSS3 (988ΔA = 352stop, otoancorin (1067A >T = D356V and pendrin (716T > A = V239D and 1001G > T = 346stop. In each family, all affected individuals were homozygous for the critical mutation. Each allele was specific to one or a few families in the cohort; none were widespread. Since epidemiological tests of association of mutations with deafness were not feasible for such rare alleles, we used functional and bioinformatics approaches to evaluate their consequences. In six other families, hearing loss was not linked to any known gene, suggesting that these families harbour novel genes responsible for this phenotype. We conclude that inherited hearing loss is highly heterogeneous in this population, with most extended families acting as genetic isolates in this context. We also conclude that the same genes are responsible for hearing loss in this population as elsewhere, so that gene discovery in these families informs the genetics of hearing loss worldwide.

  6. Genomic analysis of a heterogeneous Mendelian phenotype: multiple novel alleles for inherited hearing loss in the Palestinian population

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh Tom; Rayan Amal; Sa'ed Judeh; Shahin Hashem; Shepshelovich Jeanne; Lee Ming K; Hirschberg Koret; Tekin Mustafa; Salhab Wa'el; Avraham Karen B; King Mary-Claire; Kanaan Moien

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Recessively inherited phenotypes are frequent in the Palestinian population, as the result of a historical tradition of marriages within extended kindreds, particularly in isolated villages. In order to characterise the genetics of inherited hearing loss in this population, we worked with West Bank schools for the deaf to identify children with prelingual, bilateral, severe to profound hearing loss not attributable to infection, trauma or other known environmental exposure. Of 156 fa...

  7. Diffuse nitrogen loss simulation and impact assessment of stereoscopic agriculture pattern by integrated water system model and consideration of multiple existence forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Gao, Yang; Yu, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    Agricultural nitrogen loss becomes an increasingly important source of water quality deterioration and eutrophication, even threatens water safety for humanity. Nitrogen dynamic mechanism is still too complicated to be well captured at watershed scale due to its multiple existence forms and instability, disturbance of agricultural management practices. Stereoscopic agriculture is a novel agricultural planting pattern to efficiently use local natural resources (e.g., water, land, sunshine, heat and fertilizer). It is widely promoted as a high yield system and can obtain considerable economic benefits, particularly in China. However, its environmental quality implication is not clear. In our study, Qianyanzhou station is famous for its stereoscopic agriculture pattern of Southern China, and an experimental watershed was selected as our study area. Regional characteristics of runoff and nitrogen losses were simulated by an integrated water system model (HEQM) with multi-objective calibration, and multiple agriculture practices were assessed to find the effective approach for the reduction of diffuse nitrogen losses. Results showed that daily variations of runoff and nitrogen forms were well reproduced throughout watershed, i.e., satisfactory performances for ammonium and nitrate nitrogen (NH4-N and NO3-N) loads, good performances for runoff and organic nitrogen (ON) load, and very good performance for total nitrogen (TN) load. The average loss coefficient was 62.74 kg/ha for NH4-N, 0.98 kg/ha for NO3-N, 0.0004 kg/ha for ON and 63.80 kg/ha for TN. The dominating form of nitrogen losses was NH4-N due to the applied fertilizers, and the most dramatic zones aggregated in the middle and downstream regions covered by paddy and orange orchard. In order to control diffuse nitrogen losses, the most effective practices for Qianyanzhou stereoscopic agriculture pattern were to reduce farmland planting scale in the valley by afforestation, particularly for orchard in the

  8. Scenarios for future biodiversity loss due to multiple drivers reveal conflict between mitigating climate change and preserving biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Thomas W R; Lenton, Timothy M

    2013-01-01

    We assess the potential for future biodiversity loss due to three interacting factors: energy withdrawal from ecosystems due to biomass harvest, habitat loss due to land-use change, and climate change. We develop four scenarios to 2050 with different combinations of high or low agricultural efficiency and high or low meat diets, and use species–energy and species–area relationships to estimate their effects on biodiversity. In our scenarios, natural ecosystems are protected except when additional land is necessary to fulfil the increasing dietary demands of the global population. Biomass energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is used as a means of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere (and offsetting fossil fuel emissions). BECCS is based on waste biomass, with the addition of bio-energy crops only when already managed land is no longer needed for food production. Forecast biodiversity loss from natural biomes increases by more than a factor of five in going from high to low agricultural efficiency scenarios, due to destruction of productive habitats by the expansion of pasture. Biodiversity loss from energy withdrawal on managed land varies by a factor of two across the scenarios. Biodiversity loss due to climate change varies only modestly across the scenarios. Climate change is lowest in the ‘low meat high efficiency’ scenario, in which by 2050 around 660 million hectares of pasture are converted to biomass plantation that is used for BECCS. However, the resulting withdrawal of energy from managed ecosystems has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Although the effects of energy withdrawal and climate change on biodiversity cannot be directly compared, this suggests that using bio-energy to tackle climate change in order to limit biodiversity loss could instead have the opposite effect. (letter)

  9. Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D linked to miscarriage among women with prior pregnancy loss Release: Anti-HIV drug combination does not increase preterm birth risk, study suggests Release: Elevated blood pressure before pregnancy may increase chance of pregnancy loss All related ...

  10. Multiplicity of Buc copies in Atlantic salmon contrasts with loss of the germ cell determinant in primates, rodents and axolotl

    OpenAIRE

    Skugor, Adrijana; Tveiten, Helge; Johnsen, Hanne; Andersen, Øivind

    2016-01-01

    Background The primordial germ cells (PGCs) giving rise to gametes are determined by two different mechanisms in vertebrates. While the germ cell fate in mammals and salamanders is induced by zygotic signals, maternally delivered germ cell determinants specify the PGCs in birds, frogs and teleost fish. Assembly of the germ plasm in the oocyte is organized by the single Buc in zebrafish, named Velo1 in Xenopus, and by Oskar in Drosophila. Secondary loss of oskar in several insect lineages coin...

  11. Comparative Genomic Hybridization of Human Malignant Gliomas Reveals Multiple Amplification Sites and Nonrandom Chromosomal Gains and Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schròck, Evelin; Thiel, Gundula; Lozanova, Tanka; du Manoir, Stanislas; Meffert, Marie-Christine; Jauch, Anna; Speicher, Michael R.; Nürnberg, Peter; Vogel, Siegfried; Janisch, Werner; Donis-Keller, Helen; Ried, Thomas; Witkowski, Regine; Cremer, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Nine human malignant gliomas (2 astrocytomas grade III and 7 glioblastomas) were analyzed using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). In addition to the amplification of the EGFR gene at 7p12 in 4 of 9 cases, six new amplification sites were mapped to 1q32, 4q12, 7q21.1, 7q21.2-3, 12p, and 22q12. Nonrandom chromosomal gains and losses were identified with overrepresentation of chromosome 7 and underrepresentation of chromosome 10 as the most frequent events (1 of 2 astrocytomas, 7 of 7 glioblastomas). Gain of a part or the whole chromosome 19 and losses of chromosome bands 9pter-23 and 22q13 were detected each in five cases. Loss of chromosome band 17p13 and gain of chromosome 20 were revealed each in three cases. The validity of the CGH data was confirmed using interphase cytogenetics with YAC clones, chromosome painting in tumor metaphase spreads, and DNA fingerprinting. A comparison of CGH data with the results of chromosome banding analyses indicates that metaphase spreads accessible in primary tumor cell cultures may not represent the clones predominant in the tumor tissue ImagesFigure 1Figure 4Figure 6 PMID:8203461

  12. Lower limb muscle moments and power during recovery from forward loss of balance in male and female single and multiple steppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Christopher P; Cronin, Neil J; Lichtwark, Glen A; Mills, Peter M; Barrett, Rod S

    2012-12-01

    Studying recovery responses to loss of balance may help to explain why older adults are susceptible to falls. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether male and female older adults, that use a single or multiple step recovery strategy, differ in the proportion of lower limb strength used and power produced during the stepping phase of balance recovery. Eighty-four community-dwelling older adults (47 men, 37 women) participated in the study. Isometric strength of the ankle, knee and hip joint flexors and extensors was assessed using a dynamometer. Loss of balance was induced by releasing participants from a static forward lean (4 trials at each of 3 forward lean angles). Participants were instructed to recover with a single step and were subsequently classified as using a single or multiple step recovery strategy for each trial. (1) Females were weaker than males and the proportion of females that were able to recover with a single step were lower than for males at each lean magnitude. (2) Multiple compared to single steppers used a significantly higher proportion of their hip extension strength and produced less knee and ankle joint peak power during stepping, at the intermediate lean angle. Strength deficits in female compared to male participants may explain why a lower proportion of female participants were able to recover with a single step. The inability to generate sufficient power in the stepping limb appears to be a limiting factor in single step recovery from forward loss of balance. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple cell upset cross-section modeling: A possible interpretation for the role of the ion energy-loss straggling and Auger recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebrev, G.I.; Zemtsov, K.S.

    2016-01-01

    We found that the energy deposition fluctuations in the sensitive volumes may cause the multiple cell upset (MCU) multiplicity scatter in the nanoscale (with feature sizes less than 100 nm) memories. A microdosimetric model of the MCU cross-section dependence on LET is proposed. It was shown that ideally a staircase-shaped cross-section vs LET curve spreads due to the energy-loss straggling impact into a quasi-linear dependence with a slope depending on the memory cell area, the cell critical energy and efficiency of charge collection. This paper also presents a new model of the Auger recombination as a limiting process of the electron–hole charge yield, especially at the high-LET ion impact. A modified form of the MCU cross-section vs LET data interpolation is proposed, discussed and validated.

  14. Multiple cell upset cross-section modeling: A possible interpretation for the role of the ion energy-loss straggling and Auger recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebrev, G.I., E-mail: gizebrev@mephi.ru; Zemtsov, K.S.

    2016-08-11

    We found that the energy deposition fluctuations in the sensitive volumes may cause the multiple cell upset (MCU) multiplicity scatter in the nanoscale (with feature sizes less than 100 nm) memories. A microdosimetric model of the MCU cross-section dependence on LET is proposed. It was shown that ideally a staircase-shaped cross-section vs LET curve spreads due to the energy-loss straggling impact into a quasi-linear dependence with a slope depending on the memory cell area, the cell critical energy and efficiency of charge collection. This paper also presents a new model of the Auger recombination as a limiting process of the electron–hole charge yield, especially at the high-LET ion impact. A modified form of the MCU cross-section vs LET data interpolation is proposed, discussed and validated.

  15. Optimization of multiple performance characteristics in turning using Taguchi’s quality loss function: An experimental investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmaya Mohanty

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cutting force and chip reduction coefficient is the important index of machinability as it determines the power consumption and amount of energy invested in machining actions. It is primarily influenced by process parameters like cutting speed, feed and depth of cut. This paper presents the application of Taguchi’s parameter design to optimize the parameters for individual responses. For multi-response optimization, Taguchi’s quality loss function approach is proposed. In the present investigation, optimal values of cutting speed, feed and depth of cut are determined to minimize cutting force and chip reduction coefficient during orthogonal turning. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is illustrated through an experimental investigation in turning mild steel workpiece using high speed steel tool.

  16. Constrained noninformative priors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.

    1994-10-01

    The Jeffreys noninformative prior distribution for a single unknown parameter is the distribution corresponding to a uniform distribution in the transformed model where the unknown parameter is approximately a location parameter. To obtain a prior distribution with a specified mean but with diffusion reflecting great uncertainty, a natural generalization of the noninformative prior is the distribution corresponding to the constrained maximum entropy distribution in the transformed model. Examples are given

  17. Core damage vulnerability due to the loss of ESW [essential service water] systems at multiplant sites: An assessment and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.; Musicki, Z.; Fitzpatrick, R.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to establish the core damage vulnerability caused by the failure of the ESW systems in multiplant units that have only two sw pumps per unit with crosstie capability. Design and operating data have been surveyed to derive system failure frequency. A core damage model is constructed including operating configurations, specific recovery actions, and time and leak rate dependent RCP seal LOCA model. The estimated CDF SW = 2.55 x 10 -4 /yr is significant indicating the potential vulnerability of this particular SW design arrangement. A number of different potential improvements have been considered. The addition of a swing pump serving both units is shown to have the most significant CDF reduction potential (∼50%) combined with advantageous cost/benefit aspects. 2 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Ancient and novel small RNA pathways compensate for the loss of piRNAs in multiple independent nematode lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sarkies

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Small RNA pathways act at the front line of defence against transposable elements across the Eukaryota. In animals, Piwi interacting small RNAs (piRNAs are a crucial arm of this defence. However, the evolutionary relationships among piRNAs and other small RNA pathways targeting transposable elements are poorly resolved. To address this question we sequenced small RNAs from multiple, diverse nematode species, producing the first phylum-wide analysis of how small RNA pathways evolve. Surprisingly, despite their prominence in Caenorhabditis elegans and closely related nematodes, piRNAs are absent in all other nematode lineages. We found that there are at least two evolutionarily distinct mechanisms that compensate for the absence of piRNAs, both involving RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs. Whilst one pathway is unique to nematodes, the second involves Dicer-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation, hitherto unknown in animals, and bears striking similarity to transposon-control mechanisms in fungi and plants. Our results highlight the rapid, context-dependent evolution of small RNA pathways and suggest piRNAs in animals may have replaced an ancient eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerase pathway to control transposable elements.

  19. The Prior-project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engerer, Volkmar Paul; Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette; Albretsen, Jørgen

    digitisation of Arthur Prior’s Nachlass kept in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. The DH infrastructure in question is the Prior Virtual Lab (PVL). PVL was established in 2011 in order to provide researchers in the field of temporal logic easy access to the papers of Arthur Norman Prior (1914-1969), and officially......In this paper, we present a DH research infrastructure which relies heavily on a combination of domain knowledge with information technology. The general goal is to develop tools to aid scholars in their interpretations and understanding of temporal logic. This in turn is based on an extensive...

  20. Disruption of ion-trafficking system in the cochlear spiral ligament prior to permanent hearing loss induced by exposure to intense noise: possible involvement of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal as a mediator of oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss is at least in part due to disruption of endocochlear potential, which is maintained by various K(+ transport apparatuses including Na(+, K(+-ATPase and gap junction-mediated intercellular communication in the lateral wall structures. In this study, we examined the changes in the ion-trafficking-related proteins in the spiral ligament fibrocytes (SLFs following in vivo acoustic overstimulation or in vitro exposure of cultured SLFs to 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, which is a mediator of oxidative stress. Connexin (Cx26 and Cx30 were ubiquitously expressed throughout the spiral ligament, whereas Na(+, K(+-ATPase α1 was predominantly detected in the stria vascularis and spiral prominence (type 2 SLFs. One-hour exposure of mice to 8 kHz octave band noise at a 110 dB sound pressure level produced an immediate and prolonged decrease in the Cx26 expression level and in Na+, K(+-ATPase activity, as well as a delayed decrease in Cx30 expression in the SLFs. The noise-induced hearing loss and decrease in the Cx26 protein level and Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity were abolished by a systemic treatment with a free radical-scavenging agent, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl, or with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride. In vitro exposure of SLFs in primary culture to 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal produced a decrease in the protein levels of Cx26 and Na(+, K(+-ATPase α1, as well as Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity, and also resulted in dysfunction of the intercellular communication between the SLFs. Taken together, our data suggest that disruption of the ion-trafficking system in the cochlear SLFs is caused by the decrease in Cxs level and Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity, and at least in part involved in permanent hearing loss induced by intense noise. Oxidative stress-mediated products might contribute to the decrease in Cxs content and Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity in the cochlear lateral wall structures.

  1. Arthur Prior and 'Now'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2016-01-01

    ’s search led him through the work of Castañeda, and back to his own work on hybrid logic: the first made temporal reference philosophically respectable, the second made it technically feasible in a modal framework. With the aid of hybrid logic, Prior built a bridge from a two-dimensional UT calculus...

  2. Prior Knowledge Assessment Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    assessment in a reasonable amount of time. Hands-on assessments can be extremely diverse in makeup and administration depending on the subject matter...DEVELOPING AND USING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENTS TO TAILOR TRAINING D-3 ___ Brush and scrub ___ Orchards ___ Rice

  3. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 11q13 in two families with acromegaly/gigantism is independent of mutations of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type I gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, M R; Prezant, T R; Une, K N; Glick, R P; Moskal, S F; Vaisman, M; Melmed, S; Kineman, R D; Frohman, L A

    1999-01-01

    Familial acromegaly/gigantism occurring in the absence of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN-1) or the Carney complex has been reported in 18 families since the biochemical diagnosis of GH excess became available, and the genetic defect is unknown. In the present study we examined 2 unrelated families with isolated acromegaly/gigantism. In family A, 3 of 4 siblings were affected, with ages at diagnosis of 19, 21, and 23 yr. In family B, 5 of 13 siblings exhibited the phenotype and were diagnosed at 13, 15, 17, 17, and 24 yr of age. All 8 affected patients had elevated basal GH levels associated with high insulin-like growth factor I levels and/or nonsuppressible serum GH levels during an oral glucose tolerance test. GHRH levels were normal in affected members of family A. An invasive macroadenoma was found in 6 subjects, and a microadenoma was found in 1 subject from family B. The sequence of the GHRH receptor complementary DNA in 1 tumor from family A was normal. There was no history of consanguinity in either family, and the past medical history and laboratory results excluded MEN-1 and the Carney complex in all affected and unaffected screened subjects. Five of 8 subjects have undergone pituitary surgery to date, and paraffin-embedded pituitary blocks were available for analysis. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 11q13 was studied by comparing microsatellite polymorphisms of leukocyte and tumor DNA using PYGM (centromeric) and D11S527 (telomeric), markers closely linked to the MEN-1 tumor suppressor gene. All tumors exhibited a loss of heterozygosity at both markers. Sequencing of the MEN-1 gene revealed no germline mutations in either family, nor was a somatic mutation found in tumor DNA from one subject in family A. The integrity of the MEN-1 gene in this subject was further supported by demonstration of the presence of MEN-1 messenger ribonucleic acid, as assessed by RT-PCR. These data indicate that loss of heterozygosity in these affected family

  4. Sets of priors reflecting prior-data conflict and agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, G.M.; Coolen, F.P.A.; Carvalho, J.P.; Lesot, M.-J.; Kaymak, U.; Vieira, S.; Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Yager, R.R.

    2016-01-01

    Bayesian inference enables combination of observations with prior knowledge in the reasoning process. The choice of a particular prior distribution to represent the available prior knowledge is, however, often debatable, especially when prior knowledge is limited or data are scarce, as then

  5. Prior indigenous technological species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary open questions of astrobiology is whether there is extant or extinct life elsewhere the solar system. Implicit in much of this work is that we are looking for microbial or, at best, unintelligent life, even though technological artefacts might be much easier to find. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) work on searches for alien artefacts in the solar system typically presumes that such artefacts would be of extrasolar origin, even though life is known to have existed in the solar system, on Earth, for eons. But if a prior technological, perhaps spacefaring, species ever arose in the solar system, it might have produced artefacts or other technosignatures that have survived to present day, meaning solar system artefact SETI provides a potential path to resolving astrobiology's question. Here, I discuss the origins and possible locations for technosignatures of such a prior indigenous technological species, which might have arisen on ancient Earth or another body, such as a pre-greenhouse Venus or a wet Mars. In the case of Venus, the arrival of its global greenhouse and potential resurfacing might have erased all evidence of its existence on the Venusian surface. In the case of Earth, erosion and, ultimately, plate tectonics may have erased most such evidence if the species lived Gyr ago. Remaining indigenous technosignatures might be expected to be extremely old, limiting the places they might still be found to beneath the surfaces of Mars and the Moon, or in the outer solar system.

  6. Frequent expression loss of Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain (ITIH) genes in multiple human solid tumors: A systematic expression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Alexander; Knuechel, Ruth; Dahl, Edgar; Veeck, Juergen; Bektas, Nuran; Wild, Peter J; Hartmann, Arndt; Heindrichs, Uwe; Kristiansen, Glen; Werbowetski-Ogilvie, Tamra; Del Maestro, Rolando

    2008-01-01

    The inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitors (ITI) are a family of plasma protease inhibitors, assembled from a light chain – bikunin, encoded by AMBP – and five homologous heavy chains (encoded by ITIH1, ITIH2, ITIH3, ITIH4, and ITIH5), contributing to extracellular matrix stability by covalent linkage to hyaluronan. So far, ITIH molecules have been shown to play a particularly important role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. We systematically investigated differential gene expression of the ITIH gene family, as well as AMBP and the interacting partner TNFAIP6 in 13 different human tumor entities (of breast, endometrium, ovary, cervix, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, lung, thyroid, prostate, kidney, and pancreas) using cDNA dot blot analysis (Cancer Profiling Array, CPA), semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. We found that ITIH genes are clearly downregulated in multiple human solid tumors, including breast, colon and lung cancer. Thus, ITIH genes may represent a family of putative tumor suppressor genes that should be analyzed in greater detail in the future. For an initial detailed analysis we chose ITIH2 expression in human breast cancer. Loss of ITIH2 expression in 70% of cases (n = 50, CPA) could be confirmed by real-time PCR in an additional set of breast cancers (n = 36). Next we studied ITIH2 expression on the protein level by analyzing a comprehensive tissue micro array including 185 invasive breast cancer specimens. We found a strong correlation (p < 0.001) between ITIH2 expression and estrogen receptor (ER) expression indicating that ER may be involved in the regulation of this ECM molecule. Altogether, this is the first systematic analysis on the differential expression of ITIH genes in human cancer, showing frequent downregulation that may be associated with initiation and/or progression of these malignancies

  7. Frequent expression loss of Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain (ITIH genes in multiple human solid tumors: A systematic expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werbowetski-Ogilvie Tamra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitors (ITI are a family of plasma protease inhibitors, assembled from a light chain – bikunin, encoded by AMBP – and five homologous heavy chains (encoded by ITIH1, ITIH2, ITIH3, ITIH4, and ITIH5, contributing to extracellular matrix stability by covalent linkage to hyaluronan. So far, ITIH molecules have been shown to play a particularly important role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Methods We systematically investigated differential gene expression of the ITIH gene family, as well as AMBP and the interacting partner TNFAIP6 in 13 different human tumor entities (of breast, endometrium, ovary, cervix, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, lung, thyroid, prostate, kidney, and pancreas using cDNA dot blot analysis (Cancer Profiling Array, CPA, semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results We found that ITIH genes are clearly downregulated in multiple human solid tumors, including breast, colon and lung cancer. Thus, ITIH genes may represent a family of putative tumor suppressor genes that should be analyzed in greater detail in the future. For an initial detailed analysis we chose ITIH2 expression in human breast cancer. Loss of ITIH2 expression in 70% of cases (n = 50, CPA could be confirmed by real-time PCR in an additional set of breast cancers (n = 36. Next we studied ITIH2 expression on the protein level by analyzing a comprehensive tissue micro array including 185 invasive breast cancer specimens. We found a strong correlation (p Conclusion Altogether, this is the first systematic analysis on the differential expression of ITIH genes in human cancer, showing frequent downregulation that may be associated with initiation and/or progression of these malignancies.

  8. Recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerup, P; Kolte, A M; Larsen, E C

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a different prognostic impact for consecutive and non-consecutive early pregnancy losses in women with secondary recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Only consecutive early pregnancy losses after the last birth have a statistically significant negative prognostic...... impact in women with secondary RPL. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The risk of a new pregnancy loss increases with the number of previous pregnancy losses in patients with RPL. Second trimester losses seem to exhibit a stronger negative impact than early losses. It is unknown whether the sequence of pregnancy...... losses plays a role for the prognosis in patients with a prior birth. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcome in patients with unexplained secondary RPL included in three previously published, Danish double-blinded placebo-controlled trials of intravenous...

  9. Impairment in explicit visuomotor sequence learning is related to loss of microstructural integrity of the corpus callosum in multiple sclerosis patients with minimal disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzano, L; Tacchino, A; Roccatagliata, L; Sormani, M P; Mancardi, G L; Bove, M

    2011-07-15

    Sequence learning can be investigated by serial reaction-time (SRT) paradigms. Explicit learning occurs when subjects have to recognize a test sequence and has been shown to activate the frontoparietal network in both contralateral and ipsilateral hemispheres. Thus, the left and right superior longitudinal fasciculi (SLF), connecting the intra-hemispheric frontoparietal circuits, could have a role in explicit unimanual visuomotor learning. Also, as both hemispheres are involved, we could hypothesize that the corpus callosum (CC) has a role in this process. Pathological damage in both SLF and CC has been detected in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS), and microstructural alterations can be quantified by Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). In light of these findings, we inquired whether PwMS with minimal disability showed impairments in explicit visuomotor sequence learning and whether this could be due to loss of white matter integrity in these intra- and inter-hemispheric white matter pathways. Thus, we combined DTI analysis with a modified version of SRT task based on finger opposition movements in a group of PwMS with minimal disability. We found that the performance in explicit sequence learning was significantly reduced in these patients with respect to healthy subjects; the amount of sequence-specific learning was found to be more strongly correlated with fractional anisotropy (FA) in the CC (r=0.93) than in the left (r=0.28) and right SLF (r=0.27) (p for interaction=0.005 and 0.04 respectively). This finding suggests that an inter-hemispheric information exchange between the homologous areas is required to successfully accomplish the task and indirectly supports the role of the right (ipsilateral) hemisphere in explicit visuomotor learning. On the other hand, we found no significant correlation of the FA in the CC and in the SLFs with nonspecific learning (assessed when stimuli are randomly presented), supporting the hypothesis that inter

  10. Prior Elicitation, Assessment and Inference with a Dirichlet Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Evans

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Methods are developed for eliciting a Dirichlet prior based upon stating bounds on the individual probabilities that hold with high prior probability. This approach to selecting a prior is applied to a contingency table problem where it is demonstrated how to assess the prior with respect to the bias it induces as well as how to check for prior-data conflict. It is shown that the assessment of a hypothesis via relative belief can easily take into account what it means for the falsity of the hypothesis to correspond to a difference of practical importance and provide evidence in favor of a hypothesis.

  11. General practitioners’ views on the acceptability and applicability of a web-based intervention to reduce antibiotic prescribing for acute cough in multiple European countries: a qualitative study prior to a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthierens Sibyl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions to promote prudent antibiotic prescribing by general practitioners (GPs have often only been developed for use in one country. We aimed to develop an intervention which would be appropriate to implement in multiple European countries in order to offer greater benefit to practice whilst using fewer resources. The INTRO (INternet TRaining for antibiOtic use intervention needed to deliver training to GPs in the use of C-Reactive Protein (CRP near patient tests to help diagnose acute cough and in communication skills to help explain prescribing decisions to patients. We explored GPs’ views on the initial version of INTRO to test acceptability and potentially increase applicability for use in multiple countries before the start of a randomised trial. Method 30 GPs from five countries (Belgium, England, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain, were interviewed using a “think aloud” approach. GPs were asked to work through the intervention and discuss their views on the content and format in relation to following the intervention in their own practice. GPs viewed the same intervention but versions were created in five languages. Data were coded using thematic analysis. Results GPs in all five countries reported the view that the intervention addressed an important topic, was broadly acceptable and feasible to use, and would be a useful tool to help improve clinical practice. However, GPs in the different countries identified aspects of the intervention that did not reflect their national culture or healthcare system. These included perceived differences in communication style used in the consultation, consultation length and the stage of illness at which patient typically presented. Conclusion An online intervention to support evidence-based use of antibiotics is acceptable and feasible to implement amongst GPs in multiple countries. However, tailoring of the intervention to suit national contexts was necessary by

  12. Myeloablative radioimmunotherapies in the conditioning of patients with AML, MDS and multiple myeloma prior to stem cell transplantation; Myeloablative Radioimmuntherapien zur Konditionierung bei Patienten mit AML, MDS und multiplem Myelom vor Stammzelltransplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmann, I. [Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Aggressive consolidation chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have improved the prognosis of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodyplastic syndrome (MDS) and multiple myeloma. Nevertheless, only a minor fraction of patients achieve long-term disease-free survival after stem cell transplantation with disease recurrence being the most common cause of treatment failure. In addition, therapy-related effects such as toxicity of chemotherapy and complications of stem cell transplantation increase mortality rates significantly. Myeloablative radioimmunotherapy uses radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with affinity for the hematopoietic marrow. It applies high radiation doses in the bone marrow but spares normal organs. Adding myeloablative radioimmunotherapy to the conditioning schemes of AML, MDS and multiple myeloma before stem cell transplantation allows for the achievement of a pronounced antileukemic/antimyeloma effect for the reduction of relapse rates without significant increase of acute organ toxicity and therapy-related mortality. In order to optimise therapy, a rational design of the nuclide-antibody combination is necessary. {sup 90}Y, {sup 188}Re and {sup 131}I are the most frequently used {beta}{sup -}-particles. Of these, {sup 90}Y is the most qualified nuclide for myeloablation. Backbone stabilised DTPA are ideal chelators to stably conjugate {sup 90}Y to antibodies so far. For myeloablative conditioning, anti-CD66-, -45- and -33-mAb are used. The anti-CD66-antibody BW250/183 binds to normal hematopoietic cells but not to leukemic blasts and myeloma cells. The {sup 90}Y-2B3M-DTPA-BW250/183 is the most suited radioimmunoconjugate for patients with an infiltration grade of leukemic blasts in the bone marrow < 25%. The specific doses (Gy/GBq) are 10.2 {+-} 1.8 (bone marrow), 2.7 {+-} 2 (liver) and < 1 (kidneys). In contrast, radiolabeled anti-CD33- and anti-CD45-antibodies bind to both, most of white blood cells and

  13. The Relationship Between Poor Quality of Life and Desire to Hasten Death: A Multiple Mediation Model Examining the Contributions of Depression, Demoralization, Loss of Control, and Low Self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sophie; Kissane, David W; Brooker, Joanne; Hempton, Courtney; Burney, Susan

    2017-02-01

    The risk of suicide is elevated in palliative care patients compared with the general population. Various psychological factors, including depression, demoralization, loss of control, and low self-worth, have been associated with a desire to hasten death. The aim of this study was to investigate whether depression, demoralization, loss of control, and low self-worth mediated the relationship between global quality of life and desire to hasten death. A sample of 162 palliative care patients completed measures of global quality of life, depression, demoralization, perceived control, self-worth, and desire to hasten death. A multiple mediation model with bootstrapping sampling tested the total (combined) indirect effect and individual indirect effects of depression, the two subscales of demoralization (Meaning and Purpose, and Distress and Coping Ability), perceived control, and self-worth. Depressive symptoms, loss of meaning and purpose, loss of control, and low self-worth mediated the direct effect of global quality of life on desire to hasten death. The Distress and Coping Ability component of demoralization was not a significant mediator. Depression, loss of meaning and purpose, loss of control, and low self-worth are strong clinical markers for desire to hasten death. Targeting these symptoms through existentially oriented therapies, such as meaning-centered therapy, may ameliorate suicidal thinking. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too loud Difficulty following conversations when two or more people are talking ...

  15. Effect of short-term hyperglycemia on adipose tissue fluxes of selected cytokines in vivo during multiple phases of diet-induced weight loss in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siklova, Michaela; Simonsen, Lene; Polak, Jan

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Hyperglycemia is suggested to be one of the drivers of the proinflammatory state observed in obese and diabetic patients. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study was to investigate whether sc abdominal adipose tissue (scAT) could be one of the important sources of proinflammatory cytokines...... released in response to short-term hyperglycemia and whether this secretion capacity could be influenced by weight loss. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: Output of cytokines and proteins of acute phase from scAT in response to a 3-hours hyperglycemic clamp was evaluated in nine obese women in vivo...... was assessed. RESULTS: Hyperglycemia increased the output of cytokines IL-6, MCP-1, and IL-1Ra from scAT. This effect had a tendency to be reduced after weight loss. The output of other proinflammatory substances from scAT into circulation was not detected. The diet-induced weight loss was associated...

  16. Regional distribution and losses of end-of-life steel throughout multiple product life cycles-Insights from the global multiregional MaTrace model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Kondo, Yasushi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakajima, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    Substantial amounts of post-consumer scrap are exported to other regions or lost during recovery and remelting, and both export and losses pose a constraint to desires for having regionally closed material cycles. To quantify the challenges and trade-offs associated with closed-loop metal recycling, we looked at the material cycles from the perspective of a single material unit and trace a unit of material through several product life cycles. Focusing on steel, we used current process parameters, loss rates, and trade patterns of the steel cycle to study how steel that was originally contained in high quality applications such as machinery or vehicles with stringent purity requirements gets subsequently distributed across different regions and product groups such as building and construction with less stringent purity requirements. We applied MaTrace Global, a supply-driven multiregional model of steel flows coupled to a dynamic stock model of steel use. We found that, depending on region and product group, up to 95% of the steel consumed today will leave the use phase of that region until 2100, and that up to 50% can get lost in obsolete stocks, landfills, or slag piles until 2100. The high losses resulting from business-as-usual scrap recovery and recycling can be reduced, both by diverting postconsumer scrap into long-lived applications such as buildings and by improving the recovery rates in the waste management and remelting industries. Because the lifetimes of high-quality (cold-rolled) steel applications are shorter and remelting occurs more often than for buildings and infrastructure, we found and quantified a tradeoff between low losses and high-quality applications in the steel cycle. Furthermore, we found that with current trade patterns, reduced overall losses will lead to higher fractions of secondary steel being exported to other regions. Current loss rates, product lifetimes, and trade patterns impede the closure of the steel cycle.

  17. Accommodating Uncertainty in Prior Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, Richard Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vander Wiel, Scott Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-19

    A fundamental premise of Bayesian methodology is that a priori information is accurately summarized by a single, precisely de ned prior distribution. In many cases, especially involving informative priors, this premise is false, and the (mis)application of Bayes methods produces posterior quantities whose apparent precisions are highly misleading. We examine the implications of uncertainty in prior distributions, and present graphical methods for dealing with them.

  18. The Prior Internet Resources 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engerer, Volkmar Paul; Albretsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The Prior Internet Resources (PIR) are presented. Prior’s unpublished scientific manuscripts and his wast letter correspondence with fellow researchers at the time, his Nachlass, is now subject to transcription by Prior-researchers worldwide, and form an integral part of PIR. It is demonstrated...

  19. The Importance of Prior Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Linda Miller

    1989-01-01

    Recounts a college English teacher's experience of reading and rereading Noam Chomsky, building up a greater store of prior knowledge. Argues that Frank Smith provides a theory for the importance of prior knowledge and Chomsky's work provided a personal example with which to interpret and integrate that theory. (RS)

  20. Combined array-comparative genomic hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphism-loss of heterozygosity analysis reveals complex changes and multiple forms of chromosomal instability in colorectal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaasenbeek, Michelle; Howarth, Kimberley; Rowan, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Cancers with chromosomal instability (CIN) are held to be aneuploid/polyploid with multiple large-scale gains/deletions, but the processes underlying CIN are unclear and different types of CIN might exist. We investigated colorectal cancer cell lines using array-comparative genomic hybridization...

  1. Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy loss Pregnancy loss is a harsh reality faced ... have successful pregnancies. Expand all | Collapse all Why pregnancy loss happens As many as 10 to 15 ...

  2. Loss of MYC confers resistance to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis by preventing the activation of multiple serine protease- and caspase-mediated pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassilli, Emanuela; Ballabeni, Andrea; Maellaro, Emilia

    2004-01-01

    c-Myc plays an essential role in proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Because of its relevance to cancer, most studies have focused on the cellular consequences of c-Myc overexpression. Here, we address the role of physiological levels of c-Myc in drug-induced apoptosis. By using c-MYC ...... support a model in which doxorubicin simultaneously triggers multiple c-Myc-dependent apoptosis pathways....

  3. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Multiple DG Units for the Enhancement of Voltage Profile and Loss Minimization in Transmission Systems Using Nature Inspired Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Ramamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power grid becomes smarter nowadays along with technological development. The benefits of smart grid can be enhanced through the integration of renewable energy sources. In this paper, several studies have been made to reconfigure a conventional network into a smart grid. Amongst all the renewable sources, solar power takes the prominent position due to its availability in abundance. Proposed methodology presented in this paper is aimed at minimizing network power losses and at improving the voltage stability within the frame work of system operation and security constraints in a transmission system. Locations and capacities of DGs have a significant impact on the system losses in a transmission system. In this paper, combined nature inspired algorithms are presented for optimal location and sizing of DGs. This paper proposes a two-step optimization technique in order to integrate DG. In a first step, the best size of DG is determined through PSO metaheuristics and the results obtained through PSO is tested for reverse power flow by negative load approach to find possible bus locations. Then, optimal location is found by Loss Sensitivity Factor (LSF and weak (WK bus methods and the results are compared. In a second step, optimal sizing of DGs is determined by PSO, GSA, and hybrid PSOGSA algorithms. Apart from optimal sizing and siting of DGs, different scenarios with number of DGs (3, 4, and 5 and PQ capacities of DGs (P alone, Q alone, and  P and Q both are also analyzed and the results are analyzed in this paper. A detailed performance analysis is carried out on IEEE 30-bus system to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  4. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Multiple DG Units for the Enhancement of Voltage Profile and Loss Minimization in Transmission Systems Using Nature Inspired Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Ambika; Ramachandran, Rajeswari

    2016-01-01

    Power grid becomes smarter nowadays along with technological development. The benefits of smart grid can be enhanced through the integration of renewable energy sources. In this paper, several studies have been made to reconfigure a conventional network into a smart grid. Amongst all the renewable sources, solar power takes the prominent position due to its availability in abundance. Proposed methodology presented in this paper is aimed at minimizing network power losses and at improving the voltage stability within the frame work of system operation and security constraints in a transmission system. Locations and capacities of DGs have a significant impact on the system losses in a transmission system. In this paper, combined nature inspired algorithms are presented for optimal location and sizing of DGs. This paper proposes a two-step optimization technique in order to integrate DG. In a first step, the best size of DG is determined through PSO metaheuristics and the results obtained through PSO is tested for reverse power flow by negative load approach to find possible bus locations. Then, optimal location is found by Loss Sensitivity Factor (LSF) and weak (WK) bus methods and the results are compared. In a second step, optimal sizing of DGs is determined by PSO, GSA, and hybrid PSOGSA algorithms. Apart from optimal sizing and siting of DGs, different scenarios with number of DGs (3, 4, and 5) and PQ capacities of DGs (P alone, Q alone, and P and Q both) are also analyzed and the results are analyzed in this paper. A detailed performance analysis is carried out on IEEE 30-bus system to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  5. Depression, anxiety and loss of resilience after multiple traumas: an illustration of a mediated moderation model of sensitization in a group of children who survived the Nazi Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossion, Pierre; Leys, Christophe; Kempenaers, Chantal; Braun, Stephanie; Verbanck, Paul; Linkowski, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders (DAD) have become a major public health problem. Multiple trauma is known to increase the risk of DAD through a sensitization mechanism. We investigate the hypothesis that resilience is a mediator of this mechanism. Former Hidden Children (FHC), the Jewish youths who spent World War II in various hideaway shelters across Nazi-occupied Europe, were compared with a control group. In each group, we measured the presence of multiple traumas, the resilience with the Resilience Scale for Adults, which has a six factors solution, and the DAD with the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist. We test a mediated moderation model with childhood trauma as the predictor; Later trauma as the moderator; Resilience as the mediator; and DAD as the outcome variable. Results are consistent with a sensitization model of DAD mediated by resilience: confrontation with a primary trauma during childhood followed by secondary trauma(s) after childhood damages resilience, which, in turn, results in higher level of DAD. We are unable to differentiate if the sensitization process is a consequence of the nature of the trauma endured by FHC (long-standing exposure to extreme external events) or a consequence of the fact that this first trauma occurred during childhood. Resilience construct is multi-factorial and a limited damaging of some of the factors is sufficient to lead to DAD even if other factors remain unaltered. Resilience can be altered by multiple traumas and, therefore, needs to be bolstered in therapy sessions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Recruiting for Prior Service Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    perceptions, expectations and issues for re-enlistment • Develop potential marketing and advertising tactics and strategies targeted to the defined...01 JUN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Recruiting for Prior Service Market 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Command First Handshake to First Unit of Assignment An Army of One Proud to Be e e to Serve Recruiting for Prior Service Market MAJ Eric Givens / MAJ Brian

  7. Global Profiling and Novel Structure Discovery Using Multiple Neutral Loss/Precursor Ion Scanning Combined with Substructure Recognition and Statistical Analysis (MNPSS): Characterization of Terpene-Conjugated Curcuminoids in Curcuma longa as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Lin, Xiong-hao; Ji, Shuai; Zhang, Zheng-xiang; Bo, Tao; Guo, De-an; Ye, Min

    2016-01-05

    To fully understand the chemical diversity of an herbal medicine is challenging. In this work, we describe a new approach to globally profile and discover novel compounds from an herbal extract using multiple neutral loss/precursor ion scanning combined with substructure recognition and statistical analysis. Turmeric (the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L.) was used as an example. This approach consists of three steps: (i) multiple neutral loss/precursor ion scanning to obtain substructure information; (ii) targeted identification of new compounds by extracted ion current and substructure recognition; and (iii) untargeted identification using total ion current and multivariate statistical analysis to discover novel structures. Using this approach, 846 terpecurcumins (terpene-conjugated curcuminoids) were discovered from turmeric, including a number of potentially novel compounds. Furthermore, two unprecedented compounds (terpecurcumins X and Y) were purified, and their structures were identified by NMR spectroscopy. This study extended the application of mass spectrometry to global profiling of natural products in herbal medicines and could help chemists to rapidly discover novel compounds from a complex matrix.

  8. Probability of Loss of Assured Safety in Systems with Multiple Time-Dependent Failure Modes: Incorporation of Delayed Link Failure in the Presence of Aleatory Uncertainty.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Brooks, Dusty Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie. [Engineering Mechanics Corp. of Columbus, OH (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Probability of loss of assured safety (PLOAS) is modeled for weak link (WL)/strong link (SL) systems in which one or more WLs or SLs could potentially degrade into a precursor condition to link failure that will be followed by an actual failure after some amount of elapsed time. The following topics are considered: (i) Definition of precursor occurrence time cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) for individual WLs and SLs, (ii) Formal representation of PLOAS with constant delay times, (iii) Approximation and illustration of PLOAS with constant delay times, (iv) Formal representation of PLOAS with aleatory uncertainty in delay times, (v) Approximation and illustration of PLOAS with aleatory uncertainty in delay times, (vi) Formal representation of PLOAS with delay times defined by functions of link properties at occurrence times for failure precursors, (vii) Approximation and illustration of PLOAS with delay times defined by functions of link properties at occurrence times for failure precursors, and (viii) Procedures for the verification of PLOAS calculations for the three indicated definitions of delayed link failure.

  9. A high incidence of meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin is not associated with substantial pachytene loss in heterozygous male mice carrying multiple simple robertsonian translocations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Manterola

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is a complex type of cell division that involves homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination, and segregation. When any of these processes is altered, cellular checkpoints arrest meiosis progression and induce cell elimination. Meiotic impairment is particularly frequent in organisms bearing chromosomal translocations. When chromosomal translocations appear in heterozygosis, the chromosomes involved may not correctly complete synapsis, recombination, and/or segregation, thus promoting the activation of checkpoints that lead to the death of the meiocytes. In mammals and other organisms, the unsynapsed chromosomal regions are subject to a process called meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC. Different degrees of asynapsis could contribute to disturb the normal loading of MSUC proteins, interfering with autosome and sex chromosome gene expression and triggering a massive pachytene cell death. We report that in mice that are heterozygous for eight multiple simple Robertsonian translocations, most pachytene spermatocytes bear trivalents with unsynapsed regions that incorporate, in a stage-dependent manner, proteins involved in MSUC (e.g., gammaH2AX, ATR, ubiquitinated-H2A, SUMO-1, and XMR. These spermatocytes have a correct MSUC response and are not eliminated during pachytene and most of them proceed into diplotene. However, we found a high incidence of apoptotic spermatocytes at the metaphase stage. These results suggest that in Robertsonian heterozygous mice synapsis defects on most pachytene cells do not trigger a prophase-I checkpoint. Instead, meiotic impairment seems to mainly rely on the action of a checkpoint acting at the metaphase stage. We propose that a low stringency of the pachytene checkpoint could help to increase the chances that spermatocytes with synaptic defects will complete meiotic divisions and differentiate into viable gametes. This scenario, despite a reduction of fertility, allows the spreading

  10. Período anterior ao dano no rendimento econômico (PADRE: nova abordagem sobre os períodos de interferência entre plantas daninhas e cultivadas Weedy period prior to economic loss (WEEPPEL: a new approach to weedy and weed-free periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Admite-se a hipótese de que aspectos econômicos como o custo de controle e o valor monetário dos grãos devem ser utilizados como critério para determinar o período aceitável de interferência das plantas daninhas antes de se decidir pelo seu controle. O período inicial assim obtido foi denominado Período Anterior ao Dano no Rendimento Econômico (PADRE. Desenvolveu-se um modelo matemático utilizando-se os aspectos econômicos citados, parametrizou-se o modelo com base em resultados da literatura e foram feitas diversas simulações. Os resultados permitiram confirmar a hipótese de que o custo do controle das plantas daninhas e o preço dos grãos da cultura podem ser utilizados como bons indicadores dos períodos de interferência. O PADRE diminui com o incremento do preço da cultura, ou com a redução do custo de controle, ou com o aumento do potencial produtivo da cultura, indicando que, nessas condições, o controle precoce das plantas daninhas é economicamente justificável. O trabalho aponta algumas limitações encontradas na literatura científica e soluções para se obter o PADRE e os demais períodos de interferência.This work hypothesizes economic aspects, such as weed control cost and grain price, should be used as criteria to determine weed interference periods in the crops to support weed control decisions. The weedy period based on such parameters was termed weedy period prior to economic loss (WEEPPEL. A mathematical model was developed based on the abovementioned economic aspects, model parameters were searched in the literature, and simulations performed. The simulation results allowed confirming the hypothesis that weed control cost and grain price are good criteria to determine weed interference periods. WEEPPEL decreases with increasing crop grain prices, or decreasing weed control costs, or increasing crop potential yield, suggesting that under these conditions very early weed control is economically

  11. Quantum steganography using prior entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Steganography is the hiding of secret information within innocent-looking information (e.g., text, audio, image, video, etc.). A quantum version of steganography is a method based on quantum physics. In this paper, we propose quantum steganography by combining quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. In many steganographic techniques, embedding secret messages in error-correcting codes may cause damage to them if the embedded part is corrupted. However, our proposed steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. The intrinsic form of the cover message does not have to be modified for embedding secret messages. - Highlights: • Our steganography combines quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. • Our steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. • Errors in cover messages do not have affect the recovery of secret messages. • We embed a secret message in the Steane code as an example of our steganography

  12. Quantum steganography using prior entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihara, Takashi, E-mail: mihara@toyo.jp

    2015-06-05

    Steganography is the hiding of secret information within innocent-looking information (e.g., text, audio, image, video, etc.). A quantum version of steganography is a method based on quantum physics. In this paper, we propose quantum steganography by combining quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. In many steganographic techniques, embedding secret messages in error-correcting codes may cause damage to them if the embedded part is corrupted. However, our proposed steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. The intrinsic form of the cover message does not have to be modified for embedding secret messages. - Highlights: • Our steganography combines quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. • Our steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. • Errors in cover messages do not have affect the recovery of secret messages. • We embed a secret message in the Steane code as an example of our steganography.

  13. Prior information in structure estimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Nedoma, Petr; Khailova, Natalia; Pavelková, Lenka

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 6 (2003), s. 643-653 ISSN 1350-2379 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS1075102; GA AV ČR IBS1075351; GA ČR GA102/03/0049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : prior knowledge * structure estimation * autoregressive models Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2003 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/karny-0411258.pdf

  14. Experiencing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Younis, Tarek; Hassani, Amani

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore how Islam, minority status and refugee experiencesintersect in shaping meaning-making processes following bereavement. We do this througha phenomenological analysis of a biographical account of personal loss told by Aisha, a Muslim Palestinian refugee living in Denmark......, who narrates her experience of losing herhusband to lung cancer. By drawing on a religious framework, Aisha creates meaning fromher loss, which enables her to incorporate this loss into her life history and sustain agency.Her narrative invites wider audiences to witness her tale of overcoming loss...

  15. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barbiturates or ( hypnotics ) ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) (most often short-term memory loss) Epilepsy that is not well controlled Illness that ... appointment. Medical history questions may include: Type of memory loss, such as short-term or long-term Time pattern, such as how ...

  16. Bayesian nonparametric system reliability using sets of priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, G.M.; Aslett, L.J.M.; Coolen, F.P.A.

    2016-01-01

    An imprecise Bayesian nonparametric approach to system reliability with multiple types of components is developed. This allows modelling partial or imperfect prior knowledge on component failure distributions in a flexible way through bounds on the functioning probability. Given component level test

  17. Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  18. Multiple Hierarchies and Organizational Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Peter B.

    1975-01-01

    Uses a control-loss model to explore the effects of multiple channels in formal organizations, and presents an argument for the superior control properties of dual hierarchies. Two variant forms of multiple hierarchies are considered. (Author)

  19. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to listen to and learn from children showing high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms after parental acquired brain injury (ABI), in order to achieve an in-depth understanding of the difficulties the children face in their everyday lives...... finding indicates that the children experienced numerous losses, many of which were often suppressed or neglected by the children to protect the ill parents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the children seemed to make a special effort to hide their feelings of loss and grief in order to protect...

  20. The Effects of Prior Outcomes on Risky Choice: Evidence from the Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How do prior outcomes affect the risk choice? Research on this can help people to understand investors’ dynamic decisions in financial market. This paper puts forward a new value function. By analyzing the new value function, we find that the prior gains and losses have an impact on the form of value function and the current investors’ risk attitude. Then the paper takes the behavior of the whole stock market as the research object, adopts aggregative index number of 14 representative stocks around the world as samples, and establishes a TVRA-GARCH-M model to investigate the influences of prior gains and losses on the current risk attitude. The empirical study indicates that, at the whole market level, prior gains increase people’s current willingness to take risk assert; that is to say, the house money effect exists in the market, while people are more risk aversion following prior losses.

  1. Application of Bayesian Decision Theory Based on Prior Information in the Multi-Objective Optimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Lei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available General multi-objective optimization methods are hard to obtain prior information, how to utilize prior information has been a challenge. This paper analyzes the characteristics of Bayesian decision-making based on maximum entropy principle and prior information, especially in case that how to effectively improve decision-making reliability in deficiency of reference samples. The paper exhibits effectiveness of the proposed method using the real application of multi-frequency offset estimation in distributed multiple-input multiple-output system. The simulation results demonstrate Bayesian decision-making based on prior information has better global searching capability when sampling data is deficient.

  2. Independents' group posts loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, V.; Price, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    Low oil gas prices and special charges caused the group of 50 U.S. independent producers Oil and Gas Journal tracks to post a combined loss in first half 1992. The group logged a net loss of $53 million in the first half compared with net earnings of $354 million in first half 1991, when higher oil prices during the Persian Gulf crisis buoyed earnings in spite of crude oil and natural gas production declines. The combined loss in the first half follows a 45% drop in the group's earnings in 1991 and compares with the OGJ group of integrated oil companies whose first half 1992 income fell 47% from the prior year. Special charges, generally related to asset writedowns, accounted for most of the almost $560 million in losses posted by about the third of the group. Nerco Oil and Gas Inc., Vancouver, Wash., alone accounted for almost half that total with charges related to an asset writedown of $238 million in the first quarter. Despite the poor first half performance, the outlook is bright for sharply improved group earnings in the second half, assuming reasonably healthy oil and gas prices and increased production resulting from acquisitions and in response to those prices

  3. Divergent Priors and well Behaved Bayes Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Strachan (Rodney); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDivergent priors are improper when defined on unbounded supports. Bartlett's paradox has been taken to imply that using improper priors results in ill-defined Bayes factors, preventing model comparison by posterior probabilities. However many improper priors have attractive properties

  4. Somatic mutations, allele loss, and DNA methylation of the Cub and Sushi Multiple Domains 1 (CSMD1 gene reveals association with early age of diagnosis in colorectal cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Y Shull

    Full Text Available The Cub and Sushi Multiple Domains 1 (CSMD1 gene, located on the short arm of chromosome 8, codes for a type I transmembrane protein whose function is currently unknown. CSMD1 expression is frequently lost in many epithelial cancers. Our goal was to characterize the relationships between CSMD1 somatic mutations, allele imbalance, DNA methylation, and the clinical characteristics in colorectal cancer patients.We sequenced the CSMD1 coding regions in 54 colorectal tumors using the 454FLX pyrosequencing platform to interrogate 72 amplicons covering the entire coding sequence. We used heterozygous SNP allele ratios at multiple CSMD1 loci to determine allelic balance and infer loss of heterozygosity. Finally, we performed methylation-specific PCR on 76 colorectal tumors to determine DNA methylation status for CSMD1 and known methylation targets ALX4, RUNX3, NEUROG1, and CDKN2A.Using 454FLX sequencing and confirming with Sanger sequencing, 16 CSMD1 somatic mutations were identified in 6 of the 54 colorectal tumors (11%. The nonsynonymous to synonymous mutation ratio of the 16 somatic mutations was 15:1, a ratio significantly higher than the expected 2:1 ratio (p = 0.014. This ratio indicates a presence of positive selection for mutations in the CSMD1 protein sequence. CSMD1 allelic imbalance was present in 19 of 37 informative cases (56%. Patients with allelic imbalance and CSMD1 mutations were significantly younger (average age, 41 years than those without somatic mutations (average age, 68 years. The majority of tumors were methylated at one or more CpG loci within the CSMD1 coding sequence, and CSMD1 methylation significantly correlated with two known methylation targets ALX4 and RUNX3. C:G>T:A substitutions were significantly overrepresented (47%, suggesting extensive cytosine methylation predisposing to somatic mutations.Deep amplicon sequencing and methylation-specific PCR reveal that CSMD1 alterations can correlate with earlier clinical

  5. Atmosphere Impact Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    2018-02-01

    Determining the origin of volatiles on terrestrial planets and quantifying atmospheric loss during planet formation is crucial for understanding the history and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Using geochemical observations of noble gases and major volatiles we determine what the present day inventory of volatiles tells us about the sources, the accretion process and the early differentiation of the Earth. We further quantify the key volatile loss mechanisms and the atmospheric loss history during Earth's formation. Volatiles were accreted throughout the Earth's formation, but Earth's early accretion history was volatile poor. Although nebular Ne and possible H in the deep mantle might be a fingerprint of this early accretion, most of the mantle does not remember this signature implying that volatile loss occurred during accretion. Present day geochemistry of volatiles shows no evidence of hydrodynamic escape as the isotopic compositions of most volatiles are chondritic. This suggests that atmospheric loss generated by impacts played a major role during Earth's formation. While many of the volatiles have chondritic isotopic ratios, their relative abundances are certainly not chondritic again suggesting volatile loss tied to impacts. Geochemical evidence of atmospheric loss comes from the {}3He/{}^{22}Ne, halogen ratios (e.g., F/Cl) and low H/N ratios. In addition, the geochemical ratios indicate that most of the water could have been delivered prior to the Moon forming impact and that the Moon forming impact did not drive off the ocean. Given the importance of impacts in determining the volatile budget of the Earth we examine the contributions to atmospheric loss from both small and large impacts. We find that atmospheric mass loss due to impacts can be characterized into three different regimes: 1) Giant Impacts, that create a strong shock transversing the whole planet and that can lead to atmospheric loss globally. 2) Large enough impactors (m_{cap} ≳ √{2

  6. Superposing pure quantum states with partial prior information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Shruti; Thomas, George; Ghosh, Sibasish; Suter, Dieter

    2018-05-01

    The principle of superposition is an intriguing feature of quantum mechanics, which is regularly exploited in many different circumstances. A recent work [M. Oszmaniec et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 110403 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.110403] shows that the fundamentals of quantum mechanics restrict the process of superimposing two unknown pure states, even though it is possible to superimpose two quantum states with partial prior knowledge. The prior knowledge imposes geometrical constraints on the choice of input states. We discuss an experimentally feasible protocol to superimpose multiple pure states of a d -dimensional quantum system and carry out an explicit experimental realization for two single-qubit pure states with partial prior information on a two-qubit NMR quantum information processor.

  7. Iterated random walks with shape prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pujadas, Esmeralda Ruiz; Kjer, Hans Martin; Piella, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    the parametric probability density function. Then, random walks is performed iteratively aligning the prior with the current segmentation in every iteration. We tested the proposed approach with natural and medical images and compared it with the latest techniques with random walks and shape priors......We propose a new framework for image segmentation using random walks where a distance shape prior is combined with a region term. The shape prior is weighted by a confidence map to reduce the influence of the prior in high gradient areas and the region term is computed with k-means to estimate....... The experiments suggest that this method gives promising results for medical and natural images....

  8. A Noninformative Prior on a Space of Distribution Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Terenin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a given problem, the Bayesian statistical paradigm requires the specification of a prior distribution that quantifies relevant information about the unknowns of main interest external to the data. In cases where little such information is available, the problem under study may possess an invariance under a transformation group that encodes a lack of information, leading to a unique prior—this idea was explored at length by E.T. Jaynes. Previous successful examples have included location-scale invariance under linear transformation, multiplicative invariance of the rate at which events in a counting process are observed, and the derivation of the Haldane prior for a Bernoulli success probability. In this paper we show that this method can be extended, by generalizing Jaynes, in two ways: (1 to yield families of approximately invariant priors; and (2 to the infinite-dimensional setting, yielding families of priors on spaces of distribution functions. Our results can be used to describe conditions under which a particular Dirichlet Process posterior arises from an optimal Bayesian analysis, in the sense that invariances in the prior and likelihood lead to one and only one posterior distribution.

  9. Multiple origins of the phenol reaction negative phenotype in foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv., were caused by independent loss-of-function mutations of the polyphenol oxidase (Si7PPO) gene during domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takahiko; Yuo, Takahisa; Ohta, Takeshi; Hitomi, Eriko; Ichitani, Katsuyuki; Kawase, Makoto; Taketa, Shin; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-08-01

    frequencies of ca. 25-67 % and those with negative Phr were broadly found in Europe and Asia. The stop codon type was found in 285 accessions and was broadly distributed in Europe and Asia, whereas the TE-1 insertion type was found in 99 accessions from Europe and Asia but was not found in India. The 6-bp duplication type was found in only 8 accessions from Nansei Islands (Okinawa Prefecture) of Japan. We also analyzed Phr in the wild ancestor and concluded that the negative Phr type was likely to have originated after domestication of foxtail millet. It was also implied that negative Phr of foxtail millet arose by multiple independent loss of function of PPO gene through dispersal because of some advantages under some environmental conditions and human selection as in rice and barley.

  10. Penalised Complexity Priors for Stationary Autoregressive Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Sø rbye, Sigrunn Holbek; Rue, Haavard

    2017-01-01

    The autoregressive (AR) process of order p(AR(p)) is a central model in time series analysis. A Bayesian approach requires the user to define a prior distribution for the coefficients of the AR(p) model. Although it is easy to write down some prior, it is not at all obvious how to understand and interpret the prior distribution, to ensure that it behaves according to the users' prior knowledge. In this article, we approach this problem using the recently developed ideas of penalised complexity (PC) priors. These prior have important properties like robustness and invariance to reparameterisations, as well as a clear interpretation. A PC prior is computed based on specific principles, where model component complexity is penalised in terms of deviation from simple base model formulations. In the AR(1) case, we discuss two natural base model choices, corresponding to either independence in time or no change in time. The latter case is illustrated in a survival model with possible time-dependent frailty. For higher-order processes, we propose a sequential approach, where the base model for AR(p) is the corresponding AR(p-1) model expressed using the partial autocorrelations. The properties of the new prior distribution are compared with the reference prior in a simulation study.

  11. Penalised Complexity Priors for Stationary Autoregressive Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Sørbye, Sigrunn Holbek

    2017-05-25

    The autoregressive (AR) process of order p(AR(p)) is a central model in time series analysis. A Bayesian approach requires the user to define a prior distribution for the coefficients of the AR(p) model. Although it is easy to write down some prior, it is not at all obvious how to understand and interpret the prior distribution, to ensure that it behaves according to the users\\' prior knowledge. In this article, we approach this problem using the recently developed ideas of penalised complexity (PC) priors. These prior have important properties like robustness and invariance to reparameterisations, as well as a clear interpretation. A PC prior is computed based on specific principles, where model component complexity is penalised in terms of deviation from simple base model formulations. In the AR(1) case, we discuss two natural base model choices, corresponding to either independence in time or no change in time. The latter case is illustrated in a survival model with possible time-dependent frailty. For higher-order processes, we propose a sequential approach, where the base model for AR(p) is the corresponding AR(p-1) model expressed using the partial autocorrelations. The properties of the new prior distribution are compared with the reference prior in a simulation study.

  12. Reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces of Gaussian priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaart, van der A.W.; Zanten, van J.H.; Clarke, B.; Ghosal, S.

    2008-01-01

    We review definitions and properties of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces attached to Gaussian variables and processes, with a view to applications in nonparametric Bayesian statistics using Gaussian priors. The rate of contraction of posterior distributions based on Gaussian priors can be described

  13. Improving Open Access through Prior Learning Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuangxu; Kawachi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores and presents new data on how to improve open access in distance education through using prior learning assessments. Broadly there are three types of prior learning assessment (PLAR): Type-1 for prospective students to be allowed to register for a course; Type-2 for current students to avoid duplicating work-load to gain…

  14. Quantitative Evidence Synthesis with Power Priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322847796

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to provide the applied researcher with a practical approach for quantitative evidence synthesis using the conditional power prior that allows for subjective input and thereby provides an alternative tgbgo deal with the difficulties as- sociated with the joint power prior

  15. Modeling and validating Bayesian accrual models on clinical data and simulations using adaptive priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Simon, Steve; Mayo, Matthew S; Gajewski, Byron J

    2015-02-20

    Slow recruitment in clinical trials leads to increased costs and resource utilization, which includes both the clinic staff and patient volunteers. Careful planning and monitoring of the accrual process can prevent the unnecessary loss of these resources. We propose two hierarchical extensions to the existing Bayesian constant accrual model: the accelerated prior and the hedging prior. The new proposed priors are able to adaptively utilize the researcher's previous experience and current accrual data to produce the estimation of trial completion time. The performance of these models, including prediction precision, coverage probability, and correct decision-making ability, is evaluated using actual studies from our cancer center and simulation. The results showed that a constant accrual model with strongly informative priors is very accurate when accrual is on target or slightly off, producing smaller mean squared error, high percentage of coverage, and a high number of correct decisions as to whether or not continue the trial, but it is strongly biased when off target. Flat or weakly informative priors provide protection against an off target prior but are less efficient when the accrual is on target. The accelerated prior performs similar to a strong prior. The hedging prior performs much like the weak priors when the accrual is extremely off target but closer to the strong priors when the accrual is on target or only slightly off target. We suggest improvements in these models and propose new models for future research. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The Multidimensional Loss Scale: validating a cross-cultural instrument for measuring loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromans, Lyn; Schweitzer, Robert D; Brough, Mark

    2012-04-01

    The Multidimensional Loss Scale (MLS) represents the first instrument designed specifically to index Experience of Loss Events and Loss Distress across multiple domains (cultural, social, material, and intrapersonal) relevant to refugee settlement. Recently settled Burmese adult refugees (N = 70) completed a questionnaire battery, including MLS items. Analyses explored MLS internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and factor structure. Cronbach alphas indicated satisfactory internal consistency for Experience of Loss Events (0.85) and Loss Distress (0.92), reflecting a unitary construct of multidimensional loss. Loss Distress did not correlate with depression or anxiety symptoms and correlated moderately with interpersonal grief and trauma symptoms, supporting divergent and convergent validity. Factor analysis provided preliminary support for a five-factor model: Loss of Symbolic Self, Loss of Interdependence, Loss of Home, Interpersonal Loss, and Loss of Intrapersonal Integrity. Received well by participants, the new scale shows promise for application in future research and practice.

  17. Weight reduction intervention for obese infertile women prior to IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsson, Snorri; Bergh, Christina; Friberg, Britt

    2017-01-01

    in the weight reduction group reaching BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2 or reaching a weight loss of at least five BMI units to the IVF only group. No statistical differences in live birth rates between the groups in either subgroup analysis were found. LIMITATIONS, REASON FOR CAUTION: The study was not powered to detect a small......STUDY QUESTION: Does an intensive weight reduction programme prior to IVF increase live birth rates for infertile obese women? SUMMARY ANSWER: An intensive weight reduction programme resulted in a large weight loss but did not substantially affect live birth rates in obese women scheduled for IVF...... in infertile obese women. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A prospective, multicentre, randomized controlled trial was performed between 2010 and 2016 in the Nordic countries. In total, 962 women were assessed for eligibility and 317 women were randomized. Computerized randomization with concealed allocation...

  18. A higher volume of fibrotic tissue on virtual histology prior to coronary stent implantation predisposes to more pronounced neointima proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, Steven; Wouters, Kristien; Miljoen, Hielko; Vandendriessche, Tom; Claeys, Marc; Bosmans, Johan; Vrints, Christiaan

    2018-04-01

    Since neointima smooth muscle cells (SMC) mainly originate from the vessel wall, we investigated whether atherosclerotic plaque composition influences subsequent in-stent neointima proliferation and restenosis. We performed intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) with virtual histology in 98 patients prior to elective bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation in de novo coronary artery lesions. Virtual histology variables pre-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were related to in-stent neointima proliferation six months after implantation assessed as late luminal loss of 0.88 mm (interquartile range (IQR) 0.37-1.23 mm) on angiography and as maximal percentage area stenosis of 42% (IQR 33-59%) and percentage volume intima hyperplasia of 27% (IQR 20-36%) on IVUS. A ridge-trace based multiple linear regression model was constructed to account for multicollinearity of the virtual histology variables and was corrected for implanted stent length (18 mm, IQR 15-23 mm), stent diameter (3.0 mm, IQR 2.75-3.5 mm) and lesion volume (146 mm³, IQR 80-201 mm³) prior to PCI. Fibrous tissue volume prior to PCI (49 mm³, IQR 30-77 mm³) was significantly and independently related to late luminal loss (p = .038), maximal percentage area stenosis (p = .041) and percentage volume intima hyperplasia (p = .004). Neither absolute nor relative amounts of fibrofatty, calcified or necrotic core tissue appeared related to any of the restenosis parameters. Subgroup analysis after exclusion of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients yielded similar results. Lesions with more voluminous fibrotic tissue pre-PCI show more pronounced in-stent neointima proliferation, even after correction for lesion plaque volume.

  19. Effects of Example Variability and Prior Knowledge in How Students Learn to Solve Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Peng; Yang, Ling-Yan; Ding, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have consistently demonstrated that multiple examples are better than one example in facilitating learning because the comparison evoked by multiple examples supports learning and transfer. However, research outcomes are unclear regarding the effects of example variability and prior knowledge on learning from comparing multiple…

  20. A Simulation of Pell Grant Awards and Costs Using Prior-Prior Year Financial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelchen, Robert; Jones, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    We examine the likely implications of switching from a prior year (PY) financial aid system, the current practice in which students file the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) using income data from the previous tax year, to prior-prior year (PPY), in which data from two years before enrollment is used. While PPY allows students to…

  1. Prior Authorization of PMDs Demonstration - Status Update

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS implemented a Prior Authorization process for scooters and power wheelchairs for people with Fee-For-Service Medicare who reside in seven states with high...

  2. Short Report Biochemical derangements prior to emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MMJ VOL 29 (1): March 2017. Biochemical derangements prior to emergency laparotomy at QECH 55. Malawi Medical Journal 29 (1): March 2017 ... Venepuncture was performed preoperatively for urgent cases, defined as those requiring.

  3. Living with vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... of visual aids. Some options include: Magnifiers High power reading glasses Devices that make it easier to ...

  4. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis.

  5. Varying prior information in Bayesian inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Bayes' rule is used to combine likelihood and prior probability distributions. The former represents knowledge derived from new data, the latter represents pre-existing knowledge; the Bayesian combination is the so-called posterior distribution, representing the resultant new state of knowledge. While varying the likelihood due to differing data observations is common, there are also situations where the prior distribution must be changed or replaced repeatedly. For example, in mixture density neural network (MDN) inversion, using current methods the neural network employed for inversion needs to be retrained every time prior information changes. We develop a method of prior replacement to vary the prior without re-training the network. Thus the efficiency of MDN inversions can be increased, typically by orders of magnitude when applied to geophysical problems. We demonstrate this for the inversion of seismic attributes in a synthetic subsurface geological reservoir model. We also present results which suggest that prior replacement can be used to control the statistical properties (such as variance) of the final estimate of the posterior in more general (e.g., Monte Carlo based) inverse problem solutions. (paper)

  6. Calibrated birth-death phylogenetic time-tree priors for bayesian inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heled, Joseph; Drummond, Alexei J

    2015-05-01

    Here we introduce a general class of multiple calibration birth-death tree priors for use in Bayesian phylogenetic inference. All tree priors in this class separate ancestral node heights into a set of "calibrated nodes" and "uncalibrated nodes" such that the marginal distribution of the calibrated nodes is user-specified whereas the density ratio of the birth-death prior is retained for trees with equal values for the calibrated nodes. We describe two formulations, one in which the calibration information informs the prior on ranked tree topologies, through the (conditional) prior, and the other which factorizes the prior on divergence times and ranked topologies, thus allowing uniform, or any arbitrary prior distribution on ranked topologies. Although the first of these formulations has some attractive properties, the algorithm we present for computing its prior density is computationally intensive. However, the second formulation is always faster and computationally efficient for up to six calibrations. We demonstrate the utility of the new class of multiple-calibration tree priors using both small simulations and a real-world analysis and compare the results to existing schemes. The two new calibrated tree priors described in this article offer greater flexibility and control of prior specification in calibrated time-tree inference and divergence time dating, and will remove the need for indirect approaches to the assessment of the combined effect of calibration densities and tree priors in Bayesian phylogenetic inference. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  7. Occupational therapy for multiple sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Cardol, M.; Nes, J.C.M. van de; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2003-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are referred to occupational therapy with complaints about fatigue, limb weakness, alteration of upper extremity fine motor coordination, loss of sensation and spasticity that causes limitations in performance of activities of daily living and social

  8. Multiple Perspectives / Multiple Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Biggs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available People experience things from their own physical point of view. What they see is usually a function of where they are and what physical attitude they adopt relative to the subject. With augmented vision (periscopes, mirrors, remote cameras, etc we are able to see things from places where we are not present. With time-shifting technologies, such as the video recorder, we can also see things from the past; a time and a place we may never have visited.In recent artistic work I have been exploring the implications of digital technology, interactivity and internet connectivity that allow people to not so much space/time-shift their visual experience of things but rather see what happens when everybody is simultaneously able to see what everybody else can see. This is extrapolated through the remote networking of sites that are actual installation spaces; where the physical movements of viewers in the space generate multiple perspectives, linked to other similar sites at remote locations or to other viewers entering the shared data-space through a web based version of the work.This text explores the processes involved in such a practice and reflects on related questions regarding the non-singularity of being and the sense of self as linked to time and place.

  9. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Hair loss Overview Hereditary hair loss: Millions of men ... of hair loss can often be successfully treated. Hair loss: Overview Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE- ...

  10. Electoral cycles in electricity losses in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Brian; Golden, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    A third of electricity in India is lost each year, where losses refer to power that is supplied but not billed. Utilizing data from the power corporation of Uttar Pradesh, India's most populous state, we study the politics of electricity losses. Examining annual data over four decades, we document that UP's electricity losses tend to increase in periods immediately prior to state assembly elections. Drawing upon geographically disaggregated data for the period 2000–09, we observe higher line losses just prior to the 2002 and 2007 state elections. Our analysis shows that the incumbent party was more likely to retain the assembly seat as line losses in the locality increased. We interpret these results as corroboration that political parties deliberately redirect electricity to flat rate and unbilled users in a context of chronically inadequate supply. Political factors appear to affect line losses in ways that technical and economic factors alone cannot explain. - Highlights: • A third of electricity in India is lost each year. • Electricity losses increase by 3 percentage points in periods leading up to statewide elections in India's largest state. • Candidates are more likely to win re-election in areas where line losses are allowed to increase. • Political factors affect line losses in ways that technical and economic factors alone cannot explain

  11. Heuristics as Bayesian inference under extreme priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpart, Paula; Jones, Matt; Love, Bradley C

    2018-05-01

    Simple heuristics are often regarded as tractable decision strategies because they ignore a great deal of information in the input data. One puzzle is why heuristics can outperform full-information models, such as linear regression, which make full use of the available information. These "less-is-more" effects, in which a relatively simpler model outperforms a more complex model, are prevalent throughout cognitive science, and are frequently argued to demonstrate an inherent advantage of simplifying computation or ignoring information. In contrast, we show at the computational level (where algorithmic restrictions are set aside) that it is never optimal to discard information. Through a formal Bayesian analysis, we prove that popular heuristics, such as tallying and take-the-best, are formally equivalent to Bayesian inference under the limit of infinitely strong priors. Varying the strength of the prior yields a continuum of Bayesian models with the heuristics at one end and ordinary regression at the other. Critically, intermediate models perform better across all our simulations, suggesting that down-weighting information with the appropriate prior is preferable to entirely ignoring it. Rather than because of their simplicity, our analyses suggest heuristics perform well because they implement strong priors that approximate the actual structure of the environment. We end by considering how new heuristics could be derived by infinitely strengthening the priors of other Bayesian models. These formal results have implications for work in psychology, machine learning and economics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. External Prior Guided Internal Prior Learning for Real-World Noisy Image Denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, David

    2018-06-01

    Most of existing image denoising methods learn image priors from either external data or the noisy image itself to remove noise. However, priors learned from external data may not be adaptive to the image to be denoised, while priors learned from the given noisy image may not be accurate due to the interference of corrupted noise. Meanwhile, the noise in real-world noisy images is very complex, which is hard to be described by simple distributions such as Gaussian distribution, making real noisy image denoising a very challenging problem. We propose to exploit the information in both external data and the given noisy image, and develop an external prior guided internal prior learning method for real noisy image denoising. We first learn external priors from an independent set of clean natural images. With the aid of learned external priors, we then learn internal priors from the given noisy image to refine the prior model. The external and internal priors are formulated as a set of orthogonal dictionaries to efficiently reconstruct the desired image. Extensive experiments are performed on several real noisy image datasets. The proposed method demonstrates highly competitive denoising performance, outperforming state-of-the-art denoising methods including those designed for real noisy images.

  13. Offending prior to first psychiatric contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, H; Agerbo, E; Dean, K

    2012-01-01

    There is a well-established association between psychotic disorders and subsequent offending but the extent to which those who develop psychosis might have a prior history of offending is less clear. Little is known about whether the association between illness and offending exists in non-psychot......-psychotic disorders. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between mental disorder and offending is present prior to illness onset in psychotic and non-psychotic disorders.......There is a well-established association between psychotic disorders and subsequent offending but the extent to which those who develop psychosis might have a prior history of offending is less clear. Little is known about whether the association between illness and offending exists in non...

  14. GENERAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE PRIOR DISCIPLINARY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA PURAN (DASCĂLU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Disciplinary research is the first phase of the disciplinary action. According to art. 251 paragraph 1 of the Labour Code no disciplinary sanction may be ordered before performing the prior disciplinary research.These regulations provide an exception: the sanction of written warning. The current regulations in question, kept from the old regulation, provides a protection for employees against abuses made by employers, since sanctions are affecting the salary or the position held, or even the development of individual employment contract. Thus, prior research of the fact that is a misconduct, before a disciplinary sanction is applied, is an essential condition for the validity of the measure ordered. Through this study we try to highlight some general issues concerning the characteristics, processes and effects of prior disciplinary research.

  15. Bayesian Prior Probability Distributions for Internal Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Little, T.T.; Martz, H.F.; Schillaci, M.E

    2001-07-01

    The problem of choosing a prior distribution for the Bayesian interpretation of measurements (specifically internal dosimetry measurements) is considered using a theoretical analysis and by examining historical tritium and plutonium urine bioassay data from Los Alamos. Two models for the prior probability distribution are proposed: (1) the log-normal distribution, when there is some additional information to determine the scale of the true result, and (2) the 'alpha' distribution (a simplified variant of the gamma distribution) when there is not. These models have been incorporated into version 3 of the Bayesian internal dosimetric code in use at Los Alamos (downloadable from our web site). Plutonium internal dosimetry at Los Alamos is now being done using prior probability distribution parameters determined self-consistently from population averages of Los Alamos data. (author)

  16. Can natural selection encode Bayesian priors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Juan Camilo; Marshall, James A R

    2017-08-07

    The evolutionary success of many organisms depends on their ability to make decisions based on estimates of the state of their environment (e.g., predation risk) from uncertain information. These decision problems have optimal solutions and individuals in nature are expected to evolve the behavioural mechanisms to make decisions as if using the optimal solutions. Bayesian inference is the optimal method to produce estimates from uncertain data, thus natural selection is expected to favour individuals with the behavioural mechanisms to make decisions as if they were computing Bayesian estimates in typically-experienced environments, although this does not necessarily imply that favoured decision-makers do perform Bayesian computations exactly. Each individual should evolve to behave as if updating a prior estimate of the unknown environment variable to a posterior estimate as it collects evidence. The prior estimate represents the decision-maker's default belief regarding the environment variable, i.e., the individual's default 'worldview' of the environment. This default belief has been hypothesised to be shaped by natural selection and represent the environment experienced by the individual's ancestors. We present an evolutionary model to explore how accurately Bayesian prior estimates can be encoded genetically and shaped by natural selection when decision-makers learn from uncertain information. The model simulates the evolution of a population of individuals that are required to estimate the probability of an event. Every individual has a prior estimate of this probability and collects noisy cues from the environment in order to update its prior belief to a Bayesian posterior estimate with the evidence gained. The prior is inherited and passed on to offspring. Fitness increases with the accuracy of the posterior estimates produced. Simulations show that prior estimates become accurate over evolutionary time. In addition to these 'Bayesian' individuals, we also

  17. Multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indwelling catheter Osteoporosis or thinning of the bones Pressure sores Side effects of medicines used to treat the ... Daily bowel care program Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Swallowing problems Images Multiple sclerosis MRI of the ...

  18. Recognition of Prior Learning: The Participants' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Marta C.; Ornelas, José H.; Maroco, João P.

    2016-01-01

    The current narrative on lifelong learning goes beyond formal education and training, including learning at work, in the family and in the community. Recognition of prior learning is a process of evaluation of those skills and knowledge acquired through life experience, allowing them to be formally recognized by the qualification systems. It is a…

  19. Validity in assessment of prior learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    2015-01-01

    , the article discusses the need for specific criteria for assessment. The reliability and validity of the assessment procedures depend on whether the competences are well-defined, and whether the teachers are adequately trained for the assessment procedures. Keywords: assessment, prior learning, adult...... education, vocational training, lifelong learning, validity...

  20. PET reconstruction via nonlocal means induced prior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingfeng; Huang, Jing; Bian, Zhaoying; Chen, Wufan; Ma, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Bayesian priors for maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction methods usually incorporate local neighborhood interactions that penalize large deviations in parameter estimates for adjacent pixels; therefore, only local pixel differences are utilized. This limits their abilities of penalizing the image roughness. To achieve high-quality PET image reconstruction, this study investigates a MAP reconstruction strategy by incorporating a nonlocal means induced (NLMi) prior (NLMi-MAP) which enables utilizing global similarity information of image. The present NLMi prior approximates the derivative of Gibbs energy function by an NLM filtering process. Specially, the NLMi prior is obtained by subtracting the current image estimation from its NLM filtered version and feeding the residual error back to the reconstruction filter to yield the new image estimation. We tested the present NLMi-MAP method with simulated and real PET datasets. Comparison studies with conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and a few iterative reconstruction methods clearly demonstrate that the present NLMi-MAP method performs better in lowering noise, preserving image edge and in higher signal to noise ratio (SNR). Extensive experimental results show that the NLMi-MAP method outperforms the existing methods in terms of cross profile, noise reduction, SNR, root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (CORR).

  1. Prior learning assessment and quality assurance practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of RPL (Recognition of Prior Learning) in higher education to assess RPL candidates for admission into programmes of study met with a lot of criticism from faculty academics. Lecturers viewed the possibility of admitting large numbers of under-qualified adult learners, as a threat to the institution's reputation, or an ...

  2. Action priors for learning domain invariances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available behavioural invariances in the domain, by identifying actions to be prioritised in local contexts, invariant to task details. This information has the effect of greatly increasing the speed of solving new problems. We formalise this notion as action priors...

  3. Prior image constrained image reconstruction in emerging computed tomography applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Stephen T.

    Advances have been made in computed tomography (CT), especially in the past five years, by incorporating prior images into the image reconstruction process. In this dissertation, we investigate prior image constrained image reconstruction in three emerging CT applications: dual-energy CT, multi-energy photon-counting CT, and cone-beam CT in image-guided radiation therapy. First, we investigate the application of Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) in dual-energy CT, which has been called "one of the hottest research areas in CT." Phantom and animal studies are conducted using a state-of-the-art 64-slice GE Discovery 750 HD CT scanner to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose reduction in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging. Second, we extend the application of PICCS from dual-energy CT to multi-energy photon-counting CT, which has been called "one of the 12 topics in CT to be critical in the next decade." Numerical simulations are conducted to generate multiple energy bin images for a photon-counting CT acquisition and to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose efficiency improvement. Third, we investigate the performance of a newly proposed prior image constrained scatter correction technique to correct scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT, which, when used in image-guided radiation therapy procedures, can assist in patient localization, and potentially, dose verification and adaptive radiation therapy. Phantom studies are conducted using a Varian 2100 EX system with an on-board imager to investigate the extent to which the prior image constrained scatter correction technique can mitigate scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT. Results show that these prior image constrained image reconstruction techniques can reduce radiation dose in dual-energy CT by 50% in phantom and animal studies in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging, can lead to radiation

  4. At a Loss: Scared and Excited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silin, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the author's struggle to come to terms with multiple personal losses, his observations of young children in early childhood classrooms, and work with novice teachers, this essay points to the generative possibilities embedded in moments of disorienting loss. Constrained by traditional templates of mourning that did not reflect the lived…

  5. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss; Prognostic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun, Dass; Neha, Goel; Surinder K, Singhal; Ravi, Kapoor

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a frightening and frustrating symptom for the patient as well as the physician. Prognosis is affected by multiple factors including duration of hearing loss, presence of associated vertigo and tinnitus, and co-morbidities such as hypertension and diabetes.   Materials and Methods: Forty subjects presenting to our department with features of sudden hearing loss were included in the study. Detailed otological history and examination, se...

  6. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  7. Loss of shutdown cooling during degassing in Doel 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The presentation describes loss of shutdown cooling event during degassing in Doel 1 reactor, including description of Doel 1 features,status of plant prior to incident, event sequence and incident causes

  8. Psychosocial Aspects of Hearing Loss in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Donna L; Gates-Ulanet, Patricia; Mellon, Nancy K

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric hearing loss changed more in the past two decades than it had in the prior 100 years with children now identified in the first weeks of life and fit early with amplification. Dramatic improvements in hearing technology allow children the opportunity to listen, speak and read on par with typically hearing peers. National laws mandate that public and private schools, workplaces, and anywhere people go must be accessible to individuals with disabilities. In 2015, most children with hearing loss attended mainstream schools with typically hearing peers. Psychosocial skills still present challenges for some children with hearing loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding Grief and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the process of adapting to life after a loss. It is influenced by each person’s society, culture, and religion. Bereavement is the state of having experienced a loss. Common grief reactions Reactions to loss are called ...

  10. Random template placement and prior information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roever, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In signal detection problems, one is usually faced with the task of searching a parameter space for peaks in the likelihood function which indicate the presence of a signal. Random searches have proven to be very efficient as well as easy to implement, compared e.g. to searches along regular grids in parameter space. Knowledge of the parameterised shape of the signal searched for adds structure to the parameter space, i.e., there are usually regions requiring to be densely searched while in other regions a coarser search is sufficient. On the other hand, prior information identifies the regions in which a search will actually be promising or may likely be in vain. Defining specific figures of merit allows one to combine both template metric and prior distribution and devise optimal sampling schemes over the parameter space. We show an example related to the gravitational wave signal from a binary inspiral event. Here the template metric and prior information are particularly contradictory, since signals from low-mass systems tolerate the least mismatch in parameter space while high-mass systems are far more likely, as they imply a greater signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and hence are detectable to greater distances. The derived sampling strategy is implemented in a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm where it improves convergence.

  11. Bayesian Analysis of two Censored Shifted Gompertz Mixture Distributions using Informative and Noninformative Priors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabassum Naz Sindhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with Bayesian analysis of shifted Gompertz mixture model under type-I censored samples assuming both informative and noninformative priors. We have discussed the Bayesian estimation of parameters of shifted Gompertz mixture model under the uniform, and gamma priors assuming three loss functions. Further, some properties of the model with some graphs of the mixture density are discussed. These properties include Bayes estimators, posterior risks and reliability function under simulation scheme. Bayes estimates are obtained considering two cases: (a when the shape parameter is known and (b when all parameters are unknown. We analyzed some simulated sets in order to investigate the effect of prior belief, loss functions, and performance of the proposed set of estimators of the mixture model parameters.

  12. Prior oral conditions in patients undergoing heart valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Francisco-Javier; Gil-Raga, Irene; Martinez-Herrera, Mayte; Lauritano, Dorina; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2017-11-01

    Patients scheduled for heart valve surgery should be free of any oral infectious disorders that might pose a risk in the postoperative period. Few studies have been made on the dental conditions of such patients prior to surgery. The present study describes the most frequent prior oral diseases in this population group. A prospective, observational case-control study was designed involving 60 patients (30 with heart valve disease and 30 controls, with a mean age of 71 years in both groups). A dental exploration was carried out, with calculation of the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth) index and recording of the periodontal parameters (plaque index, gingival bleeding index, periodontal pocket depth, and attachment loss). The oral mucosa was also examined, and panoramic X-rays were used to identify possible intrabony lesions. Significant differences in bacterial plaque index were observed between the two groups ( p <0.05), with higher scores in the patients with valve disease. Probing depth and the presence of moderate pockets were also greater in the patients with valve disease than among the controls ( p <0.01). Sixty percent of the patients with valve disease presented periodontitis. Patients scheduled for heart valve surgery should be examined for possible active periodontitis before the operation. Those individuals found to have periodontal disease should receive adequate periodontal treatment before heart surgery. Key words: Valve disease, aortic, mitral, heart surgery, periodontitis.

  13. Analysis of Students’ Missed Organic Chemistry Quiz Questions that Stress the Importance of Prior General Chemistry Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Ealy

    2018-01-01

    A concern about students’ conceptual difficulties in organic chemistry prompted this study. It was found that prior knowledge from general chemistry was critical in organic chemistry, but what were some of the concepts that comprised that prior knowledge? Therefore an analysis of four years of organic chemistry quiz data was undertaken. Multiple general chemistry concepts were revealed that are essential prior knowledge in organic chemistry. The general chemistry concepts that were foun...

  14. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  15. Effect of defoliation prior to a frost on postharvest respiration rate, extractable sucrose, and invert sugar concentration of sugarbeet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effect of defoliation prior to a frost on postharvest storage properties of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). Roots of plants with canopies intact until harvest were compared to roots of plants that had been defoliated prior to a frost on multiple harvest dates following a da...

  16. Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bošnjak-Pašić, Marija; Vidrih, Branka; Miškov, Snježana; Demarin, Vida

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, characterized by multifocal inflammatory destruction of myelin, axonal damage and loss of oligodendrocytes. The disease is carried through two stages: inflammatory and degenerative. The most common form of disease in approximately 85% of the cases is RRMS (relapsing-remitting form). The treatment of MS is divided into: treatment of the acute phase of illness, prevention of new relapses and di...

  17. Calculation of noninformative prior of reliability parameter and initiating event frequency with Jeffreys method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jie; Zhang Binbin

    2013-01-01

    In the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants, there are few historical records on some initiating event frequencies or component failures in industry. In order to determine the noninformative priors of such reliability parameters and initiating event frequencies, the Jeffreys method in Bayesian statistics was employed. The mathematical mechanism of the Jeffreys prior and the simplified constrained noninformative distribution (SCNID) were elaborated in this paper. The Jeffreys noninformative formulas and the credible intervals of the Gamma-Poisson and Beta-Binomial models were introduced. As an example, the small break loss-of-coolant accident (SLOCA) was employed to show the application of the Jeffreys prior in determining an initiating event frequency. The result shows that the Jeffreys method is an effective method for noninformative prior calculation. (authors)

  18. Negotiating Multicollinearity with Spike-and-Slab Priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ročková, Veronika; George, Edward I

    2014-08-01

    In multiple regression under the normal linear model, the presence of multicollinearity is well known to lead to unreliable and unstable maximum likelihood estimates. This can be particularly troublesome for the problem of variable selection where it becomes more difficult to distinguish between subset models. Here we show how adding a spike-and-slab prior mitigates this difficulty by filtering the likelihood surface into a posterior distribution that allocates the relevant likelihood information to each of the subset model modes. For identification of promising high posterior models in this setting, we consider three EM algorithms, the fast closed form EMVS version of Rockova and George (2014) and two new versions designed for variants of the spike-and-slab formulation. For a multimodal posterior under multicollinearity, we compare the regions of convergence of these three algorithms. Deterministic annealing versions of the EMVS algorithm are seen to substantially mitigate this multimodality. A single simple running example is used for illustration throughout.

  19. Visibility Restoration for Single Hazy Image Using Dual Prior Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingye Ju

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single image haze removal has been a challenging task due to its super ill-posed nature. In this paper, we propose a novel single image algorithm that improves the detail and color of such degraded images. More concretely, we redefine a more reliable atmospheric scattering model (ASM based on our previous work and the atmospheric point spread function (APSF. Further, by taking the haze density spatial feature into consideration, we design a scene-wise APSF kernel prediction mechanism to eliminate the multiple-scattering effect. With the redefined ASM and designed APSF, combined with the existing prior knowledge, the complex dehazing problem can be subtly converted into one-dimensional searching problem, which allows us to directly obtain the scene transmission and thereby recover visually realistic results via the proposed ASM. Experimental results verify that our algorithm outperforms several state-of-the-art dehazing techniques in terms of robustness, effectiveness, and efficiency.

  20. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Shariat, K.; Kostopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [de

  1. Sparse Multivariate Modeling: Priors and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo

    This thesis presents a collection of statistical models that attempt to take advantage of every piece of prior knowledge available to provide the models with as much structure as possible. The main motivation for introducing these models is interpretability since in practice we want to be able...... a general yet self-contained description of every model in terms of generative assumptions, interpretability goals, probabilistic formulation and target applications. Case studies, benchmark results and practical details are also provided as appendices published elsewhere, containing reprints of peer...

  2. Genome position specific priors for genomic prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Su, Guosheng; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    casual mutation is different between the populations but affects the same gene. Proportions of a four-distribution mixture for SNP effects in segments of fixed size along the genome are derived from one population and set as location specific prior proportions of distributions of SNP effects...... for the target population. The model was tested using dairy cattle populations of different breeds: 540 Australian Jersey bulls, 2297 Australian Holstein bulls and 5214 Nordic Holstein bulls. The traits studied were protein-, fat- and milk yield. Genotypic data was Illumina 777K SNPs, real or imputed Results...

  3. Models for Validation of Prior Learning (VPL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Søren

    The national policies for the education/training of adults are in the 21st century highly influenced by proposals which are formulated and promoted by The European Union (EU) as well as other transnational players and this shift in policy making has consequences. One is that ideas which in the past...... would have been categorized as utopian can become realpolitik. Validation of Prior Learning (VPL) was in Europe mainly regarded as utopian while universities in the United States of America (USA) were developing ways to obtain credits to those students which was coming with experiences from working life....

  4. The positive and negative consequences of multiple-choice testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Henry L; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2005-09-01

    Multiple-choice tests are commonly used in educational settings but with unknown effects on students' knowledge. The authors examined the consequences of taking a multiple-choice test on a later general knowledge test in which students were warned not to guess. A large positive testing effect was obtained: Prior testing of facts aided final cued-recall performance. However, prior testing also had negative consequences. Prior reading of a greater number of multiple-choice lures decreased the positive testing effect and increased production of multiple-choice lures as incorrect answers on the final test. Multiple-choice testing may inadvertently lead to the creation of false knowledge.

  5. Depth image enhancement using perceptual texture priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Duhyeon; Shim, Hyunjung

    2015-03-01

    A depth camera is widely used in various applications because it provides a depth image of the scene in real time. However, due to the limited power consumption, the depth camera presents severe noises, incapable of providing the high quality 3D data. Although the smoothness prior is often employed to subside the depth noise, it discards the geometric details so to degrade the distance resolution and hinder achieving the realism in 3D contents. In this paper, we propose a perceptual-based depth image enhancement technique that automatically recovers the depth details of various textures, using a statistical framework inspired by human mechanism of perceiving surface details by texture priors. We construct the database composed of the high quality normals. Based on the recent studies in human visual perception (HVP), we select the pattern density as a primary feature to classify textures. Upon the classification results, we match and substitute the noisy input normals with high quality normals in the database. As a result, our method provides the high quality depth image preserving the surface details. We expect that our work is effective to enhance the details of depth image from 3D sensors and to provide a high-fidelity virtual reality experience.

  6. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented.

  7. Recurrent pregnancy loss: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Hachem H

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hady El Hachem,1,2 Vincent Crepaux,3 Pascale May-Panloup,4 Philippe Descamps,3 Guillaume Legendre,3 Pierre-Emmanuel Bouet3 1Department of Reproductive Medicine, Ovo Clinic, Montréal, QC, Canada; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Montreal, Montréal, QC, Canada; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Angers University Hopsital, Angers, France; 4Department of Reproductive Biology, Angers University Hospital, Angers, France Abstract: Recurrent pregnancy loss is an important reproductive health issue, affecting 2%–5% of couples. Common established causes include uterine anomalies, antiphospholipid syndrome, hormonal and metabolic disorders, and cytogenetic abnormalities. Other etiologies have been proposed but are still considered controversial, such as chronic endometritis, inherited thrombophilias, luteal phase deficiency, and high sperm DNA fragmentation levels. Over the years, evidence-based treatments such as surgical correction of uterine anomalies or aspirin and heparin for antiphospholipid syndrome have improved the outcomes for couples with recurrent pregnancy loss. However, almost half of the cases remain unexplained and are empirically treated using progesterone supplementation, anticoagulation, and/or immunomodulatory treatments. Regardless of the cause, the long-term prognosis of couples with recurrent pregnancy loss is good, and most eventually achieve a healthy live birth. However, multiple pregnancy losses can have a significant psychological toll on affected couples, and many efforts are being made to improve treatments and decrease the time needed to achieve a successful pregnancy. This article reviews the established and controversial etiologies, and the recommended therapeutic strategies, with a special focus on unexplained recurrent pregnancy losses and the empiric treatments used nowadays. It also discusses the current role of preimplantation genetic testing in the management of recurrent pregnancy

  8. Weight loss and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Plaisance, Eric P; Fisher, Gordon

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that energy deficit produces multiple physiological and metabolic benefits, clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe weight loss in older individuals or those with low bone mineral density (BMD), fearing BMD will be decreased. Confusion exists concerning the effects that weight loss has on bone health. Bone density is more closely associated with lean mass than total body mass and fat mass. Although rapid or large weight loss is often associated with loss of bone density, slower or smaller weight loss is much less apt to adversely affect BMD, especially when it is accompanied with high intensity resistance and/or impact loading training. Maintenance of calcium and vitamin D intake seems to positively affect BMD during weight loss. Although dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is normally used to evaluate bone density, it may overestimate BMD loss following massive weight loss. Volumetric quantitative computed tomography may be more accurate for tracking bone density changes following large weight loss. Moderate weight loss does not necessarily compromise bone health, especially when exercise training is involved. Training strategies that include heavy resistance training and high impact loading that occur with jump training may be especially productive in maintaining, or even increasing bone density with weight loss.

  9. Effects of prior knowledge on learning from different compositions of representations in a mobile learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.-C. Liu (Tzu-Chien); Y.-C. Lin (Yi-Chun); G.W.C. Paas (Fred)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractTwo experiments examined the effects of prior knowledge on learning from different compositions of multiple representations in a mobile learning environment on plant leaf morphology for primary school students. Experiment 1 compared the learning effects of a mobile learning environment

  10. Prior experience and start-up succes; The moderating role of helpers explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuven, J.M.J.; Kirwan, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The prior functional business experience of an entrepreneur is shown to have a positive impact on entrepreneurial outcomes. Multiple arguments have been made that explain this positive relation. For example, entrepreneurs with more functional business experience are believed to be better skilled, to

  11. Multiple homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  12. Soil an-d nutrient loss following site preparation burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.A. Carter; J.P. Field; K.W. Farrish

    2000-01-01

    Sediment loss and nutrient cpncentrations in runoff were evaluated to determine the effects of site preparation burning on a recently harvested loblolly pine (Pinur taeda L.) site in east Texas. Sediment and nutrient losses prior to treatment were approximately the same from control plots and pretreatment burn plots. Nutrient analysis of runoff samples indicated that...

  13. Soil and Nutrient Loss Following Site Preparation Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.P. Field; E.A. Carter

    2000-01-01

    Sediment loss and nutrient cpncentrations in runoff were evaluated to determine the effects of site preparation burning on a recently harvested loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) site in east Texas. Sediment and nutrient losses prior to treatment were approximately the same from control plots and pretreatment burn plots. Nutrient analysis of runoff...

  14. Extending Stochastic Network Calculus to Loss Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss is an important parameter of Quality of Service (QoS. Though stochastic network calculus is a very useful tool for performance evaluation of computer networks, existing studies on stochastic service guarantees mainly focused on the delay and backlog. Some efforts have been made to analyse loss by deterministic network calculus, but there are few results to extend stochastic network calculus for loss analysis. In this paper, we introduce a new parameter named loss factor into stochastic network calculus and then derive the loss bound through the existing arrival curve and service curve via this parameter. We then prove that our result is suitable for the networks with multiple input flows. Simulations show the impact of buffer size, arrival traffic, and service on the loss factor.

  15. PREGNANCY LOSS IN MARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibary A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy loss is an important aspect of equine practice due to the economic and emotional loss that it engenders. Pregnancy loss is often divided in two categories: early pregnancy loss (EPL or embryonic death (ED (first 42 days and fetal losses (after 42 days. Diagnosis of the causes of pregnancy loss is often very challenging. Many of the causes of EPL remain poorly documented but studies on embryo development and embryo-uterine interaction have been able to shed some light on predisposing factors. Fetal losses or abortions are dominated by infectious causes and particularly bacterial placentitis. Detailed reviews of pregnancy loss were recently published by the authors (Tibary et al., 2012; Tibary and Pearson, 2012; Tibary et al., 2014. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and prevention of pregnancy loss in the mare.

  16. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects your nerve cells. This damage slows down ...

  17. Multiple myeloma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Conor D

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management.

  18. Multiple mononeuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with multiple mononeuropathy are prone to new nerve injuries at pressure points such as the knees and elbows. They should avoid putting pressure on these areas, for example, by not leaning on the elbows, crossing the knees, ...

  19. Extended Linear Models with Gaussian Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinonero, Joaquin

    2002-01-01

    In extended linear models the input space is projected onto a feature space by means of an arbitrary non-linear transformation. A linear model is then applied to the feature space to construct the model output. The dimension of the feature space can be very large, or even infinite, giving the model...... a very big flexibility. Support Vector Machines (SVM's) and Gaussian processes are two examples of such models. In this technical report I present a model in which the dimension of the feature space remains finite, and where a Bayesian approach is used to train the model with Gaussian priors...... on the parameters. The Relevance Vector Machine, introduced by Tipping, is a particular case of such a model. I give the detailed derivations of the expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm used in the training. These derivations are not found in the literature, and might be helpful for newcomers....

  20. Active Prior Tactile Knowledge Transfer for Learning Tactual Properties of New Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Feng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Reusing the tactile knowledge of some previously-explored objects (prior objects helps us to easily recognize the tactual properties of new objects. In this paper, we enable a robotic arm equipped with multi-modal artificial skin, like humans, to actively transfer the prior tactile exploratory action experiences when it learns the detailed physical properties of new objects. These experiences, or prior tactile knowledge, are built by the feature observations that the robot perceives from multiple sensory modalities, when it applies the pressing, sliding, and static contact movements on objects with different action parameters. We call our method Active Prior Tactile Knowledge Transfer (APTKT, and systematically evaluated its performance by several experiments. Results show that the robot improved the discrimination accuracy by around 10 % when it used only one training sample with the feature observations of prior objects. By further incorporating the predictions from the observation models of prior objects as auxiliary features, our method improved the discrimination accuracy by over 20 % . The results also show that the proposed method is robust against transferring irrelevant prior tactile knowledge (negative knowledge transfer.

  1. Quantitative utilization of prior biological knowledge in the Bayesian network modeling of gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shouguo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bayesian Network (BN is a powerful approach to reconstructing genetic regulatory networks from gene expression data. However, expression data by itself suffers from high noise and lack of power. Incorporating prior biological knowledge can improve the performance. As each type of prior knowledge on its own may be incomplete or limited by quality issues, integrating multiple sources of prior knowledge to utilize their consensus is desirable. Results We introduce a new method to incorporate the quantitative information from multiple sources of prior knowledge. It first uses the Naïve Bayesian classifier to assess the likelihood of functional linkage between gene pairs based on prior knowledge. In this study we included cocitation in PubMed and schematic similarity in Gene Ontology annotation. A candidate network edge reservoir is then created in which the copy number of each edge is proportional to the estimated likelihood of linkage between the two corresponding genes. In network simulation the Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm is adopted, and samples from this reservoir at each iteration to generate new candidate networks. We evaluated the new algorithm using both simulated and real gene expression data including that from a yeast cell cycle and a mouse pancreas development/growth study. Incorporating prior knowledge led to a ~2 fold increase in the number of known transcription regulations recovered, without significant change in false positive rate. In contrast, without the prior knowledge BN modeling is not always better than a random selection, demonstrating the necessity in network modeling to supplement the gene expression data with additional information. Conclusion our new development provides a statistical means to utilize the quantitative information in prior biological knowledge in the BN modeling of gene expression data, which significantly improves the performance.

  2. Corona helps curb losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  3. Savings for visuomotor adaptation require prior history of error, not prior repetition of successful actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; de Rugy, Aymar; Marinovic, Welber; Riek, Stephan; Carroll, Timothy J

    2016-10-01

    When we move, perturbations to our body or the environment can elicit discrepancies between predicted and actual outcomes. We readily adapt movements to compensate for such discrepancies, and the retention of this learning is evident as savings, or faster readaptation to a previously encountered perturbation. The mechanistic processes contributing to savings, or even the necessary conditions for savings, are not fully understood. One theory suggests that savings requires increased sensitivity to previously experienced errors: when perturbations evoke a sequence of correlated errors, we increase our sensitivity to the errors experienced, which subsequently improves error correction (Herzfeld et al. 2014). An alternative theory suggests that a memory of actions is necessary for savings: when an action becomes associated with successful target acquisition through repetition, that action is more rapidly retrieved at subsequent learning (Huang et al. 2011). In the present study, to better understand the necessary conditions for savings, we tested how savings is affected by prior experience of similar errors and prior repetition of the action required to eliminate errors using a factorial design. Prior experience of errors induced by a visuomotor rotation in the savings block was either prevented at initial learning by gradually removing an oppositely signed perturbation or enforced by abruptly removing the perturbation. Prior repetition of the action required to eliminate errors in the savings block was either deprived or enforced by manipulating target location in preceding trials. The data suggest that prior experience of errors is both necessary and sufficient for savings, whereas prior repetition of a successful action is neither necessary nor sufficient for savings. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ... months after the "shock". This sudden increase in hair loss, usually described as the hair coming out in ...

  5. Genes and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...

  6. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the ... lose bone faster than it can be replaced. Menopause—the time when menstrual periods end, which usually ...

  7. OI Issues: Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signals normally to the brain. In addition, hearing losses are classified according to the degree of severity: • Mild, • Moderate, • Severe, • Profound. Hearing losses are also classified according to the sound frequency ...

  8. Early Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go on to have successful pregnancies. Repeated pregnancy losses are rare. Testing and evaluation can be done ... find a cause if you have several pregnancy losses. Even if no cause is found, most couples ...

  9. Occupational hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001048.htm Occupational hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Occupational hearing loss is damage to the inner ear from noise ...

  10. Coping with Memory Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Coping With Memory Loss Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... be evaluated by a health professional. What Causes Memory Loss? Anything that affects cognition—the process of ...

  11. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  12. Myopic loss aversion revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Blavatskyy, Pavlo; Pogrebna, Ganna

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we reexamine several experimental papers on myopic loss aversion by analyzing individual rather than aggregate choice patterns. We find that the behavior of the majority of subjects is inconsistent with the hypothesis of myopic loss aversion.

  13. [Multiple meningiomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, L-M; François, P

    2016-06-01

    Multiple meningiomas (MMs) or meningiomatosis are defined by the presence of at least 2 lesions that appear simultaneously or not, at different intracranial locations, without the association of neurofibromatosis. They present 1-9 % of meningiomas with a female predominance. The occurrence of multiple meningiomas is not clear. There are 2 main hypotheses for their development, one that supports the independent evolution of these tumors and the other, completely opposite, that suggests the propagation of tumor cells of a unique clone transformation, through cerebrospinal fluid. NF2 gene mutation is an important intrinsic risk factor in the etiology of multiple meningiomas and some exogenous risk factors have been suspected but only ionizing radiation exposure has been proven. These tumors can grow anywhere in the skull but they are more frequently observed in supratentorial locations. Their histologic types are similar to unique meningiomas of psammomatous, fibroblastic, meningothelial or transitional type and in most cases are benign tumors. The prognosis of these tumors is eventually good and does not differ from the unique tumors except for the cases of radiation-induced multiple meningiomas, in the context of NF2 or when diagnosed in children where the outcome is less favorable. Each meningioma lesion should be dealt with individually and their multiple character should not justify their resection at all costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Ventricular tachycardia induced by weight loss pills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Hansson, Nils Henrik; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non......-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged....

  15. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Kids / Hair Loss What's in this ... head are in the resting phase. What Causes Hair Loss? Men, especially older men, are the ones who ...

  16. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  17. Computational simulations of frictional losses in pipe networks confirmed in experimental apparatusses designed by honors students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Nicholas A.; Hynes, Eric; Kutz, April

    2015-11-01

    Lectures in introductory fluid mechanics at NIU are a combination of students with standard enrollment and students seeking honors credit for an enriching experience. Most honors students dread the additional homework problems or an extra paper assigned by the instructor. During the past three years, honors students of my class have instead collaborated to design wet-lab experiments for their peers to predict variable volume flow rates of open reservoirs driven by gravity. Rather than learn extra, the honors students learn the Bernoulli head-loss equation earlier to design appropriate systems for an experimental wet lab. Prior designs incorporated minor loss features such as sudden contraction or multiple unions and valves. The honors students from Spring 2015 expanded the repertoire of available options by developing large scale set-ups with multiple pipe networks that could be combined together to test the flexibility of the student team's computational programs. The engagement of bridging the theory with practice was appreciated by all of the students such that multiple teams were able to predict performance within 4% accuracy. The challenges, schedules, and cost estimates of incorporating the experimental lab into an introductory fluid mechanics course will be reported.

  18. PREFERENCE OF PRIOR FOR BAYESIAN ANALYSIS OF THE MIXED BURR TYPE X DISTRIBUTION UNDER TYPE I CENSORED SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabassum Naz Sindhu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the preference of prior for the Bayesian analysis of the shape parameter of the mixture of Burr type X distribution using the censored data. We modeled the heterogeneous population using two components mixture of the Burr type X distribution. A comprehensive simulation scheme, through probabilistic mixing, has been followed to highlight the properties and behavior of the estimates in terms of sample size, corresponding risks and the proportion of the component of the mixture. The Bayes estimators of the parameters have been evaluated under the assumption of informative and non-informative priors using symmetric and asymmetric loss functions. The model selection criterion for the preference of the prior has been introduced. The hazard rate function of the mixture distribution has been discussed. The Bayes estimates under exponential prior and precautionary loss function exhibit the minimum posterior risks with some exceptions.

  19. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent......, need for structural changes in home and need for pension became greater with increasing physical handicap. No significant differences between gender were found. It is concluded that patients and relatives are under increased social strain, when multiple sclerosis progresses to a moderate handicap...

  20. Putting Priors in Mixture Density Mercer Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for automatic knowledge driven data mining based on the theory of Mercer Kernels, which are highly nonlinear symmetric positive definite mappings from the original image space to a very high, possibly infinite dimensional feature space. We describe a new method called Mixture Density Mercer Kernels to learn kernel function directly from data, rather than using predefined kernels. These data adaptive kernels can en- code prior knowledge in the kernel using a Bayesian formulation, thus allowing for physical information to be encoded in the model. We compare the results with existing algorithms on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The code for these experiments has been generated with the AUTOBAYES tool, which automatically generates efficient and documented C/C++ code from abstract statistical model specifications. The core of the system is a schema library which contains template for learning and knowledge discovery algorithms like different versions of EM, or numeric optimization methods like conjugate gradient methods. The template instantiation is supported by symbolic- algebraic computations, which allows AUTOBAYES to find closed-form solutions and, where possible, to integrate them into the code. The results show that the Mixture Density Mercer-Kernel described here outperforms tree-based classification in distinguishing high-redshift galaxies from low- redshift galaxies by approximately 16% on test data, bagged trees by approximately 7%, and bagged trees built on a much larger sample of data by approximately 2%.

  1. Prior expectations facilitate metacognition for perceptual decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R

    2015-09-01

    The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Washing of waste prior to landfilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana

    2012-05-01

    The main impact produced by landfills is represented by the release of leachate emissions. Waste washing treatment has been investigated to evaluate its efficiency in reducing the waste leaching fraction prior to landfilling. The results of laboratory-scale washing tests applied to several significant residues from integrated management of solid waste are presented in this study, specifically: non-recyclable plastics from source separation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste and a special waste, automotive shredded residues. Results obtained demonstrate that washing treatment contributes towards combating the environmental impacts of raw wastes. Accordingly, a leachate production model was applied, leading to the consideration that the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), parameters of fundamental importance in the characterization of landfill leachate, from a landfill containing washed wastes, are comparable to those that would only be reached between 90 and 220years later in the presence of raw wastes. The findings obtained demonstrated that washing of waste may represent an effective means of reducing the leachable fraction resulting in a consequent decrease in landfill emissions. Further studies on pilot scale are needed to assess the potential for full-scale application of this treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pitch perception prior to cortical maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Bonnie K.

    Pitch perception plays an important role in many complex auditory tasks including speech perception, music perception, and sound source segregation. Because of the protracted and extensive development of the human auditory cortex, pitch perception might be expected to mature, at least over the first few months of life. This dissertation investigates complex pitch perception in 3-month-olds, 7-month-olds and adults -- time points when the organization of the auditory pathway is distinctly different. Using an observer-based psychophysical procedure, a series of four studies were conducted to determine whether infants (1) discriminate the pitch of harmonic complex tones, (2) discriminate the pitch of unresolved harmonics, (3) discriminate the pitch of missing fundamental melodies, and (4) have comparable sensitivity to pitch and spectral changes as adult listeners. The stimuli used in these studies were harmonic complex tones, with energy missing at the fundamental frequency. Infants at both three and seven months of age discriminated the pitch of missing fundamental complexes composed of resolved and unresolved harmonics as well as missing fundamental melodies, demonstrating perception of complex pitch by three months of age. More surprisingly, infants in both age groups had lower pitch and spectral discrimination thresholds than adult listeners. Furthermore, no differences in performance on any of the tasks presented were observed between infants at three and seven months of age. These results suggest that subcortical processing is not only sufficient to support pitch perception prior to cortical maturation, but provides adult-like sensitivity to pitch by three months.

  4. Febrile seizures prior to sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stampe, Niels Kjær; Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Febrile seizure (FS) is a common disorder affecting 2-5% of children up to 5 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine whether FS in early childhood are over-represented in young adults dying from sudden cardiac death (SCD). Methods and results: We included all deaths (n = 4595...... with FS was sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (5/8; 62.5%). Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrates a significantly two-fold increase in the frequency of FS prior to death in young SCD cases compared with the two control groups, suggesting that FS could potentially contribute in a risk......) nationwide and through review of all death certificates, we identified 245 SCD in Danes aged 1-30 years in 2000-09. Through the usage of nationwide registries, we identified all persons admitted with first FS among SCD cases (14/245; 5.7%) and in the corresponding living Danish population (71 027/2 369 785...

  5. Resveratrol Neuroprotection in a Chronic Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe eFonseca-Kelly

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a naturally-occurring polyphenol that activates SIRT1, an NAD-dependent deacetylase. SRT501, a pharmaceutical formulation of resveratrol with enhanced systemic absorption, prevents neuronal loss without suppressing inflammation in mice with relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a model of multiple sclerosis. In contrast, resveratrol has been reported to suppress inflammation in chronic EAE, although neuroprotective effects were not evaluated. The current studies examine potential neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects of resveratrol in chronic EAE induced by immunization with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein peptide in C57/Bl6 mice. Effects of two distinct formulations of resveratrol administered daily orally were compared. Resveratrol delayed the onset of EAE compared to vehicle-treated EAE mice, but did not prevent or alter the phenotype of inflammation in spinal cords or optic nerves. Significant neuroprotective effects were observed, with higher numbers of retinal ganglion cells found in eyes of resveratrol-treated EAE mice with optic nerve inflammation. Results demonstrate that resveratrol prevents neuronal loss in this chronic demyelinating disease model, similar to its effects in relapsing EAE. Differences in immunosuppression compared with prior studies suggest that immunomodulatory effects may be limited and may depend on specific immunization parameters or timing of treatment. Importantly, neuroprotective effects can occur without immunosuppression, suggesting a potential additive benefit of resveratrol in combination with anti-inflammatory therapies for multiple sclerosis.

  6. Energy losses in switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; Seamen, J.F.; Jobe, D.O.

    1993-01-01

    The authors experiments show energy losses between 2 and 10 times that of the resistive time predictions. The experiments used hydrogen, helium, air, nitrogen, SF 6 polyethylene, and water for the switching dielectric. Previously underestimated switch losses have caused over predicting the accelerator outputs. Accurate estimation of these losses is now necessary for new high-efficiency pulsed power devices where the switching losses constitute the major portion of the total energy loss. They found that the switch energy losses scale as (V peak I peak ) 1.1846 . When using this scaling, the energy losses in any of the tested dielectrics are almost the same. This relationship is valid for several orders of magnitude and suggested a theoretical basis for these results. Currents up to .65 MA, with voltages to 3 MV were applied to various gaps during these experiments. The authors data and the developed theory indicates that the switch power loss continues for a much longer time than the resistive time, with peak power loss generally occurring at peak current in a ranging discharge instead of the early current time. All of the experiments were circuit code modeled after developing a new switch loss version based on the theory. The circuit code predicts switch energy loss and peak currents as a function of time. During analysis of the data they noticed slight constant offsets between the theory and data that depended on the dielectric. They modified the plasma conductivity for each tested dielectric to lessen this offset

  7. Multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jeong Ick; Ha, Choon Ho; Choi, Karp Shik

    1994-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell tumor that is thought to originate proliferation of a single clone of abnormal plasma cell resulting production of a whole monoclonal paraprotein. The authors experienced a case of multiple myeloma with severe mandibular osteolytic lesions in 46-year-old female. As a result of careful analysis of clinical, radiological, histopathological features, and laboratory findings, we diagnosed it as multiple myeloma, and the following results were obtained. 1. Main clinical symptoms were intermittent dull pain on the mandibular body area, abnormal sensation of lip and pain due to the fracture on the right clavicle. 2. Laboratory findings revealed M-spike, reversed serum albumin-globulin ratio, markedly elevated ESR and hypercalcemia. 3. Radiographically, multiple osteolytic punched-out radiolucencies were evident on the skull, zygoma, jaw bones, ribs, clavicle and upper extremities. Enlarged liver and increased uptakes on the lesional sites in RN scan were also observed. 4. Histopathologically, markedly hypercellular marrow with sheets of plasmoblasts and megakaryocytes were also observed.

  8. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two (12%) of a total of 366 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) had psychiatric admissions. Of these, 34 (81%) had their first psychiatric admission in conjunction with or after the onset of MS. Classification by psychiatric diagnosis showed that there was a significant positive correlation...

  9. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional investigation of 116 patients with multiple sclerosis, the social and sparetime activities of the patient were assessed by both patient and his/her family. The assessments were correlated to physical disability which showed that particularly those who were moderately disabled...

  10. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1990-01-01

    An investigation on the correlation between ability to read TV subtitles and the duration of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in 14 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated that VEP latency in patients unable to read the TV subtitles was significantly delayed in comparison...

  11. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 94 patients (42 males, 52 females) with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) in the age range 25-55 years, the correlation of neuropsychological tests with the ability to read TV-subtitles and with the use of sedatives is examined. A logistic regression analysis reveals...

  12. Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  13. Parenting Multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when your babies do. Though it can be hard to let go of the thousand other things you need to do, remember that your well-being is key to your ability to take care of your babies. What Problems Can Happen? It may be hard to tell multiple babies apart when they first ...

  14. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  15. Heavy quark energy loss in nuclear medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Benr-Wei; Wang, Enke; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2003-01-01

    Multiple scattering, modified fragmentation functions and radiative energy loss of a heavy quark propagating in a nuclear medium are investigated in perturbative QCD. Because of the quark mass dependence of the gluon formation time, the medium size dependence of heavy quark energy loss is found to change from a linear to a quadratic form when the initial energy and momentum scale are increased relative to the quark mass. The radiative energy loss is also significantly suppressed relative to a light quark due to the suppression of collinear gluon emission by a heavy quark

  16. Technology that Touches Lives: Teleconsultation to Benefit Persons with Upper Limb Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsay R. Whelan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While over 1.5 million individuals are living with limb loss in the United States (Ziegler-Graham et al., 2008, only 10% of these individuals have a loss that affects an upper limb. Coincident with the relatively low incidence of upper limb loss, is a shortage of the community-based prosthetic rehabilitation experts that can help prosthetic users to more fully integrate their devices into their daily routines. This article describes how expert prosthetists and occupational therapists at Touch Bionics, a manufacturer of advanced upper limb prosthetic devices, employ Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP videoconferencing software telehealth technologies to engage in remote consultation with users of prosthetic devices and/or their local practitioners. The Touch Bionics staff provide follow-up expertise to local prosthetists, occupational therapists, and other health professionals. Contrasted with prior telephone-based consultations, the video-enabled approach provides enhanced capabilities to benefit persons with upper limb loss.  Currently, the opportunities for Touch Bionics occupational therapists to fully engage in patient-based services delivered through telehealth technologies are significantly reduced by their need to obtain and maintain professional licenses in multiple states.

  17. Integrating prior knowledge in multiple testing under dependence with applications to detecting differential DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Pei Fen; Chiang, Derek Y

    2012-09-01

    DNA methylation has emerged as an important hallmark of epigenetics. Numerous platforms including tiling arrays and next generation sequencing, and experimental protocols are available for profiling DNA methylation. Similar to other tiling array data, DNA methylation data shares the characteristics of inherent correlation structure among nearby probes. However, unlike gene expression or protein DNA binding data, the varying CpG density which gives rise to CpG island, shore and shelf definition provides exogenous information in detecting differential methylation. This article aims to introduce a robust testing and probe ranking procedure based on a nonhomogeneous hidden Markov model that incorporates the above-mentioned features for detecting differential methylation. We revisit the seminal work of Sun and Cai (2009, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology)71, 393-424) and propose modeling the nonnull using a nonparametric symmetric distribution in two-sided hypothesis testing. We show that this model improves probe ranking and is robust to model misspecification based on extensive simulation studies. We further illustrate that our proposed framework achieves good operating characteristics as compared to commonly used methods in real DNA methylation data that aims to detect differential methylation sites. © 2012, The International Biometric Society.

  18. Changes in body composition, diet, and strength of bodybuilders during the 12 weeks prior to competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamman, M M; Hunter, G R; Newton, L E; Roney, R K; Khaled, M A

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to monitor body composition, diet, and strength in male bodybuilders (No. 6) during the 12 weeks prior to competition. Data were collected every third week and analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA (p training volumes were found during pre-competition. Nutritional analyses showed significant reductions (p pre-competition practices were effective in reducing subcutaneous fat stores while maintaining muscle. Finally, the onset of the pre-competition phase resulted in strength loss.

  19. Obtaining value prior to pulping with diethyl oxalate and oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.R. Kenealy; E. Horn; C.J. Houtman; J. Laplaza; T.W. Jeffries

    2007-01-01

    Pulp and paper are converted to paper products with yields of paper dependent on the wood and the process used. Even with high yield pulps there are conversion losses and with chemical pulps the yields approach 50%. The portions of the wood that do not provide product are either combusted to generate power and steam or incur a cost in waste water treatment. Value prior...

  20. Sequential and simultaneous multiple explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Litchfield

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports two experiments comparing variants of multiple explanation applied in the early stages of a judgment task (a case involving employee theft where participants are not given a menu of response options. Because prior research has focused on situations where response options are provided to judges, we identify relevant dependent variables that an intervention might affect when such options are not given. We use these variables to build a causal model of intervention that illustrates both the intended effects of multiple explanation and some potentially competing processes that it may trigger. Although multiple explanation clearly conveys some benefits (e.g., willingness to delay action to engage in information search, increased detail, quality and confidence in alternative explanations in the present experiments, we also found evidence that it may initiate or enhance processes that attenuate its advantages (e.g., feelings that one does not need more data if one has multiple good explanations.

  1. Recurrent pregnancy loss: what is the impact of consecutive versus non-consecutive losses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerup, P; Kolte, A M; Larsen, E C; Krog, M; Nielsen, H S; Christiansen, O B

    2016-11-01

    Is there a different prognostic impact for consecutive and non-consecutive early pregnancy losses in women with secondary recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)? Only consecutive early pregnancy losses after the last birth have a statistically significant negative prognostic impact in women with secondary RPL. The risk of a new pregnancy loss increases with the number of previous pregnancy losses in patients with RPL. Second trimester losses seem to exhibit a stronger negative impact than early losses. It is unknown whether the sequence of pregnancy losses plays a role for the prognosis in patients with a prior birth. This retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcome in patients with unexplained secondary RPL included in three previously published, Danish double-blinded placebo-controlled trials of intravenous immunoglobulin (IvIg) conducted from 1991 to 2014. No other treatments were given. Patients with documented explained pregnancy losses (ectopic pregnancies and aneuploid miscarriages) were excluded. Of the 168 patients included in the trials, 127 had secondary RPL and experienced a subsequent live birth or unexplained pregnancy loss in the first pregnancy after giving informed consent to participate in the trials (the index pregnancy). Data analyzed by multivariate analysis included the independent variables age, the number of early pregnancy losses before and after the last birth, respectively and a second trimester pregnancy loss before or after the last birth, respectively. The outcome variable was unexplained loss in the index pregnancy. In patients with secondary RPL, both a late and each early loss before the last birth did not significantly influence the risk of a new pregnancy loss in the index pregnancy: incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.31 (95% CI 0.62-2.77) and IRR 0.88 (95% CI 0.70-1.11), respectively. In contrast, the impact on risk of pregnancy loss conferred by a late and by each early pregnancy loss occurring after the birth was significant: IRR 2

  2. Prior Mental Fatigue Impairs Marksmanship Decision Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Head

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Mental fatigue has been shown to impair subsequent physical performance in continuous and discontinuous exercise. However, its influence on subsequent fine-motor performance in an applied setting (e.g., marksmanship for trained soldiers is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether prior mental fatigue influences subsequent marksmanship performance as measured by shooting accuracy and judgment of soldiers in a live-fire scenario.Methods: Twenty trained infantry soldiers engaged targets after completing either a mental fatigue or control intervention in a repeated measure design. Heart rate variability and the NASA-TLX were used to gauge physiological and subjective effects of the interventions. Target hit proportion, projectile group accuracy, and precision were used to measure marksmanship accuracy. Marksmanship accuracy was assessed by measuring bullet group accuracy (i.e., how close a group of shots are relative to center of mass and bullet group precision (i.e., how close are each individual shot to each other. Additionally, marksmanship decision accuracy (correctly shooting vs. correctly withholding shot when engaging targets was used to examine marksmanship performance.Results: Soldiers rated the mentally fatiguing task (59.88 ± 23.7 as having greater mental workload relative to the control intervention [31.29 ± 12.3, t(19 = 1.72, p < 0.001]. Additionally, soldiers completing the mental fatigue intervention (96.04 ± = 37.1 also had lower time-domain (standard deviation of normal to normal R-R intervals heart rate variability relative to the control [134.39 ± 47.4, t(18 = 3.59, p < 0.001]. Projectile group accuracy and group precision failed to show differences between interventions [t(19 = 0.98, p = 0.34, t(19 = 0.18, p = 0.87, respectively]. Marksmanship decision errors significantly increased after soldiers completed the mental fatigue intervention (48% ± 22.4 relative to the control

  3. Digital communication constraints in prior space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Nathan K.

    2004-01-01

    Digital communication is crucial for space endeavors. Jt transmits scientific and command data between earth stations and the spacecraft crew. It facilitates communications between astronauts, and provides live coverage during all phases of the mission. Digital communications provide ground stations and spacecraft crew precise data on the spacecraft position throughout the entire mission. Lessons learned from prior space missions are valuable for our new lunar and Mars missions set by our president s speech. These data will save our agency time and money, and set course our current developing technologies. Limitations on digital communications equipment pertaining mass, volume, data rate, frequency, antenna type and size, modulation, format, and power in the passed space missions are of particular interest. This activity is in support of ongoing communication architectural studies pertaining to robotic and human lunar exploration. The design capabilities and functionalities will depend on the space and power allocated for digital communication equipment. My contribution will be gathering these data, write a report, and present it to Communications Technology Division Staff. Antenna design is very carefully studied for each mission scenario. Currently, Phased array antennas are being developed for the lunar mission. Phased array antennas use little power, and electronically steer a beam instead of DC motors. There are 615 patches in the phased array antenna. These patches have to be modified to have high yield. 50 patches were created for testing. My part is to assist in the characterization of these patch antennas, and determine whether or not certain modifications to quartz micro-strip patch radiators result in a significant yield to warrant proceeding with repairs to the prototype 19 GHz ferroelectric reflect-array antenna. This work requires learning how to calibrate an automatic network, and mounting and testing antennas in coaxial fixtures. The purpose of this

  4. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadashima, Hiromichi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Imai, Terukuni; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi

    1986-01-01

    Eleven patients with a definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis were examined in terms of correlations between the clinical features and the results of cranial computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: In 5 of the 11 patients, both CT and MRI demonstrated lesions consistent with a finding of multiple sclerosis. In 3 patients, only MRI demonstrated lesions. In the remaining 3 patients, neither CT nor MRI revealed any lesion in the brain. All 5 patients who showed abnormal findings on both CT and MRI had clinical signs either of cerebral or brainstem - cerebellar lesions. On the other hand, two of the 3 patients with normal CT and MRI findings had optic-nerve and spinal-cord signs. Therefore, our results suggested relatively good correlations between the clinical features, CT, and MRI. MRI revealed cerebral lesions in two of the four patients with clinical signs of only optic-nerve and spinal-cord lesions. MRI demonstrated sclerotic lesions in 3 of the 6 patients whose plaques were not detected by CT. In conclusion, MRI proved to be more helpful in the demonstration of lesions attributable to chronic multiple sclerosis. (author)

  5. Estimating security betas using prior information based on firm fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosemans, M.; Frehen, R.; Schotman, P.C.; Bauer, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for estimating time-varying betas of individual stocks that incorporates prior information based on fundamentals. We shrink the rolling window estimate of beta towards a firm-specific prior that is motivated by asset pricing theory. The prior captures structural

  6. Drugs and hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mansi; Harrison, Shannon; Sinclair, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a common complaint, both in men and women, and use of prescription medications is widespread. When there is a temporal association between the onset of hair loss and commencement of a medication, the medication is commonly thought to have caused the hair loss. However, hair loss and in particular telogen effluvium may occur in response to a number of triggers including fever, hemorrhage, severe illness, stress, and childbirth, and a thorough exclusion of these potential confounders is necessary before the hair loss can be blamed on the medication. Certain medications are known to cause hair loss by a variety of mechanisms including anagen arrest, telogen effluvium, or accentuation of androgenetic alopecia by androgens. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  8. Neocortical Neuronal Loss in Patients with Multiple System Atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvesen, Lisette; Winge, Kristian; Brudek, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    executive function than in patients with normal executive function. Our results indicate that the involvement of the neocortex in MSA is far more widespread and substantial than previously thought. In addition, our results suggest that the increasingly recognized cognitive impairment in MSA may be related...

  9. Surrogate losses: Understandings of pregnancy loss and assisted reproduction among surrogate mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Zsuzsa

    2010-06-01

    I explore surrogate mothers' narrative construction of pregnancy loss on surrogacy support websites. Communicating via the Internet, women construct the public online world of surrogacy. Drawing on anthropological and sociological literature I investigate the connections between conceptualizations of loss and understandings of technological practices and the consequences of these understandings for assisted reproduction. Surrogate mothers define loss broadly, ranging from failure to conceive to miscarriage and stillbirth; loss means the failure to give a baby to the intended parents. Assisted reproductive technologies contribute to loss by raising expectations of success, by attempting to maximize results through the transfer of multiple fertilized ova, and by early monitoring and testing. However, surrogates collectively understand technology as a positive force and advocate for reproductive technology. Surrogates' resolve to "give the gift of life" makes them vulnerable to failure and loss, yet also informs repeated efforts to bear children for others with technological assistance.

  10. Prolonged Instability Prior to a Regime Shift | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regime shifts are generally defined as the point of ‘abrupt’ change in the state of a system. However, a seemingly abrupt transition can be the product of a system reorganization that has been ongoing much longer than is evident in statistical analysis of a single component of the system. Using both univariate and multivariate statistical methods, we tested a long-term high-resolution paleoecological dataset with a known change in species assemblage for a regime shift. Analysis of this dataset with Fisher Information and multivariate time series modeling showed that there was a∼2000 year period of instability prior to the regime shift. This period of instability and the subsequent regime shift coincide with regional climate change, indicating that the system is undergoing extrinsic forcing. Paleoecological records offer a unique opportunity to test tools for the detection of thresholds and stable-states, and thus to examine the long-term stability of ecosystems over periods of multiple millennia. This manuscript explores various methods of assessing the transition between alternative states in an ecological system described by a long-term high-resolution paleoecological dataset.

  11. Optimization of Evacuation Warnings Prior to a Hurricane Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The key purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that optimization of evacuation warnings by time period and impacted zone is crucial for efficient evacuation of an area impacted by a hurricane. We assume that people behave in a manner consistent with the warnings they receive. By optimizing the issuance of hurricane evacuation warnings, one can control the number of evacuees at different time intervals to avoid congestion in the process of evacuation. The warning optimization model is applied to a case study of Hurricane Sandy using the study region of Brooklyn. We first develop a model for shelter assignment and then use this outcome to model hurricane evacuation warning optimization, which prescribes an evacuation plan that maximizes the number of evacuees. A significant technical contribution is the development of an iterative greedy heuristic procedure for the nonlinear formulation, which is shown to be optimal for the case of a single evacuation zone with a single evacuee type case, while it does not guarantee optimality for multiple zones under unusual circumstances. A significant applied contribution is the demonstration of an interface of the evacuation warning method with a public transportation scheme to facilitate evacuation of a car-less population. This heuristic we employ can be readily adapted to the case where response rate is a function of evacuation number in prior periods and other variable factors. This element is also explored in the context of our experiment.

  12. Short communication: Alteration of priors for random effects in Gaussian linear mixed model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenplas, Jérémie; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Gengler, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    such alterations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to propose a method to alter both the mean and (co)variance of the prior multivariate normal distributions of random effects of linear mixed models while using currently available software packages. The proposed method was tested on simulated examples with 3......, multiple-trait predictions of lactation yields, and Bayesian approaches integrating external information into genetic evaluations) need to alter both the mean and (co)variance of the prior distributions and, to our knowledge, most software packages available in the animal breeding community do not permit...... different software packages available in animal breeding. The examples showed the possibility of the proposed method to alter both the mean and (co)variance of the prior distributions with currently available software packages through the use of an extended data file and a user-supplied (co)variance matrix....

  13. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss; Prognostic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Dass

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL is a frightening and frustrating symptom for the patient as well as the physician. Prognosis is affected by multiple factors including duration of hearing loss, presence of associated vertigo and tinnitus, and co-morbidities such as hypertension and diabetes.   Materials and Methods: Forty subjects presenting to our department with features of sudden hearing loss were included in the study. Detailed otological history and examination, serial audiometric findings and course of disease were studied.   Results: Subjects presenting late (in older age, having associated vertigo, hypertension and diabetes had a significantly lower rate of recovery.   Conclusion:  Only 60–65% of patients experiencing SSNHL recover within a period of 1 month; this rate is further affected by presence of multiple prognostic indicators.

  14. Generalized Bayesian inference with sets of conjugate priors for dealing with prior-data conflict : course at Lund University

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, G.

    2015-01-01

    In the Bayesian approach to statistical inference, possibly subjective knowledge on model parameters can be expressed by so-called prior distributions. A prior distribution is updated, via Bayes’ Rule, to the so-called posterior distribution, which combines prior information and information from

  15. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on the Retrieval-Directed Function of Note Taking in Prior Knowledge Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzels, Sandra A. J.; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Broers, Nick J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prior knowledge activation facilitates learning. Note taking during prior knowledge activation (i.e., note taking directed at retrieving information from memory) might facilitate the activation process by enabling learners to build an external representation of their prior knowledge. However, taking notes might be less effective in…

  16. Prior Sensitivity Analysis in Default Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Sara; Mulder, Joris; Oberski, Daniel L

    2017-11-27

    Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) has recently gained popularity because it enables researchers to fit complex models and solve some of the issues often encountered in classical maximum likelihood estimation, such as nonconvergence and inadmissible solutions. An important component of any Bayesian analysis is the prior distribution of the unknown model parameters. Often, researchers rely on default priors, which are constructed in an automatic fashion without requiring substantive prior information. However, the prior can have a serious influence on the estimation of the model parameters, which affects the mean squared error, bias, coverage rates, and quantiles of the estimates. In this article, we investigate the performance of three different default priors: noninformative improper priors, vague proper priors, and empirical Bayes priors-with the latter being novel in the BSEM literature. Based on a simulation study, we find that these three default BSEM methods may perform very differently, especially with small samples. A careful prior sensitivity analysis is therefore needed when performing a default BSEM analysis. For this purpose, we provide a practical step-by-step guide for practitioners to conducting a prior sensitivity analysis in default BSEM. Our recommendations are illustrated using a well-known case study from the structural equation modeling literature, and all code for conducting the prior sensitivity analysis is available in the online supplemental materials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Responsive Neurostimulation System (RNS in setting of cranioplasty and history of multiple craniotomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Ledesma

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The case illustrates a possible limitation of SEEG placement, particularly in patients with a history of cranioplasty and multiple prior craniotomies. We also describe the first placement of an RNS generator and system in the setting of prior cranioplasty.

  18. Hereditary Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, LenhAnh P.; Grundfast, Kenneth M.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses inheritance patterns in hearing loss, epidemiology, clues to genetic causes, locating genes that cause hereditary disorders, genes related to hearing loss disorders in individuals with Usher syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, Branchio-oto-renal and Pendred syndromes, and the significance of finding…

  19. Loss muinasjuturaamatust / Agu Veetamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veetamm, Agu, 1953-

    2004-01-01

    Ballindaloch on üks väheseid Shoti losse, kus omanikud aastaringselt elavad. 450 aastat on loss kuulunud Macpherson-Grantide suguvõsale. Praegu on lossi omanikuks Clare Nancy Macpherson-Grant Russell, kelle kujundatud on kiviktaimla ja rosaarium. Lossi ajaloost, omanikest, ümberehitustest, ringkäigust lossis, pargist. 14 ill

  20. Multiple inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Theory of Inflation, namely, that at some point the entropy content of the universe was greatly increased, has much promise. It may solve the puzzles of homogeneity and the creation of structure. However, no particle physics model has yet been found that can successfully drive inflation. The difficulty in satisfying the constraint that the isotropy of the microwave background places on the effective potential of prospective models is immense. In this work we have codified the requirements of such models in a most general form. We have carefully calculated the amounts of inflation the various problems of the Standard Model need for their solution. We have derived a completely model independent upper bond on the inflationary Hubble parameter. We have developed a general notation with which to probe the possibilities of Multiple Inflation. We have shown that only in very unlikely circumstances will any evidence of an earlier inflation, survive the de Sitter period of its successor. In particular, it is demonstrated that it is most unlikely that two bouts of inflation will yield high amplitudes of density perturbations on small scales and low amplitudes on large. We conclude that, while multiple inflation will be of great theoretical interest, it is unlikely to have any observational impact

  1. Prior experience and start-up succes; The moderating role of helpers explored

    OpenAIRE

    Heuven, J.M.J.; Kirwan, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The prior functional business experience of an entrepreneur is shown to have a positive impact on entrepreneurial outcomes. Multiple arguments have been made that explain this positive relation. For example, entrepreneurs with more functional business experience are believed to be better skilled, to be more reputable and have wider networks in place when starting a business (Campbell, 1992; Kim, Aldrich and Keister, 2006; Reuber and Fischer, 1994; Westhead, Ucbasaran and Wright, 2005). In the...

  2. Concurrent credit portfolio losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicking, Joachim; Guhr, Thomas; Schäfer, Rudi

    2018-01-01

    We consider the problem of concurrent portfolio losses in two non-overlapping credit portfolios. In order to explore the full statistical dependence structure of such portfolio losses, we estimate their empirical pairwise copulas. Instead of a Gaussian dependence, we typically find a strong asymmetry in the copulas. Concurrent large portfolio losses are much more likely than small ones. Studying the dependences of these losses as a function of portfolio size, we moreover reveal that not only large portfolios of thousands of contracts, but also medium-sized and small ones with only a few dozens of contracts exhibit notable portfolio loss correlations. Anticipated idiosyncratic effects turn out to be negligible. These are troublesome insights not only for investors in structured fixed-income products, but particularly for the stability of the financial sector. JEL codes: C32, F34, G21, G32, H81.

  3. Combining prior day contours to improve automated prostate segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godley, Andrew; Sheplan Olsen, Lawrence J.; Stephans, Kevin; Zhao Anzi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the accuracy of automatically segmented prostate, rectum, and bladder contours required for online adaptive therapy. The contouring accuracy on the current image guidance [image guided radiation therapy (IGRT)] scan is improved by combining contours from earlier IGRT scans via the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm. Methods: Six IGRT prostate patients treated with daily kilo-voltage (kV) cone-beam CT (CBCT) had their original plan CT and nine CBCTs contoured by the same physician. Three types of automated contours were produced for analysis. (1) Plan: By deformably registering the plan CT to each CBCT and then using the resulting deformation field to morph the plan contours to match the CBCT anatomy. (2) Previous: The contour set drawn by the physician on the previous day CBCT is similarly deformed to match the current CBCT anatomy. (3) STAPLE: The contours drawn by the physician, on each prior CBCT and the plan CT, are deformed to match the CBCT anatomy to produce multiple contour sets. These sets are combined using the STAPLE algorithm into one optimal set. Results: Compared to plan and previous, STAPLE improved the average Dice's coefficient (DC) with the original physician drawn CBCT contours to a DC as follows: Bladder: 0.81 ± 0.13, 0.91 ± 0.06, and 0.92 ± 0.06; Prostate: 0.75 ± 0.08, 0.82 ± 0.05, and 0.84 ± 0.05; and Rectum: 0.79 ± 0.06, 0.81 ± 0.06, and 0.85 ± 0.04, respectively. The STAPLE results are within intraobserver consistency, determined by the physician blindly recontouring a subset of CBCTs. Comparing plans recalculated using the physician and STAPLE contours showed an average disagreement less than 1% for prostate D98 and mean dose, and 5% and 3% for bladder and rectum mean dose, respectively. One scan takes an average of 19 s to contour. Using five scans plus STAPLE takes less than 110 s on a 288 core graphics processor unit. Conclusions: Combining the plan and all prior days via

  4. Don’t get (sun) burned : exposing exterior wood to the weather prior to painting contributes to finish failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    2005-01-01

    Contrary to what might be called popular myth, research shows that allowing exterior wood surfaces to weather before applying paint does not help the cause of long-term coating performance. Instead, weathering prior to painting has been shown to contribute significantly to premature failure of the finish due to loss of adhesion.

  5. 7 CFR 1437.13 - Multiple benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple benefits. 1437.13 Section 1437.13... General Provisions § 1437.13 Multiple benefits. (a) If a producer is eligible to receive payments under this part and benefits under any other program administered by the Secretary for the same crop loss...

  6. Loss aversion in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémeau, Fabien; Brady, Melissa; Saccente, Erica; Moreno, Alexis; Epstein, Henry; Citrome, Leslie; Malaspina, Dolores; Javitt, Daniel

    2008-08-01

    Loss aversion in decision-making refers to a higher sensitivity to losses than to gains. Loss aversion is conceived as an affective interference in cognitive processes such as judgment and decision-making. Loss aversion in non-risky choices has not been studied in schizophrenia. Forty-two individuals with schizophrenia and 42 non-patient control subjects, matched by gender and age, were randomized to two different scenarios (a buying scenario and a selling scenario). Subjects were asked to evaluate the price of a decorated mug. Schizophrenia subjects were re-tested four weeks later with the other scenario. Contrary to non-patient controls, schizophrenia subjects did not show loss aversion. In the schizophrenia group, absence of loss aversion was correlated with age, duration of illness, number of months in State hospitals, and poorer performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, but not with current psychopathology and two domains of emotional experience. Absence of loss aversion in schizophrenia represents a deficit in the processing of emotional information during decision-making. It can be interpreted as a lack of integration between the emotional and the cognitive systems, or to a more diffuse and de-differentiated impact of emotional information on decision-making. Future studies should bring more clarity to this question.

  7. Unexpected flood loss correlations across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Naomi; Boyd, Jessica

    2017-04-01

    Floods don't observe country borders, as highlighted by major events across Europe that resulted in heavy economic and insured losses in 1999, 2002, 2009 and 2013. Flood loss correlations between some countries occur along multi-country river systems or between neighbouring nations affected by the same weather systems. However, correlations are not so obvious and whilst flooding in multiple locations across Europe may appear independent, for a re/insurer providing cover across the continent, these unexpected correlations can lead to high loss accumulations. A consistent, continental-scale method that allows quantification and comparison of losses, and identifies correlations in loss between European countries is therefore essential. A probabilistic model for European river flooding was developed that allows estimation of potential losses to pan-European property portfolios. By combining flood hazard and exposure information in a catastrophe modelling platform, we can consider correlations between river basins across Europe rather than being restricted to country boundaries. A key feature of the model is its statistical event set based on extreme value theory. Using historical river flow data, the event set captures spatial and temporal patterns of flooding across Europe and simulates thousands of events representing a full range of possible scenarios. Some known correlations were identified, such as between neighbouring Belgium and Luxembourg where 28% of events that affect either country produce a loss in both. However, our model identified some unexpected correlations including between Austria and Poland, and Poland and France, which are geographically distant. These correlations in flood loss may be missed by traditional methods and are key for re/insurers with risks in multiple countries. The model also identified that 46% of European river flood events affect more than one country. For more extreme events with a return period higher than 200 years, all events

  8. The Role of Prior Knowledge in International Franchise Partner Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Catherine; Altinay, Levent

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the role of prior knowledge in the international franchise partner recruitment process and to evaluate how cultural distance influences the role of prior knowledge in this process. Design/Methodology/Approach A single embedded case study of an international hotel firm was the focus of the enquiry. Interviews, observations and document analysis were used as the data collection techniques. Findings Findings reveal that prior knowledge of the franchisor enab...

  9. Spectrally Consistent Satellite Image Fusion with Improved Image Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Aanæs, Henrik; Jensen, Thomas B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Here an improvement to our previous framework for satellite image fusion is presented. A framework purely based on the sensor physics and on prior assumptions on the fused image. The contributions of this paper are two fold. Firstly, a method for ensuring 100% spectrally consistency is proposed......, even when more sophisticated image priors are applied. Secondly, a better image prior is introduced, via data-dependent image smoothing....

  10. Training shortest-path tractography: Automatic learning of spatial priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew George; Reislev, Nina Linde

    2016-01-01

    Tractography is the standard tool for automatic delineation of white matter tracts from diffusion weighted images. However, the output of tractography often requires post-processing to remove false positives and ensure a robust delineation of the studied tract, and this demands expert prior...... knowledge. Here we demonstrate how such prior knowledge, or indeed any prior spatial information, can be automatically incorporated into a shortest-path tractography approach to produce more robust results. We describe how such a prior can be automatically generated (learned) from a population, and we...

  11. Crowdsourcing prior information to improve study design and data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Chrabaszcz

    Full Text Available Though Bayesian methods are being used more frequently, many still struggle with the best method for setting priors with novel measures or task environments. We propose a method for setting priors by eliciting continuous probability distributions from naive participants. This allows us to include any relevant information participants have for a given effect. Even when prior means are near-zero, this method provides a principle way to estimate dispersion and produce shrinkage, reducing the occurrence of overestimated effect sizes. We demonstrate this method with a number of published studies and compare the effect of different prior estimation and aggregation methods.

  12. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiemke Katharina Schmidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After one week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments one week (r = .350 and 12 weeks (r = .316 later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments one week later (correlations between r = .194 to r = .394. Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics.

  13. Medicines and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The doses of thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) don’t harm bone and shouldn’t be cause for concern. Only high doses, used for thyroid cancer treatment, can cause bone loss. High doses or long- ...

  14. Hearing loss - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can allow many infants to develop normal language skills without delay. In infants born with hearing loss, ... therapy allow many children to develop normal language skills at the same age as their peers with ...

  15. Hearing Loss: Screening Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss Screening Newborns Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... deafness, which account for most cases. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard In 1993, children born in the ...

  16. Main sequence mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

    1987-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the δ Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub θ/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub θ/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs

  17. Abdominal multi-organ segmentation from CT images using conditional shape-location and unsupervised intensity priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Toshiyuki; Linguraru, Marius George; Hori, Masatoshi; Summers, Ronald M; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the automated segmentation of multiple organs in upper abdominal computed tomography (CT) data. The aim of our study is to develop methods to effectively construct the conditional priors and use their prediction power for more accurate segmentation as well as easy adaptation to various imaging conditions in CT images, as observed in clinical practice. We propose a general framework of multi-organ segmentation which effectively incorporates interrelations among multiple organs and easily adapts to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. The features of the framework are as follows: (1) A method for modeling conditional shape and location (shape-location) priors, which we call prediction-based priors, is developed to derive accurate priors specific to each subject, which enables the estimation of intensity priors without the need for supervised intensity information. (2) Organ correlation graph is introduced, which defines how the conditional priors are constructed and segmentation processes of multiple organs are executed. In our framework, predictor organs, whose segmentation is sufficiently accurate by using conventional single-organ segmentation methods, are pre-segmented, and the remaining organs are hierarchically segmented using conditional shape-location priors. The proposed framework was evaluated through the segmentation of eight abdominal organs (liver, spleen, left and right kidneys, pancreas, gallbladder, aorta, and inferior vena cava) from 134 CT data from 86 patients obtained under six imaging conditions at two hospitals. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed prediction-based priors and the applicability to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. Average Dice coefficients for the liver, spleen, and kidneys were more than 92%, and were around 73% and 67% for the pancreas and gallbladder, respectively. Copyright © 2015

  18. Do Afterlife Beliefs Affect Psychological Adjustment to Late-Life Spousal Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We explore whether beliefs about the existence and nature of an afterlife affect 5 psychological symptoms (anxiety, anger, depression, intrusive thoughts, and yearning) among recently bereaved older spouses. Method. We conduct multivariate regression analyses using data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC), a prospective study of spousal loss. The CLOC obtained data from bereaved persons prior to loss and both 6 and 18 months postloss. All analyses are adjusted for health, sociodemographic characteristics, and preloss marital quality. Results. Bleak or uncertain views about the afterlife are associated with multiple aspects of distress postloss. Uncertainty about the existence of an afterlife is associated with elevated intrusive thoughts, a symptom similar to posttraumatic distress. Widowed persons who do not expect to be reunited with loved ones in the afterlife report significantly more depressive symptoms, anger, and intrusive thoughts at both 6 and 18 months postloss. Discussion. Beliefs in an afterlife may be maladaptive for coping with late-life spousal loss, particularly if one is uncertain about its existence or holds a pessimistic view of what the afterlife entails. Our findings are broadly consistent with recent work suggesting that “continuing bonds” with the decedent may not be adaptive for older bereaved spouses. PMID:23811692

  19. Variation in body mass dynamics among sites in Black Brant Branta bernicla nigricans supports adaptivity of mass loss during moult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondell, Thomas F.; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Schamber, Jason L.; Nicolai, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Birds employ varying strategies to accommodate the energetic demands of moult, one important example being changes in body mass. To understand better their physiological and ecological significance, we tested three hypotheses concerning body mass dynamics during moult. We studied Black Brant in 2006 and 2007 moulting at three sites in Alaska which varied in food availability, breeding status and whether geese undertook a moult migration. First we predicted that if mass loss during moult were simply the result of inadequate food resources then mass loss would be highest where food was least available. Secondly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to reduce activity during moult, then birds would gain mass prior to moult where feeding conditions allowed and mass loss would be positively related to mass at moult initiation. Thirdly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to regain flight sooner, then across sites and groups, mass at the end of the flightless period would converge on a theoretical optimum, i.e. the mass that permits the earliest possible return to flight. Mass loss was greatest where food was most available and thus our results did not support the prediction that mass loss resulted from inadequate food availability. Mass at moult initiation was positively related to both food availability and mass loss. In addition, among sites and years, variation in mass was high at moult initiation but greatly reduced at the end of the flightless period, appearing to converge. Thus, our results supported multiple predictions that mass loss during moult was adaptive and that the optimal moulting strategy was to gain mass prior to the flightless period, then through behavioural modifications use these body reserves to reduce activity and in so doing also reduce wing loading. Geese that undertook a moult migration initiated moult at the highest mass, indicating that they were more than able to

  20. Chromosomal differences between acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in patients with prior solid tumors and prior hematologic malignancies. A study of 14 cases with prior breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuris, Z.; Dumont, J.; Dutrillaux, B.; Aurias, A.

    1989-01-01

    A cytogenetic study of 14 patients with secondary acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (S-ANLL) with prior treatment for breast cancer is reported. The chromosomes recurrently involved in numerical or structural anomalies are chromosomes 7, 5, 17, and 11, in decreasing order of frequency. The distribution of the anomalies detected in this sample of patients is similar to that observed in published cases with prior breast or other solid tumors, though anomalies of chromosome 11 were not pointed out, but it significantly differs from that of the S-ANLL with prior hematologic malignancies. This difference is principally due to a higher involvement of chromosome 7 in patients with prior hematologic malignancies and of chromosomes 11 and 17 in patients with prior solid tumors. A genetic determinism involving abnormal recessive alleles located on chromosomes 5, 7, 11, and 17 uncovered by deletions of the normal homologs may be a cause of S-ANLL. The difference between patients with prior hematologic malignancies or solid tumors may be explained by different constitutional mutations of recessive genes in the two groups of patients

  1. Losses in variable fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronca, G.; Fevrier, A.; Genevey, P.; Perot, J.

    1974-01-01

    After a recall of the theory of losses in type 11 superconductors and review of recent work on this topic, the characteristics of what should be an ideal conductor for a pulsed magnet are given. The requirements of pulsed magnets for high energy physics are reviewed and total losses for a 1000 GeV synchrotron estimated. Finally, recent results of prototypes are reported along with the projects of superconducting synchrotron accelerators through the world. (author)

  2. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  3. Hair Loss Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, Gabriella; McMichael, Amy

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective. METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth. RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments. DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694..

  4. Toward quantitative core-loss EFTEM tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin-Phillipp, N.Y.; Koch, C.T.; Aken, P.A. van

    2011-01-01

    Core-loss EFTEM tomography provides three-dimensional structural and chemical information. Multiple inelastic scattering occurring in thick specimens as well as orientation-dependent diffraction contrast due to multiple elastic scattering, however, often limit its applications. After demonstrating the capability of core-loss EFTEM tomography to reconstruct just a few monolayers thin carbon layer covering a Fe catalyst particle we discuss its application to thicker samples. We propose an approximate multiple-scattering correction method based on the use of zero-loss images and apply it successfully to copper whiskers, providing a significant improvement of the reconstructed 3D elemental distribution. We conclude this paper by a general discussion on experimental parameters affecting the accuracy of EFTEM 3D elemental mapping. -- Research highlights: → EFTEM 3D elemental mapping has been applied to a catalyst particle from which a CNT has grown and a copper whisker. → Correction of multiple inelastic scattering shows significant improvements in the reconstruction of 3D elemental maps. → Experimental parameters affecting the accuracy of EFTEM 3D elemental mapping are discussed.

  5. Measuring, calculating and estimating PEP's parasitic mode loss parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    This note discusses various ways the parasitic mode losses from a bunched beam to a vacuum chamber can be measured, calculated or estimated. A listing of the parameter, k, for the various PEP ring components is included. A number of formulas for calculating multiple and single pass losses are discussed and evaluated for several cases. 25 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. The Effect of Adherence to Dietary Tracking on Weight Loss: Using HLM to Model Weight Loss over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, John Spencer; Misra, Ranjita; Stewart, Jonathan; Lucke-Wold, Brandon; Shawley-Brzoska, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    The role of dietary tracking on weight loss remains unexplored despite being part of multiple diabetes and weight management programs. Hence, participants of the Diabetes Prevention and Management (DPM) program (12 months, 22 sessions) tracked their food intake for the duration of the study. A scatterplot of days tracked versus total weight loss revealed a nonlinear relationship. Hence, the number of possible tracking days was divided to create the 3 groups of participants: rare trackers (66% total days tracked). After controlling for initial body mass index, hemoglobin A 1c , and gender, only consistent trackers had significant weight loss (-9.99 pounds), following a linear relationship with consistent loss throughout the year. In addition, the weight loss trend for the rare and inconsistent trackers followed a nonlinear path, with the holidays slowing weight loss and the onset of summer increasing weight loss. These results show the importance of frequent dietary tracking for consistent long-term weight loss success.

  7. Effects of prior aversive experience upon retrograde amnesia induced by hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R A; Riccio, D C; Gehres, L

    1975-08-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which retrograde amnesia (RA) is attenuated by prior learning experiences. In Experiment 1, rats initially received either passive avoidance training in a step-through apparatus, exposure to the apparatus, or noncontingent footshock. When training on a second but different passive avoidance task was followed by hypothermia treatment, RA was obtained only in the latter two groups. In Experiment 2, one-way active avoidance training, yoked noncontingent shocks, or apparatus exposure constituted the initial experience. Subsequent step-down passive avoidance training and amnestic treatment resulted in memory loss for the prior apparatus exposure group, but not for either of the preshocked conditions. These experiments demonstrate that certain types of prior aversive experience can substantially modify the magnitude of RA, and, in conjunction with other familiarization studies, emphasize a paradox for interpretations of RA based solely upon CNS disruption. The possibility that hypothermia treatment serves as an important contextual or encoding cue necessary for memory retrieval was considered. It was suggested that prior experience may block RA by enabling rats to differentiate training and treatment conditions.

  8. Construction and test of the PRIOR proton microscope; Aufbau und Test des Protonenmikroskops PRIOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Philipp-Michael

    2015-01-15

    The study of High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) in the laboratory makes great demands on the diagnostics because these states can usually only be created for a short time and usual diagnostic techniques with visible light or X-rays come to their limit because of the high density. The high energy proton radiography technique that was developed in the 1990s at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is a very promising possibility to overcome those limits so that one can measure the density of HEDM with high spatial and time resolution. For this purpose the proton microscope PRIOR (Proton Radiography for FAIR) was set up at GSI, which not only reproduces the image, but also magnifies it by a factor of 4.2 and thereby penetrates matter with a density up to 20 g/cm{sup 2}. Straightaway a spatial resolution of less than 30 μm and a time resolution on the nanosecond scale was achieved. This work describes details to the principle, design and construction of the proton microscope as well as first measurements and simulations of essential components like magnetic lenses, a collimator and a scintillator screen. For the latter one it was possible to show that plastic scintillators can be used as converter as an alternative to the slower but more radiation resistant crystals, so that it is possible to reach a time resolution of 10 ns. Moreover the characteristics were investigated for the system at the commissioning in April 2014. Also the changes in the magnetic field due to radiation damage were studied. Besides that an overview about future applications is given. First experiments with Warm Dense Matter created by using a Pulsed Power Setup have already been performed. Furthermore the promising concept of combining proton radiography with particle therapy has been investigated in context of the PaNTERA project. An outlook on the possibilities with future experiments at the FAIR accelerator facility is given as well. Because of higher beam intensity an energy one can expect even

  9. Honeybee immunity and colony losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline of honeybee colonies and their eventual collapse is a widespread phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere of the globe, which severely limits the beekeeping industry. This dramatic event is associated with an enhanced impact of parasites and pathogens on honeybees, which is indicative of reduced immunocompetence. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the vectored viral pathogens appear to play a key-role in the induction of this complex syndrome. In particular, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV is widespread and is now considered, along with Varroa, one of the major causes of bee colony losses. Several lines of evidence indicate that this mite/DWV association severely affects the immune system of honeybees and makes them more sensitive to the action of other stress factors. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these complex interactions are currently being investigated and the emerging information has allowed the development of a new functional model, describing how different stress factors may synergistically concur in the induction of bee immune alteration and health decline. This provides a new logical framework in which to interpret the proposed multifactorial origin of bee colony losses and sets the stage for a more comprehensive and integrated analysis of the effect that multiple stress agents may have on honeybees.

  10. MANAGEMENT OF CREDIT LOSSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya P. Anoshkina

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the problem of credit loss management topical for modern Russian science and banking practice. The bank’s lending activity is an integral and the most profitable sphere of banking activity. Banks need to take credit risks inherent in their core business and minimize their impact through the establishment of advanced risk management systems. The study, reflected in the present paper, has been conducted in order to determine approaches to the organization of credit loss management in banking. Analysis of the system of management of credit risks and credit losses has shown that they have different scope, object and purpose. In this connection, there is an objective necessity to create a special subsystem for the management of credit losses in banks. On the basis of common bank approaches to credit risk management, the paper develops models of credit loss management: a multi-level management model in the area of ‘operational-tactical-strategic management’ and a functional management model in the area of ‘technology-execution-control’. These models are important for the modern theory and practice of banking, as they allow the bank to manage credit losses on the entire time horizon of the management process, thus opening a wide range of opportunities for the creation and implementation of large-scale programs, as well as specific techniques. This study allows drawing a conclusion about the need to consider control credit losses as a strictly regulated multi-level process, in which each division is assigned with specific objectives, tasks, functions, formally enshrined in the relevant lists, job descriptions and other legal documents.

  11. Loss of cannabinoid receptor CB1 induces preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Wang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth accounting approximate 10% of pregnancies in women is a tremendous social, clinical and economic burden. However, its underlying causes remain largely unknown. Emerging evidence suggests that endocannabinoid signaling via cannabinoid receptor CB1 play critical roles in multiple early pregnancy events in both animals and humans. Since our previous studies demonstrated that loss of CB1 defers the normal implantation window in mice, we surmised that CB1 deficiency would influence parturition events.Exploiting mouse models with targeted deletion of Cnr1, Cnr2 and Ptgs1 encoding CB1, CB2 and cyclooxygenase-1, respectively, we examined consequences of CB1 or CB2 silencing on the onset of parturition. We observed that genetic or pharmacological inactivation of CB1, but not CB2, induced preterm labor in mice. Radioimmunoassay analysis of circulating levels of ovarian steroid hormones revealed that premature birth resulting from CB1 inactivation is correlated with altered progesterone/estrogen ratios prior to parturition. More strikingly, the phenotypic defects of prolonged pregnancy length and parturition failure in mice missing Ptgs1 were corrected by introducing CB1 deficiency into Ptgs1 null mice. In addition, loss of CB1 resulted in aberrant secretions of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and corticosterone during late gestation. The pathophysiological significance of this altered corticotrophin-releasing hormone-driven endocrine activity in the absence of CB1 was evident from our subsequent findings that a selective corticotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist was able to restore the normal parturition timing in Cnr1 deficient mice. In contrast, wild-type females receiving excessive levels of corticosterone induced preterm birth.CB1 deficiency altering normal progesterone and estrogen levels induces preterm birth in mice. This defect is independent of prostaglandins produced by cyclooxygenase-1. Moreover, CB1 inactivation resulted in

  12. Adaptive nonparametric Bayesian inference using location-scale mixture priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Zanten, van J.H.

    2010-01-01

    We study location-scale mixture priors for nonparametric statistical problems, including multivariate regression, density estimation and classification. We show that a rate-adaptive procedure can be obtained if the prior is properly constructed. In particular, we show that adaptation is achieved if

  13. Nudging toward Inquiry: Awakening and Building upon Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontichiaro, Kristin, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    "Prior knowledge" (sometimes called schema or background knowledge) is information one already knows that helps him/her make sense of new information. New learning builds on existing prior knowledge. In traditional reporting-style research projects, students bypass this crucial step and plow right into answer-finding. It's no wonder that many…

  14. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  15. Personality, depressive symptoms and prior trauma exposure of new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Police officers are predisposed to trauma exposure. The development of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be influenced by personality style, prior exposure to traumatic events and prior depression. Objectives. To describe the personality profiles of new Metropolitan Police Service ...

  16. 34 CFR 303.403 - Prior notice; native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prior notice; native language. 303.403 Section 303.403... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards General § 303.403 Prior notice; native language. (a... file a complaint and the timelines under those procedures. (c) Native language. (1) The notice must be...

  17. On the use of a pruning prior for neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril

    1996-01-01

    We address the problem of using a regularization prior that prunes unnecessary weights in a neural network architecture. This prior provides a convenient alternative to traditional weight-decay. Two examples are studied to support this method and illustrate its use. First we use the sunspots...

  18. Bayesian Inference for Structured Spike and Slab Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Riis; Winther, Ole; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    Sparse signal recovery addresses the problem of solving underdetermined linear inverse problems subject to a sparsity constraint. We propose a novel prior formulation, the structured spike and slab prior, which allows to incorporate a priori knowledge of the sparsity pattern by imposing a spatial...

  19. 5 CFR 6201.103 - Prior approval for outside employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prior approval for outside employment. 6201.103 Section 6201.103 Administrative Personnel EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES § 6201.103 Prior...

  20. Prior authorisation schemes: trade barriers in need of scientific justification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Case C-333/08 Commission v. French Republic ‘processing aids’ [2010] ECR-0000 French prior authorisation scheme for processing aids in food production infringes upon Article 34 TFEU** 1. A prior authorisation scheme not complying with the principle of proportionality, infringes upon Article 34 TFEU.

  1. Functional vision loss: a diagnosis of exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Rex B; Ilsen, Pauline F

    2007-10-01

    Most cases of visual acuity or visual field loss can be attributed to ocular pathology or ocular manifestations of systemic pathology. They can also occasionally be attributed to nonpathologic processes or malingering. Functional vision loss is any decrease in vision the origin of which cannot be attributed to a pathologic or structural abnormality. Two cases of functional vision loss are described. In the first, a 58-year-old man presented for a baseline eye examination for enrollment in a vision rehabilitation program. He reported bilateral blindness since a motor vehicle accident with head trauma 4 years prior. Entering visual acuity was "no light perception" in each eye. Ocular health examination was normal and the patient made frequent eye contact with the examiners. He was referred for neuroimaging and electrophysiologic testing. The second case was a 49-year-old man who presented with a long history of intermittent monocular diplopia. His medical history was significant for psycho-medical evaluations and a diagnosis of factitious disorder. Entering uncorrected visual acuities were 20/20 in each eye, but visual field testing found constriction. No abnormalities were found that could account for the monocular diplopia or visual field deficit. A diagnosis of functional vision loss secondary to factitious disorder was made. Functional vision loss is a diagnosis of exclusion. In the event of reduced vision in the context of a normal ocular health examination, all other pathology must be ruled out before making the diagnosis of functional vision loss. Evaluation must include auxiliary ophthalmologic testing, neuroimaging of the visual pathway, review of the medical history and lifestyle, and psychiatric evaluation. Comanagement with a psychiatrist is essential for patients with functional vision loss.

  2. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy

  3. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy

  4. Variational segmentation problems using prior knowledge in imaging and vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fundana, Ketut

    This dissertation addresses variational formulation of segmentation problems using prior knowledge. Variational models are among the most successful approaches for solving many Computer Vision and Image Processing problems. The models aim at finding the solution to a given energy functional defined......, prior knowledge is needed to obtain the desired solution. The introduction of shape priors in particular, has proven to be an effective way to segment objects of interests. Firstly, we propose a prior-based variational segmentation model to segment objects of interest in image sequences, that can deal....... Many objects have high variability in shape and orientation. This often leads to unsatisfactory results, when using a segmentation model with single shape template. One way to solve this is by using more sophisticated shape models. We propose to incorporate shape priors from a shape sub...

  5. Logarithmic Laplacian Prior Based Bayesian Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuanghui; Liu, Yongxiang; Li, Xiang; Bi, Guoan

    2016-04-28

    This paper presents a novel Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging (ISAR) algorithm based on a new sparse prior, known as the logarithmic Laplacian prior. The newly proposed logarithmic Laplacian prior has a narrower main lobe with higher tail values than the Laplacian prior, which helps to achieve performance improvement on sparse representation. The logarithmic Laplacian prior is used for ISAR imaging within the Bayesian framework to achieve better focused radar image. In the proposed method of ISAR imaging, the phase errors are jointly estimated based on the minimum entropy criterion to accomplish autofocusing. The maximum a posterior (MAP) estimation and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) are utilized to estimate the model parameters to avoid manually tuning process. Additionally, the fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Hadamard product are used to minimize the required computational efficiency. Experimental results based on both simulated and measured data validate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional sparse ISAR imaging algorithms in terms of resolution improvement and noise suppression.

  6. Total Variability Modeling using Source-specific Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Lee, Kong Aik; Li, Haizhou

    2016-01-01

    sequence of an utterance. In both cases the prior for the latent variable is assumed to be non-informative, since for homogeneous datasets there is no gain in generality in using an informative prior. This work shows in the heterogeneous case, that using informative priors for com- puting the posterior......, can lead to favorable results. We focus on modeling the priors using minimum divergence criterion or fac- tor analysis techniques. Tests on the NIST 2008 and 2010 Speaker Recognition Evaluation (SRE) dataset show that our proposed method beats four baselines: For i-vector extraction using an already...... trained matrix, for the short2-short3 task in SRE’08, five out of eight female and four out of eight male common conditions, were improved. For the core-extended task in SRE’10, four out of nine female and six out of nine male common conditions were improved. When incorporating prior information...

  7. Example-driven manifold priors for image deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jie; Turaga, Pavan; Patel, Vishal M; Chellappa, Rama

    2011-11-01

    Image restoration methods that exploit prior information about images to be estimated have been extensively studied, typically using the Bayesian framework. In this paper, we consider the role of prior knowledge of the object class in the form of a patch manifold to address the deconvolution problem. Specifically, we incorporate unlabeled image data of the object class, say natural images, in the form of a patch-manifold prior for the object class. The manifold prior is implicitly estimated from the given unlabeled data. We show how the patch-manifold prior effectively exploits the available sample class data for regularizing the deblurring problem. Furthermore, we derive a generalized cross-validation (GCV) function to automatically determine the regularization parameter at each iteration without explicitly knowing the noise variance. Extensive experiments show that this method performs better than many competitive image deconvolution methods.

  8. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Diekelmann

    Full Text Available People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",..., lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black". Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

  9. Congenital sensorineural hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafee, M.F.; Selis, J.E.; Yannias, D.A.; Valvassori, G.E.; Pruzansky, S.; Applebaum, E.L.; Capek, V.

    1984-01-01

    The ears of 47 selected patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined with complex-motion tomography. The patients were divided into 3 general categories: those with a recognized syndrome, those with sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to any known syndrome, and those with microtia. A great variety of inner ear anomalies was detected, but rarely were these characteristic of a particular clinical entity. The most common finding was the Mondini malformation or one of its variants. Isolated dysplasia of the internal auditory canal or the vestibular aqueduct may be responsible for sensorineural hearing loss in some patients. Patients with microtia may also have severe inner ear abnormalities despite the fact that the outer and inner ears develop embryologically from completely separate systems

  10. Congenital sensorineural hearing loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mafee, M.F.; Selis, J.E.; Yannias, D.A.; Valvassori, G.E.; Pruzansky, S.; Applebaum, E.L.; Capek, V.

    1984-02-01

    The ears of 47 selected patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined with complex-motion tomography. The patients were divided into 3 general categories: those with a recognized syndrome, those with sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to any known syndrome, and those with microtia. A great variety of inner ear anomalies was detected, but rarely were these characteristic of a particular clinical entity. The most common finding was the Mondini malformation or one of its variants. Isolated dysplasia of the internal auditory canal or the vestibular aqueduct may be responsible for sensorineural hearing loss in some patients. Patients with microtia may also have severe inner ear abnormalities despite the fact that the outer and inner ears develop embryologically from completely separate systems.

  11. SLAMM: Visual monocular SLAM with continuous mapping using multiple maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayyan Afeef Daoud

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of Simultaneous Localization and Multi-Mapping (SLAMM. It is a system that ensures continuous mapping and information preservation despite failures in tracking due to corrupted frames or sensor's malfunction; making it suitable for real-world applications. It works with single or multiple robots. In a single robot scenario the algorithm generates a new map at the time of tracking failure, and later it merges maps at the event of loop closure. Similarly, maps generated from multiple robots are merged without prior knowledge of their relative poses; which makes this algorithm flexible. The system works in real time at frame-rate speed. The proposed approach was tested on the KITTI and TUM RGB-D public datasets and it showed superior results compared to the state-of-the-arts in calibrated visual monocular keyframe-based SLAM. The mean tracking time is around 22 milliseconds. The initialization is twice as fast as it is in ORB-SLAM, and the retrieved map can reach up to 90 percent more in terms of information preservation depending on tracking loss and loop closure events. For the benefit of the community, the source code along with a framework to be run with Bebop drone are made available at https://github.com/hdaoud/ORBSLAMM.

  12. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  13. Fusion-product transport in axisymmetric tokamaks: losses and thermalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    High-energy fusion-product losses from an axisymmetric tokamak plasma are studied. Prompt-escape loss fluxes (i.e. prior to slowing down) are calculated including the non-separable dependence of flux as a function of poloidal angle and local angle-of-incidence at the first wall. Fusion-product (fp) thermalization and heating are calculated assuming classical slowing down. The present analytical model describes fast ion orbits and their distribution function in realistic, high-β, non-circular tokamak equilibria. First-orbit losses, trapping effects, and slowing-down drifts are also treated

  14. ECT and memory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, L R

    1977-09-01

    The author reviews several studies that clarify the nature of the memory loss associated with ECT. Bilateral ECT produced greater anterograde memory loss than right unilateral ECT and more extensive retrograde amnesia than unilateral ECT. Reactivating memories just before ECT did not produce amnesia. Capacity for new learning recovered substantially by several months after ECT, but memory complaints were common in individuals who had received bilateral ECT. Other things being equal, right unilateral ECT seems preferable to bilateral ECT because the risks to memory associated with unilateral ECT are smaller.

  15. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Piroux

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA are associated with thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and fetal loss but they occur in a variety of diseases. Despite many efforts, a correlation between the specificity of particular subgroups of APA and particular clinical situations remains to be established. The antigens at the origin of APA remain to be identified. We discuss here the possible links between cell apoptosis or necrosis, leading to plasma membrane alterations, and the occurrence of APA in response to sustained stimulation. The pathogenic potential of APA is also considered with respect to recurrent pregnancy loss.

  16. The influence of prior knowledge on the retrieval-directed function of note taking in prior knowledge activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, Sandra; Kester, Liesbeth; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Broers, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Wetzels, S. A. J., Kester, L., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Broers, N. J. (2011). The influence of prior knowledge on the retrieval-directed function of note taking in prior knowledge activation. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(2), 274-291. doi: 10.1348/000709910X517425

  17. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  18. Learning priors for Bayesian computations in the nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Berniker

    Full Text Available Our nervous system continuously combines new information from our senses with information it has acquired throughout life. Numerous studies have found that human subjects manage this by integrating their observations with their previous experience (priors in a way that is close to the statistical optimum. However, little is known about the way the nervous system acquires or learns priors. Here we present results from experiments where the underlying distribution of target locations in an estimation task was switched, manipulating the prior subjects should use. Our experimental design allowed us to measure a subject's evolving prior while they learned. We confirm that through extensive practice subjects learn the correct prior for the task. We found that subjects can rapidly learn the mean of a new prior while the variance is learned more slowly and with a variable learning rate. In addition, we found that a Bayesian inference model could predict the time course of the observed learning while offering an intuitive explanation for the findings. The evidence suggests the nervous system continuously updates its priors to enable efficient behavior.

  19. Implicit Priors in Galaxy Cluster Mass and Scaling Relation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, A.; Allen, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Deriving the total masses of galaxy clusters from observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) generally requires some prior information, in addition to the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. Often, this information takes the form of particular parametrized functions used to describe the cluster gas density and temperature profiles. In this paper, we investigate the implicit priors on hydrostatic masses that result from this fully parametric approach, and the implications of such priors for scaling relations formed from those masses. We show that the application of such fully parametric models of the ICM naturally imposes a prior on the slopes of the derived scaling relations, favoring the self-similar model, and argue that this prior may be influential in practice. In contrast, this bias does not exist for techniques which adopt an explicit prior on the form of the mass profile but describe the ICM non-parametrically. Constraints on the slope of the cluster mass-temperature relation in the literature show a separation based the approach employed, with the results from fully parametric ICM modeling clustering nearer the self-similar value. Given that a primary goal of scaling relation analyses is to test the self-similar model, the application of methods subject to strong, implicit priors should be avoided. Alternative methods and best practices are discussed.

  20. Ionization loss in BGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, J.A.; Denes, P.; Piroue, P.A.; Stickland, D.P.; Sumner, R.L.; Taylor, C.; Barone, L.; Borgia, B.; Diemoz, M.; Dionisi, C.; Falciano, S.; Ferroni, F.; Gratta, G.; Longo, E.; Luminari, L.; Morganti, S.; Valente, E.; Blaising, J.J.; Boutigny, D.; Coignet, G.; Karyotakis, Y.; Sauvage, G.; Schneegans, M.; Vivargent, M.; Extermann, P.; Morand, G.; Ossmann, J.; Ruckstuhl, W.; Schaad, T.P.; Lecoq, P.; Walk, W.; Li, P.J.; Micke, M.; Micke, U.; Schmitz, D.

    1988-01-01

    We report on a precise measurement of the energy loss through ionization by pions in bismuth germanate performed at several values of the incident particles momentum with a prototype of the L3 electromagnetic calorimeter. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions showing the relativistic rise modified by density effect. (orig.)

  1. Heat loss from Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth; Næraa, Rikke

    1997-01-01

    Determination of heat loss coefficients for buildings in Denmark. The coefficient are determined for 15 building groups and 3 year intervals. They are based on the BBR-registre and assumptions of U-values(W/K*m2)and computed in a simple spreed sheet model.The results are used in the REVEILLE...

  2. Deafness and Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This brief overview provides information on the definition, incidence, and characteristics of children with hearing impairments and deafness. The federal definitions of hearing impairment and deafness are provided. The different types of hearing loss are noted, including: (1) conductive (caused by diseases or obstructions in the outer or middle…

  3. Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bulletins-Gynecology/Early-Pregnancy-Loss What are common symptoms? Causes and Risks How is it diagnosed? Is there a way to prevent? Related A-Z Topics High-Risk Pregnancy Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Stillbirth NICHD News Spotlights Release: Anti-HIV ...

  4. Parametric Bayesian priors and better choice of negative examples improve protein function prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngs, Noah; Penfold-Brown, Duncan; Drew, Kevin; Shasha, Dennis; Bonneau, Richard

    2013-05-01

    Computational biologists have demonstrated the utility of using machine learning methods to predict protein function from an integration of multiple genome-wide data types. Yet, even the best performing function prediction algorithms rely on heuristics for important components of the algorithm, such as choosing negative examples (proteins without a given function) or determining key parameters. The improper choice of negative examples, in particular, can hamper the accuracy of protein function prediction. We present a novel approach for choosing negative examples, using a parameterizable Bayesian prior computed from all observed annotation data, which also generates priors used during function prediction. We incorporate this new method into the GeneMANIA function prediction algorithm and demonstrate improved accuracy of our algorithm over current top-performing function prediction methods on the yeast and mouse proteomes across all metrics tested. Code and Data are available at: http://bonneaulab.bio.nyu.edu/funcprop.html

  5. A Frequency Matching Method: Solving Inverse Problems by Use of Geologically Realistic Prior Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Katrine; Frydendall, Jan; Cordua, Knud Skou

    2012-01-01

    The frequency matching method defines a closed form expression for a complex prior that quantifies the higher order statistics of a proposed solution model to an inverse problem. While existing solution methods to inverse problems are capable of sampling the solution space while taking into account...... arbitrarily complex a priori information defined by sample algorithms, it is not possible to directly compute the maximum a posteriori model, as the prior probability of a solution model cannot be expressed. We demonstrate how the frequency matching method enables us to compute the maximum a posteriori...... solution model to an inverse problem by using a priori information based on multiple point statistics learned from training images. We demonstrate the applicability of the suggested method on a synthetic tomographic crosshole inverse problem....

  6. Expert Coaching in Weight Loss: Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Stefanie Lynn; Ahmed, Rezwan; Kushner, Robert F; Hill, James O; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy

    2018-03-13

    Providing coaches as part of a weight management program is a common practice to increase participant engagement and weight loss success. Understanding coach and participant interactions and how these interactions impact weight loss success needs to be further explored for coaching best practices. The purpose of this study was to analyze the coach and participant interaction in a 6-month weight loss intervention administered by Retrofit, a personalized weight management and Web-based disease prevention solution. The study specifically examined the association between different methods of coach-participant interaction and weight loss and tried to understand the level of coaching impact on weight loss outcome. A retrospective analysis was performed using 1432 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2016 in the Retrofit weight loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a baseline body mass index of ≥25 kg/m², who also provided at least one weight measurement beyond baseline. First, a detailed analysis of different coach-participant interaction was performed using both intent-to-treat and completer populations. Next, a multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures associated with coach-participant interactions involving expert coaching sessions, live weekly expert-led Web-based classes, and electronic messaging and feedback. Finally, 3 significant predictors (Pcoaching session attendance (Pcoaching sessions, attending 60% of live weekly Web-based classes, and receiving a minimum of 1 food log feedback day per week were associated with clinically significant weight loss. Participant's one-on-one expert coaching session attendance, live weekly expert-led interactive Web-based class attendance, and the number of food log feedback days per week from expert coach were significant predictors of weight loss in a 6-month intervention. ©Stefanie Lynn Painter, Rezwan Ahmed, Robert F Kushner, James O Hill, Richard Lindquist, Scott

  7. Expert Coaching in Weight Loss: Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Robert F; Hill, James O; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Background Providing coaches as part of a weight management program is a common practice to increase participant engagement and weight loss success. Understanding coach and participant interactions and how these interactions impact weight loss success needs to be further explored for coaching best practices. Objective The purpose of this study was to analyze the coach and participant interaction in a 6-month weight loss intervention administered by Retrofit, a personalized weight management and Web-based disease prevention solution. The study specifically examined the association between different methods of coach-participant interaction and weight loss and tried to understand the level of coaching impact on weight loss outcome. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed using 1432 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2016 in the Retrofit weight loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a baseline body mass index of ≥25 kg/m², who also provided at least one weight measurement beyond baseline. First, a detailed analysis of different coach-participant interaction was performed using both intent-to-treat and completer populations. Next, a multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures associated with coach-participant interactions involving expert coaching sessions, live weekly expert-led Web-based classes, and electronic messaging and feedback. Finally, 3 significant predictors (Pcoaching session attendance (Pcoaching sessions, attending 60% of live weekly Web-based classes, and receiving a minimum of 1 food log feedback day per week were associated with clinically significant weight loss. Conclusions Participant’s one-on-one expert coaching session attendance, live weekly expert-led interactive Web-based class attendance, and the number of food log feedback days per week from expert coach were significant predictors of weight loss in a 6-month intervention. PMID:29535082

  8. Linking actions and objects: Context-specific learning of novel weight priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Kevin M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2017-06-01

    Distinct explicit and implicit memory processes support weight predictions used when lifting objects and making perceptual judgments about weight, respectively. The first time that an object is encountered weight is predicted on the basis of learned associations, or priors, linking size and material to weight. A fundamental question is whether the brain maintains a single, global representation of priors, or multiple representations that can be updated in a context specific way. A second key question is whether the updating of priors, or the ability to scale lifting forces when repeatedly lifting unusually weighted objects requires focused attention. To investigate these questions we compared the adaptability of weight predictions used when lifting objects and judging their weights in different groups of participants who experienced size-weight inverted objects passively (with the objects placed on the hands) or actively (where participants lift the objects) under full or divided attention. To assess weight judgments we measured the size-weight illusion after every 20 trials of experience with the inverted objects both passively and actively. The attenuation of the illusion that arises when lifting inverted object was found to be context-specific such that the attenuation was larger when the mode of interaction with the inverted objects matched the method of assessment of the illusion. Dividing attention during interaction with the inverted objects had no effect on attenuation of the illusion, but did slow the rate at which lifting forces were scaled to the weight inverted objects. These findings suggest that the brain stores multiple representations of priors that are context specific, and that focused attention is important for scaling lifting forces, but not for updating weight predictions used when judging object weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimating Functions with Prior Knowledge, (EFPK) for diffusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolsøe, Kim; Kessler, Mathieu; Madsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a method is formulated in an estimating function setting for parameter estimation, which allows the use of prior information. The main idea is to use prior knowledge of the parameters, either specified as moments restrictions or as a distribution, and use it in the construction of a...... of an estimating function. It may be useful when the full Bayesian analysis is difficult to carry out for computational reasons. This is almost always the case for diffusions, which is the focus of this paper, though the method applies in other settings.......In this paper a method is formulated in an estimating function setting for parameter estimation, which allows the use of prior information. The main idea is to use prior knowledge of the parameters, either specified as moments restrictions or as a distribution, and use it in the construction...

  10. 29 CFR 452.40 - Prior office holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Candidacy for Office; Reasonable Qualifications § 452.40 Prior office holding. A.... 26 26 Wirtz v. Hotel, Motel and Club Employees Union, Local 6, 391 U.S. 492 at 504. The Court stated...

  11. Form of prior for constrained thermodynamic processes with uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Preety; Johal, Ramandeep S.

    2015-05-01

    We consider the quasi-static thermodynamic processes with constraints, but with additional uncertainty about the control parameters. Motivated by inductive reasoning, we assign prior distribution that provides a rational guess about likely values of the uncertain parameters. The priors are derived explicitly for both the entropy-conserving and the energy-conserving processes. The proposed form is useful when the constraint equation cannot be treated analytically. The inference is performed using spin-1/2 systems as models for heat reservoirs. Analytical results are derived in the high-temperatures limit. An agreement beyond linear response is found between the estimates of thermal quantities and their optimal values obtained from extremum principles. We also seek an intuitive interpretation for the prior and the estimated value of temperature obtained therefrom. We find that the prior over temperature becomes uniform over the quantity kept conserved in the process.

  12. On the prior probabilities for two-stage Bayesian estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.

    1992-01-01

    The method of Bayesian inference is reexamined for its applicability and for the required underlying assumptions in obtaining and using prior probability estimates. Two different approaches are suggested to determine the first-stage priors in the two-stage Bayesian analysis which avoid certain assumptions required for other techniques. In the first scheme, the prior is obtained through a true frequency based distribution generated at selected intervals utilizing actual sampling of the failure rate distributions. The population variability distribution is generated as the weighed average of the frequency distributions. The second method is based on a non-parametric Bayesian approach using the Maximum Entropy Principle. Specific features such as integral properties or selected parameters of prior distributions may be obtained with minimal assumptions. It is indicated how various quantiles may also be generated with a least square technique

  13. Prior Expectations Bias Sensory Representations in Visual Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, P.; Brouwer, G.J.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Lange, F.P. de

    2013-01-01

    Perception is strongly influenced by expectations. Accordingly, perception has sometimes been cast as a process of inference, whereby sensory inputs are combined with prior knowledge. However, despite a wealth of behavioral literature supporting an account of perception as probabilistic inference,

  14. Bayesian optimal experimental design for priors of compact support

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2016-01-01

    to account for the bounded domain of the uniform prior pdf of the parameters. The underlying Gaussian distribution is obtained in the spirit of the Laplace method, more precisely, the mode is chosen as the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate

  15. What good are actions? Accelerating learning using learned action priors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The computational complexity of learning in sequential decision problems grows exponentially with the number of actions available to the agent at each state. We present a method for accelerating this process by learning action priors that express...

  16. Assessment of prior learning in vocational education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    ’ knowledge, skills and competences during the students’ performances and the methods that the teachers apply in order to assess the students’ prior learning in relation to the regulations of the current VET-program. In particular the study focuses on how to assess not only the students’ explicated knowledge......The article deals about the results of a study of the assessment of prior learning among adult workers who want to obtain formal qualifications as skilled workers. The study contributes to developing methods for assessing prior learning including both the teachers’ ways of eliciting the students...... and skills but also their competences, i.e. the way the students use their skills and knowledge to perform in practice. Based on a description of the assessment procedures the article discusses central issues in relation to the assessment of prior learning. The empirical data have been obtained in the VET...

  17. Valid MR imaging predictors of prior knee arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discepola, Federico; Le, Huy B.Q.; Park, John S.; Clopton, Paul; Knoll, Andrew N.; Austin, Matthew J.; Resnick, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether fibrosis of the medial patellar reticulum (MPR), lateral patellar reticulum (LPR), deep medial aspect of Hoffa's fat pad (MDH), or deep lateral aspect of Hoffa's fat pad (LDH) is a valid predictor of prior knee arthroscopy. Institutional review board approval and waiver of informed consent were obtained for this HIPPA-compliant study. Initially, fibrosis of the MPR, LPR, MDH, or LDH in MR imaging studies of 50 patients with prior knee arthroscopy and 100 patients without was recorded. Subsequently, two additional radiologists, blinded to clinical data, retrospectively and independently recorded the presence of fibrosis of the MPR in 50 patients with prior knee arthroscopy and 50 without. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy for detecting the presence of fibrosis in the MPR were calculated. κ statistics were used to analyze inter-observer agreement. Fibrosis of each of the regions examined during the first portion of the study showed a significant association with prior knee arthroscopy (p < 0.005 for each). A patient with fibrosis of the MPR, LDH, or LPR was 45.5, 9, or 3.7 times more likely, respectively, to have had a prior knee arthroscopy. Logistic regression analysis indicated that fibrosis of the MPR supplanted the diagnostic utility of identifying fibrosis of the LPR, LDH, or MDH, or combinations of these (p ≥ 0.09 for all combinations). In the second portion of the study, fibrosis of the MPR demonstrated a mean sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 72%, PPV of 75%, NPV of 81%, and accuracy of 77% for predicting prior knee arthroscopy. Analysis of MR images can be used to determine if a patient has had prior knee arthroscopy by identifying fibrosis of the MPR, LPR, MDH, or LDH. Fibrosis of the MPR was the strongest predictor of prior knee arthroscopy. (orig.)

  18. Valid MR imaging predictors of prior knee arthroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Discepola, Federico; Le, Huy B.Q. [McGill University Health Center, Jewsih General Hospital, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Park, John S. [Annapolis Radiology Associates, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Annapolis, MD (United States); Clopton, Paul; Knoll, Andrew N.; Austin, Matthew J.; Resnick, Donald L. [University of California San Diego (UCSD), Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    To determine whether fibrosis of the medial patellar reticulum (MPR), lateral patellar reticulum (LPR), deep medial aspect of Hoffa's fat pad (MDH), or deep lateral aspect of Hoffa's fat pad (LDH) is a valid predictor of prior knee arthroscopy. Institutional review board approval and waiver of informed consent were obtained for this HIPPA-compliant study. Initially, fibrosis of the MPR, LPR, MDH, or LDH in MR imaging studies of 50 patients with prior knee arthroscopy and 100 patients without was recorded. Subsequently, two additional radiologists, blinded to clinical data, retrospectively and independently recorded the presence of fibrosis of the MPR in 50 patients with prior knee arthroscopy and 50 without. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy for detecting the presence of fibrosis in the MPR were calculated. {kappa} statistics were used to analyze inter-observer agreement. Fibrosis of each of the regions examined during the first portion of the study showed a significant association with prior knee arthroscopy (p < 0.005 for each). A patient with fibrosis of the MPR, LDH, or LPR was 45.5, 9, or 3.7 times more likely, respectively, to have had a prior knee arthroscopy. Logistic regression analysis indicated that fibrosis of the MPR supplanted the diagnostic utility of identifying fibrosis of the LPR, LDH, or MDH, or combinations of these (p {>=} 0.09 for all combinations). In the second portion of the study, fibrosis of the MPR demonstrated a mean sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 72%, PPV of 75%, NPV of 81%, and accuracy of 77% for predicting prior knee arthroscopy. Analysis of MR images can be used to determine if a patient has had prior knee arthroscopy by identifying fibrosis of the MPR, LPR, MDH, or LDH. Fibrosis of the MPR was the strongest predictor of prior knee arthroscopy. (orig.)

  19. Fractional Gaussian noise: Prior specification and model comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Sø rbye, Sigrunn Holbek; Rue, Haavard

    2017-01-01

    Fractional Gaussian noise (fGn) is a stationary stochastic process used to model antipersistent or persistent dependency structures in observed time series. Properties of the autocovariance function of fGn are characterised by the Hurst exponent (H), which, in Bayesian contexts, typically has been assigned a uniform prior on the unit interval. This paper argues why a uniform prior is unreasonable and introduces the use of a penalised complexity (PC) prior for H. The PC prior is computed to penalise divergence from the special case of white noise and is invariant to reparameterisations. An immediate advantage is that the exact same prior can be used for the autocorrelation coefficient ϕ(symbol) of a first-order autoregressive process AR(1), as this model also reflects a flexible version of white noise. Within the general setting of latent Gaussian models, this allows us to compare an fGn model component with AR(1) using Bayes factors, avoiding the confounding effects of prior choices for the two hyperparameters H and ϕ(symbol). Among others, this is useful in climate regression models where inference for underlying linear or smooth trends depends heavily on the assumed noise model.

  20. Fractional Gaussian noise: Prior specification and model comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Sørbye, Sigrunn Holbek

    2017-07-07

    Fractional Gaussian noise (fGn) is a stationary stochastic process used to model antipersistent or persistent dependency structures in observed time series. Properties of the autocovariance function of fGn are characterised by the Hurst exponent (H), which, in Bayesian contexts, typically has been assigned a uniform prior on the unit interval. This paper argues why a uniform prior is unreasonable and introduces the use of a penalised complexity (PC) prior for H. The PC prior is computed to penalise divergence from the special case of white noise and is invariant to reparameterisations. An immediate advantage is that the exact same prior can be used for the autocorrelation coefficient ϕ(symbol) of a first-order autoregressive process AR(1), as this model also reflects a flexible version of white noise. Within the general setting of latent Gaussian models, this allows us to compare an fGn model component with AR(1) using Bayes factors, avoiding the confounding effects of prior choices for the two hyperparameters H and ϕ(symbol). Among others, this is useful in climate regression models where inference for underlying linear or smooth trends depends heavily on the assumed noise model.

  1. SUSPENSION OF THE PRIOR DISCIPLINARY INVESTIGATION ACCORDING TO LABOR LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae, GRADINARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to conduct the prior disciplinary investigation, the employee shall be convoked in writing by the person authorized by the employer to carry out the research, specifying the subject, date, time and place of the meeting. For this purpose the employer shall appoint a committee charged with conducting the prior disciplinary investigation. Prior disciplinary research cannot be done without the possibility of the accused person to defend himself. It would be an abuse of the employer to violate these provisions. Since the employee is entitled to formulate and sustain defence in proving innocence or lesser degree of guilt than imputed, it needs between the moment were disclosed to the employee and the one of performing the prior disciplinary investigation to be a reasonable term for the employee to be able to prepare a defence in this regard. The employee's failure to present at the convocation, without an objective reason entitles the employer to dispose the sanctioning without making the prior disciplinary investigation. The objective reason which makes the employee, that is subject to prior disciplinary investigation, unable to present to the preliminary disciplinary investigation, should be at the time of the investigation in question.

  2. Identification of subsurface structures using electromagnetic data and shape priors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveit, Svenn, E-mail: svenn.tveit@uni.no [Uni CIPR, Uni Research, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Department of Mathematics, University of Bergen, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Bakr, Shaaban A., E-mail: shaaban.bakr1@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Uni CIPR, Uni Research, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Lien, Martha, E-mail: martha.lien@octio.com [Uni CIPR, Uni Research, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Octio AS, Bøhmergaten 44, Bergen 5057 (Norway); Mannseth, Trond, E-mail: trond.mannseth@uni.no [Uni CIPR, Uni Research, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Department of Mathematics, University of Bergen, Bergen 5020 (Norway)

    2015-03-01

    We consider the inverse problem of identifying large-scale subsurface structures using the controlled source electromagnetic method. To identify structures in the subsurface where the contrast in electric conductivity can be small, regularization is needed to bias the solution towards preserving structural information. We propose to combine two approaches for regularization of the inverse problem. In the first approach we utilize a model-based, reduced, composite representation of the electric conductivity that is highly flexible, even for a moderate number of degrees of freedom. With a low number of parameters, the inverse problem is efficiently solved using a standard, second-order gradient-based optimization algorithm. Further regularization is obtained using structural prior information, available, e.g., from interpreted seismic data. The reduced conductivity representation is suitable for incorporation of structural prior information. Such prior information cannot, however, be accurately modeled with a gaussian distribution. To alleviate this, we incorporate the structural information using shape priors. The shape prior technique requires the choice of kernel function, which is application dependent. We argue for using the conditionally positive definite kernel which is shown to have computational advantages over the commonly applied gaussian kernel for our problem. Numerical experiments on various test cases show that the methodology is able to identify fairly complex subsurface electric conductivity distributions while preserving structural prior information during the inversion.

  3. Individual Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Santurette

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR, held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium.

  4. Decisions under unpredictable losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmed

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of the descriptive adequacy of the extit{restated diversification principle} is presented. The principle postulates that risk-averse utility maximizers will pool risks for their mutual benefit, even if information is missing about the probabilities of losses. It is enough for people to assume that they face equal risks when they pool risks. The results of the experiment support the principle.

  5. Understanding Loss Deductions for Timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Greene; Michael Jacobson

    1998-01-01

    Forestland owners whose timber has been destroyed may be eligible to take a deduction for the loss on their federal income tax. The loss must be physical in nature and caused by an identifiable event or combination of events that has run its course. There are two types of losses from natural events. Casualty losses are sudden, unexpected, and unusual - as from a fire...

  6. ADT fast losses MD

    CERN Document Server

    Priebe, A; Dehning, B; Redaelli, S; Salvachua Ferrando, BM; Sapinski, M; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Valuch, D

    2013-01-01

    The fast beam losses in the order of 1 ms are expected to be a potential major luminosity limitation for higher beam energies after the LHC long shutdown (LS1). Therefore a Quench Test is planned in the winter 2013 to estimate the quench limit in this timescale and revise the current models. This experiment was devoted to determination the LHC Transverse Damper (ADT) as a system for fast losses induction. A non-standard operation of the ADT was used to develop the beam oscillation instead of suppressing them. The sign flip method had allowed us to create the fast losses within several LHC turns at 450 GeV during the previous test (26th March 2012). Thus, the ADT could be potentially used for the studies of the UFO ("Unidentied Falling Object") impact on the cold magnets. Verification of the system capability and investigations of the disturbed beam properties were the main objectives of this MD. During the experiment, the pilot bunches of proton beam were excited independently in the horizontal and vertical ...

  7. Statistical Analysis of Coherent Ultrashort Light Pulse CDMA With Multiple Optical Amplifiers Using Additive Noise Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Kambiz; Salehi, Jawad A.

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes a study of the performance of various configurations for placing multiple optical amplifiers in a typical coherent ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access (CULP-CDMA) communication system using the additive noise model. For this study, a comprehensive performance analysis was developed that takes into account multiple-access noise, noise due to optical amplifiers, and thermal noise using the saddle-point approximation technique. Prior to obtaining the overall system performance, the input/output statistical models for different elements of the system such as encoders/decoders,star coupler, and optical amplifiers were obtained. Performance comparisons between an ideal and lossless quantum-limited case and a typical CULP-CDMA with various losses exhibit more than 30 dB more power requirement to obtain the same bit-error rate (BER). Considering the saturation effect of optical amplifiers, this paper discusses an algorithm for amplifiers' gain setting in various stages of the network in order to overcome the nonlinear effects on signal modulation in optical amplifiers. Finally, using this algorithm,various configurations of multiple optical amplifiers in CULP-CDMA are discussed and the rules for the required optimum number of amplifiers are shown with their corresponding optimum locations to be implemented along the CULP-CDMA system.

  8. Enhancing Undergraduate Chemistry Learning by Helping Students Make Connections among Multiple Graphical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Martina A.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple representations are ubiquitous in chemistry education. To benefit from multiple representations, students have to make connections between them. However, connection making is a difficult task for students. Prior research shows that supporting connection making enhances students' learning in math and science domains. Most prior research…

  9. Multiple Input - Multiple Output (MIMO) SAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort will research and implement advanced Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques which have the potential to improve...

  10. Neutrino masses and their ordering: global data, priors and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariazzo, S.; Archidiacono, M.; de Salas, P. F.; Mena, O.; Ternes, C. A.; Tórtola, M.

    2018-03-01

    We present a full Bayesian analysis of the combination of current neutrino oscillation, neutrinoless double beta decay and Cosmic Microwave Background observations. Our major goal is to carefully investigate the possibility to single out one neutrino mass ordering, namely Normal Ordering or Inverted Ordering, with current data. Two possible parametrizations (three neutrino masses versus the lightest neutrino mass plus the two oscillation mass splittings) and priors (linear versus logarithmic) are exhaustively examined. We find that the preference for NO is only driven by neutrino oscillation data. Moreover, the values of the Bayes factor indicate that the evidence for NO is strong only when the scan is performed over the three neutrino masses with logarithmic priors; for every other combination of parameterization and prior, the preference for NO is only weak. As a by-product of our Bayesian analyses, we are able to (a) compare the Bayesian bounds on the neutrino mixing parameters to those obtained by means of frequentist approaches, finding a very good agreement; (b) determine that the lightest neutrino mass plus the two mass splittings parametrization, motivated by the physical observables, is strongly preferred over the three neutrino mass eigenstates scan and (c) find that logarithmic priors guarantee a weakly-to-moderately more efficient sampling of the parameter space. These results establish the optimal strategy to successfully explore the neutrino parameter space, based on the use of the oscillation mass splittings and a logarithmic prior on the lightest neutrino mass, when combining neutrino oscillation data with cosmology and neutrinoless double beta decay. We also show that the limits on the total neutrino mass ∑ mν can change dramatically when moving from one prior to the other. These results have profound implications for future studies on the neutrino mass ordering, as they crucially state the need for self-consistent analyses which explore the

  11. Finding A Minimally Informative Dirichlet Prior Using Least Squares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In a Bayesian framework, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate distribution to the multinomial likelihood function, and so the analyst is required to develop a Dirichlet prior that incorporates available information. However, as it is a multiparameter distribution, choosing the Dirichlet parameters is less straightforward than choosing a prior distribution for a single parameter, such as p in the binomial distribution. In particular, one may wish to incorporate limited information into the prior, resulting in a minimally informative prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data. In the case of binomial p or Poisson λ, the principle of maximum entropy can be employed to obtain a so-called constrained noninformative prior. However, even in the case of p, such a distribution cannot be written down in the form of a standard distribution (e.g., beta, gamma), and so a beta distribution is used as an approximation in the case of p. In the case of the multinomial model with parametric constraints, the approach of maximum entropy does not appear tractable. This paper presents an alternative approach, based on constrained minimization of a least-squares objective function, which leads to a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution. The alpha-factor model for common-cause failure, which is widely used in the United States, is the motivation for this approach, and is used to illustrate the method. In this approach to modeling common-cause failure, the alpha-factors, which are the parameters in the underlying multinomial model for common-cause failure, must be estimated from data that are often quite sparse, because common-cause failures tend to be rare, especially failures of more than two or three components, and so a prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data is needed.

  12. Prior-based artifact correction (PBAC) in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heußer, Thorsten; Brehm, Marcus; Ritschl, Ludwig; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Image quality in computed tomography (CT) often suffers from artifacts which may reduce the diagnostic value of the image. In many cases, these artifacts result from missing or corrupt regions in the projection data, e.g., in the case of metal, truncation, and limited angle artifacts. The authors propose a generalized correction method for different kinds of artifacts resulting from missing or corrupt data by making use of available prior knowledge to perform data completion. Methods: The proposed prior-based artifact correction (PBAC) method requires prior knowledge in form of a planning CT of the same patient or in form of a CT scan of a different patient showing the same body region. In both cases, the prior image is registered to the patient image using a deformable transformation. The registered prior is forward projected and data completion of the patient projections is performed using smooth sinogram inpainting. The obtained projection data are used to reconstruct the corrected image. Results: The authors investigate metal and truncation artifacts in patient data sets acquired with a clinical CT and limited angle artifacts in an anthropomorphic head phantom data set acquired with a gantry-based flat detector CT device. In all cases, the corrected images obtained by PBAC are nearly artifact-free. Compared to conventional correction methods, PBAC achieves better artifact suppression while preserving the patient-specific anatomy at the same time. Further, the authors show that prominent anatomical details in the prior image seem to have only minor impact on the correction result. Conclusions: The results show that PBAC has the potential to effectively correct for metal, truncation, and limited angle artifacts if adequate prior data are available. Since the proposed method makes use of a generalized algorithm, PBAC may also be applicable to other artifacts resulting from missing or corrupt data

  13. Finding a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution using least squares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Dana; Atwood, Corwin

    2011-01-01

    In a Bayesian framework, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate distribution to the multinomial likelihood function, and so the analyst is required to develop a Dirichlet prior that incorporates available information. However, as it is a multiparameter distribution, choosing the Dirichlet parameters is less straightforward than choosing a prior distribution for a single parameter, such as p in the binomial distribution. In particular, one may wish to incorporate limited information into the prior, resulting in a minimally informative prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data. In the case of binomial p or Poisson λ, the principle of maximum entropy can be employed to obtain a so-called constrained noninformative prior. However, even in the case of p, such a distribution cannot be written down in the form of a standard distribution (e.g., beta, gamma), and so a beta distribution is used as an approximation in the case of p. In the case of the multinomial model with parametric constraints, the approach of maximum entropy does not appear tractable. This paper presents an alternative approach, based on constrained minimization of a least-squares objective function, which leads to a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution. The alpha-factor model for common-cause failure, which is widely used in the United States, is the motivation for this approach, and is used to illustrate the method. In this approach to modeling common-cause failure, the alpha-factors, which are the parameters in the underlying multinomial model for common-cause failure, must be estimated from data that are often quite sparse, because common-cause failures tend to be rare, especially failures of more than two or three components, and so a prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data is needed.

  14. Finding a Minimally Informative Dirichlet Prior Distribution Using Least Squares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Dana; Atwood, Corwin

    2011-01-01

    In a Bayesian framework, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate distribution to the multinomial likelihood function, and so the analyst is required to develop a Dirichlet prior that incorporates available information. However, as it is a multiparameter distribution, choosing the Dirichlet parameters is less straight-forward than choosing a prior distribution for a single parameter, such as p in the binomial distribution. In particular, one may wish to incorporate limited information into the prior, resulting in a minimally informative prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data. In the case of binomial p or Poisson, the principle of maximum entropy can be employed to obtain a so-called constrained noninformative prior. However, even in the case of p, such a distribution cannot be written down in closed form, and so an approximate beta distribution is used in the case of p. In the case of the multinomial model with parametric constraints, the approach of maximum entropy does not appear tractable. This paper presents an alternative approach, based on constrained minimization of a least-squares objective function, which leads to a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution. The alpha-factor model for common-cause failure, which is widely used in the United States, is the motivation for this approach, and is used to illustrate the method. In this approach to modeling common-cause failure, the alpha-factors, which are the parameters in the underlying multinomial aleatory model for common-cause failure, must be estimated from data that is often quite sparse, because common-cause failures tend to be rare, especially failures of more than two or three components, and so a prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data is needed.

  15. Advanced prior modeling for 3D bright field electron tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreehari, Suhas; Venkatakrishnan, S. V.; Drummy, Lawrence F.; Simmons, Jeffrey P.; Bouman, Charles A.

    2015-03-01

    Many important imaging problems in material science involve reconstruction of images containing repetitive non-local structures. Model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) could in principle exploit such redundancies through the selection of a log prior probability term. However, in practice, determining such a log prior term that accounts for the similarity between distant structures in the image is quite challenging. Much progress has been made in the development of denoising algorithms like non-local means and BM3D, and these are known to successfully capture non-local redundancies in images. But the fact that these denoising operations are not explicitly formulated as cost functions makes it unclear as to how to incorporate them in the MBIR framework. In this paper, we formulate a solution to bright field electron tomography by augmenting the existing bright field MBIR method to incorporate any non-local denoising operator as a prior model. We accomplish this using a framework we call plug-and-play priors that decouples the log likelihood and the log prior probability terms in the MBIR cost function. We specifically use 3D non-local means (NLM) as the prior model in the plug-and-play framework, and showcase high quality tomographic reconstructions of a simulated aluminum spheres dataset, and two real datasets of aluminum spheres and ferritin structures. We observe that streak and smear artifacts are visibly suppressed, and that edges are preserved. Also, we report lower RMSE values compared to the conventional MBIR reconstruction using qGGMRF as the prior model.

  16. Prior failed ipsilateral percutaneous endovascular intervention in patients with critical limb ischemia predicts poor outcome after lower extremity bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Brian W.; De Martino, Randall R.; Stone, David H.; Schanzer, Andres; Goodney, Philip P.; Walsh, Daniel W.; Cronenwett, Jack L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although open surgical bypass remains the standard revascularization strategy for patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI), many centers now perform peripheral endovascular intervention (PVI) as the first-line treatment for these patients. We sought to determine the effect of a prior ipsilateral PVI (iPVI) on the outcome of subsequent lower extremity bypass (LEB) in patients with CLI. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis of all patients undergoing infrainguinal LEB between 2003 and 2009 within hospitals comprising the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) was performed. Primary study endpoints were major amputation and graft occlusion at 1 year postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included in-hospital major adverse events (MAE), 1-year mortality, and composite 1-year major adverse limb events (MALE). Event rates were determined using life table analyses and comparisons were performed using the log-rank test. Multivariate predictors were determined using a Cox proportional hazards model with multilevel hierarchical adjustment. Results Of 1880 LEBs performed, 32% (n = 603) had a prior infrainguinal revascularization procedure (iPVI, 7%; ipsilateral bypass, 15%; contralateral PVI, 3%; contralateral bypass, 17%). Patients with prior iPVI, compared with those without a prior iPVI, were more likely to be women (32 vs 41%; P = .04), less likely to have tissue loss (52% vs 63%; P = .02), more likely to require arm vein conduit (16% vs 5%; P = .001), and more likely to be on statin (71% vs 54%; P = .01) and beta blocker therapy (92% vs 81%; P = .01) at the time of their bypass procedure. Other demographic factors were similar between these groups. Prior PVI or bypass did not alter 30-day MAE and 1-year mortality after the index bypass. In contrast, 1-year major amputation and 1-year graft occlusion rates were significantly higher in patients who had prior iPVI than those without (31% vs 20%; P = .046 and 28% vs 18%; P = .009), similar to patients who

  17. Loss-Aversion or Loss-Attention: The Impact of Losses on Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechiam, Eldad; Hochman, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Losses were found to improve cognitive performance, and this has been commonly explained by increased weighting of losses compared to gains (i.e., loss aversion). We examine whether effects of losses on performance could be modulated by two alternative processes: an attentional effect leading to increased sensitivity to task incentives; and a…

  18. SMELL-S and SMELL-R: olfactory tests not influenced by odor-specific insensitivity or prior olfactory experience

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Andreas; Wong, Michele; Jiang, Rong-San; Vosshall, Leslie; Hsieh, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Smell dysfunction is a common and underdiagnosed medical condition that can have serious consequences. It is also an early biomarker of Alzheimer's disease that precedes detectable memory loss. Clinical tests that evaluate the sense of smell face two major challenges. First, human sensitivity to individual odorants varies significantly, leading to potential misdiagnosis of people with an otherwise normal sense of smell but insensitivity to the test odorant. Second, prior familiarity with odor...

  19. Bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss as a first symptom of infective endocarditis: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chroni, M; Prappa, E; Kokkevi, I

    2018-04-01

    Septic emboli are an unusual cause of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, for which few reports exist in the literature. This paper presents two cases of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, initially considered as idiopathic, but which were caused by septic emboli. Hearing loss in these cases was bilateral, sequential and total. The first patient had mild fever one week prior to their presentation with sudden sensorineural hearing loss; the other patient had no additional symptoms at presentation. These patients were later diagnosed with infective endocarditis, at two and seven months following the sudden sensorineural hearing loss respectively, showing that septic emboli had been the cause of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Septic emboli should be considered as a possible cause of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in cases of total hearing loss. This form of hearing loss should prompt the otolaryngologist to further investigate for infective endocarditis.

  20. Assessment of Prior Learning in Adult Vocational Education and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibe Aarkrog

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals about the results of a study of school-based Assessment of Prior Learning of adults who have enrolled as students in a VET college in order to qualify for occupations as skilled workers. Based on examples of VET teachers’ methods for assessing the students’ prior learning in the programs for gastronomes, respectively child care assistants the article discusses two issues in relation to Assessment of Prior Learing: the encounter of practical experience and school-based knowledge and the validity and reliability of the assessment procedures. Through focusing on the students’ knowing that and knowing why the assessment is based on a scholastic perception of the students’ needs for training, reflecting one of the most important challenges in Assessment of Prior Learning: how can practical experience be transformed into credits for the knowledge parts of the programs? The study shows that by combining several Assessment of Prior Learning methods and comparing the teachers’ assessments the teachers respond to the issues of validity and reliability. However, validity and reliability might be even further strengthened, if the competencies are well defined, if the education system is aware of securing a reasonable balance between knowing how, knowing that, and knowing why, and if the teachers are adequately trained for the assessment procedures.

  1. Logarithmic Laplacian Prior Based Bayesian Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanghui Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging (ISAR algorithm based on a new sparse prior, known as the logarithmic Laplacian prior. The newly proposed logarithmic Laplacian prior has a narrower main lobe with higher tail values than the Laplacian prior, which helps to achieve performance improvement on sparse representation. The logarithmic Laplacian prior is used for ISAR imaging within the Bayesian framework to achieve better focused radar image. In the proposed method of ISAR imaging, the phase errors are jointly estimated based on the minimum entropy criterion to accomplish autofocusing. The maximum a posterior (MAP estimation and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE are utilized to estimate the model parameters to avoid manually tuning process. Additionally, the fast Fourier Transform (FFT and Hadamard product are used to minimize the required computational efficiency. Experimental results based on both simulated and measured data validate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional sparse ISAR imaging algorithms in terms of resolution improvement and noise suppression.

  2. Source Localization by Entropic Inference and Backward Renormalization Group Priors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Caticha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A systematic method of transferring information from coarser to finer resolution based on renormalization group (RG transformations is introduced. It permits building informative priors in finer scales from posteriors in coarser scales since, under some conditions, RG transformations in the space of hyperparameters can be inverted. These priors are updated using renormalized data into posteriors by Maximum Entropy. The resulting inference method, backward RG (BRG priors, is tested by doing simulations of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment. Its results are compared with a Bayesian approach working in the finest available resolution. Using BRG priors sources can be partially identified even when signal to noise ratio levels are up to ~ -25dB improving vastly on the single step Bayesian approach. For low levels of noise the BRG prior is not an improvement over the single scale Bayesian method. Analysis of the histograms of hyperparameters can show how to distinguish if the method is failing, due to very high levels of noise, or if the identification of the sources is, at least partially possible.

  3. On Bayesian reliability analysis with informative priors and censoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, F.P.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the statistical literature many methods have been presented to deal with censored observations, both within the Bayesian and non-Bayesian frameworks, and such methods have been successfully applied to, e.g., reliability problems. Also, in reliability theory it is often emphasized that, through shortage of statistical data and possibilities for experiments, one often needs to rely heavily on judgements of engineers, or other experts, for which means Bayesian methods are attractive. It is therefore important that such judgements can be elicited easily to provide informative prior distributions that reflect the knowledge of the engineers well. In this paper we focus on this aspect, especially on the situation that the judgements of the consulted engineers are based on experiences in environments where censoring has also been present previously. We suggest the use of the attractive interpretation of hyperparameters of conjugate prior distributions when these are available for assumed parametric models for lifetimes, and we show how one may go beyond the standard conjugate priors, using similar interpretations of hyper-parameters, to enable easier elicitation when censoring has been present in the past. This may even lead to more flexibility for modelling prior knowledge than when using standard conjugate priors, whereas the disadvantage of more complicated calculations that may be needed to determine posterior distributions play a minor role due to the advanced mathematical and statistical software that is widely available these days

  4. Multiple Antenna Systems with Inherently Decoupled Radiators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelosi, Mauro; Knudsen, Mikael B.; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    In multiple antenna systems mutual coupling needs to be minimized. We propose an alternative novel decoupling technique, investigating several multiple antenna configurations for small handsets through measurements and numerical simulations. The influence of different novel designs on performance...... metrics such as total loss, antenna isolation and envelope correlation coefficient are investigated. By varying antenna impedance bandwidth and antenna location with respect to the handset, both Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) and Inverted F Antennas (IFA) were investigated in different UMTS frequency...

  5. Blocking Losses With a Photon Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moision, Burce E.; Piazzolla, Sabino

    2012-01-01

    It was not known how to assess accurately losses in a communications link due to photodetector blocking, a phenomenon wherein a detector is rendered inactive for a short time after the detection of a photon. When used to detect a communications signal, blocking leads to losses relative to an ideal detector, which may be measured as a reduction in the communications rate for a given received signal power, or an increase in the signal power required to support the same communications rate. This work involved characterizing blocking losses for single detectors and arrays of detectors. Blocking may be mitigated by spreading the signal intensity over an array of detectors, reducing the count rate on any one detector. A simple approximation was made to the blocking loss as a function of the probability that a detector is unblocked at a given time, essentially treating the blocking probability as a scaling of the detection efficiency. An exact statistical characterization was derived for a single detector, and an approximation for multiple detectors. This allowed derivation of several accurate approximations to the loss. Methods were also derived to account for a rise time in recovery, and non-uniform illumination due to diffraction and atmospheric distortion of the phase front. It was assumed that the communications signal is intensity modulated and received by an array of photon-counting photodetectors. For the purpose of this analysis, it was assumed that the detectors are ideal, in that they produce a signal that allows one to reproduce the arrival times of electrons, produced either as photoelectrons or from dark noise, exactly. For single detectors, the performance of the maximum-likelihood (ML) receiver in blocking is illustrated, as well as a maximum-count (MC) receiver, that, when receiving a pulse-position-modulated (PPM) signal, selects the symbol corresponding to the slot with the largest electron count. Whereas the MC receiver saturates at high count rates

  6. Status of memory loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iyer, Parameswaran Mahadeva

    2012-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman presented with first onset of seizure with no prior history of cognitive dysfunction. EEG revealed focal non-convulsive status epilepticus. MRI brain showed a left temporal non-enhancing lesion. Temporal pole biopsy showed acute neuronal necrosis and astrocyte hyperplasia together with extensive amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Perivascular oligodendroglial hyperplasia was present. Postmortem examination revealed extensive plaque and tangle disease. Perivascular oligodendroglial hyperplasia was limited to the left temporal area. The presence of focal perivascular oligodendroglial hyperplasia in the left temporal cortex, combined with extensive plaque and tangle disease may have contributed to the focal status epilepticus in this patient. Although the presence of focal perivascular oligodendroglial hyperplasia has been reported in cases of temporal lobe epilepsy, it has not been reported as a cause of seizure in patients with Alzheimer\\'s disease previously. Further studies for clinical-pathologic correlation would be required to confirm this hypothesis.

  7. Losses, inefficiencies and waste in the global food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Peter; Brown, Calum; Arneth, Almut; Finnigan, John; Moran, Dominic; Rounsevell, Mark D A

    2017-05-01

    Losses at every stage in the food system influence the extent to which nutritional requirements of a growing global population can be sustainably met. Inefficiencies and losses in agricultural production and consumer behaviour all play a role. This paper aims to understand better the magnitude of different losses and to provide insights into how these influence overall food system efficiency. We take a systems view from primary production of agricultural biomass through to human food requirements and consumption. Quantities and losses over ten stages are calculated and compared in terms of dry mass, wet mass, protein and energy. The comparison reveals significant differences between these measurements, and the potential for wet mass figures used in previous studies to be misleading. The results suggest that due to cumulative losses, the proportion of global agricultural dry biomass consumed as food is just 6% (9.0% for energy and 7.6% for protein), and 24.8% of harvest biomass (31.9% for energy and 27.8% for protein). The highest rates of loss are associated with livestock production, although the largest absolute losses of biomass occur prior to harvest. Losses of harvested crops were also found to be substantial, with 44.0% of crop dry matter (36.9% of energy and 50.1% of protein) lost prior to human consumption. If human over-consumption, defined as food consumption in excess of nutritional requirements, is included as an additional inefficiency, 48.4% of harvested crops were found to be lost (53.2% of energy and 42.3% of protein). Over-eating was found to be at least as large a contributor to food system losses as consumer food waste. The findings suggest that influencing consumer behaviour, e.g. to eat less animal products, or to reduce per capita consumption closer to nutrient requirements, offer substantial potential to improve food security for the rising global population in a sustainable manner.

  8. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  9. Beam Cooling with ionisation losses

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo; Kadi, Y; Vlachoudis, V

    2006-01-01

    A novel type of particle "cooling", called Ionization Cooling, is applicable to slow (v of the order of 0.1c) ions stored in a small ring. The many traversals through a thin foil enhance the nuclear reaction probability, in a steady configuration in which ionisation losses are recovered at each turn by a RF-cavity. For a uniform target "foil" the longitudinal momentum spread diverges exponentially since faster (slower) particles ionise less (more) than the average. In order to "cool" also longitudinally, a chromaticity has to be introduced with a wedge shaped "foil". Multiple scattering and straggling are then "cooled" in all three dimensions, with a method similar to the one of synchrotron cooling, but valid for low energy ions. Particles then stably circulate in the beam indefinitely, until they undergo for instance nuclear processes in the thin target foil. This new method is under consideration for the nuclear production of a few MeV/A ion beams. Simple reactions, for instance Li 7 + D Li 8 + p, are more ...

  10. Multiplicity in Early Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reipurth, B.; Clarke, C. J.; Boss, A. P.; Goodwin, S. P.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Stassun, K. G.; Tokovinin, A.; Zinnecker, H.

    Observations from optical to centimeter wavelengths have demonstrated that multiple systems of two or more bodies is the norm at all stellar evolutionary stages. Multiple systems are widely agreed to result from the collapse and fragmentation of cloud cores, despite the inhibiting influence of magnetic fields. Surveys of class 0 protostars with millimeter interferometers have revealed a very high multiplicity frequency of about 2/3, even though there are observational difficulties in resolving close protobinaries, thus supporting the possibility that all stars could be born in multiple systems. Near-infrared adaptive optics observations of class I protostars show a lower binary frequency relative to the class 0 phase, a declining trend that continues through the class II/III stages to the field population. This loss of companions is a natural consequence of dynamical interplay in small multiple systems, leading to ejection of members. We discuss observational consequences of this dynamical evolution, and its influence on circumstellar disks, and we review the evolution of circumbinary disks and their role in defining binary mass ratios. Special attention is paid to eclipsing PMS binaries, which allow for observational tests of evolutionary models of early stellar evolution. Many stars are born in clusters and small groups, and we discuss how interactions in dense stellar environments can significantly alter the distribution of binary separations through dissolution of wider binaries. The binaries and multiples we find in the field are the survivors of these internal and external destructive processes, and we provide a detailed overview of the multiplicity statistics of the field, which form a boundary condition for all models of binary evolution. Finally, we discuss various formation mechanisms for massive binaries, and the properties of massive trapezia.

  11. Maintenance of muscle strength retains a normal metabolic cost in simulated walking after transtibial limb loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Esposito, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies on relatively young and fit individuals with limb loss suggest that maintaining muscle strength after limb loss may mitigate the high metabolic cost of walking typically seen in the larger general limb loss population. However, these data are cross-sectional and the muscle strength prior to limb loss is unknown, and it is therefore difficult to draw causal inferences on changes in strength and gait energetics. Here we used musculoskeletal modeling and optimal control simulations to perform a longitudinal study (25 virtual “subjects”) of the metabolic cost of walking pre- and post-limb loss (unilateral transtibial). Simulations of walking were first performed pre-limb loss on a model with two intact biological legs, then post-limb loss on a model with a unilateral transtibial prosthesis, with a cost function that minimized the weighted sum of gait deviations plus metabolic cost. Metabolic costs were compared pre- vs. post-limb loss, with systematic modifications to the muscle strength and prosthesis type (passive, powered) in the post-limb loss model. The metabolic cost prior to limb loss was 3.44±0.13 J/m/kg. After limb loss, with a passive prosthesis the metabolic cost did not increase above the pre-limb loss cost if pre-limb loss muscle strength was maintained (mean -0.6%, p = 0.17, d = 0.17). With 10% strength loss the metabolic cost with the passive prosthesis increased (mean +5.9%, p loss cost for all subjects with strength losses of 10% and 20%, but increased for all subjects with strength loss of 30% (mean +5.9%, p loss, and that a gait with minimal deviations can be achieved when muscle strength is sufficiently high, even when using a passive prosthesis. PMID:29329344

  12. Challenges of the New Zealand healthcare disaster preparedness prior to the Canterbury earthquakes: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Gauld, Robin; Lovell, Sarah; McBride, David; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Harthy, Abdullah

    2013-03-15

    Disasters are a growing global phenomenon. New Zealand has suffered several major disasters in recent times. The state of healthcare disaster preparedness in New Zealand prior to the Canterbury earthquakes is not well documented. To investigate the challenges of the New Zealand healthcare disaster preparedness prior to the Canterbury earthquakes. Semi-structured interviews with emergency planners in all the District Health Boards (DHBs) in New Zealand in the period between January and March 2010. The interview protocol revolved around the domains of emergency planning adopted by the World Health Organization. Seventeen interviews were conducted. The main themes included disinterest of clinical personnel in emergency planning, the need for communication backup, the integration of private services in disaster preparedness, the value of volunteers, the requirement for regular disaster training, and the need to enhance surge capability of the New Zealand healthcare system to respond to disasters. Prior to the Canterbury earthquakes, healthcare disaster preparedness faced multiple challenges. Despite these challenges, New Zealand's healthcare response was adequate. Future preparedness has to consider the lessons learnt from the 2011 earthquakes to improve healthcare disaster planning in New Zealand.

  13. Understanding sleep disturbance in athletes prior to important competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliff, Laura E; Halson, Shona L; Peiffer, Jeremiah J

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally many athletes report worse sleep in the nights prior to important competitions. Despite sleep being acknowledged as an important factor for optimal athletic performance and overall health, little is understood about athlete sleep around competition. The aims of this study were to identify sleep complaints of athletes prior to competitions and determine whether complaints were confined to competition periods. Cross-sectional study. A sample of 283 elite Australian athletes (129 male, 157 female, age 24±5 y) completed two questionnaires; Competitive Sport and Sleep questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. 64.0% of athletes indicated worse sleep on at least one occasion in the nights prior to an important competition over the past 12 months. The main sleep problem specified by athletes was problems falling asleep (82.1%) with the main reasons responsible for poor sleep indicated as thoughts about the competition (83.5%) and nervousness (43.8%). Overall 59.1% of team sport athletes reported having no strategy to overcome poor sleep compared with individual athletes (32.7%, p=0.002) who utilised relaxation and reading as strategies. Individual sport athletes had increased likelihood of poor sleep as they aged. The poor sleep reported by athletes prior to competition was situational rather than a global sleep problem. Poor sleep is common prior to major competitions in Australian athletes, yet most athletes are unaware of strategies to overcome the poor sleep experienced. It is essential coaches and scientists monitor and educate both individual and team sport athletes to facilitate sleep prior to important competitions. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neutrino mass priors for cosmology from random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew J.; Raveri, Marco; Hu, Wayne; Dodelson, Scott

    2018-02-01

    Cosmological measurements of structure are placing increasingly strong constraints on the sum of the neutrino masses, Σ mν, through Bayesian inference. Because these constraints depend on the choice for the prior probability π (Σ mν), we argue that this prior should be motivated by fundamental physical principles rather than the ad hoc choices that are common in the literature. The first step in this direction is to specify the prior directly at the level of the neutrino mass matrix Mν, since this is the parameter appearing in the Lagrangian of the particle physics theory. Thus by specifying a probability distribution over Mν, and by including the known squared mass splittings, we predict a theoretical probability distribution over Σ mν that we interpret as a Bayesian prior probability π (Σ mν). Assuming a basis-invariant probability distribution on Mν, also known as the anarchy hypothesis, we find that π (Σ mν) peaks close to the smallest Σ mν allowed by the measured mass splittings, roughly 0.06 eV (0.1 eV) for normal (inverted) ordering, due to the phenomenon of eigenvalue repulsion in random matrices. We consider three models for neutrino mass generation: Dirac, Majorana, and Majorana via the seesaw mechanism; differences in the predicted priors π (Σ mν) allow for the possibility of having indications about the physical origin of neutrino masses once sufficient experimental sensitivity is achieved. We present fitting functions for π (Σ mν), which provide a simple means for applying these priors to cosmological constraints on the neutrino masses or marginalizing over their impact on other cosmological parameters.

  15. Physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraception: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Naomi K; Curtis, Kathryn M; Steenland, Maria W; Marchbanks, Polly A

    2013-05-01

    Provision of contraception is often linked with physical examination, including clinical breast examination (CBE) and pelvic examination. This review was conducted to evaluate the evidence regarding outcomes among women with and without physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. The PubMed database was searched from database inception through March 2012 for all peer-reviewed articles in any language concerning CBE and pelvic examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. The quality of each study was assessed using the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system. The search did not identify any evidence regarding outcomes among women screened versus not screened with CBE prior to initiation of hormonal contraceptives. The search identified two case-control studies of fair quality which compared women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating oral contraceptives (OCs) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). No differences in risk factors for cervical neoplasia, incidence of sexually transmitted infections, incidence of abnormal Pap smears or incidence of abnormal wet mount findings were observed. Although women with breast cancer should not use hormonal contraceptives, there is little utility in screening prior to initiation, due to the low incidence of breast cancer and uncertain value of CBE among women of reproductive age. Two fair quality studies demonstrated no differences between women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating OCs or DMPA with respect to risk factors or clinical outcomes. In addition, pelvic examination is not likely to detect any conditions for which hormonal contraceptives would be unsafe. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Acceptable losses: the debatable origins of loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechiam, Eldad

    2018-04-16

    It is often claimed that negative events carry a larger weight than positive events. Loss aversion is the manifestation of this argument in monetary outcomes. In this review, we examine early studies of the utility function of gains and losses, and in particular the original evidence for loss aversion reported by Kahneman and Tversky (Econometrica  47:263-291, 1979). We suggest that loss aversion proponents have over-interpreted these findings. Specifically, the early studies of utility functions have shown that while very large losses are overweighted, smaller losses are often not. In addition, the findings of some of these studies have been systematically misrepresented to reflect loss aversion, though they did not find it. These findings shed light both on the inability of modern studies to reproduce loss aversion as well as a second literature arguing strongly for it.

  17. Robust loss functions for boosting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Takafumi; Takenouchi, Takashi; Eguchi, Shinto; Murata, Noboru

    2007-08-01

    Boosting is known as a gradient descent algorithm over loss functions. It is often pointed out that the typical boosting algorithm, Adaboost, is highly affected by outliers. In this letter, loss functions for robust boosting are studied. Based on the concept of robust statistics, we propose a transformation of loss functions that makes boosting algorithms robust against extreme outliers. Next, the truncation of loss functions is applied to contamination models that describe the occurrence of mislabels near decision boundaries. Numerical experiments illustrate that the proposed loss functions derived from the contamination models are useful for handling highly noisy data in comparison with other loss functions.

  18. Loss Aversion and Individual Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that loss aversion affects the valuation of non-market goods. Using stated choice data, this paper presents an empirical investigation of how individual-level loss aversion varies with observable personal characteristics and with the choice context. We investigate loss...... aversion with respect to travel time and money, and find significant loss aversion in both dimensions. The degree of loss aversion in the time dimension is larger than in the money dimension, and depends on age and education. Subjects tend to be more loss averse when the reference is well established....

  19. Prior knowledge processing for initial state of Kalman filter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suzdaleva, Evgenia

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2010), s. 188-202 ISSN 0890-6327 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/06/P434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Kalman filtering * prior knowledge * state-space model * initial state distribution Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.729, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/suzdaleva-prior knowledge processing for initial state of kalman filter.pdf

  20. Role of strategies and prior exposure in mental rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D; Neff, Nicole L

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of these two studies was to examine sex differences in strategy use and the effect of prior exposure on the performance on Vandenberg and Kuse's 1978 Mental Rotation Test. A total of 152 participants completed the spatial task and self-reported their strategy use. Consistent with previous studies, men outperformed women. Strategy usage did not account for these differences, although guessing did. Previous exposure to the Mental Rotation Test, American College Test scores and frequent computer or video game play predicted performance on the test. These results suggest that prior exposure to spatial tasks may provide cues to improve participants' performance.

  1. Phase transitions in restricted Boltzmann machines with generic priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Adriano; Genovese, Giuseppe; Sollich, Peter; Tantari, Daniele

    2017-10-01

    We study generalized restricted Boltzmann machines with generic priors for units and weights, interpolating between Boolean and Gaussian variables. We present a complete analysis of the replica symmetric phase diagram of these systems, which can be regarded as generalized Hopfield models. We underline the role of the retrieval phase for both inference and learning processes and we show that retrieval is robust for a large class of weight and unit priors, beyond the standard Hopfield scenario. Furthermore, we show how the paramagnetic phase boundary is directly related to the optimal size of the training set necessary for good generalization in a teacher-student scenario of unsupervised learning.

  2. Prospective regularization design in prior-image-based reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Hao; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Stayman, J Webster

    2015-01-01

    Prior-image-based reconstruction (PIBR) methods leveraging patient-specific anatomical information from previous imaging studies and/or sequences have demonstrated dramatic improvements in dose utilization and image quality for low-fidelity data. However, a proper balance of information from the prior images and information from the measurements is required (e.g. through careful tuning of regularization parameters). Inappropriate selection of reconstruction parameters can lead to detrimental effects including false structures and failure to improve image quality. Traditional methods based on heuristics are subject to error and sub-optimal solutions, while exhaustive searches require a large number of computationally intensive image reconstructions. In this work, we propose a novel method that prospectively estimates the optimal amount of prior image information for accurate admission of specific anatomical changes in PIBR without performing full image reconstructions. This method leverages an analytical approximation to the implicitly defined PIBR estimator, and introduces a predictive performance metric leveraging this analytical form and knowledge of a particular presumed anatomical change whose accurate reconstruction is sought. Additionally, since model-based PIBR approaches tend to be space-variant, a spatially varying prior image strength map is proposed to optimally admit changes everywhere in the image (eliminating the need to know change locations a priori). Studies were conducted in both an ellipse phantom and a realistic thorax phantom emulating a lung nodule surveillance scenario. The proposed method demonstrated accurate estimation of the optimal prior image strength while achieving a substantial computational speedup (about a factor of 20) compared to traditional exhaustive search. Moreover, the use of the proposed prior strength map in PIBR demonstrated accurate reconstruction of anatomical changes without foreknowledge of change locations in

  3. C. A. Meredith, A. N. Prior, and Possible Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Per Frederik Vilhelm; Rybaříková, Zuzana

    of Meredith’s and Prior’s work. On the one hand, it might cause corruption of Meredith’s system of logic and lead to paradoxes, as Prior pointed out in ‘Modal Logic with Functorial Variables and a Contingent Constant’. On the other hand, considering Prior as a mere follower of Meredith could cause......, their understanding of the relevant formal representations and indeed their general approach to modal logic considerably differed. These differences should be pointed out in order to more precisely appreciate the contribution of each of these authors. To neglect the differences could cause the misinterpretation...

  4. Tragic loss at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Ski Club

    2015-01-01

    Tragic loss at CERN The CERN community is mourning the tragic loss of two members of the CERN Ski Club. On Sunday, April 12, an avalanche buried four out of five skiers, taking part in a ski touring in the region of the Becs de Bosson in Valais (CH). The fifth skier, who had not been buried in the snow,  courageously managed to save two of the skiers, but Hervé Milcent, 49 years, federal ski instructor, and Mattieu Cattin, 33 years, were buried under two to three meters of snow, far down the avalanche slope, and did not survive, despite the fast arrival of the mountain rescue. In its 40 years of existence, the CERN Ski Club, one of the biggest in the Geneva area, has never been confronted with such a tragedy. The passing of Hervé and Matthieu has deeply shocked and saddened all volunteers of the Club as well as the entire alpine community. The ski touring section of the club would like to honour its friend Hervé, who joined the club in 1998. In 2003 he became res...

  5. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  6. Female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig's type) B) The "Christmas tree pattern" where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

  7. SU-E-J-68: Adaptive Radiotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer: Re-Planning Based On Prior Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, N; Padgett, K [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Evans, J; Sleeman, W; Song, S [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Fatyga, M [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Adaptive Radiotherapy (ART) with frequent CT imaging has been used to improve dosimetric accuracy by accounting for anatomical variations, such as primary tumor shrinkage and/or body weight loss, in Head and Neck (H&N) patients. In most ART strategies, the difference between the planned and the delivered dose is estimated by generating new plans on repeated CT scans using dose-volume constraints used with the initial planning CT without considering already delivered dose. The aim of this study was to assess the dosimetric gains achieved by re-planning based on prior dose by comparing them to re-planning not based-on prior dose for H&N patients. Methods: Ten locally-advanced H&N cancer patients were selected for this study. For each patient, six weekly CT imaging were acquired during the course of radiotherapy. PTVs, parotids, cord, brainstem, and esophagus were contoured on both planning and six weekly CT images. ART with weekly re-plans were done by two strategies: 1) Generating a new optimized IMRT plan without including prior dose from previous fractions (NoPriorDose) and 2) Generating a new optimized IMRT plan based on the prior dose given from previous fractions (PriorDose). Deformable image registration was used to accumulate the dose distributions between planning and six weekly CT scans. The differences in accumulated doses for both strategies were evaluated using the DVH constraints for all structures. Results: On average, the differences in accumulated doses for PTV1, PTV2 and PTV3 for NoPriorDose and PriorDose strategies were <2%. The differences in Dmean to the cord and brainstem were within 3%. The esophagus Dmean was reduced by 2% using PriorDose. PriorDose strategy, however, reduced the left parotid D50 and Dmean by 15% and 14% respectively. Conclusion: This study demonstrated significant parotid sparing, potentially reducing xerostomia, by using ART with IMRT optimization based on prior dose for weekly re-planning of H&N cancer patients.

  8. Judged seriousness of environmental losses: reliability and cause of loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Dawn Nannini; Robert B. Gorter; Paul A. Bell; George L. Peterson

    2002-01-01

    Public judgments of the seriousness of environmental losses were found to be internally consistent for most respondents, and largely unaffected by attempts to manipulate responses by altering the mix of losses being judged. Both findings enhance confidence in the feasibility of developing reliable rankings of the seriousness of environmental losses to aid resource...

  9. Loss of CIB2 Causes Profound Hearing Loss and Abolishes Mechanoelectrical Transduction in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and integrin-binding protein 2 (CIB2 belongs to a protein family with four known members, CIB1 through CIB4, which are characterized by multiple calcium-binding EF-hand domains. Among the family members, the Cib1 and Cib2 genes are expressed in mouse cochlear hair cells, and mutations in the human CIB2 gene have been associated with nonsyndromic deafness DFNB48 and syndromic deafness USH1J. To further explore the function of CIB1 and CIB2 in hearing, we established Cib1 and Cib2 knockout mice using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-associated Cas9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technique. We found that loss of CIB1 protein does not affect auditory function, whereas loss of CIB2 protein causes profound hearing loss in mice. Further investigation revealed that hair cell stereocilia development is affected in Cib2 knockout mice. Noticeably, loss of CIB2 abolishes mechanoelectrical transduction (MET currents in auditory hair cells. In conclusion, we show here that although both CIB1 and CIB2 are readily detected in the cochlea, only loss of CIB2 results in profound hearing loss, and that CIB2 is essential for auditory hair cell MET.

  10. Rosiglitazone delayed weight loss and anorexia while attenuating adipose depletion in mice with cancer cachexia

    OpenAIRE

    Asp, Michelle L.; Tian, Min; Kliewer, Kara L.; Belury, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Cachexia is characterized by severe weight loss, including adipose and muscle wasting, and occurs in a large percentage of cancer patients. Insulin resistance contributes to dysregulated metabolism in cachexia and occurs prior to weight loss in mice with colon-26 tumor-induced cachexia. Therefore, we hypothesized that the insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone, would attenuate the loss of adipose and muscle to result in improved outcomes for mice with late-stage cachexia. Male CD2F1 mice were inoc...

  11. Hearing loss among older construction workers: Updated analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement, John; Welch, Laura S; Ringen, Knut; Cranford, Kim; Quinn, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    A prior study of this construction worker population found significant noise-associated hearing loss. This follow-up study included a much larger study population and consideration of additional risk factors. Data included audiometry, clinical chemistry, personal history, and work history. Qualitative exposure metrics for noise and solvents were developed. Analyses compared construction workers to an internal reference group with lower exposures and an external worker population with low noise exposure. Among participants (n = 19 127) an overall prevalence of hearing loss of 58% was observed, with significantly increased prevalence across all construction trades. Construction workers had significantly increased risk of hearing loss compared to reference populations, with increasing risk by work duration. Noise exposure, solvent exposure, hypertension, and smoking were significant risk factors in multivariate models. Results support a causal relationship between construction trades work and hearing loss. Prevention should focus on reducing exposure to noise, solvents, and cigarette smoke. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Multiple job holding, local labor markets, and the business cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry T. Hirsch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract About 5 % of US workers hold multiple jobs, which can exacerbate or mitigate employment changes over the business cycle. Theory is ambiguous and prior literature is not fully conclusive. We examine the relationship between multiple job holding and local unemployment rates using a large Current Population Survey data set of workers in urban labor markets during 1998–2013. Labor markets with high unemployment have moderately lower rates of multiple job holding. Yet no relationship between multiple job holding and unemployment is found within markets over time, with near-zero estimates being precisely estimated. Multiple job holding is largely acyclic. JEL Classification: J21

  13. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Noise-Induced Hearing Loss On this page: What is ... I find additional information about NIHL? What is noise-induced hearing loss? Every day, we experience sound ...

  14. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Language: English (US) Español ( ... when hazardous noise levels cannot be adequately reduced. Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog ...

  15. Age-related hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grow older. Your genes and loud noise (from rock concerts or music headphones) may play a large role. The following factors contribute to age-related hearing loss: Family history (age-related hearing loss tends to run in ...

  16. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back to section menu Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ... section Home Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ...

  17. Hearing Loss: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss Symptoms, Devices, Prevention & Research Past Issues / Spring ... a disease. It can accompany any type of hearing loss. It can be a side effect of ...

  18. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  19. The Prior Can Often Only Be Understood in the Context of the Likelihood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gelman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A key sticking point of Bayesian analysis is the choice of prior distribution, and there is a vast literature on potential defaults including uniform priors, Jeffreys’ priors, reference priors, maximum entropy priors, and weakly informative priors. These methods, however, often manifest a key conceptual tension in prior modeling: a model encoding true prior information should be chosen without reference to the model of the measurement process, but almost all common prior modeling techniques are implicitly motivated by a reference likelihood. In this paper we resolve this apparent paradox by placing the choice of prior into the context of the entire Bayesian analysis, from inference to prediction to model evaluation.

  20. Impact of preoperative patient characteristics on posturethroplasty recurrence: The significance of stricture length and prior treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibril Oyekunle Bello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urethral strictures are common in urologic practice of Sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. We determine the rate of stricture recurrence following urethroplasty for anterior urethral strictures and evaluate preoperative variables that predict of stricture recurrence in our practice. Subjects and Methods: Thirty-six men who had urethroplasty for proven anterior urethral stricture disease between February 2012 and January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative factors including age, socioeconomic factors, comorbidities, etiology of strictures, stricture location, stricture length, periurethral spongiofibrosis, and prior stricture treatments were assessed for independent predictors of stricture recurrence. Results: The median age was 49.5 years (range 21-90, median stricture length was 4 cm (range 1-18 cm and the overall recurrence rate was 27.8%. Postinfectious strictures, pan urethral strictures or multiple strictures involving the penile and bulbar urethra were more common. Most patients had penile circular fasciocutaneous flap urethroplasty. Following univariate analysis of potential preoperative predictors of stricture recurrence, stricture length, and prior treatments with dilations or urethrotomies were found to be significantly associated with stricture recurrence. On multivariate analysis, they both remained statistically significant. Patients who had prior treatments had greater odds of having a recurrent stricture (odds ratio 18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-224.3. Stricture length was dichotomized based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis, and strictures of length ≥5 cm had significantly greater recurrence (area under ROC curve of 0.825, 95% CI 0.690-0.960, P = 0.032. Conclusion: Patients who had prior dilatations or urethrotomies and those with long strictures particularly strictures ≥5 cm have significantly greater odds of developing a recurrence following urethroplasty in Nigerian

  1. Extending Prior Posts in Dyadic Online Text Chat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudini, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    This study explores whether chat users are able to extend prior, apparently completed posts in the dyadic online text chat context. Dyadic text chat has a unique turn-taking system, and most chat softwares do not permit users to monitor one another's written messages-in-progress. This is likely to impact on their use of online extensions as an…

  2. 13 CFR 305.14 - Occupancy prior to completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Occupancy prior to completion. 305.14 Section 305.14 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... the Recipient's risk and must follow the requirements of local and State law. ...

  3. Do managers manipulate earnings prior to management buyouts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Yaping; Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    To address the question as to whether managers intending to purchase their company by means of a levered buyout transaction manipulate earnings in order to buy their firm on the cheap, we study the different types of earnings management prior to the transaction: accrual management, real earnings

  4. Do Managers Manipulate Earnings Prior to Management Buyouts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Y.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: To address the question as to whether managers manipulate accounting numbers downwards prior to management buyouts (MBOs), we implement an industry-adjusted buyout-specific approach and receive an affirmative answer. In UK buyout companies, negative earnings manipulation (understating the

  5. Recognition of Prior Learning as an integral component of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is irrespective of whether that learning has been acquired through unstructured learning, performance development, off-the-job assessment, or skills and knowledge that meet workplace needs but have been gained through various previous learning experiences. The concept Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is ...

  6. Investigation into alternative sludge conditioning prior to dewatering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smollen, M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available have proven that the mixture of char and a small quantity of polyelectrolyte (0.5 to 1kg per ton of dry solids), used as a conditioner prior to centrifugation and filtration tests, produced cake solids concentration superior to that obtained by using...

  7. An Adaptively Accelerated Bayesian Deblurring Method with Entropy Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hoon Kim

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of an efficient adaptively accelerated iterative deblurring algorithm based on Bayesian statistical concept has been reported. Entropy of an image has been used as a “prior” distribution and instead of additive form, used in conventional acceleration methods an exponent form of relaxation constant has been used for acceleration. Thus the proposed method is called hereafter as adaptively accelerated maximum a posteriori with entropy prior (AAMAPE. Based on empirical observations in different experiments, the exponent is computed adaptively using first-order derivatives of the deblurred image from previous two iterations. This exponent improves speed of the AAMAPE method in early stages and ensures stability at later stages of iteration. In AAMAPE method, we also consider the constraint of the nonnegativity and flux conservation. The paper discusses the fundamental idea of the Bayesian image deblurring with the use of entropy as prior, and the analytical analysis of superresolution and the noise amplification characteristics of the proposed method. The experimental results show that the proposed AAMAPE method gives lower RMSE and higher SNR in 44% lesser iterations as compared to nonaccelerated maximum a posteriori with entropy prior (MAPE method. Moreover, AAMAPE followed by wavelet wiener filtering gives better result than the state-of-the-art methods.

  8. Structure of NCI Cooperative Groups Program Prior to NCTN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how the National Cancer Institute’s Cooperative Groups Program was structured prior to its being replaced by NCI’s National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN). The NCTN gives funds and other support to cancer research organizations to conduct cancer clinical trials.

  9. Reference Priors For Non-Normal Two-Sample Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, C.; Steel, M.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The reference prior algorithm (Berger and Bernardo, 1992) is applied to locationscale models with any regular sampling density. A number of two-sample problems is analyzed in this general context, extending the dierence, ratio and product of Normal means problems outside Normality, while explicitly

  10. Reference Priors for the General Location-Scale Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, C.; Steel, M.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The reference prior algorithm (Berger and Bernardo 1992) is applied to multivariate location-scale models with any regular sampling density, where we establish the irrelevance of the usual assumption of Normal sampling if our interest is in either the location or the scale. This result immediately

  11. Bayesian genomic selection: the effect of haplotype lenghts and priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Trine Michelle; Janss, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Breeding values for animals with marker data are estimated using a genomic selection approach where data is analyzed using Bayesian multi-marker association models. Fourteen model scenarios with varying haplotype lengths, hyper parameter and prior distributions were compared to find the scenario ...

  12. Prior-to-Exam: What Activities Enhance Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, C. J.; Healy, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Can instructors impact their student performance by recommending an activity just prior to taking an exam? In this study, college students were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (study, exercise, or meditation) or a control group. Each group was given two different types of tests; a traditional concept exam, and a non-traditional…

  13. 5 CFR 6401.103 - Prior approval for outside employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 6401.103 Section 6401.103 Administrative Personnel ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY § 6401.103 Prior approval... her Deputy Ethics Official before engaging in outside employment, with or without compensation, that...

  14. Anxiety and blood pressure prior to dental treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamins, C.; Schuurs, A.H.; Asscheman, H.; Hoogstraten, J.

    1990-01-01

    Assessed dental anxiety and blood pressure immediately prior to a dental appointment in 24 patients attending a university dental clinic or a clinic for anxious dental patients in the Netherlands. Blood pressure was assessed by 2 independent methods, and the interchangeability of the blood-pressure

  15. Morbidity prior to a Diagnosis of Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) causes burden to the sufferer, the healthcare system, and society. Most studies have focused on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) after a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS); however, the overall morbidity prior...

  16. Recognising Health Care Assistants' Prior Learning through a Caring Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This article critically appraises a process of recognising prior learning (RPL) using analytical tools from Habermas' theory of communicative action. The RPL process is part of an in-service training program for health care assistants where the goal is to become a licensed practical nurse. Data about the RPL process were collected using interviews…

  17. Source-specific Informative Prior for i-Vector Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Lee, Kong Aik; Li, Haizhou

    2015-01-01

    An i-vector is a low-dimensional fixed-length representation of a variable-length speech utterance, and is defined as the posterior mean of a latent variable conditioned on the observed feature sequence of an utterance. The assumption is that the prior for the latent variable is non...

  18. Risk for malnutrition in patients prior to vascular surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, Lies Ter; Banning, Louise B D; Visser, Linda; Roodenburg, Jan L N; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P; Pol, Robert A; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is an important risk factor for adverse post-operative outcomes. The prevalence of risk for malnutrition is unknown in patients prior to vascular surgery. We aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of risk for malnutrition in this patient group. METHODS: Patients

  19. Imprecision and prior-data conflict in generalized Bayesian inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Gero; Augustin, T. (Thomas)

    2009-01-01

    A great advantage of imprecise probability models over models based on precise, traditional probabilities is the potential to reflect the amount of knowledge they stand for. Consequently, imprecise probability models promise to offer a vivid tool for handling situations of prior-data conflict in

  20. 5 CFR 7901.102 - Prior approval for outside employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 7901.102 Prior approval for outside... or designee. The written request shall be submitted through the employee's supervisor or human resource office and shall, at a minimum, identify the employer or other person for whom the services are to...

  1. The Transformation of Higher Education through Prior Learning Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetz, Anya

    2011-01-01

    Providing college credit for prior learning is nothing new. The American Council on Education's Credit Recommendation Service (CREDIT), the largest national program making credit recommendations for workplace and other training, dates to 1974. Several colleges that specialize in the practice--Excelsior and Empire State in New York, Thomas Edison…

  2. Simultaneous tomographic reconstruction and segmentation with class priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romanov, Mikhail; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dong, Yiqiu

    2015-01-01

    are combined to produce a reconstruction that is identical to the segmentation. We consider instead a hybrid approach that simultaneously produces both a reconstructed image and segmentation. We incorporate priors about the desired classes of the segmentation through a Hidden Markov Measure Field Model, and we...

  3. 47 CFR 25.118 - Modifications not requiring prior authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modifications not requiring prior authorization. 25.118 Section 25.118 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25...

  4. The epizootiology of the highly pathogenic avian influenza prior to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The epizootiology of the highly pathogenic avian influenza prior to the anticipated pandemic of the early twenty first century. ... Transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1 from domestic fowls back to migratory waterfowl in western China has increased the geographic spread. This has grave consequences for the poultry ...

  5. 18 CFR 415.51 - Prior non-conforming structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prior non-conforming structures. 415.51 Section 415.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... damaged by any means, including a flood, to the extent of 50 percent or more of its market value at that...

  6. Estimating security betas using prior information based on firm fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosemans, Mathijs; Frehen, Rik; Schotman, Peter; Bauer, Rob

    We propose a hybrid approach for estimating beta that shrinks rolling window estimates towards firm-specific priors motivated by economic theory. Our method yields superior forecasts of beta that have important practical implications. First, hybrid betas carry a significant price of risk in the

  7. Estimating Security Betas Using Prior Information Based on Firm Fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosemans, Mathijs; Frehen, Rik; Schotman, Peter; Bauer, Rob

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hybrid approach for estimating beta that shrinks rolling window estimates toward firm-specific priors motivated by economic theory. Our method yields superior forecasts of beta that have important practical implications. First, unlike standard rolling window betas, hybrid betas carry a

  8. Incorporating priors for EEG source imaging and connectivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu eLei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography source imaging (ESI is a useful technique to localize the generators from a given scalp electric measurement and to investigate the temporal dynamics of the large-scale neural circuits. By introducing reasonable priors from other modalities, ESI reveals the most probable sources and communication structures at every moment in time. Here, we review the available priors from such techniques as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, functional MRI (fMRI, and positron emission tomography (PET. The modality's specific contribution is analyzed from the perspective of source reconstruction. For spatial priors, such as EEG-correlated fMRI, temporally coherent networks and resting-state fMRI are systematically introduced in the ESI. Moreover, the fiber tracking (diffusion tensor imaging, DTI and neuro-stimulation techniques (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS are also introduced as the potential priors, which can help to draw inferences about the neuroelectric connectivity in the source space. We conclude that combining EEG source imaging with other complementary modalities is a promising approach towards the study of brain networks in cognitive and clinical neurosciences.

  9. Nonextensive Entropy, Prior PDFs and Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Shafee, Fariel

    2008-01-01

    We show that using nonextensive entropy can lead to spontaneous symmetry breaking when a parameter changes its value from that applicable for a symmetric domain, as in field theory. We give the physical reasons and also show that even for symmetric Dirichlet priors, such a defnition of the entropy and the parameter value can lead to asymmetry when entropy is maximized.

  10. Effects of prior interpretation on situation assessment is crime analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstholt, J.H.; Eikelboom, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - To investigate the effects of prior case knowledge on the judgement of crime analysts. Design/methodology/approach - Explains that crime analysts assist when an investigation team has converged/agreed on a probable scenario, attributes this convergence to group-think, but points out this

  11. Prior experience, cognitive perceptions and psychological skills of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between the prior experience, cognitive perceptions and psychological skills of senior rugby players in South Africa. The study population included 139 trans-national players, 106 provincial players and 95 club rugby players (N=340). A cross-sectional design was ...

  12. Mountain bike racing - the influence of prior glycogen-inducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To investigate the effect of pre-exercise glutamine supplementation and the influence of a prior acute bout of glycogen-reducing exercise on the general stress and immune response to acute high-intensity cycling. Design. Randomised, double-blind, cross-over supplementation study. Setting and intervention.

  13. Preparing learners with partly incorrect intuitive prior knowledge for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eOhst

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Learners sometimes have incoherent and fragmented intuitive prior knowledge that is (partly ‘incompatible’ with the to-be-learned contents. Such knowledge in pieces can cause conceptual disorientation and cognitive overload while learning. We hypothesized that a pre-training intervention providing a generalized schema as a structuring framework for such knowledge in pieces would support (reorganizing-processes of prior knowledge and thus reduce unnecessary cognitive load during subsequent learning. Fifty-six student teachers participated in the experiment. A framework group underwent a pre-training intervention providing a generalized, categorical schema for categorizing primary learning strategies and related but different strategies as a cognitive framework for (re-organizing their prior knowledge. Our control group received comparable factual information but no framework. Afterwards, all participants learned about primary learning strategies. The framework group claimed to possess higher levels of interest and self-efficacy, achieved higher learning outcomes, and learned more efficiently. Hence, providing a categorical framework can help overcome the barrier of incorrect prior knowledge in pieces.

  14. Preparing learners with partly incorrect intuitive prior knowledge for learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohst, Andrea; Fondu, Béatrice M. E.; Glogger, Inga; Nückles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Learners sometimes have incoherent and fragmented intuitive prior knowledge that is (partly) “incompatible” with the to-be-learned contents. Such knowledge in pieces can cause conceptual disorientation and cognitive overload while learning. We hypothesized that a pre-training intervention providing a generalized schema as a structuring framework for such knowledge in pieces would support (re)organizing-processes of prior knowledge and thus reduce unnecessary cognitive load during subsequent learning. Fifty-six student teachers participated in the experiment. A framework group underwent a pre-training intervention providing a generalized, categorical schema for categorizing primary learning strategies and related but different strategies as a cognitive framework for (re-)organizing their prior knowledge. Our control group received comparable factual information but no framework. Afterwards, all participants learned about primary learning strategies. The framework group claimed to possess higher levels of interest and self-efficacy, achieved higher learning outcomes, and learned more efficiently. Hence, providing a categorical framework can help overcome the barrier of incorrect prior knowledge in pieces. PMID:25071638

  15. 5 CFR 6701.106 - Prior approval for outside employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION § 6701.106 Prior approval... to be performed; (4) The name and address of the prospective outside employer for which work will be... affects the outside employer and will disqualify himself from future participation in matters that could...

  16. 5 CFR 7401.102 - Prior approval for outside employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD § 7401.102 Prior approval... written approval from the employee's supervisor and the concurrence of the Designated Agency Ethics... name of the employer or organization; (ii) The nature of the legal activity or other work to be...

  17. 5 CFR 7101.102 - Prior approval for outside employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD § 7101.102 Prior approval... forth, at a minimum: (i) The name of the employer; (ii) The nature of the legal activity or other work... designee may consult with the Designated Agency Ethics Official to ensure that the request for outside...

  18. Effects of regularisation priors on dynamic PET Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldeira, Liliana; Scheins, Juergen; Silva, Nuno da; Gaens, Michaela; Shah, N Jon

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic PET provides temporal information about tracer uptake. However, each PET frame has usually low statistics, resulting in noisy images. The goal is to study effects of prior regularisation on dynamic PET data. Quantification and noise in image-domain and time-domain as well as impact on parametric images is assessed.

  19. Exploiting prior knowledge of English, Mathematics and Chemistry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores prior knowledge with the view to enhancing the study of French. Juxtaposing sentences in French and English to underscore syntactic differences and similarities, the paper attributes numerical values to nouns and adjectives in French in order to demonstrate the mathematical imbalance and lack of ...

  20. Using Students' Prior Knowledge to Teach Social Penetration Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chornet-Roses, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Bransford, Brown, and Cocking argue that acknowledging students' prior ideas and beliefs about a subject and incorporating them into the classroom enhances student learning. This article presents an activity which serves to hone three student learning outcomes: analysis of communication, inductive reasoning, and self-reflection. The goal of this…

  1. 40 CFR 266.101 - Management prior to burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... storage units that store mixtures of hazardous waste and the primary fuel to the boiler or industrial... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.101 Management prior to burning. (a) Generators. Generators of hazardous waste that is burned in a boiler or industrial furnace...

  2. The Cost of Prior Restraint: "U. S. v. The Progressive."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloski, John; Dyer, Carolyn Stewart

    Increased litigation and rising litigation costs threaten the future of newspapers and magazines. A case study was conducted to determine the costs and effects of "United States v. 'The Progressive,'" a prior restraint case over the publication in 1979 of an article on the hydrogen bomb. "The Progressive," which operates at a…

  3. Class II correction prior to orthodontics with the carriere distalizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Class II correction is a challenge in orthodontics with many existing devices being complex, too compliance-driven, or too prone to breakage. The Carriere Distalizer allows for straightforward Class II correction prior to orthodontics (fixed or clear aligners) at a time when no other mechanics interfere, and compliance is at its best.

  4. Prior Exposure and Educational Environment towards Entrepreneurial Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Soria-Barreto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on the responses to a questionnaire applied to 351 students of business management in Chile and Colombia. Through the analysis of structural equations on Ajzen’s model, we found that entrepreneurial education, the University environment, and the prior entrepreneurial exposure are mediated by the factors of the Ajzen`s model to generate entrepreneurial intention in higher education students. The results show that entrepreneurial education strengthens the perceived control of behavior and, with it, albeit in a differentiated way, the entrepreneurial intention of men and women. University environment affects entrepreneurial intention through attitude towards entrepreneurship; and finally, the work experience, used as one of the variables that measure prior entrepreneurial exposure, explains the entrepreneurial intention inversely through the subjective norms. We found that gender has a moderate effect on perceived control of behavior and entrepreneurial education. The scarce studies on the impact of the University environment and the mixed results of the entrepreneurial education and prior entrepreneurial exposure toward entrepreneurial intention show the necessity for further research. A second contribution is the opportunity to present new evidence about the relationship between University environment, entrepreneurial education and prior exposure to developing countries of South America, including the gender effect (moderator for entrepreneurial intention. It is important to note that most of the research in this area applies to developed countries, and some scholars suggest that extrapolating the results is not convenient.

  5. Prior implicit knowledge shapes human threshold for orientation noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe H; Bex, Peter J; Fiser, József

    2015-01-01

    , resulting in an image-class-specific threshold that changes the shape and position of the dipper function according to image class. These findings do not fit a filter-based feed-forward view of orientation coding, but can be explained by a process that utilizes an experience-based perceptual prior...

  6. Abdominal multi-organ CT segmentation using organ correlation graph and prediction-based shape and location priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Toshiyuki; Linguraru, Marius George; Hori, Masatoshi; Summers, Ronald M; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    The paper addresses the automated segmentation of multiple organs in upper abdominal CT data. We propose a framework of multi-organ segmentation which is adaptable to any imaging conditions without using intensity information in manually traced training data. The features of the framework are as follows: (1) the organ correlation graph (OCG) is introduced, which encodes the spatial correlations among organs inherent in human anatomy; (2) the patient-specific organ shape and location priors obtained using OCG enable the estimation of intensity priors from only target data and optionally a number of untraced CT data of the same imaging condition as the target data. The proposed methods were evaluated through segmentation of eight abdominal organs (liver, spleen, left and right kidney, pancreas, gallbladder, aorta, and inferior vena cava) from 86 CT data obtained by four imaging conditions at two hospitals. The performance was comparable to the state-of-the-art method using intensity priors constructed from manually traced data.

  7. Clinical utility of carotid duplex ultrasound prior to cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Judith C; Kabbani, Loay S; Peterson, Edward L; Masabni, Khalil; Morgan, Jeffrey A; Brooks, Sara; Wertella, Kathleen P; Paone, Gaetano

    2016-03-01

    Clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of carotid duplex examination prior to cardiac surgery have been questioned by the multidisciplinary committee creating the 2012 Appropriate Use Criteria for Peripheral Vascular Laboratory Testing. We report the clinical outcomes and postoperative neurologic symptoms in patients who underwent carotid duplex ultrasound prior to open heart surgery at a tertiary institution. Using the combined databases from our clinical vascular laboratory and the Society of Thoracic Surgery, a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent carotid duplex ultrasound within 13 months prior to open heart surgery from March 2005 to March 2013 was performed. The outcomes between those who underwent carotid duplex scanning (group A) and those who did not (group B) were compared. Among 3233 patients in the cohort who underwent cardiac surgery, 515 (15.9%) patients underwent a carotid duplex ultrasound preoperatively, and 2718 patients did not (84.1%). Among the patients who underwent carotid screening vs no screening, there was no statistically significant difference in the risk factors of cerebrovascular disease (10.9% vs 12.7%; P = .26), prior stroke (8.2% vs 7.2%; P = .41), and prior transient ischemic attack (2.9% vs 3.3%; P = .24). For those undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 306 (17.8%) of 1723 patients underwent preoperative carotid duplex ultrasound. Among patients who had carotid screening prior to CABG, the incidence of carotid disease was low: 249 (81.4%) had minimal or mild stenosis (duplex scanning and those who did not. Primary outcomes of patients who underwent open heart surgery also showed no difference in the perioperative mortality (5.1% vs 6.9%; P = .14) and stroke (2.6% vs 2.4%; P = .85) between patients undergoing preoperative duplex scanning and those who did not. Operative intervention of severe carotid stenosis prior to isolated CABG occurred in 2 of the 17 patients (11.8%) identified who

  8. Effect of latency and packet loss on achievable bandwidth

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Following an incident with a slow database replication between CERN's data centers, we discovered that even a very low rate packet loss in the network can induce significant penalties to long distance single stream TCP transfers. We explore the behaviour of multiple congestion control algorithms in a controlled loss environment in order to understand what is the achievable throughput of TCP data transfers between the Meyrin and Wigner data centres.

  9. Effect of prior oophorectomy on changes in bone mineral density and carotid artery intima-media thickness in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucowski, Sara J; Mack, Wendy J; Shoupe, Donna; Kono, Naoko; Paulson, Richard; Hodis, Howard N

    2014-04-01

    To determine the effect of prior oophorectomy in healthy postmenopausal women on the rate of loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and rate of increase in carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). Secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial. University-based research clinic. Two hundred twenty-two healthy postmenopausal women in the Greater Los Angeles area. Baseline and annual screening of BMD and assessment of CIMT every 6 months for a total of 3 years. Changes in BMD and CIMT during postmenopausal years. Among women who were menopausal for more than 10 years, the rate of CIMT progression was statistically significantly less in women with intact ovaries compared with those in women with prior oophorectomy. In women 5-10 years postmenopause, there was a trend toward a slower loss of BMD in those who retained their ovaries, and in women more than 10 years postmenopause there was significantly less BMD loss in those who retained their ovaries. As time from menopausal transition increases, retained ovaries are associated with a slower rate of bone loss and a slower rate of thickening of the carotid artery wall compared with rates in menopausal women with oophorectomy. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantification of surgical blood loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marcel H; Ingvertsen, Britt T; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Jensen, Asger L; Kristensen, Annemarie T

    2006-06-01

    To compare gravimetric and colorimetric methods of quantifying surgical blood loss, and to determine if there is a correlation between preoperative hemostatic tests (buccal mucosa bleeding time [BMBT] and intraoperative blood loss). Prospective clinical study. Dogs (n=15) admitted for cutaneous tumor excision, orthopedic procedure, or exploratory laparotomy. Intraoperative blood loss was quantified by measuring irrigation fluid and weighing surgical sponges used for blood and fluid collection during surgery. Results of gravimetric measurements were then correlated to blood loss quantified using spectrophotometric analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) content. Hemostatic variables including BMBT were measured before surgery and compared with the calculated amount of blood loss. Blood loss quantified by gravimetric measurement showed a significant correlation with colorimetric determination of Hb content in surgical sponges and collected irrigation fluid (r=0.93, P<.0001). BMBT correlated weakly but significantly with intraoperative blood loss (r=0.56, P<.05). Quantifying intraoperative blood loss using spectrophotometric Hb analysis accurately assessed the amount of blood loss; however, it is a time-consuming procedure, primarily applicable as a research tool. Gravimetric evaluation of intraoperative blood loss was found to be an accurate method, which can be recommended for use in a clinical setting. Estimation of blood loss using a gravimetric method is accurate and applicable in the clinical setting and provides surgeons with a simple and objective tool to evaluate intraoperative blood loss.

  11. Retroactive Stop Loss Special Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pay (RSLSP), providing $500 for each month/partial month served in stop loss status. Service members served under stop loss must submit a claim for the special pay. Throughout the year, the services have or extension of service, became ineligible to receive retroactive stop loss special pay. There may be

  12. Losses compensation; Compensation des pertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One mission of RTE (Electric Power Transportation), is to watch over the losses compensation resulting from the power transport on the electric power network. Since january 2001, RTE makes good the electric losses by the purchase of energy. To choose the marketers, a consultation has been realized by RTE. This document presents the rules concerning these losses compensation. (A.L.B.)

  13. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  14. Treatment of multiple scalp cylindroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmilo Rončević

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cylindroma is a rare, benign adnexal tumor of the skin. The most frequent tumor location is the head, especially the scalp, and neck area. This type of tumor can occur as solitary or multiple tumors. Tumor diagnosis is relatively easy and is based on clinical findings and biopsy. The therapy of choice is surgical excision with parts or entire scalp excision depending on whether it is solitary or multiple tumor. We presented a 65-year-old male patient with multiple scalp tumors of 0.5–6 cm in diameter. An entire scalp excision was performed and the postoperative wounds (i.e., the periosteum of the skull and the fascia galea were covered with free skin graft of partial thickness. In order to prevent profuse bleeding, we placed a tourniquet around his head and performed bilateral temporary ligature of temporal artery prior to surgery. During the nine-year follow-up, there were no new tumors or tumor recurrence reported.

  15. Multiple leakage localization and leak size estimation in water networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, N.; Habibi, H.; Hurkens, C.A.J.; Klabbers, M.D.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Eijndhoven, van S.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Water distribution networks experience considerable losses due to leakage, often at multiple locations simultaneously. Leakage detection and localization based on sensor placement and online pressure monitoring could be fast and economical. Using the difference between estimated and measured

  16. Localization and loss of coherence in molecular double slit experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Burkhard [Institut fuer Chemie und Biochemie - Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Becker, Uwe, E-mail: langer@gpta.d, E-mail: becker_u@fhi-berlin.mpg.d [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-11-01

    In their famous paper Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen questioned 1935 the completeness of quantum mechanics concerning a local realistic description of our reality. They argued on the basis of superpositions of position and momentum states against the inherent non-locality and loss of information on prior conditions by quantum mechanics. This pioneering proposal was, however, too vague to be implemented in any experimental proof. Consequently, angular momentum related variables such as the polarization of light became the working horse of all experiments proving the EPR predictions. However, the spin and its related polarization properties are abstract quantities compared to position and momentum. Here we present the first evidence that non-locality and loss of prior quantum state information occurs also for position in ordinary space. This shows that the tunnelling effect and entanglement are inherently correlated.

  17. Localization and loss of coherence in molecular double slit experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, Burkhard; Becker, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    In their famous paper Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen questioned 1935 the completeness of quantum mechanics concerning a local realistic description of our reality. They argued on the basis of superpositions of position and momentum states against the inherent non-locality and loss of information on prior conditions by quantum mechanics. This pioneering proposal was, however, too vague to be implemented in any experimental proof. Consequently, angular momentum related variables such as the polarization of light became the working horse of all experiments proving the EPR predictions. However, the spin and its related polarization properties are abstract quantities compared to position and momentum. Here we present the first evidence that non-locality and loss of prior quantum state information occurs also for position in ordinary space. This shows that the tunnelling effect and entanglement are inherently correlated.

  18. Localization and loss of coherence in molecular double slit experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Burkhard; Becker, Uwe

    2009-11-01

    In their famous paper Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen questioned 1935 the completeness of quantum mechanics concerning a local realistic description of our reality. They argued on the basis of superpositions of position and momentum states against the inherent non-locality and loss of information on prior conditions by quantum mechanics. This pioneering proposal was, however, too vague to be implemented in any experimental proof. Consequently, angular momentum related variables such as the polarization of light became the working horse of all experiments proving the EPR predictions. However, the spin and its related polarization properties are abstract quantities compared to position and momentum. Here we present the first evidence that non-locality and loss of prior quantum state information occurs also for position in ordinary space. This shows that the tunnelling effect and entanglement are inherently correlated

  19. Radiotherapy for solitary plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmaus, M.C.; Neuhof, D.

    2014-01-01

    Solitary plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma require a differentiated radiotherapy. The irradiation for plasmacytoma with an adequate total dose (medullary 40-50 Gy or extramedullary 50-60 Gy) leads to a high degree of local control with a low rate of side effects. In cases of multiple myeloma radiotherapy will achieve effective palliation, both in terms of recalcification as well as reduction of neurological symptoms and analgesia. In terms of analgesia the rule is the higher the single dose fraction the faster the reduction of pain. As part of a conditioning treatment prior to stem cell transplantation radiotherapy contributes to the establishment of a graft versus myeloma effect (GVM). (orig.) [de

  20. Charged-particle multiplicity at LHC energies

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The talk presents the measurement of the pseudorapidity density and the multiplicity distribution with ALICE at the achieved LHC energies of 0.9 and 2.36 TeV.An overview about multiplicity measurements prior to LHC is given and the related theoretical concepts are briefly discussed.The analysis procedure is presented and the systematic uncertainties are detailed. The applied acceptance corrections and the treatment of diffraction are discussed.The results are compared with model predictions. The validity of KNO scaling in restricted phase space regions is revisited.