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Sample records for multiple phytochrome-interacting bhlh

  1. Phytochrome-interacting factors PIF4 and PIF5 negatively regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis under red light in Arabidopsis seedlings.

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    Liu, Zhongjuan; Zhang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Ping; Zhao, Chengzhou; Chen, Yadi; Bi, Yurong

    2015-09-01

    Light is an important environmental factor inducing anthocyanin accumulation in plants. Phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) have been shown to be a family of bHLH transcription factors involved in light signaling in Arabidopsis. Red light effectively increased anthocyanin accumulation in wild-type Col-0, whereas the effects were enhanced in pif4 and pif5 mutants but impaired in overexpression lines PIF4OX and PIF5OX, indicating that PIF4 and PIF5 are both negative regulators for red light-induced anthocyanin accumulation. Consistently, transcript levels of several genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulatory pathway, including CHS, F3'H, DFR, LDOX, PAP1 and TT8, were significantly enhanced in mutants pif4 and pif5 but decreased in PIF4OX and PIF5OX compared to in Col-0, indicating that PIF4 and PIF5 are transcriptional repressor of these gene. Transient expression assays revealed that PIF4 and PIF5 could repress red light-induced promoter activities of F3'H and DFR in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR) test and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that PIF5 could directly bind to G-box motifs present in the promoter of DFR. Taken together, these results suggest that PIF4 and PIF5 negatively regulate red light-induced anthocyanin accumulation through transcriptional repression of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. bHLH106 Integrates Functions of Multiple Genes through Their G-Box to Confer Salt Tolerance on Arabidopsis.

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    Ahmad, Aftab; Niwa, Yasuo; Goto, Shingo; Ogawa, Takeshi; Shimizu, Masanori; Suzuki, Akane; Kobayashi, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    An activation-tagging methodology was applied to dedifferentiated calli of Arabidopsis to identify new genes involved in salt tolerance. This identified salt tolerant callus 8 (stc8) as a gene encoding the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor bHLH106. bHLH106-knockout (KO) lines were more sensitive to NaCl, KCl, LiCl, ABA, and low temperatures than the wild-type. Back-transformation of the KO line rescued its phenotype, and over-expression (OX) of bHLH106 in differentiated plants exhibited tolerance to NaCl. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused with bHLH106 revealed that it was localized to the nucleus. Prepared bHLH106 protein was subjected to electrophoresis mobility shift assays against E-box sequences (5'-CANNTG-3'). The G-box sequence 5'-CACGTG-3' had the strongest interaction with bHLH106. bHLH106-OX lines were transcriptomically analyzed, and resultant up- and down-regulated genes selected on the criterion of presence of a G-box sequence. There were 198 genes positively regulated by bHLH106 and 36 genes negatively regulated; these genes possessed one or more G-box sequences in their promoter regions. Many of these genes are known to be involved in abiotic stress response. It is concluded that bHLH106 locates at a branching point in the abiotic stress response network by interacting directly to the G-box in genes conferring salt tolerance on plants.

  3. Functional Characterization of the Maize Phytochrome-Interacting Factors PIF4 and PIF5

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    Qingbiao Shi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs play important roles in photomorphogenesis, the shade avoidance response, and other aspects of plant growth and development. PIF family proteins have been well-studied in Arabidopsis thaliana, but little is known about their physiological functions and molecular mechanisms in maize (Zea mays. In this study, we investigated the physiological functions of ZmPIF4 and ZmPIF5, two highly conserved members of the PIF gene family. RT-qPCR and western blot analyses revealed that ZmPIF4 and ZmPIF5 expression and ZmPIF4 and ZmPIF5 levels peak at night and remain low during the day. Overexpression of ZmPIF4 and ZmPIF5 in Arabidopsis partially rescued the reduced hypocotyl elongation and defective response to gravity in pif1 pif3 pif4 pif5 quadruple mutants (pifq. In addition, under high red: far-red light conditions, Arabidopsis lines overexpressing ZmPIF4 exhibited a constitutive shade avoidance response, including early flowering, slender leaves and inflorescences, plant lodging and precocious leaf senescence. Furthermore, ZmPIF4 physically interacted with the Arabidopsis DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF GA1-3 (RGA, indicating a potential interaction between ZmPIF4 and gibberellin signaling pathway on plant growth. Taken together, our results revealed that ZmPIF4 and ZmPIF5 are functionally conserved proteins that may play conserved roles in the response to phytochrome signaling in plants.Highlights:In this study, the functions of ZmPIF4 and ZmPIF5 were characterized by expression in Arabidopsis, revealing conserved roles of PIF family proteins in photomorphogenesis and the shade avoidance response in land plants.

  4. Phytochrome Interacting Factors (PIFs in Solanum lycopersicum: Diversity, Evolutionary History and Expression Profiling during Different Developmental Processes.

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    Daniele Rosado

    Full Text Available Although the importance of light for tomato plant yield and edible fruit quality is well known, the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs, main components of phytochrome-mediated light signal transduction, have been studied almost exclusively in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, the diversity, evolution and expression profile of PIF gene subfamily in Solanum lycopersicum was characterized. Eight tomato PIF loci were identified, named SlPIF1a, SlPIF1b, SlPIF3, SlPIF4, SlPIF7a, SlPIF7b, SlPIF8a and SlPIF8b. The duplication of SlPIF1, SlPIF7 and SlPIF8 genes were dated and temporally coincided with the whole-genome triplication event that preceded tomato and potato divergence. Different patterns of mRNA accumulation in response to light treatments were observed during seedling deetiolation, dark-induced senescence, diel cycle and fruit ripening. SlPIF4 showed similar expression profile as that reported for A. thaliana homologs, indicating an evolutionary conserved function of PIF4 clade. A comprehensive analysis of the evolutionary and transcriptional data allowed proposing that duplicated SlPIFs have undergone sub- and neofunctionalization at mRNA level, pinpointing the importance of transcriptional regulation for the maintenance of duplicated genes. Altogether, the results indicate that genome polyploidization and functional divergence have played a major role in diversification of the Solanum PIF gene subfamily.

  5. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are new targets of JAZ repressors negatively regulating JA responses.

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    Sandra Fonseca

    Full Text Available Cell reprogramming in response to jasmonates requires a tight control of transcription that is achieved by the activity of JA-related transcription factors (TFs. Among them, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 have been described as activators of JA responses. Here we characterized the function of bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 that conform a phylogenetic clade closely related to MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4. We found that these bHLHs form homo- and heterodimers and also interact with JAZ repressors in vitro and in vivo. Phenotypic analysis of JA-regulated processes, including root and rosette growth, anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll loss and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae, on mutants and overexpression lines, suggested that these bHLHs are repressors of JA responses. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are mainly nuclear proteins and bind DNA with similar specificity to that of MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4, but lack a conserved activation domain, suggesting that repression is achieved by competition for the same cis-regulatory elements. Moreover, expression of bHLH017 is induced by JA and depends on MYC2, suggesting a negative feed-back regulation of the activity of positive JA-related TFs. Our results suggest that the competition between positive and negative TFs determines the output of JA-dependent transcriptional activation.

  6. Expression Patterns of OsPIL11, a Phytochrome-Interacting Factor in Rice, and Preliminary Analysis of Its Roles in Light Signal Transduction

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    Li LI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The expression patterns of OsPIL11, one of six putative phytochrome-interacting factors, were analyzed in different organs of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum. The expression of OsPIL11 was organ-specific and was regulated by leaf development, abscisic acid (ABA, jasmonic acid (JA and salicylic acid (SA. To further explore the role of OsPIL11 in plant light signal transduction, a plant expression vector of OsPIL11 was constructed and introduced into tobacco. When grown under continuous red light, OsPIL11-overexpressed transgenic tobacco exhibited shorter hypocotyls and larger cotyledons and leaves compared to wild-type seedlings. When grown under continuous far-red light, however, transgenic and wild-type seedlings showed similar phenotypes. These results indicate that OsPIL11 is involved in red light induced de-etiolation, but not in far-red light induced de-etiolation in transgenic tobacco, which lays the foundation for dissecting the function of OsPIL11 in phytochrome-mediated light signal transduction in rice.

  7. A Multiparameter Network Reveals Extensive Divergence between C. elegans bHLH Transcription Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, C.; De Masi, Federico; Newburger, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    parameters remain undetermined. We comprehensively identify dimerization partners, spatiotemporal expression patterns, and DNA-binding specificities for the C. elegans bHLH family of TFs, and model these data into an integrated network. This network displays both specificity and promiscuity, as some b......HLH proteins, DNA sequences, and tissues are highly connected, whereas others are not. By comparing all bHLH TFs, we find extensive divergence and that all three parameters contribute equally to bHLH divergence. Our approach provides a framework for examining divergence for other protein families in C. elegans...

  8. Characterization of hey bHLH genes in teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Christoph; Elmasri, Harun; Klamt, Barbara; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Gessler, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Hairy-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are targets of Delta-Notch signaling and represent essential components for a number of cell fate decisions during vertebrate embryogenesis. Hey genes encode a subfamily of hairy-related proteins that have been implicated in processes like somitogenesis, blood vessel and heart development. We have identified and characterized hey genes in three teleost fish lineages using degenerate PCR and database searches. Phylogenetic analysis of Hey proteins suggests a complex pattern of evolution with high divergence of hey2 in Takifugu rubripes (Fugu, Japanese pufferfish) and possibly loss in the related Tetraodon nigroviridis (the freshwater pufferfish). In addition, duplication of hey1 in both pufferfishes, Fugu and Tetraodon, was observed. Conversely, zebrafish (Danio rerio) has the same complement of three hey genes as known from mammals. All three hey genes show much more restricted gene expression profiles in zebrafish when compared to mouse. Importantly, while all three murine Hey genes are expressed in overlapping patterns in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) and somites, in zebrafish only hey1 shows PSM and somite expression in a highly dynamic fashion. Therefore, while overlapping expression might account for redundancy of hey function in higher vertebrates, this is unlikely to be the case in zebrafish. In deltaD (dlD) deficient after-eight zebrafish mutants, the dynamic expression of hey1 in the PSM is impaired and completely lost in newly formed somitomeres. Overexpression of dlD on the other hand results in the ectopic expression of hey1 in the axial mesoderm. Hence, hey1 represents a target of Delta-Notch signaling dynamically expressed during somite formation in zebrafish.

  9. Roles of bHLH genes in neural stem cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Hatakeyama, Jun; Ohsawa, Ryosuke

    2005-01-01

    Neural stem cells change their characteristics over time during development: they initially proliferate only and then give rise to neurons first and glial cells later. In the absence of the repressor-type basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) genes Hes1, Hes3 and Hes5, neural stem cells do not proliferate sufficiently but prematurely differentiate into neurons and become depleted without making the later born cell types such as astrocytes and ependymal cells. Thus, Hes genes are essential for maintenance of neural stem cells to make cells not only in correct numbers but also in full diversity. Hes genes antagonize the activator-type bHLH genes, which include Mash1, Math and Neurogenin. The activator-type bHLH genes promote the neuronal fate determination and induce expression of Notch ligands such as Delta. These ligands activate Notch signaling and upregulate Hes1 and Hes5 expression in neighboring cells, thereby maintaining these cells undifferentiated. Thus, the activator-type and repressor-type bHLH genes regulate each other, allowing only subsets of cells to undergo differentiation while keeping others to stay neural stem cells. This regulation is essential for generation of complex brain structures of appropriate size, shape and cell arrangement

  10. Genome-wide identification and characterization of the bHLH gene family in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hua; Fan, Hua-Jie; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2015-01-22

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a large superfamily of transcription factors, and play a central role in a wide range of metabolic, physiological, and developmental processes in higher organisms. Tomato is an important vegetable crop, and its genome sequence has been published recently. However, the bHLH gene family of tomato has not been systematically identified and characterized yet. In this study, we identified 159 bHLH protein-encoding genes (SlbHLH) in tomato genome and analyzed their structures. Although bHLH domains were conserved among the bHLH proteins between tomato and Arabidopsis, the intron sequences and distribution of tomato bHLH genes were extremely different compared with Arabidopsis. The gene duplication analysis showed that 58.5% and 6.3% of SlbHLH genes belonged to low-stringency and high-stringency duplication, respectively, indicating that the SlbHLH genes are mainly generated via short low-stringency region duplication in tomato. Subsequently, we classified the SlbHLH genes into 21 subfamilies by phylogenetic tree analysis, and predicted their possible functions by comparison with their homologous genes of Arabidopsis. Moreover, the expression profile analysis of SlbHLH genes from 10 different tissues showed that 21 SlbHLH genes exhibited tissue-specific expression. Further, we identified that 11 SlbHLH genes were associated with fruit development and ripening (eight of them associated with young fruit development and three with fruit ripening). The evolutionary analysis revealed that 92% SlbHLH genes might be evolved from ancestor(s) originated from early land plant, and 8% from algae. In this work, we systematically identified SlbHLHs by analyzing the tomato genome sequence using a set of bioinformatics approaches, and characterized their chromosomal distribution, gene structures, duplication, phylogenetic relationship and expression profiles, as well predicted their possible biological functions via comparative analysis

  11. Organ-specific gene expression: the bHLH protein Sage provides tissue specificity to Drosophila FoxA.

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    Fox, Rebecca M; Vaishnavi, Aria; Maruyama, Rika; Andrew, Deborah J

    2013-05-01

    FoxA transcription factors play major roles in organ-specific gene expression, regulating, for example, glucagon expression in the pancreas, GLUT2 expression in the liver, and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in dopaminergic neurons. Organ-specific gene regulation by FoxA proteins is achieved through cooperative regulation with a broad array of transcription factors with more limited expression domains. Fork head (Fkh), the sole Drosophila FoxA family member, is required for the development of multiple distinct organs, yet little is known regarding how Fkh regulates tissue-specific gene expression. Here, we characterize Sage, a bHLH transcription factor expressed exclusively in the Drosophila salivary gland (SG). We show that Sage is required for late SG survival and normal tube morphology. We find that many Sage targets, identified by microarray analysis, encode SG-specific secreted cargo, transmembrane proteins, and the enzymes that modify these proteins. We show that both Sage and Fkh are required for the expression of Sage target genes, and that co-expression of Sage and Fkh is sufficient to drive target gene expression in multiple cell types. Sage and Fkh drive expression of the bZip transcription factor Senseless (Sens), which boosts expression of Sage-Fkh targets, and Sage, Fkh and Sens colocalize on SG chromosomes. Importantly, expression of Sage-Fkh target genes appears to simply add to the tissue-specific gene expression programs already established in other cell types, and Sage and Fkh cannot alter the fate of most embryonic cell types even when expressed early and continuously.

  12. Type I bHLH Proteins Daughterless and Tcf4 Restrict Neurite Branching and Synapse Formation by Repressing Neurexin in Postmitotic Neurons

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    Mitchell D’Rozario

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Proneural proteins of the class I/II basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH family are highly conserved transcription factors. Class I bHLH proteins are expressed in a broad number of tissues during development, whereas class II bHLH protein expression is more tissue restricted. Our understanding of the function of class I/II bHLH transcription factors in both invertebrate and vertebrate neurobiology is largely focused on their function as regulators of neurogenesis. Here, we show that the class I bHLH proteins Daughterless and Tcf4 are expressed in postmitotic neurons in Drosophila melanogaster and mice, respectively, where they function to restrict neurite branching and synapse formation. Our data indicate that Daughterless performs this function in part by restricting the expression of the cell adhesion molecule Neurexin. This suggests a role for these proteins outside of their established roles in neurogenesis.

  13. Tightly Controlled Expression of bHLH142 Is Essential for Timely Tapetal Programmed Cell Death and Pollen Development in Rice

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    Swee-Suak Ko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Male sterility is important for hybrid seed production. Pollen development is regulated by a complex network. We previously showed that knockout of bHLH142 in rice (Oryza sativa causes pollen sterility by interrupting tapetal programmed cell death (PCD and bHLH142 coordinates with TDR to modulate the expression of EAT1. In this study, we demonstrated that overexpression of bHLH142 (OE142 under the control of the ubiquitin promoter also leads to male sterility in rice by triggering the premature onset of PCD. Protein of bHLH142 was found to accumulate specifically in the OE142 anthers. Overexpression of bHLH142 induced early expression of several key regulatory transcription factors in pollen development. In particular, the upregulation of EAT1 at the early stage of pollen development promoted premature PCD in the OE142 anthers, while its downregulation at the late stage impaired pollen development by suppressing genes involved in pollen wall biosynthesis, ROS scavenging and PCD. Collectively, these events led to male sterility in OE142. Analyses of related mutants further revealed the hierarchy of the pollen development regulatory gene network. Thus, the findings of this study advance our understanding of the central role played by bHLH142 in the regulatory network leading to pollen development in rice and how overexpression of its expression affects pollen development. Exploitation of this novel functionality of bHLH142 may confer a big advantage to hybrid seed production.

  14. Genome-Wide Characterization of bHLH Genes in Grape and Analysis of their Potential Relevance to Abiotic Stress Tolerance and Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei; Su, Ling; Gao, Huanhuan; Jiang, Xilong; Wu, Xinying; Li, Yi; Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Yongmei; Ren, Fengshan

    2018-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are involved in many abiotic stress responses as well as flavonol and anthocyanin biosynthesis. In grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), flavonols including anthocyanins and condensed tannins are most abundant in the skins of the berries. Flavonols are important phytochemicals for viticulture and enology, but grape bHLH genes have rarely been examined. We identified 94 grape bHLH genes in a genome-wide analysis and performed Nr and GO function analyses for these genes. Phylogenetic analyses placed the genes into 15 clades, with some remaining orphans. 41 duplicate gene pairs were found in the grape bHLH gene family, and all of these duplicate gene pairs underwent purifying selection. Nine triplicate gene groups were found in the grape bHLH gene family and all of these triplicate gene groups underwent purifying selection. Twenty-two grape bHLH genes could be induced by PEG treatment and 17 grape bHLH genes could be induced by cold stress treatment including a homologous form of MYC2, VvbHLH007. Based on the GO or Nr function annotations, we found three other genes that are potentially related to anthocyanin or flavonol biosynthesis: VvbHLH003, VvbHLH007, and VvbHLH010. We also performed a cis-acting regulatory element analysis on some genes involved in flavonoid or anthocyanin biosynthesis and our results showed that most of these gene promoters contained G-box or E-box elements that could be recognized by bHLH family members. PMID:29449854

  15. Periodic repression by the bHLH factor Hes7 is an essential mechanism for the somite segmentation clock

    OpenAIRE

    Bessho, Yasumasa; Hirata, Hiromi; Masamizu, Yoshito; Kageyama, Ryoichiro

    2003-01-01

    Hes7, a bHLH gene essential for somitogenesis, displays cyclic expression of mRNA in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). Here, we show that Hes7 protein is also expressed in a dynamic manner, which depends on proteasome-mediated degradation. Spatial comparison revealed that Hes7 and Lunatic fringe (Lfng) transcription occurs in the Hes7 protein-negative domains. Furthermore, Hes7 and Lfng transcription is constitutively up-regulated in the absence of Hes7 protein and down-regulated by stabi...

  16. Effects of mutants in bHLH region on structure stability and protein-DNA binding energy in DECs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yi; Wang, Zhen; Jia, Yanfei; Li, Ping; Hao, Shuhua; Wang, Yunshan

    2017-07-01

    The human DEC subfamily contains two highly conserved members belonging to basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. This conserved family is spread widely among various species with the function of regulating various crucial molecular signaling pathways. Due to the significance of DECs for important biological processes, their relationship with diseases and the lack of experimentally proven structures, we have implemented a comparative modeling for the bHLH region of DECs as homodimers with themselves and heterodimers with HES-1. Three mutants with predicted roles in reducing intramolecular binding (H57A, R65A, and LL7879AA in DEC1 and LL7071AA in DEC2) were investigated on DEC monomers. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were also employed to evaluate the behavior of the mutant molecules in aqueous solution. The monomer was divided into subregions for accurate investigation. The fluctuation in the basic region of mutants was higher than that of wild-type molecules. The binding energy value between protein and DNA obviously increased in the homodimer harboring R65A mutants, which led to more unstable status between protein and DNA. Thus, the mutant R65A interfered DNA-binding affinity. A study on the spatial structures of wild-type and mutant DECs may facilitate functional prediction for mutation effects and dynamic behavior under various conditions and may ultimately help in targeted drug design.

  17. CFLAP1 and CFLAP2 Are Two bHLH Transcription Factors Participating in Synergistic Regulation of AtCFL1-Mediated Cuticle Development in Arabidopsis.

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    Shibai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cuticle is a hydrophobic lipid layer covering the epidermal cells of terrestrial plants. Although many genes involved in Arabidopsis cuticle development have been identified, the transcriptional regulation of these genes is largely unknown. Previously, we demonstrated that AtCFL1 negatively regulates cuticle development by interacting with the HD-ZIP IV transcription factor HDG1. Here, we report that two bHLH transcription factors, AtCFL1 associated protein 1 (CFLAP1 and CFLAP2, are also involved in AtCFL1-mediated regulation of cuticle development. CFLAP1 and CFLAP2 interact with AtCFL1 both in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of either CFLAP1 or CFLAP2 led to expressional changes of genes involved in fatty acids, cutin and wax biosynthesis pathways and caused multiple cuticle defective phenotypes such as organ fusion, breakage of the cuticle layer and decreased epicuticular wax crystal loading. Functional inactivation of CFLAP1 and CFLAP2 by chimeric repression technology caused opposite phenotypes to the CFLAP1 overexpressor plants. Interestingly, we find that, similar to the transcription factor HDG1, the function of CFLAP1 in cuticle development is dependent on the presence of AtCFL1. Furthermore, both HDG1 and CFLAP1/2 interact with the same C-terminal C4 zinc finger domain of AtCFL1, a domain that is essential for AtCFL1 function. These results suggest that AtCFL1 may serve as a master regulator in the transcriptional regulation of cuticle development, and that CFLAP1 and CFLAP2 are involved in the AtCFL1-mediated regulation pathway, probably through competing with HDG1 to bind to AtCFL1.

  18. Evolution of the bHLH genes involved in stomatal development: implications for the expansion of developmental complexity of stomata in land plants.

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    Jin-Hua Ran

    Full Text Available Stomata play significant roles in plant evolution. A trio of closely related basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH subgroup Ia genes, SPCH, MUTE and FAMA, mediate sequential steps of stomatal development, and their functions may be conserved in land plants. However, the evolutionary history of the putative SPCH/MUTE/FAMA genes is still greatly controversial, especially the phylogenetic positions of the bHLH Ia members from basal land plants. To better understand the evolutionary pattern and functional diversity of the bHLH genes involved in stomatal development, we made a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of the homologous genes from 54 species representing the major lineages of green plants. The phylogenetic analysis indicated: (1 All bHLH Ia genes from the two basal land plants Physcomitrella and Selaginella were closely related to the FAMA genes of seed plants; and (2 the gymnosperm 'SPCH' genes were sister to a clade comprising the angiosperm SPCH and MUTE genes, while the FAMA genes of gymnosperms and angiosperms had a sister relationship. The revealed phylogenetic relationships are also supported by the distribution of gene structures and previous functional studies. Therefore, we deduce that the function of FAMA might be ancestral in the bHLH Ia subgroup. In addition, the gymnosperm "SPCH" genes may represent an ancestral state and have a dual function of SPCH and MUTE, two genes that could have originated from a duplication event in the common ancestor of angiosperms. Moreover, in angiosperms, SPCHs have experienced more duplications and harbor more copies than MUTEs and FAMAs, which, together with variation of the stomatal development in the entry division, implies that SPCH might have contributed greatly to the diversity of stomatal development. Based on the above, we proposed a model for the correlation between the evolution of stomatal development and the genes involved in this developmental process in land plants.

  19. Periodic repression by the bHLH factor Hes7 is an essential mechanism for the somite segmentation clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, Yasumasa; Hirata, Hiromi; Masamizu, Yoshito; Kageyama, Ryoichiro

    2003-01-01

    Hes7, a bHLH gene essential for somitogenesis, displays cyclic expression of mRNA in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). Here, we show that Hes7 protein is also expressed in a dynamic manner, which depends on proteasome-mediated degradation. Spatial comparison revealed that Hes7 and Lunatic fringe (Lfng) transcription occurs in the Hes7 protein-negative domains. Furthermore, Hes7 and Lfng transcription is constitutively up-regulated in the absence of Hes7 protein and down-regulated by stabilization of Hes7 protein. Thus, periodic repression by Hes7 protein is critical for the cyclic transcription of Hes7 and Lfng, and this negative feedback represents a molecular basis for the segmentation clock. PMID:12783854

  20. Regulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by Medicago truncatula bHLH transcription factor MtTT8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penghui; Chen, Beibei; Zhang, Gaoyang; Chen, Longxiang; Dong, Qiang; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Zhao, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The MYB- basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 complexes regulating anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in plants are not fully understood. Here Medicago truncatula bHLH MtTT8 was characterized as a central component of these ternary complexes that control anthocyanin and PA biosynthesis. Mttt8 mutant seeds have a transparent testa phenotype with reduced PAs and anthocyanins. MtTT8 restores PA and anthocyanin productions in Arabidopsis tt8 mutant. Ectopic expression of MtTT8 restores anthocyanins and PAs in mttt8 plant and hairy roots and further enhances both productions in wild-type hairy roots. Transcriptomic analyses and metabolite profiling of mttt8 mutant seeds and M. truncatula hairy roots (mttt8 mutant, mttt8 mutant complemented with MtTT8, or MtTT8 overexpression lines) indicate that MtTT8 regulates a subset of genes involved in PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis. MtTT8 is genetically regulated by MtLAP1, MtPAR and MtWD40-1. Combinations of MtPAR, MtLAP1, MtTT8 and MtWD40-1 activate MtTT8 promoter in yeast assay. MtTT8 interacts with these transcription factors to form regulatory complexes. MtTT8, MtWD40-1 and an MYB factor, MtPAR or MtLAP1, interacted and activated promoters of anthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin synthase to regulate PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis, respectively. Our results provide new insights into the complex regulation of PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis in M. truncatula. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. A novel bHLH transcription factor PebHLH35 from Populus euphratica confers drought tolerance through regulating stomatal development, photosynthesis and growth in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yan [College of Biological Sciences and Technology, National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Liaoning Forestry Vocational-Technical College, Shenyang 110101 (China); Wang, Congpeng; Han, Xiao; Tang, Sha; Liu, Sha [College of Biological Sciences and Technology, National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Xia, Xinli, E-mail: xiaxl@bjfu.edu.cn [College of Biological Sciences and Technology, National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Yin, Weilun, E-mail: yinwl@bjfu.edu.cn [College of Biological Sciences and Technology, National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • PebHLH35 is firstly cloned from Populus euphratica and characterized its functions. • PebHLH35 is important for earlier seedling establishment and vegetative growth. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating growth. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating stomatal development. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating photosynthesis and transpiration. - Abstract: Plant basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are involved in a variety of physiological processes including the regulation of plant responses to various abiotic stresses. However, few drought-responsive bHLH family members in Populus have been reported. In this study, a novel bHLH gene (PebHLH35) was cloned from Populus euphratica. Expression analysis in P. euphratica revealed that PebHLH35 was induced by drought and abscisic acid. Subcellular localization studies using a PebHLH35-GFP fusion showed that the protein was localized to the nucleus. Ectopic overexpression of PebHLH35 in Arabidopsis resulted in a longer primary root, more leaves, and a greater leaf area under well-watered conditions compared with vector control plants. Notably, PebHLH35 overexpression lines showed enhanced tolerance to water-deficit stress. This finding was supported by anatomical and physiological analyses, which revealed a reduced stomatal density, stomatal aperture, transpiration rate, and water loss, and a higher chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate. Our results suggest that PebHLH35 functions as a positive regulator of drought stress responses by regulating stomatal density, stomatal aperture, photosynthesis and growth.

  2. A novel bHLH transcription factor PebHLH35 from Populus euphratica confers drought tolerance through regulating stomatal development, photosynthesis and growth in Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yan; Wang, Congpeng; Han, Xiao; Tang, Sha; Liu, Sha; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PebHLH35 is firstly cloned from Populus euphratica and characterized its functions. • PebHLH35 is important for earlier seedling establishment and vegetative growth. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating growth. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating stomatal development. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating photosynthesis and transpiration. - Abstract: Plant basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are involved in a variety of physiological processes including the regulation of plant responses to various abiotic stresses. However, few drought-responsive bHLH family members in Populus have been reported. In this study, a novel bHLH gene (PebHLH35) was cloned from Populus euphratica. Expression analysis in P. euphratica revealed that PebHLH35 was induced by drought and abscisic acid. Subcellular localization studies using a PebHLH35-GFP fusion showed that the protein was localized to the nucleus. Ectopic overexpression of PebHLH35 in Arabidopsis resulted in a longer primary root, more leaves, and a greater leaf area under well-watered conditions compared with vector control plants. Notably, PebHLH35 overexpression lines showed enhanced tolerance to water-deficit stress. This finding was supported by anatomical and physiological analyses, which revealed a reduced stomatal density, stomatal aperture, transpiration rate, and water loss, and a higher chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate. Our results suggest that PebHLH35 functions as a positive regulator of drought stress responses by regulating stomatal density, stomatal aperture, photosynthesis and growth

  3. Insulin/IGF-regulated size scaling of neuroendocrine cells expressing the bHLH transcription factor Dimmed in Drosophila.

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    Jiangnan Luo

    Full Text Available Neurons and other cells display a large variation in size in an organism. Thus, a fundamental question is how growth of individual cells and their organelles is regulated. Is size scaling of individual neurons regulated post-mitotically, independent of growth of the entire CNS? Although the role of insulin/IGF-signaling (IIS in growth of tissues and whole organisms is well established, it is not known whether it regulates the size of individual neurons. We therefore studied the role of IIS in the size scaling of neurons in the Drosophila CNS. By targeted genetic manipulations of insulin receptor (dInR expression in a variety of neuron types we demonstrate that the cell size is affected only in neuroendocrine cells specified by the bHLH transcription factor DIMMED (DIMM. Several populations of DIMM-positive neurons tested displayed enlarged cell bodies after overexpression of the dInR, as well as PI3 kinase and Akt1 (protein kinase B, whereas DIMM-negative neurons did not respond to dInR manipulations. Knockdown of these components produce the opposite phenotype. Increased growth can also be induced by targeted overexpression of nutrient-dependent TOR (target of rapamycin signaling components, such as Rheb (small GTPase, TOR and S6K (S6 kinase. After Dimm-knockdown in neuroendocrine cells manipulations of dInR expression have significantly less effects on cell size. We also show that dInR expression in neuroendocrine cells can be altered by up or down-regulation of Dimm. This novel dInR-regulated size scaling is seen during postembryonic development, continues in the aging adult and is diet dependent. The increase in cell size includes cell body, axon terminations, nucleus and Golgi apparatus. We suggest that the dInR-mediated scaling of neuroendocrine cells is part of a plasticity that adapts the secretory capacity to changing physiological conditions and nutrient-dependent organismal growth.

  4. Ambient temperature signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigge, Philip A

    2013-10-01

    Plants are exposed to daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature. Within the 'ambient' temperature range (about 12-27°C for Arabidopsis) temperature differences have large effects on plant growth and development, disease resistance pathways and the circadian clock without activating temperature stress pathways. It is this developmental sensing and response to non-stressful temperatures that will be covered in this review. Recent advances have revealed key players in mediating temperature signals. The bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) has been shown to be a hub for multiple responses to warmer temperature in Arabidopsis, including flowering and hypocotyl elongation. Changes in chromatin state are involved in transmitting temperature signals to the transcriptome. Determining the precise mechanisms of temperature perception represents an exciting goal for the field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A bHLH gene from Tamarix hispida improves abiotic stress tolerance by enhancing osmotic potential and decreasing reactive oxygen species accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Nie, Xianguang; Liu, Yujia; Zheng, Lei; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Bing; Huo, Lin; Wang, Yucheng

    2016-02-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) leucine-zipper transcription factors play important roles in abiotic stress responses. However, their specific roles in abiotic stress tolerance are not fully known. Here, we functionally characterized a bHLH gene, ThbHLH1, from Tamarix hispida in abiotic stress tolerance. ThbHLH1 specifically binds to G-box motif with the sequence of 'CACGTG'. Transiently transfected T. hispida plantlets with transiently overexpressed ThbHLH1 and RNAi-silenced ThbHLH1 were generated for gain- and loss-of-function analysis. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines overexpressing ThbHLH1 were generated to confirm the gain- and loss-of-function analysis. Overexpression of ThbHLH1 significantly elevates glycine betaine and proline levels, increases Ca(2+) concentration and enhances peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities to decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Additionally, ThbHLH1 regulates the expression of the genes including P5CS, BADH, CaM, POD and SOD, to activate the above physiological changes, and also induces the expression of stress tolerance-related genes LEAs and HSPs. These data suggest that ThbHLH1 induces the expression of stress tolerance-related genes to improve abiotic stress tolerance by increasing osmotic potential, improving ROS scavenging capability and enhancing second messenger in stress signaling cascades. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Soybean SAT1 (Symbiotic Ammonium Transporter 1) encodes a bHLH transcription factor involved in nodule growth and NH4+ transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, David M; Loughlin, Patrick C; Mazurkiewicz, Danielle; Mohammadidehcheshmeh, Manijeh; Fedorova, Elena E; Okamoto, Mamoru; McLean, Elizabeth; Glass, Anthony D M; Smith, Sally E; Bisseling, Ton; Tyerman, Stephen D; Day, David A; Kaiser, Brent N

    2014-04-01

    Glycine max symbiotic ammonium transporter 1 was first documented as a putative ammonium (NH4(+)) channel localized to the symbiosome membrane of soybean root nodules. We show that Glycine max symbiotic ammonium transporter 1 is actually a membrane-localized basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) DNA-binding transcription factor now renamed Glycine max bHLH membrane 1 (GmbHLHm1). In yeast, GmbHLHm1 enters the nucleus and transcriptionally activates a unique plasma membrane NH4(+) channel Saccharomyces cerevisiae ammonium facilitator 1. Ammonium facilitator 1 homologs are present in soybean and other plant species, where they often share chromosomal microsynteny with bHLHm1 loci. GmbHLHm1 is important to the soybean rhizobium symbiosis because loss of activity results in a reduction of nodule fitness and growth. Transcriptional changes in nodules highlight downstream signaling pathways involving circadian clock regulation, nutrient transport, hormone signaling, and cell wall modification. Collectively, these results show that GmbHLHm1 influences nodule development and activity and is linked to a novel mechanism for NH4(+) transport common to both yeast and plants.

  7. The bHLH transcription factor BIS1 controls the iridoid branch of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid pathway in Catharanthus roseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Moerkercke, Alex; Steensma, Priscille; Schweizer, Fabian; Pollier, Jacob; Gariboldi, Ivo; Payne, Richard; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Miettinen, Karel; Espoz, Javiera; Purnama, Purin Candra; Kellner, Franziska; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; O’Connor, Sarah E.; Rischer, Heiko; Memelink, Johan; Goossens, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Plants make specialized bioactive metabolites to defend themselves against attackers. The conserved control mechanisms are based on transcriptional activation of the respective plant species-specific biosynthetic pathways by the phytohormone jasmonate. Knowledge of the transcription factors involved, particularly in terpenoid biosynthesis, remains fragmentary. By transcriptome analysis and functional screens in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle), the unique source of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA)-type anticancer drugs vincristine and vinblastine, we identified a jasmonate-regulated basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factor from clade IVa inducing the monoterpenoid branch of the MIA pathway. The bHLH iridoid synthesis 1 (BIS1) transcription factor transactivated the expression of all of the genes encoding the enzymes that catalyze the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous terpenoid precursor geranyl diphosphate to the iridoid loganic acid. BIS1 acted in a complementary manner to the previously characterized ethylene response factor Octadecanoid derivative-Responsive Catharanthus APETALA2-domain 3 (ORCA3) that transactivates the expression of several genes encoding the enzymes catalyzing the conversion of loganic acid to the downstream MIAs. In contrast to ORCA3, overexpression of BIS1 was sufficient to boost production of high-value iridoids and MIAs in C. roseus suspension cell cultures. Hence, BIS1 might be a metabolic engineering tool to produce sustainably high-value MIAs in C. roseus plants or cultures. PMID:26080427

  8. 5′UTR of the Neurogenic bHLH Nex1/MATH-2/NeuroD6 Gene Is Regulated by Two Distinct Promoters Through CRE and C/EBP Binding Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uittenbogaard, Martine; Martinka, Debra L.; Johnson, Peter F.; Vinson, Charles; Chiaramello, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Expression of the bHLH transcription factor Nex1/MATH-2/NeuroD6, a member of the NeuroD subfamily, parallels overt neuronal differentiation and synaptogenesis during brain development. Our previous studies have shown that Nex1 is a critical effector of the NGF pathway and promotes neuronal differentiation and survival of PC12 cells in the absence of growth factors. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of the Nex1 gene during NGF-induced neuronal differentiation. We found that Nex1 expression is under the control of two conserved promoters, Nex1-P1 and Nex1-P2, located in two distinct non-coding exons. Both promoters are TATA-less with multiple transcription start sites, and are activated on NGF or cAMP exposure. Luciferase-reporter assays showed that the Nex1-P2 promoter activity is stronger than the Nex1-P1 promoter activity, which supports the previously reported differential expression levels of Nex1 transcripts throughout brain development. Using a combination of DNaseI footprinting, EMSA assays, and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified the essential regulatory elements within the first 2 kb of the Nex1 5′UTR. The Nex1-P1 promoter is mainly regulated by a conserved CRE element, whereas the Nex1-P2 promoter is under the control of a conserved C/EBP binding site. Overexpression of wild-type C/EBPβ resulted in increased Nex1-P2 promoter activity in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells. The fact that Nex1 is a target gene of C/EBPβ provides new insight into the C/EBP transcriptional cascade known to promote neurogenesis, while repressing gliogenesis. PMID:17075921

  9. Genome Wide Identification and Characterization of Apple bHLH Transcription Factors and Expression Analysis in Response to Drought and Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ke; Dong, Qinglong; Li, Chao; Liu, Changhai; Ma, Fengwang

    2017-01-01

    The bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) transcription factor family is the second largest in plants. It occurs in all three eukaryotic kingdoms, and plays important roles in regulating growth and development. However, family members have not previously been studied in apple. Here, we identified 188 MdbHLH proteins in apple "Golden Delicious" ( Malus × domestica Borkh.), which could be classified into 18 groups. We also investigated the gene structures and 12 conserved motifs in these MdbHLH s. Coupled with expression analysis and protein interaction network prediction, we identified several genes that might be responsible for abiotic stress responses. This study provides insight and rich resources for subsequent investigations of such proteins in apple.

  10. Podoplanin-mediated TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and its correlation with bHLH transcription factor DEC in TE-11 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunyan; Liu, Qiang; Yan, Xu; Kato, Yukio; Tanaka, Makiko; Inokuchi, Sadaki; Yoshizawa, Tadashi; Morohashi, Satoko; Kijima, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Podoplanin is reported involved in the collective cell invasion, another tumor invasion style which is distinct from the single cell invasion, so-called epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this study, we investigated the correlation between podoplanin and EMT-related markers in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and evaluated its linkage with the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor differentiated embryonic chondrocyte (DEC) 1 and DEC2. Three ESCC cell lines and human squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells were subjected to western blot analyses for podoplanin and EMT markers, as well as the expression of DEC1 and DEC2. By RT-qPCR and western blotting, we found that TGF-β increased the expression of podoplanin and mensenchymal markers (e.g., N-cadherin and vimentin), while decreased the expression of epithelial markers (e.g., Claudin-4 and E-cadherin), accompanied by Smad2 phosphorylation and slug activation. Moreover, TGF-β has different effects on the expression of DEC1 and DEC2, that is, it upregulates DEC1, but downregulates DEC2. Capability of cell proliferation, invasion and migration were further analyzed using CCK-8 assay, Matrigel-invasion assay, and the wound-healing assay, respectively. The proliferation, invasion and migration ability were significantly lost in podoplanin-knockdown cells when compared with the scrambled siRNA group. In addition to these changes, the expression of Claudin-4, but not that of Claudin-1 or E-cadherin, was induced by the siRNA against podoplanin. On the contrary, overexpression of DEC1 and DEC2 exhibits opposite effects on podoplanin, but only slight effect on Claudin-4 was detected. These data indicated that podoplanin is significantly associated with EMT of TE-11 cells, and may be directly or indirectly regulated by bHLH transcription factors DEC1 and DEC2.

  11. Hybrids of the bHLH and bZIP protein motifs display different DNA-binding activities in vivo vs. in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiu-Kwan Chow

    Full Text Available Minimalist hybrids comprising the DNA-binding domain of bHLH/PAS (basic-helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim protein Arnt fused to the leucine zipper (LZ dimerization domain from bZIP (basic region-leucine zipper protein C/EBP were designed to bind the E-box DNA site, CACGTG, targeted by bHLHZ (basic-helix-loop-helix-zipper proteins Myc and Max, as well as the Arnt homodimer. The bHLHZ-like structure of ArntbHLH-C/EBP comprises the Arnt bHLH domain fused to the C/EBP LZ: i.e. swap of the 330 aa PAS domain for the 29 aa LZ. In the yeast one-hybrid assay (Y1H, transcriptional activation from the E-box was strong by ArntbHLH-C/EBP, and undetectable for the truncated ArntbHLH (PAS removed, as detected via readout from the HIS3 and lacZ reporters. In contrast, fluorescence anisotropy titrations showed affinities for the E-box with ArntbHLH-C/EBP and ArntbHLH comparable to other transcription factors (K(d 148.9 nM and 40.2 nM, respectively, but only under select conditions that maintained folded protein. Although in vivo yeast results and in vitro spectroscopic studies for ArntbHLH-C/EBP targeting the E-box correlate well, the same does not hold for ArntbHLH. As circular dichroism confirms that ArntbHLH-C/EBP is a much more strongly alpha-helical structure than ArntbHLH, we conclude that the nonfunctional ArntbHLH in the Y1H must be due to misfolding, leading to the false negative that this protein is incapable of targeting the E-box. Many experiments, including protein design and selections from large libraries, depend on protein domains remaining well-behaved in the nonnative experimental environment, especially small motifs like the bHLH (60-70 aa. Interestingly, a short helical LZ can serve as a folding- and/or solubility-enhancing tag, an important device given the focus of current research on exploration of vast networks of biomolecular interactions.

  12. Computational modeling of the bHLH domain of the transcription factor TWIST1 and R118C, S144R and K145E mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Amanda M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human TWIST1 is a highly conserved member of the regulatory basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factors. TWIST1 forms homo- or heterodimers with E-box proteins, such as E2A (isoforms E12 and E47, MYOD and HAND2. Haploinsufficiency germ-line mutations of the twist1 gene in humans are the main cause of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS, which is characterized by limb abnormalities and premature fusion of cranial sutures. Because of the importance of TWIST1 in the regulation of embryonic development and its relationship with SCS, along with the lack of an experimentally solved 3D structure, we performed comparative modeling for the TWIST1 bHLH region arranged into wild-type homodimers and heterodimers with E47. In addition, three mutations that promote DNA binding failure (R118C, S144R and K145E were studied on the TWIST1 monomer. We also explored the behavior of the mutant forms in aqueous solution using molecular dynamics (MD simulations, focusing on the structural changes of the wild-type versus mutant dimers. Results The solvent-accessible surface area of the homodimers was smaller on wild-type dimers, which indicates that the cleft between the monomers remained more open on the mutant homodimers. RMSD and RMSF analyses indicated that mutated dimers presented values that were higher than those for the wild-type dimers. For a more careful investigation, the monomer was subdivided into four regions: basic, helix I, loop and helix II. The basic domain presented a higher flexibility in all of the parameters that were analyzed, and the mutant dimer basic domains presented values that were higher than the wild-type dimers. The essential dynamic analysis also indicated a higher collective motion for the basic domain. Conclusions Our results suggest the mutations studied turned the dimers into more unstable structures with a wider cleft, which may be a reason for the loss of DNA binding capacity observed for in vitro

  13. Increased expression of bHLH transcription factor E2A (TCF3) in prostate cancer promotes proliferation and confers resistance to doxorubicin induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Divya; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► E2A, considered as a tumor suppressor is highly expressed in prostate cancer. ► Silencing of E2A attenuates cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis. ► E2A regulates c-myc, Id1, Id3 and CDKN1A expression. ► Loss of E2A promotes doxorubicin dependent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. ► Results suggest that E2A acts as a tumor promoter at least in prostate cancer. -- Abstract: E2A (TCF3) is a multifunctional basic helix loop helix (bHLH), transcription factor. E2A regulates transcription of target genes by homo- or heterodimerization with cell specific bHLH proteins. In general, E2A promotes cell differentiation, acts as a negative regulator of cell proliferation in normal cells and cancer cell lines and is required for normal B-cell development. Given the diverse biological pathways regulated/influenced by E2A little is known about its expression in cancer. In this study we investigated the expression of E2A in prostate cancer. Unexpectedly, E2A immuno-histochemistry demonstrated increased E2A expression in prostate cancer as compared to normal prostate. Silencing of E2A in prostate cancer cells DU145 and PC3 led to a significant reduction in proliferation due to G1 arrest that was in part mediated by increased CDKN1A(p21) and decreased Id1, Id3 and c-myc. E2A silencing in prostate cancer cell lines also resulted in increased apoptosis due to increased mitochondrial permeability and caspase 3/7 activation. Moreover, silencing of E2A increased sensitivity to doxorubicin induced apoptosis. Based on our results, we propose that E2A could be an upstream regulator of Id1 and c-Myc which are highly expressed in prostate cancer. These results for the first time demonstrate that E2A could in fact acts as a tumor promoter at least in prostate cancer.

  14. O-GlcNAcylation of master growth repressor DELLA by SECRET AGENT modulates multiple signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentella, Rodolfo; Hu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Matsumoto, Peter A; Dawdy, Andrew; Barnhill, Benjamin; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Hartweck, Lynn M; Maitra, Sushmit; Thomas, Stephen G; Cockrell, Shelley; Boyce, Michael; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Olszewski, Neil E; Sun, Tai-Ping

    2016-01-15

    The DELLA family of transcription regulators functions as master growth repressors in plants by inhibiting phytohormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in response to developmental and environmental cues. DELLAs also play a central role in mediating cross-talk between GA and other signaling pathways via antagonistic direct interactions with key transcription factors. However, how these crucial protein-protein interactions can be dynamically regulated during plant development remains unclear. Here, we show that DELLAs are modified by the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) SECRET AGENT (SEC) in Arabidopsis. O-GlcNAcylation of the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) inhibits RGA binding to four of its interactors-PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3), PIF4, JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN1, and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1)-that are key regulators in light, jasmonate, and brassinosteroid signaling pathways, respectively. Consistent with this, the sec-null mutant displayed reduced responses to GA and brassinosteroid and showed decreased expression of several common target genes of DELLAs, BZR1, and PIFs. Our results reveal a direct role of OGT in repressing DELLA activity and indicate that O-GlcNAcylation of DELLAs provides a fine-tuning mechanism in coordinating multiple signaling activities during plant development. © 2016 Zentella et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. The Tomato Hoffman's Anthocyaninless Gene Encodes a bHLH Transcription Factor Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis That Is Developmentally Regulated and Induced by Low Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhengkun; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Gao, Jianchang; Guo, Yanmei; Huang, Zejun; Du, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments play many roles in plants, including providing protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of the genes that mediate anthocyanin accumulation have been identified through studies of flowers and fruits; however, the mechanisms of genes involved in anthocyanin regulation in seedlings under low-temperature stimulus are less well understood. Genetic characterization of a tomato inbred line, FMTT271, which showed no anthocyanin pigmentation, revealed a mutation in a bHLH transcription factor (TF) gene, which corresponds to the ah (Hoffman's anthocyaninless) locus, and so the gene in FMTT271 at that locus was named ah. Overexpression of the wild type allele of AH in FMTT271 resulted in greater anthocyanin accumulation and increased expression of several genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of AH and anthocyanin accumulation in seedlings was shown to be developmentally regulated and induced by low-temperature stress. Additionally, transcriptome analyses of hypocotyls and leaves from the near-isogenic lines seedlings revealed that AH not only influences the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, but also genes associated with responses to abiotic stress. Furthermore, the ah mutation was shown to cause accumulation of reactive oxidative species and the constitutive activation of defense responses under cold conditions. These results suggest that AH regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis, thereby playing a protective role, and that this function is particularly important in young seedlings that are particularly vulnerable to abiotic stresses.

  16. The Tomato Hoffman's Anthocyaninless Gene Encodes a bHLH Transcription Factor Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis That Is Developmentally Regulated and Induced by Low Temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengkun Qiu

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin pigments play many roles in plants, including providing protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of the genes that mediate anthocyanin accumulation have been identified through studies of flowers and fruits; however, the mechanisms of genes involved in anthocyanin regulation in seedlings under low-temperature stimulus are less well understood. Genetic characterization of a tomato inbred line, FMTT271, which showed no anthocyanin pigmentation, revealed a mutation in a bHLH transcription factor (TF gene, which corresponds to the ah (Hoffman's anthocyaninless locus, and so the gene in FMTT271 at that locus was named ah. Overexpression of the wild type allele of AH in FMTT271 resulted in greater anthocyanin accumulation and increased expression of several genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of AH and anthocyanin accumulation in seedlings was shown to be developmentally regulated and induced by low-temperature stress. Additionally, transcriptome analyses of hypocotyls and leaves from the near-isogenic lines seedlings revealed that AH not only influences the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, but also genes associated with responses to abiotic stress. Furthermore, the ah mutation was shown to cause accumulation of reactive oxidative species and the constitutive activation of defense responses under cold conditions. These results suggest that AH regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis, thereby playing a protective role, and that this function is particularly important in young seedlings that are particularly vulnerable to abiotic stresses.

  17. The Tomato Hoffman’s Anthocyaninless Gene Encodes a bHLH Transcription Factor Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis That Is Developmentally Regulated and Induced by Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianchang; Guo, Yanmei; Huang, Zejun; Du, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments play many roles in plants, including providing protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of the genes that mediate anthocyanin accumulation have been identified through studies of flowers and fruits; however, the mechanisms of genes involved in anthocyanin regulation in seedlings under low-temperature stimulus are less well understood. Genetic characterization of a tomato inbred line, FMTT271, which showed no anthocyanin pigmentation, revealed a mutation in a bHLH transcription factor (TF) gene, which corresponds to the ah (Hoffman's anthocyaninless) locus, and so the gene in FMTT271 at that locus was named ah. Overexpression of the wild type allele of AH in FMTT271 resulted in greater anthocyanin accumulation and increased expression of several genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of AH and anthocyanin accumulation in seedlings was shown to be developmentally regulated and induced by low-temperature stress. Additionally, transcriptome analyses of hypocotyls and leaves from the near-isogenic lines seedlings revealed that AH not only influences the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, but also genes associated with responses to abiotic stress. Furthermore, the ah mutation was shown to cause accumulation of reactive oxidative species and the constitutive activation of defense responses under cold conditions. These results suggest that AH regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis, thereby playing a protective role, and that this function is particularly important in young seedlings that are particularly vulnerable to abiotic stresses. PMID:26943362

  18. The bHLH transcription factor MdbHLH3 promotes anthocyanin accumulation and fruit colouration in response to low temperature in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing-Bin; Li, Shen; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Ying-Chun; Zhao, Qiang; Yao, Yu-Xin; You, Chun-Xiang; Zhang, Xian-Sheng; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-11-01

    Low environmental temperatures promote anthocyanin accumulation and fruit colouration by up-regulating the expression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation in many fruit trees. However, the molecular mechanism by which fruit trees regulate this process in response to low temperature (LT) remains largely unknown. In this study, the cold-induced bHLH transcription factor gene MdbHLH3 was isolated from an apple tree and was found to interact physically and specifically through two regions (amino acids 1-23 and 186-228) at the N terminus with the MYB partner MdMYB1 (allelic to MdMYB10). Subsequently, MdbHLH3 bound to the promoters of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes MdDFR and MdUFGT and the regulatory gene MdMYB1 to activate their expression. Furthermore, the MdbHLH3 protein was post-translationally modified, possibly involving phosphorylation following exposure to LTs, which enhanced its promoter-binding capacity and transcription activity. Our results demonstrate the molecular mechanism by which MdbHLH3 regulates LT-induced anthocyanin accumulation and fruit colouration in apple. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. MYB and bHLH transcription factor transgenes increase anthocyanin pigmentation in petunia and lisianthus plants, and the petunia phenotypes are strongly enhanced under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy E Schwinn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Petunia line Mitchell [MP, Petunia axillaris × (P. axillaris × P. hybrida] and Eustoma grandiflorum (lisianthus plants were produced containing a transgene for over-expression of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor (ROSEA1 that up-regulates flavonoid biosynthesis in Antirrhinum majus. The petunia lines were also crossed with previously produced MP lines containing a Zea mays flavonoid-related bHLH transcription factor transgene (LEAF COLOR, LC, which induces strong vegetative pigmentation when these 35S:LC plants are exposed to high light levels. 35S:ROS1 lisianthus transgenics had limited changes in anthocyanin pigmentation, specifically, precocious pigmentation of flower petals and increased pigmentation of sepals. RNA transcript levels for two anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, chalcone synthase and anthocyanidin synthase, were increased in the 35S:ROS1 lisianthus petals compared to those of control lines. With MP, the 35S:ROS1 calli showed novel red pigmentation in culture, but this was generally not seen in tissue culture plantlets regenerated from the calli or young plants transferred to soil in the greenhouse. Anthocyanin pigmentation was enhanced in the stems of mature 35S:ROS1 MP plants, but the MP white-flower phenotype was not complemented. Progeny from a 35S:ROS1×35S:LC cross had novel pigmentation phenotypes that were not present in either parental line or MP. In particular, there was increased pigment accumulation in the petal throat region, and the anthers changed from yellow to purple colour. An outdoor field trial was conducted with the 35S:ROS1, 35S:LC, 35S:ROS1×35S:LC and control MP lines. Field conditions rapidly induced intense foliage pigmentation in 35S:LC plants, a phenotype not observed in control MP or equivalent 35S:LC plants maintained in a greenhouse. No difference in plant stature, seed germination, or plant survival was observed between transgenic and control plants.

  20. Brassinosteroid-Induced Transcriptional Repression and Dephosphorylation-Dependent Protein Degradation Negatively Regulate BIN2-Interacting AIF2 (a BR Signaling-Negative Regulator) bHLH Transcription Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Seon-U; Jeong, You-Seung; Kim, Soo-Hwan

    2017-02-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant polyhydroxy-steroids that play important roles in plant growth and development via extensive signal integration through direct interactions between regulatory components of different signaling pathways. Recent studies have shown that diverse helix-loop-helix/basic helix-loop-helix (HLH/bHLH) family proteins are actively involved in control of BR signaling pathways and interact with other signaling pathways. In this study, we show that ATBS1-INTERACTING FACTOR 2 (AIF2), a nuclear-localized atypical bHLH transcription factor, specifically interacts with BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2) among other BR signaling molecules. Overexpression of AIF2 down-regulated transcript expression of growth-promoting genes, thus resulting in retardation of growth. AIF2 renders plants hyposensitive to BR-induced root growth inhibition, but shows little effects on BR-promoted hypocotyl elongation. Notably, AIF2 was dephosphorylated by BR, and the dephosphorylated AIF2 was subject to proteasome-mediated degradation. AIF2 degradation was greatly induced by BR and ABA, but relatively slightly by other hormones such as auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin and ethylene. Moreover, AIF2 transcription was significantly suppressed by a BRI1/BZR1-mediated BR signaling pathway through a direct binding of BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1 (BZR1) to the BR response element (BRRE) region of the AIF2 promoter. In conclusion, our study suggests that BIN2-driven AIF2 phosphorylation could augment the BIN2/AIF2-mediated negative circuit of BR signaling pathways, and the BR-induced transcriptional repression and protein degradation negatively regulate AIF2 transcription factor, reinforcing the BZR1/BES1-mediated positive BR signaling pathway. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The coat protein of Alfalfa mosaic virus interacts and interferes with the transcriptional activity of the bHLH transcription factor ILR3 promoting salicylic acid-dependent defence signalling response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Frederic; Pallás, Vicente

    2017-02-01

    During virus infection, specific viral component-host factor interaction elicits the transcriptional reprogramming of diverse cellular pathways. Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) can establish a compatible interaction in tobacco and Arabidopsis hosts. We show that the coat protein (CP) of AMV interacts directly with transcription factor (TF) ILR3 of both species. ILR3 is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family member of TFs, previously proposed to participate in diverse metabolic pathways. ILR3 has been shown to regulate NEET in Arabidopsis, a critical protein in plant development, senescence, iron metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. We show that the AMV CP-ILR3 interaction causes a fraction of this TF to relocate from the nucleus to the nucleolus. ROS, pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR1) mRNAs, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) contents are increased in healthy Arabidopsis loss-of-function ILR3 mutant (ilr3.2) plants, which implicates ILR3 in the regulation of plant defence responses. In AMV-infected wild-type (wt) plants, NEET expression is reduced slightly, but is induced significantly in ilr3.2 mutant plants. Furthermore, the accumulation of SA and JA is induced in Arabidopsis wt-infected plants. AMV infection in ilr3.2 plants increases JA by over 10-fold, and SA is reduced significantly, indicating an antagonist crosstalk effect. The accumulation levels of viral RNAs are decreased significantly in ilr3.2 mutants, but the virus can still systemically invade the plant. The AMV CP-ILR3 interaction may down-regulate a host factor, NEET, leading to the activation of plant hormone responses to obtain a hormonal equilibrium state, where infection remains at a level that does not affect plant viability. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  2. Combinatorial analysis of lupulin gland transcription factors from R2R3Myb, bHLH and WDR families indicates a complex regulation of chs_H1 genes essential for prenylflavonoid biosynthesis in hop (Humulus Lupulus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoušek Jaroslav

    2012-02-01

    chs_H1 gene that depends on variable activation by combinations of R2R3Myb, bHLH and WDR TF homologues and inhibition by a Myb repressor.

  3. Multiple Perspectives / Multiple Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Biggs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available People experience things from their own physical point of view. What they see is usually a function of where they are and what physical attitude they adopt relative to the subject. With augmented vision (periscopes, mirrors, remote cameras, etc we are able to see things from places where we are not present. With time-shifting technologies, such as the video recorder, we can also see things from the past; a time and a place we may never have visited.In recent artistic work I have been exploring the implications of digital technology, interactivity and internet connectivity that allow people to not so much space/time-shift their visual experience of things but rather see what happens when everybody is simultaneously able to see what everybody else can see. This is extrapolated through the remote networking of sites that are actual installation spaces; where the physical movements of viewers in the space generate multiple perspectives, linked to other similar sites at remote locations or to other viewers entering the shared data-space through a web based version of the work.This text explores the processes involved in such a practice and reflects on related questions regarding the non-singularity of being and the sense of self as linked to time and place.

  4. Cooling Down Thermomorphogenesis by UV-B Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ruohe

    2017-06-01

    PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) is a key transcriptional regulator promoting plant responses to elevated ambient temperatures. A recent study reported that the ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) photoreceptor UVR8 signaling pathway inhibits PIF4 via multiple mechanisms to repress plant responses to high ambient temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indwelling catheter Osteoporosis or thinning of the bones Pressure sores Side effects of medicines used to treat the ... Daily bowel care program Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Swallowing problems Images Multiple sclerosis MRI of the ...

  6. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  7. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Shariat, K.; Kostopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [de

  8. Multiple homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  9. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects your nerve cells. This damage slows down ...

  10. Multiple myeloma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Conor D

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management.

  11. Multiple mononeuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with multiple mononeuropathy are prone to new nerve injuries at pressure points such as the knees and elbows. They should avoid putting pressure on these areas, for example, by not leaning on the elbows, crossing the knees, ...

  12. [Multiple meningiomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, L-M; François, P

    2016-06-01

    Multiple meningiomas (MMs) or meningiomatosis are defined by the presence of at least 2 lesions that appear simultaneously or not, at different intracranial locations, without the association of neurofibromatosis. They present 1-9 % of meningiomas with a female predominance. The occurrence of multiple meningiomas is not clear. There are 2 main hypotheses for their development, one that supports the independent evolution of these tumors and the other, completely opposite, that suggests the propagation of tumor cells of a unique clone transformation, through cerebrospinal fluid. NF2 gene mutation is an important intrinsic risk factor in the etiology of multiple meningiomas and some exogenous risk factors have been suspected but only ionizing radiation exposure has been proven. These tumors can grow anywhere in the skull but they are more frequently observed in supratentorial locations. Their histologic types are similar to unique meningiomas of psammomatous, fibroblastic, meningothelial or transitional type and in most cases are benign tumors. The prognosis of these tumors is eventually good and does not differ from the unique tumors except for the cases of radiation-induced multiple meningiomas, in the context of NF2 or when diagnosed in children where the outcome is less favorable. Each meningioma lesion should be dealt with individually and their multiple character should not justify their resection at all costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent......, need for structural changes in home and need for pension became greater with increasing physical handicap. No significant differences between gender were found. It is concluded that patients and relatives are under increased social strain, when multiple sclerosis progresses to a moderate handicap...

  14. Multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jeong Ick; Ha, Choon Ho; Choi, Karp Shik

    1994-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell tumor that is thought to originate proliferation of a single clone of abnormal plasma cell resulting production of a whole monoclonal paraprotein. The authors experienced a case of multiple myeloma with severe mandibular osteolytic lesions in 46-year-old female. As a result of careful analysis of clinical, radiological, histopathological features, and laboratory findings, we diagnosed it as multiple myeloma, and the following results were obtained. 1. Main clinical symptoms were intermittent dull pain on the mandibular body area, abnormal sensation of lip and pain due to the fracture on the right clavicle. 2. Laboratory findings revealed M-spike, reversed serum albumin-globulin ratio, markedly elevated ESR and hypercalcemia. 3. Radiographically, multiple osteolytic punched-out radiolucencies were evident on the skull, zygoma, jaw bones, ribs, clavicle and upper extremities. Enlarged liver and increased uptakes on the lesional sites in RN scan were also observed. 4. Histopathologically, markedly hypercellular marrow with sheets of plasmoblasts and megakaryocytes were also observed.

  15. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two (12%) of a total of 366 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) had psychiatric admissions. Of these, 34 (81%) had their first psychiatric admission in conjunction with or after the onset of MS. Classification by psychiatric diagnosis showed that there was a significant positive correlation...

  16. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional investigation of 116 patients with multiple sclerosis, the social and sparetime activities of the patient were assessed by both patient and his/her family. The assessments were correlated to physical disability which showed that particularly those who were moderately disabled...

  17. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1990-01-01

    An investigation on the correlation between ability to read TV subtitles and the duration of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in 14 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated that VEP latency in patients unable to read the TV subtitles was significantly delayed in comparison...

  18. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 94 patients (42 males, 52 females) with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) in the age range 25-55 years, the correlation of neuropsychological tests with the ability to read TV-subtitles and with the use of sedatives is examined. A logistic regression analysis reveals...

  19. Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  20. Parenting Multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when your babies do. Though it can be hard to let go of the thousand other things you need to do, remember that your well-being is key to your ability to take care of your babies. What Problems Can Happen? It may be hard to tell multiple babies apart when they first ...

  1. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadashima, Hiromichi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Imai, Terukuni; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi

    1986-01-01

    Eleven patients with a definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis were examined in terms of correlations between the clinical features and the results of cranial computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: In 5 of the 11 patients, both CT and MRI demonstrated lesions consistent with a finding of multiple sclerosis. In 3 patients, only MRI demonstrated lesions. In the remaining 3 patients, neither CT nor MRI revealed any lesion in the brain. All 5 patients who showed abnormal findings on both CT and MRI had clinical signs either of cerebral or brainstem - cerebellar lesions. On the other hand, two of the 3 patients with normal CT and MRI findings had optic-nerve and spinal-cord signs. Therefore, our results suggested relatively good correlations between the clinical features, CT, and MRI. MRI revealed cerebral lesions in two of the four patients with clinical signs of only optic-nerve and spinal-cord lesions. MRI demonstrated sclerotic lesions in 3 of the 6 patients whose plaques were not detected by CT. In conclusion, MRI proved to be more helpful in the demonstration of lesions attributable to chronic multiple sclerosis. (author)

  2. Multiple inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Theory of Inflation, namely, that at some point the entropy content of the universe was greatly increased, has much promise. It may solve the puzzles of homogeneity and the creation of structure. However, no particle physics model has yet been found that can successfully drive inflation. The difficulty in satisfying the constraint that the isotropy of the microwave background places on the effective potential of prospective models is immense. In this work we have codified the requirements of such models in a most general form. We have carefully calculated the amounts of inflation the various problems of the Standard Model need for their solution. We have derived a completely model independent upper bond on the inflationary Hubble parameter. We have developed a general notation with which to probe the possibilities of Multiple Inflation. We have shown that only in very unlikely circumstances will any evidence of an earlier inflation, survive the de Sitter period of its successor. In particular, it is demonstrated that it is most unlikely that two bouts of inflation will yield high amplitudes of density perturbations on small scales and low amplitudes on large. We conclude that, while multiple inflation will be of great theoretical interest, it is unlikely to have any observational impact

  3. Multiple Input - Multiple Output (MIMO) SAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort will research and implement advanced Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques which have the potential to improve...

  4. Multiple-Ring Digital Communication Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Harold

    1992-01-01

    Optical-fiber digital communication network to support data-acquisition and control functions of electric-power-distribution networks. Optical-fiber links of communication network follow power-distribution routes. Since fiber crosses open power switches, communication network includes multiple interconnected loops with occasional spurs. At each intersection node is needed. Nodes of communication network include power-distribution substations and power-controlling units. In addition to serving data acquisition and control functions, each node acts as repeater, passing on messages to next node(s). Multiple-ring communication network operates on new AbNET protocol and features fiber-optic communication.

  5. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain

    2014-12-04

    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  6. MultipleColposcopyJCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Performing multiple biopsies during a procedure known as colposcopy—visual inspection of the cervix—is more effective than performing only a single biopsy of the worst-appearing area for detecting cervical cancer precursors. This multiple biopsy approach

  7. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  8. Health Literacy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Health Literacy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Health Literacy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  9. Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cosmetic Dentistry URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  10. Atrial Fibrillation - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Atrial Fibrillation URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Atrial Fibrillation - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  11. Zika Virus - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Zika Virus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Zika Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  12. Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Elder Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  13. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herbal Medicine URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  14. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green's function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green's function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green's function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  15. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  16. Multiple Primary Tumors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... Multiple primary tumors occur in clinical practice causing diagnostic dilemma. It is not very .... was estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, and ... cervical, ovarian, and urinary bladder cancers. Multiple.

  17. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetic Foot URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  18. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  19. Fatigue and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign In In Your Area Donate Donate ... of MS What Causes MS? Who Gets MS? Multiple Sclerosis FAQs Types of MS Related Conditions Symptoms & Diagnosis ...

  20. Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  1. Neutron Multiplicity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, Katherine Chiyoko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-28

    Neutron multiplicity measurements are widely used for nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM). When combined with isotopic composition information, neutron multiplicity analysis can be used to estimate the spontaneous fission rate and leakage multiplication of SNM. When combined with isotopic information, the total mass of fissile material can also be determined. This presentation provides an overview of this technique.

  2. Neutron multiplication measurement instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results

  3. Accurate scaling on multiplicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    The commonly used formula of KNO scaling P n =Ψ(n/ ) for descrete distributions (multiplicity distributions) is shown to contradict mathematically the condition ΣP n =1. The effect is essential even at ISR energies. A consistent generalization of the concept of similarity for multiplicity distributions is obtained. The multiplicity distributions of negative particles in PP and also e + e - inelastic interactions are similar over the whole studied energy range. Collider data are discussed. 14 refs.; 8 figs

  4. ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nayak, T

    2013-01-01

    Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.

  5. Body Weight - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Body Weight URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Body Weight - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  6. Multiplicity in difference geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasic, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    We prove a first principle of preservation of multiplicity in difference geometry, paving the way for the development of a more general intersection theory. In particular, the fibres of a \\sigma-finite morphism between difference curves are all of the same size, when counted with correct multiplicities.

  7. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  8. Formation of multiple networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    we introduce the first network formation model for multiple networks. Network formation models are among the most popular tools in traditional network studies, because of both their practical and theoretical impact. However, existing models are not sufficient to describe the generation of multiple...

  9. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  10. Assessing Children's Multiplicative Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Chris; Hurrell, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Multiplicative thinking is a "big idea" of mathematics that underpins much of the mathematics learned beyond the early primary school years. This paper reports on a current study that utilises an interview tool and a written quiz to gather data about children's multiplicative thinking. The development of the tools and some of the…

  11. Safe Dynamic Multiple Inheritance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Multiple inheritance and similar mechanisms are usually only supported at compile time in statically typed languages. Nevertheless, dynamic multiple inheritance would be very useful in the development of complex systems, because it allows the creation of many related classes without an explosion...... in the size and level of redundancy in the source code. In fact, dynamic multiple inheritance is already available. The language gbeta is statically typed and has supported run-time combination of classes and methods since 1997, by means of the combination operator '&'. However, with certain combinations...

  12. A multiplicity logic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialkowski, J.; Moszynski, M.; Zagorski, A.

    1981-01-01

    The logic diagram principle of operation and some details of the design of the multiplicity logic unit are presented. This unit was specially designed to fulfil the requirements of a multidetector arrangement for gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The unit is equipped with 16 inputs controlled by a common coincidence gate. It delivers a linear output pulse with the height proportional to the multiplicity of coincidences and logic pulses corresponding to 0, 1, ... up to >= 5-fold coincidences. These last outputs are used to steer the routing unit working with the multichannel analyser. (orig.)

  13. Fission neutron multiplicity calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerten, H.; Ruben, A.; Seeliger, D.

    1991-01-01

    A model for calculating neutron multiplicities in nuclear fission is presented. It is based on the solution of the energy partition problem as function of mass asymmetry within a phenomenological approach including temperature-dependent microscopic energies. Nuclear structure effects on fragment de-excitation, which influence neutron multiplicities, are discussed. Temperature effects on microscopic energy play an important role in induced fission reactions. Calculated results are presented for various fission reactions induced by neutrons. Data cover the incident energy range 0-20 MeV, i.e. multiple chance fission is considered. (author). 28 refs, 13 figs

  14. A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, PhFBH4, regulates flower senescence by modulating ethylene biosynthesis pathway in petunia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in regulating multiple biological processes in plants. However, there are few reports about the function of bHLHs in flower senescence. In this study, a bHLH TF, PhFBH4, was found to be dramatically upregulated during...

  15. Multiple sclerosis research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This volume proceedings contains four contributions which are in INIS scope, dealing with MRI and SPECT in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and assessment of disease activity. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  16. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A. H.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not have sharp contrasts to reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function through forward modeling

  17. Connecting the Production Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichen, Alex Yu; Mouritsen, Jan

    &OP process itself is a fluid object, but there is still possibility to organise the messy Production. There are connections between the Production multiple and the managerial technology fluid. The fluid enacted the multiplicity of Production thus making it more difficult to be organised because there were...... in opposite directions. They are all part of the fluid object. There is no single chain of circulating references that makes the object a matter of fact. Accounting fluidity means that references drift back and forth and enact new realities also connected to the chain. In this setting future research may......This paper is about objects. It follows post ANT trajectories and finds that objects are multiple and fluid. Extant classic ANT inspired accounting research largely sees accounting inscriptions as immutable mobiles. Although multiplicity of objects upon which accounting acts has been explored...

  18. Multiple sex partner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    intercourse, about 60% reported having a single sexual partner and 40% reported having multiple ... masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married people and/or .... sex were considered unacceptable by 89 vs.

  19. Multiple Stages 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, John

    Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations...

  20. Rehabilitation and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    In a chronic and disabling disease like multiple sclerosis, rehabilitation becomes of major importance in the preservation of physical, psychological and social functioning. Approximately 80% of patients have multiple sclerosis for more than 35 years and most will develop disability at some point......, a paradigm shift is taking place and it is now increasingly acknowledged that exercise therapy is both safe and beneficial. Robot-assisted training is also attracting attention in multiple sclerosis rehabilitation. Several sophisticated commercial robots exist, but so far the number of scientific studies...... promising. This drug has been shown to improve walking ability in some patients with multiple sclerosis, associated with a reduction of patients' self-reported ambulatory disability. Rehabilitation strategies involving these different approaches, or combinations of them, may be of great use in improving...

  1. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A. H.

    2014-08-05

    Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not have sharp contrasts to reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function through forward modeling. If properly imaged, internal multiples (internally scattered energy) can enhance the seismic image. Conventionally, to image internal multiples, accurate, sharp contrasts in the velocity model are required to construct a Green’s function with all the scattered energy. As an alternative, we have developed a generalized internal multiple imaging procedure that images any order internal scattering using the background Green’s function (from the surface to each image point), constructed from a smooth velocity model, usually used for conventional imaging. For the first-order internal multiples, the approach consisted of three steps, in which we first back propagated the recorded surface seismic data using the background Green’s function, then crosscorrelated the back-propagated data with the recorded data, and finally crosscorrelated the result with the original background Green’s function. This procedure images the contribution of the recorded first-order internal multiples, and it is almost free of the single-scattering recorded energy. The cost includes one additional crosscorrelation over the conventional single-scattering imaging application. We generalized this method to image internal multiples of any order separately. The resulting images can be added to the conventional single-scattering image, obtained, e.g., from Kirchhoff or reverse-time migration, to enhance the image. Application to synthetic data with reflectors illuminated by multiple scattering (double scattering) demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach.

  2. Neutron source multiplication method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive use has been made of neutron source multiplication in thousands of measurements of critical masses and configurations and in subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements in situ that provide data for criticality prevention and control in nuclear materials operations. There is continuing interest in developing reliable methods for monitoring the reactivity, or k/sub eff/, of plant operations, but the required measurements are difficult to carry out and interpret on the far subcritical configurations usually encountered. The relationship between neutron multiplication and reactivity is briefly discussed and data presented to illustrate problems associated with the absolute measurement of neutron multiplication and reactivity in subcritical systems. A number of curves of inverse multiplication have been selected from a variety of experiments showing variations observed in multiplication during the course of critical and subcritical experiments where different methods of reactivity addition were used, with different neutron source detector position locations. Concern is raised regarding the meaning and interpretation of k/sub eff/ as might be measured in a far subcritical system because of the modal effects and spectrum differences that exist between the subcritical and critical systems. Because of this, the calculation of k/sub eff/ identical with unity for the critical assembly, although necessary, may not be sufficient to assure safety margins in calculations pertaining to far subcritical systems. Further study is needed on the interpretation and meaning of k/sub eff/ in the far subcritical system

  3. MULTIPLE SPINAL CANAL MENINGIOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandigama Pratap Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Meningiomas of the spinal canal are common tumours with the incidence of 25 percent of all spinal cord tumours. But multiple spinal canal meningiomas are rare in compare to solitary lesions and account for 2 to 3.5% of all spinal meningiomas. Most of the reported cases are both intra cranial and spinal. Exclusive involvement of the spinal canal by multiple meningiomas are very rare. We could find only sixteen cases in the literature to the best of our knowledge. Exclusive multiple spinal canal meningiomas occurring in the first two decades of life are seldom reported in the literature. We are presenting a case of multiple spinal canal meningiomas in a young patient of 17 years, who was earlier operated for single lesion. We analysed the literature, with illustration of our case. MATERIALS AND METHODS In September 2016, we performed a literature search for multiple spinal canal meningiomas involving exclusively the spinal canal with no limitation for language and publication date. The search was conducted through http://pubmed.com, a wellknown worldwide internet medical address. To the best of our knowledge, we could find only sixteen cases of multiple meningiomas exclusively confined to the spinal canal. Exclusive multiple spinal canal meningiomas occurring in the first two decades of life are seldom reported in the literature. We are presenting a case of multiple spinal canal meningiomas in a young patient of 17 years, who was earlier operated for solitary intradural extra medullary spinal canal meningioma at D4-D6 level, again presented with spastic quadriparesis of two years duration and MRI whole spine demonstrated multiple intradural extra medullary lesions, which were excised completely and the histopathological diagnosis was transitional meningioma. RESULTS Patient recovered from his weakness and sensory symptoms gradually and bladder and bowel symptoms improved gradually over a period of two to three weeks. CONCLUSION Multiple

  4. Multiple primary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gyu Sik; Lee, Ouk; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duck

    1989-01-01

    It is rare for one human being to be afflicted with more than one cancer. However with further advances in therapeutic regimens, histopathologic observation, diagnostic modalities, and increased curiosity, there are increasing number of case reports of multiple primary cancer. The present study evaluates 25 histologically confirmed cases of multiple primary cancer from 1974 to 1988 at Kosin Medical Center. The most frequent site of the first primary cancer in male was stomach and in female, uterine cervix. The first primary cancer in female occurred in endocrine-related organs (breast, uterus and thyroid) in 63.6 percent. Synchronous cancers are diagnosed simultaneously or within an interval of about six months and synchronous cancers were 16 out of 25 cases. Metachronous cancers are diagnosed at interval of more than six months. There were 9 metachronous cancers and average interval between the first and second primary cancer was 22.8 months. The incidence of multiple primary cancer was 0.11 percent. The average age was 51.9 years at the time of the first primary cancer (53.1 years in male and 50.3 years in female). CT scan was most helpful in early detection of multiple primary cancers facilitating biopsy and surgery. Multiple primary cancers are beyond the medical curiosity. Early diagnosis of the disease and careful follow-up study, based on an awareness of the possibility of second cancers, will substantially increase the survival of these patients

  5. The Future Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaniol, Matthew Jon; Rowland, Nicholas James

    2015-01-01

    /value – The original contribution is in demonstrating how plural futures and the singular future co-exist in practice. Thus, an eclipse of the future by futures can only ever be partial. For “futures” to be conceptually potent, “the future” must be at least provisionally believable and occasionally useful. Otherwise......, if “the future” were so preposterous an idea, then “futures” would cease to be a critical alternative to it. Futures needs the future; they are relationally bound together in a multiplicity. This paper considers what such a logical reality implies for a field that distances itself from the future and self......). Multiplicity, as a post-ANT sensibility, helps one make sense of the empirical materials. This paper examines the possibility that rather than being alternatives to one another, plural futures and the singular future might co-exist in practice, and, thus, constitute a multiplicity. Design...

  6. Hadron multiplicities at COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Fresne von Hohenesche, Nicolas [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Quark fragmentation functions (FF) D{sub q}{sup h}(z,Q{sup 2}) describe final-state hadronization of quarks q into hadrons h. The FFs can be extracted from hadron multiplicities produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The COMPASS collaboration has recently measured charged hadron multiplicities for identified pions and kaons using a 160 GeV/c muon beam impinging on an iso-scalar target. The data cover a large kinematical range and provide an important input for global QCD analyses of world data at NLO, aiming at the determination of FFs in particular in the strange quark sector. The newest results from COMPASS on pion and kaon multiplicities will be presented.

  7. Multiplicities and parton dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuteson, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    The production of strongly interacting particles from the annihilation of electrons and positrons at high energies is studied, with emphasis on the multiplicity, or number, of particles produced. A probabilistic branching model based on the leading log approximation in QCD is formulated to predict the evolution of particle number with the energy of collision. Direct integration of a master equation for the probabilities allows a comparison to the experimentally observed particle distribution. The production of strongly interacting particles from proton-antiproton collisions is also considered. A model for the production of particles from parton-parton collisions is presented and the growth in multiplicity with energy demonstrated

  8. Sentencing Multiple Crimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Most people assume that criminal offenders have only been convicted of a single crime. However, in reality almost half of offenders stand to be sentenced for more than one crime.The high proportion of multiple crime offenders poses a number of practical and theoretical challenges for the criminal......, and psychology offer their perspectives to the volume. A comprehensive examination of the dynamics involved with sentencing multiple offenders has the potential to be a powerful tool for legal scholars and professionals, particularly given the practical importance of the topic and the relative dearth of research...

  9. High-multiplicity processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelkov, G.; Sisakyan, A.; Mandzhavidze, I.

    1999-01-01

    We wish to demonstrate that investigation of asymptotically high multiplicity (AHM) hadron reactions may solve, or at least clear up, a number of problems unsolvable by other ways. We would lean upon the idea: (i) the reactions final state entropy is proportional to multiplicity and, by this reason, just in the AHM domain one may expect the equilibrium final state and (ii) the AHM final state is cold because of the energy-momentum conservation laws. This means that the collective phenomena may become important in the AHM domain. The possibility of hard processes dominance is considered also

  10. [Delivery in multiple pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, F; D'Addato, F; Grio, R

    2001-04-01

    A knowledge of clinical physiognomy in pathologies related to multiple births is indispensable for improving maternal and feto-neonatal prognosis. This study is a contribution to the solution of this problem. A meta-analysis of data for multiple births at Department B of the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic at the University of Turi during the decade 1989-1998 was carried out, focusing on the arrangement and presentation of fetuses, the various types of birth, the gestational age at which birth occurred, the weight of neonates, neonatal mortality and maternal morbidity. Out of 11,523 births, there were a total of 194 (1.68%) multiple births, including 190 sets of twins and 4 triplets. 154 (79.38%) premature births were reported; 20 occurred 1500 g). The perinatal mortality rate was 3.82%. Maternal complications mainly occurred during the placental state, in the immediate postpartum and in puerperio. The authors feel that a more careful medical and social assistance, preventive hospitalisation, early recognition of the risk, constant monitoring for the optimal timing of birth, and lastly, qualified medical assistance during labour (expert gynecologist, trained obstetric staff) with other medical personnel (anesthetist, neonatal specialist) represent winning strategies to solve the problems arising during multiple pregnancies.

  11. Multiple Primary Tumors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... breast and ascending colon. KEYWORDS: Carcinoid, colorectal cancer, metachronous, synchronous. Multiple Primary Tumors. MA Adeyanju, AA Ilori. Address for correspondence: Dr. MA Adeyanju,. Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Centre, Ebute Metta,. Lagos, Nigeria. E-mail: mbadeyanju@yahoo.

  12. Back Pain - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... List of All Topics All Back Pain - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 31 May 2018

  13. Anemia - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Anemia - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 30 April 2018

  14. Allergy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Allergy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 23 May 2018

  15. Alcohol - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Alcohol - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 16 April 2018

  16. Immunomodulation of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohnya, Tanyifor M; Figg, William D

    2004-11-01

    Multiple myeloma is a multi-process disease, and these different processes are responsible for the reduced sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, hence the relapse and refractory nature of multiple myeloma. Emphasis is now placed on the hypothesis that myeloma cell growth, inhibition of apoptosis and drug resistance are dependent on immunomodulatory cytokines such as IL-6 and pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF. In addition to its anti-angiogenic effects, the immunomodulatory properties of thalidomide make it a possible therapy for patients with advanced multiple myeloma. This has lead to the clinical development of a number of immunomodulatory thalidomide analogues (IMiDs) which are more potent and have less side effects than the parent drug, thalidomide. In the August 15(th) issue of Journal of Clinical Oncology, Schey SA et al. suggested that an IMiD (CC-4047) maybe efficacious due to T-cell co-stimulation, and safe in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. This article demonstrates a supporting role for IMiDs as immunomodulatory adjuvant therapy.

  17. Seizures in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Polman, Susan; De Keyser, Jacques

    Seizures have long been recognized to be part of the disease spectrum of multiple sclerosis (MS). While they occur in only a minority of patients with MS, epileptic seizures can have serious consequences. The treatment of MS can be epileptogenic, and antiepileptic treatment can conversely worsen the

  18. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.

  19. Reduced multiplication modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if M is a von Neumann regular module (VNM); i.e., every principal submodule of M is a summand submodule. Also if M is an injective R-module, then M is a VNM. Keywords. Multiplication module; reduced module; minimal prime submodule;. Zariski topology; extremally disconnected. 1. Introduction. In this paper all rings are ...

  20. Zinc in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredholt, Mikkel; Fredriksen, Jette Lautrup

    2016-01-01

    In the last 35 years, zinc (Zn) has been examined for its potential role in the disease multiple sclerosis (MS). This review gives an overview of the possible role of Zn in the pathogenesis of MS as well as a meta-analysis of studies having measured Zn in serum or plasma in patients with MS...

  1. Visualizing Matrix Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugulis, Peteris; Sondore, Anita

    2018-01-01

    Efficient visualizations of computational algorithms are important tools for students, educators, and researchers. In this article, we point out an innovative visualization technique for matrix multiplication. This method differs from the standard, formal approach by using block matrices to make computations more visual. We find this method a…

  2. Multiple photon resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, C.J.; Feldman, B.J.

    1979-02-01

    A detailed theoretical analysis is presented of the interaction of intense near-resonant monochromatic radiation with an N-level anharmonic oscillator. In particular, the phenomenon of multiple photon resonance, the process by which an N-level system resonantly absorbs two or more photons simultaneously, is investigated. Starting from the Schroedinger equation, diagrammatic techniques are developed that allow the resonant process to be analyzed quantitatively, in analogy with well-known two-level coherent phenomena. In addition, multiple photon Stark shifts of the resonances, shifts absent in two-level theory, are obtained from the diagrams. Insights into the nature of multiple photon resonances are gained by comparing the quantum mechanical system with classical coupled pendulums whose equations of motion possess identical eigenvalues and eigenvectors. In certain limiting cases, including that of the resonantly excited N-level harmonic oscillator and that of the equally spaced N-level system with equal matrix elements, analytic results are derived. The influence of population relaxation and phase-disrupting collisions on the multiple photon process are also analyzed, the latter by extension of the diagrammatic technique to the density matrix equations of motion. 11 figures

  3. Multiple plots in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter I will investigate how to combine multiple plots into a single. The scenario is a dataset of a series of measurements, on three samples in three situations. There are many ways we can display this, e.g. 3d graphs or faceting. 3d graphs are not good for displaying static data so we...

  4. Vaccines and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, J. L.; Topsøe Mailand, M.

    2017-01-01

    An association between certain vaccinations and onset or relapse of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been debated. Based on PubMed, we made a thorough literature review and included all relevant studies, 51 on MS and 15 on optic neuritis (ON). Case studies were excluded. With the exception of a live...

  5. Vaccines and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mia Topsøe; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

    2017-01-01

    on the database PubMed. The study found no change in risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) after vaccination against hepatitis B virus, human papillomavirus, seasonal influenza, measles–mumps–rubella, variola, tetanus, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), polio, or diphtheria. No change in risk of relapse...

  6. Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... Information Translations Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Expand Section Radiation Therapy - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  7. Mastering the Multiplication Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ettorre, Jenna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the results of a six-week research project (after baseline data was collected) that focused on three different strategies (flashcards, interactive games, and music) and their effectiveness in helping fifth grade students memorize the basic multiplication facts. Many teachers face a serious problem when their…

  8. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  9. Asthma - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Asthma - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 2 May 2018

  10. Multiple preequilibrium decay processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.

    1987-11-01

    Several treatments of multiple preequilibrium decay are reviewed with emphasis on the exciton and hybrid models. We show the expected behavior of this decay mode as a function of incident nucleon energy. The algorithms used in the hybrid model treatment are reviewed, and comparisons are made between predictions of the hybrid model and a broad range of experimental results. 24 refs., 20 figs

  11. Multiple Access Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Multiple Access Communications, MACOM 2016, held in Aalborg, Denmark, in November 2016. The 10 full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 12 submissions. They were organized in topical...

  12. Multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Kupers, Ron

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent, non-specific symptoms in response to chemically unrelated exposures in non-toxic concentrations. Although the pathophysiology of MCS remains unknown, central sensitization may be an important factor...

  13. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Anne Gram

    Et voksende antal mennesker i Danmark oplever at være overfølsomme over for dufte og kemikalier. Imidlertid er den tilskrevne diagnose Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) ikke medicinsk anerkendt i Danmark pga. mangel på organiske og patofysiologisk basis for symptomerne. Dette speciale bygger på...

  14. The multiple Dirichlet product and the multiple Dirichlet series

    OpenAIRE

    Onozuka, Tomokazu

    2016-01-01

    First, we define the multiple Dirichlet product and study the properties of it. From those properties, we obtain a zero-free region of a multiple Dirichlet series and a multiple Dirichlet series expression of the reciprocal of a multiple Dirichlet series.

  15. Chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffoli, A.; Micheletti, E.; Capra, R.; Mattioli, F.; Marciano', N.

    1991-01-01

    A long-lasting immunological suppression action seems to be produced by total lymphoid irradiation; some authors emphasize the favorable effect of this treatment on chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to evaluate the actual role of TLI, 6 patients affected with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis were submitted to TLI with shaped and personalized fields at the Istituto del Radio, University of Brescia, Italy. The total dose delivered was 19.8 Gy in 4 weeks, 1.8 Gy/day, 5d/w; a week elapsed between the first and the second irradiation course. Disability according to Kurtzke scale was evaluated, together with blood lymphocyte count and irradiation side-effects, over a mean follow-up period of 20.8 months (range: 13-24). Our findings indicate that: a) disease progression was not markedly reduced by TLI; b) steroid hormones responsivity was restored after irradiation, and c) side-effects were mild and tolerable

  16. Curability of Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Alexanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among 792 patients with multiple myeloma treated from 1987 to 2010 and assessed after 18 months, there were 167 patients with complete remission. For those 60 patients treated between 1987–1998 and with long followup, the latest relapse occurred after 11.8 years, so that 13 patients have remained in sustained complete remission for longer than 12 years (range 12–22 years. These results suggest that 3% of all patients treated during that period may be cured of multiple myeloma. In addition to immunofixation, more sensitive techniques for the detection of residual disease should be applied more consistently in patients with apparent complete remission in order to identify those with potential cure.

  17. Multiple time scale dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to dynamical systems with multiple time scales. The approach it takes is to provide an overview of key areas, particularly topics that are less available in the introductory form.  The broad range of topics included makes it accessible for students and researchers new to the field to gain a quick and thorough overview. The first of its kind, this book merges a wide variety of different mathematical techniques into a more unified framework. The book is highly illustrated with many examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography. The target audience of this  book are senior undergraduates, graduate students as well as researchers interested in using the multiple time scale dynamics theory in nonlinear science, either from a theoretical or a mathematical modeling perspective. 

  18. Suicide and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, N

    1992-01-01

    In a nationwide investigation the risk of death by suicide for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) was assessed using records kept at the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR) and the Danish National Register of Cause of Death. The investigation covers all MS patients registered with DSMR...... with an onset of the disease within the period 1953-85, or for whom MS was diagnosed in the same period. Fifty three of the 5525 cases in the onset cohort group committed suicide. Using the figures from the population death statistics by adjustment to number of subjects, duration of observation, sex, age......, and calendar year at the start of observation, the expected number of suicides was calculated to be nearly 29. The cumulative lifetime risk of suicide from onset of MS, using an actuarial method of calculation, was 1.95%. The standard mortality ratio (SMR) of suicide in MS was 1.83. It was highest for males...

  19. Multiple splenic abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Splenic abscess is a rare clinical entity with poor prognosis. But owing to imaging technique, diagnosis and prognosis have improved nowadays. Most patients who are presented with splenic abscess are immunocompromised due to predisposing risk factors like diabetes mellitus, intravenous drug abuse, trauma, bacterial endocarditis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, chemotherapy, or steroids. Here, we are presenting a rarer case of multiple splenic abscesses with its complication in an immunocompetent healthy adult male without any risk factor.

  20. Multiple Employer Welfare Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Sponsors in the Private Nonfarm Sector in the United States, 1978-79," Volume IV, Description and Analysis of Plans and Plan Sponsors, NTIS # PB81-180366...Labor finds to be collectively bargained plans, and those organized by rural electrical cooperatives and rural telephone cooperatives. Thus, except for...their existence and generally higher cost than uninsured plans no doubt contributed to the development of other types of multiple employer

  1. Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bošnjak-Pašić, Marija; Vidrih, Branka; Miškov, Snježana; Demarin, Vida

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, characterized by multifocal inflammatory destruction of myelin, axonal damage and loss of oligodendrocytes. The disease is carried through two stages: inflammatory and degenerative. The most common form of disease in approximately 85% of the cases is RRMS (relapsing-remitting form). The treatment of MS is divided into: treatment of the acute phase of illness, prevention of new relapses and di...

  2. Multiple trichodiscomas: histogenetical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, L; Schöendorff, C; López, M J; Yus, E S

    1991-02-01

    A 23-year-old man with multiple trichodiscomas on his face is described. Four papules were histologically examinated, and all of them showed similar findings, a dermal fibrovascular proliferation with abundant ground substance between collagen bundles and an absence of elastic fibers. We found no evidence to establish a relationship between trichodiscomas and hair disk, and, in our opinion, these lesions should be included into the spectrum of hyperplasia of the adventicial dermis.

  3. Multiple lymphatic cervical cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, J.; Piotrowski, S.; Zalewska-Rzezniczak, I.

    1994-01-01

    Authors described a case of 60 year-old woman with multiple lateral neck cysts. 4 cysts were located in the supraclavicular region of lateral neck triangle. During histopathological studies of postoperative specimens a cystic hygroma diagnosis was established. The fact, that cystic lymphangioma occurred in an adult woman, was interesting. The authors stress the necessity of preoperative evaluation of tumor size in view of the possibility of its penetration into the thorax. The CT examination may be useful in these cases. (author)

  4. Midkine and multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disease characterized by inflammatory demyelination with subsequent neuronal damage in the CNS. MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have been thought as autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated diseases. CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cell (Treg) plays a pivotal role in autoimmune tolerance, and tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCreg) drive the development of inducible Treg cells. Thus, a dysfunction in the d...

  5. Multiple myeloma: 45 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hee Chul; Suh, Jin Suck; Park, Chang Yun

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated 45 cases of multiple myelomas retrospectively confirmed in Severance Hospital from the period of 1983-1989. In order to assess the radiologic features of the multiple myeloma and to assist in possible early diagnosis and treatment. The result were as follows: 1. IgG(41%) was the most common immunoglobulin type secreted followed by light chain(36%). IgA(19%) and IgD(2%). Two percent of the patients had non-secretory type. 89% of patients were in their stage III of the disease. 2. Among the 45 patients, 96% had abnormal plain radiographic findings with average number of 4.5 lesions. Common sites were the spine, rib, skull, pelvis, and humerus in descending orders. The findings were localized or diffuse osteolytic bone destruction(85%). osteoporosis(49%), pathologic fracture and endosteal scalloping(55%). Osteoporosis was more prominent in stage III than stage II. 3. Both plain X-ray and radioisotope study was available for comparison in 28 patients. Concordance between the two studies were 44%, lesions detected only on plain X-ray film were 51%, and lesions detected only on the radioisotope were 5%. The plain radiography was able to detect only 54% of bone lesions confirmed by bone marrow biopsy. With the above results, accurate evaluation of bone lesions in multiple myeloma may be difficult with radiologic studies only. But familiarity with these radiologic findings of the this disease entity is necessary for early suspicion of the disease, thus for early diagnosis and treatment

  6. Falls in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Patricia N; Shumway-Cook, Anne; Bamer, Alyssa M; Johnson, Shana L; Amtmann, Dagmar; Kraft, George H

    2011-07-01

    To examine incidence, associated factors, and health care provider (HCP) response to falls in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cross-sectional retrospective design. Community setting. Four hundred seventy-four persons with MS. Mailed survey questionnaire examined incidence, risk factors, and HCP response to falls in persons with MS who were dwelling in the community. Univariate and multiple ordinal regression analysis identified variables associated with single and multiple falls. Falls, causes and perceived reasons for falls, and HCP response. A total of 265 participants (58.2%) reported one or more falls in the previous 6 months, and 58.5% of falls were medically injurious. Trips/slips while walking accounted for 48% of falls. Factors associated with falls included use of a cane or walker (odds ratio [OR] 2.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-4.14), income falls; recommended strategies included safety strategies (53.2%), use of gait assistive devices (42.1%), exercise/balance training (22.2%), and home modifications (16.6%). Factors associated with falls in persons with MS are similar to those in other populations with neurologic diseases. Despite the high incidence of falls, fewer than 50% of people with MS receive information about prevention of falls from an HCP. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubsik-Gidlewska, Anna M; Klimkiewicz, Paulina; Klimkiewicz, Robert; Janczewska, Katarzyna; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study is to present a strategy of rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis on the basis of the latest developments in the field of physiotherapy. The publications on the problem discuss a wide range of methods of physiotherapy that can be used in order to reduce the degree of disability and alleviate the symptoms associated with the disease. The complexity of the disease, the difficulty in determining the appropriate treatment and a wide range of symptoms require a comprehensive approach to the patient, which would include both pharmacology and neurorehabilitation. Rehabilitation, which includes psychotherapy and symptomatic therapy, is regarded nowadays as the best form of treatment for multiple sclerosis. An indepth diagnostic assessment of functional status and prognosis should be carried out before the start of the rehabilitation process. The prognosis should take into account the mental state, the neurological status and the awareness of the patient. The kinesiotherapy program in multiple sclerosis is based on a gradation of physiotherapy which assumes a gradual transition from basic movements to more complex ones till global functions are obtained. The most appropriate form of treatment is functional rehabilitation combined with physical procedures. Recent reports indicate the need for aerobic training to be included in the rehabilitation program. The introduction of physical activities, regardless of the severity of the disease, will reduce the negative effects of akinesia, and thus increase the functional capabilities of all body systems.

  8. Multiples waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongliang

    2013-01-01

    To increase the illumination of the subsurface and to eliminate the dependency of FWI on the source wavelet, we propose multiples waveform inversion (MWI) that transforms each hydrophone into a virtual point source with a time history equal to that of the recorded data. These virtual sources are used to numerically generate downgoing wavefields that are correlated with the backprojected surface-related multiples to give the migration image. Since the recorded data are treated as the virtual sources, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required, and the subsurface illumination is greatly enhanced because the entire free surface acts as an extended source compared to the radiation pattern of a traditional point source. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model show that the convergence rate and the spatial resolution of MWI is, respectively, faster and more accurate then FWI. The potential pitfall with this method is that the multiples undergo more than one roundtrip to the surface, which increases attenuation and reduces spatial resolution. This can lead to less resolved tomograms compared to conventional FWI. The possible solution is to combine both FWI and MWI in inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution.

  9. Patients with multiple contact allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Patients with multiple contact allergies, also referred to as polysensitized, are more frequent than predicted from prevalence of single sensitivities. The understanding of why some people develop multiple contact allergies, and characterization of patients with multiple contact allergies...... of developing multiple contact allergies. Evidence of allergen clusters among polysensitized individuals is also reviewed. The literature supports the idea that patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special entity within the field of contact allergy. There is no generally accepted definition...... of patients with multiple contact allergies. We suggest that contact allergy to 3 or more allergens are defined as multiple contact allergies....

  10. Multiple Entity Reconciliation

    OpenAIRE

    Samoila, Lavinia Andreea

    2015-01-01

    Living in the age of "Big Data" is both a blessing and a curse. On he one hand, the raw data can be analysed and then used for weather redictions, user recommendations, targeted advertising and more. On he other hand, when data is aggregated from multiple sources, there is no guarantee that each source has stored the data in a standardized or even compatible format to what is required by the application. So there is a need to parse the available data and convert it to the desired form. Here i...

  11. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occurring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  12. Ordering, materiality and multiplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Duim, René; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór

    2013-01-01

    In this article we discuss how ANT has been translated into tourism research and show how it has impacted the field by presenting three concepts integral to the ANT approach: ordering, materiality and multiplicity. We first introduce ANT and draw attention to current ANT studies in tourism......, followed by a discussion of how newer approaches within post-ANT urge us to face the ontological politics, which we engage in when performing tourism research. In conclusion we argue that ANT enables a radical new way at looking at tourism, tourism destinations and objects and investigations...... into the ontological condition of tourism....

  13. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic disorder characterized by reports of symptoms from various organ systems attributed by the individuals to exposure to common odors and airborne chemicals in doses far below those known to induce toxic effects. There exists a general lack of knowledge......, significantly reduced levels of IL-13 in the MCS group and no group differences in the allergen specific IgE measures. The differences were independent of factors such as sex, age, Body Mass Index, asthma, smoking, depression, anxiety and allergen-specific IgE. In conclusion, the study identified a distinct...

  14. INDIA: Photon multiplicity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The team of Indian scientists from Calcutta's Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Bhubaneswar Institute of Physics, Panjab (Chandigarh), Rajasthan (Jaipur) and Jammu in collaboration with GSI Darmstadt have contributed a large and highly granular preshower photon multiplicity detector (PMD) for the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS proton synchrotron. This experiment studies high energy collisions of lead ions and will measure both charged particle and photon multiplicity in a large overlap region. The motivation for measuring photon multiplicity in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions stems from theoretical predictions of changes in the relative production of photons and charged particles in the phase transition of hadronic matter to quarkgluon plasma and its subsequent hadronization. The photon multiplicity detector consists of a matrix of scintillator pads placed in light-tight boxes and mounted behind the lead converter plates. The light from the scintillator pads is transported to the readout system using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibres. Developing on the team's earlier experience with a smaller version for the WA93 experiment (September 1991, page 16), several modifications were incorporated to improve light collection and transport. Use of improved WLS fibres, short WLS pieces to minimize self-absorption, and thermal splicing with long clear fibres were some of the important changes incorporated. Tests showed signficantly improved light collection. The scintillator pads were fabricated at all the five collaborating centres in India and the complicated assembly in the detector box modules carried out at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. More than 400 lead converter plates were machined in Calcutta to rigorous tolerances of 0.2 mm. The assembled detector box modules and lead plates were shipped to CERN in spring 1994 for tests and installation. The WA98 PMD consists of over 50,000 scintillator pads of sizes varying from 15 to

  15. INDIA: Photon multiplicity detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-01-15

    Full text: The team of Indian scientists from Calcutta's Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Bhubaneswar Institute of Physics, Panjab (Chandigarh), Rajasthan (Jaipur) and Jammu in collaboration with GSI Darmstadt have contributed a large and highly granular preshower photon multiplicity detector (PMD) for the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS proton synchrotron. This experiment studies high energy collisions of lead ions and will measure both charged particle and photon multiplicity in a large overlap region. The motivation for measuring photon multiplicity in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions stems from theoretical predictions of changes in the relative production of photons and charged particles in the phase transition of hadronic matter to quarkgluon plasma and its subsequent hadronization. The photon multiplicity detector consists of a matrix of scintillator pads placed in light-tight boxes and mounted behind the lead converter plates. The light from the scintillator pads is transported to the readout system using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibres. Developing on the team's earlier experience with a smaller version for the WA93 experiment (September 1991, page 16), several modifications were incorporated to improve light collection and transport. Use of improved WLS fibres, short WLS pieces to minimize self-absorption, and thermal splicing with long clear fibres were some of the important changes incorporated. Tests showed signficantly improved light collection. The scintillator pads were fabricated at all the five collaborating centres in India and the complicated assembly in the detector box modules carried out at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. More than 400 lead converter plates were machined in Calcutta to rigorous tolerances of 0.2 mm. The assembled detector box modules and lead plates were shipped to CERN in spring 1994 for tests and installation. The WA98 PMD consists of over 50,000 scintillator pads of sizes varying from 15 to 25 mm

  16. Networks amid multiple logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten; Bjerregaard, Toke

    The present study investigates how a high-tech-small-firm (HTSF) can carry out an inter-organizational search of actors located at universities. Responding to calls to study how firms navigate multiple institutional norms, this research examines the different strategies used by a HTSF to balance...... adopted academic norm-sets, commercial imperatives and formal regulations to support formation of networks and collaborations with universities. The findings show how the significance of weak and strong ties for the formation of collaborations and networks with universities is relative...

  17. Writing on Multiple Journeys

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Sarah; Pullen, Ann Ellis

    2012-01-01

    In their beautifully researched study and critical edition, Nellie Arnott’s Writings on Angola, 1905–1913: Missionary Narratives Linking Africa and America (Parlor Press), authors Sarah Robbins and Ann Ellis Pullen examine in fine detail the historical record of the transnational network of literary work produced by Arnott. Tracing her legacy in the study’s third chapter, “Writing on Multiple Journeys,” the authors argue on behalf of Arnott’s capacity to create authority and celebrity as well...

  18. The wheat transcription factor, TabHLH39, improves tolerance to multiple abiotic stressors in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yiqian; Zhang, Lichao; Xia, Chuan; Fu, Silu; Zhao, Guangyao; Jia, Jizeng; Kong, Xiuying

    2016-05-13

    Although bHLH transcription factors play important roles regulating plant development and abiotic stress response and tolerance, few functional studies have been performed in wheat. In this study, we isolated and characterized a bHLH gene, TabHLH39, from wheat. The TabHLH39 gene is located on wheat chromosome 5DL, and the protein localized to the nucleus and activated transcription. TabHLH39 showed variable expression in roots, stems, leaves, glumes, pistils and stamens and was induced by polyethylene glycol, salt and cold treatments. Further analysis revealed that TabHLH39 overexpression in Arabidopsis significantly enhanced tolerance to drought, salt and freezing stress during the seedling stage, which was also demonstrated by enhanced abiotic stress-response gene expression and changes to several physiological indices. Therefore, TabHLH39 has potential in transgenic breeding applications to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple constant multiplication optimizations for field programmable gate arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Kumm, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This work covers field programmable gate array (FPGA)-specific optimizations of circuits computing the multiplication of a variable by several constants, commonly denoted as multiple constant multiplication (MCM). These optimizations focus on low resource usage but high performance. They comprise the use of fast carry-chains in adder-based constant multiplications including ternary (3-input) adders as well as the integration of look-up table-based constant multipliers and embedded multipliers to get the optimal mapping to modern FPGAs. The proposed methods can be used for the efficient implementation of digital filters, discrete transforms and many other circuits in the domain of digital signal processing, communication and image processing. Contents Heuristic and ILP-Based Optimal Solutions for the Pipelined Multiple Constant Multiplication Problem Methods to Integrate Embedded Multipliers, LUT-Based Constant Multipliers and Ternary (3-Input) Adders An Optimized Multiple Constant Multiplication Architecture ...

  20. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  1. Multiple symbol differential detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A differential detection technique for multiple phase shift keying (MPSK) signals is provided which uses a multiple symbol observation interval on the basis of which a joint decision is made regarding the phase of the received symbols. In accordance with the invention, a first difference phase is created between first and second received symbols. Next, the first difference phase is correlated with the possible values thereof to provide a first plurality of intermediate output signals. A second difference phase is next created between second and third received symbols. The second difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a second plurality of intermediate output signals. Next, a third difference phase is created between the first and third symbols. The third difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a third plurality of intermediate output signals. Each of the first plurality of intermediate outputs are combined with each of the second plurality of intermediate outputs and each of the third plurality of intermediate outputs to provide a plurality of possible output values. Finally, a joint decision is made by choosing from the plurality of possible output values the value which represents the best combined correlation of the first, second and third difference values with the possible values thereof.

  2. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-04-12

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth.

  3. Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotator Cuff Injuries URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  4. Multiple Sclerosis and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Editors David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D Andrew J. Solomon, MD WHAT ... caused by improper immune responses (autoimmune diseases), including multiple sclerosis (MS). A recent Patient Page in Neurology provided ...

  5. Piercing and Tattoos - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Piercing and Tattoos URL of this page: https://medlineplus. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Piercing and Tattoos - Multiple Languages To use the sharing ...

  6. Asian American Health - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Asian American Health URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Asian American Health - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  7. Multiple Hierarchies and Organizational Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Peter B.

    1975-01-01

    Uses a control-loss model to explore the effects of multiple channels in formal organizations, and presents an argument for the superior control properties of dual hierarchies. Two variant forms of multiple hierarchies are considered. (Author)

  8. Multiple Intelligences and quotient spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Malatesta, Mike; Quintana, Yamilet

    2006-01-01

    The Multiple Intelligence Theory (MI) is one of the models that study and describe the cognitive abilities of an individual. In [7] is presented a referential system which allows to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the students of a course and to classify the level of development of such Intelligences. Following this tendency, the purpose of this paper is to describe the model of Multiple Intelligences as a quotient space, and also to study the Multiple Intelligences of an individual in...

  9. MULTIPLE GALAXY COLLISIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Here is a sampling of 15 ultraluminous infrared galaxies viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble's sharp vision reveals more complexity within these galaxies, which astronomers are interpreting as evidence of a multiple-galaxy pileup. These images, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are part of a three-year study of 123 galaxies within 3 billion light-years of Earth. The study was conducted in 1996, 1997, and 1999. False colors were assigned to these photos to enhance fine details within these coalescing galaxies. Credits: NASA, Kirk Borne (Raytheon and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.), Luis Colina (Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Spain), and Howard Bushouse and Ray Lucas (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.)

  10. Multiple passage cells theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, R.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the main concepts envolved in non astigmatic multiple passes cells is presented. It is shown that these concepts can be extended to ring cavities in which the analysis of the ray propagation (in the paraxial approaching) in two separated plans is accomplished. The concepts developed are applyed to a simple ring cavity (one curve mirror and two plane ones) showing that the acquired pattern of the rays on the mirrors is the one of a Lissajours figure which allows a better use of the mirror's area and consequently a larger number of passes. The cavity has applications in optical delay lines, measurements of mirrors reflectivities and possibly in passive optical gyroscopes. (Author) [pt

  11. Multiple stage railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaland, K.; Hawke, R.S.; Scudder, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator for accelerating a projectile by movement of a plasma arc along the rails. The railgun is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources as the projectile moves through the bore of the railgun. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can be prevented by connection of the energy sources to the rails through isolation diodes. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails into electrically isolated rail sections. In such case means are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse or laser device is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage

  12. Strategizing in multiple ways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2013-01-01

    Strategy processes are kinds of wayfaring where different actors interpret a formally defined strat-egy differently. In the everyday practice of organizations strategizing takes place in multiple ways through narratives and sensible actions. This forms a meshwork of polyphonic ways to enact one...... and the same strategy. The paper focusses on such processes as they develop in a Danish service company. It is done on the basis of an empirical and longitudinal study of a strategy process in the Service Company where the strategic purpose was to implement value-based management. The theme to be developed...... based on this development paper is whether one can understand these diver-gent strategic wayfaring processes as constructive for organizations....

  13. Multiple gas reduction strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Kurosawa [Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Future global warming has a close relationship with the abatement potential of six greenhouse gases (GHGs), including carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Therefore, multiple gas reduction flexibility should be assessed. The emission of each non-CO{sub 2} GHG is calculated endogenously by the sum of the product of the emission factor and the endogenous activity index using an integrated assessment model, GRAPE (Global Relationship Assessment to Protect the Environment). The model consists of five modules dealing with issues on energy, climate, land use, macroeconomics and environmental impacts. The uncertainty in the non-CO{sub 2} GHG emission inventory and emission factors is discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Automated multiple failure FMEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, C.J.; Taylor, N.S.

    2002-01-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is typically performed by a team of engineers working together. In general, they will only consider single point failures in a system. Consideration of all possible combinations of failures is impractical for all but the simplest example systems. Even if the task of producing the FMEA report for the full multiple failure scenario were automated, it would still be impractical for the engineers to read, understand and act on all of the results. This paper shows how approximate failure rates for components can be used to select the most likely combinations of failures for automated investigation using simulation. The important information can be automatically identified from the resulting report, making it practical for engineers to study and act on the results. The strategy described in the paper has been applied to a range of electrical subsystems, and the results have confirmed that the strategy described here works well for realistically complex systems

  15. Quantum Optical Multiple Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær

    . In the first part we use a scattering-matrix formalism combined with results from random-matrix theory to investigate the interference of quantum optical states on a multiple scattering medium. We investigate a single realization of a scattering medium thereby showing that it is possible to create entangled...... states by interference of squeezed beams. Mixing photon states on the single realization also shows that quantum interference naturally arises by interfering quantum states. We further investigate the ensemble averaged transmission properties of the quantized light and see that the induced quantum...... interference survives even after disorder averaging. The quantum interference manifests itself through increased photon correlations. Furthermore, the theoretical description of a measurement procedure is presented. In this work we relate the noise power spectrum of the total transmitted or reflected light...

  16. Anthropology and Multiple Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    “modernities” over the last 10 years, this paper wishes to address the analytical usefulness of this conceptual development. What is it about these concepts that make them useful as we try to capture the World today? Rather than providing any substantial definitions as to what those modernities are about (or...... what they are not about), anthropologists have used ethnographies to demonstrate how modernities are lived and constructed differently in different cultural contexts. To a very large extent, anthropologists intend these multiple modernities to refer to the interplay between local and global...... configurations. However, if the current pluralizing of modernity ultimately serves to describe the variety of cultural forms that co-exist in the World today, the analytical value of the concept risks being watered down, and little is gained in perspective. Arguably, other concepts would have served the purpose...

  17. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy.

  18. Multiple sclerosis and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Anthony; Pavisian, Bennis

    2017-06-01

    Mortality rates are elevated in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) relative to the general population. There is, however, some uncertainty whether suicide contributes to this. Epidemiological data suggest that the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for suicide in MS is approximately twice that of the general population with younger males in the first few years following diagnosis most at risk. Rates of suicidal intent, a potential harbinger of more self-destructive behavior, are also elevated, but the frequency with which intent is followed by suicide is not known. Depression, severity of depression, social isolation, and alcohol abuse are associated with thoughts of suicide. The variables linked with suicide and suicidal intent are therefore well defined and should be readily available from routine clinical inquiry. While vigilance on the part of clinicians is required, particularly in the context of high-risk patients, it is also recognized that prevention is dependent on full disclosure of intent.

  19. On Multiple Appearances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork Petersen, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    reduction and epoché to focus on how dancing bodies appear in a stage context. To test these tools’ ability to explore dancing bodies from a third-person perspective, I analyse the Danish choreographer Kitt Johnson’s solo performance Drift (2011) - focussing on her shifting physical appearance. While...... phenomenology helps me to describe the multiple and radically different guises that Johnson assumes in her piece, my analysis, ultimately, does not aim to distil a truer, more real being from her appearances as is often the case in phenomenological philosophy. I complement my analytical approach...... with the Deleuzian notion of becoming animal and suggest that Johnson stages what could, in Judith Butler’s terms, be called a critical contingency of bodily appearance....

  20. Media and Multiplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years continental Europe has experienced a resurgence of right-wing party politics, nationalism and xenophobia. In this nationalist revival the media and advanced communications technologies have played a significant role, as evidenced by the debates following cases...... such as the Danish cartoon controversy, and Dutch politician Geert Wilders’s film, Fitna. Simultaneously, however, the media is more diverse and rhizomatic than ever and offers potential for cosmopolitanism, transnational ethical relations as well as radical anti-racist and anti-fascist interventions. This article...... explores the tensions within the relation between journalistic practice and the construction of the idea of the nation and the multiplicity of media and cultures which inhabit the spheres of journalism and nation....

  1. Multiple-port valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doody, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    A multiple-port valve assembly is designed to direct flow from a primary conduit into any one of a plurality of secondary conduits as well as to direct a reverse flow. The valve includes two mating hemispherical sockets that rotatably receive a spherical valve plug. The valve plug is attached to the primary conduit and includes diverging passageways from that conduit to a plurality of ports. Each of the ports is alignable with one or more of a plurality of secondary conduits fitting into one of the hemispherical sockets. The other hemispherical socket includes a slot for the primary conduit such that the conduit's motion along that slot with rotation of the spherical plug about various axes will position the valve-plug ports in respect to the secondary conduits

  2. Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzo, J.; Pina, J.I.; Abos, M.D.; Rios, G.; Garcia, D.; Marin, F.; Diaz, F.J.

    1984-12-01

    A 39-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with headaches, vomiting, psychic impairment and diplopia. Three hydatid cysts of the lung had been previously removed. An avascular mass in the left hemisphere with left-to-right displacement of the anterior cerebral arteries was noted during a brain angioscintigraphy. A cerebralthrombosis (CT) brain scan showed two cystic lesions situated in the left-frontal and occipital regions. A CT abdominal scan showed multiple cysts in the liver, spleen and both kidneys. At operation, two brain cysts were totally extirpated without rupture. The definite pathological diagnosis was secondry hydatid cysts. The headaches, vomiting and diplopia were persistent in the post-operative period. Seven days after the operation, a CT brain scan showed an infratenrorial cyst. The patient rejected any surgical intervention.

  3. Multiple Temporalities, Layered Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Pearson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Quotational Practices: Repeating the Future in Contemporary Art, Patrick Greaney asserts, “the past matters not only because of what actually happened but also because of the possibilities that were not realized and that still could be. Quotation evokes those possibilities. By repeating the past, artists and writers may be attempting to repeat that past’s unrealized futures.”[1]  In the information age, the Internet, for instance, provides us an expanded collection of visual information—quite literally available at our fingertips—summoning together aspects of the past and possibilities of the future into a boundless present. Sketchbook Revisions (2014–2015, a series of mixed-media paintings, represents my attempt to communicate the ways in which I experience my contemporary moment constructed from multiple temporalities excavated from my past. This body of work combines fragments of representational paintings created between 1995 and 2003 and nonrepresentational renderings produced between 2003 and 2014. Using traditional tracing paper and graphic color, I randomly select moments of my previous work to transfer and layer over selected areas of already-filled pages of a sketchbook I used from 2003 to 2004. These sketches depict objects I encountered in studio art classrooms and iconic architecture on the campus of McDaniel College, and often incorporate teaching notes. The final renditions of fragmented and layered histories enact the ways that we collectively experience multiple temporalities in the present. Quoting my various bodies of work, Sketchbook Revisions challenges both material and conceptual boundaries that determine fixed notions of artistic identity.

  4. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results.

  5. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results

  6. Multiple Levels of Suffering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiley, Kasey B.; Haywood, Carlton; Bediako, Shawn M.; Lanzkron, Sophie; Carroll, C. Patrick; Buenaver, Luis F.; Pejsa, Megan; Edwards, Robert R.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Campbell, Claudia M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: People living with sickle cell disease (SCD) experience severe episodic and chronic pain and frequently report poor interpersonal treatment within health-care settings. In this particularly relevant context, we examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and both clinical and laboratory pain. Methods: Seventy-one individuals with SCD provided self-reports of experiences with discrimination in health-care settings and clinical pain severity, and completed a psychophysical pain testing battery in the laboratory. Results: Discrimination in health-care settings was correlated with greater clinical pain severity and enhanced sensitivity to multiple laboratory-induced pain measures, as well as stress, depression, and sleep. After controlling for relevant covariates, discrimination remained a significant predictor of mechanical temporal summation (a marker of central pain facilitation), but not clinical pain severity or suprathreshold heat pain response. Furthermore, a significant interaction between experience with discrimination and clinical pain severity was associated with mechanical temporal summation; increased experience with discrimination was associated with an increased correlation between clinical pain severity and temporal summation of pain. Discussion: Perceived discrimination within health-care settings was associated with pain facilitation. These findings suggest that discrimination may be related to increased central sensitization among SCD patients, and more broadly that health-care social environments may interact with pain pathophysiology. PMID:26889615

  7. Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jussi Oskari; Jacobson, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease that develops as an interplay between the immune system and environmental stimuli in genetically susceptible individuals. There is increasing evidence that viruses may play a role in MS pathogenesis acting as these environmental triggers. However, it is not known if any single virus is causal, or rather several viruses can act as triggers in disease development. Here, we review the association of different viruses to MS with an emphasis on two herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). These two agents have generated the most impact during recent years as possible co-factors in MS disease development. The strongest argument for association of EBV with MS comes from the link between symptomatic infectious mononucleosis and MS and from seroepidemiological studies. In contrast to EBV, HHV-6 has been found significantly more often in MS plaques than in MS normal appearing white matter or non-MS brains and HHV-6 re-activation has been reported during MS clinical relapses. In this review we also suggest new strategies, including the development of new infectious animal models of MS and antiviral MS clinical trials, to elucidate roles of different viruses in the pathogenesis of this disease. Furthermore, we introduce the idea of using unbiased sequence-independent pathogen discovery methodologies, such as next generation sequencing, to study MS brain tissue or body fluids for detection of known viral sequences or potential novel viral agents. PMID:22583435

  8. Multiple exostotic hypochondroplasia: Syndrome of combined hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, R.; Young, L.W.; Girdany, B.R.; Steele, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    This is a report of a family with major focus on the daughter who had short stature. The mother had hypochondroplasia and the father had multiple exostoses. The daughter's skeletal roentgenograms show features of both hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses. The roentgenographic, clinical and genetic aspects of these skeletal dysplasias are reviewed and hypochrondroplasia is contrasted with achondroplasia. The genetic and counseling implications of the association of hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Multiple exostotic hypochondroplasia: Syndrome of combined hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, R.; Young, L.W.; Girdany, B.R.; Steele, M.W.

    1984-07-01

    This is a report of a family with major focus on the daughter who had short stature. The mother had hypochondroplasia and the father had multiple exostoses. The daughter's skeletal roentgenograms show features of both hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses. The roentgenographic, clinical and genetic aspects of these skeletal dysplasias are reviewed and hypochrondroplasia is contrasted with achondroplasia. The genetic and counseling implications of the association of hypochondroplasia and multiple exostoses are discussed.

  10. Introduction: multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Richard

    2008-09-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the most common type of primary bone tumor, affecting approximately 50,000 patients in the United States. Although it is currently not curable, recent advancements in treatment are bringing myeloma closer to becoming a chronic disease instead of a terminal illness. To better understand the prevalence of MM as well as provide an overview of the costs associated with treatment. The goals of treatment in MM include eradicating all evidence of disease, controlling disease to prevent damage to target organs, preserving normal function and quality of life, relieving pain, and managing myeloma that is in remission. To achieve these goals, treatment must be individually tailored for each patient based on the patient's age, overall health status, symptoms, and laboratory test results. Advancements in the understanding of the pathogenesis of myeloma and the role of genetic mutations are leading to a new standard of treatment. Advancements in diagnostic technology, such as cytogenetic testing, are also being used to tailor treatment for each individual to work toward achieving better response rates, longer periods of remission, and improved quality of life. Increased costs associated with the improved therapies being used to treat MM, and the comorbid conditions associated with the disease, present a challenge to managed care. Health plans and formulary decision makers need to better understand the complexity of therapy to best use resources. The economic burden to the patient must also be considered when developing treatment strategies. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of MM, including the role of cytogenetics, is leading to the development and use of novel agents and treatment options. Head-to-head studies comparing treatments must be performed to best balance the costs associated with treatment and the benefits of improved survival rates and maintaining quality of life.

  11. Multiple intelligences in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Castro Solano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During many years has prevailed the idea of intelligence as a single problem solving ability (factor g considered the best predictor of student’s academic achievement. Recently, researches have begun to take an alternative view of the problem, understanding it is a multidimensional construct. Multiple intelligences (MI theory proposed by Gardner (1983 takes into account seven talents or skills individuals appear to have in certain amount. These latent bio-psychological potentials are stable and they are mantained through life. Theory of MI proposes that every person learns in relation to them. MI theory has many educational applications, however, very few efforts have been made to verify such statements. The main goal of this study is to analyze the IM differential individual profile of high school and university students studying the relation between IM, academic achievement and self efficacy competence on course performance. Two studies were carried out , the first was done with high school students (N=500 and the second with military students (N=362. Based on Armstrong’s proposals to assess IM, an inventory was designed. Main results point out that there is a correspondence between academic attainment, self interest and self perception of competence in different courses students take. MI are good predictors of academic achievement considering specific areas but they don’t provide a better estimation compared to traditional assessment instruments. Students who have failed in school were those with more spatial and corporal abilities, usually relegated by traditional instruction. High achievers were those with more logical and intrapersonal skills. Different relations were found for military students. For these latter students IM theory was not a valuable predictor of successful academic attainment. 

  12. Midkine and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hideyuki

    2014-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disease characterized by inflammatory demyelination with subsequent neuronal damage in the CNS. MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have been thought as autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated diseases. CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T-cell (Treg) plays a pivotal role in autoimmune tolerance, and tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCreg) drive the development of inducible Treg cells. Thus, a dysfunction in the development of Treg and DCreg leads to the development of autoimmune diseases. However, the factors that regulate Treg and DCreg are largely unknown. We recently showed that removal of midkine (MK) suppressed EAE due to an expansion of the Treg cell population as well as a decrease in the numbers of autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cells. MK decreased the Treg cell population by suppressing the phosphorylation of STAT5, which is essential for the expression of Foxp3, the master transcriptional factor of Treg cell differentiation. Furthermore, MK reduces the DCreg cell population by inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT3, which is critical for DCreg development. Blockade of MK signalling by a specific RNA aptamer significantly elevated the population of DCreg and Treg cells and ameliorated EAE without detectable adverse effects. Therefore, the inhibition of MK may provide an effective therapeutic strategy against autoimmune diseases including MS. This article is part of a themed section on Midkine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-4. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Interferon Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Alajbegovic, Azra; Deljo, Dervis; Alajbegovic, Salem; Djelilovic-Vranic, Jasminka; Todorovic, Ljubica; Tiric-Campara, Merita

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) differ: treatment of relapse, treatment slow the progression of the disease (immunomodulators and immunosuppression), and symptomatic treatment. The aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the application of interferon therapy in the treatment of MS-E: Process the disease, patients with multiple sclerosis who have passed the commission for multiple sclerosis at the Neurology Clinic of Clinical Center of Sarajevo University as a refere...

  14. Molecular mechanisms and ecological function of far-red light signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, David J; Hiltbrunner, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Land plants possess the ability to sense and respond to far-red light (700-760 nm), which serves as an important environmental cue. Due to the nature of far-red light, it is not absorbed by chlorophyll and thus is enriched in canopy shade and will also penetrate deeper into soil than other visible wavelengths. Far-red light responses include regulation of seed germination, suppression of hypocotyl growth, induction of flowering and accumulation of anthocyanins, which depend on one member of the phytochrome photoreceptor family, phytochrome A (phyA). Here, we review the current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of how plants sense far-red light through phyA and the physiological responses to this light quality. Light-activated phytochromes act on two primary pathways within the nucleus; suppression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex CUL4/DDB1 COP1/SPA and inactivation of the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) family of bHLH transcription factors. These pathways integrate with other signal transduction pathways, including phytohormones, for tissue and developmental stage specific responses. Unlike other phytochromes that mediate red-light responses, phyA is transported from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in far-red light by the shuttle proteins FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 1 (FHY1) and FHY1-LIKE (FHL). However, additional mechanisms must exist that shift the action of phyA to far-red light; current hypotheses are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Transcription factor PIF4 controls the thermosensory activation of flowering

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. Vinod; Lucyshyn, Doris; Jaeger, Katja E.; Aló s, Enriqueta; Alvey, Elizabeth; Harberd, Nicholas P.; Wigge, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Plant growth and development are strongly affected by small differences in temperature. Current climate change has already altered global plant phenology and distribution, and projected increases in temperature pose a significant challenge to agriculture. Despite the important role of temperature on plant development, the underlying pathways are unknown. It has previously been shown that thermal acceleration of flowering is dependent on the florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). How this occurs is, however, not understood, because the major pathway known to upregulate FT, the photoperiod pathway, is not required for thermal acceleration of flowering. Here we demonstrate a direct mechanism by which increasing temperature causes the bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) to activate FT. Our findings provide a new understanding of how plants control their timing of reproduction in response to temperature. Flowering time is an important trait in crops as well as affecting the life cycles of pollinator species. A molecular understanding of how temperature affects flowering will be important for mitigating the effects of climate change. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  16. Neighbor Detection Induces Organ-Specific Transcriptomes, Revealing Patterns Underlying Hypocotyl-Specific Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Markus V; Schmid-Siegert, Emanuel; Trevisan, Martine; Petrolati, Laure Allenbach; Sénéchal, Fabien; Müller-Moulé, Patricia; Maloof, Julin; Xenarios, Ioannis; Fankhauser, Christian

    2016-12-01

    In response to neighbor proximity, plants increase the growth of specific organs (e.g., hypocotyls) to enhance access to sunlight. Shade enhances the activity of Phytochrome Interacting Factors (PIFs) by releasing these bHLH transcription factors from phytochrome B-mediated inhibition. PIFs promote elongation by inducing auxin production in cotyledons. In order to elucidate spatiotemporal aspects of the neighbor proximity response, we separately analyzed gene expression patterns in the major light-sensing organ (cotyledons) and in rapidly elongating hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana PIFs initiate transcriptional reprogramming in both organs within 15 min, comprising regulated expression of several early auxin response genes. This suggests that hypocotyl growth is elicited by both local and distal auxin signals. We show that cotyledon-derived auxin is both necessary and sufficient to initiate hypocotyl growth, but we also provide evidence for the functional importance of the local PIF-induced response. With time, the transcriptional response diverges increasingly between organs. We identify genes whose differential expression may underlie organ-specific elongation. Finally, we uncover a growth promotion gene expression signature shared between different developmentally regulated growth processes and responses to the environment in different organs. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  17. PIF4 Promotes Expression of LNG1 and LNG2 to Induce Thermomorphogenic Growth in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geonhee Hwang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis plants adapt to high ambient temperature by a suite of morphological changes including elongation of hypocotyls and petioles and leaf hyponastic growth. These morphological changes are collectively called thermomorphogenesis and are believed to increase leaf cooling capacity by enhancing transpiration efficiency, thereby increasing tolerance to heat stress. The bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4 has been identified as a major regulator of thermomorphogenic growth. Here, we show that PIF4 promotes the expression of two homologous genes LONGIFOLIA1 (LNG1 and LONGIFOLIA2 (LNG2 that have been reported to regulate leaf morphology. ChIP-Seq analyses and ChIP assays showed that PIF4 directly binds to the promoters of both LNG1 and LNG2. The expression of LNG1 and LNG2 is induced by high temperature in wild type plants. However, the high temperature activation of LNG1 and LNG2 is compromised in the pif4 mutant, indicating that PIF4 directly regulates LNG1 and LNG2 expression in response to high ambient temperatures. We further show that the activities of LNGs support thermomorphogenic growth. The expression of auxin biosynthetic and responsive genes is decreased in the lng quadruple mutant, implying that LNGs promote thermomorphogenic growth by activating the auxin pathway. Together, our results demonstrate that LNG1 and LNG2 are directly regulated by PIF4 and are new components for the regulation of thermomorphogenesis.

  18. Branching of the PIF3 regulatory network in Arabidopsis: roles of PIF3-regulated MIDAs in seedling development in the dark and in response to light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentandreu, Maria; Leivar, Pablo; Martín, Guiomar; Monte, Elena

    2012-04-01

    Plants need to accurately adjust their development after germination in the underground darkness to ensure survival of the seedling, both in the dark and in the light upon reaching the soil surface. Recent studies have established that the photoreceptors phytochromes and the bHLH phytochrome interacting factors PIFs regulate seedling development to adjust it to the prevailing light environment during post-germinative growth. However, complete understanding of the downstream regulatory network implementing these developmental responses is still lacking. In a recent work, published in The Plant Cell, we report a subset of PIF3-regulated genes in dark-grown seedlings that we have named MIDAs (MISREGULATED IN DARK). Analysis of their functional relevance using mutants showed that four of them present phenotypic alterations in the dark, and that each affected a particular facet of seedling development, suggesting organ-specific branching in the signal that PIF3 relays downstream. Furthermore, our results also showed an altered response to light in seedlings with an impaired PIF3/MIDA regulatory network, indicating that these factors might also be essential to initiate and optimize the developmental adjustment of the seedling to the light environment.

  19. Transcription factor PIF4 controls the thermosensory activation of flowering

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. Vinod

    2012-03-21

    Plant growth and development are strongly affected by small differences in temperature. Current climate change has already altered global plant phenology and distribution, and projected increases in temperature pose a significant challenge to agriculture. Despite the important role of temperature on plant development, the underlying pathways are unknown. It has previously been shown that thermal acceleration of flowering is dependent on the florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). How this occurs is, however, not understood, because the major pathway known to upregulate FT, the photoperiod pathway, is not required for thermal acceleration of flowering. Here we demonstrate a direct mechanism by which increasing temperature causes the bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) to activate FT. Our findings provide a new understanding of how plants control their timing of reproduction in response to temperature. Flowering time is an important trait in crops as well as affecting the life cycles of pollinator species. A molecular understanding of how temperature affects flowering will be important for mitigating the effects of climate change. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. Superresolution Imaging Using Resonant Multiples

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen

    2017-12-22

    A resonant multiple is defined as a multiple reflection that revisits the same subsurface location along coincident reflection raypaths. We show that resonant first-order multiples can be migrated with either Kirchhoff or wave-equation migration methods to give images with approximately twice the spatial resolution compared to post-stack primary-reflection images. A moveout-correction stacking method is proposed to enhance the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the resonant multiples before superresolution migration. The effectiveness of this procedure is validated by synthetic and field data tests.

  1. Vascular comorbidities in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormann, Anja; Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of vascular comorbidities before and after the clinical onset of multiple sclerosis. In this combined case-control and cohort study, all Danish born citizens with onset of multiple sclerosis 1980-2005 were identified from the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry...... and randomly matched with controls regarding year of birth, gender, and municipality on January 1st in the year of multiple sclerosis (MS) onset (index date). Individual-level information on comorbidities was obtained from several independent nationwide registries and linked to the study population by unique...

  2. Superresolution Imaging Using Resonant Multiples

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    A resonant multiple is defined as a multiple reflection that revisits the same subsurface location along coincident reflection raypaths. We show that resonant first-order multiples can be migrated with either Kirchhoff or wave-equation migration methods to give images with approximately twice the spatial resolution compared to post-stack primary-reflection images. A moveout-correction stacking method is proposed to enhance the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the resonant multiples before superresolution migration. The effectiveness of this procedure is validated by synthetic and field data tests.

  3. Multiple purpose electrical profit; Emprendimiento electrico de prestacion multiple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assennato, H. [Electrica de Azul Ltda., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1986-12-31

    This paper shows the multiple purpose aspects of electrification projects in rural and isolated areas. The multiple aspects involved in the electrification process may include, over electric power supply: improvement of life quality, irrigation and rural mechanization. 4 figs., 6 tabs., 4 refs.

  4. Universal features of multiplicity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balantekin, A.B.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA

    1994-01-01

    Universal features of multiplicity distributions are studied and combinants, certain linear combinations of ratios of probabilities, are introduced. It is argued that they can be a useful tool in analyzing multiplicity distributions of hadrons emitted in high energy collisions and large scale structure of galaxy distributions

  5. Multiple solid-phase microextraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, EHM; de Jong, GJ

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of multiple solid-phase microextraction are described and the principle is illustrated with the extraction of lidocaine from aqueous solutions. With multiple extraction under non-equilibrium conditions considerably less time is required in order to obtain an extraction yield that

  6. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Christensen, Christian; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Sogaard, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4......The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4...

  7. More Popsicle-Stick Multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkels, Andrejs

    1982-01-01

    A way to use tongue depressors in a model of multiplication is presented. The original intent was to use the sticks to teach about fractions, but "mistakes" in student responses led to new ideas. It is felt that teachers should use the model in teaching multiplication. (MP)

  8. Multiplicative properties of quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Mizanur

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we study the multiplicative behaviour of quantum channels, mathematically described by trace preserving, completely positive maps on matrix algebras. It turns out that the multiplicative domain of a unital quantum channel has a close connection to its spectral properties. A structure theorem (theorem 2.5), which reveals the automorphic property of an arbitrary unital quantum channel on a subalgebra, is presented. Various classes of quantum channels (irreducible, primitive, etc) are then analysed in terms of this stabilising subalgebra. The notion of the multiplicative index of a unital quantum channel is introduced, which measures the number of times a unital channel needs to be composed with itself for the multiplicative algebra to stabilise. We show that the maps that have trivial multiplicative domains are dense in completely bounded norm topology in the set of all unital completely positive maps. Some applications in quantum information theory are discussed.

  9. Beyond KNO multiplicative cascades and novel multiplicity scaling laws

    CERN Document Server

    Hegyi, S

    1999-01-01

    The collapse of multiplicity distributions P/sub n/ onto a universal scaling curve arises when P/sub n/ is expressed as a function of the standardized multiplicity (n-c)/ lambda with c and lambda being location and scale parameters governed by leading particle effects and the growth of average multiplicity. It is demonstrated that self- similar multiplicative cascade processes such as QCD parton branching naturally lead to a novel type of scaling behavior of P/sub n/ which manifests itself in Mellin space through a location change controlled by the degree of multifractality and a scale change governed by the depth of the cascade. Applying the new scaling rule it is shown how to restore data collapsing behavior of P/sub n/ measured in hh collisions at ISR and SPS energies. (21 refs).

  10. Multiple Improvements of Multiple Imputation Likelihood Ratio Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kin Wai; Meng, Xiao-Li

    2017-01-01

    Multiple imputation (MI) inference handles missing data by first properly imputing the missing values $m$ times, and then combining the $m$ analysis results from applying a complete-data procedure to each of the completed datasets. However, the existing method for combining likelihood ratio tests has multiple defects: (i) the combined test statistic can be negative in practice when the reference null distribution is a standard $F$ distribution; (ii) it is not invariant to re-parametrization; ...

  11. [Future challenges in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Óscar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis occurs in genetically susceptible individuals, in whom an unknown environmental factor triggers an immune response, giving rise to a chronic and disabling autoimmune disease. Currently, significant progress is being made in our knowledge of the frequency and distribution of multiple sclerosis and its risk factors, genetics, pathology, pathogenesis, diagnostic and prognostic markers, and treatment. This has radically changed patients' and clinicians' expectations of multiple sclerosis and has raised hope that there will soon be a way to control the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. A newborn with multiple fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantorova, E.; Kratky, L.; Nevsimal, I.; Marik, K.; Kozlowski, K.

    2008-01-01

    Sometimes newborns with multiple fractures are diagnosed as osteogenesis imperfecta in spite of absence of radiographic findings supporting this diagnosis. A newborn with multiple fractures was diagnosed as osteogenesis imperfecta. Analysis of the structure of the long bones, pattern of fractures and poorly developed muscles suggested the diagnosis of fetal akinesia deformation syndrome. This was confirmed by pregnancy history and clinical findings. Multiple fractures in a newborn may present with diagnostic radiographic features as in osteogenesis imperfecta, or as in lethal gracile bone dysplasias or achondrogenesis type IA. If those features are absent, other diseases should be considered. Radiographs should be compared with pregnancy history and clinical findings in the newborn. (authors)

  13. Sequential and simultaneous multiple explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Litchfield

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports two experiments comparing variants of multiple explanation applied in the early stages of a judgment task (a case involving employee theft where participants are not given a menu of response options. Because prior research has focused on situations where response options are provided to judges, we identify relevant dependent variables that an intervention might affect when such options are not given. We use these variables to build a causal model of intervention that illustrates both the intended effects of multiple explanation and some potentially competing processes that it may trigger. Although multiple explanation clearly conveys some benefits (e.g., willingness to delay action to engage in information search, increased detail, quality and confidence in alternative explanations in the present experiments, we also found evidence that it may initiate or enhance processes that attenuate its advantages (e.g., feelings that one does not need more data if one has multiple good explanations.

  14. Cerebral metastases from multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norum, J.; Wist, E.; Dahl, I.M.; University Hospital, Tromsoe

    1991-01-01

    The authors report a patient with multiple intracerebral lesions from myeloma. The case also demonstrates that myeloma is a radiosensitive tumour and that radiotherapy is important to keep in mind when intracranial lesions are revealed. (orig.)

  15. Current concepts in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiethoelter, Horst; Dichgans, Johannes

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains 9 articles dealing with the use of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and positron emitted tomography in the diagnosis and staging of multiple sclerosis. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  16. Multiple sclerosis and organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J T; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    We investigated a possible causal relation between exposure to organic solvents in Danish workers (housepainters, typographers/printers, carpenters/cabinetmakers) and onset of multiple sclerosis. Data on men included in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Register (3,241 men) were linked with data from......, and butchers. Over a follow-up period of 20 years, we observed no increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis among men presumed to be exposed to organic solvents. It was not possible to obtain data on potential confounders, and the study design has some potential for selection bias. Nevertheless......, the study does not support existing hypotheses regarding an association between occupational exposure to organic solvents and multiple sclerosis....

  17. Multiple Sclerosis After Infectious Mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Nete Munk

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus has been associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis. However, little is known about the characteristics of this association. OBJECTIVE: To assess the significance of sex, age at and time since infectious mononucleosis......, and attained age to the risk of developing multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis. DESIGN: Cohort study using persons tested serologically for infectious mononucleosis at Statens Serum Institut, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register, and the Danish...... Multiple Sclerosis Registry. SETTING: Statens Serum Institut. PATIENTS: A cohort of 25 234 Danish patients with mononucleosis was followed up for the occurrence of multiple sclerosis beginning on April 1, 1968, or January 1 of the year after the diagnosis of mononucleosis or after a negative Paul...

  18. Defining active progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Börnsen, Lars; Ammitzbøll, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether disease activity according to consensus criteria (magnetic resonance imaging activity or clinical relapses) associate with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To compare CSF biomarkers in active and inactive...

  19. Geometrical model of multiple production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikovani, Z.E.; Jenkovszky, L.L.; Kvaratshelia, T.M.; Struminskij, B.V.

    1988-01-01

    The relation between geometrical and KNO-scaling and their violation is studied in a geometrical model of multiple production of hadrons. Predictions concerning the behaviour of correlation coefficients at future accelerators are given

  20. Determination of multiple scattering effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langevin, M.

    1981-01-01

    The integration of Sigmund and Winterbon numerical values is extended to the reduced thickness tau=2000. The diagram obtained allows a simple determination of the multiple scattering effect for different targets and projectiles [fr

  1. Rough multiple objective decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiuping

    2011-01-01

    Rough Set TheoryBasic concepts and properties of rough sets Rough Membership Rough Intervals Rough FunctionApplications of Rough SetsMultiple Objective Rough Decision Making Reverse Logistics Problem with Rough Interval Parameters MODM based Rough Approximation for Feasible RegionEVRMCCRMDCRM Reverse Logistics Network Design Problem of Suji Renewable Resource MarketBilevel Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Hierarchical Supply Chain Planning Problem with Rough Interval Parameters Bilevel Decision Making ModelBL-EVRM BL-CCRMBL-DCRMApplication to Supply Chain Planning of Mianyang Co., LtdStochastic Multiple Objective Rough Decision Multi-Objective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling UnderRough Random EnvironmentRandom Variable Stochastic EVRM Stochastic CCRM Stochastic DCRM Multi-Objective rc-PSP/mM/Ro-Ra for Longtan Hydropower StationFuzzy Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Allocation Problem under Fuzzy Environment Fuzzy Variable Fu-EVRM Fu-CCRM Fu-DCRM Earth-Rock Work Allocation Problem.

  2. Humanizing Outgroups Through Multiple Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Francesca; Crisp, Richard J.; Meleady, Rose; Rubini, Monica

    2016-01-01

    In three studies, we examined the impact of multiple categorization on intergroup dehumanization. Study 1 showed that perceiving members of a rival university along multiple versus simple categorical dimensions enhanced the tendency to attribute human traits to this group. Study 2 showed that multiple versus simple categorization of immigrants increased the attribution of uniquely human emotions to them. This effect was explained by the sequential mediation of increased individuation of the outgroup and reduced outgroup threat. Study 3 replicated this sequential mediation model and introduced a novel way of measuring humanization in which participants generated attributes corresponding to the outgroup in a free response format. Participants generated more uniquely human traits in the multiple versus simple categorization conditions. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and consider their role in informing and improving efforts to ameliorate contemporary forms of intergroup discrimination. PMID:26984016

  3. MULTIPLE SCALES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at mu...

  4. Multiple Thymoma with Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Seo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The actual incidence of multiple thymoma is unknown and rarely reported because it remains controversial whether the cases represent a disease of multicentric origin or a disease resulting from intrathymic metastasis. In this case, a patient underwent total thymectomy for multiple thymoma with myasthenia gravis via bilateral video-assisted thoracic surgery. A well-encapsulated multinodular cystic mass, measuring 57 mm×50 mm×22 mm in the right lobe of the thymus, and a well-encapsulated mass, measuring 32 mm×15 mm×14 mm in the left lobe, were found. Both tumors were type B2 thymoma. Few cases of multiple thymoma with myasthenia gravis have ever been reported in the literature. We report a case of synchronous multiple thymoma associated with myasthenia gravis.

  5. Occupational therapy for multiple sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Cardol, M.; Nes, J.C.M. van de; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2003-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are referred to occupational therapy with complaints about fatigue, limb weakness, alteration of upper extremity fine motor coordination, loss of sensation and spasticity that causes limitations in performance of activities of daily living and social

  6. The INEL beryllium multiplication experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; King, J.J.

    1991-03-01

    The experiment to measure the multiplication of 14-MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium has been completed. The experiment consists of determining the ratio of 56 Mn activities induced in a large manganese bath by a central 14-MeV neutron source, with and without a beryllium sample surrounding the source. In the manganese bath method a neutron source is placed at the center of a totally-absorbing aqueous solution of MnSo 4 . The capture of neutrons by Mn produces a 56 Mn activity proportional to the emission rate of the source. As applied to the measurement of the multiplication of 14- MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium, the neutron source is a tritium target placed at the end of the drift tube of a small deuteron accelerator. Surrounding the source is a sample chamber. When the sample chamber is empty, the neutrons go directly to the surrounding MnSO 4 solution, and produce a 56 Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate. When the chamber contains a beryllium sample, the neutrons first enter the beryllium and multiply through the (n,2n) process. Neutrons escaping from the beryllium enter the bath and produce a 56 Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate multiplied by the effective value of the multiplication in bulk beryllium. The ratio of the activities with and without the sample present is proportional to the multiplication value. Detailed calculations of the multiplication and all the systematic effects were made with the Monte Carlo program MCNP, utilizing both the Young and Stewart and the ENDF/B-VI evaluations for beryllium. Both data sets produce multiplication values that are in excellent agreement with the measurements for both raw and corrected values of the multiplication. We conclude that there is not real discrepancy between experimental and calculated values for the multiplication of neutrons in bulk beryllium. 12 figs., 11 tabs., 18 refs

  7. Case report 383: Multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouwenberg, J.J.; Simons, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    A unique and obviously extremely rare example of multiple myeloma has been presented, affecting the peripheral appendicular skeleton and not the hematopoietic system of the axial skeleton, radiologically and probably pathologically. Only one other similar case has been described. The radiological features were confirmed by the pathological studies: a biopsy specimen obtained from a large osteolytic lesion in a patella showed the typical stigma of multiple myeloma; a biopsy from the iliac creast showed no abnormality. (orig./SHA)

  8. [Current therapy of multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio García Merino, J

    2014-12-01

    Since the introduction of interferon beta 1 b for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, there has been a progressive increase in the number of drugs available for this disease. Currently, 11 drugs have been approved in Spain, and their indications depend on specific clinical characteristics. The present article reviews these indications and also discusses other medications without official approval that have also been used in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    VanderWeele, T.J.; Vansteelandt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the causal inference literature on mediation have extended traditional approaches to direct and indirect effects to settings that allow for interactions and non-linearities. In this paper, these approaches from causal inference are further extended to settings in which multiple mediators may be of interest. Two analytic approaches, one based on regression and one based on weighting are proposed to estimate the effect mediated through multiple mediators and the effects throu...

  10. Multiplicities and Correlations at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkisyan, E.K.G.

    2002-01-01

    A brief review on recent charge multiplicity and correlation measurements at LEP is given. The measurements of un biased gluon jet multiplicity are discussed. Recent results on charged particle Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac correlations at LEP1 are reported. New results on two-particle correlations of neutral pions are given. Correlations of more than two particles (high-order correlations) obtained using different methods are performed. Recent Bose-Einstein correlation measurements at LEP2 are discussed. (author)

  11. Multiplicities and correlations at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E

    2002-01-01

    A brief review on recent charge multiplicity and correlation measurements at LEP is given. The measurements of unbiased gluon jet multiplicity are discussed. Recent results on charged particle Bose- Einstein and Fermi-Dirac correlations at LEP1. are reported. New results on two-particle correlations of neutral pions are given. Correlations of more than two particles (high-order correlations) obtained using different methods are performed. Recent Bose-Einstein correlation measurements at LEP2 are discussed. (13 refs).

  12. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma

  13. Mechanisms of multiple production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dremin, I.M.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to multiple production processes are discussed. A large number of models proceeds from the notion about common excited system produced by colliding hadrons. This class of models includes the hydrodynamical, statistical, thermodynamical and statistical bootstrap models. Sometimes the production process is due to excitation and decay of two colliding particles. The fragmentation bremsstrahlung and inelastic diffraction models belong to this group. The largest group of models describes the multiple production process as a result of formation of many excited centers. The typical example is the multiperipheral model. An interesting direction is given by the attempts to interrelate the mechanism of multiple production with internal structure of particles that is with their constituents (C-group)'-quarks, gluons, etc. Besides the models there are phenomenological (p group) attempts to connect different features of multiple production. Experimental data indicate the existence of leading and pionization particles thus giving an evidence for applications of different models. The data about increase of total and inclusive cross sections, the behaviour of the mean multiplicity and correlations at high energies provide a clue for further development of multiple production theory

  14. Multiplicity in Early Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reipurth, B.; Clarke, C. J.; Boss, A. P.; Goodwin, S. P.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Stassun, K. G.; Tokovinin, A.; Zinnecker, H.

    Observations from optical to centimeter wavelengths have demonstrated that multiple systems of two or more bodies is the norm at all stellar evolutionary stages. Multiple systems are widely agreed to result from the collapse and fragmentation of cloud cores, despite the inhibiting influence of magnetic fields. Surveys of class 0 protostars with millimeter interferometers have revealed a very high multiplicity frequency of about 2/3, even though there are observational difficulties in resolving close protobinaries, thus supporting the possibility that all stars could be born in multiple systems. Near-infrared adaptive optics observations of class I protostars show a lower binary frequency relative to the class 0 phase, a declining trend that continues through the class II/III stages to the field population. This loss of companions is a natural consequence of dynamical interplay in small multiple systems, leading to ejection of members. We discuss observational consequences of this dynamical evolution, and its influence on circumstellar disks, and we review the evolution of circumbinary disks and their role in defining binary mass ratios. Special attention is paid to eclipsing PMS binaries, which allow for observational tests of evolutionary models of early stellar evolution. Many stars are born in clusters and small groups, and we discuss how interactions in dense stellar environments can significantly alter the distribution of binary separations through dissolution of wider binaries. The binaries and multiples we find in the field are the survivors of these internal and external destructive processes, and we provide a detailed overview of the multiplicity statistics of the field, which form a boundary condition for all models of binary evolution. Finally, we discuss various formation mechanisms for massive binaries, and the properties of massive trapezia.

  15. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output OFDM with Index Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Basar, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with index modulation (OFDM-IM) is a novel multicarrier transmission technique which has been proposed as an alternative to classical OFDM. The main idea of OFDM-IM is the use of the indices of the active subcarriers in an OFDM system as an additional source of information. In this work, we propose multiple-input multiple-output OFDM-IM (MIMO-OFDM-IM) scheme by combining OFDM-IM and MIMO transmission techniques. The low complexity transceiver structu...

  16. Additive versus multiplicative muon conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemethy, P.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental elucidation of the question of muon conservation is reviewed. It is shown that neutral-current experiments have not yet yielded information about muonium-antimuonium conversion at the weak-interaction level and that all the charged-current experiments agree that there is no evidence for a multiplicative law. The best limits, from the muon-decay neutrino experiment at LAMPF and from the inverse muon-decay experiment in the CERN neutrino beam, definitely exclude multiplicative law schemes with a branching ratio R approximately 1/2. It is concluded that unless the dynamics conspire to make a multiplicative law with very small R it would appear that muon conservation obeys conserved additive lepton flavor law. (U.K.)

  17. Multiplicities in high energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.

    1984-01-01

    Charged particle multiplicities in hadronic collision have been measured for all energies up to √s = 540 GeV in the center of mass. Similar measurements in e + e - annihilation cover the much smaller range - up to √s = 40 GeV. Data are also available from deep inelastic neutrino scattering up to √s approx. 10 GeV. The experiments measure the mean charged multiplicity , the rapidity density at y = O, and the distributions in prong number. The mean number of photons associated with the events can be used to measure the π 0 and eta 0 multiplicities. Some information is also available on the charged pion, kaon, and nucleon fractions as well as the K 0 and Λ 0 rates and for the higher energy data, the identically equal fraction. We review this data and consider the implications of extrapolations to SSC energies. 13 references

  18. Palliative radiotherapy for multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Mitsuhiro; Baba, Yuji; Murakami, Ryuji; Yokoyama, Toshimi; Nishimura, Ryuichi; Uozumi, Hideaki; Takada, Chitose; Takahashi, Mutsumasa

    1995-01-01

    This study reviews the experience of palliative radiotherapy to patients with multiple myeloma to define the optimal dose for pain relief. The records of 31 patients (66 sites) with multiple myeloma irradiated for palliation at Kumamoto University hospital between 1985 and 1994 were reviewed. Total dose ranged from 8 to 50 Gy, with a mean of 32.2 Gy. Symptoms included pain (78.1%), neurological abnormalities (28.1%), and palpable masses (34.3%). Symptomatic remission was obtained in 45 of 46 evaluable sites (97.8%). Complete remission of symptoms were obtained in 28.3%, and partial remission in 69.6%. According to fraction size, there was no significant difference between 3-5 Gy and 1.8-2 Gy. The incidence of complete remission increased when a total dose of more than 20 Gy was given. When the quality of life is considered, hypofractionation was recommended for the palliative radiation therapy of multiple myeloma. (author)

  19. Multiple representations in physics education

    CERN Document Server

    Duit, Reinders; Fischer, Hans E

    2017-01-01

    This volume is important because despite various external representations, such as analogies, metaphors, and visualizations being commonly used by physics teachers, educators and researchers, the notion of using the pedagogical functions of multiple representations to support teaching and learning is still a gap in physics education. The research presented in the three sections of the book is introduced by descriptions of various psychological theories that are applied in different ways for designing physics teaching and learning in classroom settings. The following chapters of the book illustrate teaching and learning with respect to applying specific physics multiple representations in different levels of the education system and in different physics topics using analogies and models, different modes, and in reasoning and representational competence. When multiple representations are used in physics for teaching, the expectation is that they should be successful. To ensure this is the case, the implementati...

  20. The problem of multiple carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kegel, W.; Schmieder, A.

    1982-01-01

    This retrospective study reports on the occurrence of multiple carcinomas among the patients of our Department of Radiotherapy. Examination of 1290 patients during 1978 to 1980 showed in 76 cases (5.8%) simultaneously or successively secondary or tertiary tumours. These multiple tumours were most frequent in the mammary gland, in the female genital organs and in the respiratory system. Women had an incidence which was double of that displayed by men. Diagnosis and therapy of malignant tumours must always consider the possibility of multiplicity of carcinomas, either simultaneously or succesively, appearing spontaneously or as a result of iatrogenic influences. This applies in particular to the multicentric and bilateral occurrence of the early types of cancer of the female breast. (orig.) [de

  1. Multiple sclerosis and herpesvirus interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Sciascia do Olival

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is the most common autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, and its etiology is believed to have both genetic and environmental components. Several viruses have already been implicated as triggers and there are several studies that implicate members of the Herpesviridae family in the pathogenesis of MS. The most important characteristic of these viruses is that they have periods of latency and exacerbations within their biological sanctuary, the central nervous system. The Epstein-Barr, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7 viruses are the members that are most studied as being possible triggers of multiple sclerosis. According to evidence in the literature, the herpesvirus family is strongly involved in the pathogenesis of this disease, but it is unlikely that they are the only component responsible for its development. There are probably multiple triggers and more studies are necessary to investigate and define these interactions.

  2. Hemichorea after multiple bee stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jin Young; Kim, Ji Seon; Min, Jin Hong; Han, Kyu Hong; Kang, Jun Ho; Lee, Suk Woo; Kim, Hoon; Park, Jung Soo

    2014-02-01

    Bee sting is one of the most commonly encountered insect bites in the world. Despite the common occurrence of local and systemic allergic reactions, there are few reports of ischemic stroke after bee stings. To the best our knowledge, there have been no reports on involuntary hyperkinetic movement disorders after multiple bee stings. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed involuntary movements of the left leg 24 hours after multiple bee stings, and the cause was confirmed to be a right temporal infarction on a diffusion magnetic resonance imaging scan. Thus, we concluded that the involuntary movement disorder was caused by right temporal infarction that occurred after multiple bee stings.

  3. Multiple-Symbol Detection Of Multiple-Trellis-Coded MDPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.; Shahshahani, Mehrdad M.

    1991-01-01

    In proposed scheme for detection and decoding of multiple-trellis-coded multilevel differential-phase-shift-keyed (MDPSK) radio signals, observation time for differential detection extended from conventional 2 to larger number of symbol periods. Decreases rate of error in differential detection of uncoded MDPSK by increasing number of symbol periods.

  4. Multiple myeloma: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Konrad C; Lewis, William D

    2008-10-01

    Multiple myeloma, the most common bone malignancy, is occurring with increasing frequency in older persons. Typical symptoms are bone pain, malaise, anemia, renal insufficiency, and hypercalcemia. Incidental discovery on comprehensive laboratory panels is common. The disease is diagnosed with serum or urine protein electrophoresis or immunofixation and bone marrow aspirate analysis. Skeletal radiographs are important in staging multiple myeloma and revealing lytic lesions, vertebral compression fractures, and osteoporosis. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography or computed tomography are emerging as useful tools in the evaluation of patients with myeloma; magnetic resonance imaging is preferred for evaluating acute spinal compression. Nuclear bone scans and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry have no role in the diagnosis and staging of myeloma. The differential diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathies includes monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance, smoldering (asymptomatic) and symptomatic multiple myeloma, amyloidosis, B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and rare plasma cell leukemia and heavy chain diseases. Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance or smoldering multiple myeloma should be followed closely, but not treated. Symptomatic multiple myeloma is treated with chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation, if possible. Melphalan, prednisolone, dexamethasone, vincristine, doxorubicin, bortezomib, and thalidomide and its analogue lenalidomide have been used successfully. It is important that family physicians recognize and appropriately treat multiple myeloma complications. Bone pain is treated with opiates, bisphosphonates, radiotherapy, vertebroplasty, or kyphoplasty; nephrotoxic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be avoided. Hypercalcemia is treated with isotonic saline infusions, steroids, furosemide, or bisphosphonates. Because of susceptibility to infections

  5. Goiter and Multiple Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Leniszewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for this patient and continued monitoring for iodine sufficiency. Children with multiple food allergies, in particular those with restrictions to iodized salt and seafood, should be considered high risk for severe iodine deficiency.

  6. Multiple Parton Interactions in ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    We will present in detail the measurement of the charged particle multiplicity dependence of per-trigger pair yields in azimuthal direction induced by low-energetic di-jets produced in proton-proton collisions. Using two-particle angular correlations with low transverse momentum thresholds, jet properties are measured on a statistical basis down to the lowest possible jet energies. The analysis can give information about the contribution from multiple parton interactions to particle production. Moreover, the results allow to optimize the parametrization of the jet fragmentation in phenomenological mode...

  7. MULTIPLE PERSONALITY: CASE REPORT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple personality disorder is characterised by splited individual ego-states and splited professional community arguing whether this disorder actually exists or not.Methods. In this case report study a supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy of a patient with multiple personality disorder is presented, that lasted for 4.5 years and resulted in ego-reintegration.Conclusions. The spliting between different ego-states is powered by unneutralised aggression with the possibility of hetero- and autoaggressive behaviour. Therefore the patient in the analytically oriented psychotherapeutic process is at high risk and a safe therapeutic (e. g. in-patient setting has to be provided.

  8. Mean associative multiplicities in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhaparidze, G.Sh.; Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The associative hadron multiplicities in deep inelastic and Drell--Yan processes are studied. In particular the mean multiplicities in different hard processes in QCD are found to be determined by the mean multiplicity in parton jet [ru

  9. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.J.; Lois, J.F.; Gomes, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    A case of multiple endocrine neoplasia (Men) consisting of an unusual combination of an insulin-producing islet cell tumour and an adrenal adenoma is reported. CT clearly demonstrated the adrenal mass whereas the pancreatic lesion remained questionable. Conversely angiography located the pancreatic tumour but the adrenal findings were subtle. (orig.)

  10. An Application of Matrix Multiplication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    intelligence, image processing, mathematical modeling, optimization techniques, environmental science, mathematical linguistics, graph theory applications to biological networks, social networks, electrical engineering. .... diagonal of A are 0; and if G has no multiple edges, then all the entries of A are either 1 or 0.

  11. Drugs Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  12. Multiple Realizability and Biological Laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raerinne, Jani P.; Eronen, Markus I.

    2012-01-01

    We critically analyze Alexander Rosenberg's argument based on the multiple realizability of biological properties that there are no biological laws. The argument is intuitive and suggestive. Nevertheless, a closer analysis reveals that the argument rests on dubious assumptions about the nature of

  13. Multiple Segmentation of Image Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smets, Jonathan; Jaeger, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for the simultaneous construction of multiple image segmentations by combining a recently proposed “convolution of mixtures of Gaussians” model with a multi-layer hidden Markov random field structure. The resulting method constructs for a single image several, alternative...

  14. Neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, J. L.; de Seze, J.; Lana-Peixoto, M.

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that preferentially targets the optic nerves and spinal cord. The clinical presentation may suggest multiple sclerosis (MS), but a highly specific serum autoantibody against the astrocytic water channel...

  15. Properties of truncated multiplicity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupia, S.

    1995-01-01

    Truncation effects on multiplicity distributions are discussed. Observables sensitive to the tail, like factorial moments, factorial cumulants and their ratio, are shown to be strongly affected by truncation. A possible way to overcome this problem by looking at the head of the distribution is suggested. (author)

  16. Properties of truncated multiplicity distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupia, S. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    1995-12-31

    Truncation effects on multiplicity distributions are discussed. Observables sensitive to the tail, like factorial moments, factorial cumulants and their ratio, are shown to be strongly affected by truncation. A possible way to overcome this problem by looking at the head of the distribution is suggested. (author)

  17. [Biological treatment of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, P.S.; Sellebjerg, F.

    2008-01-01

    In 1996 interferon (IFN)beta was the first biopharmaceutical product to be approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). In 2006 the more potent monoclonal antibody natalizumab was approved. Presently, a number of monoclonal antibodies are being studied, including ale...

  18. Uric acid in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, M; De Keyser, J

    Peroxynitrite, a reactive oxidant formed by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide at sites of inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS), is capable of damaging tissues and cells. Uric acid, a natural scavenger of peroxynitrite, reduces inflammatory demyelination in experimental allergic

  19. Couple specialization in multiple equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esping-Andersen, G.; Boertien, D.; Bonke, J.; Gracia, P.

    2013-01-01

    We address the issue of men’s lagged adaptation to the ongoing revolution of women’s roles. This article proposes a multiple equilibrium approach and shows how modes of couple specialization cluster around qualitatively distinct logics. We identify a traditional, egalitarian, and ‘unstable’

  20. Neutron multiplicity of fission fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelrahman, Y S [Physics department, mu` rah university Al-Karak, (Jordan)

    1995-10-01

    The total average neutron multiplicity of the fission fragments produced by the spontaneous fission of {sup 248} Cm has been measured. This measurement has been done by using a new experimental technique. This technique mainly depends on {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence using a very high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. 2 figs.

  1. Inverse comorbidity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormann, Anja; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Laursen, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    onset of MS 1980-2005. We randomly matched each MS-case with five population controls. Comorbidity data were obtained from multiple, independent nationwide registries. Cases and controls were followed from January 1977 to the index date, and from the index date through December 2012. We controlled...

  2. The danish multiple sclerosis registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Stenager, Egon

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Danish Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Registry was established in 1956. Content: The register comprises data on all Danes who had MS in 1949 or who have been diagnosed since. Data on new cases and updated information on persons with an MS diagnosis already notified are continuously...

  3. The immunogenetics of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejgaard, A.

    2008-01-01

    with complex genetic backgrounds. HLA controls immune response genes and HLA associations indicate the involvement of autoimmunity. Multiple sclerosis (MS) was one of the first conditions proven to be HLA associated involving primarily HLA class II factors. We review how HLA studies give fundamental...

  4. The Multiple-markets Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Only few studies in the field of new new economic sociology deal with a simultaneity of multiple markets in the analysis. One central explanation of this situation is limitations inherent in the new new economic sociology. In this review essay I address such limitations as a way to develop research...

  5. Laboratory diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Stovner, L.J.; Rinck, P.A.; Nilsen, G.; Romslo, I.

    1991-01-01

    In 26 patients with multiple sclerosis 100% responded abnormally to magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Lesions in the posterior fossa were observed in 18 patients. The auditory brain stem response was abnormal in 15 patients, and 22 had abnormal immunoglobulins in the cerebrospinal fluid. The correlation between abnormalities of the auditory brain stem response and the magnetic resonance images was greatest in a subgroup where the two investigations were performed within a ten day interval. Results from magnetic resonance imaging, evoked potentials and cerebrospinal fluid investigations were used to reclassify 13 of 15 patients with clinically ''possible'' or ''probable''multiple sclerosis to a higher level using Poser's criteria. Evoked potentials (the auditory brain stem response in particular) correlated best with clinical multiple sclerosis category. The authors recommend that the magnetic resonance imaging is established as a first-hand investigation in evaluation of multiple sclerosis. Evoked potentials and cerebrospinal fluid investigations may prove to be more specific, however, and these investigations should also be performed as a routine. 23 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Clinical aspects of multiple pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Santema

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe natural wonder of multiple pregnancy and birth has fascinated mankind since ancient times and twins figure prominently in legends, folktales and myths. One of the best known traditional stories is that of Romulus and Remus, the twins who were abandoned on the banks of the Tiber and

  7. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Howard

    1987-01-01

    The multiple intelligence theory is based on cultural contexts, biological analysis, developmental theories, and a vertical theory of faculties. Seven intelligences are identified: linguistic, logical mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. The theory's educational implications are described,…

  8. Hyper-systolic matrix multiplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippert, Th.; Petkov, N.; Palazzari, P.; Schilling, K.

    A novel parallel algorithm for matrix multiplication is presented. It is based on a 1-D hyper-systolic processor abstraction. The procedure can be implemented on all types of parallel systems. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B,V. All rights reserved.

  9. The STAR Photon Multiplicity Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, M.M.; Badyal, S.K.; Bhaskar, P.; Bhatia, V.S.; Chattopadhyay, S. E-mail: sub@veccal.ernet.in; Das, S.; Datta, R.; Dubey, A.K.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Ganti, M.S.; Ghosh, P.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, I.; Kumar, A.; Mahajan, S.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Mangotra, L.K.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, S.K.; Nayak, T.K.; Pal, S.K.; Phatak, S.C.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Sahoo, R.; Sharma, A.; Singaraju, R.N.; Sood, G.; Trivedi, M.D.; Varma, R.; Viyogi, Y.P

    2003-03-01

    Details concerning the design, fabrication and performance of STAR Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) are presented. The PMD will cover the forward region, within the pseudorapidity range 2.3-3.5, behind the forward time projection chamber. It will measure the spatial distribution of photons in order to study collective flow, fluctuation and chiral symmetry restoration.

  10. Multiplicity distributions in QCD cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, G.

    1992-03-01

    Multiplicity distributions for hadrons and for jets are studied in QCD parton cascades. The colour dipole formalism is used and earlier results in the double log approximation are generalized to include terms which are suppressed by colour factors or factors of ln s. The result is a set of coupled differential equations, together with appropriate boundary conditions

  11. Health Information in Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/languages/languages.html Health Information in Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Use these ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 4 June 2018

  12. Biosensors and multiple mycotoxin analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, B. van der; Spath, S.; Dietrich, H.; Stigter, E.; Boonzaaijer, G.; Osenbruggen, T. van; Koopal, K.

    2003-01-01

    An immunochemical biosensor assay for the detection of multiple mycotoxins in a sample is described.The inhibition assay is designed to measure four different mycotoxins in a single measurement, following extraction, sample clean-up and incubation with an appropriate cocktail of anti-mycotoxin

  13. Fashion, Paper Dolls and Multiplicatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ura, Suzana Kaori; Stein-Barana, Alzira C. M.; Munhoz, Deisy P.

    2011-01-01

    The multiplicative principle is the tool allowing the counting of groups that can be described by a sequence of events. An event is a subset of sample space, i.e. a collection of possible outcomes, which may be equal to or smaller than the sample space as a whole. It is important that students understand this basic principle early on and know how…

  14. Vascular aspects of multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'haeseleer, Miguel; Cambron, Melissa; Vanopdenbosch, Ludo; De Keyser, Jacques

    Three types of vascular dysfunction have been described in multiple sclerosis (MS). First, findings from epidemiological studies suggest that patients with MS have a higher risk for ischaemic stroke than people who do not have MS. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but might involve endothelial

  15. Applications of Fast Truncated Multiplication in Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo Hars

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Truncated multiplications compute truncated products, contiguous subsequences of the digits of integer products. For an n-digit multiplication algorithm of time complexity O(nα, with 1<α≤2, there is a truncated multiplication algorithm, which is constant times faster when computing a short enough truncated product. Applying these fast truncated multiplications, several cryptographic long integer arithmetic algorithms are improved, including integer reciprocals, divisions, Barrett and Montgomery multiplications, 2n-digit modular multiplication on hardware for n-digit half products. For example, Montgomery multiplication is performed in 2.6 Karatsuba multiplication time.

  16. Robust multiple frequency multiple power localization schemes in the presence of multiple jamming attacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulqader Hussein

    Full Text Available Localization of the wireless sensor network is a vital area acquiring an impressive research concern and called upon to expand more with the rising of its applications. As localization is gaining prominence in wireless sensor network, it is vulnerable to jamming attacks. Jamming attacks disrupt communication opportunity among the sender and receiver and deeply impact the localization process, leading to a huge error of the estimated sensor node position. Therefore, detection and elimination of jamming influence are absolutely indispensable. Range-based techniques especially Received Signal Strength (RSS is facing severe impact of these attacks. This paper proposes algorithms based on Combination Multiple Frequency Multiple Power Localization (C-MFMPL and Step Function Multiple Frequency Multiple Power Localization (SF-MFMPL. The algorithms have been tested in the presence of multiple types of jamming attacks including capture and replay, random and constant jammers over a log normal shadow fading propagation model. In order to overcome the impact of random and constant jammers, the proposed method uses two sets of frequencies shared by the implemented anchor nodes to obtain the averaged RSS readings all over the transmitted frequencies successfully. In addition, three stages of filters have been used to cope with the replayed beacons caused by the capture and replay jammers. In this paper the localization performance of the proposed algorithms for the ideal case which is defined by without the existence of the jamming attack are compared with the case of jamming attacks. The main contribution of this paper is to achieve robust localization performance in the presence of multiple jamming attacks under log normal shadow fading environment with a different simulation conditions and scenarios.

  17. Collectively loading programs in a multiple program multiple data environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Michael E.; Attinella, John E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Miller, Samuel J.

    2016-11-08

    Techniques are disclosed for loading programs efficiently in a parallel computing system. In one embodiment, nodes of the parallel computing system receive a load description file which indicates, for each program of a multiple program multiple data (MPMD) job, nodes which are to load the program. The nodes determine, using collective operations, a total number of programs to load and a number of programs to load in parallel. The nodes further generate a class route for each program to be loaded in parallel, where the class route generated for a particular program includes only those nodes on which the program needs to be loaded. For each class route, a node is selected using a collective operation to be a load leader which accesses a file system to load the program associated with a class route and broadcasts the program via the class route to other nodes which require the program.

  18. Multiple-membrane multiple-electrolyte redox flow battery design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yushan; Gu, Shuang; Gong, Ke

    2017-05-02

    A redox flow battery is provided. The redox flow battery involves multiple-membrane (at least one cation exchange membrane and at least one anion exchange membrane), multiple-electrolyte (one electrolyte in contact with the negative electrode, one electrolyte in contact with the positive electrode, and at least one electrolyte disposed between the two membranes) as the basic characteristic, such as a double-membrane, triple electrolyte (DMTE) configuration or a triple-membrane, quadruple electrolyte (TMQE) configuration. The cation exchange membrane is used to separate the negative or positive electrolyte and the middle electrolyte, and the anion exchange membrane is used to separate the middle electrolyte and the positive or negative electrolyte.

  19. Realization of a gamma multiplicity filter and gamma multiplicity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azgui, F.

    1981-12-01

    A gamma multiplicity filter for the study of reaction mechanism has been realised. It's composed of six NaI(Tl) counters. The flexibility of the geometry allows many configurations. This set up has been tested with gamma radioactive sources and with the 252 Cf source to resolve problems of gamma-efficiency of the NaI(Tl) counters and the contamination of neutrons in these detectors. A logical electronic unit (Encodeur) has been constructed and the around electronic has been developped. This gamma multiplicity filter has been coupled with a detector of high resolution Ge(Li), and used in two reactions: 12 C + 55 Mn at E( 12 C) = 54 MeV; α + 63 Cu at E(α) = 52 MeV. The dominant process is the fusion-evaporation. The compound nucleus 67 Ga, is formed at the same excitation energy. The values of multiplicities Msub(γ) have been extracted using a program based on the formalism of W.J. Ockels. The fractionalization of the angular momentum is well observed for some residual nuclei ( 63 Zn, 64 Zn, 65 Zn), and for each residual nucleus, the average gamma multiplicity is lower with projectile α than that with projectile 12 C. For the most strongly output channel p2n, an entry point for the 64 Zn has been determined in the reactions. All these observations are in good agreement with those published, in the same region (f-p shell) of nuclei. This set up can be coupled with different central detector as, ''X'', neutrons charged particles detectors, and will be used with the new machine SARA to make a systematic study of transfer of angular momentum to the fragments at 30 MeV/A [fr

  20. Management Challenges of Launching Multiple Payloads for Multiple Customers

    OpenAIRE

    Callen, Dave

    1999-01-01

    Orbital has provided launch services for multiple satellites as a means to provide greater economy for access to space. These include satellites from NASA, 000, commercial companies, universities, and foreign governments. While satellite customers view shared launches as a means to achieve reduced launch costs, this approach adds many complexities that a traditional launch service provider does not have to address for a dedicated launch. This paper will discuss some of the challenges associat...

  1. Multiple sclerosis in magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, M.; Walecki, J.; Stelmasiak, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The authors analyzed MR examination of 277 patients with multiple sclerosis. White matter hyperintesities in brain were found in 270 of them, in spinal cord in 32. The most frequently they were found in periventricular white matter, in subcortical localization and in the corpus callosum. MR examination allows the estimate the activity of the disease on the basis of the presence of edema around the plaques and their contrast enhancement with Gd-DTPA. About one third of all cases were accompanied by cortical brain atrophy (the most often seen in the frontal lobes), subcortical brain atrophy was less frequent. In about two third of all cases the corpus callosum atrophy was found. MR examination is a highly sensitive method of multiple sclerosis diagnosis, of the assessment of its activity and progression. (author)

  2. Emerging therapies in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amm, Joelle; Tabbara, Imad A

    2015-06-01

    The treatment of multiple myeloma has evolved significantly over the past 2 decades due to the use of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation, and the subsequent introduction of the immunomodulatory agents (thalidomide and lenalidomide) and the proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib). The median overall survival of multiple myeloma patients has increased significantly with patients younger than age 50 years experiencing a 10-year survival rate of around 40%. However, despite the increased effectiveness of the first-line agents, the majority of patients will eventually relapse and become drug resistant. Promising novel therapies have recently emerged and are being used to treat relapsed and refractory patients. This review will cover the clinical data regarding these emergent therapies that include new generation of proteasome inhibitors (carfilzomib, ixazomib, oprozomib, and marizomib), immunomodulatory drugs (pomalidomide), monoclonal antibodies (elotuzumab and daratumumab), signal transduction modulator (perifosine), and histone deacetylase inhibitors (vorinostat and panobinostat).

  3. The Multiple Modernities of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    What Europe? Eric Voegelin on the Mediterranean and the Atlantic modernities. The concept ‘multiple modernities’ has during the last decade established itself in social and political theory, not least due to contributions made by Shmul Eisenstadt. The debate on multiple moderntities has served...... to question certain eurocentric assumptions about modernity and has also reignited the question of European particularity in a world historical perspective. This paper will discuss how ‘Europe’ itself can be considered a result of (at least) two different modernities, as proposed by the political theorist......, Eric Voegelin. Eric Voegelin talked of two spatio-temporal specific modernities, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic modernities. In short, for Voegelin the Atlantic modernity with its breakthroughs in the 17th and 18th centuries was a specific figuration that should not be mistaken for ‘modernity...

  4. Computerized tomography in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delouvrier, J.J.; Tritschler, J.L.; Desbleds, M.T.; Cambier, J.; Nahum, H.

    1980-01-01

    The double scan CT method was applied to a homogeneous population of 50 multiple sclerosis patients and the following features were studied: well defined low-density areas, localized contrast enhancements, cerebral atrophy and white matter homogeneity. The analyses of the variance of the white matter (centrum ovale) can disclose those lesions which individually do not surpass the visibility threshold. The lesions that are localized in the white matter are mainly periventricular, most often multiple, and they do not displace the neighbouring structures. By revealing a large number of clinically silent cerebral lesions, the cerebral CT becomes a highly important diagnostic tool. The value of the CT examinations seems to be of major importance each time that the clinical diagnosis is hesitant, particularly when faced with medullary signs or an initial neurological episode. (C.F.)

  5. Plume rise from multiple sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A simple enhancement factor for plume rise from multiple sources is proposed and tested against plume-rise observations. For bent-over buoyant plumes, this results in the recommendation that multiple-source rise be calculated as [(N + S)/(1 + S)]/sup 1/3/ times the single-source rise, Δh 1 , where N is the number of sources and S = 6 (total width of source configuration/N/sup 1/3/ Δh 1 )/sup 3/2/. For calm conditions a crude but simple method is suggested for predicting the height of plume merger and subsequent behavior which is based on the geometry and velocity variations of a single buoyant plume. Finally, it is suggested that large clusters of buoyant sources might occasionally give rise to concentrated vortices either within the source configuration or just downwind of it

  6. Complex multiplication and lifting problems

    CERN Document Server

    Chai, Ching-Li; Oort, Frans

    2013-01-01

    Abelian varieties with complex multiplication lie at the origins of class field theory, and they play a central role in the contemporary theory of Shimura varieties. They are special in characteristic 0 and ubiquitous over finite fields. This book explores the relationship between such abelian varieties over finite fields and over arithmetically interesting fields of characteristic 0 via the study of several natural CM lifting problems which had previously been solved only in special cases. In addition to giving complete solutions to such questions, the authors provide numerous examples to illustrate the general theory and present a detailed treatment of many fundamental results and concepts in the arithmetic of abelian varieties, such as the Main Theorem of Complex Multiplication and its generalizations, the finer aspects of Tate's work on abelian varieties over finite fields, and deformation theory. This book provides an ideal illustration of how modern techniques in arithmetic geometry (such as descent the...

  7. Adapting playware to multiple players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi; Lund, Henrik Hautop; Mastorakis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    With the creation of playware as intelligent hardware and software that creates play, it is possible to adapt the play tool to the individual user, and even to multiple users playing at the same time with the play tool. In this paper, we show how it is possible to implement adaptivity in modular...... to such differences, and argues that adaptivity is needed to make games fit to the individual users in both single-player games and multi-player games. As a case study, we implemented such adaptivity on modular interactive tiles for the single-user game ColorTimer, and for the multiple-user games PingPong, in which...

  8. Skeletal surveys in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebes, J.I.; Niell, H.B.; Palmieri, G.M.A.; Reidy, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-three patients with multiple myeloma were studied with serial skeletal surveys, serum immunoglobulin levels, and postabsorptive urinary hydroxyproline (Spot-HYPRO) determinations. Twenty receiving chemotherapy were also followed with skeletal surveys in order to evaluate bone response to treatment. A close association was found between skeletal findings and changes in immunoglubulin levels with positive correlation in 71% of the patients. A similar association was found between skeletal disease and Spot-HYPRO level changes in 65%. Five of 12 patients (42%) with partial or complete clinical response to chemotherapy, demonstrated improvement in the appearance of skeletal lesions. Positive correlation between the roentgenographic changes and clinical markers of myeloma as well as therapeutic response, indicates that skeletal surveys are useful and effective in monitoring patients with multiple myeloma. (orig.)

  9. [Current description of multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Río, Jordi; Montalbán, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a multifocal demyelinating disease leading to progressive neurodegeneration caused by an autoimmune response in genetically predisposed individuals. In the last few years, the knowledge and management of this disease has been revolutionized by a series of findings. The present article reviews pathological features of the disease, in which cortical involvement is increasingly implicated, and aspects related to novel pathogenic mechanisms, such as the role of the microbiota in the genesis of multiple sclerosis, as well as recent contributions from the fields of epidemiology and genetics. Also reviewed are the latest diagnostic criteria, which currently allow a much earlier diagnosis, with clear therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiple imputation and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, James

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide to analysing partially observed data. Collecting, analysing and drawing inferences from data is central to research in the medical and social sciences. Unfortunately, it is rarely possible to collect all the intended data. The literature on inference from the resulting incomplete  data is now huge, and continues to grow both as methods are developed for large and complex data structures, and as increasing computer power and suitable software enable researchers to apply these methods. This book focuses on a particular statistical method for analysing and drawing inferences from incomplete data, called Multiple Imputation (MI). MI is attractive because it is both practical and widely applicable. The authors aim is to clarify the issues raised by missing data, describing the rationale for MI, the relationship between the various imputation models and associated algorithms and its application to increasingly complex data structures. Multiple Imputation and its Application: Discusses the issues ...

  11. Cognitive deficits in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, H; Jønsson, A; Andresen, Jesper Graubæk

    2012-01-01

    of the cognitive impairment seen in MS and constitute a supplement to traditional measurement of T2 lesion volume. Materials and Methods - Fifty patients with clinically definite MS were included (38 women, 12 men). Patients were MR scanned, neuropsychologically tested, and evaluated clinically with the Kurtzke......Objectives - Although disease load in multiple sclerosis (MS) often is based on T2 lesion volumes, the changes in T2 of normal appearing brain tissue (NABT) are rarely considered. By means of magnetic resonance, (MR) we retrospectively investigated whether T2 changes in NABT explain part...... Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the Multiple Sclerosis Impairment Scale (MSIS). Voxel-wise T2 estimates and total T2 lesion volume were tested for correlations with eight cognitive domains, a general cognitive dysfunction factor (CDF), and the two clinical scales. Results - We found distinct...

  12. Passive neutron-multiplication measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolnay, A.S.; Barnett, C.S.; Spracklen, H.P.

    1982-01-01

    We have developed an instrument to measure neutron multiplication by statistical analysis of the timing of neutrons emitted from fissionable material. This instrument is capable of repeated analysis of the same recorded data with selected algorithms, graphical displays showing statistical properties of the data, and preservation of raw data on disk for future comparisons. In our measurements we have made a comparison of the covariance to mean and Feynman variance to mean analysis algorithms to show that the covariance avoids a bias term and measures directly the effect due to the presence of neutron chains. A spherical assembly of enriched uranium shells and acrylic resin reflector/moderator components used for the measurements is described. Preliminary experimental results of the Feynman variance to mean measurements show the expected correlation with assembly multiplication

  13. Model Pembelajaran Berbasis Penstimulasian Multiple Intelligences Siswa

    OpenAIRE

    Edy Legowo

    2017-01-01

    Tulisan ini membahas mengenai penerapan teori multiple intelligences dalam pembelajaran di sekolah. Pembahasan diawali dengan menguraikan perkembangan konsep inteligensi dan multiple intelligences. Diikuti dengan menjelaskan dampak teori multiple intelligences dalam bidang pendidikan dan pembelajaran di sekolah. Bagian selanjutnya menguraikan tentang implementasi teori multiple intelligences dalam praktik pembelajaran di kelas yaitu bagaimana pemberian pengalaman belajar siswa yang difasilita...

  14. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  15. Transnational Connections and Multiple Belongings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen; Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei

    With the purpose of presenting DIMECCE key findings, we in this paper present different aspects, potentials and challenges related to the Middle Eastern Christians transnational connections and multiple belonging. We distinguish between individual transnational connections and practices, such as ......, such as family relations, churches as transnational – or global – institutions, and other organisations and associations established to support politically, socially or culturally connections and development in the country or region of origin....

  16. Multiple sclerosis and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W H

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the birth order of patients with multiple sclerosis have yielded contradictory conclusions. Most of the sets of data, however, have been tested by biased tests. Data that have been submitted to unbiased tests seem to suggest that cases are more likely to occur in early birth ranks. This should be tested on further samples and some comments are offered on how this should be done. PMID:6707558

  17. Multiple sclerosis and birth order.

    OpenAIRE

    James, W H

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the birth order of patients with multiple sclerosis have yielded contradictory conclusions. Most of the sets of data, however, have been tested by biased tests. Data that have been submitted to unbiased tests seem to suggest that cases are more likely to occur in early birth ranks. This should be tested on further samples and some comments are offered on how this should be done.

  18. Protocol for multiple node network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  19. Multiple Sclerosis: Pathogenesis and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Loma, Ingrid; Heyman, Rock

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It affects approximately 400,000 people in the United States and onset is usually during young adulthood. There are four clinical forms of MS, of which relapsing remitting type is the most common. As the etiology of MS is unknown, finding a cure will remain challenging. The main mechanism of injury appears to be inflammation and 8 agents are now FDA approved to help control MS. Th...

  20. Treatment Satisfaction in Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Glanz, Bonnie I.; Musallam, Alexander; Rintell, David J.; Chitnis, Tanuja; Weiner, Howard L.; Healy, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) are associated with inconvenient methods of administration, significant side effects, and low adherence rates. This study was undertaken to compare treatment satisfaction in MS patients treated with interferon beta-1a intramuscular (IFNβ-1a IM), interferon beta-1a subcutaneous (IFNβ-1a SC), glatiramer acetate (GA), and natalizumab (NTZ), and to examine the associations between treatment satisfaction ra...

  1. Estrogen Treatment in Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Stefan M; Voskuhl, Rhonda R

    2009-01-01

    Currently available treatments for multiple sclerosis reduce inflammatory lesions on MRI and decrease clinical relapses but have limited effects on disability. Novel treatment options that target both the inflammatory as well as the neurodegenerative component of the disease are therefore needed. A growing body of evidence from basic science and clinical studies supports the therapeutic potential of estrogens in MS. Mechanisms of action include both immunomodulatory and directly neuroprotecti...

  2. Multiplicative formulation of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voros, A.; Leboeuf, P.

    1991-01-01

    A general semi-classical description for the eigenfunctions of the multidimensional Schroedinger operator cannot be based on the WKB method which is incompatible with classically ergodic behavior. An alternative, more general multiplicative parametrization of quantum wave functions is suggested, whereby the semi-classical behavior of eigenfunctions can be traced in the presence of classical ergodicity, in the form of diffusive patterns of phase-space zeros in the quantum wave functions. (author) 24 refs.; 4 figs

  3. Balancing Structure for Multiple Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUPU Ciprian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a strategy to (rebalance a multiple generator control system structure on maintaining the global output in case of load and functioning disturbances. Applicability is proved on a control structure of the two and three sources connected in parallel to produce energy, a situation that has been encountered more and more these days especially in the renewable energy industry (wind, solar and small generators etc.

  4. Video Chat with Multiple Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    MacCormick, John

    2012-01-01

    The dominant paradigm for video chat employs a single camera at each end of the conversation, but some conversations can be greatly enhanced by using multiple cameras at one or both ends. This paper provides the first rigorous investigation of multi-camera video chat, concentrating especially on the ability of users to switch between views at either end of the conversation. A user study of 23 individuals analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of permitting a user to switch between views at...

  5. Multiple primary cancers: An enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh Jena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidence of multiple primary cancers though uncommon, is being frequently reported now-a-days owing to better diagnostic techniques, the prolonged life span and the increased incidence of long-term survival of cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study. Cases of multiple malignancies diagnosed histopathologically were retrieved from the archives of department of surgical oncology. Clinical data were obtained from the medical records. They were categorized as synchronous malignancies if the interval between them was less or equal to 6 months and metachronous, if the interval was more than 6 months. Results: A total of 13 cases were encountered in the 5 year study period. Out of them two were in the metachronous category and the rest were synchronous as the 2nd malignancy was detected mostly during clinical evaluation of the patients for the primary malignancy. There was female predominance with age range being 43-68 years. Majority of the cases were in the 7th decade. The most common organ involved was breast, followed by cervix. Apart from bilateral breast malignancies, there were combinations like breast with uterine endometrial carcinoma, cervical carcinoma and even papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conclusion: Detection of multiple primary malignancies is becoming increasingly common in day-to-day practice. Greater awareness of this is required among both cancer patients and their treating clinicians.

  6. Magnetic resonance in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scotti, G.; Caputo, D.; Cazzullo, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging was performed in more than 200 patients with clinical suspicion or knowledge of Multiple Sclerosis. One hundred and forty-seven (60 males and 87 females) had MR evidence of multiple sclerosis lesions. The MR signal of demyelinating plaques characteristically has prolonged T1 and T2 relaxation times and the T2-weighted spin-echo sequences are generally superior to the T1-weighted images because the lesions are better visualized as areas of increased signal intensity. MR is also able to detect plaques in the brainstem, cerebellum and within the cervical spinal cord. MR appears to be an important, non-invasive method for the diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis and has proven to be diagnostically superior to CT, evoked potentials (EP) and CSF examination. In a selected group of 30 patients, with the whole battery of the relevant MS studies, MR was positive in 100%, CT in 33,3%, EP in 56% and CSF examination in 60%. In patients clinically presenting only with signs of spinal cord involvement or optic neuritis or when the clinical presentation is uncertain MR has proven to be a very useful diagnostic tool for diagnosis of MS by demonstrating unsuspected lesions in the cerebral hemispheres. (orig.)

  7. Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWeele, T J; Vansteelandt, S

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the causal inference literature on mediation have extended traditional approaches to direct and indirect effects to settings that allow for interactions and non-linearities. In this paper, these approaches from causal inference are further extended to settings in which multiple mediators may be of interest. Two analytic approaches, one based on regression and one based on weighting are proposed to estimate the effect mediated through multiple mediators and the effects through other pathways. The approaches proposed here accommodate exposure-mediator interactions and, to a certain extent, mediator-mediator interactions as well. The methods handle binary or continuous mediators and binary, continuous or count outcomes. When the mediators affect one another, the strategy of trying to assess direct and indirect effects one mediator at a time will in general fail; the approach given in this paper can still be used. A characterization is moreover given as to when the sum of the mediated effects for multiple mediators considered separately will be equal to the mediated effect of all of the mediators considered jointly. The approach proposed in this paper is robust to unmeasured common causes of two or more mediators.

  8. Treatment of multiple scalp cylindroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmilo Rončević

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cylindroma is a rare, benign adnexal tumor of the skin. The most frequent tumor location is the head, especially the scalp, and neck area. This type of tumor can occur as solitary or multiple tumors. Tumor diagnosis is relatively easy and is based on clinical findings and biopsy. The therapy of choice is surgical excision with parts or entire scalp excision depending on whether it is solitary or multiple tumor. We presented a 65-year-old male patient with multiple scalp tumors of 0.5–6 cm in diameter. An entire scalp excision was performed and the postoperative wounds (i.e., the periosteum of the skull and the fascia galea were covered with free skin graft of partial thickness. In order to prevent profuse bleeding, we placed a tourniquet around his head and performed bilateral temporary ligature of temporal artery prior to surgery. During the nine-year follow-up, there were no new tumors or tumor recurrence reported.

  9. Multiple sclerosis: current immunological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cuevas-García

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is the most common inflammatory, chronic and degenerative condition of the central nervous system, and represents the first cause of disability in young adults. In Mexico, 11 to 20 out of every 100 000 people suffer from this disease. The causes of multiple sclerosis remain unknown, but several theories have been proposed on its origin: the interaction of environmental factors, viral infectious factors and genetic and immune susceptibility of each individual patient, which induce an autoimmune response and promote neuronal/axonal degeneration. In this review, the immune reaction main components and neurodegeneration present in multiple sclerosis are analyzed, as well as the inflammatory cascade associated with demyelination. Available treatments’ main purpose is to modulate aspects related to the adaptive immune response (B and T cells. The therapeutic challenge will be antigen-specific immune-tolerance induction, for example, with the use of tolerance protocols with peptides or DNA or nanoparticles vaccines. Future therapies should aim to control innate components (microglia, macrophages, astrocytes and to promote remyelination. To optimize the treatment, a combined therapeutic approach targeting the control of inflammatory and neurodegenerative components of the disease and monitoring of biomarkers will be necessary.

  10. Multipl Pregnancies and Their Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Turan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the complications observed in multipl pregnancies which are increasing in day by day. Material and method: We reviewed 173 multiple pregnancies that were followed up in the Department of Obstetric and Gynecology in Ege University during one year period and determined the preterm delivery ratio, discordance between fetuses and investigated the complications which occurred during pregnancy. Results: 148 twin, 24 triplet and 1 quadriplet pregnancies had been followed in a year. While 56 of twin pregnancies and 4 of the triplet pregnancies occurred spontaneously, others conceived with medical treatment or with assisted reproductive technology. Cerclage was performed in 11 pregnancies. Preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus and cholestasis were observed in 12,26 and 8 patients respectively. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome was present in 4 patients and one patient had acardiac-acephalic twin pregnancy. Four patients had emergency cesarean section due to ablatio placenta. While 54 patients were hospitalized for one week to twelve weeks because of preterm labour 36 women had preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Only 38 patients had any problem during pregnancy. Discussion: Developments in assisted reproductive technology have been increasing the number of multiple gestations and their complications. The complications due to preterm labor, increased requirement of Neonatal Intensive Care Units and hospital payments are all burden on the families as well as on the social insurance companies.

  11. Multiple equilibria of divertor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, H.X.; Prinja, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    A one-dimensional, two-fluid transport model with a temperature-dependent neutral recycling coefficient is shown to give rise to multiple equilibria of divertor plasmas (bifurcation). Numerical techniques for obtaining these multiple equilibria and for examining their stability are presented. Although these numerical techniques have been well known to the scientific community, this is the first time they have been applied to divertor plasma modeling to show the existence of multiple equilibria as well as the stability of these solutions. Numerical and approximate analytical solutions of the present one-dimensional transport model both indicate that there exists three steady-state solutions corresponding to (1) a high-temperature, low-density equilibrium, (2) a low-temperature, high-density equilibrium, and (3) an intermediate-temperature equilibrium. While both the low-temperature and the high-temperature equilibria are stable, with respect to small perturbations in the plasma conditions, the intermediate-temperature equilibrium is physically unstable, i.e., any small perturbation about this equilibrium will cause a transition toward either the high-temperature or low-temperature equilibrium

  12. Multiple intelligences: Can they be measured?

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsi Tirri; Petri Nokelainen; Erkki Komulainen

    2013-01-01

    This paper is about issues relating to the assessment of multiple intelligences. The first section introduces the authors’ work on building measures of multiple intelligences and moral sensitivities. It also provides a conceptual definition of multiple intelligences based on Multiple Intelligences theory by Howard Gardner (1983). The second section discusses the context specificity of intelligences and alternative approaches to measuring multiple intelligences. The third section analyses the ...

  13. Hydrodynamic Limit of Multiple SLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Ikkei; Katori, Makoto

    2018-04-01

    Recently del Monaco and Schleißinger addressed an interesting problem whether one can take the limit of multiple Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) as the number of slits N goes to infinity. When the N slits grow from points on the real line R in a simultaneous way and go to infinity within the upper half plane H, an ordinary differential equation describing time evolution of the conformal map g_t(z) was derived in the N → ∞ limit, which is coupled with a complex Burgers equation in the inviscid limit. It is well known that the complex Burgers equation governs the hydrodynamic limit of the Dyson model defined on R studied in random matrix theory, and when all particles start from the origin, the solution of this Burgers equation is given by the Stieltjes transformation of the measure which follows a time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law. In the present paper, first we study the hydrodynamic limit of the multiple SLE in the case that all slits start from the origin. We show that the time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law determines the time evolution of the SLE hull, K_t \\subset H\\cup R, in this hydrodynamic limit. Next we consider the situation such that a half number of the slits start from a>0 and another half of slits start from -a exact solutions, we will discuss the universal long-term behavior of the multiple SLE and its hull K_t in the hydrodynamic limit.

  14. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wandelt

    Full Text Available The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1 the size of the factorization, 2 the time for factorization, and 3 the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%, factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s, and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB. Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization.

  15. Cloaks with multiple invisible regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yang; Zhu, Shouzheng; He, Lianxing; Wang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a general method of extending the effective invisible regions for both the shell-like interior cloak and the complementary media exterior cloak, without affecting their original cloaking regions. The proposed method is based on layered spatial mapping instead of the intact mapping. Certain interior or exterior invisible regions can be obtained by properly using a compressed or folded transformation in each space layer. Therefore, the proposal enables the as-designed cloaks to provide multiple invisible regions of different types simultaneously. Thus objects can be hidden in the interior cavity and/or in the exterior space, or even be embedded between the cloaking shells

  16. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A

    2013-05-21

    A multiple piece turbine rotor blade with a shell having an airfoil shape and secured between a spar and a platform with the spar including a tip end piece. a snap ring fits around the spar and abuts against the spar tip end piece on a top side and abuts against a shell on the bottom side so that the centrifugal loads from the shell is passed through the snap ring and into the spar and not through a tip cap dovetail slot and projection structure.

  17. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  18. Multiple sclerosis: a geographical hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle, I P

    1997-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis remains a rare neurological disease of unknown aetiology, with a unique distribution, both geographically and historically. Rare in equatorial regions, it becomes increasingly common in higher latitudes; historically, it was first clinically recognized in the early nineteenth century. A hypothesis, based on geographical reasoning, is here proposed: that the disease is the result of a specific vitamin deficiency. Different individuals suffer the deficiency in separate and often unique ways. Evidence to support the hypothesis exists in cultural considerations, in the global distribution of the disease, and in its historical prevalence.

  19. Suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Jensen, Børge; Stenager, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of the study were (1) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Denmark and compare the risk to the background population in the County of Funen, Denmark; (2) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in MS patients receiving immunomodulating...... therapy compared with untreated patients. The Danish MS Registry, the Danish MS Treatment Registry and the Suicide Attempt Registry are linked and merged together using a person identification number given to all persons residing in Denmark. Among 404 MS patients, 15 patients had attempted suicide...

  20. Percolation with multiple giant clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2005-01-01

    We study mean-field percolation with freezing. Specifically, we consider cluster formation via two competing processes: irreversible aggregation and freezing. We find that when the freezing rate exceeds a certain threshold, the percolation transition is suppressed. Below this threshold, the system undergoes a series of percolation transitions with multiple giant clusters ('gels') formed. Giant clusters are not self-averaging as their total number and their sizes fluctuate from realization to realization. The size distribution F k , of frozen clusters of size k, has a universal tail, F k ∼ k -3 . We propose freezing as a practical mechanism for controlling the gel size. (letter to the editor)

  1. [Special cases of multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendibe Bilbao, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease that usually occurs in young people and affects them for the rest of their lives. Patients and their families usually have a series of doubts and questions on everyday matters and all types of situations that occur during the distinct stages of life and which can influence the course of the disease. The aim of this review is to provide specific answers to these questions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Symptomatic management in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkar Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is the commonest cause of disability in young adults. While there is increasing choice and better treatments available for delaying disease progression, there are still, very few, effective symptomatic treatments. For many patients such as those with primary progressive MS (PPMS and those that inevitably become secondary progressive, symptom management is the only treatment available. MS related symptoms are complex, interrelated, and can be interdependent. It requires good understanding of the condition, a holistic multidisciplinary approach, and above all, patient education and empowerment.

  3. Multiple myeloma with extramedullary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Albert

    2011-11-01

    Plasmacytoma is a tumor mass consisting of atypical plasma cells. Incidence of plasmacytomas associated with multiple myeloma range from 7% to 17% at diagnosis and from 6% to 20% during the course of the disease. In both situations, occurrence of extramedullary disease has been consistently associated with a poorer prognosis of myeloma. Extramedullary relapse or progression occurs in a variety of clinical circumstances and settings, and therefore requires individualization of treatment. Alkylating agents, bortezomib, and immunomodulatory drugs, along with corticoids, have been used to treat extramedullary relapse but, because of the relatively low frequency or detection rate of extramedullary relapse, no efficacy data are available from controlled studies in this setting.

  4. Very high multiplicity hadron processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandzhavidze, I.; Sisakyan, A.

    2000-01-01

    The paper contains a description of a first attempt to understand the extremely inelastic high energy hadron collisions, when the multiplicity of produced hadrons considerably exceeds its mean value. Problems with existing model predictions are discussed. The real-time finite-temperature S-matrix theory is built to have a possibility to find model-free predictions. This allows one to include the statistical effects into consideration and build the phenomenology. The questions to experiment are formulated at the very end of the paper

  5. Therapeutic advancements in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eGozzetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma survival has significantly improved in latest years, due to a broad spectrum of novel agents available for treatment. The introduction of thalidomide, bortezomib and lenalidomide together with autologous stem cell transplantation has dramatically prolonged complete remissions rate, progression free survivals resulting ultimately in prolonged survivals in myeloma patients. Moreover, novel strategies of treatment such as consolidation and maintenance are being used to implement responses. A number of new drugs such as carfilzomib and pomalidomide are already in clinical practice, and new kids on the block are entering, making the future of myeloma patients brighter.

  6. [Multiple agenesis and prosthetic restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, P

    1990-03-01

    Cases of multiple agenesia present some difficulties in the treatment planing. Three situations may be encountered: limited agenesia, restored by a fixed, bonded or cemented prosthesis, multiple uni- or bimaxillary agenesia without remaining of deciduous teeth, restored by a fixed, bonded or cemented prosthesis or the partial adjacent prosthesis, multiple uni- or bimaxillary agenesia with remaining of deciduous teeth, restored by means of a supra-dental prosthesis. The first two situations have been described in dental literature and are relatively easy to treat. The same is not true for the third situation, where the decision to keep the temporary teeth considerably increases the difficulty of prosthetic restoration. This subject will be illustrated by the presentation of a clinical case of multiple bi-maxillary agenesia. The patient has: on the maxilla: an absence of 9 permanent teeth (18, 15, 14, 12, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28) and the presence of 4 deciduous teeth (62, 63, 64, 65), on the mandible: an absence of all permanent teeth, with the exception of 36 and 46, and the remaining of 4 deciduous teeth (75, 73, 83, 84). The remaining of deciduous teeth and the presence of a very high inter-arch space led to opting for dental coverage so as to keep the deciduous teeth and a proper vertical dimension. The patient wished to solve his "problem" in the maxilla first, and is not wanting to undergo the extraction of his deciduous teeth. The following therapeutic proposal was adapted: On the maxilla, a three-step procedure: first step: building of metal copings on 13, 16 and 26 and metal-ceramic crowns on 11 and 21, second step: building of telescop crowns on 16 and 26 and clasps on 13, 11 and 21, third step: casting of the removable partial denture framework and soldering to the telescop crowns and clasps. On the mandible, a provisional restoration using a supra-dental resin removable partial denture with ceramic occlusal surfaces was adopted. The aesthetic and functional

  7. Model Pembelajaran Berbasis Penstimulasian Multiple Intelligences Siswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Legowo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini membahas mengenai penerapan teori multiple intelligences dalam pembelajaran di sekolah. Pembahasan diawali dengan menguraikan perkembangan konsep inteligensi dan multiple intelligences. Diikuti dengan menjelaskan dampak teori multiple intelligences dalam bidang pendidikan dan pembelajaran di sekolah. Bagian selanjutnya menguraikan tentang implementasi teori multiple intelligences dalam praktik pembelajaran di kelas yaitu bagaimana pemberian pengalaman belajar siswa yang difasilitasi guru dapat menstimulasi multiple intelligences siswa. Evaluasi hasil belajar siswa dari pandangan penerapan teori multiple intelligences seharusnya dilakukan menggunakan authentic assessment dan portofolio yang lebih memfasilitasi para siswa mengungkapkan atau mengaktualisasikan hasil belajarnya melalui berbagai cara sesuai dengan kekuatan jenis inteligensinya.

  8. Multiplication modules over non-commutative rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuganbaev, A A

    2003-01-01

    It is proved that each submodule of a multiplication module over a regular ring is a multiplicative module. If A is a ring with commutative multiplication of right ideals, then each projective right ideal is a multiplicative module, and a finitely generated A-module M is a multiplicative module if and only if all its localizations with respect to maximal right ideals of A are cyclic modules over the corresponding localizations of A. In addition, several known results on multiplication modules over commutative rings are extended to modules over not necessarily commutative rings

  9. Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Etesam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment can emerge in the earliest phases of multiple sclerosis. It strongly impacts different aspects of Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients' lives, like employment, social relationships and the overall quality of life; thus, its on-time recognition and treatment is mandatory. This paper discusses issues, diagnostic methods and treatment options for cognitive dysfunctions in MS. This paper is a descriptive review of the related studies in the recent 10 years, performing a keyword search in the main databases4T. Cognitive impairment mostly involves aspects of information processing, memory and executive functioning in MS. Neuropsychological tests like MACFIMS and BRB-N are recommended for its assessment. Still, there is no fully efficient treatment for cognitive impairment. Researchers have shown some positive effects, using disease-modifying therapies and cognitive rehabilitation. Depression, pain, fatigue and other factors influencing cognitive functions must be paid attention to4T. Recognizing cognitive impairment as a major symptom for MS, makes studying this subject one of the priorities in dealing with the disease. Therefore, a consecutive research for identification and management of this part of quality of life in MS patients is obligatory4T.4T

  10. The Updated Multiple Star Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2018-03-01

    The catalog of hierarchical stellar systems with three or more components is an update of the original 1997 version. For 2000 hierarchies, the new Multiple Star Catalog (MSC) provides distances, component masses and periods, and supplementary information (astrometry, photometry, identifiers, orbits, notes). The MSC content and format are explained, and its incompleteness and strong observational selection are stressed. Nevertheless, the MSC can be used for statistical studies and is a valuable source for planning observations of multiple stars. Rare classes of stellar hierarchies found in the MSC (with six or seven components, extremely eccentric orbits, planar and possibly resonant orbits, hosting planets) are briefly presented. High-order hierarchies have smaller velocity dispersion compared to triples and are often associated with moving groups. The paper concludes with an analysis of the ratio of periods and separations between inner and outer subsystems. In wide hierarchies, the ratio of semimajor axes, estimated statistically, is distributed between 3 and 300, with no evidence of dynamically unstable systems.

  11. Endovascular interventions for multiple trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinstner, C.; Funovics, M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years interventional radiology has significantly changed the management of injured patients with multiple trauma. Currently nearly all vessels can be reached within a reasonably short time with the help of specially preshaped catheters and guide wires to achieve bleeding control of arterial und venous bleeding. Whereas bleeding control formerly required extensive open surgery, current interventional methods allow temporary vessel occlusion (occlusion balloons), permanent embolization and stenting. In injured patients with multiple trauma preinterventional procedural planning is performed with the help of multidetector computed tomography whenever possible. Interventional radiology not only allows minimization of therapeutic trauma but also a considerably shorter treatment time. Interventional bleeding control has developed into a standard method in the management of vascular trauma of the chest and abdomen as well as in vascular injuries of the upper and lower extremities when open surgical access is associated with increased risk. Additionally, pelvic trauma, vascular trauma of the superior thoracic aperture and parenchymal arterial lacerations of organs that can be at least partially preserved are primarily managed by interventional methods. In an interdisciplinary setting interventional radiology provides a safe and efficient means of rapid bleeding control in nearly all vascular territories in addition to open surgical access. (orig.) [de

  12. AVOCADO SEEDLINGS MULTIPLE STEMS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCUS VINICIUS SANDOVAL PAIXÃO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the potential of multi-stems in avocado seeds according to their mass as well as the adventitious rooting of multi-stem budding with or without the use of auxin. The research was carried out at the Vegetation House of Federal Institute of Espírito Santo, Campus Santa Teresa -ES, with seeds of different masses: 100 g, in which each experimental unit was made of five seeds, distributed within five repetitions, under a completely randomized design. The seeds were put to germinate and the percentage number of emergence and multiple stems were evaluated. After 150 days, the following evaluations were carried out: survival of rooted cuttings; number of leaves; stem diameter; root length; root volume; root and shoot fresh mass; root and shoot dry mass; shoot height; absolute growth and shoot growth rate; shoot dry weight/root dry mass ratio; shoot height/stem diameter ratio; shoot height/root length and Dickson's quality index ratio. Avocado seeds with mass over 100 g and between 81-100 g presented higher percentage of multiple stems. Rods over 20 cm that were not treated with IBA (indole-3-butyric acid resulted on avocado plants of better quality. The use of IBA (2000 mg L-1 does not affect the rooting and growth of avocado's multi-stem plants.

  13. Hemibody irradiation in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, J.S.; Richards, J.D.M.; Blackman, G.M.; Joannides, T.; Trask, C.W.L.; Nathan, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    Eighteen patients with multiple myeloma were treated by hemibody irradiation using large single fractions, usually to a dose of 10 Gy (lower half) and 7.5 GY (upper half). All except one patient had previously been treated by multiple courses of conventional chemotherapy with melphalan and prednisone, and were considered to be resistant to further chemotherapy. In most cases, local field irradiation had also been given for symptomatic bone pain. Of the 13 patients who had symptoms at the start of hemibody irradiation, 11 improved sufficiently for their analgesia requirement to be reduced. In eight patients, there was a significant fall in circulating immunoglobulin but no patient with Bence-Jones proteinuria had complete resolution of this biochemical abnormality. Although thrombocytopenia and neutropenia were common, only two patients required platelet transfusion and the treatment was in general extremely well tolerated. Survival following hemibody irradiation was similar to the survival reported from the use of 'second-line' chemotherapy and we feel that hemibody irradiation is a more acceptable alternative for most patients. (orig.)

  14. Multiple scroll wave chimera states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistrenko, Volodymyr; Sudakov, Oleksandr; Osiv, Oleksiy; Maistrenko, Yuri

    2017-06-01

    We report the appearance of three-dimensional (3D) multiheaded chimera states that display cascades of self-organized spatiotemporal patterns of coexisting coherence and incoherence. We demonstrate that the number of incoherent chimera domains can grow additively under appropriate variations of the system parameters generating thereby head-adding cascades of the scroll wave chimeras. The phenomenon is derived for the Kuramoto model of N 3 identical phase oscillators placed in the unit 3D cube with periodic boundary conditions, parameters being the coupling radius r and phase lag α. To obtain the multiheaded chimeras, we perform the so-called `cloning procedure' as follows: choose a sample single-headed 3D chimera state, make appropriate scale transformation, and put some number of copies of them into the unit cube. After that, start numerical simulations with slightly perturbed initial conditions and continue them for a sufficiently long time to confirm or reject the state existence and stability. In this way it is found, that multiple scroll wave chimeras including those with incoherent rolls, Hopf links and trefoil knots admit this sort of multiheaded regeneration. On the other hand, multiple 3D chimeras without spiral rotations, like coherent and incoherent balls, tubes, crosses, and layers appear to be unstable and are destroyed rather fast even for arbitrarily small initial perturbations.

  15. Targeted therapy of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolloff, Nathan G; Talamo, Giampaolo

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy and the second most common hematologic cancer. MM is characterized by the accumulation of malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow, and presents clinically with a broad range of symptoms, including hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia, and lytic bone lesions. MM is a heterogeneous disease associated with genomic instability, where patients may express multiple genetic abnormalities that affect several oncogenic pathways. Commonly detected genetic aberrations are translocations involving immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) switch regions (chromosome 14q32) and oncogenes such as c-maf [t(14:16)], cyclin D1 [t(11:14)], and FGFR3/MMSET [t(4:14)]. Advances in the basic understanding of MM and the development of novel agents, such as the immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) thalidomide and lenalidomide and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, have increased therapeutic response rates and prolonged patient survival. Despite these advances MM remains incurable in the majority of patients, and it is therefore critical to identify additional therapeutic strategies and targets for its treatment. In this chapter, we review the underlying genetic components of MM and discuss the results of recent clinical trials that demonstrate the effectiveness of targeted agents in the management of MM. In addition, we discuss experimental therapies that are currently in clinical development along with their molecular rationale in the treatment of MM.

  16. Superclusters and hadronic multiplicity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.C.; Carruthers, P.

    1986-01-01

    The multiplicity distribution is expressed in terms of supercluster production in hadronic processes at high energy. This process creates unstable clusters at intermediate stages and hadrons in final stage. It includes Poisson-transform distributions (with the partially coherent distribution as a special case) and is very flexible for phenomenological analyses. The associated Koba, Nielson, and Olesen limit and the behavior of cumulant moments are analyzed in detail for finite and/or infinite cluster size and particle size per cluster. In general, a supercluster distribution does not need to be equivalent to a negative binomial distribution to fit experimental data well. Furthermore, the requirement of such equivalence leads to many solutions, in which the average size of the cluster is not logarithmic: e.g., it may show a power behavior instead. Superclustering is defined as a two-or multi-stage process underlying observed global multiplicity distributions. At the first stage of the production process, individual clusters are produced according to a given statistical law. For example, the clustering distribution may be described by partially coherent (oreven sub-Poissonian distribution models. At the second stage, the clusters are considered as the sources of particle production. The corresponding distribution may then be as general as the clustering distribution just mentioned. 8 refs

  17. MULTIPLE ECH LAUNCHER CONTROL SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREEN, M.T.; PONCE, D.; GRUNLOH, H.J.; ELLIS, R.A.; GROSNICKLE, W.H.; HUMPHREY, R.L.

    2004-03-01

    OAK-B135 The addition of new, high power gyrotrons to the heating and current drive arsenal at DIII-D, required a system upgrade for control of fully steerable ECH Launchers. Each launcher contains two pointing mirrors with two degrees of mechanical freedom. The two flavors of motion are called facet and tilt. Therefore up to four channels of motion per launcher need to be controlled. The system utilizes absolute encoders to indicate mirror position and therefore direction of the microwave beam. The launcher movement is primarily controlled by PLC, but future iterations of design, may require this control to be accomplished by a CPU on fast bus such as Compact PCI. This will be necessary to accomplish real time position control. Safety of equipment and personnel is of primary importance when controlling a system of moving parts. Therefore multiple interlocks and fault status enunciators have been implemented. This paper addresses the design of a Multiple ECH Launcher Control System, and characterizes the flexibility needed to upgrade to a real time position control system in the future

  18. The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, E.A.C.M.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes recently developed research methods for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. In Chapter X the use of the CT-scan in the detection of hemispheral or cerebellar lesions is discussed. In chapter XIII the results of the application of all methods to a group of 89 patients with definite, probable or possible multiple sclerosis and to a group of 25 purely optic neuritis patients are presented. With the aid of the CT-scan, hypo- or hyperdense areas in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres were found in 52% of the 114 patients. Most reports ascribe these lesions to demyelinating cerebral plaques. The CT-scan showed no cerebellar or brainstem lesions. The CT-scan is independent of the duration of, and degree of incapacitation due to, the disease and can be helpful in giving a definite diagnosis in an early stage of the disease. The CT-scan will always play an important role for the differential diagnosis. (Auth.)

  19. Multiple-mirror plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, A.J.; Lieberman, M.A.; Logan, B.G.

    1975-01-01

    A large enhancement of the confinement time can be achieved in a straight system of multiple mirrors over an equal length uniform magnetic field. The scaling is diffusive rather than that of flow, thereby scaling the square of the system length rather than linear with system length. Probably the most economic mode of operation for a reactor occurs when lambda/M is approximately l/sub c/, where lambda is the mean free path, M the mirror ratio, and l/sub c/ the length between mirrors; but where the scale length of the mirror field l/sub m/ is much less than lambda. The axial confinement time has been calculated theoretically and numerically for all important parameter regimes, and confirmed experimentally. A typical reactor calculation gives Q/sub E/ = 2 for a 400 meter system with 3000 MW(e) output. The main concern of a multiple-mirror system is stability. Linked quadrupoles can achieve average minimum-B stabilization of flute modes, and experiments have demonstrated this stabilization. Localized instabilities at finite β and enhanced diffusion resulting from the distorted flux surfaces and possibly from turbulent higher order modes still remain to be investigated

  20. Multiple Ships and Multiple Media: A Flexible Telepresence Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Riddell, D. J.; Ewing, N.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) uses a number of research and exploration vessels equipped with remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to maintain the NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled ocean observatories off the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. Maintenance expeditions range from several days to multiple weeks and encompass a range of activities including deploying new instruments, laying cable, recovering platforms, scientific sampling and conducting multibeam and visual surveys. In order to engage the widest possible participation in at-sea work, ONC uses telepresence technology to communicate from ship to shore and back with scientists, students, teachers and online viewers. In this presentation, we explore the challenge of designing a sustainable and flexible telepresence program which can be supported across multiple ship and ROV platforms, sometimes simultaneously. To meet outreach and education objectives, onboard educators conduct presentations to K-12 and post-secondary classrooms, museums and science centres on a daily basis. Online commentary by the educators, dive chief and ROV pilots accompanies the ROV dive footage and is streamed online 24/7 during underwater operations. Sharing the sights and sounds of the expeditions with students and educators ashore, including those in remote and inland communities, creates a unique learning environment for both formal and informal education audiences. As space is always a limiting factor on expeditions, the use of telepresence and other communication media enables ONC to simultaneously achieve engineering and science priorities at sea while communicating the successes and challenges of the expedition back to shore. Scientists and engineers provide guidance for operations from shore using a variety of communication technologies. We give examples from Ocean Networks Canada's most recent expedition, Fall 2015, which involved co-ordinated operations with three vessels - the R/V Thompson, the E/V Nautilus and the C/S Wave

  1. Multiple embryos, multiple nepionts and multiple equatorial layers in Cycloclypeus carpenteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Antonino; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Wolfgring, Erik; Hohenegger, Johann

    2016-04-01

    In this study, 17 specimens of Cycloclypeus carpenteri have been analyzed by means of microCT scanning. We used CT scanning technique as it enables the visualization and the quantifications of internal structures of hollow specimens without their destruction. It has been observed that many specimens possessing the natural morphology of this taxon, actually contain multiple embryos (up to 16 in one single specimen) and, in some few cases, multiple nepionts each with its own heterosteginid chambers (up to three separated nepionts). The diameter of each proloculus has been measured, and as a result, they are very variable even within the same specimen, therefore questioning the long known theory that schizonts have smaller proloculi than gamonts and also questioning the fact that proloculi in the same species should all have comparable size. Furthermore, we have observed the presence of additional equatorial planes on several specimens. Such additional planes are always connected to what seems to be the main equatorial plane. Such connections are T-shaped and are located at the junction between two equatorial layers; these junctions are made by a chamberlet, which possesses an unusually higher number of apertures. The connections between equatorial planes are always perfectly synchronized with the relative growth step and the same chamber can be therefore followed along the multiple equatorial planes. Apparently there is a perfect geometric relationship between the creation of additional equatorial planes and the position of the nepionts. Whenever the nepionts are positioned on different planes, additional planes are created and the angle of the nepionts is related to the banding angle of the equatorial planes. The presence of additional planes do not hamper the life of the cell, on the contrary, it seems that the cell is still able to build nicely shaped chamberlets and, after volumetric calculations, it seems all specimens managed to keep their logistic growth

  2. Multiple intracranial hydatid cysts: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumar, J.; Alvarez, M.; Leira, R.; Prieto, J.M.; Arrojo, L.; Pereira, J.; Vidal, J.

    1992-01-01

    Multiple intracranial hydatid cysts are uncommon and usually localized in the supratentorial compartment. We report a case studied by CT and MR of multiple intracranial hydatid cysts scattered in various anatomic sites: supratentorial, infratentorial and also intraventricular. (orig.)

  3. Multiple Sclerosis: Can It Cause Seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... multiple sclerosis and epilepsy? Answers from B Mark Keegan, M.D. Epileptic seizures are more common in ... controlled with anti-seizure medication. With B Mark Keegan, M.D. Lund C, et al. Multiple sclerosis ...

  4. On Utmost Multiplicity of Hierarchical Stellar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebrehiwot Y. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to theoretical considerations, multiplicity of hierarchical stellar systems can reach, depending on masses and orbital parameters, several hundred, while observational data confirm the existence of at most septuple (seven-component systems. In this study, we cross-match the stellar systems of very high multiplicity (six and more components in modern catalogues of visual double and multiple stars to find among them the candidates to hierarchical systems. After cross-matching the catalogues of closer binaries (eclipsing, spectroscopic, etc., some of their components were found to be binary/multiple themselves, what increases the system's degree of multiplicity. Optical pairs, known from literature or filtered by the authors, were flagged and excluded from the statistics. We compiled a list of hierarchical systems with potentially very high multiplicity that contains ten objects. Their multiplicity does not exceed 12, and we discuss a number of ways to explain the lack of extremely high multiplicity systems.

  5. Multiplicity distributions in inelastic reactions on nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Caneschi, L; Schwimmer, A

    1976-01-01

    The multiplicity distribution of the number of knocked-out nucleons and the correlation of the former with the multiplicity of the produced mesons, in inelastic particle-nucleus scattering, are computed.

  6. Emotional Disorders in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evidence-based Guideline for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN PEOPLE WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS This fact sheet presents the current research on emotional disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) and summarizes the ...

  7. Treatment of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pierson, Susan H.; Griffith, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis is an increasingly recognized entity. This article reviews the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis, its prevalence, its relationship to different types of multiple sclerosis, and its contribution to long-term functional prognosis. The discussion also focuses on the key elements of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis which distinguish it from other forms of cognitive impairment. Therapeutic interventions potentially effective for the co...

  8. Multicentric malignant transformation of multiple exostoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Hillmann, A.; Winkelmann, W.; Blasius, S.; Link, T.

    1998-01-01

    We treated a patient with large multiple chondrosarcomas derived from multiple cartilaginous exostoses. One sarcoma originated in the left pubic bone and the other sarcoma in the posterior aspect of the greater trochanter of the left femur. Thirty months after hindquarter amputation, the patient is alive without relapse. This is the first report of a patient with synchronous multiple malignant transformation of multiple cartilaginous exostoses. (orig.)

  9. Spatial photon correlations in multiple scattering media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Muskens, O.; Lagendijk, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first angle-resolved measurements of spatial photon correlations that are induced by multiple scattering of light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions and depends on incident photon fluctuations.......We present the first angle-resolved measurements of spatial photon correlations that are induced by multiple scattering of light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions and depends on incident photon fluctuations....

  10. Human Supervision of Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2013-0143 HUMAN SUPERVISION OF MULTIPLE AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES Heath A. Ruff Ball...REPORT TYPE Interim 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 09-16-08 – 03-22-13 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HUMAN SUPERVISION OF MULTIPLE AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES 5a...Supervision of Multiple Autonomous Vehicles To support the vision of a system that enables a single operator to control multiple next-generation

  11. Multiple-stage integrating accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, H.F.

    1986-01-01

    An accelerometer assembly is described for use in activating a switch or the like responding to multiple acceleration pulses in series, comprising: a housing forming a chamber having a first and second end; a mass slidably disposed in the chamber and movable during acceleration from the first end toward the second end; means for biasing the movable mass toward a reset position adjacent the first end; means for damping the movement of the mass in the chamber; cam and follower means carried by the movable mass and the housing for relative movement in response to the acceleration, the cam and follower means including means for temporarily blocking the mass movement toward the second end after a first acceleration pulse; the cam and follower means cooperating together to allow continued movement toward the second end and switch activation in response to at least a second separate acceleration pulse in series with the first

  12. Multiplication circuit for particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlier, Jean

    1962-01-01

    After having commented some characteristics of the particles present in a cyclotron, and their interactions, this report addresses the development and the implementation of a method and a device for selecting and counting particles. The author presents the principle and existing techniques of selection. In comparison with an existing device, the proportional counter and the scintillator are replaced by junctions: a surface barrier type junction (a silicon N layer with a very thin oxygen layer playing the role of the P layer), and lithium-based junction (a silicon P type layer made intrinsic by migration of lithium). The author then describes the developed circuit and assembly (background of the choice of a multiplication circuit), and their operation. In the next part, he presents the performed tests and discuses the obtained results. He finally outlines the benefits of the herein presented circuit [fr

  13. Electret dosimeter utilizing gas multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeya, M.; Miki, T.

    1980-01-01

    It was found that the high electric field around the surface of an electret leads to cascade multiplication of the ionization process in a surrounding gas. Very sensitive charge decay constants of the order of 1mrad, were obtained for electrets composed of polyvinyliden fluoride or teflon polymers. The reduced charge is stable and can be utilized in personnel dosimetry. A simple pocket chamber dosimeter is described consisting of a small speaker or buzzer, a cylindrical chamber filled with air, argon or other gases, a polymer thermoelectret foil and an electrode. The sonic vibration of the foil induces an alternating charge on the electrode which is amplified and detected. The feasibility of this dosimeter and its shock and vibration resistance have been demonstrated. (author)

  14. Moral enhancement requires multiple virtues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, James J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the debates around the concept of moral enhancement have focused on whether the improvement of a single trait, such as empathy or intelligence, would be a good in general, or in all circumstances. All virtue theories, however, both secular and religious, have articulated multiple virtues that temper and inform one another in the development of a mature moral character. The project of moral enhancement requires a reengagement with virtue ethics and contemporary moral psychology to develop an empirically grounded model of the virtues and a fuller model of character development. Each of these virtues may be manipulable with electronic, psychopharmaceutical, and genetic interventions. A set of interdependent virtues is proposed, along with some of the research pointing to ways such virtues could be enhanced.

  15. Statin treatment in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl-Jensen, Gorm; Tsakiri, Anna; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to progressive disability. Statins [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors] are widely prescribed drugs in hypercholesterolemia. They exert immunomodulatory and neurotrophic effects and are attractive...... candidates for MS treatment due to reliable safety profiles and favorable costs. Studies of statins in a murine MS model and in open-label trials in MS have shown decreased disease severity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess current evidence to support statin treatment in MS and clinically isolated......)-β treatment in RRMS, one of statin monotherapy in CIS, one of statin monotherapy in optic neuritis (ON)/CIS, and one of statin monotherapy in secondary progressive MS (SPMS)]. Three trials with eligible characteristics had not been published in peer-reviewed journals and were therefore not included. Due...

  16. Legitimacy Strategy in Institutional Multiplicities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2014-01-01

    research: adaptation, bypass, manipulation, and intervention/innovation. However, the paper goes further by presenting an operational framework for legitimacy strategy, postulating that it is grounded in the ‘corporate commitment’ of MNEs and is operationalized either by ‘corporate initiative......This paper focuses on ‘institutional void’ (IV) and ‘civil society’ (CS). Investigating five European MNEs in a fragmented business system by using a multiple-case-study method and a sense-making approach, we explore how IV and CS affect MNEs and how MNEs respond to them in pursuit of legitimacy....... Our study reveals three forms of IV, i.e., system void, value chain void, and void between social need and citizen services, and two broad roles of CS, being an enabler and constrainer that affect MNE operations and survival. We validate four types of legitimacy strategies presented by previous...

  17. Implicit Memory in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Latchford

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of neuropsychological studies have revealed that memory problems are relatively common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. It may be useful to compare MS with conditions such as Huntington's disease (HD, which have been referred to as subcortical dementia. A characteristic of these conditions may be an impairment in implicit (unconscious memory, but not in explicit (conscious memory. The present study examined the functioning of explicit and implicit memory in MS. Results showed that implicit memory was not significantly impaired in the MS subjects, and that they were impaired on recall but not recognition. A correlation was found between implicit memory performance and disability status in MS patients. Findings also suggest the possibility of long-term priming of implicit memory in the control subjects. The implications of these results are discussed.

  18. Cantor, God, and Inconsistent Multiplicities*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas-Bolduc Aaron R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Georg Cantor’s religious convictions is often neglected in discussions of his mathematics and metaphysics. Herein I argue, pace Jané (1995, that due to the importance of Christianity to Cantor, he would have never thought of absolutely infinite collections/inconsistent multiplicities, as being merely potential, or as being purely mathematical entities. I begin by considering and rejecting two arguments due to Ignacio Jané based on letters to Hilbert and the generating principles for ordinals, respectively, showing that my reading of Cantor is consistent with that evidence. I then argue that evidence from Cantor’s later writings shows that he was still very religious later in his career, and thus would not have given up on the reality of the absolute, as that would imply an imperfection on the part of God.

  19. Multiple single-centered attractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominic, Pramod; Mandal, Taniya; Tripathy, Prasanta K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study spherically symmetric single-centered attractors in N=2 supergravity in four dimensions. The attractor points are obtained by extremising the effective black hole potential in the moduli space. Both supersymmetric as well as non-supersymmetric attractors exist in mutually exclusive domains of the charge lattice. We construct axion free supersymmetric as well as non-supersymmetric multiple attractors in a simple two parameter model. We further obtain explicit examples of two distinct non-supersymmetric attractors in type IIA string theory compactified on K3×T"2 carrying D0−D4−D6 charges. We compute the entropy of these attractors and analyse their stability in detail.

  20. Multiple Visceral and Peritoneal Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Prabhu S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral and peritoneal anomalies are frequently encountered during cadaveric dissections and surgical procedures of abdomen. A thorough knowledge of the same is required for the success of diagnostic, surgical and radiological procedures of abdomen. We report multiple peritoneal and visceral anomalies noted during dissection classes for medical undergraduates. The anomalies were found in an adult male cadaver aged approximately 70 years. The right iliac fossa was empty due to the sub-hepatic position of caecum and appendix. The sigmoid colon formed an inverted “U” shaped loop above the sacral promontory in the median position. It entered the pelvis from the right side and descended along the lateral wall of the pelvis. The sigmoid mesocolon was attached obliquely to the posterior abdominal wall, just above the sacral promontory. Further there was a cysto-colic fold of peritoneum extending from the right colic flexure. We discuss the clinical significance of the variations.

  1. Cognitive dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana eGuimarães

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Multiple Sclerosis (MS prevalence studies of community and clinical samples, indicate that 45–60% of patients are cognitively impaired. These cognitive dysfunctions have been traditionally described as heterogeneous, but more recent studies suggest that there is a specific pattern of MS-related cognitive dysfunctions. With the advent of disease-modifying medications for MS and emphasis on early intervention and treatment, detection of cognitive impairment at its earliest stage becomes particularly important. In this review the authors address: the cognitive domains most commonly impaired in MS (memory, attention, executive functions, speed of information processing and visual spatial abilities; the physiopathological mechanism implied in MS cognitive dysfunction and correlated brain MRI features; the importance of neuropsychological assessment of MS patients in different stages of the disease and the influence of its course on cognitive performance; the most used tests and batteries for neuropsychological assessment; therapeutic strategies to improve cognitive abilities.

  2. Connected health and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M

    2018-04-18

    There is as yet no consensual definition of "connected health". In general, the term refers to the growing use of technology and, in particular, mobile technology in medicine. Over the past 10 years, there have been an increasing number of published reports on the wide-ranging and heterogeneous fields involving the application of technology in medicine, ranging from telemedicine to tools to improve patients' evaluation and monitoring by physicians, as well as a multitude of patient-centered applications. They also represent promising tools in the field of clinical research. This report is a review of the importance of using this technology in the management of multiple sclerosis patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Mediatization: a concept, multiple voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto GOMES

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediatization has become increasingly a key concept, fundamental, essential to describe the present and the history of media and communicative change taking place. Thus, it became part of a whole, one can not see them as a separate sphere. In this perspective, the media coverage is used as a concept to describe the process of expansion of the different technical means and consider the interrelationships between the communicative change, means and sociocultural change. However, although many researchers use the concept of mediatization, each gives you the meaning that best suits your needs. Thus, the concept of media coverage is treated with multiple voices. This paper discusses this problem and present a preliminary pre-position on the matter.

  4. Duration judgements over multiple elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inci eAyhan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the limits of the number of events observers can simultaneously time. For single targets occurring in one of eight positions sensitivity to duration was improved for spatially pre-cued items as compared to post-cued items indicating that exogenous driven attention can improve duration discrimination. Sensitivity to duration for pre-cued items was also marginally better for single items as compared to eight items indicating that even after the allocation of focal attention, distracter items can interfere with the encoding of duration. For an eight item array discrimination was worse for post-cued locations as compared to pre-cued locations indicating both that attention can improve duration discrimination performance and that it was not possible to access a perfect memory trace of the duration of eight elements. The interference from the distracters in the pre-cued eight item array may reflect some mandatory averaging of target and distracter events. To further explore duration averaging we asked subjects to explicitly compare average durations of multiple item arrays against a single item standard duration. Duration discrimination thresholds were significantly lower for single elements as compared to multiple elements, showing that averaging, either automatically or intentionally, impairs duration discrimination. There was no set size effect. Performance was the same for averages of two and eight items, but performance with even an average of two items was worse than for one item. This was also true for sequential presentation indicating poor performance was not due to limits on the division of attention across items. Rather performance appears to be limited by an inability to remember or aggregate duration information from two or more items. Although it is possible to manipulate perceived duration locally, there appears to be no perceptual mechanisms for aggregating local durations across space.

  5. A Robust Two-Phase Pumped Loop With Multiple Evaporators and Multiple Radiators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's future spacecraft require advanced thermal management technologies to provide effective cooling for multiple instruments and reject heat through multiple...

  6. Toric Codes, Multiplicative Structure and Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder

    2017-01-01

    Long linear codes constructed from toric varieties over finite fields, their multiplicative structure and decoding. The main theme is the inherent multiplicative structure on toric codes. The multiplicative structure allows for \\emph{decoding}, resembling the decoding of Reed-Solomon codes and al...

  7. Closed-Loop Surface Related Multiple Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Angarita, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) is one of the most commonly used methods for suppressing surface multiples. However, in order to obtain an accurate surface multiple estimation, dense source and receiver sampling is required. The traditional approach to this problem is performing data

  8. Multiple Intelligences: Current Trends in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Marsha J.; Kordinak, S. Thomas; Bruce, A. Jerry

    2009-01-01

    With his theory of multiple intelligences, Howard Gardner challenged the presumption that intelligence is a single innate entity. He maintained that multiple intelligences exist and are related to specific brain areas and symbol systems. Each of the intelligences has its merits and limits, but by using a multiple intelligences approach, more…

  9. Facilitating Multiple Intelligences through Multimodal Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Ayesha

    2018-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical framework for employing learning analytics in online education to trace multiple learning variations of online students by considering their potential of being multiple intelligences based on Howard Gardner's 1983 theory of multiple intelligences. The study first emphasizes the need to facilitate students as…

  10. Identifying the Multiple Intelligences of Your Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Joyce A.; Conti, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    One way of addressing individual differences among adult learners is to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the learner. Multiple Intelligences refers to the concept developed by Howard Gardner that challenges the traditional view of intelligence and explains the presence of nine different Multiple Intelligences. The purpose of this study was…

  11. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…

  12. Functional Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Heungsun; Jung, Kwanghee; Takane, Yoshio; Woodward, Todd S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose functional multiple-set canonical correlation analysis for exploring associations among multiple sets of functions. The proposed method includes functional canonical correlation analysis as a special case when only two sets of functions are considered. As in classical multiple-set canonical correlation analysis, computationally, the…

  13. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergul Corduk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  14. Mean associated multiplicities in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhaparidze, G.Sh.; Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A formula is derived for the mean hadron multiplicity in the target fragmentation range of deep inelastic scattering processes. It is shown that in the high-x region the ratio of the mean multiplicities in the current fragmentation region and in the target fragmentation region tends to unity at high energies. The mean multiplicity for the Drell-Yan process is considered

  15. Treatment of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Susan H.; Griffith, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis is an increasingly recognized entity. This article reviews the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis, its prevalence, its relationship to different types of multiple sclerosis, and its contribution to long-term functional prognosis. The discussion also focuses on the key elements of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis which distinguish it from other forms of cognitive impairment. Therapeutic interventions potentially effective for the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis are reviewed including the effects of disease modifying therapies and the use of physical and cognitive interventions. PMID:16720960

  16. Multiple Sclerosis Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Giovannoni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is the body fluid closest to the pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS. For many candidate biomarkers CSF is the only fluid that can be investigated. Several factors need to be standardized when sampling CSF for biomarker research: time/volume of CSF collection, sample processing/storage, and the temporal relationship of sampling to clinical or MRI markers of disease activity. Assays used for biomarker detection must be validated so as to optimize the power of the studies. A formal method for establishing whether or not a particular biomarker can be used as a surrogate end-point needs to be adopted. This process is similar to that used in clinical trials, where the reporting of studies has to be done in a standardized way with sufficient detail to permit a critical review of the study and to enable others to reproduce the study design. A commitment must be made to report negative studies so as to prevent publication bias. Pre-defined consensus criteria need to be developed for MS-related prognostic biomarkers. Currently no candidate biomarker is suitable as a surrogate end-point. Bulk biomarkers of the neurodegenerative process such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and neurofilaments (NF have advantages over intermittent inflammatory markers.

  17. Evidence for Multiple Rhythmic Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Tierney

    Full Text Available Rhythms, or patterns in time, play a vital role in both speech and music. Proficiency in a number of rhythm skills has been linked to language ability, suggesting that certain rhythmic processes in music and language rely on overlapping resources. However, a lack of understanding about how rhythm skills relate to each other has impeded progress in understanding how language relies on rhythm processing. In particular, it is unknown whether all rhythm skills are linked together, forming a single broad rhythmic competence, or whether there are multiple dissociable rhythm skills. We hypothesized that beat tapping and rhythm memory/sequencing form two separate clusters of rhythm skills. This hypothesis was tested with a battery of two beat tapping and two rhythm memory tests. Here we show that tapping to a metronome and the ability to adjust to a changing tempo while tapping to a metronome are related skills. The ability to remember rhythms and to drum along to repeating rhythmic sequences are also related. However, we found no relationship between beat tapping skills and rhythm memory skills. Thus, beat tapping and rhythm memory are dissociable rhythmic aptitudes. This discovery may inform future research disambiguating how distinct rhythm competencies track with specific language functions.

  18. Islamic fasting and multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Month-long daytime Ramadan fasting pose s major challenges to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Muslim countries. Physicians should have practical knowledge on the implications of fasting on MS. We present a summary of database searches (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed) and a mini-symposium on Ramadan fasting and MS. In this symposium, we aimed to review the effect of fasting on MS and suggest practical guidelines on management. Discussion In general, fasting is possible for most stable patients. Appropriate amendment of drug regimens, careful monitoring of symptoms, as well as providing patients with available evidence on fasting and MS are important parts of management. Evidence from experimental studies suggests that calorie restriction before disease induction reduces inflammation and subsequent demyelination and attenuates disease severity. Fasting does not appear to have unfavorable effects on disease course in patients with mild disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ≤3). Most experts believed that during fasting (especially in summer), some MS symptoms (fatigue, fatigue perception, dizziness, spasticity, cognitive problems, weakness, vision, balance, gait) might worsen but return to normal levels during feasting. There was a general consensus that fasting is not safe for patients: on high doses of anti-convulsants, anti-spastics, and corticosteroids; with coagulopathy or active disease; during attacks; with EDSS score ≥7. Summary These data suggest that MS patients should have tailored care. Fasting in MS patients is a challenge that is directly associated with the spiritual belief of the patient. PMID:24655543

  19. Evidence for Multiple Rhythmic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Rhythms, or patterns in time, play a vital role in both speech and music. Proficiency in a number of rhythm skills has been linked to language ability, suggesting that certain rhythmic processes in music and language rely on overlapping resources. However, a lack of understanding about how rhythm skills relate to each other has impeded progress in understanding how language relies on rhythm processing. In particular, it is unknown whether all rhythm skills are linked together, forming a single broad rhythmic competence, or whether there are multiple dissociable rhythm skills. We hypothesized that beat tapping and rhythm memory/sequencing form two separate clusters of rhythm skills. This hypothesis was tested with a battery of two beat tapping and two rhythm memory tests. Here we show that tapping to a metronome and the ability to adjust to a changing tempo while tapping to a metronome are related skills. The ability to remember rhythms and to drum along to repeating rhythmic sequences are also related. However, we found no relationship between beat tapping skills and rhythm memory skills. Thus, beat tapping and rhythm memory are dissociable rhythmic aptitudes. This discovery may inform future research disambiguating how distinct rhythm competencies track with specific language functions. PMID:26376489

  20. The LBL multiple beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Meuth, H.; Warwick, A.

    1987-01-01

    The multiple-beam induction linac approach to a heavy ion driver for inertial confinement fusion features continuous current amplification along the accelerator and a minimum of beam manipulations from source to pellet. Current amplification and bunch length control require careful shaping of the accelerating voltages. MBE-4 is designed as a four-beam induction linac that models much of the accelerator physics of the electrostatically focused section of a significantly longer induction accelerator. Four space-charge-dominated Cs + beams, initially about one meter in length at a current of 13 mA, are focused by electrostatic quadrupoles and accelerated in parallel from 200 to nearly 600 keV. The energy will reach approximately one MeV when the accelerator is complete. Experiments have proceeded in parallel with the construction of the apparatus which began in FY 85 and is now more than half complete. The results show a current amplification, so far, by a factor of 2.8 in good agreement with the longitudinal acceleration calculations. 9 refs

  1. [Oral treatments in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2014-12-01

    The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Remyelination Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Danielle E; Honce, Justin M; Miravalle, Augusto A

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system that results in destruction of the myelin sheath that surrounds axons and eventual neurodegeneration. Current treatments approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS target the aberrant immune response and successfully reduce the severity of attacks and frequency of relapses. Therapies are still needed that can repair damage particularly for the treatment of progressive forms of MS for which current therapies are relatively ineffective. Remyelination can restore neuronal function and prevent further neuronal loss and clinical disability. Recent advancements in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating myelination, as well as the development of high-throughput screens to identify agents that enhance myelination, have lead to the identification of many potential remyelination therapies currently in preclinical and early clinical development. One problem that has plagued the development of treatments to promote remyelination is the difficulty in assessing remyelination in patients with current imaging techniques. Powerful new imaging technologies are making it easier to discern remyelination in patients, which is critical for the assessment of these new therapeutic strategies during clinical trials. This review will summarize what is currently known about remyelination failure in MS, strategies to overcome this failure, new therapeutic treatments in the pipeline for promoting remyelination in MS patients, and new imaging technologies for measuring remyelination in patients.

  3. Remyelination Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E. Harlow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is an immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system that results in destruction of the myelin sheath that surrounds axons and eventual neurodegeneration. Current treatments approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS target the aberrant immune response and successfully reduce the severity of attacks and frequency of relapses. Therapies are still needed that can repair damage particularly for the treatment of progressive forms of MS for which current therapies are relatively ineffective. Remyelination can restore neuronal function and prevent further neuronal loss and clinical disability. Recent advancements in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating myelination, as well as the development of high throughput screens to identify agents that enhance myelination, have lead to the identification of many potential remyelination therapies currently in pre-clinical and early clinical development. One problem that has plagued the development of treatments to promote remyelination is the difficulty in assessing remyelination in patients with current imaging techniques. Powerful new imaging technologies are making it easier to discern remyelination in patients, which is critical for the assessment of these new therapeutic strategies during clinical trials. This review will summarize what is currently known about remyelination failure in MS, strategies to overcome this failure, new therapeutic treatments in the pipeline for promoting remyelination in MS patients, and new imaging technologies for measuring remyelination in patients.

  4. Neuroendocrine Immunoregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Deckx

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, it is generally accepted that multiple sclerosis (MS is a complex multifactorial disease involving genetic and environmental factors affecting the autoreactive immune responses that lead to damage of myelin. In this respect, intrinsic or extrinsic factors such as emotional, psychological, traumatic, or inflammatory stress as well as a variety of other lifestyle interventions can influence the neuroendocrine system. On its turn, it has been demonstrated that the neuroendocrine system has immunomodulatory potential. Moreover, the neuroendocrine and immune systems communicate bidirectionally via shared receptors and shared messenger molecules, variously called hormones, neurotransmitters, or cytokines. Discrepancies at any level can therefore lead to changes in susceptibility and to severity of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Here we provide an overview of the complex system of crosstalk between the neuroendocrine and immune system as well as reported dysfunctions involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, including MS. Finally, possible strategies to intervene with the neuroendocrine-immune system for MS patient management will be discussed. Ultimately, a better understanding of the interactions between the neuroendocrine system and the immune system can open up new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of MS as well as other autoimmune diseases.

  5. Natalizumab therapy of multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the commonest disabling neurological disease of young and middle-aged adults affecting 1 million persons world wide. The illness begins with a relapsing-remitting MS course in 85%-90% of patients; the other 10%-15% have a primary progressive onset MS. Our current understanding is that MS is an autoimmune disorder with an inflammatory T-cell attack on myelin or some component of the oligodendrocyte--myelin structure. Relapses of disease activity result in plaques of demyelination with destruction of myelin and, to a lesser, extent axons. Lymphocytes within the central nervous system tissue recruit more cells leading to an inflammatory cascade that causes myelin damage, axonal disruption, and neuronal death. If the plaque occurs in a vocal area of the central nervous system then symptoms relating to that area result. However, magnetic resonance imaging shows that approximately 10 times more lesions occur in asymptomatic areas of the brain. Recovery from an initial relapse may appear relatively complete but persistent inflammation results in axonal injury and residual disability results. With time and accumulated lesion load, secondary degeneration of denuded axons results in the phase of secondary progressive MS usually 15-20 years after onset.

  6. Pediatric multiple sclerosis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín A. Peña

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Venezuelan pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. METHODS: Database records from the National Program for MS were searched for patients with an established diagnosis of MS whose first symptoms appeared before age 18. RESULTS: The national database held records of 1.710 patients; 3.8% had onset of the first symptoms before age 18. 46.7% were boys, yielding an F:M ratio of 1.13:1. Many children had a disease onset characterized by motor impairment (30.7%, brainstem/cerebellum and spinal cord affectation (27.6%, headache (26%. Less frequent symptoms were sensory symptoms (8% and optic neuritis (7%. DISCUSSION: Pediatric MS patients in Venezuela represent a significant proportion of all MS cases. The clinical pattern is characterized by motor symptoms at onset, and predominantly monosymptomatic presentation with a relapsing-remitting pattern. This is the first systematic attempt to estimate the prevalence of pediatric MS in Venezuela.

  7. Diagnosis of multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2018-05-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) may be difficult to distinguish clinically from other disorders, particularly in the early stages of the disease. An autonomic-only presentation can be indistinguishable from pure autonomic failure. Patients presenting with parkinsonism may be misdiagnosed as having Parkinson disease. Patients presenting with the cerebellar phenotype of MSA can mimic other adult-onset ataxias due to alcohol, chemotherapeutic agents, lead, lithium, and toluene, or vitamin E deficiency, as well as paraneoplastic, autoimmune, or genetic ataxias. A careful medical history and meticulous neurological examination remain the cornerstone for the accurate diagnosis of MSA. Ancillary investigations are helpful to support the diagnosis, rule out potential mimics, and define therapeutic strategies. This review summarizes diagnostic investigations useful in the differential diagnosis of patients with suspected MSA. Currently used techniques include structural and functional brain imaging, cardiac sympathetic imaging, cardiovascular autonomic testing, olfactory testing, sleep study, urological evaluation, and dysphagia and cognitive assessments. Despite advances in the diagnostic tools for MSA in recent years and the availability of consensus criteria for clinical diagnosis, the diagnostic accuracy of MSA remains sub-optimal. As other diagnostic tools emerge, including skin biopsy, retinal biomarkers, blood and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and advanced genetic testing, a more accurate and earlier recognition of MSA should be possible, even in the prodromal stages. This has important implications as misdiagnosis can result in inappropriate treatment, patient and family distress, and erroneous eligibility for clinical trials of disease-modifying drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. MRI findings of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min Yun; Sol, Chang Hyo; Chung, Choon Phill; Kim, Byung Soo; Park, Byung Ho

    1993-01-01

    Nine patients of clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS) were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.0 T. The MS plaques were seen in the brain and spinal cord in eight and three patients, respectively. The frequent sites of MS plaques were periventricular white matter, brain stem, and cervical cord. The shape of most brain MS plaques was round or finger-like configuration. The MS plaques showed high signal intensity on T2 weighted images and low or iso signal intensity on T1 weighted images in all nine cases. Contrast enhancement was seen in 4 cases. Mild brain atrophy was noted in 2 cases and mass effect in 1 case. The sites of cord MS plaques in three patients were C2-C4, C2-C5, and C4-C6 levels respectively. The core MS plaques showed high signal intensity on T2 weighted image and contrast enhancement on Gd-DTPA enhanced T1 weighted images in all 3 case with mild cord expansion in 2 cases. In conclusion, MRI is a useful diagnosis tool in evaluating the MS plaques involved central nervous system

  9. Multiple spectator condensates from inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Robert J.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the development of spectator (light test) field condensates due to their quantum fluctuations in a de Sitter inflationary background, making use of the stochastic formalism to describe the system. In this context, a condensate refers to the typical field value found after a coarse-graining using the Hubble scale H, which can be essential to seed the initial conditions required by various post-inflationary processes. We study models with multiple coupled spectators and for the first time we demonstrate that new forms of stationary solution exist (distinct from the standard exponential form) when the potential is asymmetric. Furthermore, we find a critical value for the inter-field coupling as a function of the number of fields above which the formation of stationary condensates collapses to H. Considering some simple two-field example potentials, we are also able to derive a lower limit on the coupling, below which the fluctuations are effectively decoupled, and the standard stationary variance formulae for each field separately can be trusted. These results are all numerically verified by a new publicly available python class (nfield) to solve the coupled Langevin equations over a large number of fields, realisations and timescales. Further applications of this new tool are also discussed.

  10. Nutrition Facts in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Riccio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The question whether dietary habits and lifestyle have influence on the course of multiple sclerosis (MS is still a matter of debate, and at present, MS therapy is not associated with any information on diet and lifestyle. Here we show that dietary factors and lifestyle may exacerbate or ameliorate MS symptoms by modulating the inflammatory status of the disease both in relapsing-remitting MS and in primary-progressive MS. This is achieved by controlling both the metabolic and inflammatory pathways in the human cell and the composition of commensal gut microbiota. What increases inflammation are hypercaloric Western-style diets, characterized by high salt, animal fat, red meat, sugar-sweetened drinks, fried food, low fiber, and lack of physical exercise. The persistence of this type of diet upregulates the metabolism of human cells toward biosynthetic pathways including those of proinflammatory molecules and also leads to a dysbiotic gut microbiota, alteration of intestinal immunity, and low-grade systemic inflammation. Conversely, exercise and low-calorie diets based on the assumption of vegetables, fruit, legumes, fish, prebiotics, and probiotics act on nuclear receptors and enzymes that upregulate oxidative metabolism, downregulate the synthesis of proinflammatory molecules, and restore or maintain a healthy symbiotic gut microbiota. Now that we know the molecular mechanisms by which dietary factors and exercise affect the inflammatory status in MS, we can expect that a nutritional intervention with anti-inflammatory food and dietary supplements can alleviate possible side effects of immune-modulatory drugs and the symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome and thus favor patient wellness.

  11. Hearing disorders in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Miriam; Levine, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease that is both a focal inflammatory and a chronic neurodegenerative disease. The focal inflammatory component is characterized by destruction of central nervous system myelin, including the spinal cord; as such it can impair any central neural system, including the auditory system. While on the one hand auditory complaints in MS patients are rare compared to other senses, such as vision and proprioception, on the other hand auditory tests of precise neural timing are never "silent." Whenever focal MS lesions are detected involving the pontine auditory pathway, auditory tests requiring precise neural timing are always abnormal, while auditory functions not requiring such precise timing are often normal. Azimuth sound localization is accomplished by comparing the timing and loudness of the sound at the two ears. Hence tests of azimuth sound localization must obligatorily involve the central nervous system and particularly the brainstem. Whenever a focal lesion was localized to the pontine auditory pathway, timing tests were always abnormal, but loudness tests were not. Moreover, a timing test that included only high-frequency sounds was very often abnormal, even when there was no detectable focal MS lesion involving the pontine auditory pathway. This test may be a marker for the chronic neurodegenerative aspect of MS, and, as such could be used to complement the magnetic resonance imaging scan in monitoring the neurodegenerative aspect of MS. Studies of MS brainstem lesion location and auditory function have led to advances in understanding how the human brain processes sound. The brain processes binaural sounds independently for time and level in a two-stage process. The first stage is at the level of the superior olivary complex (SOC) and the second at a level rostral to the SOC. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Knowledge repositories for multiple uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Keith; Riddle, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    In the life cycle of a complex physical device or part, for example, the docking bay door of the Space Station, there are many uses for knowledge about the device or part. The same piece of knowledge might serve several uses. Given the quantity and complexity of the knowledge that must be stored, it is critical to maintain the knowledge in one repository, in one form. At the same time, because of quantity and complexity of knowledge that must be used in life cycle applications such as cost estimation, re-design, and diagnosis, it is critical to automate such knowledge uses. For each specific use, a knowledge base must be available and must be in a from that promotes the efficient performance of that knowledge base. However, without a single source knowledge repository, the cost of maintaining consistent knowledge between multiple knowledge bases increases dramatically; as facts and descriptions change, they must be updated in each individual knowledge base. A use-neutral representation of a hydraulic system for the F-111 aircraft was developed. The ability to derive portions of four different knowledge bases is demonstrated from this use-neutral representation: one knowledge base is for re-design of the device using a model-based reasoning problem solver; two knowledge bases, at different levels of abstraction, are for diagnosis using a model-based reasoning solver; and one knowledge base is for diagnosis using an associational reasoning problem solver. It was shown how updates issued against the single source use-neutral knowledge repository can be propagated to the underlying knowledge bases.

  13. Does vagotomy protect against multiple sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundbøll, Jens; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Adelborg, Kasper; Svensson, Elisabeth

    2017-07-01

    To examine the association between vagotomy and multiple sclerosis. We conducted a matched cohort study of all patients who underwent truncal or super-selective vagotomy and a comparison cohort, by linking Danish population-based medical registries (1977-1995). Hazard ratios (HRs) for multiple sclerosis, adjusting for potential confounders were computed by means of Cox regression analysis. Median age of multiple sclerosis onset corresponded to late onset multiple sclerosis. No association with multiple sclerosis was observed for truncal vagotomy (0-37 year adjusted HR=0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48-1.74) or super-selective vagotomy (0-37 year adjusted HR=1.28, 95% CI: 0.79-2.09) compared with the general population. We found no association between vagotomy and later risk of late onset multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Multiple group membership and well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderlund, Anders L.; Morton, Thomas A.; Ryan, Michelle K.

    2017-01-01

    multiple group membership and well-being, but only for individuals high in SIC. This effect was mediated by perceived identity expression and access to social support. Study 2 (N = 104) also found that multiple group memberships indirectly contributed to well-being via perceived identity expression......A growing body of research points to the value of multiple group memberships for individual well-being. However, much of this work considers group memberships very broadly and in terms of number alone. We conducted two correlational studies exploring how the relationship between multiple group...... and social support, as well as identity compatibility and perceived social inclusion. But, in this study the relationship between multiple group memberships and well-being outcomes was moderated by the perceived value and visibility of group memberships to others. Specifically, possessing multiple, devalued...

  15. Inventory verification measurements using neutron multiplicity counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, N.; Foster, L.A.; Harker, W.C.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a series of neutron multiplicity measurements of large plutonium samples at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The measurements were corrected for bias caused by neutron energy spectrum shifts and nonuniform multiplication, and are compared with calorimetry/isotopics. The results show that multiplicity counting can increase measurement throughput and yield good verification results for some inventory categories. The authors provide recommendations on the future application of the technique to inventory verification

  16. Multiple electromagnetic excitations of relativistic projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llope, W.J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.

    1992-01-01

    Conditions optimum for the first experimental verification of the multiplication electromagnetic excitations of nuclei in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions are described. The relative magnitudes of three important physical processes that might interfere with such a measurement are compared to the predicted strengths for the single and multiple electromagnetic excitations for various choices of the projectile mass and beam energy. Strategies are presented for making inferences concerning the presence of multiple excitation strength in experimental data

  17. Mean associated multiplicities in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhaparidze, G.S.; Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A formula is derived for the mean multiplicity of hadrons in the target-fragmentation region in the process of deep inelastic scattering. It is shown that in the region of large x the ratio of the mean multiplicities in the current- and target-fragmentation regions tends to unity at high energies. The mean multiplicity in the Drell-Yan process is also discussed

  18. Genetic variants and multiple myeloma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martino, Alessandro; Campa, Daniele; Jurczyszyn, Artur

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic background plays a role in multiple myeloma susceptibility. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with genetic susceptibility to multiple myeloma were identified in the last years, but only a few of them were validated in independent studies. METHODS...... with multiple myeloma risk (P value range, 0.055-0.981), possibly with the exception of the SNP rs2227667 (SERPINE1) in women. CONCLUSIONS: We can exclude that the selected polymorphisms are major multiple myeloma risk factors. IMPACT: Independent validation studies are crucial to identify true genetic risk...

  19. Gamma holography from multiple scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussement, R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the introduction of heterodyne methods for synchrotron radiation (Cousesement et al. in Phys. Rev. B 54:16003, 1996; Callens et al. in Phys. Rev. 67:104423, 2003) one observes interferences between two scattering amplitudes; the scattering amplitude of resonant nuclei in a reference sample and the scattering amplitude of nuclei in the sample under investigation. Theses interferences can easily been observed as resonances in velocity spectra when one uses a time integrated method. They can also been observed as quantum beats, when one would use the time differential method. For both methods it is important that one uses a reference sample and therefore both methods disserved the name 'heterodyne methods.' As theses interferences are a product of two scattering amplitudes, the amplitude of a wave scattered form the investigated sample can be known with its phase. But it is assumed that the reference wave is known in advance by a proper choice of the reference sample. At first sight it is very likely that multiple scattering would add more complexity but in this paper it is claimed that on the contrary it provide a bonus, especially for single crystals. It provokes only a line broadening and a line shift of the resonances in the velocity spectra (or a change in the damping and frequency of the quantum beats when the time spectra are registered). Moreover these changes in the line shapes can easily be measured and they provide all the information needed to reconstruct a 3-D picture of the atomic arrangement of resonant nuclei and moreover they distinguish between different hyperfine sites. The method may be more practical for measurements on synchrotron radiation but it does also apply to velocity spectra obtained from resonant scattering with strong sources. The use of radioactive sources suffer from the disadvantage of poorer statistics or much longer accumulation times but they enjoy the advantage to be table-top and at-home experiments. As strong sources are

  20. Modeling Multiple Causes of Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T D

    1999-01-24

    multiple causes of carcinogenesis and shifts the risk-assessment logic to considerations of "what dose does?" in contrast to the current process of the substance-specific question of "what dose is?" Whether reactive oxygen is the proximate or contributing cause of disease or simply a better estimate of biologically effective dose, it has enormous advantages for improved risk- and policy-based decisions. Various estimates of immune system modulation will be given based on radiobiology.

  1. Pleural Effusion in Multiple Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Xia, Guoguang; Lan, Ling; Liu, Fayong; Wang, Yanxun; Liu, Baoyue; Ding, Yi; Dai, Li; Zhang, Yunjian

    2016-01-01

    Pleural effusion is rarely observed in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Myeloma cell infiltration or invasion to the pleura is very rare. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of pleural effusion in patients with MM. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed with pleural effusion, MM, and pleural effusion with MM between 2004 and 2014 at Beijing Jishuitan Hospital. The present study included patients with pleural effusion who underwent cytological, bacteriological, biochemical and other testing. The cytopathology of abnormal pleural effusion cells was not diagnostic, thus flow cytometry was performed. MM was defined using the diagnosis standard of NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) 2014 for MM. This study included 3,480 pleural effusion patients and 319 MM patients. There were 34 patients with both MM and pleural effusion (17 men and 17 women). The average age was 63 years (range, 48-84 years). Pleural effusion with MM was caused by congestive heart disease, chronic renal failure, hypoalbuminemia, pulmonary infarctions, cirrhosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, parapneumonic effusion, tuberculous pleural effusion, and myelomatous pleural effusion (MPE). The diagnosis of MPE was confirmed by the detection of myeloma cells in the pleural fluid using flow cytometric analyses. There were only 2 MPE cases in our study. The first MPE case was a woman. The first clinical manifestation was pleural effusion, and the diagnosis was non-secretory MM, DSS stage IIIA (Durie-Salmon staging system); ISS stage I (the International Staging System). The second MPE case was a man who was diagnosed with MM IgA-κ, DSS stage IIIA; ISS stage II. The detection rate of MPE was very low. MPE tended to present with yellow exudates and the lack of physical and chemical characteristics. Furthermore, patients with MPE exhibited many yellow nodules on the pleura. These nodules were lobulated and had abundant

  2. Cranial Neuropathy in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Hayriye Sorgun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that cranial neuropathy findings could be seen in the neurologic examination of multiple sclerosis (MS patients, although brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may not reveal any lesion responsible for the cranial nerve involvement. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of brainstem and cranial nerve involvement, except for olfactory and optic nerves, during MS attacks, and to investigate the rate of an available explanation for the cranial neuropathy findings by lesion localization on brain MRI. METHODS: Ninety-five attacks of 86 MS patients were included in the study. The patients underwent a complete neurological examination, and cranial nerve palsies (CNP were determined during MS attacks. RESULTS: CNP were found as follows: 3rd CNP in 7 (7.4%, 4th CNP in 1 (1.1%, 5th CNP in 6 (6.3%, 6th CNP in 12 (12.6%, 7th CNP in 5 (5.3%, 8th CNP in 4 (4.2%, and 9th and 10th CNP in 2 (2.1% out of 95 attacks. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO was detected in 5 (5.4%, nystagmus in 37 (38.9%, vertigo in 9 (6.3%, and diplopia in 14 (14.7% out of 95 attacks. Pons, mesencephalon and bulbus lesions were detected in 58.7%, 41.5% and 21.1% of the patients, respectively, on the brain MRI. Cranial nerve palsy findings could not be explained by the localization of the lesions on brainstem MRI in 5 attacks; 2 of them were 3rd CNP (1 with INO, 2 were 6th CNP and 1 was a combination of 6th, 7th and 8th CNP. CONCLUSION: The most frequently affected cranial nerve and brainstem region in MS patients is the 6th cranial nerve and pons, respectively. A few of the MS patients have normal brainstem MRI, although they have cranial neuropathy findings in the neurologic examination.

  3. The Arabidopsis SWI/SNF protein BAF60 mediates seedling growth control by modulating DNA accessibility

    KAUST Repository

    Jégu, Teddy

    2017-06-15

    Plant adaptive responses to changing environments involve complex molecular interplays between intrinsic and external signals. Whilst much is known on the signaling components mediating diurnal, light, and temperature controls on plant development, their influence on chromatin-based transcriptional controls remains poorly explored.In this study we show that a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler subunit, BAF60, represses seedling growth by modulating DNA accessibility of hypocotyl cell size regulatory genes. BAF60 binds nucleosome-free regions of multiple G box-containing genes, opposing in cis the promoting effect of the photomorphogenic and thermomorphogenic regulator Phytochrome Interacting Factor 4 (PIF4) on hypocotyl elongation. Furthermore, BAF60 expression level is regulated in response to light and daily rhythms.These results unveil a short path between a chromatin remodeler and a signaling component to fine-tune plant morphogenesis in response to environmental conditions.

  4. The Arabidopsis SWI/SNF protein BAF60 mediates seedling growth control by modulating DNA accessibility

    KAUST Repository

    Jé gu, Teddy; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Ramirez Prado, Juan Sebastian; Rizzi-Paillet, Charley; Perez, Magalie; Lhomme, Anaï s; Latrasse, David; Coleno, Emeline; Vicaire, Serge; Legras, Sté phanie; Jost, Bernard; Rougé e, Martin; Barneche, Fredy; Bergounioux, Catherine; Crespi, Martin; Mahfouz, Magdy M.; Hirt, Heribert; Raynaud, Cé cile; Benhamed, Moussa

    2017-01-01

    Plant adaptive responses to changing environments involve complex molecular interplays between intrinsic and external signals. Whilst much is known on the signaling components mediating diurnal, light, and temperature controls on plant development, their influence on chromatin-based transcriptional controls remains poorly explored.In this study we show that a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler subunit, BAF60, represses seedling growth by modulating DNA accessibility of hypocotyl cell size regulatory genes. BAF60 binds nucleosome-free regions of multiple G box-containing genes, opposing in cis the promoting effect of the photomorphogenic and thermomorphogenic regulator Phytochrome Interacting Factor 4 (PIF4) on hypocotyl elongation. Furthermore, BAF60 expression level is regulated in response to light and daily rhythms.These results unveil a short path between a chromatin remodeler and a signaling component to fine-tune plant morphogenesis in response to environmental conditions.

  5. Maltreatment in multiple-birth children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Cathleen A; Cox, Matthew J; Flores, Glenn

    2013-12-01

    The rate of multiple births has increased over the last two decades. In 1982, an increased frequency of injuries among this patient population was noted, but few studies have evaluated the increased incidence of maltreatment in twins. The study aim was to evaluate the features of all multiple-birth children with substantiated physical abuse and/or neglect over a four-year period at a major children's hospital. A Retrospective chart review was conducted of multiple-gestation children in which at least one child in the multiple set experienced child maltreatment from January 2006 to December 2009. Data regarding the child, injuries, family, and perpetrators were abstracted. We evaluated whether family and child characteristics were associated with maltreatment, and whether types of injuries were similar within multiple sets. For comparison, data from the same time period for single-birth maltreated children also were abstracted, including child age, gestational age at birth, and injury type. There were 19 sets of multiple births in which at least one child had abusive injuries and/or neglect. In 10 of 19 sets (53%), all multiples were found to have a form of maltreatment, and all children in these multiple sets shared at least one injury type. Parents lived together in 63% of cases. Fathers and mothers were the alleged perpetrator in 42% of the cases. Multiple-gestation-birth maltreated children were significantly more likely than single-birth maltreated children to have abdominal trauma (13% vs. 1%, respectively; pchildren often, but not always, were abused. In sets with two maltreated children, children usually shared the same modes of maltreatment. Multiples are significantly more likely than singletons to be younger and experience fractures and abdominal trauma. The findings support the current standard practice of evaluating all children in a multiple set when one is found to be abused or neglected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutashov V.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to identify the degree of cognitive impairment (CN and to optimize the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Material and methods. A total of 695 patients (278 men and 417 women were ranged from 18 to 63 years. The mean age was 30.2±0.7 years: women (417 28.5±0.5 years, while for men (278 31.8±0.7 years. Relaps-ing-remitting type (RT of MS was established in 520 patients (74.8%, secondary progressive type (VPT MS in 132 patients (18.9% and primary progressive type (PPT MS in 10 patients (1.5%. Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS was detected in 33 patients (4.8%. The diagnosis of MS 662 patients according to the criteria McDonald etal. (2005. Score of neurologic deficit was carried out on an extended scale of disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale — EDSS. CN were evaluated by conventional tests. To estimate the orientation in time, assessment of short-term and long-term memory, attention and concentration, as well as executive functions, memory, language, evaluation of optical-spatial activities, conceptual thinking, the account used by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA. For the screening of dementia with a primary lesion of the frontal lobes and subcortical cerebral structures used battery frontal test to assess frontal dysfunction. Results. The ratio of male (265 and female (397 was 1:1.5. The severity of the condition patients EDSS scale ranged from 1.5 to 8.0 points, and the average score was 3.5±1.2. In the group of patients with RT RS average score EDSS was more than a half (2.5±1.1, than in the group of patients with MS VAC (5.5±1.2 and POS PC (6.5±1.2. In the study of history, it was found that the development of the RS (662 patients was preceded by the following conditions: a viral infection in 277 patients (41.84%; fatigue in 147 patients (22.21%; transferred psycho-emotional load from 218 (32.93%; after pregnancy and childbirth in 20 patients (3.02%. Conclusion. Among the patients with MS

  7. Astronomy of binary and multiple stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    Various types of binary stars and methods for their observation are described in a popular form. Some models of formation and evolution of binary and multiple star systems are presented. It is concluded that formation of binary and multiple stars is a regular stage in the process of star production

  8. Multiple Robots Localization Via Data Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    multiple humans, each with specialized skills complementing each other, work to create the solution. Hence, there is a motivation to think in terms of...pygame.Color(255,255,255) COLORBLACK = pygame.Color(0,0,0) F. AUTOMATE.PY The automate.py file is a helper file to assist in running multiple simulation

  9. Making the Most of Multiple Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions draw criticism because many people perceive they test only recall or atomistic, surface-level objectives and do not require students to think. Although this can be the case, it does not have to be that way. Susan M. Brookhart suggests that multiple-choice questions are a useful part of any teacher's questioning repertoire…

  10. The Multiple Intelligences Teaching Method and Mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Multiple Intelligences teaching approach has evolved and been embraced widely especially in the United States. The approach has been found to be very effective in changing situations for the better, in the teaching and learning of any subject especially mathematics. Multiple Intelligences teaching approach proposes ...

  11. On multiple blocking sets in Galois planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, A.; Lovász, L.; Storme, L.; Szönyi, T.

    2007-01-01

    This article continues the study of multiple blocking sets in PG(2, q). In [A. Blokhuis, L. Storme, T. Szonyi, Lacunary polynomials, multiple blocking sets and Baer subplanes. J. London Math. Soc. (2) 60 (1999), 321–332. MR1724814 (2000j:05025) Zbl 0940.51007], using lacunary polynomials, it was

  12. 9 CFR 113.7 - Multiple fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple fractions. 113.7 Section 113... § 113.7 Multiple fractions. (a) When a biological product contains more than one immunogenic fraction, the completed product shall be evaluated by tests applicable to each fraction. (b) When similar...

  13. Multiple Intelligences of Students at Jordanian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataybeh, Abdalla; Al-Sheikh, Kholoud

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating different intelligence types among Jordanian students at different public and private universities in Jordan. To achieve such aim, it sought to identify and rank multiple intelligences that characterize students at Jordanian universities, and to identify and rank the differences in multiple intelligences…

  14. Schooling Built on the Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Christine D.

    2009-01-01

    This article features a school built on multiple intelligences. As the first multiple intelligences school in the world, the Key Learning Community shapes its students' days to include significant time in the musical, spatial and bodily-kinesthetic intelligences, as well as the more traditional areas of logical-mathematical and linguistics. In…

  15. Multiple trauma in children: critical care overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Randall C; Burns, R Cartland

    2002-11-01

    Multiple trauma is more than the sum of the injuries. Management not only of the physiologic injury but also of the pathophysiologic responses, along with integration of the child's emotional and developmental needs and the child's family, forms the basis of trauma care. Multiple trauma in children also elicits profound psychological responses from the healthcare providers involved with these children. This overview will address the pathophysiology of multiple trauma in children and the general principles of trauma management by an integrated trauma team. Trauma is a systemic disease. Multiple trauma stimulates the release of multiple inflammatory mediators. A lethal triad of hypothermia, acidosis, and coagulopathy is the direct result of trauma and secondary injury from the systemic response to trauma. Controlling and responding to the secondary pathophysiologic sequelae of trauma is the cornerstone of trauma management in the multiply injured, critically ill child. Damage control surgery is a new, rational approach to the child with multiple trauma. The selection of children for damage control surgery depends on the severity of injury. Major abdominal vascular injuries and multiple visceral injuries are best considered for this approach. The effective management of childhood multiple trauma requires a combined team approach, consideration of the child and family, an organized trauma system, and an effective quality assurance and improvement mechanism.

  16. Consequences of hadron-nucleus multiplicity parametrization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, C.P.; Shyam, M.

    1986-01-01

    Some interesting consequences are analyzed of a new parametrization for the hadron-nucleus multiplicity distributions and they are compared with the experimental data. Further, it is illustrated how the scaling property for the average multiplicity will be modified and it is found that the experimental data support this behaviour. (orig.)

  17. Reproduction and the risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils Iørgen; Pfleger, Claudia Christina

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Denmark has doubled in women since 1970, whereas it has been almost unchanged in men.......The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Denmark has doubled in women since 1970, whereas it has been almost unchanged in men....

  18. Immunoparesis in newly diagnosed Multiple Myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W.; Salomo, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Immunoparesis (hypogammaglobulinemia) is associated to an unfavorable prognosis in newly diagnosed Multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, this finding has not been validated in an unselected population-based cohort. We analyzed 2558 newly diagnosed MM patients in the Danish Multiple Myeloma...

  19. Multiple cranial nerve palsies complicating tympanomastoiditis: case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otitis media either acute or chronic, is not uncommon in childhood. Multiple cranial nerve palsies occuring as a complication of either form of otitis media is unusual. A case of a nine year old boy with chronic suppurative otitis media with associated mastoiditis complicated with ipsilateral multiple cranial nerve palsies is ...

  20. Familial multiple lipomatosis: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veger, H. T. C.; Ravensbergen, N. J. C.; Ottenhof, A.; da Costa, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Lipoma is the most common type of soft tissue tumour. Multiple lipomas localised in different areas of the body are rare and can occur in specific hereditary syndromes. Familial multiple lipomatosis is a rare benign hereditary syndrome with a proposed autosomal-dominant inheritance. We present the

  1. Demyelination of subcortical nuclei in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutenkova, E; Aitmagambetova, G; Khodanovich, M; Yarnykh, V; Bowen, J; Gangadharan, B; Henson, L; Mayadev, A; Repovic, P; Qian, P

    2016-01-01

    Myelin containing in basal ganglia in multiple sclerosis patients was evaluated using new noninvasive quantitative MRI method fast whole brain macromolecular proton fraction mapping. Myelin level in globus pallidus and putamen significantly decreased in multiple sclerosis patients as compared with healthy control subjects but not in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus. (paper)

  2. Demyelination of subcortical nuclei in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutenkova, E.; Aitmagambetova, G.; Khodanovich, M.; Bowen, J.; Gangadharan, B.; Henson, L.; Mayadev, A.; Repovic, P.; Qian, P.; Yarnykh, V.

    2016-02-01

    Myelin containing in basal ganglia in multiple sclerosis patients was evaluated using new noninvasive quantitative MRI method fast whole brain macromolecular proton fraction mapping. Myelin level in globus pallidus and putamen significantly decreased in multiple sclerosis patients as compared with healthy control subjects but not in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus.

  3. Multiple Indicator Stationary Time Series Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivo, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the propriety and practical advantages of specifying multivariate time series models in the context of structural equation modeling for time series and longitudinal panel data. For time series data, the multiple indicator model specification improves on classical time series analysis. For panel data, the multiple indicator model…

  4. Multiple-Access Quantum-Classical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Mohsen

    2011-10-01

    A multi-user network that supports both classical and quantum communication is proposed. By relying on optical code-division multiple access techniques, this system offers simultaneous key exchange between multiple pairs of network users. A lower bound on the secure key generation rate will be derived for decoy-state quantum key distribution protocols.

  5. 7 CFR 1437.13 - Multiple benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple benefits. 1437.13 Section 1437.13... General Provisions § 1437.13 Multiple benefits. (a) If a producer is eligible to receive payments under this part and benefits under any other program administered by the Secretary for the same crop loss...

  6. 7 CFR 783.8 - Multiple benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple benefits. 783.8 Section 783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS TREE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 783.8 Multiple benefits. Persons may not receive or retain...

  7. Multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infection predicts antimalarial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In areas with intense malaria transmission, individuals are often simultaneously infected with multiple parasite strains. This study assessed the effect of multiple infections on treatment response in Ugandan children with uncomplicated malaria. Methods: Four hundred and seventy six blood specimens were ...

  8. Multiplication in Silicon p-n Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moll, John L.

    1965-01-01

    Multiplication values were measured in the collector junctions of silicon p-n-p and n-p-n transistors before and after bombardment by 1016 neutrons/cm2. Within experimental error there was no change either in junction fields, as deduced from capacitance measurements, or in multiplication values i...

  9. Multiple familial trichoepithelioma: a rare cutaneous tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arfan-ul-Bari; Simeen-ber-Rehman

    2004-01-01

    Multiple familial trichoepithelioma (MFT) is a rare autosomal dominant skin disease that presents as many small tumours predominantly on the face. We report a case of multiple familial trichoepithelioma occurring in three members of a family. They were diagnosed simultaneously. Only one was treated with medium depth chemical peeling with partial response. (author)

  10. Using Alternative Multiplication Algorithms to "Offload" Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazby, Dan; Pearn, Cath

    2015-01-01

    When viewed through a lens of embedded cognition, algorithms may enable aspects of the cognitive work of multi-digit multiplication to be "offloaded" to the environmental structure created by an algorithm. This study analyses four multiplication algorithms by viewing different algorithms as enabling cognitive work to be distributed…

  11. Veto-Consensus Multiple Kernel Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Hu, N.; Spanos, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    We propose Veto-Consensus Multiple Kernel Learning (VCMKL), a novel way of combining multiple kernels such that one class of samples is described by the logical intersection (consensus) of base kernelized decision rules, whereas the other classes by the union (veto) of their complements. The

  12. Jet multiplicity distributions: medium dependence in MLLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armesto, Nestor; Pajares, Carlos; Quiroga-Arias, Paloma

    2009-01-01

    We study the medium dependence of the multiplicity distributions in the modified leading logarithmic approximation. We focus in the enhancement in the number of branchings as the partons travel trough a dense medium created in a heavy-ion collision. We study the effect of a higher number of splittings in some jet observables by introducing the medium as a constant (f med ) in the splitting functions. Having as our ansatz for the quark and gluon jets mean multiplicities left angle n G right angle =e γy and left angle n Q right angle =r -1 e γy , we study in an analytic approach the dependence with the medium (f med ) of the anomalous dimension (γ), the multiplicity ratio (r), and so the mean multiplicities. We also obtain the higher-order moments of the multiplicity distribution, what allows us to study its dispersion. (orig.)

  13. Photodynamic therapy for multiple primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konaka, C.; Okunaka, T.; Sakai, H.; Furukawa, K.; Hayata, Y.; Kato, H.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, multiple primary lung cancers have been reported with greater frequency. As for the treatment of multiple primary lung cancer, operative excision is usually difficult for all lesions due to problems of pulmonary function. PDT is a good therapeutic modality in the treatment of multiple primary lung cancer, especially central type lung cancer, for preservation of lung function. Since 1980, 50 patients of endoscopically-evaluated early stage lung cancers have been treated with PDT at Tokyo Medical College. Within this group, 16 patients were classified as having multiple primary lung cancers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of PDT in the treatment of these patients with multiple primary bronchogenic carcinoma. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  14. MULTIPLE PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDSUTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Hazin Alencar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The field of project management has historically focused on the administration of one project at a time, a focus that is insufficient given the growing need for organizations to manage multiple projects simultaneously. The requirements of Multiple Project Management (MPM involves demands and practices that are different from those of single projects. MPM poses a special need for coordination of shared resources across multiple projects in a way that can maintain the firm’s strategic focus and facilitate effective decision making. The construction industry is noteworthy for its frequent need for the management of multiple projects. This paper offers a review of the last five years of indexed literature related to multiple project management in the construction industry, identifies gaps and suggests promising new avenues of inquiry.

  15. Demyelination versus remyelination in progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramow, Stephan; Frischer, Josa M; Lassmann, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The causes of incomplete remyelination in progressive multiple sclerosis are unknown, as are the pathological correlates of the different clinical characteristics of patients with primary and secondary progressive disease. We analysed brains and spinal cords from 51 patients with progressive...... multiple sclerosis by planimetry. Thirteen patients with primary progressive disease were compared with 34 with secondary progressive disease. In patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, we found larger brain plaques, more demyelination in total and higher brain loads of active demyelination...... compared with patients with primary progressive disease. In addition, the brain density of plaques with high-grade inflammation and active demyelination was highest in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and remained ~18% higher than in primary progressive multiple sclerosis after adjustments...

  16. Chromosomal radiosensitivity in patients with multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milenkova, Maria; Milanov, Ivan; Kmetska, Ksenia; Deleva, Sofia; Popova, Ljubomira; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Groudeva, Violeta; Hadjidekova, Savina; Domínguez, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied radiosensitivity to in vitro γ-irradiated lymphocytes from MS patients. • Immunotherapy in RRMS patients reduced the yield of radiation induced MN. • The group of treated RRMS accounts for the low radiosensitivity in MS patients. • Spontaneous yield of MN was similar in treated and untreated RRMS patients. - Abstract: Multiple sclerosis is a clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disease leading to severe neurological disability. Although during the last years many disease-modifying agents as treatment options for multiple sclerosis have been made available, their mechanisms of action are still not fully determined. In the present study radiosensitivity in lymphocytes of patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and healthy controls was investigated. Whole blood cultures from multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls were used to analyze the spontaneous and radiation-induced micronuclei in binucleated lymphocytes. A subgroup of patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis was treated with immunomodulatory agents, interferon β or glatiramer acetate. The secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients group was not receiving any treatment. Our results reveal that the basal DNA damage was not different between relapsing–remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients, and healthy controls. No differences between gamma-irradiation induced micronuclei frequencies in binucleated cells from relapsing–remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients, and healthy controls were found either. Nevertheless, when we compared the radiation induced DNA damage in binucleated cells from healthy individuals with the whole group of patients, a reduction in the frequency of micronuclei was obtained in the patients group. Induced micronuclei yield was significantly lower in the irradiated samples from treated relapsing–remitting multiple

  17. Chromosomal radiosensitivity in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milenkova, Maria; Milanov, Ivan; Kmetska, Ksenia [III Neurological Clinic, University Hospital Saint Naum, Sofia (Bulgaria); Deleva, Sofia; Popova, Ljubomira; Hadjidekova, Valeria [Laboratory of Radiation Genetics, NCRRP, Sofia (Bulgaria); Groudeva, Violeta [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University Hospital St. Ekaterina, Sofia (Bulgaria); Hadjidekova, Savina [Department of Medical Genetics, Medical University, Sofia (Bulgaria); Domínguez, Inmaculada, E-mail: idomin@us.es [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Seville, Avda. Reina Mercedes 6, 41012 (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • We studied radiosensitivity to in vitro γ-irradiated lymphocytes from MS patients. • Immunotherapy in RRMS patients reduced the yield of radiation induced MN. • The group of treated RRMS accounts for the low radiosensitivity in MS patients. • Spontaneous yield of MN was similar in treated and untreated RRMS patients. - Abstract: Multiple sclerosis is a clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disease leading to severe neurological disability. Although during the last years many disease-modifying agents as treatment options for multiple sclerosis have been made available, their mechanisms of action are still not fully determined. In the present study radiosensitivity in lymphocytes of patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and healthy controls was investigated. Whole blood cultures from multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls were used to analyze the spontaneous and radiation-induced micronuclei in binucleated lymphocytes. A subgroup of patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis was treated with immunomodulatory agents, interferon β or glatiramer acetate. The secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients group was not receiving any treatment. Our results reveal that the basal DNA damage was not different between relapsing–remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients, and healthy controls. No differences between gamma-irradiation induced micronuclei frequencies in binucleated cells from relapsing–remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients, and healthy controls were found either. Nevertheless, when we compared the radiation induced DNA damage in binucleated cells from healthy individuals with the whole group of patients, a reduction in the frequency of micronuclei was obtained in the patients group. Induced micronuclei yield was significantly lower in the irradiated samples from treated relapsing–remitting multiple

  18. Multiple relay selection for delay-limited applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.; Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    A multiple relay selection system model that implements the decode-and-forward mode is investigated. All communication nodes are assumed to be equipped by multiple antennas. Furthermore, lattices space-time coded multiple-input multiple-output half

  19. Attenuation of multiples in image space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Gabriel F.

    In complex subsurface areas, attenuation of 3D specular and diffracted multiples in data space is difficult and inaccurate. In those areas, image space is an attractive alternative. There are several reasons: (1) migration increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the data; (2) primaries are mapped to coherent events in Subsurface Offset Domain Common Image Gathers (SODCIGs) or Angle Domain Common Image Gathers (ADCIGs); (3) image space is regular and smaller; (4) attenuating the multiples in data space leaves holes in the frequency-Wavenumber space that generate artifacts after migration. I develop a new equation for the residual moveout of specular multiples in ADCIGs and use it for the kernel of an apex-shifted Radon transform to focus and separate the primaries from specular and diffracted multiples. Because of small amplitude, phase and kinematic errors in the multiple estimate, we need adaptive matching and subtraction to estimate the primaries. I pose this problem as an iterative least-squares inversion that simultaneously matches the estimates of primaries and multiples to the data. Standard methods match only the estimate of the multiples. I demonstrate with real and synthetic data that the method produces primaries and multiples with little cross-talk. In 3D, the multiples exhibit residual moveout in SODCIGs in in-line and cross-line offsets. They map away from zero subsurface offsets when migrated with the faster velocity of the primaries. In ADCIGs the residual moveout of the primaries as a function of the aperture angle, for a given azimuth, is flat for those angles that illuminate the reflector. The multiples have residual moveout towards increasing depth for increasing aperture angles at all azimuths. As a function of azimuth, the primaries have better azimuth resolution than the multiples at larger aperture angles. I show, with a real 3D dataset, that even below salt, where illumination is poor, the multiples are well attenuated in ADCIGs with the new

  20. Multiple Voices, Multiple Realities: Self-Defined Images of Self among Adolescent Hispanic English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Lasisi J.

    2006-01-01

    Acquisition of multiple identities to negotiate new forms of social participation and the concomitant attendant multiple languages and multiple cultures is "sine qua non" to success in English language learning classrooms. This study therefore, investigates how middle school Hispanic students reconceptualize their identities to negotiate…

  1. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: The perils of multiple testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Priya; Pramesh, C. S.; Buyse, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Multiple testing refers to situations where a dataset is subjected to statistical testing multiple times - either at multiple time-points or through multiple subgroups or for multiple end-points. This amplifies the probability of a false-positive finding. In this article, we look at the consequences of multiple testing and explore various methods to deal with this issue. PMID:27141478

  2. Multiple paternity in reptiles: patterns and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uller, Tobias; Olsson, Mats

    2008-06-01

    The evolution of female promiscuity poses an intriguing problem as benefits of mating with multiple males often have to arise via indirect, genetic, effects. Studies on birds have documented that multiple paternity is common in natural populations but strong evidence for selection via female benefits is lacking. In an attempt to evaluate the evidence more broadly, we review studies of multiple paternity in natural populations of all major groups of nonavian reptiles. Multiple paternity has been documented in all species investigated so far and commonly exists in over 50% of clutches, with particularly high levels in snakes and lizards. Marine turtles and lizards with prolonged pair-bonding have relatively low levels of multiple paternity but levels are nevertheless higher than in many vertebrates with parental care. There is no evidence that high levels of polyandry are driven by direct benefits to females and the evidence that multiple paternity arises from indirect genetic benefits is weak. Instead, we argue that the most parsimonious explanation for patterns of multiple paternity is that it represents the combined effect of mate-encounter frequency and conflict over mating rates between males and females driven by large male benefits and relatively small female costs, with only weak selection via indirect benefits. A crucial step for researchers is to move from correlative approaches to experimental tests of assumptions and predictions of theory under natural settings, using a combination of molecular techniques and behavioural observations.

  3. The bHLH Transcription Factors TSAR1 and TSAR2 Regulate Triterpene Saponin Biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Jan; Pollier, Jacob; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; Franco-Zorrilla, José Manuel; Goossens, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to stresses by producing a broad spectrum of bioactive specialized metabolites. Hormonal elicitors, such as jasmonates, trigger a complex signaling circuit leading to the concerted activation of specific metabolic pathways. However, for many specialized metabolic pathways, the transcription factors involved remain unknown. Here, we report on two homologous jasmonate-inducible transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix family, TRITERPENE SAPONIN BIOSYNTHESIS ACTIVATING REGULATOR1 (TSAR1) and TSAR2, which direct triterpene saponin biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula. TSAR1 and TSAR2 are coregulated with and transactivate the genes encoding 3-HYDROXY-3-METHYLGLUTARYL-COENZYME A REDUCTASE1 (HMGR1) and MAKIBISHI1, the rate-limiting enzyme for triterpene biosynthesis and an E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls HMGR1 levels, respectively. Transactivation is mediated by direct binding of TSARs to the N-box in the promoter of HMGR1. In transient expression assays in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplasts, TSAR1 and TSAR2 exhibit different patterns of transactivation of downstream triterpene saponin biosynthetic genes, hinting at distinct functionalities within the regulation of the pathway. Correspondingly, overexpression of TSAR1 or TSAR2 in M. truncatula hairy roots resulted in elevated transcript levels of known triterpene saponin biosynthetic genes and strongly increased the accumulation of triterpene saponins. TSAR2 overexpression specifically boosted hemolytic saponin biosynthesis, whereas TSAR1 overexpression primarily stimulated nonhemolytic soyasaponin biosynthesis. Both TSARs also activated all genes of the precursor mevalonate pathway but did not affect sterol biosynthetic genes, pointing to their specific role as regulators of specialized triterpene metabolism in M. truncatula. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Interesting images: Multiple coronary artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jonathon M; Viswanath, Omar; Armas, Alfredo; Santana, Orlando; Rosen, Gerald P

    2017-01-01

    We present the case of a 65-year-old male who presented with stable angina and dyspnea on exertion. His initial workup yielded a positive treadmill stress test for reversible apical ischemia, and transthoracic echocardiogram demonstrated impaired systolic function. Cardiac catheterization was then performed, revealing severe atherosclerotic disease including multiple coronary artery aneurysms. As a result, the patient was advised to and subsequently underwent a coronary artery bypass graft. This case highlights the presence of multiple coronary artery aneurysms and the ability to appreciate these pathologic findings on multiple imaging modalities, including coronary angiogram, transesophageal echocardiography, and direct visualization through the surgical field.

  5. A Study of Multiplicities in Hadronic Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Tristan, Nora Patricia; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2006-02-01

    Using data from the SELEX (Fermilab E781) experiment obtained with a minimum-bias trigger, we study multiplicity and angular distributions of secondary particles produced in interactions in the experimental targets. We observe interactions of {Sigma}{sup -}, proton, {pi}{sup -}, and {pi}{sup +}, at beam momenta between 250 GeV/c and 650 GeV/c, in copper, polyethylene, graphite, and beryllium targets. We show that the multiplicity and angular distributions for meson and baryon beams at the same momentum are identical. We also show that the mean multiplicity increases with beam momentum, and presents only small variations with the target material.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Barker, G J; MacKay, A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The theory of relaxation processes and their measurements are described. An overview is presented of the literature on relaxation time measurements in the normal and the developing brain, in experimental diseases in animals, and in patients with multiple sclerosis. RESULTS...... AND CONCLUSION: Relaxation time measurements provide insight into development of multiple sclerosis plaques, especially the occurrence of oedema, demyelination, and gliosis. There is also evidence that normal appearing white matter in patients with multiple sclerosis is affected. What is now needed are fast...

  7. Multiple factor analysis by example using R

    CERN Document Server

    Pagès, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Multiple factor analysis (MFA) enables users to analyze tables of individuals and variables in which the variables are structured into quantitative, qualitative, or mixed groups. Written by the co-developer of this methodology, Multiple Factor Analysis by Example Using R brings together the theoretical and methodological aspects of MFA. It also includes examples of applications and details of how to implement MFA using an R package (FactoMineR).The first two chapters cover the basic factorial analysis methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). The

  8. Neurocutaneous spectrum of multiple endocrine neoplasia-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Furtado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I or Wermer syndrome is characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism, enteropancreatic endocrine tumor, and a pituitary pathology. A 35-year-old male presented with visual field defects, hyperprolactinemia, and hypogonadism. He also had multiple infraumbilical skin-colored nodules. A syndromal association of Wermer syndrome was derived using the dermal, pituitary, parathyroid, and gastrointestinal hormonal manifestations of the tumor. The radiological and histological findings of lesion which underwent biopsy are discussed. The presence of collagenomas, lipomas, and hypopigmented macules in a patient with neuroendocrine symptoms should raise the suspicion of an underlying multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  9. Multiple reflection Michelson interferometer with picometer resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Marco

    2008-12-22

    A Michelson interferometer based on an optical set-up allowing multiple reflection between two plane mirrors performs the multiplication of the optical path by a factor N, proportionally increasing the resolution of the measurement. A multiplication factor of almost two orders of magnitude has been demonstrated with a simple set-up. The technique can be applied to any interferometric measurement where the classical interferometer limits due to fringe nonlinearities and quantum noise are an issue. Applications in precision engineering, vibration analysis, nanometrology, and spectroscopy are foreseen.

  10. Multiple Eyes for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    First System of Deployable Multi-Integral Field Units Ready Summary The ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory is being equipped with many state-of-the-art astronomical instruments that will allow observations in a large number of different modes and wavebands. Soon to come is the Fibre Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) , a project co-ordinated by ESO. It incorporates several complex components, now being constructed at various research institutions in Europe and Australia. One of these, a true technological feat, is a unique system of 15 deployable fibre bundles, the so-called Integral Field Units (IFUs) . They can be accurately positioned within a sky field-of-view measuring no less that 25 arcmin in diameter, i.e., almost as large as the full Moon . Each of the IFUs looks like an insect's eye and images a small sky area (3 x 2 arcsec 2 ) with a multiple microlens. From each IFU, 20 narrow light beams are sent via optical fibres to an advanced spectrograph. All 300 spectra are recorded simultaneously by a sensitive digital camera. A major advantage of this technique is that, contrary usual spectroscopic observations in which spectral information is obtained along a (one-dimensional) line on the sky, it now allows (two-dimensional) area spectroscopy . This will permit extremely efficient spectral observations of many celestial objects, including faint galaxies, providing detailed information about their internal structure and motions. Such studies will have an important impact on our understanding, e.g., of the early evolution of galaxies , the main building blocks in the Universe. The IFUs have been developed by a team of astronomers and engineers [2] at the Observatoire de Paris-Meudon. All IFU components are now at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) where they are being checked and integrated into the instrument [3]. PR Photo 03a/02 : The GIRAFFE spectrograph in the ESO Assembly Hall (Garching, Germany) . PR Photo 03b/02

  11. Multiplicity: An Explorative Interview Study on Personal Experiences of People with Multiple Selves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribáry, Gergő; Lajtai, László; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Maraz, Aniko

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Personality psychology research relies on the notion that humans have a single self that is the result of the individual's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that can be reliably described (i.e., through traits). People who identify themselves as "multiple" have a system of multiple or alternative, selves, that share the same physical body. This is the first study to explore the phenomenon of multiplicity by assessing the experiences of people who identify themselves as "multiple." Methods: First, an Internet forum search was performed using the terms "multiplicity" and "multiple system." Based on that search, people who identified themselves as multiple were contacted. Interviews were conducted by a consultant psychiatrist, which produced six case vignettes. Results: Multiplicity is discussed on Twitter, Tumblr, Google+ and several other personal websites, blogs, and forums maintained by multiples. According to the study's estimates, there are 200-300 individuals who participate in these forums and believe they are multiple. Based on the six interviews, it appears that multiples have several selves who are relatively independent of each other and constitute the personality's system. Each "resident person" or self, has their own unique behavioral pattern, which is triggered by different situations. However, multiples are a heterogeneous group in terms of their system organization, memory functions, and control over switching between selves. Conclusions: Multiplicity can be placed along a continuum between identity disturbance and dissociative identity disorder (DID), although most systems function relatively well in everyday life. Further research is needed to explore this phenomenon, especially in terms of the extent to which multiplicity can be regarded as a healthy way of coping.

  12. Multiple Blockholder Structures and Family Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattoum-Guedri, Asma; Guedri, Zied; Delmar, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    This study examines how multiple blockholder structures affect family firm performance. Building on arguments from both principal–principal agency and familiness perspectives, we suggest that asymmetrical distribution of voting power among family and nonfamily blockholders hurts firm performance....

  13. Patterned Armor Performance Evaluation for Multiple Impacts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De

    2003-01-01

    .... Performance characteristics of an ideal patterned armor with respect to multiple hits are discussed, and the types of single-shot ballistic data needed to quantify that performance are presented...

  14. NCI collaborates with Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) announced a collaboration with the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation (MMRF) to incorporate MMRF's wealth of genomic and clinical data on the disease into the NCI Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a publicly available datab

  15. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are based on...

  16. Green Virtualization for Multiple Collaborative Cellular Operators

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid; Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias; Kadri, Abdullah; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes and investigates a green virtualization framework for infrastructure sharing among multiple cellular operators whose networks are powered by a combination of conventional and renewable sources of energy. Under the proposed

  17. Multiple intracerebral lesions in a young male

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of his brain showed multiple ill-defined and nodular enhancing lesions in bilateral supratentorial and ... Toxoplasmosis occurs in patients with CD4 T cell ... or from undercooked meat. ... Yoganathan K. A “brain tumor” in an intravenous.

  18. Multiple Learning Tracks: For Training Multinational Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Michael G.; Kerin, Roger A.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of identifying and training college students to be effective multinational marketing managers is investigated in three parts: (1) Identification of multinational manager attributes, (2) selection of multinational managers, and (3) multiple "track" training programs. (TA)

  19. Cluster concept in multiple hadron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dremin, I.M.; Quigg, C.

    1978-01-01

    The general features of high-energy collisions of elementary particles are outlined. It is argued that multiple production occurs through the production of hadronic clusters. The history and present status of the cluster concept are surveyed

  20. Suicide among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, H; Stenager, E; Nylev Stenager, E

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the suicide risk among Danish citizens with multiple sclerosis with that of the general population, and to evaluate changes over 45 years. METHODS: The study was based on linkage of the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry to the Cause of Death Registry. It comprised all 10...... taken their own lives, whereas the expected number of suicides was 54.2 (29.1 men, 25.1 women). Thus the suicide risk among persons with multiple sclerosis was more than twice that of the general population (SMR = 2.12). The increased risk was particularly high during the first year after diagnosis (SMR...... = 3.15). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of suicide in multiple sclerosis was almost twice as high as expected more than 20 years after diagnosis. The excess suicide risk has not declined since 1953....

  1. Multiple Wheel Throwing: And Chess Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiro, Maurice

    1978-01-01

    A chess set project is suggested to teach multiple throwing, the creation on a potter's wheel of several pieces of similar configuration. Processes and finished sets are illustrated with photographs. (SJL)

  2. Genetics Home Reference: multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hamel BC, Spranger J, Zabel B, Cohn DH, Cole WG, Hecht JT, Superti-Furga A. Recessive multiple ... medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages Lyme disease Fibromyalgia White-Sutton syndrome All New & Updated Pages ...

  3. Tetanus with multiple wedge vertebral collapses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-07-06

    Jul 6, 2012 ... associated with traumatic injury, often a penetrating wound inflicted by dirty ... multiple vertebral collapses and the management chal- .... back pains and swelling as in our patient.9 There are usually no ... The cervical and.

  4. Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters February 3, 2014 Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression Among people ... sclerosis (MS), those with higher blood levels of vitamin D had better outcomes during 5 years of ...

  5. Medium dependence of multiplicity distributions in MLLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armesto, Nestor; Pajares, Carlos; Quiroga-Arias, Paloma [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas and IGFAE, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    We study the modification of the multiplicity distributions in MLLA due to the presence of a QCD medium. The medium is introduced through a multiplicative constant (f{sub med}) in the soft infrared parts of the kernels of the QCD evolution equations. Using the asymptotic ansatz for mean multiplicities of the quark and gluons, left angle n{sub G} right angle =e{sup {gamma}}{sup y} and left angle n{sub Q} right angle =r {sup -1}e{sup {gamma}}{sup y}, respectively, we study two cases: fixed {gamma} as previously considered in the literature, and fixed {alpha}{sub s}. We find opposite behaviors of the dispersion of the multiplicity distributions with increasing f{sub med} in both cases. For fixed {gamma} the dispersion decreases, while for fixed {alpha}{sub s} it increases. (orig.)

  6. Medium dependence of multiplicity distributions in MLLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armesto, Nestor; Pajares, Carlos; Quiroga-Arias, Paloma

    2009-01-01

    We study the modification of the multiplicity distributions in MLLA due to the presence of a QCD medium. The medium is introduced through a multiplicative constant (f med ) in the soft infrared parts of the kernels of the QCD evolution equations. Using the asymptotic ansatz for mean multiplicities of the quark and gluons, left angle n G right angle =e γy and left angle n Q right angle =r -1 e γy , respectively, we study two cases: fixed γ as previously considered in the literature, and fixed α s . We find opposite behaviors of the dispersion of the multiplicity distributions with increasing f med in both cases. For fixed γ the dispersion decreases, while for fixed α s it increases. (orig.)

  7. Respiratory muscle training for multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietberg, Marc B.; Veerbeek, Janne M.; Gosselink, Rik; Kwakkel, Gert; van Wegen, Erwin E.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system, affecting approximately 2.5 million people worldwide. People with MS may experience limitations in muscular strength and endurance - including the respiratory muscles, affecting functional performance and

  8. Surgery for Pulmonary Multiple Ground Glass Opacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun WANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of pulmonary ground glass opacity (GGO has been increasing in recent years, with a great number of patients having multiple GGOs. Unfortunately, the management of multiple GGOs is still controversial. Pulmonary GGO is a radiological term, consisting of different pathological types. Some of the GGOs are early-staged lung cancer. GGO is an indolent nodule, only a small proportion of GGOs change during observation, which does not influence the efficacy of surgery. . The timing of surgery for multiple GGOs mainly depends on the predominant nodule and surgery is recommended if the solid component of the predominant nodule >5 mm. Either lobectomy or sub-lobectomy is feasible. GGOs other than the predominant nodule can be left unresected. Multiple GGOs with high risk factors need mediastinal lymph node dissection or sampling.

  9. Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lublin, Fred D; Reingold, Stephen C; Cohen, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Accurate clinical course descriptions (phenotypes) of multiple sclerosis (MS) are important for communication, prognostication, design and recruitment of clinical trials, and treatment decision-making. Standardized descriptions published in 1996 based on a survey of international MS experts...

  10. Recent advances in multiple sclerosis therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonsette, R.E.; Delmotte, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seven papers in this volume are in INIS scope, one dealing with autoradiographic detection of multiple sclerosis plaques with radiologands, and the others with magnetic resonance imaging of MS lesions. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  11. Multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, A.; Lupia, S.; Ugoccioni, R.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the important phases in the evolution of our understanding of multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions with particular emphasis to intermittent behavior and shoulder structure problem. (orig.)

  12. Multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, A.; Lupia, S.; Ugoccioni, R. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. Turin (Italy) INFN, Turin (Italy))

    1992-03-01

    We discuss the important phases in the evolution of our understanding of multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions with particular emphasis to intermittent behavior and shoulder structure problem. (orig.).

  13. Trichoepithelioma And Multiple Basal Cell Epithelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey S.K

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of multiple trichoepithelioma and basal cell epithelioma is reported. Although malignant degeneration of trichoepithelioma is debated, clinical and histopathological studies, in our case, hint at that. The case is reported for its rarity.

  14. Polyakov-Wiegmann formula and multiplicative gerbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawedzki, Krzysztof; Waldorf, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    An unambiguous definition of Feynman amplitudes in the Wess-Zumino-Witten sigma model and the Chern-Simon gauge theory with a general Lie group is determined by a certain geometric structure on the group. For the WZW amplitudes, this is a (bundle) gerbe with connection of an appropriate curvature whereas for the CS amplitudes, the gerbe has to be additionally equipped with a multiplicative structure assuring its compatibility with the group multiplication. We show that for simple compact Lie groups the obstruction to the existence of a multiplicative structure is provided by a 2-cocycle of phases that appears in the Polyakov-Wiegmann formula relating the Wess-Zumino action functional of the product of group-valued fields to the sum of the individual contributions. These phases were computed long time ago for all compact simple Lie groups. If they are trivial, then the multiplicative structure exists and is unique up to isomorphism.

  15. Plasma homocysteine levels in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsaransing, G S M; Fokkema, M R; Teelken, A; Arutjunyan, A V; Koch, M; De Keyser, J

    Background: There is evidence that homocysteine contributes to various neurodegenerative disorders, and elevated plasma homocysteine levels have been observed in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: To investigate if and why plasma homocysteine levels are increased in MS, and whether

  16. Privacy Protection on Multiple Sensitive Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Ye, Xiaojun

    In recent years, a privacy model called k-anonymity has gained popularity in the microdata releasing. As the microdata may contain multiple sensitive attributes about an individual, the protection of multiple sensitive attributes has become an important problem. Different from the existing models of single sensitive attribute, extra associations among multiple sensitive attributes should be invested. Two kinds of disclosure scenarios may happen because of logical associations. The Q&S Diversity is checked to prevent the foregoing disclosure risks, with an α Requirement definition used to ensure the diversity requirement. At last, a two-step greedy generalization algorithm is used to carry out the multiple sensitive attributes processing which deal with quasi-identifiers and sensitive attributes respectively. We reduce the overall distortion by the measure of Masking SA.

  17. Transition from single to multiple double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.; Hershkowitz, N.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that laboratory double layers become multiple double layers when the ratio of Debye length to system length is decreased. This result exhibits characteristics described by boundary layer theory

  18. Heterogeneity in the multiple myeloma tumor clone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guikema, Jeroen E. J.; Hovenga, Sjoerd; Vellenga, Edo; Bos, Nicolaas A.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy which is characterized by a very heterogeneous disease outcome. Heterogeneity in plasma cell characteristics, including morphology, maturation status, immunophenotype and genetic abnormalities partly account for the variable disease outcome. Although

  19. Heterogeneity in the multiple myeloma tumor clone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guikema, JEJ; Hovenga, S; Vellenga, E; Bos, NA

    Multiple Myeloma ( MM) is a plasma cell malignancy which is characterized by a very heterogeneous disease outcome. Heterogeneity in plasma cell characteristics, including morphology, maturation status, immunophenotype and genetic abnormalities partly account for the variable disease outcome.

  20. Hadron--hadron reactions, high multiplicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebold, R.

    1978-09-01

    A coverage of results on high energy and high multiplicity hadron reactions, charm searches and related topics, ultrahigh energy events and exotic phenomena (cosmic rays), and the nuclear effects in high energy collisions and related topics is discussed. 67 references

  1. Multiplicities of states od equivalent fermion shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savukinas, A.Yu.; Glembotskij, I.I.

    1980-01-01

    Classification of states of three or four equivalent fermions has been studied, i.e. possible terms and their multiplicities have been determined. For this purpose either the group theory or evident expressions for the fractional-parentage coefficients have been used. In the first approach the formulas obtained by other authors for the multiplicities of terms through the characters of the transformation matrices of bond moments have been used. This approach happens to be more general as compared with the second one, as expressions for the fractional-parentage coefficients in many cases are not known. The multiplicities of separate terms have been determined. It has been shown that the number of terms of any multiplicity becomes constant when l or j is increased [ru

  2. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2006. These data are...

  3. Cooperation evolution in random multiplicative environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaari, G.; Solomon, S.

    2010-02-01

    Most real life systems have a random component: the multitude of endogenous and exogenous factors influencing them result in stochastic fluctuations of the parameters determining their dynamics. These empirical systems are in many cases subject to noise of multiplicative nature. The special properties of multiplicative noise as opposed to additive noise have been noticed for a long while. Even though apparently and formally the difference between free additive vs. multiplicative random walks consists in just a move from normal to log-normal distributions, in practice the implications are much more far reaching. While in an additive context the emergence and survival of cooperation requires special conditions (especially some level of reward, punishment, reciprocity), we find that in the multiplicative random context the emergence of cooperation is much more natural and effective. We study the various implications of this observation and its applications in various contexts.

  4. Multiplication: From Thales to Lie1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Addition. To describe the geometric constructions of addition, as ..... general, we could apply the implicit function theorem of calculus to solve locally the defining ... and whose multiplication and inverse are analytic maps, is called a Lie group.

  5. The MARVEL assembly for neutron multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; Mathew T. Kinlaw

    2013-10-01

    A new multiplying test assembly is under development at Idaho National Laboratory to support research, validation, evaluation, and learning. The item is comprised of three stacked, highly-enriched uranium (HEU) cylinders, each 11.4 cm in diameter and having a combined height of up to 11.7 cm. The combined mass of all three cylinders is 20.3 kg of HEU. Calculations for the bare configuration of the assembly indicate a multiplication level of >3.5 (keff=0.72). Reflected configurations of the assembly, using either polyethylene or tungsten, are possible and have the capability of raising the assembly's multiplication level to greater than 10. This paper describes simulations performed to assess the assembly's multiplication level under different conditions and describes the resources available at INL to support the use of these materials. We also describe some preliminary calculations and test activities using the assembly to study neutron multiplication.

  6. Multiple Site Damage in Flat Panel Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shrage, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    This report aimed to experimentally verify analytical models that predict the residual strength of representative aircraft structures, such as wide panels, that are subjected to Multiple Site Damage (MSD...

  7. Interger multiplication with overflow detection or saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, M.J.; Balzola, P.I.; Akkas, A.; Brocato, R.W.

    2000-01-11

    High-speed multiplication is frequently used in general-purpose and application-specific computer systems. These systems often support integer multiplication, where two n-bit integers are multiplied to produce a 2n-bit product. To prevent growth in word length, processors typically return the n least significant bits of the product and a flag that indicates whether or not overflow has occurred. Alternatively, some processors saturate results that overflow to the most positive or most negative representable number. This paper presents efficient methods for performing unsigned or two's complement integer multiplication with overflow detection or saturation. These methods have significantly less area and delay than conventional methods for integer multiplication with overflow detection and saturation.

  8. Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

  9. Multisite EPR oximetry from multiple quadrature harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R; Som, S; Johnson, D H; Zweier, J L; Kuppusamy, P; Potter, L C

    2012-01-01

    Multisite continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry using multiple quadrature field modulation harmonics is presented. First, a recently developed digital receiver is used to extract multiple harmonics of field modulated projection data. Second, a forward model is presented that relates the projection data to unknown parameters, including linewidth at each site. Third, a maximum likelihood estimator of unknown parameters is reported using an iterative algorithm capable of jointly processing multiple quadrature harmonics. The data modeling and processing are applicable for parametric lineshapes under nonsaturating conditions. Joint processing of multiple harmonics leads to 2-3-fold acceleration of EPR data acquisition. For demonstration in two spatial dimensions, both simulations and phantom studies on an L-band system are reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiples least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongliang

    2013-01-01

    To enhance the image quality, we propose multiples least-squares reverse time migration (MLSRTM) that transforms each hydrophone into a virtual point source with a time history equal to that of the recorded data. Since each recorded trace is treated as a virtual source, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required. Numerical tests on synthetic data for the Sigsbee2B model and field data from Gulf of Mexico show that MLSRTM can improve the image quality by removing artifacts, balancing amplitudes, and suppressing crosstalk compared to standard migration of the free-surface multiples. The potential liability of this method is that multiples require several roundtrips between the reflector and the free surface, so that high frequencies in the multiples are attenuated compared to the primary reflections. This can lead to lower resolution in the migration image compared to that computed from primaries.

  11. Multiple Unerupted Permanent Teeth Associated with Noonan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [2] Oral findings in patients with NS include a high arched palate ... the atypical dental anomalies such as multiple unerupted permanent ... clinical features in a child with NS. .... Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

  12. Control of multiple robots using vision sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, Miguel; Sagüés, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This monograph introduces novel methods for the control and navigation of mobile robots using multiple-1-d-view models obtained from omni-directional cameras. This approach overcomes field-of-view and robustness limitations, simultaneously enhancing accuracy and simplifying application on real platforms. The authors also address coordinated motion tasks for multiple robots, exploring different system architectures, particularly the use of multiple aerial cameras in driving robot formations on the ground. Again, this has benefits of simplicity, scalability and flexibility. Coverage includes details of: a method for visual robot homing based on a memory of omni-directional images a novel vision-based pose stabilization methodology for non-holonomic ground robots based on sinusoidal-varying control inputs an algorithm to recover a generic motion between two 1-d views and which does not require a third view a novel multi-robot setup where multiple camera-carrying unmanned aerial vehicles are used to observe and c...

  13. A multiplicity jump trigger using silicon planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexopoulos, T.; Erwin, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Since silicon tracking planes are already present in a B decay experiment, it is an attractive idea to use these as part of a multiplicity jump detector. Two average B decays would produce a multiplicity jump of around 10 in the final state. Such a trigger has been tried for a fixed target Charm experiment with disappointing success. The failure was attributed to the difficulty in adequately controlling the gains of a large number of microstrip amplifies

  14. Moments of the very high multiplicity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nechitailo, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    In experiment, the multiplicity distributions of inelastic processes are truncated due to finite energy, insufficient statistics, or special choice of events. It is shown that the moments of such truncated multiplicity distributions possess some typical features. In particular, the oscillations of cumulant moments at high ranks and their negative values at the second rank can be considered as ones most indicative of the specifics of these distributions. They allow one to distinguish between distributions of different type

  15. Multiplicity distributions in the dual parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batunin, A.V.; Tolstenkov, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    Multiplicity distributions are calculated by means of a new mechanism of production of hadrons in a string, which was proposed previously by the authors and takes into account explicitly the valence character of the ends of the string. It is shown that allowance for this greatly improves the description of the low-energy multiplicity distributions. At superhigh energies, the contribution of the ends of the strings becomes negligibly small, but in this case multi-Pomeron contributions must be taken into account

  16. Multiple Connections in RealXtend Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Vatjus-Anttila, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    RealXtend is an open source virtual space platform implementing both client and server functionality. In the default implementation of realXtend, the client could only log in to one virtual space server at any given time. In this research an ability to make multiple simultaneous connections to virtual spaces was experimented. Focus of the research was on how to control multiple virtual spaces within the same client window from a technical point of view. This bachelor thesis presents metho...

  17. Simulation program for multiple expansion Stirling machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.; Weiss, M.; Fauvel, R.; Reader, G.; Bingham, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multiple expansion Stirling machines have been a topic of interest at the University of Calgary for some years. Recently a second-order computer simulation program with integral graphics package for Stirling cryocoolers with up to four stages of expansion were developed and made available to the Stirling community. Adaptation of the program to multiple expansion Stirling power systems is anticipated. This paper briefly introduces the program and presents a specimen result

  18. Multiple Antenna Systems with Inherently Decoupled Radiators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelosi, Mauro; Knudsen, Mikael B.; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    In multiple antenna systems mutual coupling needs to be minimized. We propose an alternative novel decoupling technique, investigating several multiple antenna configurations for small handsets through measurements and numerical simulations. The influence of different novel designs on performance...... metrics such as total loss, antenna isolation and envelope correlation coefficient are investigated. By varying antenna impedance bandwidth and antenna location with respect to the handset, both Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) and Inverted F Antennas (IFA) were investigated in different UMTS frequency...

  19. Linear systems and multiplicity of ideals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dung Trang

    2008-06-01

    Using a geometric interpretation of the multiplicity, we give a geometric way to calculate the multiplicity. We consider the particular case of a non-singular complex surface and give an example with a geometric proof of a result. Most of this note is written in the language of complex analytic spaces, but the results can be stated and proved in the case of schemes of finite type over an infinite field with equi-characteristic local rings

  20. Effect of multiple scattering on lidar measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.

    1977-01-01

    The lidar equation in its standard form involves the assumption that the scattered irradiance reaching the lidar receiver has been only singly scattered. However, in the cases of scattering from clouds and thick aerosol layers, it is shown that multiple scattering cannot be neglected. An experimental method for the detection of multiple scattering by depolarization measurement techniques is discussed. One method of theoretical calculations of double-scattering is presented and discussed