WorldWideScience

Sample records for multiple physiological roles

  1. Multiple regulatory roles of the mouse transmembrane adaptor protein NTAL in gene transcription and mast cell physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Polakovicova

    Full Text Available Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL; also called LAB or LAT2 is a transmembrane adaptor protein that is expressed in a subset of hematopoietic cells, including mast cells. There are conflicting reports on the role of NTAL in the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcεRI signaling. Studies carried out on mast cells derived from mice with NTAL knock out (KO and wild type mice suggested that NTAL is a negative regulator of FcεRI signaling, while experiments with RNAi-mediated NTAL knockdown (KD in human mast cells and rat basophilic leukemia cells suggested its positive regulatory role. To determine whether different methodologies of NTAL ablation (KO vs KD have different physiological consequences, we compared under well defined conditions FcεRI-mediated signaling events in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs with NTAL KO or KD. BMMCs with both NTAL KO and KD exhibited enhanced degranulation, calcium mobilization, chemotaxis, tyrosine phosphorylation of LAT and ERK, and depolymerization of filamentous actin. These data provide clear evidence that NTAL is a negative regulator of FcεRI activation events in murine BMMCs, independently of possible compensatory developmental alterations. To gain further insight into the role of NTAL in mast cells, we examined the transcriptome profiles of resting and antigen-activated NTAL KO, NTAL KD, and corresponding control BMMCs. Through this analysis we identified several genes that were differentially regulated in nonactivated and antigen-activated NTAL-deficient cells, when compared to the corresponding control cells. Some of the genes seem to be involved in regulation of cholesterol-dependent events in antigen-mediated chemotaxis. The combined data indicate multiple regulatory roles of NTAL in gene expression and mast cell physiology.

  2. The barley anion channel, HvALMT1, has multiple roles in guard cell physiology and grain metabolism.

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    Xu, Muyun; Gruber, Benjamin D; Delhaize, Emmanuel; White, Rosemary G; James, Richard A; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Ryan, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene HvALMT1 encodes an anion channel in guard cells and in certain root tissues indicating that it may perform multiple roles. The protein localizes to the plasma membrane and facilitates malate efflux from cells when constitutively expressed in barley plants and Xenopus oocytes. This study investigated the function of HvALMT1 further by identifying its tissue-specific expression and by generating and characterizing RNAi lines with reduced HvALMT1 expression. We show that transgenic plants with 18-30% of wild-type HvALMT1 expression had impaired guard cell function. They maintained higher stomatal conductance in low light intensity and lost water more rapidly from excised leaves than the null segregant control plants. Tissue-specific expression of HvALMT1 was investigated in developing grain and during germination using transgenic barley lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the HvALMT1 promoter. We found that HvALMT1 is expressed in the nucellar projection, the aleurone layer and the scutellum of developing barley grain. Malate release measured from isolated aleurone layers prepared from imbibed grain was significantly lower in the RNAi barley plants compared with control plants. These data provide molecular and physiological evidence that HvALMT1 functions in guard cells, in grain development and during germination. We propose that HvALMT1 releases malate and perhaps other anions from guard cells to promote stomatal closure. The likely roles of HvALMT1 during seed development and grain germination are also discussed. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  3. Physiological and Pathogenic Roles of Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 in Metabolic Regulations via Multiple Signal Transduction Pathway Modulations

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    Yusuke Nakatsu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prolyl isomerases are divided into three groups, the FKBP family, Cyclophilin and the Parvulin family (Pin1 and Par14. Among these isomerases, Pin1 is a unique prolyl isomerase binding to the motif including pSer/pThr-Pro that is phosphorylated by kinases. Once bound, Pin1 modulates the enzymatic activity, protein stability or subcellular localization of target proteins by changing the cis- and trans-formations of proline. Several studies have examined the roles of Pin1 in the pathogenesis of cancers and Alzheimer’s disease. On the other hand, recent studies have newly demonstrated Pin1 to be involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Interestingly, while Pin1 expression is markedly increased by high-fat diet feeding, Pin1 KO mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and diabetic vascular dysfunction. These phenomena result from the binding of Pin1 to several key factors regulating metabolic functions, which include insulin receptor substrate-1, AMPK, Crtc2 and NF-κB p65. In this review, we focus on recent advances in elucidating the physiological roles of Pin1 as well as the pathogenesis of disorders involving this isomerase, from the viewpoint of the relationships between signal transductions and metabolic functions.

  4. Plant aquaporins: roles in plant physiology.

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    Li, Guowei; Santoni, Véronique; Maurel, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes of most living organisms. Here, we present comprehensive insights made on plant aquaporins in recent years, pointing to their molecular and physiological specificities with respect to animal or microbial counterparts. In plants, aquaporins occur as multiple isoforms reflecting a high diversity of cellular localizations and various physiological substrates in addition to water. Of particular relevance for plants is the transport by aquaporins of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide or metalloids such as boric or silicic acid. The mechanisms that determine the gating and subcellular localization of plant aquaporins are extensively studied. They allow aquaporin regulation in response to multiple environmental and hormonal stimuli. Thus, aquaporins play key roles in hydraulic regulation and nutrient transport in roots and leaves. They contribute to several plant growth and developmental processes such as seed germination or emergence of lateral roots. Plants with genetically altered aquaporin functions are now tested for their ability to improve plant resistance to stresses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Aquaporins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prohibitin( PHB) roles in granulosa cell physiology.

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    Chowdhury, Indrajit; Thomas, Kelwyn; Thompson, Winston E

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian granulosa cells (GC) play an important role in the growth and development of the follicle in the process known as folliculogenesis. In the present review, we focus on recent developments in prohibitin (PHB) research in relation to GC physiological functions. PHB is a member of a highly conserved eukaryotic protein family containing the repressor of estrogen activity (REA)/stomatin/PHB/flotillin/HflK/C (SPFH) domain (also known as the PHB domain) found in diverse species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. PHB is ubiquitously expressed in a circulating free form or is present in multiple cellular compartments including mitochondria, nucleus and plasma membrane. In mitochondria, PHB is anchored to the mitochondrial inner membrane and forms complexes with the ATPases associated with proteases having diverse cellular activities. PHB continuously shuttles between the mitochondria, cytosol and nucleus. In the nucleus, PHB interacts with various transcription factors and modulates transcriptional activity directly or through interactions with chromatin remodeling proteins. Many functions have been attributed to the mitochondrial and nuclear PHB complexes such as cellular differentiation, anti-proliferation, morphogenesis and maintenance of the functional integrity of the mitochondria. However, to date, the regulation of PHB expression patterns and GC physiological functions are not completely understood.

  6. PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE OF NATURAL CAROTINOIDS

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    A.N. Zav'yalova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A system role of carotinoids in human organism and factors influencing on its bioavailability are described in this article. A data of content of carotinoids in some eatable plants and factual provision of German and Japanese population with β-carotin, and author's proper data of content of β-carotin in blood plasma of schoolchildren of St. Petersburg were presented. A factual provision of children with inflammatory and erosive ulcerous lesions of upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT with β-carotin was compared to disorders of food behavior: preference of «fast food» and rare use of fruits and vegetables.Key words: children, nutrition, carotinoids, diseases of gastrointestinal tract.

  7. Adropin – physiological and pathophysiological role

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    Natalia Marczuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adropin is a peptide hormone that was discovered in 2008 by Kumar et al. This protein consists of 76 amino acids, and it was originally described as a secreted peptide, with residues 1-33 encoding a secretory signal peptide sequence. The amino acid sequence of this protein in humans, mice and rats is identical. While our knowledge of the exact physiological roles of this poorly understood peptide continues to evolve, recent data suggest a role in energy homeostasis and the control of glucose and fatty acid metabolism. This protein is encoded by the Enho gene, which is expressed primarily in the liver and the central nervous system. The regulation of adropin secretion is controversial. Adropin immunoreactivity has been reported by several laboratories in the circulation of humans, non-human primates and rodents. However, more recently it has been suggested that adropin is a membrane-bound protein that modulates cell-cell communication. Moreover, adropin has been detected in various tissues and body fluids, such as brain, cerebellum, liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, small intestine, endothelial cells, colostrum, cheese whey and milk. The protein level, as shown by previous research, changes in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Adropin is involved in carbohydrate-lipid metabolism, metabolic diseases, central nervous system function, endothelial function and cardiovascular disease. The knowledge of this interesting protein, its exact role and mechanism of action is insufficient. This article provides an overview of the existing literature about the role of adropin, both in physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  8. Multiple regression for physiological data analysis: the problem of multicollinearity.

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    Slinker, B K; Glantz, S A

    1985-07-01

    Multiple linear regression, in which several predictor variables are related to a response variable, is a powerful statistical tool for gaining quantitative insight into complex in vivo physiological systems. For these insights to be correct, all predictor variables must be uncorrelated. However, in many physiological experiments the predictor variables cannot be precisely controlled and thus change in parallel (i.e., they are highly correlated). There is a redundancy of information about the response, a situation called multicollinearity, that leads to numerical problems in estimating the parameters in regression equations; the parameters are often of incorrect magnitude or sign or have large standard errors. Although multicollinearity can be avoided with good experimental design, not all interesting physiological questions can be studied without encountering multicollinearity. In these cases various ad hoc procedures have been proposed to mitigate multicollinearity. Although many of these procedures are controversial, they can be helpful in applying multiple linear regression to some physiological problems.

  9. Towards Integration of Biological and Physiological Functions at Multiple Levels

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    Taishin eNomura

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An aim of systems physiology today can be stated as to establish logical and quantitative bridges between phenomenological attributes of physiological entities such as cells and organs and physical attributes of biological entities, i.e., biological molecules, allowing us to describe and better understand physiological functions in terms of underlying biological functions. This article illustrates possible schema that can be used for promoting systems physiology by integrating quantitative knowledge of biological and physiological functions at multiple levels of time and space with the use of information technology infrastructure. Emphasis will be made for systematic, modular, hierarchical, and standardized descriptions of mathematical models of the functions and advantages for the use of them.

  10. Physiological roles of acid-base sensors.

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    Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis is essential for life. The macromolecules upon which living organisms depend are sensitive to pH changes, and physiological systems use the equilibrium between carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, and protons to buffer their pH. Biological processes and environmental insults are constantly challenging an organism's pH; therefore, to maintain a consistent and proper pH, organisms need sensors that measure pH and that elicit appropriate responses. Mammals use multiple sensors for measuring both intracellular and extracellular pH, and although some mammalian pH sensors directly measure protons, it has recently become apparent that many pH-sensing systems measure pH via bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase.

  11. Flexible carbon nanotube nanocomposite sensor for multiple physiological parameter monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2016-10-16

    The paper presents the design, development, and fabrication of a flexible and wearable sensor based on carbon nanotube nanocomposite for monitoring specific physiological parameters. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as the substrate with a thin layer of a nanocomposite comprising functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and PDMS as electrodes. The sensor patch functionalized on strain-sensitive capacitive sensing from interdigitated electrodes which were patterned with a laser on the nanocomposite layer. The thickness of the electrode layer was optimized regarding strain and conductivity. The sensor patch was connected to a monitoring device from one end and attached to the body on the other for examining purposes. Experimental results show the capability of the sensor patch used to detect respiration and limb movements. This work is a stepping stone of the sensing system to be developed for multiple physiological parameters.

  12. Flexible carbon nanotube nanocomposite sensor for multiple physiological parameter monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the design, development, and fabrication of a flexible and wearable sensor based on carbon nanotube nanocomposite for monitoring specific physiological parameters. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as the substrate with a thin layer of a nanocomposite comprising functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and PDMS as electrodes. The sensor patch functionalized on strain-sensitive capacitive sensing from interdigitated electrodes which were patterned with a laser on the nanocomposite layer. The thickness of the electrode layer was optimized regarding strain and conductivity. The sensor patch was connected to a monitoring device from one end and attached to the body on the other for examining purposes. Experimental results show the capability of the sensor patch used to detect respiration and limb movements. This work is a stepping stone of the sensing system to be developed for multiple physiological parameters.

  13. Noninvasive optical monitoring multiple physiological parameters response to cytokine storm

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    Li, Zebin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Cancer and other disease originated by immune or genetic problems have become a main cause of death. Gene/cell therapy is a highlighted potential method for the treatment of these diseases. However, during the treatment, it always causes cytokine storm, which probably trigger acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. Here we developed a point-of-care device for noninvasive monitoring cytokine storm induced multiple physiological parameters simultaneously. Oxy-hemoglobin, deoxy-hemoglobin, water concentration and deep-tissue/tumor temperature variations were simultaneously measured by extended near infrared spectroscopy. Detection algorithms of symptoms such as shock, edema, deep-tissue fever and tissue fibrosis were developed and included. Based on these measurements, modeling of patient tolerance and cytokine storm intensity were carried out. This custom device was tested on patients experiencing cytokine storm in intensive care unit. The preliminary data indicated the potential of our device in popular and milestone gene/cell therapy, especially, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell immunotherapy (CAR-T).

  14. Role of Proangiogenic Factors in Immunopathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis.

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    Hamid, Kabir Magaji; Mirshafiey, Abbas

    2016-02-01

    Angiogenesis is a complex and balanced process in which new blood vessels form from preexisting ones by sprouting, splitting, growth and remodeling. This phenomenon plays a vital role in many physiological and pathological processes. However, the disturbance in physiological process can play a role in pathogenesis of some chronic inflammatory diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS) in human and its animal model. Although the relation between abnormal blood vessels and MS lesions was established in previous studies, but the role of pathological angiogenesis remains unclear. In this study, the link between proangiogenic factors and multiple sclerosis pathogenesis was examined by conducting a systemic review. Thus we searched the English medical literature via PubMed, ISI web of knowledge, Medline and virtual health library (VHL) databases. In this review, we describe direct and indirect roles of some proangiogenic factors in MS pathogenesis and report the association of these factors with pathological and inflammatory angiogenesis.

  15. Potential physiological role of plant glycosidase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellincampi, D.; Carmadella, L.; Delcour, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate-active enzymes including glycosidases, transglycosidases, glycosyltransferases, polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases are responsible for the enzymatic processing of carbohydrates in plants. A number of carbohydrate-active enzymes are produced by microbial pathogens...... and insects responsible of severe crop losses. Plants have evolved proteinaceous inhibitors to modulate the activity of several of these enzymes. The continuing discovery of new inhibitors indicates that this research area is still unexplored and may lead to new exciting developments. To date, the role...... of the inhibitors is not completely understood. Here we review recent results obtained on the best characterised inhibitors, pointing to their possible biological role in vivo. Results recently obtained with plant transformation technology indicate that this class of inhibitors has potential biotechnological...

  16. [Multiple roles and health among Korean women].

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    Cho, Su-Jin; Jang, Soong-Nang; Cho, Sung-Il

    2008-09-01

    Most studies about multiple roles and women's health suggested that combining with paid job, being married and having children was more likely to improve health status than in case of single or traditional roles. We investigated whether there was better health outcome in multiple roles among Korean women coinciding with previous studies of other nations. Data were from the 2005 Korea National Health & Nutritional Examination Survey, a subsample of women aged 25-59 years (N=2,943). Health status was assessed for self-rated poor health, perceived stress and depression, respectively based on one questionnaire item. The age-standardized prevalence of all health outcomes were calculated by role categories and socioeconomic status. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of self rated health, perceived stress, and depression with multiple roles adjusted for age, education, household income, number of children and age of children. Having multiple roles with working role was not associated with better health and psychological wellbeing. Compared to those with traditional roles, employed women more frequently experienced perceived stress, with marital and/or parental roles. Non-working single mothers suffered depression more often than women with traditional roles or other role occupancy. Socioeconomic status indicators were potent independent correlates of self-rated health and perceived stress. Employment of women with other roles did not confer additional health benefit to traditional family responsibility. Juggling of work and family responsibility appeared more stressful than traditional unemployed parental and marital role in Korean women.

  17. The role of physiological active substances implant adaptation to stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronina, L.; Morachevskaya, E.

    2009-01-01

    It is known, that brassinosteroids are capable in small quantities (10 - 12-10 - 7M) to optimize physiology-biochemical processes in plants in stressful conditions. the aim of this study was to investigate the role of anti stress and protective properties of phyto hormone 24-epibrassinolide (24-epiBS). in view of its functional features and biological activity. (Author)

  18. Balancing multiple roles through consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae

    2014-01-01

    , the stylist and the client negotiate not only the quality of the cut, but also their expected roles. Caring about both the bodies and the minds of customers is an important element in measuring the quality of cosmetological services, a consideration which may oblige stylists to immediately agree with and act...... upon every client request or concern. However, simply yielding to the customer’s opinions can threaten the stylist’s role as a beauty expert, one who possesses their own professional standards. The analysis reveals that the participants frequently transform revision requests/offers into mutual...... decisions through a combination of verbal and bodily actions. In doing so, they harmonize the sometimes conflicting responsibilities of “service provider/patron” and “expert/novice.”...

  19. The hypocretins/orexins: integrators of multiple physiological functions

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    Li, Jingcheng; Hu, Zhian; Lecea, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The hypocretins (Hcrts), also known as orexins, are two peptides derived from a single precursor produced in the posterior lateral hypothalamus. Over the past decade, the orexin system has been associated with numerous physiological functions, including sleep/arousal, energy homeostasis, endocrine, visceral functions and pathological states, such as narcolepsy and drug abuse. Here, we review the discovery of Hcrt/orexins and their receptors and propose a hypothesis as to how the orexin system orchestrates these multifaceted physiological functions. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Orexin Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-2 PMID:24102345

  20. Life under Multiple Extreme Conditions: Diversity and Physiology of the Halophilic Alkalithermophiles

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    Wiegel, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Around the world, there are numerous alkaline, hypersaline environments that are heated either geothermally or through intense solar radiation. It was once thought that such harsh environments were inhospitable and incapable of supporting a variety of life. However, numerous culture-dependent and -independent studies revealed the presence of an extensive diversity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and archaea that survive and grow under these multiple harsh conditions. This diversity includes the halophilic alkalithermophiles, a novel group of polyextremophiles that require for growth and proliferation the multiple extremes of high salinity, alkaline pH, and elevated temperature. Life under these conditions undoubtedly involves the development of unique physiological characteristics, phenotypic properties, and adaptive mechanisms that enable control of membrane permeability, control of intracellular osmotic balance, and stability of the cell wall, intracellular proteins, and other cellular constituents. This minireview highlights the ecology and growth characteristics of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles that have been isolated thus far. Biochemical, metabolic, and physiological properties of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles are described, and their roles in resistance to the combined stressors of high salinity, alkaline pH, and high temperature are discussed. The isolation of halophilic alkalithermophiles broadens the physicochemical boundaries for life and extends the boundaries for the combinations of the maximum salinity, pH, and temperature that can support microbial growth. PMID:22492435

  1. TAM receptors regulate multiple features of microglial physiology.

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    Fourgeaud, Lawrence; Través, Paqui G; Tufail, Yusuf; Leal-Bailey, Humberto; Lew, Erin D; Burrola, Patrick G; Callaway, Perri; Zagórska, Anna; Rothlin, Carla V; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Lemke, Greg

    2016-04-14

    Microglia are damage sensors for the central nervous system (CNS), and the phagocytes responsible for routine non-inflammatory clearance of dead brain cells. Here we show that the TAM receptor tyrosine kinases Mer and Axl regulate these microglial functions. We find that adult mice deficient in microglial Mer and Axl exhibit a marked accumulation of apoptotic cells specifically in neurogenic regions of the CNS, and that microglial phagocytosis of the apoptotic cells generated during adult neurogenesis is normally driven by both TAM receptor ligands Gas6 and protein S. Using live two-photon imaging, we demonstrate that the microglial response to brain damage is also TAM-regulated, as TAM-deficient microglia display reduced process motility and delayed convergence to sites of injury. Finally, we show that microglial expression of Axl is prominently upregulated in the inflammatory environment that develops in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Together, these results establish TAM receptors as both controllers of microglial physiology and potential targets for therapeutic intervention in CNS disease.

  2. A female sex offender with multiple paraphilias: a psychologic, physiologic (laboratory sexual arousal) and endocrine case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Swaminath, S; Baxter, D; Poulin, C

    1990-05-01

    A 20 year old female pedophile exhibiting multiple paraphilias and who had been both a victim of incest and an active participant, undertook extensive clinical, psychometric, endocrine and laboratory sexual arousal studies. Her psychiatric, psychometric and physiologic arousal profiles showed similarities to those of a sizable proportion of male child molesters, especially incestors. It is suggested that laboratory arousal tests (using the vaginal photoplethysmograph) may have a role in the assessment of some female sex offenders.

  3. Physiological roles of Regulated Ire1 Dependent Decay

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    Dina S. Coelho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ire1 is an important transducer of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR that is activated by the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the Endoplamic Reticulum (ER stress. Activated Ire1 mediates the splicing of an intron from the mRNA of Xbp1, causing a frame-shift during translation and introducing a new carboxyl domain in the Xbp1 protein, which only then becomes a fully functional transcription factor. Studies using cell culture systems demonstrated that Ire1 also promotes the degradation of mRNAs encoding mostly ER-targeted proteins, to reduce the load of incoming ER client proteins during ER stress. This process was called RIDD (regulated Ire1-dependent decay, but its physiological significance remained poorly characterized beyond cell culture systems. Here we review several recent studies that have highlighted the physiological roles of RIDD in specific biological paradigms, such as photoreceptor differentiation in Drosophila or mammalian liver and endocrine pancreas function. These studies demonstrate the importance of RIDD in tissues undergoing intense secretory function and highlight the physiologic role of RIDD during UPR activation in cells and organisms.

  4. Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants.

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    Roh, Sang-Gun; Suzuki, Yutaka; Gotoh, Takafumi; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Katoh, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines) that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recently, various studies of these cytokines have been conducted in ruminants, including dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, and goat. Interestingly, a few cytokines from these tissues in ruminants play an important role in the post-parturition, lactation, and fattening (marbling) periods. Thus, understanding these hormones is important for improving nutritional management in dairy cows and beef cattle. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews of the characteristics of these cytokines in beef and dairy products in ruminants. In particular, lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, liver tissue, and muscle tissue are very important for energy storage, production, and synthesis, which are regulated by these cytokines in ruminant production. In this review, we summarize the physiological roles of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines in ruminants. This discussion provides a foundation for understanding the role of cytokines in animal production of ruminants.

  5. The role of physiology in the development of golf performance.

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    Smith, Mark F

    2010-08-01

    The attainment of consistent high performance in golf requires effective physical conditioning that is carefully designed and monitored in accordance with the on-course demands the player will encounter. Appreciating the role that physiology plays in the attainment of consistent performance, and how a player's physicality can inhibit performance progression, supports the notion that the application of physiology is fundamental for any player wishing to excel in golf. With cardiorespiratory, metabolic, hormonal, musculoskeletal and nutritional demands acting on the golfer within and between rounds, effective physical screening of a player will ensure physiological and anatomical deficiencies that may influence performance are highlighted. The application of appropriate golf-specific assessment methods will ensure that physical attributes that have a direct effect on golf performance can be measured reliably and accurately. With the physical development of golf performance being achieved through a process of conditioning with the purpose of inducing changes in structural and metabolic functions, training must focus on foundation whole-body fitness and golf-specific functional strength and flexibility activities. For long-term player improvement to be effective, comprehensive monitoring will ensure the player reaches an optimal physical state at predetermined times in the competitive season. Through continual assessment of a player's physical attributes, training effectiveness and suitability, and the associated adaptive responses, key physical factors that may impact most on performance success can be determined.

  6. Gender, multiple roles, role meaning, and mental health.

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    Simon, R W

    1995-06-01

    This paper examines gender differences in the consequences of combining spouse, parent, and worker roles for mental health. I suggest that work and family roles have different meanings for males and females, and that differences in the meaning of these roles may be partially responsible for why the mental health advantages of holding multiple roles are fewer for women than for men. Based on qualitative analyses of follow-up, in-depth interviews with 40 employed married parents who participated in a community panel study of mental health, I find that sex differences in the perceived relationship between work and family roles may help account for sex differences in distress by contributing to male-female differences in both the extent and nature of work-parent conflicts, attributions of responsibility for marital problems, feelings of guilt, and self-evaluations as parents and spouses. By identifying gender differences in the meaning of roles among individuals who have the same multiple role configuration, and suggesting how these differences can help explain sex differences in well-being; this research may expand existing theories about the mental health consequences of multiple role involvements.

  7. The role of heart rate variability in sports physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jin-Guo

    2016-05-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a relevant marker reflecting cardiac modulation by sympathetic and vagal components of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Although the clinical application of HRV is mainly associated with the prediction of sudden cardiac death and assessing cardiovascular and metabolic illness progression, recent observations have suggested its applicability to physical exercise training. HRV is becoming one of the most useful tools for tracking the time course of training adaptation/maladaptation of athletes and in setting the optimal training loads leading to improved performances. However, little is known regarding the role of HRV and the internal effects of physical exercise on an athlete, which may be useful in designing fitness programs ensuring sufficient training load that may correspond with the specific ability of the athlete. In this review, we offer a comprehensive assessment of investigations concerning the interrelation between HRV and ANS, and examine how the application of HRV to physical exercise may play a role in sports physiology.

  8. Emerging role of mitophagy in human diseases and physiology.

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    Um, Jee-Hyun; Yun, Jeanho

    2017-06-01

    Mitophagy is a process of selective removal of damaged or unnecessary mitochondria using autophagic machinery. Mitophagy plays an essential role in maintaining mitochondrial quality control and homeostasis. Mitochondrial dysfunctions and defective mitophagy in neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and metabolic diseases indicate a close link between human disease and mitophagy. Furthermore, recent studies showing the involvement of mitophagy in differentiation and development, suggest that mitophagy may play a more active role in controlling cellular functions. A better understanding of mitophagy will provide insights about human disease and offer novel chance for treatment. This review mainly focuses on the recent implications for mitophagy in human diseases and normal physiology. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(6): 299-307].

  9. DGK-θ: Structure, Enzymology, and Physiological Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Raben

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs are a family of enzymes that catalyze the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG to phosphatidic acid (PtdOH. The recognition of the importance of these enzymes has been increasing ever since it was determined that they played a role in the phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns cycle and a number of excellent reviews have already been written (see (1-7 among others. We now know there are ten mammalian DGKs that are organized into five classes. DGK-θ is the lone member of the Type V class of DGKs and remains as one of the least studied. This review focuses on our current understanding of the structure, enzymology, regulation, and physiological roles of this DGK and suggests some future areas of research to understand this DGK isoform.

  10. Physiological Roles for mafr-1 in Reproduction and Lipid Homeostasis

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    Akshat Khanna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maf1 is a conserved repressor of RNA polymerase (Pol III transcription; however, its physiological role in the context of a multicellular organism is not well understood. Here, we show that C. elegans MAFR-1 is functionally orthologous to human Maf1, represses the expression of both RNA Pol III and Pol II transcripts, and mediates organismal fecundity and lipid homeostasis. MAFR-1 impacts lipid transport by modulating intestinal expression of the vitellogenin family of proteins, resulting in cell-nonautonomous defects in the developing reproductive system. MAFR-1 levels inversely correlate with stored intestinal lipids, in part by influencing the expression of the lipogenesis enzymes fasn-1/FASN and pod-2/ACC1. Animals fed a high carbohydrate diet exhibit reduced mafr-1 expression and mutations in the insulin signaling pathway genes daf-18/PTEN and daf-16/FoxO abrogate the lipid storage defects associated with deregulated mafr-1 expression. Our results reveal physiological roles for mafr-1 in regulating organismal lipid homeostasis, which ensure reproductive success.

  11. Role of Ergothioneine in Microbial Physiology and Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Bridgette M; Chinta, Krishna C; Reddy, Vineel P; Steyn, Adrie J C

    2018-02-20

    L-ergothioneine is synthesized in actinomycetes, cyanobacteria, methylobacteria, and some fungi. In contrast to other low-molecular-weight redox buffers, glutathione and mycothiol, ergothioneine is primarily present as a thione rather than a thiol at physiological pH, which makes it resistant to autoxidation. Ergothioneine regulates microbial physiology and enables the survival of microbes under stressful conditions encountered in their natural environments. In particular, ergothioneine enables pathogenic microbes, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), to withstand hostile environments within the host to establish infection. Recent Advances: Ergothioneine has been reported to maintain bioenergetic homeostasis in Mtb and protect Mtb against oxidative stresses, thereby enhancing the virulence of Mtb in a mouse model. Furthermore, ergothioneine augments the resistance of Mtb to current frontline anti-TB drugs. Recently, an opportunistic fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus, which infects immunocompromised individuals, has been found to produce ergothioneine, which is important in conidial health and germination, and contributes to the fungal resistance against redox stresses. The molecular mechanisms of the functions of ergothioneine in microbial physiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. It is currently not known if ergothioneine is used in detoxification or antioxidant enzymatic pathways. As ergothioneine is involved in bioenergetic and redox homeostasis and antibiotic susceptibility of Mtb, it is of utmost importance to advance our understanding of these mechanisms. A clear understanding of the role of ergothioneine in microbes will advance our knowledge of how this thione enhances microbial virulence and resistance to the host's defense mechanisms to avoid complete eradication. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 431-444.

  12. Role and physiological actions of the mineralo-corticoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.

    1958-01-01

    This review recalls first of all the history of the discovery of aldosterone; it then defines the concept of mineralo-corticoid on the biological level; the physiological effects of aldosterone are compared with those of desoxycorticosterone, which have been known for a long time. The part played by the mineralo-corticoids in maintaining the hydro-mineral balance is then discussed, particularly in the light of information provided by acute deficiency or primitive hyperaldosteronism; the importance of the correlations linking the post-hypophysis and suprarenal is underlined. The possible mechanisms of the action of mineralo-corticoids on the kidney are discussed in greater detail and a general plan of action is proposed. The physiological regulation of the secretion of mineralo-corticoids is then described, and the respective roles played in this secretion by different factors are discussed (ante-hypophysis, corticoids, plasmatic concentration of electrolytes, volume of extracellular liquids, etc...). Finally, the whole problem investigated is placed within the field of homeostasis (377 bibliographical references). (author) [fr

  13. Physiological role of taurine - from organism to organelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Kristensen, David Møbjerg Boslev; Holm, Jacob Bak

    2015-01-01

    Taurine is often referred to as a semi-essential amino acid as newborn mammals have a limited ability to synthesize taurine and have to rely on dietary supply. Taurine is not thought to be incorporated into proteins as no aminoacyl tRNA synthetase has yet been identified and is not oxidized...... in mammalian cells. However, taurine contributes significantly to the cellular pool of organic osmolytes and has accordingly been acknowledged for its role in cell volume restoration following osmotic perturbation. This review describes taurine homeostasis in cells and organelles with emphasis on taurine...... biophysics/membrane dynamics, regulation of transport proteins involved in active taurine uptake and passive taurine release as well as physiological processes, for example, development, lung function, mitochondrial function, antioxidative defence and apoptosis which seem to be affected by a shift...

  14. The molecular mechanism and physiological role of cytoplasmic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Motoki; Ito, Kohji

    2015-10-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs widely in plants ranging from algae to angiosperms. However, the molecular mechanism and physiological role of cytoplasmic streaming have long remained unelucidated. Recent molecular genetic approaches have identified specific myosin members (XI-2 and XI-K as major and XI-1, XI-B, and XI-I as minor motive forces) for the generation of cytoplasmic streaming among 13 myosin XIs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Simultaneous knockout of these myosin XI members led to a reduced velocity of cytoplasmic streaming and marked defects of plant development. Furthermore, the artificial modifications of myosin XI-2 velocity changed plant and cell sizes along with the velocity of cytoplasmic streaming. Therefore, we assume that cytoplasmic streaming is one of the key regulators in determining plant size. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioactive Pigments from Marine Bacteria: Applications and Physiological Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azamjon B. Soliev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into natural products from the marine environment, including microorganisms, has rapidly increased over the past two decades. Despite the enormous difficulty in isolating and harvesting marine bacteria, microbial metabolites are increasingly attractive to science because of their broad-ranging pharmacological activities, especially those with unique color pigments. This current review paper gives an overview of the pigmented natural compounds isolated from bacteria of marine origin, based on accumulated data in the literature. We review the biological activities of marine compounds, including recent advances in the study of pharmacological effects and other commercial applications, in addition to the biosynthesis and physiological roles of associated pigments. Chemical structures of the bioactive compounds discussed are also presented.

  16. Women and multiple roles: myths and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Rosalind Chait

    2004-01-01

    Strong beliefs persist about the negative effects of maternal employment on women, their marriages, and their children, in spite of considerable systematic research indicating that, on average, employment has positive effects. The underlying assumption is that the roles of wife and mother are "natural" roles and are therefore performed without undue stress. In contrast, the role of employee is seen as "unnatural" and therefore highly demanding. These beliefs affect clinical practice, fostering a concern among mental health professionals about whether women can handle the demands of multiple roles without serious negative health consequences. It is therefore important to evaluate these beliefs in light of the empirical literature. Such an evaluation is especially critical at this particular time, when demographic trends suggest that the number of employed women with children is increasing, that paid employment will be a central component in most women's life experiences, and that as a society we are highly unlikely to return to the days of the "traditional" family. The need for careful scrutiny is underscored by the current political climate, in which there is much rhetoric implying that maternal employment "causes" many of our social ills--school dropouts, drug abuse, juvenile violence, and divorce.

  17. [Role of some psycho-physiological factors on driving safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergomi, M; Vivoli, G; Rovesti, S; Bussetti, P; Ferrari, A; Vivoli, R

    2010-01-01

    Within a research project on the role played by human factors on road accidents, the aim of the present study is to evaluate, in young adults, the relationships between driver behaviour and personality factors as well as to assess the neuroendocrine correlates of psychological and behavioural factors investigated. Another aim is to estimate in what measure the performance levels are affected by demographic, psychological and chronobiological variables. It has been found a positive relation between highway code violations, extroversion trait of personality and Sensation Seeking scores, so confirming that this component of personality can affect risky behaviour. Furthermore the subjects more oriented to morningness chronotype were found to be prone to adopt safe driving behaviour. Regarding the relations of the neuroendocrine parameters and driving behaviour a positive correlation was observed between dopamine levels and frequency of driving violations while a negative relationship was found between adrenaline levels and frequency of driving errors. In conclusion the identification of psycho-physiological variables related to driving risky behaviour might be a useful instrument to design traffic safety programs tailored to high risk subjects.

  18. Assessing interactions among multiple physiological systems during walking outside a laboratory: An Android based gait monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejdić, E.; Millecamps, A.; Teoli, J.; Rothfuss, M. A.; Franconi, N. G.; Perera, S.; Jones, A. K.; Brach, J. S.; Mickle, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Gait function is traditionally assessed using well-lit, unobstructed walkways with minimal distractions. In patients with subclinical physiological abnormalities, these conditions may not provide enough stress on their ability to adapt to walking. The introduction of challenging walking conditions in gait can induce responses in physiological systems in addition to the locomotor system. There is a need for a device that is capable of monitoring multiple physiological systems in various walking conditions. To address this need, an Android-based gait-monitoring device was developed that enabled the recording of a patient's physiological systems during walking. The gait-monitoring device was tested during self-regulated overground walking sessions of fifteen healthy subjects that included 6 females and 9 males aged 18 to 35 years. The gait-monitoring device measures the patient's stride interval, acceleration, electrocardiogram, skin conductance and respiratory rate. The data is stored on an Android phone and is analyzed offline through the extraction of features in the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. The analysis of the data depicted multisystem physiological interactions during overground walking in healthy subjects. These interactions included locomotion-electrodermal, locomotion-respiratory and cardiolocomotion couplings. The current results depicting strong interactions between the locomotion system and the other considered systems (i.e., electrodermal, respiratory and cardivascular systems) warrant further investigation into multisystem interactions during walking, particularly in challenging walking conditions with older adults. PMID:26390946

  19. Role of multiple cusps in tooth fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, Amir; Bush, Mark B; Lawn, Brian R

    2014-07-01

    The role of multiple cusps in the biomechanics of human molar tooth fracture is analysed. A model with four cusps at the bite surface replaces the single dome structure used in previous simulations. Extended finite element modelling, with provision to embed longitudinal cracks into the enamel walls, enables full analysis of crack propagation from initial extension to final failure. The cracks propagate longitudinally around the enamel side walls from starter cracks placed either at the top surface (radial cracks) or from the tooth base (margin cracks). A feature of the crack evolution is its stability, meaning that extension occurs steadily with increasing applied force. Predictions from the model are validated by comparison with experimental data from earlier publications, in which crack development was followed in situ during occlusal loading of extracted human molars. The results show substantial increase in critical forces to produce longitudinal fractures with number of cuspal contacts, indicating a capacity for an individual tooth to spread the load during mastication. It is argued that explicit critical force equations derived in previous studies remain valid, at the least as a means for comparing the capacity for teeth of different dimensions to sustain high bite forces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interpreting the possible ecological role(s) of cyanotoxins: compounds for competitive advantage and/or physiological aide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Aleicia; Kinnear, Susan

    2013-06-27

    To date, most research on freshwater cyanotoxin(s) has focused on understanding the dynamics of toxin production and decomposition, as well as evaluating the environmental conditions that trigger toxin production, all with the objective of informing management strategies and options for risk reduction. Comparatively few research studies have considered how this information can be used to understand the broader ecological role of cyanotoxin(s), and the possible applications of this knowledge to the management of toxic blooms. This paper explores the ecological, toxicological, and genetic evidence for cyanotoxin production in natural environments. The possible evolutionary advantages of toxin production are grouped into two main themes: That of "competitive advantage" or "physiological aide". The first grouping illustrates how compounds produced by cyanobacteria may have originated from the need for a cellular defence mechanism, in response to grazing pressure and/or resource competition. The second grouping considers the contribution that secondary metabolites make to improved cellular physiology, through benefits to homeostasis, photosynthetic efficiencies, and accelerated growth rates. The discussion also includes other factors in the debate about possible evolutionary roles for toxins, such as different modes of exposures and effects on non-target (i.e., non-competitive) species. The paper demonstrates that complex and multiple factors are at play in driving evolutionary processes in aquatic environments. This information may provide a fresh perspective on managing toxic blooms, including the need to use a "systems approach" to understand how physico-chemical conditions, as well biological stressors, interact to trigger toxin production.

  1. The role of cystatins in tick physiology and blood feeding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Valdés, James J.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2012), s. 117-127 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cystatin * Cysteine proteases * Tick * Immunomodulators * Blood feeding * Midgut * Physiology Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2012

  2. The Role of Endogenous H(2)S in Cardiovascular Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Nini; Gouliaev, Anja; Aalling, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the endogenous gas hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a signalling molecule of considerable biological potential and has been suggested to be involved in a vast number of physiological processes. In the vascular system, H(2)S is synthesized from cysteine by cystathionine-...

  3. The biochemical, physiological and therapeutic roles of ascorbic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascorbic acid is an important micronutrient necessary for a significant number of metabolic reactions in humans and other primates. It is a strong reducing agent involved in reduction reaction and it is structurally related to glucose. Experimental and epidemiological studies have documented the biochemical, physiological ...

  4. The benefit of self-testing and interleaving for synthesizing concepts across multiple physiology texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderholm, Tracy; Dobson, John; Yarbrough, Mary Beth

    2016-09-01

    A testing-based learning strategy is one that relies on the act of recalling (i.e., testing) information after exposure, and interleaving is a strategy in which the learning materials are presented in a serial order (e.g., texts 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3) versus a blocked order (e.g., texts 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3). Although both learning strategies have been thoroughly investigated, few studies have examined their additive effect with higher-order cognitive tasks such as the ability to identify themes across multiple texts, and none of those did so using physiology information. The purpose of the present study was to compare recall and thematic processing across five different physiology texts. Participants were randomly assigned to learn the texts using one of the following four learning strategies: 1) study-study-study (S-S-S) using a blocked order, 2) S-S-S using an interleaved order, 3) study-test-study (S-T-S) using a blocked order, and 4) S-T-S using an interleaved order. Over the course of the following week, the S-T-S groups had more stable recall of key text ideas compared with the S-S-S groups, and the S-T-S group had more stable recall of thematic information than the S-S-S group when interleaving was used as the presentation order. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  5. Possible physiological roles of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins-UCPn

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Petr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 10 (2002), s. 1190-1206 ISSN 1357-2725 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5011106; GA ČR GA301/02/1215; GA MŠk ME 389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : uncoupling proteins * diabetes * obesity Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.044, year: 2002

  6. Physiological roles of CNS muscarinic receptors gained from knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Sørensen, Gunnar; Dencker, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    receptors modulating neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release in many brain regions, shaping neuronal plasticity, and affecting functions ranging from motor and sensory function to cognitive processes. As gene targeting technology evolves including the use of conditional, cell type specific strains......, knockout mice are likely to continue to provide valuable insights into brain physiology and pathophysiology, and advance the development of new medications for a range of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addictions, as well as non-opioid analgesics...

  7. Multiple Role Conflict and Graduate Students' Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Shirley; Martinez-Pons, Manuel

    This study examined the effect of multiple social roles on the psychological functioning of 60 adult students (age 25 to 51 years) in an introductory graduate course in educational research. Using multiple role conflict (MRC), perceived ability to cope (PAC), subject anxiety (SA), academic self-efficacy (SE), self-regulation (SR), and course…

  8. The Role of Pharmacology in Ureteral Physiology and Expulsive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerde, Travis J.; Nakada, Stephen Y.

    2007-04-01

    Research in the field of ureteral physiology and pharmacology has traditionally been directed toward relaxation of ureteral spasm as a mechanism of analgesia during painful ureteral obstruction, most often stone-induced episodes. However, interest in this field has expanded greatly in recent years with the expanded use of alpha-blocker therapy for inducing stone passage, a usage now termed "medical expulsive therapy". While most clinical reports involving expulsive therapy have focused on alpha receptor or calcium channel blockade, there are diverse studies investigating pharmacological ureteral relaxation with novel agents including cyclooxygenase inhibitors, small molecule beta receptor agonists, neurokinin antagonists, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. In addition, cutting edge molecular biology research is revealing promising potential therapeutic targets aimed at specific molecular changes that occur during the acute obstruction that accompanies stone disease. The purpose of this report is to review the use of pharmacological agents as ureteral smooth muscle relaxants clinically, and to look into the future of expulsive therapy by reviewing the available literature of ureteral physiology and pharmacology research.

  9. Interpreting the Possible Ecological Role(s of Cyanotoxins: Compounds for Competitive Advantage and/or Physiological Aide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Kinnear

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To date, most research on freshwater cyanotoxin(s has focused on understanding the dynamics of toxin production and decomposition, as well as evaluating the environmental conditions that trigger toxin production, all with the objective of informing management strategies and options for risk reduction. Comparatively few research studies have considered how this information can be used to understand the broader ecological role of cyanotoxin(s, and the possible applications of this knowledge to the management of toxic blooms. This paper explores the ecological, toxicological, and genetic evidence for cyanotoxin production in natural environments. The possible evolutionary advantages of toxin production are grouped into two main themes: That of “competitive advantage” or “physiological aide”. The first grouping illustrates how compounds produced by cyanobacteria may have originated from the need for a cellular defence mechanism, in response to grazing pressure and/or resource competition. The second grouping considers the contribution that secondary metabolites make to improved cellular physiology, through benefits to homeostasis, photosynthetic efficiencies, and accelerated growth rates. The discussion also includes other factors in the debate about possible evolutionary roles for toxins, such as different modes of exposures and effects on non-target (i.e., non-competitive species. The paper demonstrates that complex and multiple factors are at play in driving evolutionary processes in aquatic environments. This information may provide a fresh perspective on managing toxic blooms, including the need to use a “systems approach” to understand how physico-chemical conditions, as well biological stressors, interact to trigger toxin production.

  10. Exercise and multiple sclerosis: physiological, psychological, and quality of life issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, G; Andersen, M B

    2001-12-01

    The case for the benefits of physical activity has been well documented in healthy individuals, and the potential for reducing the risk of mental and physical ill health is substantial. Yet, individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) have long been advised to avoid participation in exercise in order to minimise the risk of exacerbations and symptoms of fatigue. There is, however, increasing interest in how acute and chronic exercise affect physiological and psychological functioning in MS. Much of the research has examined physiological tolerance to exercise and focused on responses in terms of heart rate, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle function, and symptom stability. Little research has focused on understanding how exercise affects psychosocial functioning and brings about changes in depression, affect, mood, well-being, and quality of life. This paper provides a summary of the research exploring the efficacy of physical activity for people with MS. In addition, the key issues that face clinical practice are examined, and considerations for research are discussed.

  11. [Construction and analysis of a monitoring system with remote real-time multiple physiological parameters based on cloud computing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingyun; Li, Lianjie; Meng, Chunyan

    2014-12-01

    There have been problems in the existing multiple physiological parameter real-time monitoring system, such as insufficient server capacity for physiological data storage and analysis so that data consistency can not be guaranteed, poor performance in real-time, and other issues caused by the growing scale of data. We therefore pro posed a new solution which was with multiple physiological parameters and could calculate clustered background data storage and processing based on cloud computing. Through our studies, a batch processing for longitudinal analysis of patients' historical data was introduced. The process included the resource virtualization of IaaS layer for cloud platform, the construction of real-time computing platform of PaaS layer, the reception and analysis of data stream of SaaS layer, and the bottleneck problem of multi-parameter data transmission, etc. The results were to achieve in real-time physiological information transmission, storage and analysis of a large amount of data. The simulation test results showed that the remote multiple physiological parameter monitoring system based on cloud platform had obvious advantages in processing time and load balancing over the traditional server model. This architecture solved the problems including long turnaround time, poor performance of real-time analysis, lack of extensibility and other issues, which exist in the traditional remote medical services. Technical support was provided in order to facilitate a "wearable wireless sensor plus mobile wireless transmission plus cloud computing service" mode moving towards home health monitoring for multiple physiological parameter wireless monitoring.

  12. The Multiple Roles of Exosomes in Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEIDLE, H. ULRICH; BIRZELE, FABIAN; KOLLMORGEN, GWEN; RÜGER, RÜDIGER

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are important contributors to cell−cell communication and their role as diagnostic markers for cancer and the pathogenesis for cancer is under intensive investigation. Here, we focus on their role in metastasis-related processes. We discuss their impact regarding promotion of invasion and migration of tumor cells, conditioning of lymph nodes, generation of premetastatic niches and organotropism of metastasis. Furthermore, we highlight interactions of exosomes with bone marrow and stromal components such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, myeloid- and other immune-related cells in the context of metastases. For all processes as described above, we outline molecular and cellular components for therapeutic intervention with metastatic processes. PMID:28031234

  13. Role of renal vascular potassium channels in physiology and pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsson, Max; Brasen, Jens Christian; Sorensen, Charlotte Mehlin

    2017-01-01

    The control of renal vascular tone is important for the regulation of salt and water balance, blood pressure and the protection against damaging elevated glomerular pressure. The K+ conductance is a major factor in the regulation of the membrane potential (Vm ) in vascular smooth muscle (VSMC...... the ambiguous in vitro and in vivo results. We discuss the role of single types of K+ channels and the integrated function of several classes. We also deal with the possible role of renal vascular K+ channels in the pathophysiology of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and sepsis. This article is protected...

  14. Physiological and pathophysiological bone turnover - role of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzmann, M Neale; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha

    2016-09-01

    Osteoporosis develops when the rate of osteoclastic bone breakdown (resorption) exceeds that of osteoblastic bone formation, which leads to loss of BMD and deterioration of bone structure and strength. Osteoporosis increases the risk of fragility fractures, a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly patients. This imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption is brought about by natural ageing processes, but is frequently exacerbated by a number of pathological conditions. Of importance to the aetiology of osteoporosis are findings over the past two decades attesting to a deep integration of the skeletal system with the immune system (the immuno-skeletal interface (ISI)). Although protective of the skeleton under physiological conditions, the ISI might contribute to bone destruction in a growing number of pathophysiological states. Although numerous research groups have investigated how the immune system affects basal and pathological osteoclastic bone resorption, recent findings suggest that the reach of the adaptive immune response extends to the regulation of osteoblastic bone formation. This Review examines the evolution of the field of osteoimmunology and how advances in our understanding of the ISI might lead to novel approaches to prevent and treat bone loss, and avert fractures.

  15. Physiological roles revealed by ghrelin and ghrelin receptor deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a hormone made in the stomach and known primarily for its growth hormone releasing and orexigenic properties. Nevertheless, ghrelin through its receptor, the GHS-R1a, has been shown to exert many roles including regulation of glucose homeostasis, memory & learning, food addiction and neur...

  16. The role of silicon in physiology of the medicinal plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengmao, Zhao; Shihui, Li; Xing, Sun; Yizhou, Wang; Zipan, Chang

    2015-08-01

    Silicon(Si) is the only element which can enhance the resistance to multiple stresses. However, the role of silicon in medicinal plants under salt stress is not yet understood. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon addition on the growth, osmotic adjustments, photosynthetic characteristics, chloroplast ultrastructure and Chlorogenic acid (CGA) production of Honeysuckle plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt-stressed conditions. Salinity exerted an adverse effect on the plant fresh weight and dry weight, whilst 0.5 g L-1 K2SiO3·nH2O addition obviously improved the plant growth. Although Na+ concentration in plant organs was drastically increased with increasing salinity, higher levels of K+/Na+ ratio was obtained after K2SiO3·nH2O addition. Salinity stress induced the destruction of the chloroplast envelope; however, K2SiO3·nH2O addition counteracted the adverse effect by salinity on the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. K2SiO3·nH2O addition also enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. To sum up, exogenous Si plays a key role in enhancing its resistance to salt stresses in physiological base, thereby improving the growth and CGA production of Honeysuckle plant.

  17. The Role of Immunotherapy in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kocoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematologic malignancy. The treatment of this disease has changed considerably over the last two decades with the introduction to the clinical practice of novel agents such as proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs. Basic research efforts towards better understanding of normal and missing immune surveillence in myeloma have led to development of new strategies and therapies that require the engagement of the immune system. Many of these treatments are under clinical development and have already started providing encouraging results. We, for the second time in the last two decades, are about to witness another shift of the paradigm in the management of this ailment. This review will summarize the major approaches in myeloma immunotherapies.

  18. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  19. Physiological and Pharmacological Roles of FGF21 in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is one of the most severe diseases in clinics. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is regarded as an important metabolic regulator playing a therapeutic role in diabetes and its complications. The heart is a key target as well as a source of FGF21 which is involved in heart development and also induces beneficial effects in CVDs. Our review is to clarify the roles of FGF21 in CVDs. Strong evidence showed that the development of CVDs including atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial ischemia, cardiac hypertrophy, and diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with serum FGF21 levels increase which was regarded as a compensatory response to induced cardiac protection. Furthermore, administration of FGF21 suppressed the above CVDs. Mechanistic studies revealed that FGF21 induced cardiac protection likely by preventing cardiac lipotoxicity and the associated oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Normally, FGF21 induced therapeutic effects against CVDs via activation of the above kinases-mediated pathways by directly binding to the FGF receptors of the heart in the presence of β-klotho. However, recently, growing evidence showed that FGF21 induced beneficial effects on peripheral organs through an indirect way mediated by adiponectin. Therefore whether adiponectin is also involved in FGF21-induced cardiac protection still needs further investigation.

  20. Sugar for the brain: the role of glucose in physiological and pathological brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergenthaler, Philipp; Lindauer, Ute; Dienel, Gerald A; Meisel, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    The mammalian brain depends upon glucose as its main source of energy, and tight regulation of glucose metabolism is critical for brain physiology. Consistent with its critical role for physiological brain function, disruption of normal glucose metabolism as well as its interdependence with cell death pathways forms the pathophysiological basis for many brain disorders. Here, we review recent advances in understanding how glucose metabolism sustains basic brain physiology. We synthesize these findings to form a comprehensive picture of the cooperation required between different systems and cell types, and the specific breakdowns in this cooperation that lead to disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Physiology knowledge plays a role when novices learn technical echocardiography skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gøtzsche, Ole; Eika, Berit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about factors of relevance for achieving technical skills of echocardiography (TTE); one of the essential skills defined by the European Society of Cardiology Core Curriculum. In an earlier study we have shown that there is a strong correlation between physiology knowledge...... and interpretation skills of intermediately trained echocardiographers. This study investigates the role of physiology knowledge in the development of echocardiographic technical expertise. Methods: Forty-five physicians (15 novices, 15 intermediates and 15 experts) were evaluated on technical skills. Participants...... of echocardiography relevant physiology knowledge. Results: A strong and significant correlation between expertise level and technical checklist scores was found (r = .76, p

  2. The role of shear stress in Blood-Brain Barrier endothelial physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puvenna Vikram

    2011-05-01

    the expression levels of tight junction proteins. In addition, regulatory enzymes of the Krebb's cycle (aerobic glucose metabolism were also upregulated. Furthermore, the expression pattern of key protein regulators of the cell cycle and parallel gene array data supported a cell proliferation inhibitory role for SS. Conclusions Genomic and proteomic analyses are currently used to examine BBB function in healthy and diseased brain and characterize this dynamic interface. In this study we showed that SS plays a key role in promoting the differentiation of vascular endothelial cells into a truly BBB phenotype. SS affected multiple aspect of the endothelial physiology spanning from tight junctions formation to cell division as well as the expression of multidrug resistance transporters. BBB dysfunction has been observed in many neurological diseases, but the causes are generally unknown. Our study provides essential insights to understand the role played by SS in the BBB formation and maintenance.

  3. Beyond cellular detoxification: a plethora of physiological roles for MDR transporter homologs in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Estelle; Duque, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Higher plants possess a multitude of Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR) transporter homologs that group into three distinct and ubiquitous families—the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily, the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS), and the Multidrug And Toxic compound Extrusion (MATE) family. As in other organisms, such as fungi, mammals, and bacteria, MDR transporters make a primary contribution to cellular detoxification processes in plants, mainly through the extrusion of toxic compounds from the cell or their sequestration in the central vacuole. This review aims at summarizing the currently available information on the in vivo roles of MDR transporters in plant systems. Taken together, these data clearly indicate that the biological functions of ABC, MFS, and MATE carriers are not restricted to xenobiotic and metal detoxification. Importantly, the activity of plant MDR transporters also mediates biotic stress resistance and is instrumental in numerous physiological processes essential for optimal plant growth and development, including the regulation of ion homeostasis and polar transport of the phytohormone auxin. PMID:24910617

  4. The role of nitric oxide in the physiology and pathophysiology of the exocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, Péter; Rakonczay, Zoltán

    2011-11-15

    Nitric oxide (NO), a ubiquitous gaseous signaling molecule, contributes to both pancreatic physiology and pathophysiology. The present review provides a general overview of NO synthesis, signaling, and function. Further, it specifically discusses NO metabolism and its effects in the exocrine pancreas and focuses on the role of NO in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis and pancreatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. Unfortunately, the role of NO in pancreatic physiology and pathophysiology remains controversial in numerous areas. Many questions regarding the messenger molecule still remain unanswered. Probably the least is known about the downstream targets of NO, which need to be identified, especially at the molecular level.

  5. Relationship Between Physiological and Perceived Fall Risk in People With Multiple Sclerosis: Implications for Assessment and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Hilary; Cameron, Michelle; Hoang, Phu; Lord, Stephen; Shaw, Steve; Freeman, Jennifer

    2018-04-24

    This study evaluated the relationship between physiological and perceived fall risk in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Secondary analysis of data from prospective cohort studies undertaken in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Community. Ambulatory people with MS (N=416) (age 51.5±12.0 years; 73% female; 62% relapsing-remitting MS; 13.7±9.9 years disease duration). Not applicable. All participants completed measures of physiological (Physiological Profile Assessment [PPA]) and perceived (Falls Efficacy Scale-international [FESi]) fall risk and prospectively recorded falls for 3 months. 155 (37%) of the participants were recurrent fallers (≥2 falls). Mean PPA and FESi scores were high (PPA 2.14±1.87, FESi 34.27±11.18). The PPA and the FESi independently predicted faller classification in logistic regression, which indicated that the odds of being classified as a recurrent faller significantly increased with increasing scores (PPA odds ratio [OR] 1.30 [95% CI 1.17-1.46], FESi OR 1.05 [95% CI 1.03-1.07]). Classification and regression tree analysis divided the sample into four groups based on cutoff values for the PPA: (1) low physiological/low perceived risk (PPA 27.5), (3) high physiological/low perceived risk (PPA >2.83, FESi 35.5). Over 50% of participants had a disparity between perceived and physiological fall risk; most were in group 2. It is possible that physiological risk factors not detected by the PPA may also be influential. This study highlights the importance of considering both physiological and perceived fall risk in MS and the need for further research to explore the complex interrelationships of perceptual and physiological risk factors in this population. This study also supports the importance of developing behavioral and physical interventions that can be tailored to the individual's needs. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stress and the multiple-role woman: taking a closer look at the "superwoman".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumra, Monika K; Schillaci, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    In the academic literature there is debate as to whether women who engage in multiple social roles experience more or less stress than women in fewer roles. For the present research we examined the relationship between levels of engagement in seven distinct roles and perceived stress and life satisfaction in a small non-random sample of women in North America (N = 308). We did not find a significant correlation between role engagement and perceived stress, though we did find a small but significant positive correlation between role engagement and life satisfaction. Similarly, in a subset of the participants (N = 31), there was not a significant relationship between the level of role engagement and physiological stress as measured by hair or urinary cortisol levels. We found a significant negative correlation between perceived stress and life satisfaction, and role satisfaction. The results from multiple regression models did not identify the level of role engagement as a significant predictor of either perceived stress or life satisfaction. Role satisfaction in addition to several life style variables such as the frequency of sex and exercise were identified as significant predictors of both outcome variables. We also examined the popularized notion of the "superwoman", which we defined as women who fell within the 4th quartile of role engagement, or those engaged in the wife/mother/worker/homemaker role combination. Based on popular discourses surrounding the superwoman we expected that superwomen would exhibit higher levels of perceived stress. Our results revealed that superwomen do not experience a significantly higher level of perceived stress than non-superwomen. The results of our study therefore suggest that multiple role engagement in women, even at a relatively high level as experienced by "superwomen", is not associated with significantly higher stress, or reduced life satisfaction.

  7. Stress and the multiple-role woman: taking a closer look at the "superwoman".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika K Sumra

    Full Text Available In the academic literature there is debate as to whether women who engage in multiple social roles experience more or less stress than women in fewer roles. For the present research we examined the relationship between levels of engagement in seven distinct roles and perceived stress and life satisfaction in a small non-random sample of women in North America (N = 308. We did not find a significant correlation between role engagement and perceived stress, though we did find a small but significant positive correlation between role engagement and life satisfaction. Similarly, in a subset of the participants (N = 31, there was not a significant relationship between the level of role engagement and physiological stress as measured by hair or urinary cortisol levels. We found a significant negative correlation between perceived stress and life satisfaction, and role satisfaction. The results from multiple regression models did not identify the level of role engagement as a significant predictor of either perceived stress or life satisfaction. Role satisfaction in addition to several life style variables such as the frequency of sex and exercise were identified as significant predictors of both outcome variables. We also examined the popularized notion of the "superwoman", which we defined as women who fell within the 4th quartile of role engagement, or those engaged in the wife/mother/worker/homemaker role combination. Based on popular discourses surrounding the superwoman we expected that superwomen would exhibit higher levels of perceived stress. Our results revealed that superwomen do not experience a significantly higher level of perceived stress than non-superwomen. The results of our study therefore suggest that multiple role engagement in women, even at a relatively high level as experienced by "superwomen", is not associated with significantly higher stress, or reduced life satisfaction.

  8. Stress and the Multiple-Role Woman: Taking a Closer Look at the “Superwoman”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumra, Monika K.; Schillaci, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    In the academic literature there is debate as to whether women who engage in multiple social roles experience more or less stress than women in fewer roles. For the present research we examined the relationship between levels of engagement in seven distinct roles and perceived stress and life satisfaction in a small non-random sample of women in North America (N = 308). We did not find a significant correlation between role engagement and perceived stress, though we did find a small but significant positive correlation between role engagement and life satisfaction. Similarly, in a subset of the participants (N = 31), there was not a significant relationship between the level of role engagement and physiological stress as measured by hair or urinary cortisol levels. We found a significant negative correlation between perceived stress and life satisfaction, and role satisfaction. The results from multiple regression models did not identify the level of role engagement as a significant predictor of either perceived stress or life satisfaction. Role satisfaction in addition to several life style variables such as the frequency of sex and exercise were identified as significant predictors of both outcome variables. We also examined the popularized notion of the “superwoman”, which we defined as women who fell within the 4th quartile of role engagement, or those engaged in the wife/mother/worker/homemaker role combination. Based on popular discourses surrounding the superwoman we expected that superwomen would exhibit higher levels of perceived stress. Our results revealed that superwomen do not experience a significantly higher level of perceived stress than non-superwomen. The results of our study therefore suggest that multiple role engagement in women, even at a relatively high level as experienced by “superwomen”, is not associated with significantly higher stress, or reduced life satisfaction. PMID:25816317

  9. Genetic and pharmacological analysis identifies a physiological role for the AHR in epidermal differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaard, E.H. van den; Podolsky, M.A.; Smits, J.P.H.; Cui, X.; John, C.; Gowda, K.; Desai, D.; Amin, S.G.; Schalkwijk, J.; Perdew, G.H.; Glick, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by xenobiotics is known to affect epidermal differentiation and skin barrier formation. The physiological role of endogenous AHR signaling in keratinocyte differentiation is not known. We used murine and human skin models to address the hypothesis

  10. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB/PK) model for multiple exposure routes for soman in multiple species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweeney, R.E.; Langenberg, J.P.; Maxwell, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB/PK) model has been developed in advanced computer simulation language (ACSL) to describe blood and tissue concentration-time profiles of the C(±)P(-) stereoisomers of soman after inhalation, subcutaneous and intravenous exposures at low (0.8-1.0 × LD50),

  11. Dominant role of plant physiology in trend and variability of gross primary productivity in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sha; Zhang, Yao; Ciais, Philippe; Xiao, Xiangming; Luo, Yiqi; Caylor, Kelly K.; Huang, Yuefei; Wang, Guangqian

    2017-02-01

    Annual gross primary productivity (GPP) varies considerably due to climate-induced changes in plant phenology and physiology. However, the relative importance of plant phenology and physiology on annual GPP variation is not clear. In this study, a Statistical Model of Integrated Phenology and Physiology (SMIPP) was used to evaluate the relative contributions of maximum daily GPP (GPPmax) and the start and end of growing season (GSstart and GSend) to annual GPP variability, using a regional GPP product in North America during 2000-2014 and GPP data from 24 AmeriFlux sites. Climatic sensitivity of the three indicators was assessed to investigate the climate impacts on plant phenology and physiology. The SMIPP can explain 98% of inter-annual variability of GPP over mid- and high latitudes in North America. The long-term trend and inter-annual variability of GPP are dominated by GPPmax both at the ecosystem and regional scales. During warmer spring and autumn, GSstart is advanced and GSend delayed, respectively. GPPmax responds positively to summer temperature over high latitudes (40-80°N), but negatively in mid-latitudes (25-40°N). This study demonstrates that plant physiology, rather than phenology, plays a dominant role in annual GPP variability, indicating more attention should be paid to physiological change under futher climate change.

  12. The Multiple Roles of Women Pursuing Doctoral Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, Laurell Coleman M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Increases in the employment of women in administrative and managerial careers have drawn attention to a need for research that examines the interdependency of work and family roles, a need that is particularly crucial in the area of academic administration. This was a qualitative study of the strategies and support systems women educational administrators use to deal with the multiple roles they perform in life and work while pursuing doctoral studies. Forty-four women educational admini...

  13. The physiologic and therapeutic role of heparin in implantation and placentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Quaranta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantation, trophoblast development and placentation are crucial processes in the establishment and development of normal pregnancy. Abnormalities of these processes can lead to pregnancy complications known as the great obstetrical syndromes: preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal demise, premature prelabor rupture of membranes, preterm labor, and recurrent pregnancy loss. There is mounting evidence regarding the physiological and therapeutic role of heparins in the establishment of normal gestation and as a modality for treatment and prevention of pregnancy complications. In this review, we will summarize the properties and the physiological contributions of heparins to the success of implantation, placentation and normal pregnancy.

  14. Homesickness in University Students: The Role of Multiple Place Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopelliti, Massimiliano; Tiberio, Lorenza

    2010-01-01

    The transition to college or university can lead to the challenge of adapting to a new setting. Homesickness has been frequently investigated as a potential negative consequence of relocation. This study analyzed the role of multiple place attachment in the development of homesickness among university students. The study used a multicausal…

  15. Lateral root formation and the multiple roles of auxin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Yujuan; Scheres, Ben

    2018-01-01

    Root systems can display variable architectures that contribute to survival strategies of plants. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana possesses a tap root system, in which the primary root and lateral roots (LRs) are major architectural determinants. The phytohormone auxin fulfils multiple roles

  16. Studying multisensory processing and its role in the representation of space through pathological and physiological crossmodal extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane eJacobs

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of crossmodal extinction has brought a considerable contribution to our understanding of how the integration of stimuli perceived in multiple sensory modalities is used by the nervous system to build coherent representations of the space that directly surrounds us. Indeed, by revealing interferences between stimuli in a disturbed system, extinction provides an invaluable opportunity to investigate the interactions that normally exist between those stimuli in an intact system. Here, we first review studies on pathological crossmodal extinction, from the original demonstration of its existence, to its role in the exploration of the multisensory neural representation of space and the current theoretical accounts proposed to explain the mechanisms involved in extinction and multisensory competition. Then, in the second part of this paper, we report recent findings showing that physiological multisensory competition phenomena resembling clinical crossmodal extinction exist in the healthy brain. We propose that the development of a physiological model of sensory competition is fundamental to deepen our understanding of the cerebral mechanisms of multisensory perception and integration. In addition, a similar approach to develop a model of physiological sensory competition in nonhuman primates should allow combining functional neuroimaging with more invasive techniques, such as transient focal lesions, in order to bridge the gap between works done in the two species and at different levels of analysis.

  17. Effect of noisy stimulation on neurobiological sensitization systems and its role for normal and pathological physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Martin; Braun, Hans; Krieg, J.\\:Urgen-Christian

    2004-03-01

    Sensitization is discussed as an important phenomenon playing a role in normal physiology but also with respect to the initiation and progression of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders such as epilepsia, substance-related disorders or recurrent affective disorders. The relevance to understand the dynamics of sensitization phenomena is emphasized by recent findings that even single stimulations can induce longlasting changes in biological systems. To address specific questions associated with the sensitization dynamics, we use a computational approach and develop simple but physiologically-plausible models. In the present study we examine the effect of noisy stimulation on sensitization development in the model. We consider sub- and suprathresold stimulations with varying noise intensities and determine as response measures the (i) absolute number of stimulus-induced sensitzations and (ii) the temporal relsation of stimulus-sensitization coupling. The findings indicate that stochastic effects including stochastic resonance might well contribute to the physiology of sensitization mechanisms under both nomal and pathological conditions.

  18. Role of hypoxia and hypoxia inducible factor in physiological and pathological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Jahani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organisms are exposed to oxygen deprivation (Hypoxia in various physiological and pathological conditions. There are different conserve evolutionary responses to counterview with this stress that primary transcriptional response to stress related to hypoxia is interceded by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1 in mammals. This factor can regulate different genes that have essential roles in adaptation to this condition. In this review, the role of this factor in physiological and pathological conditions under hypoxic condition has been evaluated after examining structural features and regulation characteristics of HIF-1. Methods: First, articles related to the keywords of hypoxia and HIF-1 (from 1991-2016 were searched from valid databases such as Springer Link, Google Scholar, PubMed and Science direct. Then, the articles correlated with hypoxia, HIF-1 and their roles in physiological and pathological conditions (120 articles were searched and just 64 articles were selected for this study. Result: According to studies, there are different genes in cells and organs that can be regulated by HIF-1. Activation of genes expression by this protein occurs through its linkage to cis-acting of 50 base pair hypoxia response element (HRE region located in their promotor and enhancer. Depending on circumstances, activation of these genes can be beneficial or harmful. Conclusion: Activation of different genes in hypoxia by HIF-1 has different effects on physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, HIF-1, as a hypoxia-inducible factor in hypoxic conditions, plays an essential role in the adaptation of cells and organs to changes related to the presence of oxygen.

  19. Physiological adaptations to interval training and the role of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Martin J; Gibala, Martin J

    2017-05-01

    Interval exercise typically involves repeated bouts of relatively intense exercise interspersed by short periods of recovery. A common classification scheme subdivides this method into high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 'near maximal' efforts) and sprint interval training (SIT; 'supramaximal' efforts). Both forms of interval training induce the classic physiological adaptations characteristic of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) such as increased aerobic capacity (V̇O2 max ) and mitochondrial content. This brief review considers the role of exercise intensity in mediating physiological adaptations to training, with a focus on the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism. With respect to skeletal muscle adaptations, cellular stress and the resultant metabolic signals for mitochondrial biogenesis depend largely on exercise intensity, with limited work suggesting that increases in mitochondrial content are superior after HIIT compared to MICT, at least when matched-work comparisons are made within the same individual. It is well established that SIT increases mitochondrial content to a similar extent to MICT despite a reduced exercise volume. At the whole-body level, V̇O2 max is generally increased more by HIIT than MICT for a given training volume, whereas SIT and MICT similarly improve V̇O2 max despite differences in training volume. There is less evidence available regarding the role of exercise intensity in mediating changes in skeletal muscle capillary density, maximum stroke volume and cardiac output, and blood volume. Furthermore, the interactions between intensity and duration and frequency have not been thoroughly explored. While interval training is clearly a potent stimulus for physiological remodelling in humans, the integrative response to this type of exercise warrants further attention, especially in comparison to traditional endurance training. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  20. Physiological roles of the transient outward current Ito in normal and diseased hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordeiro, Jonathan M.; Callø, Kirstine; Aschar-Sobbi, Roozbeh

    2016-01-01

    The Ca2+-independent transient outward K+ current (Ito) plays a critical role in underlying phase 1 of repolarization of the cardiac action potential and, as a result, is central to modulating excitation-contraction coupling and propensity for arrhythmia. Additionally, Ito and its molecular...... potential and the mechanisms by which Ito modulates excitation-contraction coupling. We also describe the effects of mutations in the subunits constituting the Ito channel as well as the role of Ito in the failing myocardium. Finally, we review pharmacological modulation of Ito and discuss the evidence...... constituents are consistently reduced in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. In this review, we discuss the physiological role of Ito as well as the molecular basis of this current in human and canine hearts, in which Ito has been thoroughly studied. In particular, we discuss the role of Ito in the action...

  1. The role of plant physiology in hydrology: looking backwards and forwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J.

    2007-01-01

    conservative? An important contribution both to the similar and low transpiration is the likely reduction of stomatal conductance of the foliage associated with increasing air humidity deficit. A greater response is usually found when initial conductances are highest. Also contributing to similarities in transpiration from forest stands would be a compensatory role of understories and that deficits in soil moisture may not come into play until severe soil water deficits occur. Physiological studies have been conducted in many locations overseas. The modest transpiration of tropical rainforest is intriguing - Why is tropical rainforest transpiration so low? In common with temperate trees the reduction of stomatal conductance of tropical trees in association with increasing air humidity deficit will limit transpiration. In addition the high leaf area index of tropical rainforest creates conditions in the lower canopy layers that mean transpiration from those layers is much reduced from what might be possible. As well as being used to quantify and understand transpiration, physiological techniques might be used to assess when plants require water. What is the first signal that plants need water? Studies on sugar cane in Mauritius indicated that leaf growth was the most sensitive measure. A look forward to the future suggests that there will be a continued need for physiological measurements particularly where other techniques more suited to extensive vegetation are not appropriate. There are many unresolved issues about water use from fragmented, heterogeneous vegetation and physiological approaches are best suited to these. The measurement of sap flow in individual stems will be an important methodology in the future but there are still methodological issues to resolve.

  2. Multiple roles for the actin cytoskeleton during regulated exocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat-Shliom, Natalie; Milberg, Oleg; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Regulated exocytosis is the main mechanism utilized by specialized secretory cells to deliver molecules to the cell surface by virtue of membranous containers (i.e. secretory vesicles). The process involves a series of highly coordinated and sequential steps, which include the biogenesis of the vesicles, their delivery to the cell periphery, their fusion with the plasma membrane and the release of their content into the extracellular space. Each of these steps is regulated by the actin cytoskeleton. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the involvement of actin and its associated molecules during each of the exocytic steps in vertebrates, and suggest that the overall role of the actin cytoskeleton during regulated exocytosis is linked to the architecture and the physiology of the secretory cells under examination. Specifically, in neurons, neuroendocrine, endocrine, and hematopoietic cells, which contain small secretory vesicles that undergo rapid exocytosis (on the order of milliseconds), the actin cytoskeleton plays a role in pre-fusion events, where it acts primarily as a functional barrier and facilitates docking. In exocrine and other secretory cells, which contain large secretory vesicles that undergo slow exocytosis (seconds to minutes), the actin cytoskeleton plays a role in post-fusion events, where it regulates the dynamics of the fusion pore, facilitates the integration of the vesicles into the plasma membrane, provides structural support, and promotes the expulsion of large cargo molecules. PMID:22986507

  3. Multiple Days of Heat Exposure on Firefighters' Work Performance and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rod; Vincent, Grace; Tran, Jacqueline; Wolkow, Alexander; Aisbett, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the accumulated effect of ambient heat on the performance of, and physiological and perceptual responses to, intermittent, simulated wildfire fighting tasks over three consecutive days. Firefighters (n = 36) were matched and allocated to either the CON (19°C) or HOT (33°C) condition. They performed three days of intermittent, self-paced simulated firefighting work, interspersed with physiological testing. Task repetitions were counted (and converted to distance or area) to determine work performance. Participants were asked to rate their perceived exertion and thermal sensation after each task. Heart rate, core temperature (Tc), and skin temperature (Tsk) were recorded continuously throughout the simulation. Fluids were consumed ad libitum. Urine volume was measured throughout, and urine specific gravity (USG) analysed, to estimate hydration. All food and fluid consumption was recorded. There was no difference in work output between experimental conditions. However, significant variation in performance responses between individuals was observed. All measures of thermal stress were elevated in the HOT, with core and skin temperature reaching, on average, 0.24 ± 0.08°C and 2.81 ± 0.20°C higher than the CON group. Participants' doubled their fluid intake in the HOT condition, and this was reflected in the USG scores, where the HOT participants reported significantly lower values. Heart rate was comparable between conditions at nearly all time points, however the peak heart rate reached each circuit was 7 ± 3% higher in the CON trial. Likewise, RPE was slightly elevated in the CON trial for the majority of tasks. Participants' work output was comparable between the CON and HOT conditions, however the performance change over time varied significantly between individuals. It is likely that the increased fluid replacement in the heat, in concert with frequent rest breaks and task rotation, assisted with the regulation of physiological responses

  4. Multiple Days of Heat Exposure on Firefighters’ Work Performance and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rod; Vincent, Grace; Tran, Jacqueline; Wolkow, Alexander; Aisbett, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the accumulated effect of ambient heat on the performance of, and physiological and perceptual responses to, intermittent, simulated wildfire fighting tasks over three consecutive days. Firefighters (n = 36) were matched and allocated to either the CON (19°C) or HOT (33°C) condition. They performed three days of intermittent, self-paced simulated firefighting work, interspersed with physiological testing. Task repetitions were counted (and converted to distance or area) to determine work performance. Participants were asked to rate their perceived exertion and thermal sensation after each task. Heart rate, core temperature (Tc), and skin temperature (Tsk) were recorded continuously throughout the simulation. Fluids were consumed ad libitum. Urine volume was measured throughout, and urine specific gravity (USG) analysed, to estimate hydration. All food and fluid consumption was recorded. There was no difference in work output between experimental conditions. However, significant variation in performance responses between individuals was observed. All measures of thermal stress were elevated in the HOT, with core and skin temperature reaching, on average, 0.24 ± 0.08°C and 2.81 ± 0.20°C higher than the CON group. Participants’ doubled their fluid intake in the HOT condition, and this was reflected in the USG scores, where the HOT participants reported significantly lower values. Heart rate was comparable between conditions at nearly all time points, however the peak heart rate reached each circuit was 7 ± 3% higher in the CON trial. Likewise, RPE was slightly elevated in the CON trial for the majority of tasks. Participants’ work output was comparable between the CON and HOT conditions, however the performance change over time varied significantly between individuals. It is likely that the increased fluid replacement in the heat, in concert with frequent rest breaks and task rotation, assisted with the regulation of physiological

  5. Multiple Days of Heat Exposure on Firefighters' Work Performance and Physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Larsen

    Full Text Available This study assessed the accumulated effect of ambient heat on the performance of, and physiological and perceptual responses to, intermittent, simulated wildfire fighting tasks over three consecutive days. Firefighters (n = 36 were matched and allocated to either the CON (19°C or HOT (33°C condition. They performed three days of intermittent, self-paced simulated firefighting work, interspersed with physiological testing. Task repetitions were counted (and converted to distance or area to determine work performance. Participants were asked to rate their perceived exertion and thermal sensation after each task. Heart rate, core temperature (Tc, and skin temperature (Tsk were recorded continuously throughout the simulation. Fluids were consumed ad libitum. Urine volume was measured throughout, and urine specific gravity (USG analysed, to estimate hydration. All food and fluid consumption was recorded. There was no difference in work output between experimental conditions. However, significant variation in performance responses between individuals was observed. All measures of thermal stress were elevated in the HOT, with core and skin temperature reaching, on average, 0.24 ± 0.08°C and 2.81 ± 0.20°C higher than the CON group. Participants' doubled their fluid intake in the HOT condition, and this was reflected in the USG scores, where the HOT participants reported significantly lower values. Heart rate was comparable between conditions at nearly all time points, however the peak heart rate reached each circuit was 7 ± 3% higher in the CON trial. Likewise, RPE was slightly elevated in the CON trial for the majority of tasks. Participants' work output was comparable between the CON and HOT conditions, however the performance change over time varied significantly between individuals. It is likely that the increased fluid replacement in the heat, in concert with frequent rest breaks and task rotation, assisted with the regulation of

  6. The physiological role of AT1 receptors in the ventrolateral medulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tagawa

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurons in the rostral and caudal parts of the ventrolateral medulla (VLM play a pivotal role in the regulation of sympathetic vasomotor activity and blood pressure. Studies in several species, including humans, have shown that these regions contain a high density of AT1 receptors specifically associated with neurons that regulate the sympathetic vasomotor outflow, or the secretion of vasopressin from the hypothalamus. It is well established that specific activation of AT1 receptors by application of exogenous angiotensin II in the rostral and caudal VLM excites sympathoexcitatory and sympathoinhibitory neurons, respectively, but the physiological role of these receptors in the normal synaptic regulation of VLM neurons is not known. In this paper we review studies which have defined the effects of specific activation or blockade of these receptors on cardiovascular function, and discuss what these findings tell us with regard to the physiological role of AT1 receptors in the VLM in the tonic and phasic regulation of sympathetic vasomotor activity and blood pressure.

  7. The Physiological Roles of Amyloid-β Peptide Hint at New Ways to Treat Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly M. Brothers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid-ß (Aß is best known as the misfolded peptide that is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, and it is currently the primary therapeutic target in attempts to arrest the course of this disease. This notoriety has overshadowed evidence that Aß serves several important physiological functions. Aß is present throughout the lifespan, it has been found in all vertebrates examined thus far, and its molecular sequence shows a high degree of conservation. These features are typical of a factor that contributes significantly to biological fitness, and this suggestion has been supported by evidence of functions that are beneficial for the brain. The putative roles of Aß include protecting the body from infections, repairing leaks in the blood-brain barrier, promoting recovery from injury, and regulating synaptic function. Evidence for these beneficial roles comes from in vitro and in vivo studies, which have shown that the cellular production of Aß rapidly increases in response to a physiological challenge and often diminishes upon recovery. These roles are further supported by the adverse outcomes of clinical trials that have attempted to deplete Aß in order to treat AD. We suggest that anti-Aß therapies will produce fewer adverse effects if the known triggers of Aß deposition (e.g., pathogens, hypertension, and diabetes are addressed first.

  8. Dynamics and Physiological Roles of Stochastic Firing Patterns Near Bifurcation Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing; Gu, Huaguang

    2017-06-01

    Different stochastic neural firing patterns or rhythms that appeared near polarization or depolarization resting states were observed in biological experiments on three nervous systems, and closely matched those simulated near bifurcation points between stable equilibrium point and limit cycle in a theoretical model with noise. The distinct dynamics of spike trains and interspike interval histogram (ISIH) of these stochastic rhythms were identified and found to build a relationship to the coexisting behaviors or fixed firing frequency of four different types of bifurcations. Furthermore, noise evokes coherence resonances near bifurcation points and plays important roles in enhancing information. The stochastic rhythms corresponding to Hopf bifurcation points with fixed firing frequency exhibited stronger coherence degree and a sharper peak in the power spectrum of the spike trains than those corresponding to saddle-node bifurcation points without fixed firing frequency. Moreover, the stochastic firing patterns changed to a depolarization resting state as the extracellular potassium concentration increased for the injured nerve fiber related to pathological pain or static blood pressure level increased for aortic depressor nerve fiber, and firing frequency decreased, which were different from the physiological viewpoint that firing frequency increased with increasing pressure level or potassium concentration. This shows that rhythms or firing patterns can reflect pressure or ion concentration information related to pathological pain information. Our results present the dynamics of stochastic firing patterns near bifurcation points, which are helpful for the identification of both dynamics and physiological roles of complex neural firing patterns or rhythms, and the roles of noise.

  9. The physiological functions of central nervous system pericytes and a potential role in pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazley-Long, Nicholas; Durrant, Alexandra M; Swift, Matthew N; Donaldson, Lucy F

    2018-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) pericytes regulate critical functions of the neurovascular unit in health and disease. CNS pericytes are an attractive pharmacological target for their position within the neurovasculature and for their role in neuroinflammation. Whether the function of CNS pericytes also affects pain states and nociceptive mechanisms is currently not understood. Could it be that pericytes hold the key to pain associated with CNS blood vessel dysfunction? This article reviews recent findings on the important physiological functions of CNS pericytes and highlights how these neurovascular functions could be linked to pain states. PMID:29623199

  10. a New Approach to Physiologic Triggering in Medical Imaging Using Multiple Heart Sounds Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groch, Mark Walter

    A new method for physiological synchronization of medical image acquisition using both the first and second heart sound has been developed. Heart sounds gating (HSG) circuitry has been developed which identifies, individually, both the first (S1) and second (S2) heart sounds from their timing relationship alone, and provides two synchronization points during the cardiac cycle. Identification of first and second heart sounds from their timing relationship alone and application to medical imaging has, heretofore, not been performed in radiology or nuclear medicine. The heart sounds are obtained as conditioned analog signals from a piezoelectric transducer microphone placed on the patient's chest. The timing relationships between the S1 to S2 pulses and the S2 to S1 pulses are determined using a logic scheme capable of distinguishing the S1 and S2 pulses from the heart sounds themselves, using their timing relationships, and the assumption that initially the S1-S2 interval will be shorter than the S2-S1 interval. Digital logic circuitry is utilized to continually track the timing intervals and extend the S1/S2 identification to heart rates up to 200 beats per minute (where the S1-S2 interval is not shorter than the S2-S1 interval). Clinically, first heart sound gating may be performed to assess the systolic ejection portion of the cardiac cycle, with S2 gating utilized for reproduction of the diastolic filling portion of the cycle. One application of HSG used for physiologic synchronization is in multigated blood pool (MGBP) imaging in nuclear medicine. Heart sounds gating has been applied to twenty patients who underwent analysis of ventricular function in Nuclear Medicine, and compared to conventional ECG gated MGBP. Left ventricular ejection fractions calculated from MGBP studies using a S1 and a S2 heart sound trigger correlated well with conventional ECG gated acquisitions in patients adequately gated by HSG and ECG. Heart sounds gating provided superior

  11. The Role of Nature in Coping with Psycho-Physiological Stress: A Literature Review on Restorativeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Berto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical settings can play a role in coping with stress; in particular experimental research has found strong evidence between exposure to natural environments and recovery from physiological stress and mental fatigue, giving support to both Stress Recovery Theory and Attention Restoration Theory. In fact, exposure to natural environments protects people against the impact of environmental stressors and offer physiological, emotional and attention restoration more so than urban environments. Natural places that allow the renewal of personal adaptive resources to meet the demands of everyday life are called restorative environments. Natural environments elicit greater calming responses than urban environments, and in relation to their vision there is a general reduction of physiological symptoms of stress. Exposure to natural scenes mediates the negative effects of stress reducing the negative mood state and above all enhancing positive emotions. Moreover, one can recover the decrease of cognitive performance associated with stress, especially reflected in attention tasks, through the salutary effect of viewing nature. Giving the many benefits of contact with nature, plans for urban environments should attend to restorativeness.

  12. The role of psychological and physiological factors in decision making under risk and in a dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eFooken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different methods to elicit risk attitudes of individuals often provide differing results despite a common theory. Reasons for such inconsistencies may be the different influence of underlying factors in risk-taking decisions. In order to evaluate this conjecture, a better understanding of underlying factors across methods and decision contexts is desirable. In this paper we study the difference in result of two different risk elicitation methods by linking estimates of risk attitudes to gender, age and personality traits, which have been shown to be related. We also investigate the role of these factors during decision-making in a dilemma situation. For these two decision contexts we also investigate the decision-maker's physiological state during the decision, measured by heart rate variability (HRV, which we use as an indicator of emotional involvement. We found that the two elicitation methods provide different individual risk attitude measures which is partly reflected in a different gender effect between the methods. Personality traits explain only relatively little in terms of driving risk attitudes and the difference between methods. We also found that risk taking and the physiological state are related for one of the methods, suggesting that more emotionally involved individuals are more risk averse in the experiment. Finally, we found evidence that personality traits are connected to whether individuals made a decision in the dilemma situation, but risk attitudes and the physiological state were not indicative for the ability to decide in this decision context.

  13. The role of epigenetics in the biology of multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulos, K; Gimsing, P; Grønbæk, K

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have highlighted the biological complexity of multiple myeloma (MM) that arises as a result of several disrupted cancer pathways. Apart from the central role of genetic abnormalities, epigenetic aberrations have also been shown to be important players in the development of MM......, and a lot of research during the past decades has focused on the ways DNA methylation, histone modifications and noncoding RNAs contribute to the pathobiology of MM. This has led to, apart from better understanding of the disease biology, the development of epigenetic drugs, such as histone deacetylase...... inhibitors that are already used in clinical trials in MM with promising results. This review will present the role of epigenetic abnormalities in MM and how these can affect specific pathways, and focus on the potential of novel 'epidrugs' as future treatment modalities for MM....

  14. Physiological Correlates of Multiple Parasitic Infections in Side-Blotched Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Austin R; Durso, Andrew M; Smith, Geoffrey D; Skinner, Heather M; French, Susannah S

    We investigated the presence of ectoparasites and hemoparasites in side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) across a large part of their range and measured how parasitic infection related to several key physiological indicators of health. Blood samples were collected from 132 lizards from central Arizona, southern Utah, and eastern Oregon. Hemoparasites were found in 22 individuals (3.2% prevalence in Arizona, 19.1% in Utah, and 6.3% in Oregon), and ectoparasites were found on 51 individuals (56.3% prevalence in Arizona, 56.1% in Utah, and 6.7% in Oregon), with 11 individuals infected with both. Hemoparasites and ectoparasites were found in all three states. Immunocompetence was higher in individuals infected with both hemoparasites and ectoparasites. Body condition, glucocorticoid levels, and reproductive investment were not related to infection status. Our study provides evidence that parasitic infection is associated with an active immune system in wild reptiles but may not impose other costs usually associated with parasites.

  15. Role of intestinal microbiota in the development of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Álvarez, F; Marzo-Sola, M E

    2017-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease that affects young adults; in that age group, it represents the second leading cause of disability in our setting. Its precise aetiology has not been elucidated, but it is widely accepted to occur in genetically predisposed patients who are exposed to certain environmental factors. The discovery of the regulatory role played by intestinal microbiota in various autoimmune diseases has opened a new line of research in this field, which is discussed in this review. We reviewed published studies on the role of the microbiota in the development of both MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In mice, it has been shown that intestinal microorganisms regulate the polarisation of T helper cells from Th1-Th17 up to Th2, the function of regulatory T cells, and the activity of B cells; they participate in the pathogenesis of EAE and contribute to its prevention and treatment. In contrast, evidence in humans is still scarce and mainly based on case-control studies that point to the presence of differences in certain bacterial communities. Multiple evidence points to the role of microbiota in EAE. Extrapolation of these results to MS is still in the early stages of research, and studies are needed to define which bacterial populations are associated with MS, the role they play in pathogenesis, and the therapeutic possibilities this knowledge offers us. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The interactive effects of multiple stressors on physiological stress responses and club cell investment in fathead minnows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manek, Aditya K.; Ferrari, Maud C.O.; Niyogi, Som; Chivers, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have dramatically increased over the past decades, with the consequence that many organisms are simultaneously exposed to multiple stressors. Understanding how organisms respond to these stressors is a key focus for scientists from many disciplines. Here we investigated the interactive effects of two stressors, UV radiation (UVR) and cadmium (Cd) exposure on a common freshwater fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). UVR is known to influence the density of epidermal club cells (ECCs), which are not only a key component of the innate immune system of fishes, but are also the source of chemical alarm cues that serve to warn other fishes of nearby predators. In contrast, Cd impairs the physiological stress response and ability of fish to respond to alarm cues. We used an integrative approach to examine physiological stress response as well as investment in ECCs. Fish exposed to UVR had higher levels of cortisol than non-exposed controls, but Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UVR. Fish exposed to UVR, either in the presence or absence of Cd, showed consistent decreases in ECC investment compared to non-exposed controls. Despite differences in ECC number, there was no difference in the potency of alarm cues prepared from the skin of UVR and Cd exposed or non-exposed fish indicating that UVR and Cd exposure combined may have little influence on chemically-mediated predator–prey interactions. - Highlights: • UV radiation caused a physiological stress response (cortisol release) in fish. • Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UV. • Fish exposed to UV, with or without Cd, showed decreases in club cell investment. • There was no difference in alarm cues potency from UV and Cd exposed fish. • Our work highlights the difficulty of untangling effects of multiple stressors

  17. The interactive effects of multiple stressors on physiological stress responses and club cell investment in fathead minnows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manek, Aditya K., E-mail: aditya.manek@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada); Ferrari, Maud C.O. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, WCVM, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4 (Canada); Niyogi, Som; Chivers, Douglas P. [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities have dramatically increased over the past decades, with the consequence that many organisms are simultaneously exposed to multiple stressors. Understanding how organisms respond to these stressors is a key focus for scientists from many disciplines. Here we investigated the interactive effects of two stressors, UV radiation (UVR) and cadmium (Cd) exposure on a common freshwater fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). UVR is known to influence the density of epidermal club cells (ECCs), which are not only a key component of the innate immune system of fishes, but are also the source of chemical alarm cues that serve to warn other fishes of nearby predators. In contrast, Cd impairs the physiological stress response and ability of fish to respond to alarm cues. We used an integrative approach to examine physiological stress response as well as investment in ECCs. Fish exposed to UVR had higher levels of cortisol than non-exposed controls, but Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UVR. Fish exposed to UVR, either in the presence or absence of Cd, showed consistent decreases in ECC investment compared to non-exposed controls. Despite differences in ECC number, there was no difference in the potency of alarm cues prepared from the skin of UVR and Cd exposed or non-exposed fish indicating that UVR and Cd exposure combined may have little influence on chemically-mediated predator–prey interactions. - Highlights: • UV radiation caused a physiological stress response (cortisol release) in fish. • Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UV. • Fish exposed to UV, with or without Cd, showed decreases in club cell investment. • There was no difference in alarm cues potency from UV and Cd exposed fish. • Our work highlights the difficulty of untangling effects of multiple stressors.

  18. The role of information system in multiple sclerosis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Ahmadi, Golchehreh; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of central nervous system. The multiple sclerosis information system (MSIS), such as other information system (IS), depends on identification, collection and processing of data for producing useful information. Lack of the integrated IS for collecting standard data causes undesirable effects on exchanging, comparing, and managing. The aim of this study was to recognize the role of the IS in the MS management and determine the advantages and barriers in implementing of the MSIS. The present study was a nonsystematized review that was done in order to recognize the role of the IS in the MS management. In this study, electronic scientific resources such as scientific magazines and books and published topics at conferences were used. We used key words (IS, chronic disease management, and multiple sclerosis), their combination or their synonyms in title, key words, abstracts, and text of English articles and published reports from 1980 until 2013, and by using search engines such as Google, Google Scholar and scientific databases and electronic issues such as iPubMed, sufficiently important difference, Scopus, Medlib, and Magiran for gathering information. More than 200 articles and reports were collected and assessed and 139 of them. Findings showed that the MSIS can reduce of disease expenses through continuously collecting correct, accurate, sufficient, and timely patients and disease nature information; recoding; editing; processing; exchanging, and distributing among different health care centers. Although the MSIS has many advantages; but, we cannot ignore cultural, economic, technical, organizational, and managerial barriers. Therefore, it is necessary to do studies for preventing, reducing, and controlling them. One of the ways is to recognize the advantages of the MSIS and usage information technology in optimizing disease management.

  19. A novel role of thrombopoietin as a physiological modulator of coronary flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramella, Roberta; Gallo, Maria Pia; Spatola, Tiziana; Lupia, Enrico; Alloatti, Giuseppe

    2011-02-25

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is known for its ability to stimulate platelet production. However, little is currently known whether TPO plays a physiological function in the heart. The potential vasodilatory role of TPO was tested on the isolated rat heart. The expression of TPO receptor (c-mpl) and the TPO-dependent eNOS phosphorylation (P(Ser1179)) were studied on Cardiac-derived normal Human Micro Vascular Endothelial Cells (HMVEC-C) by Western blot analysis. While TPO (10-200 pg/mL) did not modify coronary flow (CF) under basal conditions, it reduced the coronary constriction caused by endothelin-1 (ET-1; 10nM) in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was blocked by both Wortmannin (100 nM) and L-NAME (100 nM); on HMVEC-C, TPO induced eNOS phosphorylation through a Wortmannin sensitive mechanism. Taken together, our data suggest a potential role of TPO as a physiological regulator of CF. By acting on specific receptors present on endothelial cells, TPO may induce PI3K/Akt-dependent eNOS phosphorylation and NO release. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of astrocytes in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-García, J J

    2017-09-25

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), in which astrocytes play an important role as CNS immune cells. However, the activity of astrocytes as antigen-presenting cells (APC) continues to be subject to debate. This review analyses the existing evidence on the participation of astrocytes in CNS inflammation in MS and on several mechanisms that modify astrocyte activity in the disease. Astrocytes play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of MS because they express toll-like receptors (TLR) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) classI andII. In addition, astrocytes participate in regulating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and in modulating T cell activity through the production of cytokines. Future studies should focus on the role of astrocytes in order to find new therapeutic targets for the treatment of MS. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparative study of students' performance in preclinical physiology assessed by multiple choice and short essay questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebola, D D; Adewoye, O E; Iyaniwura, J O; Alada, A R; Fasanmade, A A; Raji, Y

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the performance of medical students in physiology when assessed by multiple choice questions (MCQs) and short essay questions (SEQs). The study also examined the influence of factors such as age, sex, O/level grades and JAMB scores on performance in the MCQs and SEQs. A structured questionnaire was administered to 264 medical students' four months before the Part I MBBS examination. Apart from personal data of each student, the questionnaire sought information on the JAMB scores and GCE O' Level grades of each student in English Language, Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics. The physiology syllabus was divided into five parts and the students were administered separate examinations (tests) on each part. Each test consisted of MCQs and SEQs. The performance in MCQs and SEQs were compared. Also, the effects of JAMB scores and GCE O/level grades on the performance in both the MCQs and SEQs were assessed. The results showed that the students performed better in all MCQ tests than in the SEQs. JAMB scores and O' level English Language grade had no significant effect on students' performance in MCQs and SEQs. However O' level grades in Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics had significant effects on performance in MCQs and SEQs. Inadequate knowledge of physiology and inability to present information in a logical sequence are believed to be major factors contributing to the poorer performance in the SEQs compared with MCQs. In view of the finding of significant association between performance in MCQs and SEQs and GCE O/level grades in science subjects and mathematics, it was recommended that both JAMB results and the GCE results in the four O/level subjects above may be considered when selecting candidates for admission into the medical schools.

  2. Physiological Mechanisms Only Tell Half Story: Multiple Biological Processes are involved in Regulating Freezing Tolerance of Imbibed Lactuca sativa Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Ganesh K; Han, Yingying; Li, Weijie; Song, Danping; Song, Xiaoyan; Shen, Mengqi; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Chenxue; Liu, Baolin

    2017-03-13

    The physiological mechanisms by which imbibed seeds survive freezing temperatures in their natural environment have been categorized as freezing avoidance by supercooling and freezing tolerance by extracellular freeze-desiccation, but the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring seed freezing tolerance is unexplored. In this study, using imbibed Lactuca sativa seeds we show that fast cooled seeds (60 °C h -1 ) suffered significantly higher membrane damage at temperature between -20 °C and -10 °C than slow cooled (3 °Ch -1 ) seeds (P  0.05). However, both SOD activity and accumulation of free proline were induced significantly after slow cooling to -20 °C compared with fast cooling. RNA-seq demonstrated that multiple pathways were differentially regulated between slow and fast cooling. Real-time verification of some differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that fast cooling caused mRNA level changes of plant hormone and ubiquitionation pathways at higher sub-zero temperature, whilst slow cooling caused mRNA level change of those pathways at lower sub-zero ttemperatures. Thus, we conclude that imbibed seed tolerate low temperature not only by physiological mechanisms but also by biochemical and molecular changes.

  3. The emerging physiological roles of the SLC14A family of urea transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gavin

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, urea is the main nitrogenous breakdown product of protein catabolism and is produced in the liver. In certain tissues, the movement of urea across cell membranes is specifically mediated by a group of proteins known as the SLC14A family of facilitative urea transporters. These proteins are derived from two distinct genes, UT-A (SLC14A2) and UT-B (SLC14A1). Facilitative urea transporters play an important role in two major physiological processes – urinary concentration and urea nitrogen salvaging. Although UT-A and UT-B transporters both have a similar basic structure and mediate the transport of urea in a facilitative manner, there are a number of significant differences between them. UT-A transporters are mainly found in the kidney, are highly specific for urea, have relatively lower transport rates and are highly regulated at both gene expression and cellular localization levels. In contrast, UT-B transporters are more widespread in their tissue location, transport both urea and water, have a relatively high transport rate, are inhibited by mercurial compounds and currently appear to be less acutely regulated. This review details the fundamental research that has so far been performed to investigate the function and physiological significance of these two types of urea transporters. PMID:21449978

  4. Adrenal clocks and the role of adrenal hormones in the regulation of circadian physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliavski, Alexei; Dumbell, Rebecca; Ott, Volker; Oster, Henrik

    2015-02-01

    The mammalian circadian timing system consists of a master pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and subordinate clocks that disseminate time information to various central and peripheral tissues. While the function of the SCN in circadian rhythm regulation has been extensively studied, we still have limited understanding of how peripheral tissue clock function contributes to the regulation of physiological processes. The adrenal gland plays a special role in this context as adrenal hormones show strong circadian secretion rhythms affecting downstream physiological processes. At the same time, they have been shown to affect clock gene expression in various other tissues, thus mediating systemic entrainment to external zeitgebers and promoting internal circadian alignment. In this review, we discuss the function of circadian clocks in the adrenal gland, how they are reset by the SCN and may further relay time-of-day information to other tissues. Focusing on glucocorticoids, we conclude by outlining the impact of adrenal rhythm disruption on neuropsychiatric, metabolic, immune, and malignant disorders. © 2014 The Author(s).

  5. Gender, gender roles, and anxiety: perceived confirmability of self report, behavioral avoidance, and physiological reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Milena; Hope, Debra A

    2012-01-01

    Despite the well-documented gender effect in anxiety, less is known about contributing factors to women's greater risk for anxiety and fears. The present study examined the relationship between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., expressivity/instrumentality) and fear of harmless insects (tarantula), using a multimodal approach of self-report measures, a Behavioral Approach Test (BAT), and physiological reactivity. Participants (144 college students; 67 women, 77 men) completed a questionnaire packet and then were instructed to approach a tarantula. We were unable to replicate Pierce and Kirkpatrick's (1992) findings that men underreport anxiety. Consistent with the literature, women in the study experienced greater anxiety and avoidance compared to men. However, men and women did not differ on physiological reactivity during the first 2 min of the BAT. The concordance across avoidance, anxiety and heart rate reactivity differed by gender, suggesting that men and women have different experiences when faced with a fearful object. Furthermore, instrumentality (masculinity) was negatively related to anticipatory anxiety for women but not for men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Focus on Extracellular Vesicles: Physiological Role and Signalling Properties of Extracellular Membrane Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Iraci

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are a heterogeneous population of secreted membrane vesicles, with distinct biogenesis routes, biophysical properties and different functions both in physiological conditions and in disease. The release of EVs is a widespread biological process, which is conserved across species. In recent years, numerous studies have demonstrated that several bioactive molecules are trafficked with(in EVs, such as microRNAs, mRNAs, proteins and lipids. The understanding of their final impact on the biology of specific target cells remains matter of intense debate in the field. Also, EVs have attracted great interest as potential novel cell-free therapeutics. Here we describe the proposed physiological and pathological functions of EVs, with a particular focus on their molecular content. Also, we discuss the advances in the knowledge of the mechanisms regulating the secretion of EV-associated molecules and the specific pathways activated upon interaction with the target cell, highlighting the role of EVs in the context of the immune system and as mediators of the intercellular signalling in the brain.

  7. Narrative review: the role of leptin in human physiology: emerging clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelesidis, Theodore; Kelesidis, Iosif; Chou, Sharon; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2010-01-19

    Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue in direct proportion to amount of body fat. The circulating leptin levels serve as a gauge of energy stores, thereby directing the regulation of energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, and metabolism. Persons with congenital deficiency are obese, and treatment with leptin results in dramatic weight loss through decreased food intake and possible increased energy expenditure. However, most obese persons are resistant to the weight-reducing effects of leptin. Recent studies suggest that leptin is physiologically more important as an indicator of energy deficiency, rather than energy excess, and may mediate adaptation by driving increased food intake and directing neuroendocrine function to converse energy, such as inducing hypothalamic hypogonadism to prevent fertilization. Current studies investigate the role of leptin in weight-loss management because persons who have recently lost weight have relative leptin deficiency that may drive them to regain weight. Leptin deficiency is also evident in patients with diet- or exercise-induced hypothalamic amenorrhea and lipoatrophy. Replacement of leptin in physiologic doses restores ovulatory menstruation in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea and improves metabolic dysfunction in patients with lipoatrophy, including lipoatrophy associated with HIV or highly active antiretroviral therapy. The applications of leptin continue to grow and will hopefully soon be used therapeutically.

  8. THE CAJAL SCHOOL AND THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE OF ASTROCYTES: A WAY OF THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eNavarrete

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cajal is widely recognized by the scientific community for his important contributions to our knowledge of the neuronal organization of the nervous system. His studies on neuroglial cells are less recognized, yet they are no less relevant to our current understanding of the cellular bases of brain structure. Two pioneering studies published a century ago ⎯Something about the physiological significance of neuroglia (Cajal, 1897 and A contribution to the understanding of neuroglia in the human brain (Cajal, 1913⎯ focused on glial cells and their role in brain physiology. Novel findings obtained using state-of-the-art and sophisticated technologies largely confirm many of the groundbreaking hypotheses proposed by Cajal related to the structural-functional properties of neuroglia. Here we propose to the reader a journey guided by the ideas of Cajal through the recent findings on the functional significance of astrocytes, the most abundant neuroglial cell type in the nervous system. Astrocyte-neuron interaction, which represents an emerging field in current neuroscience with important implications for our understanding of the cellular processes underlying brain function, has its roots in many of the original concepts proposed by Cajal.

  9. Epilepsy in multiple sclerosis: The role of temporal lobe damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, M; Castellaro, M; Bertoldo, A; De Luca, A; Pizzini, F B; Ricciardi, G K; Pitteri, M; Zimatore, S; Magliozzi, R; Benedetti, M D; Manganotti, P; Montemezzi, S; Reynolds, R; Gajofatto, A; Monaco, S

    2017-03-01

    Although temporal lobe pathology may explain some of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), its role in the pathogenesis of seizures has not been clarified yet. To investigate the role of temporal lobe damage in MS patients suffering from epilepsy, by the application of advanced multimodal 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis. A total of 23 relapsing remitting MS patients who had epileptic seizures (RRMS/E) and 23 disease duration matched RRMS patients without any history of seizures were enrolled. Each patient underwent advanced 3T MRI protocol specifically conceived to evaluate grey matter (GM) damage. This includes grey matter lesions (GMLs) identification, evaluation of regional cortical thickness and indices derived from the Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging model. Regional analysis revealed that in RRMS/E, the regions most affected by GMLs were the hippocampus (14.2%), the lateral temporal lobe (13.5%), the cingulate (10.0%) and the insula (8.4%). Cortical thinning and alteration of diffusion metrics were observed in several regions of temporal lobe, in insular cortex and in cingulate gyrus of RRMS/E compared to RRMS ( ptemporal lobe, which exceeds what would be expected on the basis of the global GM damage observed.

  10. Lateral root formation and the multiple roles of auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yujuan; Scheres, Ben

    2018-01-04

    Root systems can display variable architectures that contribute to survival strategies of plants. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana possesses a tap root system, in which the primary root and lateral roots (LRs) are major architectural determinants. The phytohormone auxin fulfils multiple roles throughout LR development. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of four aspects of LR formation: (i) LR positioning, which determines the spatial distribution of lateral root primordia (LRP) and LRs along primary roots; (ii) LR initiation, encompassing the activation of nuclear migration in specified lateral root founder cells (LRFCs) up to the first asymmetric cell division; (iii) LR outgrowth, the 'primordium-intrinsic' patterning of de novo organ tissues and a meristem; and (iv) LR emergence, an interaction between LRP and overlaying tissues to allow passage through cell layers. We discuss how auxin signaling, embedded in a changing developmental context, plays important roles in all four phases. In addition, we discuss how rapid progress in gene network identification and analysis, modeling, and four-dimensional imaging techniques have led to an increasingly detailed understanding of the dynamic regulatory networks that control LR development. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Yersinia pestis Ail: multiple roles of a single protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejek, Anna M.; Hovde, Carolyn J.; Minnich, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is one of the most virulent bacteria identified. It is the causative agent of plague—a systemic disease that has claimed millions of human lives throughout history. Y. pestis survival in insect and mammalian host species requires fine-tuning to sense and respond to varying environmental cues. Multiple Y. pestis attributes participate in this process and contribute to its pathogenicity and highly efficient transmission between hosts. These include factors inherited from its enteric predecessors; Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, as well as phenotypes acquired or lost during Y. pestis speciation. Representatives of a large Enterobacteriaceae Ail/OmpX/PagC/Lom family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are found in the genomes of all pathogenic Yersiniae. This review describes the current knowledge regarding the role of Ail in Y. pestis pathogenesis and virulence. The pronounced role of Ail in the following areas are discussed (1) inhibition of the bactericidal properties of complement, (2) attachment and Yersinia outer proteins (Yop) delivery to host tissue, (3) prevention of PMNL recruitment to the lymph nodes, and (4) inhibition of the inflammatory response. Finally, Ail homologs in Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are compared to illustrate differences that may have contributed to the drastic bacterial lifestyle change that shifted Y. pestis from an enteric to a vector-born systemic pathogen. PMID:22919692

  12. Potential role of retinoids in ovarian physiology and pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanwen; Li, Chunjin; Chen, Lu; Wang, Fengge; Zhou, Xu

    2017-06-01

    Retinoids (retinol and its derivatives) are required for maintaining vision, immunity, barrier function, reproduction, embryogenesis, cell proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, retinoid signaling plays a key role in initiating meiosis of germ cells of the mammalian fetal ovary. Recently, studies indicated that precise retinoid level regulation in the ovary provides a molecular control of ovarian development, steroidogenesis and oocyte maturation. Besides, abnormal retinoid signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common ovarian endocrinopathies in reproductive-aged women worldwide. This review primarily summarizes recent advancements made in investigating the action of retinoid signaling in ovarian physiology as well as the abnormal retinoid signaling in PCOS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Gastrin-releasing peptide signaling plays a limited and subtle role in amygdala physiology and aversive memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Chaperon

    Full Text Available Links between synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA and Pavlovian fear learning are well established. Neuropeptides including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP can modulate LA function. GRP increases inhibition in the LA and mice lacking the GRP receptor (GRPR KO show more pronounced and persistent fear after single-trial associative learning. Here, we confirmed these initial findings and examined whether they extrapolate to more aspects of amygdala physiology and to other forms of aversive associative learning. GRP application in brain slices from wildtype but not GRPR KO mice increased spontaneous inhibitory activity in LA pyramidal neurons. In amygdala slices from GRPR KO mice, GRP did not increase inhibitory activity. In comparison to wildtype, short- but not long-term plasticity was increased in the cortico-lateral amygdala (LA pathway of GRPR KO amygdala slices, whereas no changes were detected in the thalamo-LA pathway. In addition, GRPR KO mice showed enhanced fear evoked by single-trial conditioning and reduced spontaneous firing of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA. Altogether, these results are consistent with a potentially important modulatory role of GRP/GRPR signaling in the amygdala. However, administration of GRP or the GRPR antagonist (D-Phe(6, Leu-NHEt(13, des-Met(14-Bombesin (6-14 did not affect amygdala LTP in brain slices, nor did they affect the expression of conditioned fear following intra-amygdala administration. GRPR KO mice also failed to show differences in fear expression and extinction after multiple-trial fear conditioning, and there were no differences in conditioned taste aversion or gustatory neophobia. Collectively, our data indicate that GRP/GRPR signaling modulates amygdala physiology in a paradigm-specific fashion that likely is insufficient to generate therapeutic effects across amygdala-dependent disorders.

  14. THE ROLE OF MULTIPLICITY IN DISK EVOLUTION AND PLANET FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Adam L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Hillenbrand, Lynne A. [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astrophysics, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Martinache, Frantz [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    The past decade has seen a revolution in our understanding of protoplanetary disk evolution and planet formation in single-star systems. However, the majority of solar-type stars form in binary systems, so the impact of binary companions on protoplanetary disks is an important element in our understanding of planet formation. We have compiled a combined multiplicity/disk census of Taurus-Auriga, plus a restricted sample of close binaries in other regions, in order to explore the role of multiplicity in disk evolution. Our results imply that the tidal influence of a close ({approx}<40 AU) binary companion significantly hastens the process of protoplanetary disk dispersal, as {approx}2/3 of all close binaries promptly disperse their disks within {approx}<1 Myr after formation. However, prompt disk dispersal only occurs for a small fraction of wide binaries and single stars, with {approx}80%-90% retaining their disks for at least {approx}2-3 Myr (but rarely for more than {approx}5 Myr). Our new constraints on the disk clearing timescale have significant implications for giant planet formation; most single stars have 3-5 Myr within which to form giant planets, whereas most close binary systems would have to form giant planets within {approx}<1 Myr. If core accretion is the primary mode for giant planet formation, then gas giants in close binaries should be rare. Conversely, since almost all single stars have a similar period of time within which to form gas giants, their relative rarity in radial velocity (RV) surveys indicates either that the giant planet formation timescale is very well matched to the disk dispersal timescale or that features beyond the disk lifetime set the likelihood of giant planet formation.

  15. Role and physiological actions of the mineralo-corticoids; Role et actions physiologiques des mineralo-corticoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This review recalls first of all the history of the discovery of aldosterone; it then defines the concept of mineralo-corticoid on the biological level; the physiological effects of aldosterone are compared with those of desoxycorticosterone, which have been known for a long time. The part played by the mineralo-corticoids in maintaining the hydro-mineral balance is then discussed, particularly in the light of information provided by acute deficiency or primitive hyperaldosteronism; the importance of the correlations linking the post-hypophysis and suprarenal is underlined. The possible mechanisms of the action of mineralo-corticoids on the kidney are discussed in greater detail and a general plan of action is proposed. The physiological regulation of the secretion of mineralo-corticoids is then described, and the respective roles played in this secretion by different factors are discussed (ante-hypophysis, corticoids, plasmatic concentration of electrolytes, volume of extracellular liquids, etc...). Finally, the whole problem investigated is placed within the field of homeostasis (377 bibliographical references). (author) [French] Cette revue de la question rappelle d'abord l'historique de la decouverte de l'aldosterone; elle definit ensuite le concept de mineralo-corticoide sur le plan biologique; les effets physiologiques de l'aldosterone sont compares a ceux connus depuis longtemps de la desoxycorticosterone. Le role joue par les mineralo-corticoides dans le maintien de la balance hydrominerale est ensuite discute, notamment a la lumiere des informations fournies par l'insuffisance aigue ou l'hyperaldosteronisme primitif; l'importance des correlations liant posthypophyse et surrenale est soulignee. Les mecanismes possibles de l'action des mineralo-corticoides sur le rein sont discutes avec davantage de details et un schema general d'action est propose. La regulation physiologique de la secretion des mineralo-corticoides est ensuite exposee et les roles

  16. Role and physiological actions of the mineralo-corticoids; Role et actions physiologiques des mineralo-corticoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This review recalls first of all the history of the discovery of aldosterone; it then defines the concept of mineralo-corticoid on the biological level; the physiological effects of aldosterone are compared with those of desoxycorticosterone, which have been known for a long time. The part played by the mineralo-corticoids in maintaining the hydro-mineral balance is then discussed, particularly in the light of information provided by acute deficiency or primitive hyperaldosteronism; the importance of the correlations linking the post-hypophysis and suprarenal is underlined. The possible mechanisms of the action of mineralo-corticoids on the kidney are discussed in greater detail and a general plan of action is proposed. The physiological regulation of the secretion of mineralo-corticoids is then described, and the respective roles played in this secretion by different factors are discussed (ante-hypophysis, corticoids, plasmatic concentration of electrolytes, volume of extracellular liquids, etc...). Finally, the whole problem investigated is placed within the field of homeostasis (377 bibliographical references). (author) [French] Cette revue de la question rappelle d'abord l'historique de la decouverte de l'aldosterone; elle definit ensuite le concept de mineralo-corticoide sur le plan biologique; les effets physiologiques de l'aldosterone sont compares a ceux connus depuis longtemps de la desoxycorticosterone. Le role joue par les mineralo-corticoides dans le maintien de la balance hydrominerale est ensuite discute, notamment a la lumiere des informations fournies par l'insuffisance aigue ou l'hyperaldosteronisme primitif; l'importance des correlations liant posthypophyse et surrenale est soulignee. Les mecanismes possibles de l'action des mineralo-corticoides sur le rein sont discutes avec davantage de details et un schema general d'action est propose. La regulation physiologique de la secretion des mineralo

  17. Physiological role of growth factors and bone morphogenetic proteins in osteogenesis and bone fracture healing: а review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sagalovsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The repair of large bone defects remains a major clinical orthopedic challenge. Bone regeneration and fracture healing is a complex physiological mechanisms regulated by a large number of biologically active molecules. Multiple factors regulate this cascade of molecular events, which affects different stages in the osteoblast and chondroblast lineage during such processes as migration, proliferation, chemotaxis, differentiation, inhibition, and extracellular protein synthesis. A recent review has focused on the mechanisms by which growth and differentiation factors regulate the fracture healing process. Rapid progress in skeletal cellular and molecular biology has led to identification of many signaling molecules associated with formation of skeletal tissues, including a large family of growth factors (transforming growth factor-β and bone morphogenetic proteins, fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, cytokines and interleukins. There is increasing evidence indicating that they are critical regulators of cellular proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix biosynthesis and bone mineralization. A clear understanding of cellular and molecular pathways involved in fracture healing is not only critical for improvement of fracture treatments, but it may also enhance further our knowledge of mechanisms involved in skeletal growth and repair, as well as mechanisms of aging. This suggests that, in the future, they may play a major role in the treatment of bone disease and fracture repair.

  18. Emerging roles of aquaporins in relation to the physiology of blood-feeding arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Joshua B; Hansen, Immo A; Szuter, Elise M; Drake, Lisa L; Burnett, Denielle L; Attardo, Geoffrey M

    2014-10-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are proteins that span plasma membranes allowing the movement of water and small solutes into or out of cells. The type, expression levels and activity of AQPs play a major role in the relative permeability of each cell to water or other solutes. Research on arthropod AQPs has expanded in the last 10 years due to the completion of several arthropod genome projects and the increased availability of genetic information accessible through other resources such as de novo transcriptome assemblies. In particular, there has been significant advancement in elucidating the roles that AQPs serve in relation to the physiology of blood-feeding arthropods of medical importance. The focus of this review is upon the significance of AQPs in relation to hematophagy in arthropods. This will be accomplished via a narrative describing AQP functions during the life history of hematophagic arthropods that includes the following critical phases: (1) Saliva production necessary to blood feeding, (2) Intake and excretion of water during blood digestion, (3) Reproduction and egg development and (4) Off-host environmental stress tolerance. The concentration on these phases will highlight known vulnerabilities in the biology of hematophagic arthropods that could be used to develop novel control strategies as well as research topics that have yet to be examined.

  19. The Role of Biotin in Bacterial Physiology and Virulence: a Novel Antibiotic Target for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaemae, Wanisa; Booker, Grant W; Polyak, Steven W

    2016-04-01

    Biotin is an essential cofactor for enzymes present in key metabolic pathways such as fatty acid biosynthesis, replenishment of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and amino acid metabolism. Biotin is synthesized de novo in microorganisms, plants, and fungi, but this metabolic activity is absent in mammals, making biotin biosynthesis an attractive target for antibiotic discovery. In particular, biotin biosynthesis plays important metabolic roles as the sole source of biotin in all stages of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis life cycle due to the lack of a transporter for scavenging exogenous biotin. Biotin is intimately associated with lipid synthesis where the products form key components of the mycobacterial cell membrane that are critical for bacterial survival and pathogenesis. In this review we discuss the central role of biotin in bacterial physiology and highlight studies that demonstrate the importance of its biosynthesis for virulence. The structural biology of the known biotin synthetic enzymes is described alongside studies using structure-guided design, phenotypic screening, and fragment-based approaches to drug discovery as routes to new antituberculosis agents.

  20. Role of coronary physiology in the contemporary management of coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparelia, Neil; Kharbanda, Rajesh K

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide with approximately 1 in 30 patients with stable CAD experiencing death or acute myocardial infarction each year. The presence and extent of resultant myocardial ischaemia has been shown to confer an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Whilst, optimal medical therapy (OMT) forms the cornerstone of the management of patients with stable CAD, a significant number of patients present with ischaemia refractory to OMT. Historically coronary angiography alone has been used to determine coronary lesion severity in both stable and acute settings. It is increasingly clear that this approach fails to accurately identify the haemodynamic significance of lesions; especially those that are visually “intermediate” in severity. Revascularisation based upon angiographic appearances alone may not reduce coronary events above OMT. Technological advances have enabled the measurement of physiological indices including the fractional flow reserve, the index of microcirculatory resistance and the coronary flow reserve. The integration of these parameters into the routine management of patients presenting to the cardiac catheterization laboratory with CAD represents a critical adjunctive tool in the optimal management of these patients by identifying patients that would most benefit from revascularisation and importantly also highlighting patients that would not gain benefit and therefore reducing the likelihood of adverse outcomes associated with coronary revascularisation. Furthermore, these techniques are applicable to a broad range of patients including those with left main stem disease, proximal coronary disease, diabetes mellitus, previous percutaneous coronary intervention and with previous coronary artery bypass grafting. This review will discuss current concepts relevant to coronary physiology assessment, its role in the management of both stable and acute patients and future applications. PMID

  1. Role of coronary physiology in the contemporary management of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparelia, Neil; Kharbanda, Rajesh K

    2015-02-16

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide with approximately 1 in 30 patients with stable CAD experiencing death or acute myocardial infarction each year. The presence and extent of resultant myocardial ischaemia has been shown to confer an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Whilst, optimal medical therapy (OMT) forms the cornerstone of the management of patients with stable CAD, a significant number of patients present with ischaemia refractory to OMT. Historically coronary angiography alone has been used to determine coronary lesion severity in both stable and acute settings. It is increasingly clear that this approach fails to accurately identify the haemodynamic significance of lesions; especially those that are visually "intermediate" in severity. Revascularisation based upon angiographic appearances alone may not reduce coronary events above OMT. Technological advances have enabled the measurement of physiological indices including the fractional flow reserve, the index of microcirculatory resistance and the coronary flow reserve. The integration of these parameters into the routine management of patients presenting to the cardiac catheterization laboratory with CAD represents a critical adjunctive tool in the optimal management of these patients by identifying patients that would most benefit from revascularisation and importantly also highlighting patients that would not gain benefit and therefore reducing the likelihood of adverse outcomes associated with coronary revascularisation. Furthermore, these techniques are applicable to a broad range of patients including those with left main stem disease, proximal coronary disease, diabetes mellitus, previous percutaneous coronary intervention and with previous coronary artery bypass grafting. This review will discuss current concepts relevant to coronary physiology assessment, its role in the management of both stable and acute patients and future applications.

  2. The role of multiple barriers in assuring waste package reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, R.M.

    1993-08-01

    Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada is being studied as a potential repository site for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. Regulators have set performance standards that the potential repository must meet in order to obtain regulatory approval. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations state that containment of radioactivity must be ''substantially complete'' for the first 1000 years after closure of the facility. Thereafter, the acceptable annual limit on releases is 1/100,000 of each radionuclide remaining in the inventory after 1000 years. To demonstrate that the potential facility is in compliance with the regulations, it is necessary to obtain some understanding of the probability distribution of the cumulative quantity of releases by certain time points. This paper will discuss the probability distribution of waste container lifetimes and how the understanding of this distribution will play a role in finding the distribution of the release quantities over time. It will be shown that, for reasonable assumptions about the process of barrier failure, the reliability of a multiple-barrier container can be achieved and demonstrated much more readily than a container consisting of a single barrier. The discussion will focus primarily on the requirement of substantially complete containment for the first 1000 years

  3. The Role of Fungi in the Etiology of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Benito-León

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. Infectious triggers of MS are being actively investigated. Substantial evidence supports the involvement of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, though other viruses, bacteria, protists, and fungi are also being considered. Many links between fungi and diseases involving chronic inflammation have been found recently. Evidence linking MS and fungi is reviewed here. The HLA-DRB1*15 allele group is the most important genetic risk factor of MS, and is a risk factor in several other conditions linked to fungal infections. Many biomarkers of MS are consistent with fungal infections, such as IL-17, chitotriosidase, and antibodies against fungi. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF, first used as an industrial fungicide, was recently repurposed to reduce MS symptoms. Its mechanisms of action in MS have not been firmly established. The low risk of MS during childhood and its moderate association with herpes simplex virus type 2 suggest genital exposure to microbes (including fungi should be investigated as a possible trigger. Molecular and epidemiological evidence support a role for infections such as EBV in MS. Though fungal infections have not been widely studied in MS, many lines of evidence are consistent with a fungal etiology. Future microbiome and serological studies should consider fungi as a possible risk factor for MS, and future clinical studies should consider the effect of fungicides other than DMF on MS symptoms.

  4. Multiple roles of the coagulation protease cascade during virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniak, Silvio; Mackman, Nigel

    2014-04-24

    The coagulation cascade is activated during viral infections. This response may be part of the host defense system to limit spread of the pathogen. However, excessive activation of the coagulation cascade can be deleterious. In fact, inhibition of the tissue factor/factor VIIa complex reduced mortality in a monkey model of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Other studies showed that incorporation of tissue factor into the envelope of herpes simplex virus increases infection of endothelial cells and mice. Furthermore, binding of factor X to adenovirus serotype 5 enhances infection of hepatocytes but also increases the activation of the innate immune response to the virus. Coagulation proteases activate protease-activated receptors (PARs). Interestingly, we and others found that PAR1 and PAR2 modulate the immune response to viral infection. For instance, PAR1 positively regulates TLR3-dependent expression of the antiviral protein interferon β, whereas PAR2 negatively regulates expression during coxsackievirus group B infection. These studies indicate that the coagulation cascade plays multiple roles during viral infections.

  5. The multiple roles and functions of English in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene Vasilopoulos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the field of language and identity, the subcategory of gender has been an area of growing interest (Pavlenko, 2001; Norton & Pavlenko, 2004; Menard-Warwick, 2008; and Higgins, 2010. Adopting the view of gender as “a system of social relationships and discursive practices” (Norton & Pavlenko, 2004, p. 504, social context is fundamental in understanding how gender relates to foreign language learning. This qualitative study focused on the extent to which gender impacts English language learning and English language use in the context of teaching English as a foreign language in South Korea. More specifically, it investigates how gender shapes self and social identity, and how these identities relate to English language learning and English language use, at present and/or in the future, in both real and/or imagined communities. Four male and four female participants were selected using purposive homogenous sampling techniques based on the criteria of having lived abroad in an English speaking community for over 5 years—a criterion which assumes the formation of self and social identity in addition to their native Korean L1. Data was collected through multiple methods including open-ended questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions. Interview and questionnaire data reveals gender differences in the symbolic meaning of English language, the relevance of English in self and social positioning, and the role of English in shaping future professional trajectories with males situating themselves in international contexts and females in the local.

  6. Immune resistance of Multiple Myeloma : the role of the microenvironment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haart, SJ

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapeutic strategies in Multiple Myeloma are under development. In this thesis we present a new perspective in optimizing immunotherapy in Multiple Myeloma patient. We propose that currently, immunotherapy is limited in efficacy through interactions of Multiple Myeloma cells with the bone

  7. Stress and serial adult metamorphosis: Multiple roles for the stress axis in socially regulated sex change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa K Solomon-Lane

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds has been hypothesized to play a mechanistic role linking status to sex change. The HPA/I axis responds to environmental stressors by integrating relevant external and internal cues and coordinating biological responses including changes in behavior, energetics, physiology, and morphology (i.e., metamorphosis. Through actions of both corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoids (GCs, the HPA/I axis has been implicated in processes central to sex change, including the regulation of agonistic behavior, social status, energetic investment, and life history transitions. In this paper, we review the hypothesized roles of the HPA/I axis in the regulation of sex change and how those hypotheses have been tested to date. We include original data on sex change in the bluebanded goby (Lythyrpnus dalli, a highly social fish capable of bidirectional sex change. We then propose a model for HPA/I involvement in sex change and discuss how these ideas might be tested in the future. Understanding the regulation of sex change has the potential to elucidate evolutionarily conserved mechanisms responsible for translating pertinent information about the environment into coordinated biological changes along multiple body axes.

  8. Stress and serial adult metamorphosis: multiple roles for the stress axis in socially regulated sex change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon-Lane, Tessa K; Crespi, Erica J; Grober, Matthew S

    2013-01-01

    Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds) has been hypothesized to play a mechanistic role linking status to sex change. The HPA/I axis responds to environmental stressors by integrating relevant external and internal cues and coordinating biological responses including changes in behavior, energetics, physiology, and morphology (i.e., metamorphosis). Through actions of both corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoids, the HPA/I axis has been implicated in processes central to sex change, including the regulation of agonistic behavior, social status, energetic investment, and life history transitions. In this paper, we review the hypothesized roles of the HPA/I axis in the regulation of sex change and how those hypotheses have been tested to date. We include original data on sex change in the bluebanded goby (Lythyrpnus dalli), a highly social fish capable of bidirectional sex change. We then propose a model for HPA/I involvement in sex change and discuss how these ideas might be tested in the future. Understanding the regulation of sex change has the potential to elucidate evolutionarily conserved mechanisms responsible for translating pertinent information about the environment into coordinated biological changes along multiple body axes.

  9. [Clinical aspect of recent progress in phosphate metabolism. Distribution of phosphorus and its physiological roles in the body: the form, distribution, and physiological function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shozo; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2009-06-01

    Phosphorus plays pivotal roles in the survival such as the cellular structure, genomic information, energy metabolism, and cell signaling. Total amount of phosphorus is 500-700 g in human, most of which is stored in the bone in an insoluble form of calcium salt. About 15% of phosphorus is located in the cell membrane and the intracellular fluid in the soft tissues in a form of organic phosphate. Only 0.1% is present in the extracellular fluid. This phosphate pool plays a role in the dynamic equilibrium through the gut, kidney, bone and other tissues. Most of inorganic phosphates in the extracellular fluid are present in a form of ions such as H2PO4- and HPO(4)2-, and the concentration of phosphatic acids is about 1.2 mM. The form, distribution, and physiological function of phosphorus in the body are summarized in this review.

  10. Current role of radiation therapy for multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamo, Giampaolo; Dimaio, Christopher; Abbi, Kamal K S; Pandey, Manoj K; Malysz, Jozef; Creer, Michael H; Zhu, Junjia; Mir, Muhammad A; Varlotto, John M

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is a treatment modality traditionally used in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), but little is known regarding the role and effectiveness of RT in the era of novel agents, i.e., immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors. We retrospectively reviewed data from 449 consecutive MM patients seen at our institute in 2010-2012 to assess indications for RT as well as its effectiveness. Pain response was scored similarly to RTOG 0631 and used the Numerical Rating Pain Scale. Among 442 evaluable patients, 149 (34%) patients and 262 sites received RT. The most common indication for RT was palliation of bone pain (n = 109, 42%), followed by prevention/treatment of pathological fractures (n = 73, 28%), spinal cord compression (n = 26, 10%), and involvement of vital organs/extramedullary disease (n = 25, 10%). Of the 55 patients evaluable for pain relief, complete and partial responses were obtained in 76.4 and 7.2%, respectively. Prior RT did not significantly decrease the median number of peripheral blood stem cells collected for autologous transplant, even when prior RT was given to both the spine and pelvis. Inadequacy of stem cell collection for autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) was not significantly different and it occurred in 9 and 15% of patients receiving no RT and spine/pelvic RT, respectively. None of the three cases of therapy-induced acute myelogenous leukemia/MDS occurred in the RT group. Despite the introduction of novel effective agents in the treatment of MM, RT remains a major therapeutic component for the management in 34% of patients, and it effectively provides pain relief while not interfering with successful peripheral blood stem cell collection for ASCT.

  11. Physiological role of vitamin B12 in a methanol-utilizing bacterium, Protaminobacter ruber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, S.; Ueda, S.; Sato, K.

    1984-01-01

    The methanol-utilizing bacterium Protaminobacter ruber is able to produce a relatively large amount of vitamin B 12 . The present study aims at the physiological role of vitamin B 12 in P. ruber. P. ruber was found to contain the two sequential reactions of glutamate mutase with β-methylaspartase and propionyl-CoA carboxylase with methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Considering the presence of these enzyme systems and the reaction from mesaconyl-CoA to glyoxylate and propionyl-CoA, it could be considered that the formation of glutamate from α-ketoglutarate, the conversion of glutamate to mesaconate via β-methylaspartate, the activation of mesaconate with CoA to form mesaconyl-CoA, the cleavage of mesaconyl-CoA to glyoxylate and propionyl-CoA, the carboxylation of propionyl-CoA to methylmalonyl-CoA, and the isomerization of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA require cobalamine as a cofactor. 29 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Possible physiological role of milk epidermal growth factor in neonatal eyelid opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, O.; Tsutsumi, A.; Oka, T.

    1987-01-01

    The eyelid opening of newborn mice occurs normally on day 13.9 +/- 1.8 after birth. When newborn mice were injected with anti-epidermal growth factor (EGF) antibody every other day starting on day 1 after birth, the eyelid opening was delayed by ∼ 3 days. The effect of anti-EGF became less prominent as the treatment was started at later times: when it was give from day 7, no delay in eyelid opening was observed. On the other hand, eyelid opening was enhanced by ∼ 3 days by EGF injection given on day 3 for every other day. This effect of EGF was antagonized by simultaneous administration of anti-EGF antibody. EGF was present at a concentration of 6.6 ng/ml in the plasma of 1-wk-old pups nursed by their mother, but it was not detectable in the plasma of 3-wk-old weaned pups. EGF concentration in the submandibular glands, however, was 17 times greater in 3- than in 1-wk-old pups. EGF was measured by radioimmunoassay. These results suggest that milk EGF may play a physiological role in eyelid opening during the neonatal period

  13. Data supporting the role of enzymes and polysaccharides during cassava postharvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; da Costa Nunes, Eduardo; de Oliveira Neubert, Enilto; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    This data article is referred to the research article entitled The role of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and polysaccharides in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots under postharvest physiological deterioration by Uarrota et al. (2015). Food Chemistry 197, Part A, 737-746. The stress duo to PPD of cassava roots leads to the formation of ROS which are extremely harmful and accelerates cassava spoiling. To prevent or alleviate injuries from ROS, plants have evolved antioxidant systems that include non-enzymatic and enzymatic defence systems such as ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase and polysaccharides. In this data article can be found a dataset called "newdata", in RData format, with 60 observations and 06 variables. The first 02 variables (Samples and Cultivars) and the last 04, spectrophotometric data of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, tocopherol, total proteins and arcsined data of cassava PPD scoring. For further interpretation and analysis in R software, a report is also provided. Means of all variables and standard deviations are also provided in the Supplementary tables ("data.long3.RData, data.long4.RData and meansEnzymes.RData"), raw data of PPD scoring without transformation (PPDmeans.RData) and days of storage (days.RData) are also provided for data analysis reproducibility in R software.

  14. NADPH–Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase: Roles in Physiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xinxin; Wolf, C. Roland; Porter, Todd D.; Pandey, Amit V.; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Gu, Jun; Finn, Robert D.; Ronseaux, Sebastien; McLaughlin, Lesley A.; Henderson, Colin J.; Zou, Ling; Flück, Christa E.

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and held at the Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, California, on April 25, 2012. The symposium speakers summarized and critically evaluated our current understanding of the physiologic, pharmacological, and toxicological roles of NADPH–cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), a flavoprotein involved in electron transfer to microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450), cytochrome b5, squalene mono-oxygenase, and heme oxygenase. Considerable insight has been derived from the development and characterization of mouse models with conditional Por deletion in particular tissues or partial suppression of POR expression in all tissues. Additional mouse models with global or conditional hepatic deletion of cytochrome b5 are helping to clarify the P450 isoform- and substrate-specific influences of cytochrome b5 on P450 electron transfer and catalytic function. This symposium also considered studies using siRNA to suppress POR expression in a hepatoma cell–culture model to explore the basis of the hepatic lipidosis phenotype observed in mice with conditional deletion of Por in liver. The symposium concluded with a strong translational perspective, relating the basic science of human POR structure and function to the impacts of POR genetic variation on human drug and steroid metabolism. PMID:23086197

  15. Caveats in studies of the physiological role of polyphosphates in coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Tomas L; Ramström, Sofia; Boknäs, Niklas; Faxälv, Lars

    2016-02-01

    Platelet-derived polyphosphates (polyP), stored in dense granule and released upon platelet activation, have been claimed to enhance thrombin activation of coagulation factor XI (FXI) and to activate FXII directly. The latter claim is controversial and principal results leading to these conclusions are probably influenced by methodological problems. It is important to consider that low-grade contact activation is initiated by all surfaces and is greatly amplified by the presence of phospholipids simulating the procoagulant membranes of activated platelets. Thus, proper use of inhibitors of the contact pathway and a careful choice of materials for plates and tubes is important to avoid artefacts. The use of phosphatases used to degrade polyP has an important drawback as it also degrades the secondary activators ADP and ATP, which are released from activated platelets. In addition, the use of positively charged inhibitors, such as polymyxin B, to inhibit polyP in platelet-rich plasma and blood is problematic, as polymyxin B also slows coagulation in the absence of polyP. In conclusion we hope awareness of the above caveats may improve research on the physiological roles of polyP in coagulation. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  16. An Essential Physiological Role for MCT8 in Bone in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Victoria D; Di Cosmo, Caterina; Liao, Xiao-Hui; O'Boy, Sam; Galliford, Thomas M; Evans, Holly; Croucher, Peter I; Boyde, Alan; Dumitrescu, Alexandra; Weiss, Roy E; Refetoff, Samuel; Williams, Graham R; Bassett, J H Duncan

    2017-09-01

    T3 is an important regulator of skeletal development and adult bone maintenance. Thyroid hormone action requires efficient transport of T4 and T3 into target cells. We hypothesized that monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 8, encoded by Mct8 on the X-chromosome, is an essential thyroid hormone transporter in bone. To test this hypothesis, we determined the juvenile and adult skeletal phenotypes of male Mct8 knockout mice (Mct8KO) and Mct8D1D2KO compound mutants, which additionally lack the ability to convert the prohormone T4 to the active hormone T3. Prenatal skeletal development was normal in both Mct8KO and Mct8D1D2KO mice, whereas postnatal endochondral ossification and linear growth were delayed in both Mct8KO and Mct8D1D2KO mice. Furthermore, bone mass and mineralization were decreased in adult Mct8KO and Mct8D1D2KO mice, and compound mutants also had reduced bone strength. Delayed bone development and maturation in Mct8KO and Mct8D1D2KO mice is consistent with decreased thyroid hormone action in growth plate chondrocytes despite elevated serum T3 concentrations, whereas low bone mass and osteoporosis reflects increased thyroid hormone action in adult bone due to elevated systemic T3 levels. These studies identify an essential physiological requirement for MCT8 in chondrocytes, and demonstrate a role for additional transporters in other skeletal cells during adult bone maintenance.

  17. Multiple Roles and Women's Mental Health in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Ansara Donna; Glynn Keva; Maclean Heather

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Research on the relationship between women's social roles and mental health has been equivocal. Although a greater number of roles often protect mental health, certain combinations can lead to strain. Our study explored the moderating affects of different role combinations on women's mental health by examining associations with socioeconomic status and differences in women's distress (depressive symptoms, personal stress (role strain) and chronic stress (role strain plus...

  18. Red palm oil: nutritional, physiological and therapeutic roles in improving human wellbeing and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntibeju, O O; Esterhuyse, A J; Truter, E J

    2009-01-01

    The link between dietary fats and cardiovascular disease has created a growing interest in dietary red palm oil research. Also, the link between nutrition and health, oxidative stress and the severity or progression of disease has stimulated further interest in the potential role of red palm oil (a natural antioxidant product) to improve oxidative status by reducing oxidative stress in patients with cardiovascular disease, cancer and other chronic diseases. In spite of its level of saturated fatty acid content (50%), red palm oil has not been found to promote atherosclerosis and/or arterial thrombosis. This is probably due to the ratio of its saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid content and its high concentration of antioxidants such as beta-carotene, tocotrienols, tocopherols and vitamin E. It has also been reported that the consumption of red palm oil reduces the level of endogenous cholesterol, and this seems to be due to the presence of the tocotrienols and the peculiar isomeric position of its fatty acids. The benefits of red palm oil to health include a reduction in the risk of arterial thrombosis and/or atherosclerosis, inhibition of endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis, platelet aggregation, a reduction in oxidative stress and a reduction in blood pressure. It has also been shown that dietary red palm oil, taken in moderation in animals and humans, promotes the efficient utilisation of nutrients, activates hepatic drug metabolising enzymes, facilitates the haemoglobinisation of red blood cells and improves immune function. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the nutritional, physiological and biochemical roles of red palm oil in improving wellbeing and quality of life.

  19. The Role of Flipped Learning in Managing the Cognitive Load of a Threshold Concept in Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaraju, Shylaja

    2016-01-01

    To help students master challenging, threshold concepts in physiology, I used the flipped learning model in a human anatomy and physiology course with very encouraging results in terms of student motivation, preparedness, engagement, and performance. The flipped learning model was enhanced by pre-training and formative assessments that provided…

  20. Experimental evidence for the physiological role of bacterial luciferase in the protection of cells against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpilewska, Hanna; Czyz, Agata; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

    2003-11-01

    The origin and function of bioluminescence was considered a problematic question of the Charles Darwin theory. Early evolution of bacterial luminescence and its current physiological importance seem to be especially mysterious. Recently, it was proposed that stimulation of DNA repair may be a physiological role for production of light by bacterial cells. On the other hand, it was also proposed that primary role of luminescent systems could be detoxification of the deleterious oxygen derivatives. Although some previous results might suggest that this hypothesis can be correct, until now experimental evidence for such a mechanism operating in bacterial cells and having physiological importance was generally lacking. Here we demonstrate that in the presence of various oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, cumene hydroperoxide, t-butyl hydroperoxide, and ferrous ions) at certain concentrations in the culture medium, growth of Vibrio harveyi mutants luxA and luxB, but not of the mutant luxD, is severely impaired relative to wild-type bacteria. This deleterious effect of oxidants on the mutants luxA and luxB could be significantly reduced by addition of the antioxidants A-TEMPO or 40H-TEMPO. We conclude that bacterial luciferase may indeed play a physiological role in the protection of cells against oxidative stress.

  1. 231 Using Multiple Regression Analysis in Modelling the Role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    of Internal Revenue, Tourism Bureau and hotel records. The multiple regression .... additional guest facilities such as restaurant, a swimming pool or child care and social function ... and provide good quality service to the public. Conclusion.

  2. Evidence for the different physiological significance of the 6- and 2-minute walk tests in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motl Robert W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers have recently advocated for the 2-minute walk (2MW as an alternative for the 6-minute walk (6MW to assess long distance ambulation in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS. This recommendation has not been based on physiological considerations such as the rate of oxygen consumption (V·O2 over the 6MW range. Objective This study examined the pattern of change in V·O2 over the range of the 6MW in a large sample of persons with MS who varied as a function of disability status. Method Ninety-five persons with clinically-definite MS underwent a neurological examination for generating an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score, and then completion of the 6MW protocol while wearing a portable metabolic unit and an accelerometer. Results There was a time main effect on V·O2 during the 6MW (p = .0001 such that V·O2 increased significantly every 30 seconds over the first 3 minutes of the 6MW, and then remained stable over the second 3 minutes of the 6MW. This occurred despite no change in cadence across the 6MW (p = .84. Conclusions The pattern of change in V·O2 indicates that there are different metabolic systems providing energy for ambulation during the 6MW in MS subjects and steady state aerobic metabolism is reached during the last 3 minutes of the 6MW. By extension, the first 3 minutes would represent a test of mixed aerobic and anaerobic work, whereas the second 3 minutes would represent a test of aerobic work during walking.

  3. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Gawlik, Dale E.; Beerens, James M.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate), and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index) and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term) were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  4. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Herring

    Full Text Available The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba and white ibises (Eudocimus albus to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate, and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  5. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Gawlik, Dale E; Beerens, James M; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2014-01-01

    The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate), and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index) and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term) were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  6. A Physiologic Role for Serotonergic Transmission in Adult Rat Taste Buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Luc; Zhao, Fang-li; Kolli, Tamara; Herness, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells) and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic). However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers and enhances the

  7. A physiologic role for serotonergic transmission in adult rat taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Jaber

    Full Text Available Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic. However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers

  8. A physiologic role for serotonergic transmission in adult rat taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Luc; Zhao, Fang-li; Kolli, Tamara; Herness, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells) and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic). However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers and enhances the

  9. Role of environmental stress in the physiological response to chemical toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental physiology is the study of the physiological mechanisms that allow animals to cope with and adapt to changes in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and other natural factors of their physical environment. Nearly all toxicological and pharmacological studies are performed in resting (i.e., non exercising) experimental animals acclimatized to standard environmental conditions that are usually considered ideal to the animal's physiological well-being. These ideal test conditions are clearly not representative of the fluctuations in the natural environment encountered by humans and other animals on a day-to-day basis. It behooves the toxicologist, especially those interested in extrapolating experimental data from laboratory animals to humans, to consider how variations in the natural environment will alter physiological responses to toxicants. Temperature and exercise are the two most well-studied parameters in the fields of environmental physiology and toxicology. In general, high temperatures exacerbate the toxic effects of many environmental toxicants. Moreover, exercising subjects are generally more vulnerable to airborne toxic agents. The prospect of global warming also warrants a better assessment of how higher environmental temperatures may impact on the response of humans and other species to toxic chemicals. Hence, this paper and accompanying papers from the proceedings of a symposium focus on the salient aspects of the interaction between environmental stress and physiological response to toxic agents with particular emphasis on temperature and exercise

  10. Mental Health and American Indian Women's Multiple Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napholz, Linda

    1995-01-01

    Survey of 148 college educated, employed American Indian women in urban Wisconsin examined sex role orientation and indicators of mental well-being. Sex-typed respondents had significantly higher depression, higher role conflict, lower self-esteem, and lower life satisfaction than cross-typed or androgynous respondents. Undifferentiated…

  11. Role of phytohormones in organogenic ability of elm multiplicated shoots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, J.; Gaudinová, Alena; Dobrev, Petre; Eder, Josef; Cvikrová, Milena

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2006), s. 8-14 ISSN 0006-3134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : auxin * cytokinins * multiplication of elm Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.198, year: 2006

  12. The role of the cerebellum in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weier, Katrin; Banwell, Brenda; Cerasa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), cerebellar signs and symptoms as well as cognitive dysfunction are frequent and contribute to clinical disability with only poor response to symptomatic treatment. The current consensus paper highlights the broad range of clinical signs and symptoms of MS patients, which...

  13. A Role for Attentional Reorienting During Approximate Multiplication and Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curren Katz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When asked to estimate the outcome of arithmetic problems, participants overestimate for addition problems and underestimate for subtraction problems, both in symbolic and non-symbolic format. This bias is referred to as operational momentum effect (OM. The attentional shifts account holds that during computation of the outcome participants are propelled too far along a spatial number representation. OM was observed in non-symbolic multiplication and division while being absent in symbolic multiplication and division. Here, we investigate whether (a the absence of the OM in symbolic multiplication and division was due to the presentation of the correct outcome amongst the response alternatives, putatively triggering verbally mediated fact retrieval, and whether (b OM is correlated with attentional parameters, as stipulated by the attentional account. Participants were presented with symbolic and non-symbolic multiplication and division problems. Among seven incorrect response alternatives participants selected the most plausible result. Participants were also presented with a Posner task, with valid (70%, invalid (15% and neutral (15% cues pointing to the position at which a subsequent target would appear. While no OM was observed in symbolic format, non-symbolic problems were subject to OM. The non-symbolic OM was positively correlated with reorienting after invalid cues. These results provide further evidence for a functional association between spatial attention and approximate arithmetic, as stipulated by the attentional shifts account of OM. They also suggest that the cognitive processes underlying multiplication and division are less prone to spatial biases compared to addition and subtraction, further underlining the involvement of differential cognitive processes.

  14. Multiple Roles and Women's Mental Health in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather; Glynn, Keva; Ansara, Donna

    2004-08-25

    HEALTH ISSUE: Research on the relationship between women's social roles and mental health has been equivocal. Although a greater number of roles often protect mental health, certain combinations can lead to strain. Our study explored the moderating affects of different role combinations on women's mental health by examining associations with socioeconomic status and differences in women's distress (depressive symptoms, personal stress (role strain) and chronic stress (role strain plus environmental stressors). KEY FINDINGS: Women with children, whether single or partnered, had a higher risk of personal stress. Distress, stress and chronic stress levels of mothers, regardless of employment, or marital status, are staggeringly high. Single, unemployed mothers were significantly more likely than all other groups to experience financial stress and food insecurity. For partnered mothers, rates of personal stress and chronic stress were significantly lower among unemployed partnered mothers. Married and partnered mothers reported better mental health than their single counterparts. Lone, unemployed mothers were twice as likely to report a high level of distress compared with other groups. Lone mothers, regardless of employment status, were more likely to report high personal and chronic stress. DATA GAPS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: National health surveys need to collect more data on the characteristics of women's work environment and their care giving responsibilities. Questions on household composition should include inter-generational households, same sex couples and multifamily arrangements. Data disaggregation by ethno-racial background would be helpful. Data should be collected on perceived quality of domestic and partnership roles and division of labours.

  15. Unsaturated phosphatidylcholines lining on the surface of cartilage and its possible physiological roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Ross W

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence has strongly indicated that surface-active phospholipid (SAPL, or surfactant, lines the surface of cartilage and serves as a lubricating agent. Previous clinical study showed that a saturated phosphatidylcholine (SPC, dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC, was effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis, however recent studies suggested that the dominant SAPL species at some sites outside the lung are not SPC, rather, are unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (USPC. Some of these USPC have been proven to be good boundary lubricants by our previous study, implicating their possible important physiological roles in joint if their existence can be confirmed. So far, no study has been conducted to identify the whole molecule species of different phosphatidylcholine (PC classes on the surface of cartilage. In this study we identified the dominant PC molecule species on the surface of cartilage. We also confirmed that some of these PC species possess a property of semipermeability. Methods HPLC was used to analyse the PC profile of bovine cartilage samples and comparisons of DPPC and USPC were carried out through semipermeability tests. Results It was confirmed that USPC are the dominant SAPL species on the surface of cartilage. In particular, they are Dilinoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DLPC, Palmitoyl-linoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine, (PLPC, Palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC and Stearoyl-linoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (SLPC. The relative content of DPPC (a SPC was only 8%. Two USPC, PLPC and POPC, were capable of generating osmotic pressure that is equivalent to that by DPPC. Conclusion The results from the current study confirm vigorously that USPC is the endogenous species inside the joint as against DPPC thereby confirming once again that USPC, and not SPC, characterizes the PC species distribution at non-lung sites of the body. USPC not only has better anti-friction and lubrication properties than DPPC, they also

  16. The Role of Odor-Evoked Memory in Psychological and Physiological Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2016-07-19

    This article discusses the special features of odor-evoked memory and the current state-of-the-art in odor-evoked memory research to show how these unique experiences may be able to influence and benefit psychological and physiological health. A review of the literature leads to the conclusion that odors that evoke positive autobiographical memories have the potential to increase positive emotions, decrease negative mood states, disrupt cravings, and reduce physiological indices of stress, including systemic markers of inflammation. Olfactory perception factors and individual difference characteristics that would need to be considered in therapeutic applications of odor-evoked-memory are also discussed. This article illustrates how through the experimentally validated mechanisms of odor-associative learning and the privileged neuroanatomical relationship that exists between olfaction and the neural substrates of emotion, odors can be harnessed to induce emotional and physiological responses that can improve human health and wellbeing.

  17. The Role of Odor-Evoked Memory in Psychological and Physiological Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel S. Herz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the special features of odor-evoked memory and the current state-of-the-art in odor-evoked memory research to show how these unique experiences may be able to influence and benefit psychological and physiological health. A review of the literature leads to the conclusion that odors that evoke positive autobiographical memories have the potential to increase positive emotions, decrease negative mood states, disrupt cravings, and reduce physiological indices of stress, including systemic markers of inflammation. Olfactory perception factors and individual difference characteristics that would need to be considered in therapeutic applications of odor-evoked-memory are also discussed. This article illustrates how through the experimentally validated mechanisms of odor-associative learning and the privileged neuroanatomical relationship that exists between olfaction and the neural substrates of emotion, odors can be harnessed to induce emotional and physiological responses that can improve human health and wellbeing.

  18. Exploring transcriptional signalling mediated by OsWRKY13, a potential regulator of multiple physiological processes in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xianghua

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice transcription regulator OsWRKY13 influences the functioning of more than 500 genes in multiple signalling pathways, with roles in disease resistance, redox homeostasis, abiotic stress responses, and development. Results To determine the putative transcriptional regulation mechanism of OsWRKY13, the putative cis-acting elements of OsWRKY13-influenced genes were analyzed using the whole genome expression profiling of OsWRKY13-activated plants generated with the Affymetrix GeneChip Rice Genome Array. At least 39 transcription factor genes were influenced by OsWRKY13, and 30 of them were downregulated. The promoters of OsWRKY13-upregulated genes were overrepresented with W-boxes for WRKY protein binding, whereas the promoters of OsWRKY13-downregulated genes were enriched with cis-elements putatively for binding of MYB and AP2/EREBP types of transcription factors. Consistent with the distinctive distribution of these cis-elements in up- and downregulated genes, nine WRKY genes were influenced by OsWRKY13 and the promoters of five of them were bound by OsWRKY13 in vitro; all seven differentially expressed AP2/EREBP genes and six of the seven differentially expressed MYB genes were suppressed by in OsWRKY13-activated plants. A subset of OsWRKY13-influenced WRKY genes were involved in host-pathogen interactions. Conclusion These results suggest that OsWRKY13-mediated signalling pathways are partitioned by different transcription factors. WRKY proteins may play important roles in the monitoring of OsWRKY13-upregulated genes and genes involved in pathogen-induced defence responses, whereas MYB and AP2/EREBP proteins may contribute most to the control of OsWRKY13-downregulated genes.

  19. Multiple roles for orexin/hypocretin in addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Stephen V.; Smith, Rachel J.; Moorman, David E.; Sartor, Gregory C.; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Orexins/hypocretins are hypothalamic peptides involved in arousal and wakefulness, but also play a critical role in drug addiction and reward-related behaviors. Here, we review the roles played by orexins in a variety of animal models of drug addiction, emphasizing both commonalities and differences for orexin’s involvement in seeking of the major classes of abused drugs, as well as food. One common theme that emerges is an involvement of orexins in drug seeking triggered by external stimuli (e.g., cues, contexts or stressors). We also discuss the functional neuronal circuits in which orexins are embedded, and how these circuits mediate addiction-related behaviors, with particular focus on the role of orexin and glutamate interactions within the ventral tegmental area. Finally, we attempt to contextualize the role of orexins in reward by discussing ways in which these peptides, expressed in only a few thousand neurons in the brain, can have such wide-ranging effects on behavior. PMID:22813971

  20. The Multiple Roles that Youth Development Program Leaders Adopt with Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kathrin C.

    2011-01-01

    The roles that program leaders establish in their relationships with youth structure how leaders are able to foster youth development. This article examines the complex roles program leaders create in youth programs and investigates how they balanced multiple roles to most effectively respond to the youth they serve. Analyses of qualitative data…

  1. The Role of Emotional Responses and Physiological Reactivity in the Marital Conflict-Child Functioning Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona

    2005-01-01

    Background: Children's emotional responses and physiological reactivity to conflict were examined as mediators and moderators in the associations between exposure to parental marital conflict and child adjustment and cognitive problems. Method: One hundred and eighty elementary school children participated. In response to a simulated argument,…

  2. The role of reduced oxygen in the developmental physiology of growth and metamorphosis initiation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rearing oxygen level is known to affect final body size in a variety of insects, but the physiological mechanisms by which oxygen affects size are incompletely understood. In Manduca and Drosophila, the larval size at which metamorphosis is initiated largely determines adult size, and metamorphosis ...

  3. The Role of Pontin and Reptin in Cellular Physiology and Cancer Etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Qian Mao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pontin (RUVBL1, TIP49, TIP49a, Rvb1 and Reptin (RUVBL2, TIP48, TIP49b, Rvb2 are highly conserved ATPases of the AAA+ (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities superfamily and are involved in various cellular processes that are important for oncogenesis. First identified as being upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal cancer, their overexpression has since been shown in multiple cancer types such as breast, lung, gastric, esophageal, pancreatic, kidney, bladder as well as lymphatic, and leukemic cancers. However, their exact functions are still quite unknown as they interact with many molecular complexes with vastly different downstream effectors. Within the nucleus, Pontin and Reptin participate in the TIP60 and INO80 complexes important for chromatin remodeling. Although not transcription factors themselves, Pontin and Reptin modulate the transcriptional activities of bona fide proto-oncogenes such as MYC and β-catenin. They associate with proteins involved in DNA damage repair such as PIKK complexes as well as with the core complex of Fanconi anemia pathway. They have also been shown to be important for cell cycle progression, being involved in assembly of telomerase, mitotic spindle, RNA polymerase II, and snoRNPs. When the two ATPases localize to the cytoplasm, they were reported to promote cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Due to their various roles in carcinogenesis, it is not surprising that Pontin and Reptin are proving to be important biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of various cancers. They are also current targets for the development of new therapeutic anticancer drugs.

  4. Research on Healthy Anomaly Detection Model Based on Deep Learning from Multiple Time-Series Physiological Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Health is vital to every human being. To further improve its already respectable medical technology, the medical community is transitioning towards a proactive approach which anticipates and mitigates risks before getting ill. This approach requires measuring the physiological signals of human and analyzes these data at regular intervals. In this paper, we present a novel approach to apply deep learning in physiological signals analysis that allows doctor to identify latent risks. However, extracting high level information from physiological time-series data is a hard problem faced by the machine learning communities. Therefore, in this approach, we apply model based on convolutional neural network that can automatically learn features from raw physiological signals in an unsupervised manner and then based on the learned features use multivariate Gauss distribution anomaly detection method to detect anomaly data. Our experiment is shown to have a significant performance in physiological signals anomaly detection. So it is a promising tool for doctor to identify early signs of illness even if the criteria are unknown a priori.

  5. Strangulation and Its Role in Multiple Causes of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavaty, Leigh; Sung, LokMan

    2017-12-01

    Forensic pathologists have a duty to determine the cause and manner of death and are bound by international guidelines in the completion of the death certificate. Sometimes, there are complex circumstances surrounding a death that cannot be captured in the structure of the death certificate and its requirement of listing only 1 cause of death per line. Cases may have multiple causes of death with comorbid medical conditions or inflicted injuries that equally contribute to the ultimate demise. Compared with other forms of homicide, autopsy evidence of strangulation will often be found with other life-threatening traumatic injuries. The Wayne County Medical Examiner's Office conducted a retrospective study of strangulation cases that came into the office from mid-2007 to the end of 2016. The purpose of the study was to examine patterns of injuries in strangulation cases and identify those with additional traumatic injuries of commensurate extent that required incorporation into the cause of death. A total of 43 strangulation cases were found, of which there were equal numbers of ligature and manual strangulations (19 each) and 5 cases in which the method was not specified, and decedents were divided: 63% female and 37% male. Fourteen of these cases were recognized to have multiple causes of death, where blunt force trauma was the most common additional cause, and the sex distribution weighed heavily toward the female (approximately 79%).

  6. An Analysis of Student Affairs Professionals' Management of Role Conflict and Multiple Roles in Relation to Work/Life Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nicole Lepone

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry is to study how student affairs professionals manage role conflict in relation to work/life balance based on the challenging culture of the field. The underlying goals are to identify the barriers or challenges of managing multiple roles as a student affairs administrator and identify strategies to assist employees in…

  7. The multiple roles of Fatty Acid Handling Proteins in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine SF Moullé

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipids are essential components of a living organism as energy source but also as constituent of the membrane lipid bilayer. In addition fatty acid (FA derivatives interact with many signaling pathways. FAs have amphipathic properties and therefore require being associated to protein for both transport and intracellular trafficking. Here we will focus on several fatty acid handling proteins, among which the fatty acid translocase/CD36 (FAT/CD36, members of fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs, and lipid chaperones fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs. A decade of extensive studies has helped decipher the mechanism of action of these proteins in peripheral tissue with high lipid metabolism. However, considerably less information is available regarding their role in the brain, despite the high lipid content of this tissue. This review will primarily focus on the recent studies that have highlighted the crucial role of lipid handling proteins in brain FA transport, neuronal differentiation and development, cognitive processes and brain diseases. Finally a special focus will be made on the recent studies that have revealed the role of FAT/CD36 in brain lipid sensing and nervous control of energy balance.

  8. The role of mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2-) on physiological aging in C57BL/6J mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, Masaki; Ishii, Takamasa; Yasuda, Kayo; Onouchi, Hiromi; Ishii, Naoaki; Noda, Setsuko; Hartman, Philip S.

    2009-01-01

    Much attention has been focused on the mitochondrial superoxide anion (O 2 - ), which is also a critical free radical produced by ionizing radiation. The specific role of the mitochondrial O 2 - on physiological aging in mammals is still nuclear despite wide-spread evidence that oxidative stress is involved in aging and age-related diseases. The major endogenous source of O 2 - is generated as a byproduct of energy metabolism from mitochondria. In order to better understand how O 2 - relates to metazoan aging, we have comprehensively examined age-related changes in the levels of oxidative damage, mitochondrial O 2 - production, mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activity and apoptosis induction in key organs of an inbred mouse strain (C57BL/6J). Oxidative damage accumulated and excess apoptosis occurred in the brain, oculus and kidney with aging, but comparatively little occurred in the heart and muscle. These rates are correlated with O 2 - levels. Mitochondrial O 2 - production levels increased with aging in the brain, oculus and kidney, and did not significantly increased in the heart and muscle. In contrast to O 2 - production, mitochondrial SOD activities increased in heart and muscle, and remained unchanged in the brain, oculus and kidney with aging. These results suggest that O 2 - production has high organ specificity, and oxidative damage by O 2 - from mitochondria mediated apoptosis can lead to organ atrophy and physiological dysfunction. In addition, O 2 - from mitochondria plays a core role in physiological aging. (author)

  9. The role of mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2(-)) on physiological aging in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Masaki; Ishii, Takamasa; Yasuda, Kayo; Noda, Setsuko; Onouchi, Hiromi; Hartman, Philip S; Ishii, Naoaki

    2009-01-01

    Much attention has been focused on the mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2(-)), which is also a critical free radial produced by ionizing radiation. The specific role of the mitochondrial O2(-) on physiological aging in mammals is still unclear despite wide-spread evidence that oxidative stress is involved in aging and age-related diseases. The major endogenous source of O2(-) is generated as a byproduct of energy metabolism from mitochondria. In order to better understand how O2(-)relates to metazoan aging, we have comprehensively examined age-related changes in the levels of oxidative damage, mitochondrial O2(-) production, mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activity and apoptosis induction in key organs of an inbred mouse strain (C57BL/6J). Oxidative damage accumulated and excess apoptosis occurred in the brain, oculus and kidney with aging, but comparatively little occurred in the heart and muscle. These rates are correlated with O2(-) levels. Mitochondrial O2(-) production levels increased with aging in the brain, oculus and kidney, and did not significantly increased in the heart and muscle. In contrast to O2(-) production, mitochondrial SOD activities increased in heart and muscle, and remained unchanged in the brain, oculus and kidney with aging. These results suggest that O2(-) production has high organ specificity, and oxidative damage by O2(-) from mitochondria mediated apoptosis can lead to organ atrophy and physiological dysfunction. In addition, O2(-) from mitochondria plays a core role in physiological aging.

  10. Characterization of osteopontin-uranyl interaction: role of multiple phosphorylations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Lei

    2014-01-01

    While some metals are essential for Life, other ones are only toxicants for living organisms, tolerated below well-definite concentrations. This is the case for uranium, a natural element which has no known biological function. It is a low α emitter and its chemical toxicity rather than its radiological toxicity is a subject of concern. Once in the body, this metal reaches the blood and accumulates in the bones under the action of unknown mechanisms. Uranium mainly exists in form of uranyl ion (UO 2 2+ ) in aqueous media and particularly reacts with carboxylates, phenolates and phosphates of the proteins. Previous studies have highlighted that UO 2 2+ modulates the SPP1 expression, a gene which codes for osteopontin (OPN). This highly phosphorylated glycoprotein plays an important role in bone homeostasis. This role and its biochemical properties led us to hypothesize that OPN might be a potential target of UO 2 2+ and involved in its accumulation in bones. A simple and original purification process was optimized to produce very highly purified OPN starting from human and bovine milk. Various biophysical approaches were set up and confirmed that both bovine and human OPN display very high affinity for UO 2 2+ . Moreover, the formation of stable UO 2 -protein complexes originating from structural changes was evidenced. The major role of phosphorylations, both on the OPN's affinity for UO 2 2+ and the stability of the UO 2 -protein complexes, was confirmed. These results demonstrate that OPN presents all the characteristics to be a major UO 2 2+ binding-protein in vitro, and they open new insights in the understanding of the UO 2 2+ mineralization process mechanisms. (author) [fr

  11. Multiple role occupancy in midlife: balancing work and family life in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evandrou, Maria; Glaser, Karen; Henz, Ursula

    2002-12-01

    This article investigates the extent of multiple-role occupancy among midlife individuals in Britain in cross-section and over the life course, focusing on work and family commitments. The association between demographic and social factors and multiple-role obligations is also investigated. The research is based on secondary analysis of the British Family and Working Lives Survey, which contains retrospective paid work, caregiving, and child coresidence histories. The proportion of individuals in midlife (women aged 45-59 and men aged 45-64) who have multiple roles, in terms of paid work and consistent family care, at any one point in time is low (2%). This is primarily due to the relatively small proportion (7%) of people in this age group who are caring for a dependent. Being older, unmarried, and in poor health significantly reduces the number of roles held among men and women. Although the frequency of multiple role occupancy, and intensive multiple role occupancy, is low on a cross-sectional basis, a much higher proportion of individuals have ever occupied multiple roles over their life course (14%). The findings will inform debate on how policy can best aid those endeavouring to balance paid work, family life, and caring responsibilities.

  12. Social aggravation: Understanding the complex role of social relationships on stress and health-relevant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Wendy C; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne

    2018-04-05

    There is a rich literature on social support and physical health, but research has focused primarily on the protective effects of social relationship. The stress buffering model asserts that relationships may be protective by being a source of support when coping with stress, thereby blunting health relevant physiological responses. Research also indicates relationships can be a source of stress, also influencing health. In other words, the social buffering influence may have a counterpart, a social aggravating influence that has an opposite or opposing effect. Drawing upon existing conceptual models, we expand these to delineate how social relationships may influence stress processes and ultimately health. This review summarizes the existing literature that points to the potential deleterious physiological effects of our relationships when they are sources of stress or exacerbate stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of non-rainfall water on physiological activation in desert biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiaoli; Peng, Chengrong; Li, Hua; Li, Shuangshuang; Huang, Shun; Hu, Yao; Zhang, Jinli; Li, Dunhai

    2018-01-01

    Non-rainfall water (NRW, e.g. fog and dew), in addition to rainfall and snowfall, are considered important water inputs to drylands. At the same time, biological soil crusts (BSCs) are important components of drylands. However, little information is available regarding the effect of NRW inputs on BSC activation. In this study, the effects of NRW on physiological activation in three BSC successional stages, including the cyanobacteria crust stage (Crust-C), moss colonization stage (Crust-CM), and moss crust stage (Crust-M), were studied in situ. Results suggest NRW inputs hydrated and activated physiological activity (Fv/Fm, carbon exchange, and nitrogen fixation) in BSCs but led to a negative carbon balance and low rates of nitrogen fixation in BSCs. One effective NRW event could hydrate BSCs for 7 h. Following simulated rainfall, the physiological activities recovered within 3 h, and net carbon gain occurred until 3 h after hydration, whereas NRW-induced physiological recovery processes were slower and exhibited lower activities, leading to a negative carbon balance. There were significant positive correlations between NRW amounts and the recovered values of Fv/Fm in all the three BSC stages (p < .001). The thresholds for Fv/Fm activation decreased with BSC succession, and the annual effective NRW events increased with BSC succession, with values of 29.8, 89.2, and 110.7 in Crust-C, Crust-CM and Crust-M, respectively. The results suggest that moss crust and moss-cyanobacteria crust use NRW to prolong metabolic activity and reduce drought stress more efficiently than cyanobacteria crusts. Therefore, these results suggest that BSCs utilize NRW to sustain life while growth and biomass accumulation require precipitation (rainfall) events over a certain threshold.

  14. Understanding the Biological Roles of Pectins in Plants through Physiological and Functional Characterizations of Plant and Fungal Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stranne, Maria

    The plant cell wall is a dynamic structure and it is involved in regulating a number of physiological features of plants such as physical strength, growth, cell differentiation, intercellular communication, water movement and defense responses. Pectins constitute a major class of plant cell wall...... polysaccharides and consist of backbones rich in galacturonic acids, which are decorated with a range of functional groups including acetyl esters and arabinan sidechains. Although much effort has been made to uncover biological functions of pectins in plants and remarkable progresses have taken place, many...... aspects remain elusive. Studies described in this thesis aimed at gaining new insights into the biological roles of pectin acetylation and arabinosylation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The thesis consists of four chapters: physiological characterization of cell wall mutants affected in cell...

  15. Multiple roles of genome-attached bacteriophage terminal proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; Salas, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Protein-primed replication constitutes a generalized mechanism to initiate DNA or RNA synthesis in linear genomes, including viruses, gram-positive bacteria, linear plasmids and mobile elements. By this mechanism a specific amino acid primes replication and becomes covalently linked to the genome ends. Despite the fact that TPs lack sequence homology, they share a similar structural arrangement, with the priming residue in the C-terminal half of the protein and an accumulation of positively charged residues at the N-terminal end. In addition, various bacteriophage TPs have been shown to have DNA-binding capacity that targets TPs and their attached genomes to the host nucleoid. Furthermore, a number of bacteriophage TPs from different viral families and with diverse hosts also contain putative nuclear localization signals and localize in the eukaryotic nucleus, which could lead to the transport of the attached DNA. This suggests a possible role of bacteriophage TPs in prokaryote-to-eukaryote horizontal gene transfer. - Highlights: • Protein-primed genome replication constitutes a strategy to initiate DNA or RNA synthesis in linear genomes. • Bacteriophage terminal proteins (TPs) are covalently attached to viral genomes by their primary function priming DNA replication. • TPs are also DNA-binding proteins and target phage genomes to the host nucleoid. • TPs can also localize in the eukaryotic nucleus and may have a role in phage-mediated interkingdom gene transfer

  16. Multiple roles of genome-attached bacteriophage terminal proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; Salas, Margarita, E-mail: msalas@cbm.csic.es

    2014-11-15

    Protein-primed replication constitutes a generalized mechanism to initiate DNA or RNA synthesis in linear genomes, including viruses, gram-positive bacteria, linear plasmids and mobile elements. By this mechanism a specific amino acid primes replication and becomes covalently linked to the genome ends. Despite the fact that TPs lack sequence homology, they share a similar structural arrangement, with the priming residue in the C-terminal half of the protein and an accumulation of positively charged residues at the N-terminal end. In addition, various bacteriophage TPs have been shown to have DNA-binding capacity that targets TPs and their attached genomes to the host nucleoid. Furthermore, a number of bacteriophage TPs from different viral families and with diverse hosts also contain putative nuclear localization signals and localize in the eukaryotic nucleus, which could lead to the transport of the attached DNA. This suggests a possible role of bacteriophage TPs in prokaryote-to-eukaryote horizontal gene transfer. - Highlights: • Protein-primed genome replication constitutes a strategy to initiate DNA or RNA synthesis in linear genomes. • Bacteriophage terminal proteins (TPs) are covalently attached to viral genomes by their primary function priming DNA replication. • TPs are also DNA-binding proteins and target phage genomes to the host nucleoid. • TPs can also localize in the eukaryotic nucleus and may have a role in phage-mediated interkingdom gene transfer.

  17. Defence mechanisms: the role of physiology in current and future environmental protection paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Chris N

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Ecological risk assessments principally rely on simplified metrics of organismal sensitivity that do not consider mechanism or biological traits. As such, they are unable to adequately extrapolate from standard laboratory tests to real-world settings, and largely fail to account for the diversity of organisms and environmental variables that occur in natural environments. However, an understanding of how stressors influence organism health can compensate for these limitations. Mechanistic knowledge can be used to account for species differences in basal biological function and variability in environmental factors, including spatial and temporal changes in the chemical, physical and biological milieu. Consequently, physiological understanding of biological function, and how this is altered by stressor exposure, can facilitate proactive, predictive risk assessment. In this perspective article, existing frameworks that utilize physiological knowledge (e.g. biotic ligand models, adverse outcomes pathways and mechanistic effect models), are outlined, and specific examples of how mechanistic understanding has been used to predict risk are highlighted. Future research approaches and data needs for extending the incorporation of physiological information into ecological risk assessments are discussed. Although the review focuses on chemical toxicants in aquatic systems, physical and biological stressors and terrestrial environments are also briefly considered. PMID:29564135

  18. Predicting organismal vulnerability to climate warming: roles of behaviour, physiology and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Raymond B.; Kearney, Michael R.; Krockenberger, Andrew; Holtum, Joseph A. M.; Jess, Mellissa; Williams, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    A recently developed integrative framework proposes that the vulnerability of a species to environmental change depends on the species' exposure and sensitivity to environmental change, its resilience to perturbations and its potential to adapt to change. These vulnerability criteria require behavioural, physiological and genetic data. With this information in hand, biologists can predict organisms most at risk from environmental change. Biologists and managers can then target organisms and habitats most at risk. Unfortunately, the required data (e.g. optimal physiological temperatures) are rarely available. Here, we evaluate the reliability of potential proxies (e.g. critical temperatures) that are often available for some groups. Several proxies for ectotherms are promising, but analogous ones for endotherms are lacking. We also develop a simple graphical model of how behavioural thermoregulation, acclimation and adaptation may interact to influence vulnerability over time. After considering this model together with the proxies available for physiological sensitivity to climate change, we conclude that ectotherms sharing vulnerability traits seem concentrated in lowland tropical forests. Their vulnerability may be exacerbated by negative biotic interactions. Whether tropical forest (or other) species can adapt to warming environments is unclear, as genetic and selective data are scant. Nevertheless, the prospects for tropical forest ectotherms appear grim. PMID:22566674

  19. [Role of radiotherapy in the treatment of multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mose, S; Pfitzner, D; Rahn, A; Nierhoff, C; Schiemann, M; Böttcher, H D

    2000-11-01

    Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice in multiple myeloma; but there are no curative options. Therefore, the treatment rationale is characterized by reduction of symptoms and inhibition of complications. Regarding reduction of pain, treatment of (impending) fractures, and spinal cord compression radiation is an important part of palliative treatment. In our retrospective study we report the effect of radiotherapy on reduction of pain, recalcification and the reduction of neurological symptoms and evaluate factors which have an impact on therapeutic outcome. From 1, Jan 1988 to 31, Dec 1998, 42 patients (19 women, 23 men; range of ages 46 to 85 years, median age 64.9 years) with 71 target volumes were irradiated (median dose 36 Gy, 2 to 3 Gy 5 times/week) because of symptomatic disease (67/71: osseous pain, 45/71: fractures/impending fractures, 13/71: spinal cord compression) (Tables 1 and 2). The median time from diagnosis to the first course of radiotherapy was 11.9 months (0.3 to 90 months). At the time of first irradiation, 5 and 37 patients were in tumor Stage II and III (Salmon/Durie), respectively. The median value of the Karnofsky performance was 70% (40 to 90%). During follow-up (at least 6 months) in 85% of target volumes complete and partial pain relief (measured by patients' perception and the use of analgetic medication) was achieved; recurrences were seen in 8.8%. In 26/56 (46.4%) lesions evaluable a recalcification was seen whereas 17.9% showed progressive disease (comparison of radiographs before and after radiation). In 22.3% of all lesions initially with impending fracture (4/18) radiotherapy failed because of fracture after treatment (Tables 3 and 4). Simultaneous chemotherapy and a Karnofsky performance > or = 70 had a significant impact on a positive response to treatment, respectively. Spinal cord compression symptoms were reduced in 7/13 (53.8%) of patients (scaled due to the classification by Findlay 1987). The median survival from

  20. Sortilin and Its Multiple Roles in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goettsch, Claudia; Kjølby, Mads Fuglsang; Aikawa, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Studies of sortilin's influence on cardiovascular and metabolic diseases goes far beyond the genome-wide association studies that have revealed an association between cardiovascular diseases and the 1p13...... locus that encodes sortilin. Emerging evidence suggests a significant role of sortilin in the pathogenesis of vascular and metabolic diseases; this includes type II diabetes mellitus via regulation of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis through arterial wall inflammation and calcification...... of sortilin's contributions to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases but focuses particularly on atherosclerosis. We summarize recent clinical findings that suggest that sortilin may be a cardiovascular risk biomarker and also discuss sortilin as a potential drug target....

  1. Role of radiotherapy in the treatment of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, S.; Pfitzner, D.; Rahn, A.; Nierhoff, C.; Schiemann, M.; Boettcher, H.D.

    2000-01-01

    suppose that in multiple myeloma the local response to radiation is supported by a favorable performance status and simultaneous chemotherapy. Irradiation treatment does not change prognosis regarding overall survival. (orig.) [de

  2. Regulation and physiological role of silicon in alleviating drought stress of mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaly, Mohamed Naser; El-Hoseiny, Hanan; El-Sheery, Nabil Ibrahim; Rastogi, Anshu; Kalaji, Hazem M

    2017-09-01

    Improvement of drought stress of mango plants requires intensive research that focuses on physiological processes. In three successive seasons (2014, 2015and 2016) field experiments with four different strains of mango were subjected to two water regimes. The growth and physiological parameters of possible relevance for drought stress tolerances in mango were investigated. Yield and its components were also evaluated. The data showed that all growth and physiological parameters were increased under K 2 SiO 3 (Si) supplement and were followed by the interaction treatment (Si treatment and its combination with drought stress) compared to that of the controlled condition. Drought stress decreased the concentration of auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA) and cytokinins (CK) in the three mango cultivars leaves, whereas, it increased the concentration of abscisic acid (ABA). On the contrary, IAA, GA, and CK (promoters) endogenous levels were improved by supplementing Si, in contrary ABA was decreased. Drought stress increased the activity of peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the leaves of all mango cultivars grown during three experimental seasons. However, Si supplementation reduced the levels of all these antioxidative enzymes, especially the concentration of SOD when compared to that of control leaves. Fruit quality was improved in three successive seasons when Si was applied. Our results clearly show that the increment in drought tolerance was associated with an increase in antioxidative enzyme activity, allowing mango plants to cope better with drought stress. Si possesses an efficient system for scavenging reactive oxygen species, which protects the plant against destructive oxidative reactions, thereby improving the ability of the mango trees to withstand environmental stress in arid regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Endogenous opioid systems: physiological role in the self-limitation of seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, F C; Long, J B; Holaday, J W

    1985-04-15

    Immediately following a seizure, the severity of subsequent seizures is significantly reduced. The involvement of endogenous opioid systems as a physiological regulator of this postseizure inhibition was studied in rats using repeated maximal electroshock (MES) seizures. Both the opiate antagonist (-)-naloxone and morphine tolerance abolished the progressive seizure protection associated with repeated MES. We propose that endogenous opioids, activated by a prior seizure, provide a central homeostatic inhibitory mechanism which may be responsible for the initiation of a postictal refractory state in the epileptic.

  4. Giant right coronary artery aneurysm with unusual physiology: Role of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Orozco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old woman presented with a history of dyspnea and atypical chest pain. She was diagnosed with a non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction due to a giant right coronary artery aneurysm. After a failed percutaneous embolization, she was scheduled for right coronary artery aneurysm resection, posterior descending artery revascularization and mitral valve repair. During the induction of anesthesia and institution of mechanical ventilation, the patient suffered cardiovascular collapse. The transesophageal echocardiographic examination revealed tamponade physiology owing to compression of the cardiac chambers by the unruptured aneurysm, which resolved with the sternotomy. The surgery was carried out uneventfully.

  5. Genetic behavior of morpho-physiological traits and their role for breeding drought tolerant wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, S.; Kashif, M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of drought tolerant and high yielding varieties/germplasm is the major objective of any wheat breeding program. In the present study genetic architecture of physiological traits, yield and yield related parameters were studied using the generation mean analysis to improve grain yield under drought stress. A drought tolerant line, 9877 and a drought susceptible line, NR371 were crossed to develop six generations (P/sub 1/, P/sub 2/, F/sub 1/, BC/sub 1/, BC/sub 2/, and F/sub 2/). Results revealed additive, dominant and epistatic effects involved in the inheritance of characters which varied with trait and stress. Additive gene action was observed for canopy temperature, Chlorophyll a and turgor potential. Although narrow sense heritability estimates for some traits were low but canopy temperature, chlorophyll a and turgor potential expressed reasonably high heritability that supports the results of gene action providing an opportunity for early generation selection to use in a breeding program. The estimation of heritability for leaf carotenoids and turgor potential along with gene action for leaf carotenoids is a new work in wheat. The findings of present study suggested that physiological and bio-chemical traits are the indicators of stress tolerance and their utilization in developing high yielding drought tolerant wheat germplasm can expedite the breeding for stress tolerance. (author)

  6. Predictability of physiological testing and the role of maturation in talent identification for adolescent team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D T; Naughton, G A; Torode, M

    2006-08-01

    Entrepreneurial marketing of sport increases demands on sport development officers to identify talented individuals for specialist development at the youngest possible age. Talent identification results in the streamlining of resources to produce optimal returns from a sports investment. However, the process of talent identification for team sports is complex and success prediction is imperfect. The aim of this review is to describe existing practices in physiological tests used for talent identification in team sports and discuss the impact of maturity-related differences on the long term outcomes particularly for male participants. Maturation is a major confounding variable in talent identification during adolescence. A myriad of hormonal changes during puberty results in physical and physiological characteristics important for sporting performance. Significant changes during puberty make the prediction of adult performance difficult from adolescent data. Furthermore, for talent identification programs to succeed, valid and reliable testing procedures must be accepted and implemented in a range of performance-related categories. Limited success in scientifically based talent identification is evident in a range of team sports. Genetic advances challenge the ethics of talent identification in adolescent sport. However, the environment remains a significant component of success prediction in sport. Considerations for supporting talented young male athletes are discussed.

  7. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  8. The Role of Exercise in Cardiac Aging: From Physiology to Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jason; Rhee, James; Chaudhari, Vinita; Rosenzweig, Anthony

    2016-01-22

    Aging induces structural and functional changes in the heart that are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and impaired functional capacity in the elderly. Exercise is a diagnostic and therapeutic tool, with the potential to provide insights into clinical diagnosis and prognosis, as well as the molecular mechanisms by which aging influences cardiac physiology and function. In this review, we first provide an overview of how aging impacts the cardiac response to exercise, and the implications this has for functional capacity in older adults. We then review the underlying molecular mechanisms by which cardiac aging contributes to exercise intolerance, and conversely how exercise training can potentially modulate aging phenotypes in the heart. Finally, we highlight the potential use of these exercise models to complement models of disease in efforts to uncover new therapeutic targets to prevent or treat heart disease in the aging population. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. ATP-sensitive K(+-channels in muscle cells: features and physiological role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Vadzyuk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ATP-sensitive K+-channels of plasma membranes belong to the inward rectifier potassium channels type. They are involved in coupling of electrical activity of muscle cell with its metabolic­ state. These channels are heterooctameric and consist of two types of subunits: four poreforming (Kir 6.х and four regulatory (SUR, sulfonylurea receptor. The Kir subunits contain highly selective K+ filter and provide for high-velocity K+ currents. The SUR subunits contain binding sites for activators and blockers and have metabolic sensor, which enables channel activation under conditions of metabolic stress. ATP blocks K+ currents through the ATP-sensitive K+-channels in the most types of muscle cells. However, functional activity of these channels does not depend on absolute concentration of ATP but on the АТР/ADP ratio and presence of Mg2+. Physiologically active substances, such as phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate and fatty acid esters can regulate the activity of these structures in muscle cells. Activation of these channels under ischemic conditions underlies their cytoprotective action, which results in prevention of Ca2+ overload in cytosol. In contrast to ATP-sensitive K+-channels of plasma membranes, the data regarding the structure and function of ATP-sensitive K+-channels of mitochondrial membrane are contradictory. Pore-forming subunits of this channel have not been firmly identified yet. ATP-sensitive K+ transport through the mitochondrial­ membrane is easily tested by different methods, which are briefly reviewed in this paper. Interaction of mitoKATP with physiological and pharmacological ligands is discussed as well.

  10. Distinctive Roles of D-Amino Acids in the Homochiral World: Chirality of Amino Acids Modulates Mammalian Physiology and Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasabe, Jumpei; Suzuki, Masataka

    2018-05-22

    Living organisms enantioselectively employ L-amino acids as the molecular architecture of protein synthesized in the ribosome. Although L-amino acids are dominantly utilized in most biological processes, accumulating evidence points to the distinctive roles of D-amino acids in non-ribosomal physiology. Among the three domains of life, bacteria have the greatest capacity to produce a wide variety of D-amino acids. In contrast, archaea and eukaryotes are thought generally to synthesize only two kinds of D-amino acids: D-serine and D-aspartate. In mammals, D-serine is critical for neurotransmission as an endogenous coagonist of N-methyl D-aspartate receptors. Additionally, D-aspartate is associated with neurogenesis and endocrine systems. Furthermore, recognition of D-amino acids originating in bacteria is linked to systemic and mucosal innate immunity. Among the roles played by D-amino acids in human pathology, the dysfunction of neurotransmission mediated by D-serine is implicated in psychiatric and neurological disorders. Non-enzymatic conversion of L-aspartate or L-serine residues to their D-configurations is involved in age-associated protein degeneration. Moreover, the measurement of plasma or urinary D-/L-serine or D-/L-aspartate levels may have diagnostic or prognostic value in the treatment of kidney diseases. This review aims to summarize current understanding of D-amino-acid-associated biology with a major focus on mammalian physiology and pathology.

  11. The Physiology of Fear: Reconceptualizing the Role of the Central Amygdala in Fear Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Orion P.; Hurt, Robert C.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2015-01-01

    The historically understood role of the central amygdala (CeA) in fear learning is to serve as a passive output station for processing and plasticity that occurs elsewhere in the brain. However, recent research has suggested that the CeA may play a more dynamic role in fear learning. In particular, there is growing evidence that the CeA is a site of plasticity and memory formation, and that its activity is subject to tight regulation. The following review examines the evidence for these three main roles of the CeA as they relate to fear learning. The classical role of the CeA as a routing station to fear effector brain structures like the periaqueductal gray, the lateral hypothalamus, and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus will be briefly reviewed, but specific emphasis is placed on recent literature suggesting that the CeA 1) has an important role in the plasticity underlying fear learning, 2) is involved in regulation of other amygdala subnuclei, and 3) is itself regulated by intra- and extra-amygdalar input. Finally, we discuss the parallels of human and mouse CeA involvement in fear disorders and fear conditioning, respectively. PMID:26328883

  12. Hypertriglyceridemia and preeclampsia: Its physiological role and up-to-date evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paula Martínez Linares

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a disease with a highincidence for maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, mainly indeveloping countries. Although its etiology remains unclear, severalstudies have shown that endothelial cell dysfunction plays an important role in the genesis, development and complications relatedto this disease. Among the different processes, lipid per oxidation is involved in what could be an increase in serum lipid concentrations in pregnant women, especially triglycerides. The aim of this review is to describe the role of lipids in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia and the current evidence about the finding of hypertriglyceridemia and its development.

  13. [The multiple social roles of female lay caretakers of hospitalized children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Wiliam; Pedro, Eva Neri Rubim

    2010-06-01

    This is a qualitative, descriptive, exploratory, and interventionist research carried out with nine female lay caretakers of children undergoing oncologic treatment. The objectives were to present the multiple social roles performed by female lay caretakers of children with cancer and to discuss the caretaker's role in society. The study was carried out between March and April, 2007, at Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data collection was performed with the focal group technique. The results were examined through the analysis of thematic content, which evidenced the multiple social roles performed by women, the main group of caretakers in society, regardless of the context. Final considerations enhance a discussion in the educational, political and social levels about the redistribution of social roles, particularly family responsibility between men and women. The participation of the nursing staff can take place through the comprehension of those roles imposed by the context and facilitate family inclusion in the care relationship.

  14. An exceptional role for flowering plant physiology in the expansion of tropical rainforests and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, C Kevin; Lee, Jung-Eun

    2010-11-22

    Movement of water from soil to atmosphere by plant transpiration can feed precipitation, but is limited by the hydraulic capacities of plants, which have not been uniform through time. The flowering plants that dominate modern vegetation possess transpiration capacities that are dramatically higher than any other plants, living or extinct. Transpiration operates at the level of the leaf, however, and how the impact of this physiological revolution scales up to the landscape and larger environment remains unclear. Here, climate modelling demonstrates that angiosperms help ensure aseasonally high levels of precipitation in the modern tropics. Most strikingly, replacement of angiosperm with non-angiosperm vegetation would result in a hotter, drier and more seasonal Amazon basin, decreasing the overall area of ever-wet rainforest by 80 per cent. Thus, flowering plant ecological dominance has strongly altered climate and the global hydrological cycle. Because tropical biodiversity is closely tied to precipitation and rainforest area, angiosperm climate modification may have promoted diversification of the angiosperms themselves, as well as radiations of diverse vertebrate and invertebrate animal lineages and of epiphytic plants. Their exceptional potential for environmental modification may have contributed to divergent responses to similar climates and global perturbations, like mass extinctions, before and after angiosperm evolution.

  15. Physiological Roles of Plant Post-Golgi Transport Pathways in Membrane Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Tomohiro

    2016-10-01

    Membrane trafficking is the fundamental system through which proteins are sorted to their correct destinations in eukaryotic cells. Key regulators of this system include RAB GTPases and soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs). Interestingly, the numbers of RAB GTPases and SNAREs involved in post-Golgi transport pathways in plant cells are larger than those in animal and yeast cells, suggesting that plants have evolved unique and complex post-Golgi transport pathways. The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is an important organelle that acts as a sorting station in the post-Golgi transport pathways of plant cells. The TGN also functions as the early endosome, which is the first compartment to receive endocytosed proteins. Several endocytosed proteins on the plasma membrane (PM) are initially targeted to the TGN/EE, then recycled back to the PM or transported to the vacuole for degradation. The recycling and degradation of the PM localized proteins is essential for the development and environmental responses in plant. The present review describes the post-Golgi transport pathways that show unique physiological functions in plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Managing brain extracellular K+ during neuronal activity: The physiological role of the Na+/K+-ATPase subunit isoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Roland eLarsen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDuring neuronal activity in the brain, extracellular K+ rises and is subsequently removed to prevent a widespread depolarization. One of the key players in regulating extracellular K+ is the Na+/K+-ATPase, although the relative involvement and physiological impact of the different subunit isoform compositions of the Na+/K+-ATPase remain unresolved. The various cell types in the brain serve a certain temporal contribution in the face of network activity; astrocytes respond directly to the immediate release of K+ from neurons, whereas the neurons themselves become the primary K+ absorbers as activity ends. The kinetic characteristics of the catalytic α subunit isoforms of the Na+/K+-ATPase are, partly, determined by the accessory β subunit with which they combine. The isoform combinations expressed by astrocytes and neurons, respectively, appear to be in line with the kinetic characteristics required to fulfill their distinct physiological roles in clearance of K+ from the extracellular space in the face of neuronal activity.Understanding the nature, impact and effects of the various Na+/K+-ATPase isoform combinations in K+ management in the central nervous system might reveal insights into pathological conditions such as epilepsy, migraine, and spreading depolarization following cerebral ischemia. In addition, particular neurological diseases occur as a result of mutations in the α2- (familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 and α3 isoforms (rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism/alternating hemiplegia of childhood. This review addresses aspects of the Na+/K+-ATPase in the regulation of extracellular K+ in the central nervous system as well as the related pathophysiology. Understanding the physiological setting in non-pathological tissue would provide a better understanding of the pathological events occurring during disease.

  17. The essential role of t cells in multiple sclerosis: A reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cris S Constantinescu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which destruction of myelin and nerve axons has been shown to be mediated by immune mechanisms. Although the focus of research has been traditionally on T cells as key mediators of the immunopathology, more recent efforts at understanding this complex disorder have been directed increasingly at other cellular and humoral elements of the immune response. This review is a reappraisal of the crucial role of T cells, in particular the CD4+ helper T-cell subset, in multiple sclerosis. Recent evidence is discussed underlining the predominant contribution of T-cell-associated genes to the genome-wide association study results of multiple sclerosis susceptibility, the loss of T-cell quiescence in the conversion from clinically isolated syndrome to clinically definite multiple sclerosis, and the fact that T cells represent the main target of effective immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive treatments in multiple sclerosis.

  18. Distinct physiological roles for the two L-asparaginase isozymes of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikhanta, Yogitha N. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Atack, John M.; Beacham, Ifor R. [Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222 (Australia); Jennings, Michael P., E-mail: m.jennings@griffith.edu.au [Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222 (Australia)

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •Escherichia coli contains two L-asparaginase isozymes with distinct localization, kinetics and regulation. •Mutant strains were used to examine the roles of these enzymes in L-asparagine utilization. •We report that L-asparaginase II permits growth on asparagine and glycerol under anaerobic conditions. •We propose that this enzyme is the first step in a co-regulated pathway leading to fumarate. •The pathway is regulated by anaerobiosis and cAMP and provides a terminal elector acceptor. -- Abstract: Escherichia coli expresses two L-asparaginase (EC 3.5.1.1) isozymes: L-asparaginse I, which is a low affinity, cytoplasmic enzyme that is expressed constitutively, and L-asparaginase II, a high affinity periplasmic enzyme that is under complex co-transcriptional regulation by both Fnr and Crp. The distinct localisation and regulation of these enzymes suggest different roles. To define these roles, a set of isogenic mutants was constructed that lacked either or both enzymes. Evidence is provided that L-asparaginase II, in contrast to L-asparaginase I, can be used in the provision of an anaerobic electron acceptor when using a non-fermentable carbon source in the presence of excess nitrogen.

  19. Balancing multiple roles among a group of urban midlife American Indian working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napholz, L

    2000-06-01

    Presented are the results of a secondary analysis of group data from a study of a six-week role conflict reduction intervention among a group of urban American Indian women (n = 8). The specific aim of this researcher was to understand the process of balancing multiple roles as expressed in the participants' daily lived experiences as mothers, wives, and workers. A construction of the process of balancing multiple roles was accomplished through the use of narratives. Balancing multiple roles represented a major current attempt on the part of the participants to integrate and balance traditional and contemporary feminine strengths in a positive, culturally consistent manner. The study themes included: traditional sex role expectation conflicts, family guilt, guilt management, transitioning inner conflict and stress, breaking the silence-learning to say no, and healing the spirit to reclaim the self. Further support for retraditionalization of roles for this group of Indian women was maintained as an effective means of balancing roles and achieving Indian self-determination.

  20. Physiological role of Kv1.3 channel in T lymphocyte cell investigated quantitatively by kinetic modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Hou

    Full Text Available Kv1.3 channel is a delayed rectifier channel abundant in human T lymphocytes. Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders lead to the over-expression of Kv1.3 in T cells. To quantitatively study the regulatory mechanism and physiological function of Kv1.3 in T cells, it is necessary to have a precise kinetic model of Kv1.3. In this study, we firstly established a kinetic model capable to precisely replicate all the kinetic features for Kv1.3 channels, and then constructed a T-cell model composed of ion channels including Ca2+-release activated calcium (CRAC channel, intermediate K+ (IK channel, TASK channel and Kv1.3 channel for quantitatively simulating the changes in membrane potentials and local Ca2+ signaling messengers during activation of T cells. Based on the experimental data from current-clamp recordings, we successfully demonstrated that Kv1.3 dominated the membrane potential of T cells to manipulate the Ca2+ influx via CRAC channel. Our results revealed that the deficient expression of Kv1.3 channel would cause the less Ca2+ signal, leading to the less efficiency in secretion. This was the first successful attempt to simulate membrane potential in non-excitable cells, which laid a solid basis for quantitatively studying the regulatory mechanism and physiological role of channels in non-excitable cells.

  1. Gender and gender role differences in self- and other-estimates of multiple intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanowicz, Agata; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others' multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in "personal" ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons' intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones.

  2. Phosphorylation of αB-crystallin: Role in stress, aging and patho-physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakthisaran, Raman; Akula, Kranthi Kiran; Tangirala, Ramakrishna; Rao, Ch Mohan

    2016-01-01

    αB-crystallin, once thought to be a lenticular protein, is ubiquitous and has critical roles in several cellular processes that are modulated by phosphorylation. Serine residues 19, 45 and 59 of αB-crystallin undergo phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of S45 is mediated by p44/42 MAP kinase, whereas S59 phosphorylation is mediated by MAPKAP kinase-2. Pathway involved in S19 phosphorylation is not known. The review highlights the role of phosphorylation in (i) oligomeric structure, stability and chaperone activity, (ii) cellular processes such as apoptosis, myogenic differentiation, cell cycle regulation and angiogenesis, and (iii) aging, stress, cardiomyopathy-causing αB-crystallin mutants, and in other diseases. Depending on the context and extent of phosphorylation, αB-crystallin seems to confer beneficial or deleterious effects. Phosphorylation alters structure, stability, size distribution and dynamics of the oligomeric assembly, thus modulating chaperone activity and various cellular processes. Phosphorylated αB-crystallin has a tendency to partition to the cytoskeleton and hence to the insoluble fraction. Low levels of phosphorylation appear to be protective, while hyperphosphorylation has negative implications. Mutations in αB-crystallin, such as R120G, Q151X and 464delCT, associated with inherited myofibrillar myopathy lead to hyperphosphorylation and intracellular inclusions. An ongoing study in our laboratory with phosphorylation-mimicking mutants indicates that phosphorylation of R120GαB-crystallin increases its propensity to aggregate. Phosphorylation of αB-crystallin has dual role that manifests either beneficial or deleterious consequences depending on the extent of phosphorylation and interaction with cytoskeleton. Considering that disease-causing mutants of αB-crystallin are hyperphosphorylated, moderation of phosphorylation may be a useful strategy in disease management. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Crystallin

  3. Searching for the physiological role of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Windeløv, Johanne Agerlin; Boer, Geke Aline

    2016-01-01

    metabolism. Unlike the related hormone, GLP-1, GIP stimulates the secretion of glucagon, which in healthy individuals may help to stabilize glucose levels, but in people with type 2 diabetes may contribute to glucose intolerance. A role in lipid metabolism is supported by numerous indirect observations...... and by resistance to diet-induced obesity after deletion of the GIP receptor. However, a clear effect on lipid clearance could not be identified in humans, raising doubt about its importance. The GIP receptor is widely expressed in the body and also appears to be expressed on bone cells, and experimental studies...

  4. The physiological and pathophysiological roles of taurine in adipose tissue in relation to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru

    2017-10-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. It is established that obesity is a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, which is characterized by enlarged hypertrophied adipocytes, increased infiltration by macrophages and marked changes in the secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids. The effects of taurine on the pathogenesis of obesity have been reported in animals and humans. Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-obesity action of taurine remain to be defined, taurine seems to ameliorate obesity through stimulation of energy expenditure, modulation of lipid metabolism, anorexic effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. Recent studies revealed that taurine supplementation reduces the infiltration of macrophages and modulates the polarization of adipose tissue macrophages in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. In addition, taurine downregulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by adipocytes, suggesting that taurine plays an anti-inflammatory role in adipose tissue. This article reviews the effects and mechanisms of taurine on the development of obesity, focusing on the role of taurine in white adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Mediator complex of Caenorhabditis elegans: insights into the developmental and physiological roles of a conserved transcriptional coregulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grants, Jennifer M; Goh, Grace Y S; Taubert, Stefan

    2015-02-27

    The Mediator multiprotein complex ('Mediator') is an important transcriptional coregulator that is evolutionarily conserved throughout eukaryotes. Although some Mediator subunits are essential for the transcription of all protein-coding genes, others influence the expression of only subsets of genes and participate selectively in cellular signaling pathways. Here, we review the current knowledge of Mediator subunit function in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a metazoan in which established and emerging genetic technologies facilitate the study of developmental and physiological regulation in vivo. In this nematode, unbiased genetic screens have revealed critical roles for Mediator components in core developmental pathways such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. More recently, important roles for C. elegans Mediator subunits have emerged in the regulation of lipid metabolism and of systemic stress responses, engaging conserved transcription factors such as nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs). We emphasize instances where similar functions for individual Mediator subunits exist in mammals, highlighting parallels between Mediator subunit action in nematode development and in human cancer biology. We also discuss a parallel between the association of the Mediator subunit MED12 with several human disorders and the role of its C. elegans ortholog mdt-12 as a regulatory hub that interacts with numerous signaling pathways. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Substantial roles of hexokinase and fructokinase in the effects of sugars on plant physiology and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, David; Kelly, Gilor; Stein, Ofer; David-Schwartz, Rakefet

    2014-03-01

    The basic requirements for plant growth are light, CO2, water, and minerals. However, the absorption and utilization of each of these requires investment on the part of the plant. The primary products of plants are sugars, and the hexose sugars glucose and fructose are the raw material for most of the metabolic pathways and organic matter in plants. To be metabolized, hexose sugars must first be phosphorylated. Only two families of enzymes capable of catalysing the essential irreversible phosphorylation of glucose and fructose have been identified in plants, hexokinases (HXKs) and fructokinases (FRKs). These hexose-phosphorylating enzymes appear to coordinate sugar production with the abilities to absorb light, CO2, water, and minerals. This review describes the long- and short-term effects mediated by HXK and FRK in various tissues, as well as the role of these enzymes in the coordination of sugar production with the absorption of light, CO2, water, and minerals.

  7. A Multi-Scale Study on the Role of Trace Metals on Physiological and Pathological Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammelkamp, Derek

    The work in this thesis provides mulit-scale contributions towards understanding the effects of trace metals on the pathological mineralization process relating to both the development of healthy bone tissue, the diseased state of osteoporosis, and microcalcifications which develop in breast cancers. A protein level study was performed on ECM protein fibronectin, which plays a role in cell adhesion. The protein studies showed zinc interactions with fibronectin and its fragment, anastellin, to influence protein structure. Zinc is also shown to decrease cell migration in vitro, which may be influenced by changes in fibronectin ECM structure. The effects of osteoporosis on micronutrient composition in vivo were examined using the technique of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) in an ovariectomized rat model. Compared to healthy bone, subtle difference are observed in zinc and iron in osteoporotic rat bones, showing micronutrients may play an important role in healthy bone regulation. Effects of micronutrient zinc was used to inhibit microcalcification formation in breast cancers. Microcalcifications have been linked malignancy of breast cancers, but the process of microcalcification formation has yet to be well understood. In this work, exogenous zinc is used to inhibit microcalcification formation, and metastatic potential in both a 2D and 3D spheroid environment. A novel in vitro self-assembled three dimensional multi-cellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) model for the study of breast cancer microcalcifications was developed for this experiment. A MCTS model for studying breast cancer microcalcifications has potential to be used in drug discovery, or for basic research applications studying mechanisms of microcalcification formation, which are still not fully understood. Taken together this study uses a multi-scale approach to gain a better understanding of micronutrients involved in pathological mineralization.

  8. Managing multiple roles - Personality, stress, and work-family interference in dual-earner couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda-Boer, H.H.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Vermulst, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Today many parents have multiple roles. This study examined how personality, domain-specific stress, and work-family interference are interrelated. Questionnaire data of 276 Dutch dual-earner couples with young children were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings demonstrated that job

  9. Epistemological and Reading Beliefs Profiles and Their Role in Multiple Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Mar; Solé, Isabel; Martín, Elena; Castells, Nuria; Cuevas, Isabel; González-Lamas, Jara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to analyse the role of epistemological beliefs and reading beliefs in the comprehension of multiple texts which presented conflicting positions about a controversial topic (nuclear energy). More specifically, we investigated the influence of the multidimensional configuration of epistemological and reading…

  10. RPGR: Its role in photoreceptor physiology, human disease, and future therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megaw, Roly D; Soares, Dinesh C; Wright, Alan F

    2015-09-01

    Mammalian photoreceptors contain specialised connecting cilia that connect the inner (IS) to the outer segments (OS). Dysfunction of the connecting cilia due to mutations in ciliary proteins are a common cause of the inherited retinal dystrophy retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Mutations affecting the Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator (RPGR) protein is one such cause, affecting 10-20% of all people with RP and the majority of those with X-linked RP. RPGR is located in photoreceptor connecting cilia. It interacts with a wide variety of ciliary proteins, but its exact function is unknown. Recently, there have been important advances both in our understanding of RPGR function and towards the development of a therapy. This review summarises the existing literature on human RPGR function and dysfunction, and suggests that RPGR plays a role in the function of the ciliary gate, which controls access of both membrane and soluble proteins to the photoreceptor outer segment. We discuss key models used to investigate and treat RPGR disease and suggest that gene augmentation therapy offers a realistic therapeutic approach, although important questions still remain to be answered, while cell replacement therapy based on retinal progenitor cells represents a more distant prospect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Laser-induced generation of singlet oxygen and its role in the cerebrovascular physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Sokolovski, S. G.; Goltsov, A.; Gekaluyk, A. S.; Saranceva, E. I.; Bragina, O. A.; Tuchin, V. V.; Rafailov, E. U.

    2017-09-01

    For over 55 years, laser technology has expanded from laboratory research to widespread fields, for example telecommunication and data storage amongst others. Recently application of lasers in biology and medicine presents itself as one of the emerging areas. In this review, we will outline the recent advances in using lasers for the generation of singlet oxygen, traditionally used to kill tumour cells or induce thrombotic stroke model due to damage vascular effects. Over the last two decade, completely new results on cerebrovascular effects of singlet oxygen generated during photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been shown alongside promising applications for delivery of drugs and nanoparticles into the brain for therapy of brain cancer. Furthermore, a ;gold key; has been found to overcome the limitations of PDT, such as low light penetration and high toxicity of photosensitizers, by direct generation of singlet oxygen using quantum-dot laser diodes emitting in the near infrared (NIR) spectral range. It is our motivation to highlight these pioneering results in this review, to improve understanding of the biological role of singlet oxygen and to provide new perspectives for improving clinical application of laser based therapy in further research.

  12. New Perspectives on the Potential Role of Aquaporins (AQPs in the Physiology of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Meli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are emerging, in the last few decades, as critical proteins regulating water fluid homeostasis in cells involved in inflammation. AQPs represent a family of ubiquitous membrane channels that regulate osmotically water flux in various tissues and sometimes the transport of small solutes, including glycerol. Extensive data indicate that AQPs, working as water channel proteins, regulate not only cell migration, but also common events essential for inflammatory response. The involvement of AQPs in several inflammatory processes, as demonstrated by their dysregulation both in human and animal diseases, identifies their new role in protection and response to different noxious stimuli, including bacterial infection. This contribution could represent a new key to clarify the dilemma of host-pathogen communications, and opens up new scenarios regarding the investigation of the modulation of specific AQPs, as target for new pharmacological therapies. This review provides updated information on the underlying mechanisms of AQPs in the regulation of inflammatory responses in mammals and discusses the broad spectrum of options that can be tailored for different diseases and their pharmacological treatment.

  13. Physiological and Pathological Roles of CaMKII-PP1 Signaling in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norifumi Shioda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII, a multifunctional serine (Ser/threonine (Thr protein kinase, regulates diverse activities related to Ca2+-mediated neuronal plasticity in the brain, including synaptic activity and gene expression. Among its regulators, protein phosphatase-1 (PP1, a Ser/Thr phosphatase, appears to be critical in controlling CaMKII-dependent neuronal signaling. In postsynaptic densities (PSDs, CaMKII is required for hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP, a cellular process correlated with learning and memory. In response to Ca2+ elevation during hippocampal LTP induction, CaMKIIα, an isoform that translocates from the cytosol to PSDs, is activated through autophosphorylation at Thr286, generating autonomous kinase activity and a prolonged Ca2+/CaM-bound state. Moreover, PP1 inhibition enhances Thr286 autophosphorylation of CaMKIIα during LTP induction. By contrast, CaMKII nuclear import is regulated by Ser332 phosphorylation state. CaMKIIδ3, a nuclear isoform, is dephosphorylated at Ser332 by PP1, promoting its nuclear translocation, where it regulates transcription. In this review, we summarize physio-pathological roles of CaMKII/PP1 signaling in neurons. CaMKII and PP1 crosstalk and regulation of gene expression is important for neuronal plasticity as well as survival and/or differentiation.

  14. Understanding the physiological roles of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 under aerobic chemoheterotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narancic, Tanja; Scollica, Elisa; Kenny, Shane T; Gibbons, Helena; Carr, Eibhlin; Brennan, Lorraine; Cagney, Gerard; Wynne, Kieran; Murphy, Cormac; Raberg, Matthias; Heinrich, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2016-10-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is an important biopolymer accumulated by bacteria and associated with cell survival and stress response. Here, we make two surprising findings in the PHB-accumulating species Rhodospirillum rubrum S1. We first show that the presence of PHB promotes the increased assimilation of acetate preferentially into biomass rather than PHB. When R. rubrum is supplied with (13)C-acetate as a PHB precursor, 83.5 % of the carbon in PHB comes from acetate. However, only 15 % of the acetate ends up in PHB with the remainder assimilated as bacterial biomass. The PHB-negative mutant of R. rubrum assimilates 2-fold less acetate into biomass compared to the wild-type strain. Acetate assimilation proceeds via the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway with (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate as a common intermediate with the PHB pathway. Secondly, we show that R. rubrum cells accumulating PHB have reduced ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO) activity. RuBisCO activity reduces 5-fold over a 36-h period after the onset of PHB. In contrast, a PHB-negative mutant maintains the same level of RuBisCO activity over the growth period. Since RuBisCO controls the redox potential in R. rubrum, PHB likely replaces RuBisCO in this role. R. rubrum is the first bacterium found to express RuBisCO under aerobic chemoheterotrophic conditions.

  15. The role of microRNA399 and sucrose in physiological responses to phosphate deficiency in Arabidopsis thalina plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Mohammadsaleh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are noncoding small RNAs that generally function as posttranscriptional negative regulators. The miRNAs play a direct role in plant responses to many types of environmental stresses. For example miR399 had a role in response to Pi deficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR399 and sucrose in some physiological responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to phosphate deficiency. Therefore, miR399-overexpressing transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis plants were used. The plant seeds were cultured on the Suc+Pi+ (S+P+, Suc-Pi+ (S-P+, Suc+Pi- (S+P- and Suc-Pi- (S-P- media. Pi+ and Pi- refer to 1.2 mM and 10 µM Pi, respectively and Suc+ or Suc- are media culture with 1% sucrose or without. The results showed that sucrose and miR399 had a dramatic effect on root architecture so that primary root length and its branches on S-P+ medium were significantly reduced in over expressed as compared with wild type plants. The highest anthocyanin and starch accumulation was achieved in S+P- media in both plant types. However, miR399 over expression was resulted in significant rise in anthocyanin accumulation on S-P- medium in transgenic relative to wild type plants. In addition, miR399 was resulted in significant rise in free phosphorous level in all types' media. compared to wild type. These results were probably due to the role of sucrose and miR399 in signalling pathway during phosphate starvation in Arabidopsis plant.

  16. Role of EG-VEGF in human placentation: Physiological and pathological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Pascale; Saoudi, Yasmina; Benharouga, Mohamed; Graham, Charles H; Schaal, Jean-Patrick; Mazouni, Chafika; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2009-08-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE), the major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, is thought to be caused by shallow invasion of the maternal decidua by extravillous trophoblasts (EVT). Data suggest that a fine balance between the expressions of pro- and anti-invasive factors might regulate EVT invasiveness. Recently, we showed that the expression of the new growth factor endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is high in early pregnancy but falls after 11 weeks, suggesting an essential role for this factor in early pregnancy. Using human villous explants and HTR-8/SVneo, a first trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line, we showed differential expression of EG-VEGF receptors, PKR1 and PKR2, in the placenta and demonstrated that EG-VEGF inhibits EVT migration, invasion and tube-like organisation. EG-VEGF inhibitory effect on invasion was supported by a decrease in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 production. Interference with PKR2 expression, using specific siRNAs, reversed the EG-VEGF-induced inhibitory effects. Furthermore, we determined EG-VEGF circulating levels in normal and PE patients. Our results showed that EG-VEGF levels were highest during the first trimester of pregnancy and decreased thereafter to non-pregnant levels. More important, EG-VEGF levels were significantly elevated in PE patients compared with age-matched controls. These findings identify EG-VEGF as a novel paracrine regulator of trophoblast invasion. We speculate that a failure to correctly down-regulate placental expression of EG-VEGF at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy might lead to PE.

  17. Physiological changes due to hepatotoxicity and the protective role of some medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howida S. Abou Seif

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The liver is the largest, important organ and the site for essential biochemical reactions in the human body. It has the function to detoxify toxic substances and synthesize useful biomolecules. Therefore, damage to the liver leads to grave consequences. This damage resulted from chronic alcoholic abuse, viral hepatitis or inherited metabolic disease. Liver damage is associated with cellular necrosis, fibrosis, and increase in tissue lipid peroxidation and depletion in tissue glutathione level. Most of the hepatotoxic chemicals damage liver cells mainly by inducing lipid peroxidation and other oxidative damages in the liver. Natural antioxidants are found in many compounds classified as secondary plant metabolites, e.g. polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids and terpenoids (carotenoids, and the consumption of foods that contain these compounds in large quantities seems to play an important role in prophylaxis against many diseases. Herbal medicines derived from plant extracts are being increasingly utilized to treat a wide variety of clinical disease. More attention has been paid to the protective effects of natural antioxidants against drug induced toxicities especially whenever free radical generation is involved. Popularity of herbal remedies is increasing and at least one quarter of patients with liver disease use botanicals. The World Health Organization (WHO estimates that 80 percent of the population of some Asian and African countries presently use herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. Some medicinal herbs have proven hepatoprotective potential. Silybum marianum (milk thistle has been used to treat liver diseases since the 16th century. Its major constituents are the flavonoids silibinin, silydianin, silychristin, and isosilibinin, of which silibinin is the biologically most active compound and used for standardization of pharmaceutical products.

  18. Physiological and biochemical role of the butanediol pathway in Aerobacter (Enterobacter) aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, L; Bryn, K; Stormer, F C

    1975-01-01

    Aerobacter (Enterobacter) aerogenes wild type and three mutants deficient in the formation of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol were grown in a glucose minimal medium. Culture densities, pH, and diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol levels were recorded. The pH in wild-type cultures dropped from 7.0 to 5.8, remained constant while acetoin and 2,3-butanediol were formed, and increased to pH 6.5 after exhaustion of the carbon source. More 2,3-butanediol than acetoin was formed initially, but after glucose exhaustion reoxidation to acetoin occurred. The three mutants differed from the wild type in yielding acid cultures (pH below 4.5). The wild type and one of the mutants were grown exponentially under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with the pH fixed at 7.0, 5.8, and 5.0, respectively. Growth rates decreased with decreasing pH values. Aerobically, this effect was weak, and the two strains were affected to the same degree. Under anaerobic conditions, the growth rates were markedly inhibited at a low pH, and the mutant was slightly more affected than the wild type. Levels of alcohol dehydrogenase were low under all conditions, indicating that the enzyme plays no role during exponential growth. The levels of diacetyl (acetoin) reductase, lactate dehydrogenase, and phosphotransacetylase were independent of the pH during aerobic growth of the two strains. Under anaerobic conditions, the formation of diacetyl (acetoin) reductase was pH dependent, with much higher levels of the enzyme at pH 5.0 than at pH 7.0. Lactate dehydrogenase and phosphotransacetylase revealed the same pattern of pH-dependent formation in the mutant, but not in the wild type. PMID:239921

  19. A review on potential roles of vitamins in incidence, progression, and improvement of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matin Khosravi-Largani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease, with unknown etiology. Vitamins, as important micronutrients playing different roles in body, seem to be important in MS pathogenesis. In vitro, in vivo and human studies, supports the protective role of some vitamins in MS occurrence or progression. Current study reviews recent insights and reports about the importance of vitamins in MS incidence or progression. In accordance, the importance of all water and fat-soluble vitamins in MS pathogenesis based on observational studies in human population and their role in the function of immune system as well as possible therapeutic opportunities are discussed in depth throughout this review. Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Vitamin D, Folic acid, Vitamin B 12, Vitamins

  20. Molecular Analysis of Atypical Family 18 Chitinase from Fujian Oyster Crassostrea angulata and Its Physiological Role in the Digestive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bingye; Zhang, Mingming; Li, Lingling; Pu, Fei; You, Weiwei; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-01-01

    Chitinolytic enzymes have an important physiological significance in immune and digestive systems in plants and animals, but chitinase has not been identified as having a role in the digestive system in molluscan. In our study, a novel chitinase homologue, named Ca-Chit, has been cloned and characterized as the oyster Crassostrea angulate. The 3998bp full-length cDNA of Ca-Chit consisted of 23bp 5-UTR, 3288 ORF and 688bp 3-UTR. The deduced amino acids sequence shares homologue with the chitinase of family 18. The molecular weight of the protein was predicted to be 119.389 kDa, with a pI of 6.74. The Ca-Chit protein was a modular enzyme composed of a glycosyl hydrolase family 18 domain, threonine-rich region profile and a putative membrane anchor domain. Gene expression profiles monitored by quantitative RT-PCR in different adult tissues showed that the mRNA of Ca-Chit expressed markedly higher visceral mass than any other tissues. The results of the whole mount in-situ hybridization displayed that Ca-Chit starts to express the visceral mass of D-veliger larvae and then the digestive gland forms a crystalline structure during larval development. Furthermore, the adult oysters challenged by starvation indicated that the Ca-Chit expression would be regulated by feed. All the observations made suggest that Ca-Chit plays an important role in the digestive system of the oyster, Crassostrea angulate.

  1. Toll-like receptors in the gonads and reproductive tract: emerging roles in reproductive physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girling, Jane E; Hedger, Mark P

    2007-01-01

    Interactions between the immune system and reproductive system have important consequences for fertility and reproductive health in general. There is increasing evidence that many of the interactions between the immune and reproductive systems involve the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). While there is no doubt that TLRs are important in providing protection against infection in the reproductive tract, there is increasing evidence for the involvement of TLRs in more basic pathology and physiology of reproduction. In the female, TLRs have been implicated in critical aspects of ovarian, endometrial and placental function, as well as in ovarian cancer, pelvic inflammatory disease, intrauterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia and preterm birth. In the male, TLRs appear to play a role in the control of testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in disease and, potentially, during normal function, as well. Recent studies also have begun to highlight the role of various TLRs in the aetiology of prostatitis and prostatic cancer. Given the nascent state of knowledge concerning this important area, it is clear that more studies are needed, which should provide valuable new insights into the biology of the TLRs and reproductive function in general.

  2. Preparation of Single-cohort Colonies and Hormone Treatment of Worker Honeybees to Analyze Physiology Associated with Role and/or Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Kiyoshi; Kubo, Takeo

    2016-09-06

    Honeybee workers are engaged in various tasks related to maintaining colony activity. The tasks of the workers change according to their age (age-related division of labor). Young workers are engaged in nursing the brood (nurse bees), while older workers are engaged in foraging for nectar and pollen (foragers). The physiology of the workers changes in association with this role shift. For example, the main function of the hypopharyngeal glands (HPGs) changes from the secretion of major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) to the secretion of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. Because worker tasks change as the workers age in typical colonies, it is difficult to discriminate the physiological changes that occur with aging from those that occur with the role shift. To study the physiological changes in worker tissues, including the HPGs, in association with the role shift, it would be useful to manipulate the honeybee colony population by preparing single-cohort colonies in which workers of almost the same age perform different tasks. Here we describe a detailed protocol for preparing single-cohort colonies for this analysis. Six to eight days after single-cohort colony preparation, precocious foragers that perform foraging tasks earlier than usual appear in the colony. Representative results indicated role-associated changes in HPG gene expression, suggesting role-associated HPG function. In addition to manipulating the colony population, analysis of the endocrine system is important for investigating role-associated physiology. Here, we also describe a detailed protocol for treating workers with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), an active form of ecdysone, and methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue. The survival rate of treated bees was sufficient to examine gene expression in the HPGs. Gene expression changes were observed in response to 20E- and/or methoprene-treatment, suggesting that hormone treatments induce physiological changes of the HPGs. The protocol for hormone

  3. Development and validation of the work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales among registered nurses with multiple roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijuan; Song, Rhayun

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales, and to validate the psychometrics of those scales among registered nurses with multiple roles. The concepts, generation of items, and the scale domains of work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales were constructed based on a review of the literature. The validity and reliability of the scales were examined by administering them to 201 registered nurses who were recruited from 8 university hospitals in South Korea. The content validity was examined by nursing experts using a content validity index. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to establish the construct validity. The correlation with depression was examined to assess concurrent validity. Finally, internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The work-family-school role conflicts scale comprised ten items with three factors: work-school-to-family conflict (three items), family-school-to-work conflict (three items), and work-family-to-school conflict (four items). The role-related social support scale comprised nine items with three factors: support from family (three items), support from work (three items), and support from school (three items). Cronbach's alphas were 0.83 and 0.76 for the work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales, respectively. Both instruments exhibited acceptable construct and concurrent validity. The validity and reliability of the developed scales indicate their potential usefulness for the assessment of work-family-school role conflict and role-related social support among registered nurses with multiple roles in Korea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mothers of young adults with intellectual disability: multiple roles, ethnicity and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhower, A; Blacher, J

    2006-12-01

    Two opposing perspectives--role strain and role enhancement--were considered as predictive of women's psychological and physical health. The authors examined the relation between multiple role occupancy (parenting, employment, marriage) and well-being (depression and health) among mothers of young adults with intellectual disability (ID). Participants were 226 mothers aged 35-70 years old caring for a young adult aged 16-26 years old with moderate to severe/profound ID. Mothers were of either Latino ethnicity (n=117) or Anglo (n=109). Mothers' ethnicity and degree of acculturation and young adults' adaptive behaviour and behaviour problems were examined as potential moderators. Mothers who were employed, married, or both reported better well-being than mothers who were both unemployed and unmarried, especially when their offspring had relatively higher adaptive functioning. This relationship between role occupancy and well-being was fully mediated by socio-economic status (SES) factors. Results did not suggest a role enhancement effect, but instead indicated a role shortage effect; unemployed, unmarried mothers experienced markedly poor well-being, while all other mothers experienced comparable well-being. Well-being scores were higher for Anglo than for Latino mothers; this relationship was entirely accounted for by SES. In Latina mothers, the relation between role occupancy and well-being was moderated by degree of acculturation. Findings suggest that multiple roles benefit mothers of young adults with ID primarily through their impact on socio-economic resources. For more acculturated Latina mothers, occupying more roles predicted better well-being even after controlling for SES. Latina mothers who were unemployed and unmarried had lower SES, and this group emerged as at particular risk. The latter group may benefit most from respite assistance and other interventions aimed at addressing their physical and mental health.

  5. Bridges or Barriers? Conceptualization of the Role of Multiple Identity Gateway Groups in Intergroup Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon Levy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern era of globalization has been accompanied by a massive growth in interconnections between groups, and has led to the sharing of multiple identities by individuals and groups. Following these developments, research has focused on the issue of multiple identities, and has shed important light on how individuals who hold these complex forms of identity feel and behave, and on the reactions they elicit from members of other groups. However, the potential of groups with such multiple identities (e.g., biracials, immigrants, etc. to affect the intergroup relations between the groups that represent the respective sources of the different identities (e.g., Blacks and Whites, country of origin and country of residence, etc. has not been examined to date. Accordingly, in this paper, we first systematically explore the potential of groups in which people identify with multiple social categories, or groups that are perceived as such by others, to play a role in intergroup dynamics. Next, we offer a theoretical framework outlining what functions groups of people with shared multiple identities may serve (as bridges or barriers by proposing how their presence may facilitate or deteriorate intergroup relations. Finally, we present recent empirical research examining how groups of people with shared multiple identities can act as gateways and bridge the cleft between two separate groups that represent the respective sources of their different identities, and discuss the theoretical and practical implications for the field of intergroup relations.

  6. Multiple roles of the prostaglandin D2 signaling pathway in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossitto, Moïra; Ujjan, Safdar; Poulat, Francis; Boizet-Bonhoure, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandins signaling molecules are involved in numerous physiological processes. They are produced by several enzyme-limited reactions upon fatty acids, which are catalyzed by two cyclooxygenases and prostaglandin synthases. In particular, the prostaglandins E2 (PGE2), D2 (PGD2), and F2 (PGF2 α) have been shown to be involved in female reproductive mechanisms. Furthermore, widespread expression of lipocalin- and hematopoietic-PGD2 synthases in the male reproductive tract supports the purported roles of PGD2 in the development of both embryonic and adult testes, sperm maturation, and spermatogenesis. In this review, we summarize the putative roles of PGD2 signaling and the roles of both PGD2 synthases in testicular formation and function. We review the data reporting the involvement of PGD2 signaling in the differentiation of Sertoli and germ cells of the embryonic testis. Furthermore, we discuss the roles of lipocalin-PGD2 synthase in steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, in terms of lipid molecule transport and PGD2 production. Finally, we discuss the hypothesis that PGD2 signaling may be affected in certain reproductive diseases, such as infertility, cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  7. [The physiology of glucagon-like peptide-1 and its role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalada, Francisco Javier

    2014-09-01

    The hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is synthesized and secreted by L cells in the small intestine in response to food ingestion. After reaching the general circulation it has a half-life of 2-3 minutes due to degradation by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4. Its physiological role is directed to control plasma glucose concentration, though GLP-1 also plays other different metabolic functions following nutrient absorption. Biological activities of GLP-1 include stimulation of insulin biosynthesis and glucose-dependent insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cell, inhibition of glucagon secretion, delay of gastric emptying and inhibition of food intake. GLP-1 is able to reduce plasma glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and also can restore beta cell sensitivity to exogenous secretagogues, suggesting that the increasing GLP-1 concentration may be an useful therapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Guards at the gate: physiological and pathological roles of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cells in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hang; Jin, Chengyan; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Shan; Liu, Yong-Jun; Chen, Jingtao

    2017-12-01

    The lung is an important open organ and the primary site of respiration. Many life-threatening diseases develop in the lung, e.g., pneumonia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs), pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer. In the lung, innate immunity serves as the frontline in both anti-irritant response and anti-tumor defense and is also critical for mucosal homeostasis; thus, it plays an important role in containing these pulmonary diseases. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), characterized by their strict tissue residence and distinct function in the mucosa, are attracting increased attention in innate immunity. Upon sensing the danger signals from damaged epithelium, ILCs activate, proliferate, and release numerous cytokines with specific local functions; they also participate in mucosal immune-surveillance, immune-regulation, and homeostasis. However, when their functions become uncontrolled, ILCs can enhance pathological states and induce diseases. In this review, we discuss the physiological and pathological functions of ILC subsets 1 to 3 in the lung, and how the pathogenic environment affects the function and plasticity of ILCs.

  9. Role of heat shock protein Hsp25 in the response of the orofacial nuclei motor system to physiological stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, A. K.; Talebian, S.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Although expression of the small heat shock protein family member Hsp25 has been previously observed in the central nervous system (CNS), both constitutively and upon induction, its function in the CNS remains far from clear. In the present study we have characterized the spatial pattern of expression of Hsp25 in the normal adult mouse brain as well as the changes in expression patterns induced by subjecting mice to experimental hyperthermia or hypoxia. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a surprisingly restricted pattern of constitutive expression of Hsp25 in the brain, limited to the facial, trigeminal, ambiguus, hypoglossal and vagal motor nuclei of the brainstem. After hyperthermia or hypoxia treatment, significant increases in the levels of Hsp25 were observed in these same areas and also in fibers of the facial and trigeminal nerve tracts. Immunoblot analysis of protein lysates from brainstem also showed the same pattern of induction of Hsp25. Surprisingly, no other area in the brain showed expression of Hsp25, in either control or stressed animals. The highly restricted expression of Hsp25 implies that this protein may have a specific physiological role in the orofacial motor nuclei, which govern precise coordination between muscles of mastication and the pharynx, larynx, and face. Its rapid induction after stress further suggests that Hsp25 may serve as a specific molecular chaperone in the lower cholinergic motor neurons and along their fibers under conditions of stress or injury. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. The Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in the Development and Physiology of Gametes and Preimplantation Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaou-Chen Huang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In several species, a family of nuclear receptors, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs composed of three isotypes, is expressed in somatic cells and germ cells of the ovary as well as the testis. Invalidation of these receptors in mice or stimulation of these receptors in vivo or in vitro showed that each receptor has physiological roles in the gamete maturation or the embryo development. In addition, synthetic PPARγ ligands are recently used to induce ovulation in women with polycystic ovary disease. These results reveal the positive actions of PPAR in reproduction. On the other hand, xenobiotics molecules (in herbicides, plasticizers, or components of personal care products, capable of activating PPAR, may disrupt normal PPAR functions in the ovary or the testis and have consequences on the quality of the gametes and the embryos. Despite the recent data obtained on the biological actions of PPARs in reproduction, relatively little is known about PPARs in gametes and embryos. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the expression and the function of PPARs as well as their partners, retinoid X receptors (RXRs, in germ cells and preimplantation embryos. The effects of natural and synthetic PPAR ligands will also be discussed from the perspectives of reproductive toxicology and assisted reproductive technology.

  11. Multiple role occupancy and social participation among midlife wives and husbands in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Karen; Evandrou, Maria; Tomassini, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between intensive multiple role occupancy and one key dimension of well-being, social participation (i.e., frequency of participation in social and leisure activities and meeting friends or relatives). Moreover, we examined gender differences in the association between individual, spousal and couple intensive multiple role commitments and individual social participation. Our research is based on a sample of mid-life wives (45-59) and their husbands from the 2000 British Household Panel Study (BHPS). Our findings show that, among wives whose husbands were providing care to a dependent for 20 or more hours a week, there was a negative association with social and leisure activity participation, whereas husbands' level of participation in social and leisure activities was higher if their wives were in full-time paid work. We also found lower odds of meeting friends or relatives among wives and husbands in full-time employment, and higher odds of meeting friends and relatives among wives providing care for 20 or more hours a week. Our results will aid policy thinking in addressing how people can be best supported to balance work and family commitments in order to optimize different dimensions of well-being in later life and help alleviate the pressures associated with multiple-role occupancy in mid-life.

  12. High dietary fat and sucrose results in an extensive and time-dependent deterioration in health of multiple physiological systems in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, James G; Kebede, Melkam A; Meoli, Christopher C; Stöckli, Jacqueline; Whitworth, P Tess; Wright, Amanda L; Hoffman, Nolan J; Minard, Annabel Y; Ma, Xiuquan; Krycer, James R; Nelson, Marin E; Tan, Shi-Xiong; Yau, Belinda; Thomas, Kristen C; Wee, Natalie K Y; Khor, Ee-Cheng; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Vissel, Bryce; Biden, Trevor J; Baldock, Paul A; Hoehn, Kyle L; Cantley, James; Cooney, Gregory J; James, David E; Fazakerley, Daniel J

    2018-04-13

    Obesity is associated with metabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and with disorders such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and neurodegeneration. Typically, these pathologies are examined in discrete model systems and with limited temporal resolution, and whether these disorders co-occur is therefore unclear. To address this question, here we examined multiple physiological systems in male C57BL/6J mice following prolonged exposure to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFHSD). HFHSD-fed mice rapidly exhibited metabolic alterations, including obesity, hyperleptinemia, physical inactivity, glucose intolerance, peripheral insulin resistance, fasting hyperglycemia, ectopic lipid deposition, and bone deterioration. Prolonged exposure to HFHSD resulted in morbid obesity, ectopic triglyceride deposition in liver and muscle, extensive bone loss, sarcopenia, hyperinsulinemia, and impaired short-term memory. Although many of these defects are typically associated with aging, HFHSD did not alter telomere length in white blood cells, indicating that this diet did not generally promote all aspects of aging. Strikingly, glucose homeostasis was highly dynamic. Glucose intolerance was evident in HFHSD-fed mice after 1 week and was maintained for 24 weeks. Beyond 24 weeks, however, glucose tolerance improved in HFHSD-fed mice, and by 60 weeks, it was indistinguishable from that of chow-fed mice. This improvement coincided with adaptive β-cell hyperplasia and hyperinsulinemia, without changes in insulin sensitivity in muscle or adipose tissue. Assessment of insulin secretion in isolated islets revealed that leptin, which inhibited insulin secretion in the chow-fed mice, potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the HFHSD-fed mice after 60 weeks. Overall, the excessive calorie intake was accompanied by deteriorating function of numerous physiological systems. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Decisional role preferences, risk knowledge and information interests in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesen, Christoph; Kasper, Jürgen; Segal, Julia; Köpke, Sascha; Mühlhauser, Ingrid

    2004-12-01

    Shared decision making is increasingly recognized as the ideal model of patient-physician communication especially in chronic diseases with partially effective treatments as multiple sclerosis (MS). To evaluate prerequisite factors for this kind of decision making we studied patients' decisional role preferences in medical decision making, knowledge on risks, information interests and the relations between these factors in MS. After conducting focus groups to generate hypotheses, 219 randomly selected patients from the MS Outpatient Clinic register (n = 1374) of the University Hospital Hamburg received mailed questionnaires on their knowledge of risks in MS, their perception of their own level of knowledge, information interests and role preferences. Most patients (79%) indicated that they preferred an active role in treatment decisions giving the shared decision and the informed choice model the highest priority. MS risk knowledge was low but questionnaire results depended on disease course, disease duration and ongoing immune therapy. Measured knowledge as well as perceived knowledge was only weakly correlated with preferences of active roles. Major information interests were related to symptom alleviation, diagnostic procedures and prognosis. Patients with MS claimed autonomous roles in their health care decisions. The weak correlation between knowledge and preferences for active roles implicates that other factors largely influence role preferences.

  14. Managing multiple roles: development of the Work-Family Conciliation Strategies Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Marisa; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2014-07-17

    Juggling the demands of work and family is becoming increasingly difficult in today's world. As dual-earners are now a majority and men and women's roles in both the workplace and at home have changed, questions have been raised regarding how individuals and couples can balance family and work. Nevertheless, research addressing work-family conciliation strategies is limited to a conflict-driven approach and context-specific instruments are scarce. This study develops an instrument for assessing how dual-earners manage their multiple roles detaching from a conflict point of view highlighting the work-family conciliation strategies put forward by these couples. Through qualitative and quantitative procedures the Work-Family Conciliation Strategies Scales was developed and is composed by 5 factors: Couple Coping; Positive Attitude Towards Multiple Roles, Planning and Management Skills, Professional Adjustments and Institutional Support; with good adjustment [χ2/df = 1.22; CFI = .90, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .08.] and good reliability coefficients [from .67 to .87]. The developed scale contributes to research because of its specificity to the work-family framework and its focus on the proactive nature of balancing work and family roles. The results support further use of this instrument.

  15. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  16. The Impact of Multiple Roles on Psychological Distress among Japanese Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ayumi; Abe, Yasuyo; Date, Yutaka; Honda, Sumihisa

    2015-06-01

    There has been considerable interest in Japanese society in the problem of work-related stress leading to depressive symptoms, and an increasing number of primary houseworkers maintain paid employment. The purpose of this study was to examine the differential impact of multiple roles associated with psychological distress among Japanese workers. We studied 722 men and women aged 18-83 years in a cross-sectional study. The K10 questionnaire was used to examine psychological distress. The proportion of participants with psychological distress was higher in women (17.8%) compared with men (11.5%). Having three roles significantly decreased the risk of psychological distress [women: odds ratio (OR), 0.37-fold; men: OR, 0.41] compared with only one role. In working married women, there was significantly less psychological distress (OR, 0.27), and those with childrearing or caregiving responsibilities for elderly parents had significantly less psychological distress (OR, 0.38) than those with only an employment role. Similarly, working married men who had childrearing or caregiving responsibilities for elderly parents had significantly less psychological distress (OR, 0.41) than those who had only an employment role. The present study demonstrated that participants who had only an employment role had an increased risk of psychological distress. The degree of psychological distress was not determined solely by the number of roles. It is important to have balance between work and family life to reduce role conflict and/or role submersion, which in turn may reduce the risk of psychological distress.

  17. Playing [with] multiple roles: Readers, authors, and characters in "Who Is Blaise Zabini?" [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Collins Smith

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Fans who produce fan works in genres such as fiction, music, and music video take on dual roles in the process, as readers of the original canon and as creators of their own products. These roles—and more—are creatively explored in the Parselmouths' wizard rock composition "Who Is Blaise Zabini?". Like many works of fan fiction, the Parselmouths' songs move beyond a reader's ordinary role, taking on an authorial role to generate new characters and events in the Harry Potter universe. What makes this particular work unusual is that at the same time that they are adopting the roles of authors, and even of participants, the Parselmouths also restrict their own authorial and participatory power, claiming that the Slytherin characters they portray could not perceive their classmate Blaise Zabini until J. K. Rowling provided a complete description of him. To untangle their multiple roles and to recognize the creativity exercised by the Parselmouths in collapsing the boundaries among them, it will be helpful to turn to a theory of audience response that delineates specific roles and that specifies the limitations and the powers inherent in them.

  18. Assessing human variability in kinetics for exposures to multiple environmental chemicals: a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling case study with dichloromethane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcke, Mathieu; Haddad, Sami

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude of interindividual variability in internal dose for inhalation exposure to single versus multiple chemicals. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for adults (AD), neonates (NEO), toddlers (TODD), and pregnant women (PW) were used to simulate inhalation exposure to "low" (RfC-like) or "high" (AEGL-like) air concentrations of benzene (Bz) or dichloromethane (DCM), along with various levels of toluene alone or toluene with ethylbenzene and xylene. Monte Carlo simulations were performed and distributions of relevant internal dose metrics of either Bz or DCM were computed. Area under the blood concentration of parent compound versus time curve (AUC)-based variability in AD, TODD, and PW rose for Bz when concomitant "low" exposure to mixtures of increasing complexities occurred (coefficient of variation (CV) = 16-24%, vs. 12-15% for Bz alone), but remained unchanged considering DCM. Conversely, AUC-based CV in NEO fell (15 to 5% for Bz; 12 to 6% for DCM). Comparable trends were observed considering production of metabolites (AMET), except for NEO's CYP2E1-mediated metabolites of Bz, where an increased CV was observed (20 to 71%). For "high" exposure scenarios, Cmax-based variability of Bz and DCM remained unchanged in AD and PW, but decreased in NEO (CV= 11-16% to 2-6%) and TODD (CV= 12-13% to 7-9%). Conversely, AMET-based variability for both substrates rose in every subpopulation. This study analyzed for the first time the impact of multiple exposures on interindividual variability in toxicokinetics. Evidence indicates that this impact depends upon chemical concentrations and biochemical properties, as well as the subpopulation and internal dose metrics considered.

  19. The Part-Time Student Role: Implications for the Emotional Experience of Managing Multiple Roles amongst Hong Kong Public Health Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Ann Tak-Ying

    1999-01-01

    Nine public-health nurses studying part time and 11 other nurses sampled their mood states randomly over seven days. The part-time student role created additional strain for nurses with children. The stress of managing multiple roles was greatest when both work and nonwork role responsibilities were heavy. (SK)

  20. The role of glatiramer acetate in the early treatment of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Brandes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available David W BrandesHope MS Center, Knoxville, TN, USA; ULCA, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: The treatment of the underlying disease process causing multiple sclerosis has continued to evolve since the initial approval of interferon-beta-1b in 1993. Current emphasis is on early treatment, including treatment after a single clinical attack (clinically isolated syndrome. The assessment of which disease modifying medication to use as initial therapy has continued to remain a combination of science and the art of medicine. Equally important are the assessment of treatment failure and the subsequent choice of medication change. This article will present scientific information, as well as information about clinical decision making, about these choices, with emphasis on the changing role of glatiramer acetate in this process.Keywords: glatiramer acetate, early treatment, multiple sclerosis

  1. The Role of CLEAR Thinking in Learning Science from Multiple-Document Inquiry Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. GRIFFIN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The main goal for the current study was to investigate whether individual differences in domaingeneral thinking dispositions might affect learning from multiple-document inquiry tasks in science.Middle school students were given a set of documents and were tasked with understanding how and why recent patterns in global temperature might be different from what has been observed in the past from those documents. Understanding was assessed with two measures: an essay task and an inference verification task. Domain-general thinking dispositions were assessed with a Commitment to Logic, Evidence, and Reasoning (CLEAR thinking scale. The measures of understanding wereuniquely predicted by both reading skills and CLEAR thinking scores, and these effects were not attributable to prior knowledge or interest. The results suggest independent roles for thinkingdispositions and reading ability when students read to learn from multiple-document inquiry tasks in science.

  2. Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawcer, Stephen; Hellenthal, Garrett; Pirinen, Matti

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown...... the greatest individual effect on risk. Modestly powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects have a key role in disease susceptibility. Most of the genetic architecture...... underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9,772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working...

  3. Physiological stress reactivity and physical and relational aggression: the moderating roles of victimization, type of stressor, and child gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Lafko, Nicole; Burrows, Casey; Pitula, Clio; Ralston, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association between physiological reactivity to peer stressors and physical and relational aggression. Potential moderation by actual experiences of peer maltreatment (i.e., physical and relational victimization) and gender were also explored. One hundred ninety-six children (M = 10.11 years, SD = 0.64) participated in a laboratory stress protocol during which their systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and skin conductance reactivity to recounting a relational stressor (e.g., threats to relationships) and an instrumental stressor (e.g., threats to physical well-being, dominance, or property) were assessed. Teachers provided reports of aggression and victimization. In both boys and girls, physical aggression was associated with blunted physiological reactivity to relational stress and heightened physiological reactivity to instrumental stress, particularly among youth higher in victimization. In girls, relational aggression was most robustly associated with blunted physiological reactivity to relational stressors, particularly among girls exhibiting higher levels of relational victimization. In boys, relational aggression was associated with heightened physiological reactivity to both types of stressors at higher levels of peer victimization and blunted physiological reactivity to both types of stressors at lower levels of victimization. Results underscore the shared and distinct emotional processes underlying physical and relational aggression in boys and girls.

  4. The potential role for ocrelizumab in the treatment of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Per Soelberg; Blinkenberg, Morten

    2016-01-01

    B cells play a central role in the pathogenesis in multiple sclerosis (MS), being involved in the activation of proinflammatory T cells, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, and production of autoantibodies directed against myelin. Hence, the usage of B-cell-depleting monoclonal antibodies....... Other anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies have been tested as treatments for MS, including ofatumumab that has shown beneficial results in placebo-controlled phase II trials in patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Ocrelizumab is now in phase III development for the treatment of relapsing-remitting MS...

  5. Integrating the ICF with positive psychology: Factors predicting role participation for mothers with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Ruth S; Kern, Margaret L; Brusilovsky, Eugene

    2015-05-01

    Being a mother has become a realizable life role for women with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Identifying psychosocial factors that facilitate participation in important life roles-including motherhood-is essential to help women have fuller lives despite the challenge of their illness. By integrating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and a positive psychology perspective, this study examined how environmental social factors and positive personal factors contribute to daily role participation and satisfaction with parental participation. One hundred and 11 community-dwelling mothers with MS completed Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales, the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey, the Short Form-36, and the Parental Participation Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses examined associations between social support and positive personal factors (environmental mastery, self-acceptance, purpose in life) with daily role participation (physical and emotional) and satisfaction with parental participation. One-way ANOVAs tested synergistic combinations of social support and positive personal factors. Social support predicted daily role participation (fewer limitations) and greater satisfaction with parental participation. Positive personal factors contributed additional unique variance. Positive personal factors and social support synergistically predicted better function and greater satisfaction than either alone. Integrating components of the ICF and positive psychology provides a useful model for understanding how mothers with MS can thrive despite challenge or impairment. Both positive personal factors and environmental social factors were important contributors to positive role functioning. Incorporating these paradigms into treatment may help mothers with MS participate more fully in meaningful life roles. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. New developments in the management of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma – the role of ixazomib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson PG

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Paul G Richardson,1 Shaji Kumar,2 Jacob P Laubach,1 Claudia Paba-Prada,1 Neeraj Gupta,3 Deborah Berg,3 Helgi van de Velde,3 Philippe Moreau4 1Division of Hematologic Malignancy, Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA; 2Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 3Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd, Cambridge, MA, USA; 4Hematology Department, University Hospital Hotel-Dieu, Nantes, France Abstract: Ixazomib is the first oral proteasome inhibitor to be approved, in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least one prior therapy. Approval was on the basis of results from the phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled TOURMALINE-MM1 study, which demonstrated a 35% improvement in progression-free survival with the all-oral combination of ixazomib plus lenalidomide–dexamethasone versus lenalidomide–dexamethasone alone (median: 20.6 vs 14.7 months; hazard ratio: 0.74, p=0.012; median follow-up 14.7 months. The addition of ixazomib to the lenalidomide–dexamethasone regimen was associated with limited additional toxicity and had no adverse impact on patient-reported quality of life. Common grade ≥3 adverse events with ixazomib include gastrointestinal adverse events, rash, and thrombocytopenia. Here, we review the efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, and patient-reported quality of life data seen with ixazomib, and discuss the role of this oral agent in the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma, including in patients with high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities and those with multiple prior therapies. Keywords: ixazomib, multiple myeloma, proteasome inhibitor, clinical, efficacy, tolerability, pharmacokinetics 

  7. The role of infections in the pathogenesis and course of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawate Siddharama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Interplay between susceptibility genes and environmental factors is considered important player in the genesis of multiple sclerosis (MS. Among environmental factors, a role for an infectious pathogen has long been considered central to the disease process. This opinion has support both from epidemiological data and the findings of immunological abnormalities in spinal fluid that reflect an immune response to an as yet undetermined antigen, possibly a pathogen, in the cerebrospinal fluid. Our review will outline the current understanding of the role of infection in the causation and progression of MS. We will review the data that point to an infectious cause of MS and consider the specific agents Chlamydophila (Chlamydia pneumoniae, Human Herpes Virus 6, and Epstein-Barr Virus, that are implicated in either the development or progression of MS.

  8. Multiple Regulatory Roles of the Mouse Transmembrane Adaptor Protein NTAL in Gene Transcription and Mast Cell Physiology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polakovičová, Iva; Dráberová, Lubica; Šimíček, Michal; Dráber, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2014), e105539 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101; GA MŠk LD12073 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : mast cells * NTAL * microarray gene-expression profiling * spreading * chemotaxis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  9. A multi-factor model of panic disorder: results of a preliminary study integrating the role of perfectionism, stress, physiological anxiety and anxiety sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Wood

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Panic disorder (PD is a highly prevalent and disabling mental health problem associated with different factors including perfectionism, stress, physiological anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity regarding physical concerns; however, no studies have analyzed the joint relationship between these factors and PD in a multi-factor model using structural equation modeling. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect data on these factors and self-reported DSM-IV past-year PD symptoms in a large sample of the general population (N=936. Results: Perceived stress had a significant effect in increasing physiological anxiety, which in turn had an important association with physical concerns. Perfectionism and perceived stress had an indirect relation with past year PD via the mediator role of physiological anxiety and physical concerns. Physical concerns, on one hand, seemed to mediate the impact between perfectionism and PD and, on the other, partially mediated the role between physiological anxiety and PD. Conclusions: Although there is considerable evidence on the association between each of these factors and PD, this model can be considered a broader and productive framework of research on the nature and treatment of PD.

  10. Fatigue in multiple sclerosis: neural correlates and the role of non-invasive brain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa A. Chalah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and the major cause of non-traumatic disability in young adults. Fatigue is a frequent symptom reported by the majority of MS patients during their disease course and drastically af-fects their quality of life. Despite its significant prevalence and impact, the underlying patho-physiological mechanisms are not well elucidated. MS fatigue is still considered the result of multifactorial and complex constellations, and is commonly classified into primary fatigue related to the pathological changes of the disease itself, and secondary fatigue attributed to mimicking symptoms, comorbid sleep and mood disorders, and medications side effects. Data from neuroimaging, neurophysiology, neuroendocrine and neuroimmune studies have raised hypotheses regarding the origin of this symptom, some of which have succeeded in identifying an association between MS fatigue and structural or functional abnormalities within various brain networks. Hence, the aim of this work is to reappraise the neural correlates of MS fatigue and to discuss the rationale for the emergent use of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS techniques as potential treatments. This will include a presentation of the various NIBS modalities and a proposition of their potential mechanisms of action in this context. Specific issues related to the value of transcranial direct current stimulation will be addressed.

  11. Has dopamine a physiological role in the control of sexual behavior? A critical review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Raúl G; Agmo, Anders

    2004-06-01

    The role of dopaminergic systems in the control of sexual behavior has been a subject of study for at least 40 years. Not surprisingly, reviews of the area have been published at variable intervals. However, the earlier reviews have been summaries of published research rather than a critical analysis of it. They have focused upon the conclusions presented in the original research papers rather than on evaluating the reliability and functional significance of the data reported to support these conclusions. During the last few years, important new knowledge concerning dopaminergic systems and their behavioral functions as well as the possible role of these systems in sexual behavior has been obtained. For the first time, it is now possible to integrate the data obtained in studies of sexual behavior into the wider context of general dopaminergic functions. To make this possible, we first present an analysis of the nature and organization of sexual behavior followed by a summary of current knowledge about the brain structures of crucial importance for this behavior. We then proceed with a description of the dopaminergic systems within or projecting to these structures. Whenever possible, we also try to include data on the electrophysiological actions of dopamine. Thereafter, we proceed with analyses of pharmacological data and release studies, both in males and in females. Consistently throughout this discussion, we make an effort to distinguish pharmacological effects on sexual behavior from a possible physiological role of dopamine. By pharmacological effects, we mean here drug-induced alterations in behavior that are not the result of the normal actions of synaptically released dopamine in the untreated animal. The conclusion of this endeavor is that pharmacological effects of dopaminergic drugs are variable in both males and females, independently of whether the drugs are administered systemically or intracerebrally. We conclude that the pharmacological data

  12. A physiologic three-dimensional cell culture system to investigate the role of decorin in matrix organisation and cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidler, Daniela G.; Schaefer, Liliana; Robenek, Horst; Iozzo, Renato V.; Kresse, Hans; Schoenherr, Elke

    2005-01-01

    In vivo cells exist in a three-dimensional environment generated and maintained by multiple cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Proteoglycans, like decorin, affect these complex interactions. Thus, we sought to investigate the role of decorin in a three-dimensional environment where the matrix was generated over time by decorin-deficient fibroblasts in the presence of L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate. The cells were viable and proliferated in response to FGF2. Decorin was incorporated in the matrix and caused a ∼2 nm shift in the average diameter of the collagen fibrils, and the range and distribution of the fibrils became narrower and more uniform. Although there were no appreciable changes in collagen composition, we found that exogenous decorin induced the de novo synthesis of collagen I and V and cross-linked β (I). In the early phases of the three-dimensional culture, decorin reduced apoptosis. However, following the establishment of a three-dimensional matrix, the cells did not require decorin for their survival

  13. The Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of the helicase RTEL1 plays multiple roles in preserving genome stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recker, Julia; Knoll, Alexander; Puchta, Holger

    2014-12-01

    In humans, mutations in the DNA helicase Regulator of Telomere Elongation Helicase1 (RTEL1) lead to Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome, a severe, multisystem disorder. Here, we demonstrate that the RTEL1 homolog in Arabidopsis thaliana plays multiple roles in preserving genome stability. RTEL1 suppresses homologous recombination in a pathway parallel to that of the DNA translocase FANCM. Cytological analyses of root meristems indicate that RTEL1 is involved in processing DNA replication intermediates independently from FANCM and the nuclease MUS81. Moreover, RTEL1 is involved in interstrand and intrastrand DNA cross-link repair independently from FANCM and (in intrastrand cross-link repair) parallel to MUS81. RTEL1 contributes to telomere homeostasis; the concurrent loss of RTEL1 and the telomerase TERT leads to rapid, severe telomere shortening, which occurs much more rapidly than it does in the single-mutant line tert, resulting in developmental arrest after four generations. The double mutant rtel1-1 recq4A-4 exhibits massive growth defects, indicating that this RecQ family helicase, which is also involved in the suppression of homologous recombination and the repair of DNA lesions, can partially replace RTEL1 in the processing of DNA intermediates. The requirement for RTEL1 in multiple pathways to preserve genome stability in plants can be explained by its putative role in the destabilization of DNA loop structures, such as D-loops and T-loops. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  14. DNA sequence analysis, expression, distribution, and physiological role of the Xaa-prolyldipeptidyl aminopeptidase gene from Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, G U; Steele, J L

    1996-02-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ32 possesses an Xaa-prolyldipeptidyl aminopeptidase (PepX), which releases amino-terminal dipeptides from peptides containing proline residues in the penultimate position. The PepX gene, designated pepX, from Lb. helveticus CNRZ32 was sequenced. Analysis of the sequence identified a putative 2379-bp pepX open-reading frame, which encodes a polypeptide of 793 amino acid residues with a deduced molecular mass of 88,111 Da. The gene shows significant sequence identity with sequenced pepX genes from lactic acid bacteria. The product of the gene contains a motif that is almost identical with the active-site motif of the serine-dependent PepX from lactococci. The introduction of pepX into Lactococcus lactis LM0230 on either pGK12 (a low-copy-number plasmid vector) or pIL253 (a high-copy-number plasmid vector) did not result in a significant increase in PepX activity, while the introduction of pepX into CNRZ32 on pGK12 resulted in a four-fold increase in PepX activity. Southern hybridization experiments revealed that the pepX gene from CNRZ32 is well conserved in lactobacilli, pediococci and streptococci. The physiological role of PepX during growth in lactobacillus MRS (a rich medium containing protein hydrolysates along with other ingredients) and milk was examined by comparing growth of CNRZ32 and a CNRZ32 PepX-negative derivative. No difference in growth rate or acid production was observed between CNRZ32 and its PepX-negative derivative in MRS. However, the CNRZ32 PepX-negative derivative grew in milk at a reduced specific growth rate when compared to wild-type CNRZ32. Introduction of the cloned PepX determinant into the CNRZ32 PepX-negative derivative resulted in a construct with a specific growth rate similar to that of wild-type CNRZ32.

  15. Listening to music and physiological and psychological functioning: the mediating role of emotion regulation and stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, M V; Scholz, U; Ehlert, U; Nater, U M

    2012-01-01

    Music listening has been suggested to have short-term beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association and potential mediating mechanisms between various aspects of habitual music-listening behaviour and physiological and psychological functioning. An internet-based survey was conducted in university students, measuring habitual music-listening behaviour, emotion regulation, stress reactivity, as well as physiological and psychological functioning. A total of 1230 individuals (mean = 24.89 ± 5.34 years, 55.3% women) completed the questionnaire. Quantitative aspects of habitual music-listening behaviour, i.e. average duration of music listening and subjective relevance of music, were not associated with physiological and psychological functioning. In contrast, qualitative aspects, i.e. reasons for listening (especially 'reducing loneliness and aggression', and 'arousing or intensifying specific emotions') were significantly related to physiological and psychological functioning (all p = 0.001). These direct effects were mediated by distress-augmenting emotion regulation and individual stress reactivity. The habitual music-listening behaviour appears to be a multifaceted behaviour that is further influenced by dispositions that are usually not related to music listening. Consequently, habitual music-listening behaviour is not obviously linked to physiological and psychological functioning.

  16. Assessments at multiple levels of biological organization allow for an integrative determination of physiological tolerances to turbidity in an endangered fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenbein, Matthias; Fangue, Nann A; Geist, Juergen; Komoroske, Lisa M; Truong, Jennifer; McPherson, Rina; Connon, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity can influence trophic levels by altering species composition and can potentially affect fish feeding strategies and predator-prey interactions. The estuarine turbidity maximum, described as an area of increased suspended particles, phytoplankton and zooplankton, generally represents a zone with higher turbidity and enhanced food sources important for successful feeding and growth in many fish species. The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endangered, pelagic fish species endemic to the San Francisco Estuary and Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, USA, where it is associated with turbid waters. Turbidity is known to play an important role for the completion of the species' life cycle; however, turbidity ranges in the Delta are broad, and specific requirements for this fish species are still unknown. To evaluate turbidity requirements for early life stages, late-larval delta smelt were maintained at environmentally relevant turbidity levels ranging from 5 to 250 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for 24 h, after which a combination of physiological endpoints (molecular biomarkers and cortisol), behavioural indices (feeding) and whole-organism measures (survival) were determined. All endpoints delivered consistent results and identified turbidities between 25 and 80 NTU as preferential. Delta smelt survival rates were highest between 12 and 80 NTU and feeding rates were highest between 25 and 80 NTU. Cortisol levels indicated minimal stress between 35 and 80 NTU and were elevated at low turbidities (5, 12 and 25 NTU). Expression of stress-related genes indicated significant responses for gst, hsp70 and glut2 in high turbidities (250 NTU), and principal component analysis on all measured genes revealed a clustering of 25, 35, 50 and 80 NTU separating the medium-turbidity treatments from low- and high-turbidity treatments. Taken together, these data demonstrate that turbidity levels that are either too low or too high affect delta

  17. Role of whole-body 64-slice multidetector computed tomography in treatment planning for multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel; Ezzat, Amany; Azmy, Emad; Tharwat, Nehal

    2013-08-01

    The authors evaluated the role of whole-body 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (WB-MDCT) in treatment planning for multiple myeloma. This was a prospective study of 28 consecutive patients with multiple myeloma (19 men, nine women; age range, 51-73 years; mean age, 60 years) who underwent WB-MDCT and conventional radiography (CR) of the skeleton. The images were interpreted for the presence of bony lesions, medullary lesions, fractures and extraosseous lesions. We evaluated any changes in treatment planning as a result of WB-MDCT findings. WB-MDCT was superior to CR for detecting bony lesions (p=0.001), especially of the spine (p=0.001) and thoracic cage (p=0.006). WB-MDCT upstaged 14 patients, with a significant difference in staging (p=0.002) between WB-MDCT and CR. Medullary involvement either focal (n=6) or diffuse (n=3) had a positive correlation with the overall score (r=0.790) and stage (r=0.618) of disease. Spine fractures were better detected at WB-MDCT (n=4) than at CR (n=2). Extraosseous soft tissue lesions (n=7) were detected only at WB-MDCT. Findings detected at the WB-MDCT led to changes in the patient's treatment plan in 39% of cases. Upstaging of seven patients (25%) altered the medical treatment plan, and four of 28 (14%) patients required additional radiotherapy (7%) and vertebroplasty (7%). We conclude that WB-MDCT has an impact on treatment planning and prognosis in patients with multiple myeloma, as it has high rate of detecting cortical and medullary bone lesions, spinal fracture and extraosseous lesions. This information may alter treatment planning in multiple myeloma due to disease upstaging and detection of spine fracture and extraosseous spinal lesions.

  18. Genotypic variation in growth and physiological response to drought stress and re-watering reveals the critical role of recovery in drought adaptation in maize seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoqian eChen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-irrigated crops in temperate climates and irrigated crops in arid climates are subjected to continuous cycles of water stress and re-watering. Thus, fast and efficient recovery from water stress may be among the key determinants of plant drought adaptation. The present study was designed to comparatively analyze the roles of drought resistance and drought recovery in drought adaptation and to investigate the physiological basis of genotypic variation in drought adaptation in maize (Zea mays seedlings. As the seedlings behavior in growth associate with yield under drought, it could partly reflect the potential of drought adaptability. Growth and physiological responses to progressive drought stress and recovery were observed in seedlings of ten maize lines. The results showed that drought adaptability is closely related to drought recovery (r = 0.714**, but not to drought resistance (r = 0.332. Drought induced decreases in leaf water content, water potential, osmotic potential, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm and nitrogen content, and increased H2O2 accumulation and lipid peroxidation. After recovery, most of these physiological parameters rapidly returned to normal levels. The physiological responses varied between lines. Further correlation analysis indicated that the physiological bases of drought resistance and drought recovery are definitely different, and that maintaining higher chlorophyll content (r = 0.874*** and Fv/Fm (r = 0.626* under drought stress contributes to drought recovery. Our results suggest that both drought resistance and recovery are key determinants of plant drought adaptation, and that drought recovery may play a more important role than previously thought. In addition, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content and Fv/Fm could be used as efficient reference indicators in the selection of drought-adaptive genotypes.

  19. Multiple Roles of Autophagy in the Sorafenib Resistance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and prognosis remains unsatisfactory since the disease is often diagnosed at the advanced stages. Currently, the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is the only drug approved for the treatment of advanced HCC. However, primary or acquired resistance to sorafenib develops, generating a roadblock in HCC therapy. Autophagy is an intracellular lysosomal pathway involved in protein and organelle degradation, with an astonishing number of connections to human disease and physiology. Current understanding of the role of autophagy in the progression of cancer and the response to cancer therapy remains controversial. Sorafenib is able to induce autophagy in HCC, but the effect of autophagy is indistinct. Some studies established that sorafenib-induced autophagy serves as a pro-survival response. However, other studies found that sorafenib-induced autophagy improves the lethality of sorafenib against HCC cells. The mechanisms underlying autophagy and sorafenib resistance remain elusive. The purpose of this review is to summarize the progress of research focused on autophagy and sorafenib resistance and to update current knowledge of how cellular autophagy impacts sorafenib sensitivity in HCC treatment.

  20. Working Memory Impairments in Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: The Roles of Anxiety and Stress Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Ashley F.; Hobbs, Diana A.; Stephenson, David D.; Laird, Robert D.; Beaton, Elliott A.

    2017-01-01

    Stress and anxiety have a negative impact on working memory systems by competing for executive resources and attention. Broad memory deficits, anxiety, and elevated stress have been reported in individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). We investigated anxiety and physiological stress reactivity in relation to visuospatial…

  1. Physiological reactivity and different forms of aggression in girls : Moderating roles of rejection sensitivity and peer rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Shoulberg, Erin K.; Murray-Close, Dianna

    Associations between physiological reactivity to exclusion (i.e., heart rate [HRR], respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSAR], and skin conductance [SCR]) and relational and physical aggression were assessed. It was hypothesized that blunted "fight or flight" responses to stress (i.e., blunted HRR, SCR,

  2. Endogenous Pyrogen Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisel, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the physiology of endogenous pyrogen (EP), the fever-producing factor of cellular origin. Included are: its hormone-like role, its molecular nature, bioassay procedures, cellular production and mechanisms of EP action. (SA)

  3. Roles of gibberellin catabolism and signaling in growth and physiological response to drought and short-day photoperiods in Populus trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Zawaski

    Full Text Available Survival and productivity of perennial plants in temperate zones are dependent on robust responses to prolonged and seasonal cycles of unfavorable conditions. Here we report whole-genome microarray, expression, physiological, and transgenic evidence in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba showing that gibberellin (GA catabolism and repressive signaling mediates shoot growth inhibition and physiological adaptation in response to drought and short-day (SD induced bud dormancy. Both water deprivation and SDs elicited activation of a suite of poplar GA2ox and DELLA encoding genes. Poplar transgenics with up-regulated GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox and DELLA domain proteins showed hypersensitive growth inhibition in response to both drought and SDs. In addition, the transgenic plants displayed greater drought resistance as evidenced by increased pigment concentrations (chlorophyll and carotenoid and reductions in electrolyte leakage (EL. Comparative transcriptome analysis using whole-genome microarray showed that the GA-deficiency and GA-insensitivity, SD-induced dormancy, and drought response in poplar share a common regulon of 684 differentially-expressed genes, which suggest GA metabolism and signaling plays a role in plant physiological adaptations in response to alterations in environmental factors. Our results demonstrate that GA catabolism and repressive signaling represents a major route for control of growth and physiological adaptation in response to immediate or imminent adverse conditions.

  4. Role of dimethyl fumarate in oxidative stress of multiple sclerosis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneetha, A; Raja Rajeswari, K

    2016-04-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS affecting both white and grey matter. Inflammation and oxidative stress are also thought to promote tissue damage in multiple sclerosis. Recent data point at an important role of anti-oxidative pathways for tissue protection in chronic MS, particularly involving the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Thus, novel therapeutics enhancing cellular resistance to free radicals could prove useful for MS treatment. Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative pathways are important players in MS pathophysiology and constitute a promising target for future MS therapy with dimethyl fumarate. The clinical utility of DMF in multiple sclerosis is being explored through phase III trials with BG-12, which is an oral therapeutic agent. Currently a wide research is going on to find out the exact mechanism of DMF, till date it is not clear. Based on strong signals of nephrotoxicity in non-humans and the theoretical risk of renal cell cancer from intracellular accumulation of fumarate, post-marketing study of a large population of patients will be necessary to fully assess the long-term safety of dimethyl fumarate. The current treatment goals are to shorten the duration and severity of relapses, prolong the time between relapses, and delay progression of disability. In this regard, dimethyl fumarate offers a promising alternative to orally administered fingolimod (GILENYA) or teriflunomide (AUBAGIO), which are currently marketed in the United States under FDA-mandated Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) programs because of serious safety concerns. More clinical experience with all three agents will be necessary to differentiate the tolerability of long-term therapy for patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. This write-up provides the detailed information of dimethyl fumarate in treating the neuro disease, multiple sclerosis and its mechanism involved via

  5. Rice Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.A. Counce; Davidi R. Gealy; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2002-01-01

    Physiology occurs tn physical space through chemical reactions constrained by anatomy and morphology, yet guided by genetics. Physiology has been called the logic of life. Genes encode structural and fimcdonal proteins. These proteins are subsequently processed to produce enzymes that direct and govern the biomechanical processes involved in the physiology of the...

  6. Managing treatment fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis on long-term therapy: the role of multiple sclerosis nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ann Crawford, Sally Jewell,* Holly Mara, Laura McCatty, Regina Pelfrey The Lash Group; Frisco, TX, USA *Sally Jewell is now retired Abstract: This article discusses the many ways that nurses can address the factors that lead to treatment fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS on long-term disease-modifying therapy, ultimately helping to preserve the patient’s health and quality of life. Patients with MS on long-term therapy may suffer from treatment fatigue and poor adherence due to a variety of different factors, including difficulties with injections, anxiety/depression, financial problems, and inaccurate beliefs about the MS disease process. Because MS nurses have regular interactions with patients, they are ideally situated to help patients cope with these and other factors that may limit adherence. Keywords: multiple sclerosis, disease-modifying therapy, injection, nurse

  7. The role of KIR2DS1 in multiple sclerosis--KIR in Portuguese MS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Andreia; Silva, Ana Martins; Carvalho, Cláudia; Leal, Bárbara; Santos, Ernestina; Costa, Paulo P; Silva, Berta M

    2014-04-15

    Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) genes may influence both resistance and susceptibility to different autoimmune diseases, but their role in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is still unclear. We investigated the influence of KIR genes on MS susceptibility in 447 MS Portuguese patients, and also whether genetic interactions between specific KIR genes and their HLA class I ligands could contribute to the pathogenesis of MS. We observed a negative association between the activating KIR2DS1 gene and MS (adjusted OR=0.450, p=0.030) independently from the presence of HLA-DRB1*15 allele. The activating KIR2DS1 receptor seems to confer protection against MS most probably through modulation of autoreactive T cells by Natural Killer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawcer, Stephen; Hellenthal, Garrett; Pirinen, Matti; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; Moutsianas, Loukas; Dilthey, Alexander; Su, Zhan; Freeman, Colin; Hunt, Sarah E.; Edkins, Sarah; Gray, Emma; Booth, David R.; Potter, Simon C.; Goris, An; Band, Gavin; Oturai, Annette Bang; Strange, Amy; Saarela, Janna; Bellenguez, Céline; Fontaine, Bertrand; Gillman, Matthew; Hemmer, Bernhard; Gwilliam, Rhian; Zipp, Frauke; Jayakumar, Alagurevathi; Martin, Roland; Leslie, Stephen; Hawkins, Stanley; Giannoulatou, Eleni; D’alfonso, Sandra; Blackburn, Hannah; Boneschi, Filippo Martinelli; Liddle, Jennifer; Harbo, Hanne F.; Perez, Marc L.; Spurkland, Anne; Waller, Matthew J; Mycko, Marcin P.; Ricketts, Michelle; Comabella, Manuel; Hammond, Naomi; Kockum, Ingrid; McCann, Owen T.; Ban, Maria; Whittaker, Pamela; Kemppinen, Anu; Weston, Paul; Hawkins, Clive; Widaa, Sara; Zajicek, John; Dronov, Serge; Robertson, Neil; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Barcellos, Lisa F.; Ravindrarajah, Rathi; Abraham, Roby; Alfredsson, Lars; Ardlie, Kristin; Aubin, Cristin; Baker, Amie; Baker, Katharine; Baranzini, Sergio E.; Bergamaschi, Laura; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Bernstein, Allan; Berthele, Achim; Boggild, Mike; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Brassat, David; Broadley, Simon A.; Buck, Dorothea; Butzkueven, Helmut; Capra, Ruggero; Carroll, William M.; Cavalla, Paola; Celius, Elisabeth G.; Cepok, Sabine; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Clerget-Darpoux, Françoise; Clysters, Katleen; Comi, Giancarlo; Cossburn, Mark; Cournu-Rebeix, Isabelle; Cox, Mathew B.; Cozen, Wendy; Cree, Bruce A.C.; Cross, Anne H.; Cusi, Daniele; Daly, Mark J.; Davis, Emma; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Debouverie, Marc; D’hooghe, Marie Beatrice; Dixon, Katherine; Dobosi, Rita; Dubois, Bénédicte; Ellinghaus, David; Elovaara, Irina; Esposito, Federica; Fontenille, Claire; Foote, Simon; Franke, Andre; Galimberti, Daniela; Ghezzi, Angelo; Glessner, Joseph; Gomez, Refujia; Gout, Olivier; Graham, Colin; Grant, Struan F.A.; Guerini, Franca Rosa; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Heard, Rob N.; Heath, Simon; Hobart, Jeremy; Hoshi, Muna; Infante-Duarte, Carmen; Ingram, Gillian; Ingram, Wendy; Islam, Talat; Jagodic, Maja; Kabesch, Michael; Kermode, Allan G.; Kilpatrick, Trevor J.; Kim, Cecilia; Klopp, Norman; Koivisto, Keijo; Larsson, Malin; Lathrop, Mark; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette S.; Leone, Maurizio A.; Leppä, Virpi; Liljedahl, Ulrika; Bomfim, Izaura Lima; Lincoln, Robin R.; Link, Jenny; Liu, Jianjun; Lorentzen, Åslaug R.; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Mack, Thomas; Marriott, Mark; Martinelli, Vittorio; Mason, Deborah; McCauley, Jacob L.; Mentch, Frank; Mero, Inger-Lise; Mihalova, Tania; Montalban, Xavier; Mottershead, John; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Naldi, Paola; Ollier, William; Page, Alison; Palotie, Aarno; Pelletier, Jean; Piccio, Laura; Pickersgill, Trevor; Piehl, Fredrik; Pobywajlo, Susan; Quach, Hong L.; Ramsay, Patricia P.; Reunanen, Mauri; Reynolds, Richard; Rioux, John D.; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Roesner, Sabine; Rubio, Justin P.; Rückert, Ina-Maria; Salvetti, Marco; Salvi, Erika; Santaniello, Adam; Schaefer, Catherine A.; Schreiber, Stefan; Schulze, Christian; Scott, Rodney J.; Sellebjerg, Finn; Selmaj, Krzysztof W.; Sexton, David; Shen, Ling; Simms-Acuna, Brigid; Skidmore, Sheila; Sleiman, Patrick M.A.; Smestad, Cathrine; Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Stankovich, Jim; Strange, Richard C.; Sulonen, Anna-Maija; Sundqvist, Emilie; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Taddeo, Francesca; Taylor, Bruce; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Tienari, Pentti; Bramon, Elvira; Tourbah, Ayman; Brown, Matthew A.; Tronczynska, Ewa; Casas, Juan P.; Tubridy, Niall; Corvin, Aiden; Vickery, Jane; Jankowski, Janusz; Villoslada, Pablo; Markus, Hugh S.; Wang, Kai; Mathew, Christopher G.; Wason, James; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Wichmann, H-Erich; Plomin, Robert; Willoughby, Ernest; Rautanen, Anna; Winkelmann, Juliane; Wittig, Michael; Trembath, Richard C.; Yaouanq, Jacqueline; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Zhang, Haitao; Wood, Nicholas W.; Zuvich, Rebecca; Deloukas, Panos; Langford, Cordelia; Duncanson, Audrey; Oksenberg, Jorge R.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Olsson, Tomas; Hillert, Jan; Ivinson, Adrian J.; De Jager, Philip L.; Peltonen, Leena; Stewart, Graeme J.; Hafler, David A.; Hauser, Stephen L.; McVean, Gil; Donnelly, Peter; Compston, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (OMIM 126200) is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability.1 Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially increased frequency of the disease seen in the relatives of affected individuals;2,3 and systematic attempts to identify linkage in multiplex families have confirmed that variation within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) exerts the greatest individual effect on risk.4 Modestly powered Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS)5-10 have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects play a key role in disease susceptibility.11 Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working in 15 different countries, we have replicated almost all of the previously suggested associations and identified at least a further 29 novel susceptibility loci. Within the MHC we have refined the identity of the DRB1 risk alleles and confirmed that variation in the HLA-A gene underlies the independent protective effect attributable to the Class I region. Immunologically relevant genes are significantly over-represented amongst those mapping close to the identified loci and particularly implicate T helper cell differentiation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. PMID:21833088

  9. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling: Methodology, Applications, and Limitations with a Focus on Its Role in Pediatric Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras Khalil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK modeling was introduced years ago, but it has not been practiced significantly. However, interest in and implementation of this modeling technique have grown, as evidenced by the increased number of publications in this field. This paper demonstrates briefly the methodology, applications, and limitations of PBPK modeling with special attention given to discuss the use of PBPK models in pediatric drug development and some examples described in detail. Although PBPK models do have some limitations, the potential benefit from PBPK modeling technique is huge. PBPK models can be applied to investigate drug pharmacokinetics under different physiological and pathological conditions or in different age groups, to support decision-making during drug discovery, to provide, perhaps most important, data that can save time and resources, especially in early drug development phases and in pediatric clinical trials, and potentially to help clinical trials become more “confirmatory” rather than “exploratory”.

  10. Analysis of Experts’ Quantitative Assessment of Adolescent Basketball Players and the Role of Anthropometric and Physiological Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štrumbelj Erik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated two questions: (1 can measurements of anthropometric and physiological attributes substitute for expert assessment of adolescent basketball players, and (2 how much does the quantitative assessment of a player vary among experts? The first question is relevant to the potential simplification of the player selection process. The second question pertains directly to the validity of expert quantitative assessment. Our research was based on data from 148 U14 female and male basketball players. For each player, an array of anthropometric and physiological attributes was recorded, including body height, body mass, BMI, and several motor skill tests. Furthermore, each player's current ability and potential ability were quantitatively evaluated by two different experts from a group of seven experts. Analysis of the recorded data showed that the anthropometric and physiological attributes explained between 15% and 40% of the variance in experts’ scores. The primary predictive attributes were speed and agility (for predicting current ability and body height and growth potential (for predicting potential ability. We concluded that these attributes were not sufficiently informative to act as a substitute for expert assessment of the players’ current or potential ability. There is substantial variability in different experts' scores of the same player’s ability. However, the differences between experts are mostly in scale, and the relationships between experts’ scores are monotonic. That is, different experts rank players on ability very similarly, but their scores are not well calibrated.

  11. Exploring the role of microglia in mood disorders associated with experimental multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta eGentile

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microglia is increasingly recognized to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases. In particular, microglia may be the cellular link between inflammation and behavioural alterations: by releasing a number of soluble factors, among which pro-inflammatory cytokines, they can regulate synaptic activity, thereby leading to perturbation of behaviour.In multiple sclerosis (MS, the most common neuroinflammatory disorder affecting young adults, microglia activation and dysfunction may account for mood symptoms, like depression and anxiety, that are often diagnosed in patients even in the absence of motor disability. Behavioural studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the animal model of MS, have shown that emotional changes occur early in the disease and in correlation to inflammatory mediator and neurotransmitter level alterations. However, such studies lack a full and comprehensive analysis of the role played by microglia in EAE-behavioural syndrome. We review the experimental studies addressing behavioural symptoms in EAE, and propose the study of neuron-glia interaction as a powerful but still poorly explored tool to investigate the burden of microglia in mood alterations associated to MS.

  12. Physics and Its Multiple Roles in the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Charles D.

    2017-01-01

    The IAEA is the world's centre for cooperation in the nuclear field. It was set up as the world's ``Atoms for Peace'' organization in 1957 within the United Nations family. The Agency works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote the safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear technologies. Three main areas of work underpin the IAEA's mission: Safety and Security, Science and Technology, and Safeguards and Verification. To carry out its mission, the Agency is authorized to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world; foster the exchange of scientific and technical information on peaceful uses of atomic energy; and encourage the exchange of training of scientists and experts in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy. Nowadays, nuclear physics and nuclear technology are applied in a great variety of social areas, such as power production, medical diagnosis and therapies, environmental protection, security control, material tests, food processing, waste treatments, agriculture and artifacts analysis. This presentation will cover the role and practical application of physics at the IAEA, and, in particular, focus on the role physics has, and will play, in nuclear security.

  13. "ROLE OF ALLOGENEIC TRANSPLANTATION IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA IN THE ERA OF NEW DRUGS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto Bruno

    2010-06-01

                Allografting is a potentially curative treatment for a subset of multiple myeloma patients for its well documented graft-vs-myeloma effects. However, its role has been hotly debated. Even though molecular remissions have been reported up to 50% after high-dose myeloablative conditionings, their applications, given the high toxicity, have been for long limited to younger relapsed/refractory patients. These limitations have greatly been reduced through the introduction of non-myeloablative/reduced-intensity conditionings.             The introduction of new drugs, characterised by low risks of early mortality, indeed requires to define role and timing of an allograft to capture the subset of patients who may most benefit from graft-vs-myeloma effects.   Ultimately, new drugs should not be viewed as mutually exclusive with an allograft. They may be employed to achieve profound cytoreduction before and enhance graft-versus-myeloma effects as consolidation/maintenance therapy after an allograft. However, this combination should be explored only in well-designed clinical trials.

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis accompanies enhanced expression of multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase 1 (Minpp1): a possible role for Minpp1 in cellular stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilaparty, Surya P; Agarwal, Rakhee; Singh, Pooja; Kannan, Krishnaswamy; Ali, Nawab

    2016-07-01

    Inositol polyphosphates represent a group of differentially phosphorylated inositol metabolites, many of which are implicated to regulate diverse cellular processes such as calcium mobilization, vesicular trafficking, differentiation, apoptosis, etc. The metabolic network of these compounds is complex and tightly regulated by various kinases and phosphatases present predominantly in the cytosol. Multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase 1 (Minpp1) is the only known endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal enzyme that hydrolyzes various inositol polyphosphates in vitro as well as in vivo conditions. However, access of the Minpp1 to cytosolic substrates has not yet been demonstrated clearly and hence its physiological function. In this study, we examined a potential role for Minpp1 in ER stress-induced apoptosis. We generated a custom antibody and characterized its specificity to study the expression of Minpp1 protein in multiple mammalian cells under experimentally induced cellular stress conditions. Our results demonstrate a significant increase in the expression of Minpp1 in response to a variety of cellular stress conditions. The protein expression was corroborated with the expression of its mRNA and enzymatic activity. Further, in an attempt to link the role of Minpp1 to apoptotic stress, we studied the effect of Minpp1 expression on apoptosis following silencing of the Minpp1 gene by its specific siRNA. Our results suggest an attenuation of apoptotic parameters following knockdown of Minpp1. Thus, in addition to its known role in inositol polyphosphate metabolism, we have identified a novel role for Minpp1 as a stress-responsive protein. In summary, our results provide, for the first time, a probable link between ER stress-induced apoptosis and Minpp1 expression.

  15. Effect of Feeding Oxidized Soybean Oil against Antioxidant role of Pomegranate Seed on Physiology and Metabolism of Periparturient Saanen Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ehsan Ghiasi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oxidative stress is metabolic and physiologic status caused by imbalance between free radical production and antioxidant defense of body. In some physiological status such as rapid growth, parturition, disease and high production rate that imbalance would occur. High producing dairy animals are suspected to oxidative stress and require to antioxidant supplementation. Negative energy balance in early lactation force the nutrition specialist to apply oil and high NFC diet to exceed the requirement of high producing dairy animals such as Holstein cows and Saanen goats. In recent years, the attention to the use of herbal or organic antioxidant in animal nutrition has increased. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of feeding oxidized soybean oil (OSO plus pomegranate seed (PS as a natural antioxidant, on metabolism and physiology of Preparturient Saanen Goats. Materials and Methods Eighteen Saanen dairy goats with initial body weight of 47 ± 9 kg were assigned to three dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with repeated measurements for 21 days before anticipated parturition. Experimental treatments including: 1 base diet and 4% fresh soybean oil (FSO, 2 base diet and 4% oxidized soybean oil (DM basis respectively, and 3 base diet plus 4% OSO and 8% Pomegranate seed (OSO-PS. After 2 weeks of feeding trial diets, goats were sampled for blood, rumen liquor, faeces and urine for measuring parameters of blood glucose, BHBA, lipid and nitrogen profile, rumen liquor ammonia nitrogen, urine pH and volume, faeces qualitative and quantitative variables and other responses such as nutrients digestibility. The GLM procedure of SAS software v.9.2 were used for statistical analysis. Initial body weight and metabolic variables were used as covariate in the model. Results and discussion All nutrients digestibility, Ruminal ammonia nitrogen and voluntary feed intake were decreased by OSO (p

  16. Sloth biology: an update on their physiological ecology, behavior and role as vectors of arthropods and arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmore D.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the research undertaken since 1971 on the behavior and physiological ecology of sloths. The animals exhibit numerous fascinating features. Sloth hair is extremely specialized for a wet tropical environment and contains symbiotic algae. Activity shows circadian and seasonal variation. Nutrients derived from the food, particularly in Bradypus, only barely match the requirements for energy expenditure. Sloths are hosts to a fascinating array of commensal and parasitic arthropods and are carriers of various arthropod-borne viruses. Sloths are known reservoirs of the flagellate protozoan which causes leishmaniasis in humans, and may also carry trypanosomes and the protozoan Pneumocystis carinii.

  17. On the role of numerical simulations in studies of reduced gravity-induced physiological effects in humans. Results from NELME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni

    Computer simulations are becoming a promising research line of work, as physiological models become more and more sophisticated and reliable. Technological advances in state-of-the-art hardware technology and software allow nowadays for better and more accurate simulations of complex phenomena, such as the response of the human cardiovascular system to long-term exposure to microgravity. Experimental data for long-term missions are difficult to achieve and reproduce, therefore the predictions of computer simulations are of a major importance in this field. Our approach is based on a previous model developed and implemented in our laboratory (NELME: Numercial Evaluation of Long-term Microgravity Effects). The software simulates the behaviour of the cardiovascular system and different human organs, has a modular archi-tecture, and allows to introduce perturbations such as physical exercise or countermeasures. The implementation is based on a complex electrical-like model of this control system, using inexpensive development frameworks, and has been tested and validated with the available experimental data. The objective of this work is to analyse and simulate long-term effects and gender differences when individuals are exposed to long-term microgravity. Risk probability of a health impairement which may put in jeopardy a long-term mission is also evaluated. . Gender differences have been implemented for this specific work, as an adjustment of a number of parameters that are included in the model. Women versus men physiological differences have been therefore taken into account, based upon estimations from the physiology bibliography. A number of simulations have been carried out for long-term exposure to microgravity. Gravity varying continuosly from Earth-based to zero, and time exposure are the two main variables involved in the construction of results, including responses to patterns of physical aerobic ex-ercise and thermal stress simulating an extra

  18. The multiple roles of Bub1 in chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Venkatachalam, Sundaresan

    2009-06-19

    Aneuploidy, any deviation from an exact multiple of the haploid number of chromosomes, is a common occurrence in cancer and represents the most frequent chromosomal disorder in newborns. Eukaryotes have evolved mechanisms to assure the fidelity of chromosome segregation during cell division that include a multiplicity of checks and controls. One of the main cell division control mechanisms is the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) that monitors the proper attachment of chromosomes to spindle fibers and prevents anaphase until all kinetochores are properly attached. The mammalian SAC is composed by at least 14 evolutionary-conserved proteins that work in a coordinated fashion to monitor the establishment of amphitelic attachment of all chromosomes before allowing cell division to occur. Among the SAC proteins, the budding uninhibited by benzimidazole protein 1 (Bub1), is a highly conserved protein of prominent importance for the proper functioning of the SAC. Studies have revealed many roles for Bub1 in both mitosis and meiosis, including the localization of other SAC proteins to the kinetochore, SAC signaling, metaphase congression and the protection of the sister chromatid cohesion. Recent data show striking sex specific differences in the response to alterations in Bub1 activity. Proper Bub1 functioning is particularly important during oogenesis in preventing the generation of aneuploid gametes that can have detrimental effects on the health status of the fetus and the newborn. These data suggest that Bub1 is a master regulator of SAC and chromosomal segregation in both mitosis and meiosis. Elucidating its many essential functions in regulating proper chromosome segregation can have important consequences for preventing tumorigenesis and developmental abnormalities.

  19. Loss of positional information when tracking multiple moving dots: the role of visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Sathyasri; Tripathy, Srimant P; Barrett, Brendan T

    2009-01-01

    Pylyshyn, Z.W. and Storm, R.W. (1988) (Tracking multiple independent targets: Evidence for a parallel tracking mechanism. Spatial Vision, 3(3), 179-197) proposed that human observers could simultaneously track up to five dots when presented with an array of dots moving in a random manner. In contrast, Tripathy, S.P., and Barrett, B.T. (2004) (Severe loss of positional information when detecting deviations in multiple trajectories. Journal of Vision, 4(12):4, 1020-1043, http://journalofvision.org/4/14/4/, doi: 10.1167/4.12.4) showed that when a threshold paradigm was employed, observers' ability to track deviations in straight-line trajectories is severely compromised when attending to two or more dots. In this study we present a series of four experiments that investigates the role of attention and visual memory while tracking deviations in multiple trajectories using a threshold paradigm. Our stimuli consisted of several linear, non-parallel, left-to-right trajectories, each moving at the same speed. At the trajectory mid-point (reached simultaneously by all dots), one of the dots (target) deviated clockwise or counter-clockwise. The observers' task was to identify the direction of deviation. The target trajectory was cued in the second half of the trial either by disappearance of distractors at the monitor's mid-line (Experiment 1) or by means of a change in colour of the target (Experiment 2); in both cases deviation thresholds rose steeply when the number of distractor trajectories was increased from 0 (typical threshold approximately 2 degrees) to 3 (typical threshold>20 degrees). When all the trajectories were presented statically in a single frame (Experiment 3), thresholds for identifying the orientation change of the target trajectory remained relatively unchanged as the number of distractor trajectories was increased. When a temporal delay of a few hundred milliseconds was introduced between the first and second halves of trajectories (Experiment 4

  20. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-ling; Li, Tao; Liu, Gao-yuan; Smith, Joshua M; Zhao, Zhi-wei

    2016-02-25

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under increased soil Cd stress (0, 10, 50, 100 mg kg(-1)). Under Cd stress, DSE inoculation significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular weight antioxidants, while also inducing increased Cd accumulation in the cell wall and conversion of Cd into inactive forms by shoot and root specific regulation of genes related to metal uptake, translocation and chelation. Our results showed that DSE colonization resulted in a marked tolerance to Cd, with a significant decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a significant increase in maize growth by triggering antioxidant systems, altering metal chemical forms into inactive Cd, and repartitioning subcellular Cd into the cell wall. These results provide comprehensive evidence for the mechanisms by which DSE colonization bioaugments Cd tolerance in maize at physiological, cytological and molecular levels.

  1. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Ling; Li, Tao; Liu, Gao-Yuan; Smith, Joshua M.; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under increased soil Cd stress (0, 10, 50, 100 mg kg-1). Under Cd stress, DSE inoculation significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular weight antioxidants, while also inducing increased Cd accumulation in the cell wall and conversion of Cd into inactive forms by shoot and root specific regulation of genes related to metal uptake, translocation and chelation. Our results showed that DSE colonization resulted in a marked tolerance to Cd, with a significant decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a significant increase in maize growth by triggering antioxidant systems, altering metal chemical forms into inactive Cd, and repartitioning subcellular Cd into the cell wall. These results provide comprehensive evidence for the mechanisms by which DSE colonization bioaugments Cd tolerance in maize at physiological, cytological and molecular levels.

  2. Genetic factors and multiple sclerosis in the Moroccan population: a role for HLA class II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadghiri, S; El Alaoui Toussi, K; Brick, C; Ait Benhaddou, E H; Benseffaj, N; Benomar, A; El Yahyaoui, M; Essakalli, M

    2013-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that mainly affects young adults. The association between susceptibility to MS and HLA class II genes, in particular the DRB1*15 allele, has been reported in diverse ethnic groups. The aim of our study was to investigate the distribution of HLA-DRB1* and -DQB1* alleles in Moroccan population and their implication in the susceptibility to the disease. Fifty-seven MS patients were compared to 172 healthy controls unrelated to one another and matched by age, sex and ethnic origin. HLA class II (DRB1* and DQB1*) typing was performed by PCR-SSP and/or Luminex (PCR-SSO). Allelic and haplotypic frequencies, P-values, odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the software SPSS. A significant increase of DRB1*15 allele frequency (17.6% vs 8.4%, OR=2.67, 95% CI=1.36-5.23, P=0.004) and HLA-DRB1*15-DQB1*06 haplotype (8.8% vs 4.08%, OR=2.78, 95% CI=1.41-5.48, P=0.002) were observed in Moroccan MS patients. No association of the DR15 allele with sex or age at onset was appreciated. Concerning HLA-DQB1* alleles, no significant difference between patients and controls was found. Our results reveal a role for HLA-DRB1*15 allele molecules in the predisposition of Moroccan patients to MS. Although this study should be confirmed on a larger sample size, it analyzes for the first time the possible role of a genetic marker for susceptibility to MS in Moroccan population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The Essential Role of Epstein-Barr Virus in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays a role in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS. This article provides a four-tier hypothesis proposing (1) EBV infection is essential for the development of MS; (2) EBV causes MS in genetically susceptible individuals by infecting autoreactive B cells, which seed the CNS where they produce pathogenic autoantibodies and provide costimulatory survival signals to autoreactive T cells that would otherwise die in the CNS by apoptosis; (3) the susceptibility to develop MS after EBV infection is dependent on a genetically determined quantitative deficiency of the cytotoxic CD8+ T cells that normally keep EBV infection under tight control; and (4) sunlight and vitamin D protect against MS by increasing the number of CD8+ T cells available to control EBV infection. The hypothesis makes predictions that can be tested, including the prevention and successful treatment of MS by controlling EBV infection. PMID:21075971

  4. Ecstatic epileptic seizures: a glimpse into the multiple roles of the insula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eGschwind

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecstatic epileptic seizures are a rare but compelling epileptic entity. During the first seconds of these seizures, ecstatic auras provoke feelings of well-being, intense serenity, bliss, and enhanced self-awareness. They are associated with the impression of time dilation, and can be described as a mystic experience by some patients. The functional neuroanatomy of ecstatic seizures is still debated. During recent years several patients presenting with ecstatic auras have been reported by others and us (in total n=49; a few of them in the setting of presurgical evaluation including electrical brain stimulation. According to the recently recognized functions of the insula, and the results of nuclear brain imaging and electrical stimulation, the ecstatic symptoms in these patients seem to localize to a functional network centered around the anterior insular cortex, where we thus propose to locate this rare ictal phenomenon. Here we summarize the role of the multiple sensory, autonomic, affective and cognitive functions of the insular cortex, which are integrated into the creation of self-awareness, and we suggest how this system may become dysfunctional on several levels during ecstatic aura.

  5. The role of Acinetobacter in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis examined by using Popper sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Taha; Wilson, Clyde

    2012-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disorder. The role of 'Acinetobacter' has been examined using the method of Karl Popper and involves nine "Popper sequences". (1) The frequency of MS increases with latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, and the reverse is found in the Southern Hemisphere. (2) Sinusitis is found frequently at colder latitudes. (3) Sinusitis occurs frequently in patients with MS. (4) Specific sequences of bovine myelin when injected into experimental animals will produce a neurological disorder resembling MS which is called "experimental allergic encephalomyelitis". (5) Computer analysis of myelin shows molecular mimicry with sequences found in Acinetobacter. (6) Antibodies to Acinetobacter bacteria are found in MS patients. (7) Acinetobacter bacteria are located on human skin and in the nasal sinuses. (8) IgA antibodies are preferentially elevated in the sera of MS patients, thereby suggesting the trigger microbe is acting across a mucosal surface probably located in the nasal sinuses. (9) Only Acinetobacter bacteria and no other microbes evoke statistically significant titres of antibodies in MS patients. These nine Popper sequences suggest that MS is most probably caused by infections with Acinetobacter bacteria in the nasal sinuses, and this could have therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac53 plays a role in nucleocapsid assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Li Zhaofei; Wu Wenbi; Li Lingling; Yuan Meijin; Pan Lijing; Yang Kai; Pang Yi

    2008-01-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) orf53 (ac53) is a highly conserved gene existing in all sequenced Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera baculoviruses, but its function remains unknown. To investigate its role in the baculovirus life cycle, an ac53 deletion virus (vAc ac53KO-PH-GFP ) was generated through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Fluorescence and light microscopy and titration analysis revealed that vAc ac53KO-PH-GFP could not produce infectious budded virus in infected Sf9 cells. Real-time PCR demonstrated that the ac53 deletion did not affect the levels of viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy showed that many lucent tubular shells devoid of the nucleoprotein core are present in the virogenic stroma and ring zone, indicating that the ac53 knockout affected nucleocapsid assembly. With a recombinant virus expressing an Ac53-GFP fusion protein, we observed that Ac53 was distributed within the cytoplasm and nucleus at 24 h post-infection, but afterwards accumulated predominantly near the nucleus-cytoplasm boundary. These data demonstrate that ac53 is involved in nucleocapsid assembly and is an essential gene for virus production

  7. Physiological Levels of Nitric Oxide Diminish Mitochondrial Superoxide. Potential Role of Mitochondrial Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes and Nitrosothiols

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    Sergey I. Dikalov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are the major source of superoxide radicals and superoxide overproduction contributes to cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. Endothelial dysfunction and diminished nitric oxide levels are early steps in the development of these pathological conditions. It is known that physiological production of nitric oxide reduces oxidative stress and inflammation, however, the precise mechanism of “antioxidant” effect of nitric oxide is not clear. In this work we tested the hypothesis that physiological levels of nitric oxide diminish mitochondrial superoxide production without inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. In order to test this hypothesis we analyzed effect of low physiological fluxes of nitric oxide (20 nM/min on superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production by ESR spin probes and Amplex Red in isolated rat brain mitochondria. Indeed, low levels of nitric oxide substantially attenuated both basal and antimycin A-stimulated production of reactive oxygen species in the presence of succinate or glutamate/malate as mitochondrial substrates. Furthermore, slow releasing NO donor DPTA-NONOate (100 μM did not change oxygen consumption in State 4 and State 3. However, the NO-donor strongly inhibited oxygen consumption in the presence of uncoupling agent CCCP, which is likely associated with inhibition of the over-reduced complex IV in uncoupled mitochondria. We have examined accumulation of dinitrosyl iron complexes and nitrosothiols in mitochondria treated with fast-releasing NO donor MAHMA NONOate (10 μM for 30 min until complete release of NO. Following treatment with NO donor, mitochondria were frozen for direct detection of dinitrosyl iron complexes using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR while accumulation of nitrosothiols was measured by ferrous-N-Methyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate complex, Fe(MGD2, in lysed mitochondria. Treatment of mitochondria with NO-donor gave rise to ESR signal of dinitrosyl iron complexes while ESR

  8. ZIP8 zinc transporter: indispensable role for both multiple-organ organogenesis and hematopoiesis in utero.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gálvez-Peralta

    Full Text Available Previously this laboratory characterized Slc39a8-encoded ZIP8 as a Zn(2+/(HCO(3(-(2 symporter; yet, the overall physiological importance of ZIP8 at the whole-organism level remains unclear. Herein we describe the phenotype of the hypomorphic Slc39a8(neo/neo mouse which has retained the neomycin-resistance gene in intron 3, hence causing significantly decreased ZIP8 mRNA and protein levels in embryo, fetus, placenta, yolk sac, and several tissues of neonates. The Slc39a8(neo allele is associated with diminished zinc and iron uptake in mouse fetal fibroblast and liver-derived cultures; consequently, Slc39a8(neo/neo newborns exhibit diminished zinc and iron levels in several tissues. Slc39a8(neo/neo homozygotes from gestational day(GD-11.5 onward are pale, growth-stunted, and die between GD18.5 and 48 h postnatally. Defects include: severely hypoplastic spleen; hypoplasia of liver, kidney, lung, and lower limbs. Histologically, Slc39a8(neo/neo neonates show decreased numbers of hematopoietic islands in yolk sac and liver. Low hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, serum iron, and total iron-binding capacity confirmed severe anemia. Flow cytometry of fetal liver cells revealed the erythroid series strikingly affected in the hypomorph. Zinc-dependent 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, required for heme synthesis, was not different between Slc39a8(+/+ and Slc39a8(neo/neo offspring. To demonstrate further that the mouse phenotype is due to ZIP8 deficiency, we bred Slc39a8(+/neo with BAC-transgenic BTZIP8-3 line (carrying three extra copies of the Slc39a8 allele; this cross generated viable Slc39a8(neo/neo_BTZIP8-3(+/+ pups showing none of the above-mentioned congenital defects-proving Slc39a8(neo/neo causes the described phenotype. Our study demonstrates that ZIP8-mediated zinc transport plays an unappreciated critical role during in utero and neonatal growth, organ morphogenesis, and hematopoiesis.

  9. Aquifex aeolicus membrane hydrogenase for hydrogen biooxidation: Role of lipids and physiological partners in enzyme stability and activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infossi, Pascale; Lojou, Elisabeth; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Therese [Unite de Bioenergetique et Ingenierie des Proteines, UPR 9036, Institut de Microbiologie de la Mediterranee - CNRS, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Chauvin, Jean-Paul [Institut de Biologie du developpement de Marseille Luminy, UMR 6216, Parc Scientifique de Luminy, 163 Avenue de Luminy, BP 907, 13009 Marseille (France); Herbette, Gaetan [Spectropole FI 1739, Aix-Marseille Universite case 511, Faculte de St Jerome Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Brugna, Myriam [Unite de Bioenergetique et Ingenierie des Proteines, UPR 9036, Institut de Microbiologie de la Mediterranee - CNRS, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Universite de Provence, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 03 (France)

    2010-10-15

    Hydrogenase I from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus is a good candidate for biotechnological devices thanks to its ability to oxidize hydrogen at high temperature, even in the presence of oxygen and CO. In order to enhance the enzyme stability and the catalytic efficiency, we investigated the hydrogen oxidation process with hydrogenase I embedded in a physiological-like environment. Hydrogenase I partners in the metabolic chain, namely membrane quinone and cytochrome b, were purified and fully characterized. The complex hydrogenase I-cytochrome b was inserted into liposomes. Surface Plasmon Resonance revealed that quinone took part in the stabilization of the complex. By use of molecular modelization and electrochemistry analysis, enzyme stability has been demonstrated to be stronger and enzymatic efficiency to be five times higher when hydrogenase is embedded into the liposomes. This result raises the possibility of using hydrogenases as biocatalysts in fuel cells. (author)

  10. Resolving the role of plant glutamate dehydrogenase: II. Physiological characterization of plants overexpressing the two enzyme subunits individually or simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercé-Laforgue, Thérèse; Bedu, Magali; Dargel-Grafin, Céline; Dubois, Frédéric; Gibon, Yves; Restivo, Francesco M; Hirel, Bertrand

    2013-10-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH; EC 1.4.1.2) is able to carry out the deamination of glutamate in higher plants. In order to obtain a better understanding of the physiological function of GDH in leaves, transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants were constructed that overexpress two genes from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (GDHA and GDHB under the control of the Cauliflower mosiac virus 35S promoter), which encode the α- and β-subunits of GDH individually or simultaneously. In the transgenic plants, the GDH protein accumulated in the mitochondria of mesophyll cells and in the mitochondria of the phloem companion cells (CCs), where the native enzyme is normally expressed. Such a shift in the cellular location of the GDH enzyme induced major changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolite accumulation and a reduction in growth. These changes were mainly characterized by a decrease in the amount of sucrose, starch and glutamine in the leaves, which was accompanied by an increase in the amount of nitrate and Chl. In addition, there was an increase in the content of asparagine and a decrease in proline. Such changes may explain the lower plant biomass determined in the GDH-overexpressing lines. Overexpressing the two genes GDHA and GDHB individually or simultaneously induced a differential accumulation of glutamate and glutamine and a modification of the glutamate to glutamine ratio. The impact of the metabolic changes occurring in the different types of GDH-overexpressing plants is discussed in relation to the possible physiological function of each subunit when present in the form of homohexamers or heterohexamers.

  11. Investigating the role of Clinical Nurse Consultants in one health district from multiple stakeholder perspectives: a cooperative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth; Bothe, Janine; Edgar, Denise; Beaven, Geraldine; Burgess, Bernadette; Dickson, Vhari; Dunn, Stephen; Horning, Lynda; Jensen, Janice; Kandl, Bronia; Nonu, Miriam; Owen, Fran; Moss, Cheryle

    2015-01-01

    The impetus for this research came from a group of 11 Clinical Nurse Consultants (CNCs) within a health service in NSW, Australia, who wanted to investigate the CNC role from multiple stakeholder perspectives. With support from academic researchers, the CNCs designed and implemented the study. The aim of this research project was to investigate the role of the CNC from the multiple perspectives of CNCs and other stakeholders who work with CNCs in the Health District. This was a co-operative inquiry that utilised qualitative descriptive research approach. Co-operative inquiry methods enabled 11 CNCs to work as co-researchers and to conduct the investigation. The co-researchers implemented a qualitative descriptive design for the research and used interviews (7) and focus groups (16) with CNC stakeholders (n = 103) to gather sufficient data to investigate the role of the CNC in the organisation. Thematic analysis was undertaken to obtain the results. The CNC role is invaluable to all stakeholders and it was seen as the "glue" which holds teams together. Stakeholder expectations of the CNC role were multiple and generally agreed. Five themes derived from the data are reported as "clinical leadership as core", "making a direct difference to patient care", "service development as an outcome", "role breadth or narrowness and boundaries", and "career development". There was clear appreciation of the work that CNCs do in their roles, and the part that the CNC role plays in achieving quality health outcomes. The role of the CNC is complex and the CNCs themselves often negotiate these complexities to ensure beneficial outcomes for the patient and organisation. For the wider audience this study has given further insights into the role of these nurses and the perspectives of those with whom they work.

  12. Vital Recorder—a free research tool for automatic recording of high-resolution time-synchronised physiological data from multiple anaesthesia devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyung-Chul; Jung, Chul-Woo

    2018-01-01

    The current anaesthesia information management system (AIMS) has limited capability for the acquisition of high-quality vital signs data. We have developed a Vital Recorder program to overcome the disadvantages of AIMS and to support research. Physiological data of surgical patients were collected from 10 operating rooms using the Vital Recorder. The basic equipment used were a patient monitor, the anaesthesia machine, and the bispectral index (BIS) monitor. Infusion pumps, cardiac output mon...

  13. Vital Recorder-a free research tool for automatic recording of high-resolution time-synchronised physiological data from multiple anaesthesia devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Chul; Jung, Chul-Woo

    2018-01-24

    The current anaesthesia information management system (AIMS) has limited capability for the acquisition of high-quality vital signs data. We have developed a Vital Recorder program to overcome the disadvantages of AIMS and to support research. Physiological data of surgical patients were collected from 10 operating rooms using the Vital Recorder. The basic equipment used were a patient monitor, the anaesthesia machine, and the bispectral index (BIS) monitor. Infusion pumps, cardiac output monitors, regional oximeter, and rapid infusion device were added as required. The automatic recording option was used exclusively and the status of recording was frequently checked through web monitoring. Automatic recording was successful in 98.5% (4,272/4,335) cases during eight months of operation. The total recorded time was 13,489 h (3.2 ± 1.9 h/case). The Vital Recorder's automatic recording and remote monitoring capabilities enabled us to record physiological big data with minimal effort. The Vital Recorder also provided time-synchronised data captured from a variety of devices to facilitate an integrated analysis of vital signs data. The free distribution of the Vital Recorder is expected to improve data access for researchers attempting physiological data studies and to eliminate inequalities in research opportunities due to differences in data collection capabilities.

  14. From blood coagulation to innate and adaptive immunity: the role of platelets in the physiology and pathology of autoimmune disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik, Zuzanna Małgorzata; Makowski, Marcin; Makowska, Joanna Samanta

    2018-02-28

    Thrombosis and cardiovascular complications are common manifestations of a variety of pathological conditions, including infections and chronic inflammatory diseases. Hence, there is great interest in determining the hitherto unforeseen immune role of the main blood coagulation executor-the platelet. Platelets store and release a plethora of immunoactive molecules, generate microparticles, and interact with cells classically belonging to the immune system. The observed effects of platelet involvement in immune processes, especially in autoimmune diseases, are conflicting-from inciting inflammation to mediating its resolution. An in-depth understanding of the role of platelets in inflammation and immunity could open new therapeutic pathways for patients with autoimmune disorders. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge on the role of platelets in the patomechanisms of autoimmune disorders and suggests directions for future research.

  15. A Qualitative Exploration of Multiple Case Studies of the Perception of School Social Workers Concerning Their Roles in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Alesha Nicole

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative exploration in the form of multiple case studies interviewed a group of seven social workers from the St. Louis Metropolitan area to gain their perception as school social workers concerning their roles in public schools. The literature on school social workers indicated that school social workers brought unique knowledge and…

  16. Exploring the Behavioral Patterns of Learners in an Educational Massively Multiple Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huei-Tse

    2012-01-01

    Massively multiple online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are very popular among students. Educational MMORPGs, however, are very rare, as are studies on gamers' behavioral patterns during such games. The current study is an empirical observation and analysis of the behavioral patterns of 100 gamers participating in an educational MMORPG called…

  17. The Role of the External Personal Assistants for Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities Working in the Children's Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Anna Karin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities need support to function in an optimal way. However, there is a limited knowledge about the role of external personal assistants working in the children's home. Materials and Methods: A mixed method study was performed including qualitative data from interviews with 11…

  18. Ethnic and Racial Socialization and Self-Esteem of Asian Adoptees: The Mediating Role of Multiple Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Jayashree

    2013-01-01

    Positive identity development during adolescence in general is a complex process and may pose additional challenges for adolescents adopted from a different culture. Using a web-based survey design with a sample of 100 internationally adopted Asian adolescent and young adults, the present study examined the mediating role of multiple identities…

  19. Interactions of cationic polystyrene nanoparticles with marine bivalve hemocytes in a physiological environment: Role of soluble hemolymph proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Laura; Ciacci, Caterina; Fabbri, Rita; Balbi, Teresa; Salis, Annalisa; Damonte, Gianluca; Cortese, Katia; Caratto, Valentina; Monopoli, Marco P; Dawson, Kenneth; Bergami, Elisa; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-10-01

    The bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis has proven as a suitable model invertebrate for evaluating the potential impact of nanoparticles (NPs) in the marine environment. In particular, in mussels, the immune system represents a sensitive target for different types of NPs. In environmental conditions, both NP intrinsic properties and those of the receiving medium will affect particle behavior and consequent bioavailability/uptake/toxicity. However, the evaluation of the biological effects of NPs requires additional understanding of how, once within the organism, NPs interact at the molecular level with cells in a physiological environment. In mammalian systems, different NPs associate with serum soluble components, organized into a "protein corona", which affects particle interactions with target cells. However, no information is available so far on the interactions of NPs with biological fluids of aquatic organisms. In this work, the influence of hemolymph serum (HS) on the in vitro effects of amino modified polystyrene NPs (PS-NH2) on Mytilus hemocytes was investigated. Hemocytes were incubated with PS-NH2 suspensions in HS (1, 5 and 50µg/mL) and the results were compared with those obtained in ASW medium. Cell functional parameters (lysosomal membrane stability, oxyradical production, phagocytosis) were evaluated, and morphological changes were investigated by TEM. The activation state of the signalling components involved in Mytilus immune response (p38 MAPK and PKC) was determined. The results show that in the presence of HS, PS-NH2 increased cellular damage and ROS production with respect to ASW medium. The effects were apparently mediated by disregulation of p38 MAPK signalling. The formation of a PS-NH2-protein corona in HS was investigated by centrifugation, and 1D- gel electrophoresis and nano-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The results identified the Putative C1q domain containing protein (MgC1q6) as the only component of the PS-NH2 hard protein corona in Mytilus

  20. The role of multiple neuromodulators in reinforcement learning that is based on competition between eligibility traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Huertas

    2016-12-01

    neuromodulators for expressing the LTP and LTD traces? Here we expand on our previous model to include several neuromodulators, and illustrate through various examples how different neuromodulators contribute to learning reward-timing within a wide set of training paradigms and propose further roles that multiple neuromodulators can play in encoding additional information of the rewarding signal.

  1. The Role of Multiple Neuromodulators in Reinforcement Learning That Is Based on Competition between Eligibility Traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Marco A; Schwettmann, Sarah E; Shouval, Harel Z

    2016-01-01

    expressing the LTP and LTD traces? Here we expand on our previous model to include several neuromodulators, and illustrate through various examples how different these contribute to learning reward-timing within a wide set of training paradigms and propose further roles that multiple neuromodulators can play in encoding additional information of the rewarding signal.

  2. The multiple roles of hypothetical gene BPSS1356 in Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hokchai Yam

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is an opportunistic pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis. It is able to adapt to harsh environments and can live intracellularly in its infected hosts. In this study, identification of transcriptional factors that associate with the β' subunit (RpoC of RNA polymerase was performed. The N-terminal region of this subunit is known to trigger promoter melting when associated with a sigma factor. A pull-down assay using histidine-tagged B. pseudomallei RpoC N-terminal region as bait showed that a hypothetical protein BPSS1356 was one of the proteins bound. This hypothetical protein is conserved in all B. pseudomallei strains and present only in the Burkholderia genus. A BPSS1356 deletion mutant was generated to investigate its biological function. The mutant strain exhibited reduced biofilm formation and a lower cell density during the stationary phase of growth in LB medium. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that the ΔBPSS1356 mutant cells had a shrunken cytoplasm indicative of cell plasmolysis and a rougher surface when compared to the wild type. An RNA microarray result showed that a total of 63 genes were transcriptionally affected by the BPSS1356 deletion with fold change values of higher than 4. The expression of a group of genes encoding membrane located transporters was concurrently down-regulated in ΔBPSS1356 mutant. Amongst the affected genes, the putative ion transportation genes were the most severely suppressed. Deprivation of BPSS1356 also down-regulated the transcriptions of genes for the arginine deiminase system, glycerol metabolism, type III secretion system cluster 2, cytochrome bd oxidase and arsenic resistance. It is therefore obvious that BPSS1356 plays a multiple regulatory roles on many genes.

  3. The role of stress mindset in shaping cognitive, emotional, and physiological responses to challenging and threatening stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Alia J; Akinola, Modupe; Martin, Ashley; Fath, Sean

    2017-07-01

    Prior research suggests that altering situation-specific evaluations of stress as challenging versus threatening can improve responses to stress. The aim of the current study was to explore whether cognitive, physiological and affective stress responses can be altered independent of situation-specific evaluations by changing individuals' mindsets about the nature of stress in general. Using a 2 × 2 design, we experimentally manipulated stress mindset using multi-media film clips orienting participants (N = 113) to either the enhancing or debilitating nature of stress. We also manipulated challenge and threat evaluations by providing positive or negative feedback to participants during a social stress test. Results revealed that under both threat and challenge stress evaluations, a stress-is-enhancing mindset produced sharper increases in anabolic ("growth") hormones relative to a stress-is-debilitating mindset. Furthermore, when the stress was evaluated as a challenge, a stress-is-enhancing mindset produced sharper increases in positive affect, heightened attentional bias towards positive stimuli, and greater cognitive flexibility, whereas a stress-is-debilitating mindset produced worse cognitive and affective outcomes. These findings advance stress management theory and practice by demonstrating that a short manipulation designed to generate a stress-is-enhancing mindset can improve responses to both challenging and threatening stress.

  4. A new insight into the physiological role of bile salt hydrolase among intestinal bacteria from the genus Bifidobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarocki, Piotr; Podleśny, Marcin; Glibowski, Paweł; Targoński, Zdzisław

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence of bile salt hydrolase in fourteen strains belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium. Deconjugation activity was detected using a plate test, two-step enzymatic reaction and activity staining on a native polyacrylamide gel. Subsequently, bile salt hydrolases from B. pseudocatenulatum and B. longum subsp. suis were purified using a two-step chromatographic procedure. Biochemical characterization of the bile salt hydrolases showed that the purified enzymes hydrolyzed all of the six major human bile salts under the pH and temperature conditions commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Next, the dynamic rheometry was applied to monitor the gelation process of deoxycholic acid under different conditions. The results showed that bile acids displayed aqueous media gelating properties. Finally, gel-forming abilities of bifidobacteria exhibiting bile salt hydrolase activity were analyzed. Our investigations have demonstrated that the release of deconjugated bile acids led to the gelation phenomenon of the enzymatic reaction solution containing purified BSH. The presented results suggest that bile salt hydrolase activity commonly found among intestinal microbiota increases hydrogel-forming abilities of certain bile salts. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that bile salt hydrolase activity among Bifidobacterium is directly connected with the gelation process of bile salts. In our opinion, if such a phenomenon occurs in physiological conditions of human gut, it may improve bacterial ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract and their survival in this specific ecological niche.

  5. Physiological regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase and the role of 2-oxoglutarate in Prochlorococcus sp. strain PCC 9511.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Agustina Domínguez-Martín

    Full Text Available The enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH; EC 1.1.1.42 catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate, to produce 2-oxoglutarate. The incompleteness of the tricarboxylic acids cycle in marine cyanobacteria confers a special importance to isocitrate dehydrogenase in the C/N balance, since 2-oxoglutarate can only be metabolized through the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway. The physiological regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase was studied in cultures of Prochlorococcus sp. strain PCC 9511, by measuring enzyme activity and concentration using the NADPH production assay and Western blotting, respectively. The enzyme activity showed little changes under nitrogen or phosphorus starvation, or upon addition of the inhibitors DCMU, DBMIB and MSX. Azaserine, an inhibitor of glutamate synthase, induced clear increases in the isocitrate dehydrogenase activity and icd gene expression after 24 h, and also in the 2-oxoglutarate concentration. Iron starvation had the most significant effect, inducing a complete loss of isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, possibly mediated by a process of oxidative inactivation, while its concentration was unaffected. Our results suggest that isocitrate dehydrogenase responds to changes in the intracellular concentration of 2-oxoglutarate and to the redox status of the cells in Prochlorococcus.

  6. Crystal structure and potential physiological role of zebra fish thioesterase superfamily member 2 (fTHEM2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Shanshan; Li, Han; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Ying, E-mail: zhouying@moon.ibp.ac.cn

    2015-08-07

    Thioesterase superfamily member 2 (THEM2) is an essential protein for mammalian cell proliferation. It belongs to the hotdog-fold thioesterase superfamily and catalyzes hydrolysis of thioester bonds of acyl-CoA in vitro, while its in vivo function remains unrevealed. In this study, Zebra fish was selected as a model organism to facilitate the investigations on THEM2. First, we solved the crystal structure of recombinant fTHEM2 at the resolution of 1.80 Å, which displayed a similar scaffolding as hTHEM2. Second, functional studies demonstrated that fTHEM2 is capable of hydrolyzing palmitoyl-CoA in vitro. In addition, injection of morpholino against fTHEM2 at one-cell stage resulted in distorted early embryo development, including delayed cell division, retarded development and increased death rate. The above findings validated our hypothesis that fTHEM2 could serve as an ideal surrogate for studying the physiological functions of THEM2. - Highlights: • The crystal structure of recombinant fTHEM2 is presented. • fTHEM2 is capable of hydrolyzing palmitoyl-CoA. • The influence of fTHEM2 on early embryo development is demonstrated.

  7. The Impact of Multiple Roles on Psychological Distress among Japanese Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Honda

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that participants who had only an employment role had an increased risk of psychological distress. The degree of psychological distress was not determined solely by the number of roles. It is important to have balance between work and family life to reduce role conflict and/or role submersion, which in turn may reduce the risk of psychological distress.

  8. Clinical diagnostic criteria of multiple sclerosis: the role of magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belair, M.; Girard, M.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this article is to summarize the diagnostic criteria recommended by the International Panel on the Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis in 2001. The recommendations of another working group, the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers Consensus Meeting, which met in Vancouver in 2001, concerning the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with multiple sclerosis are also presented in an effort to standardize the protocols for magnetic resonance imaging of these patients. (author)

  9. Identification of a group of Haemophilus influenzae penicillin-binding proteins that may have complementary physiological roles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malouin, F.; Parr, T.R. Jr.; Bryan, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    [35S]penicillin bound to different Haemophilus influenzae proteins in assays performed at 20, 37, or 42 degrees C. Penicillin-binding proteins 3a, 3b, 4, and 4' formed a group characterized by their affinity for moxalactam, cefotaxime, and piperacillin. Penicillin-binding protein 4' showed specific properties that may reflect its complementary role in septation

  10. Similarly Torn, Differentially Shorn? The Experience and Management of Conflict between Multiple Roles, Relationships, and Social Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle M. Jones

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In three studies we examined the experience and management of conflict between different types of multiple identities. Participants described a conflict between pairs of role, relational, or social identities before rating the experience (i.e., magnitude, stress, and growth and management of conflict on a newly developed scale assessing four strategies: reconciliation, where identities are integrated, realignment, where one identity is chosen over another, retreat, where both identities are avoided, and reflection, where fit (with others, situation determines identity selection. In general, the types of identities mattered for conflict management but not its experience: Magnitude and growth did not differ, however, stress was greater for role identity conflicts (Study 3 only and participants endorsed the use of more realignment for role conflicts (Study 2 and more retreat for relational conflicts (Study 3 relative to other types of identity conflicts. Furthermore, findings suggested that the perceived flexibility of identities, not their importance or valence, were associated with realignment and retreat for roles and with retreat for relationships. Experiencing conflicts between multiple identities leaves people similarly torn, but multiple roles and relationships may be differentially shorn to manage conflict.

  11. Similarly Torn, Differentially Shorn? The Experience and Management of Conflict between Multiple Roles, Relationships, and Social Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Janelle M.; Hynie, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    In three studies we examined the experience and management of conflict between different types of multiple identities. Participants described a conflict between pairs of role, relational, or social identities before rating the experience (i.e., magnitude, stress, and growth) and management of conflict on a newly developed scale assessing four strategies: reconciliation, where identities are integrated, realignment, where one identity is chosen over another, retreat, where both identities are avoided, and reflection, where fit (with others, situation) determines identity selection. In general, the types of identities mattered for conflict management but not its experience: Magnitude and growth did not differ, however, stress was greater for role identity conflicts (Study 3 only) and participants endorsed the use of more realignment for role conflicts (Study 2) and more retreat for relational conflicts (Study 3) relative to other types of identity conflicts. Furthermore, findings suggested that the perceived flexibility of identities, not their importance or valence, were associated with realignment and retreat for roles and with retreat for relationships. Experiencing conflicts between multiple identities leaves people similarly torn, but multiple roles and relationships may be differentially shorn to manage conflict. PMID:29051744

  12. Similarly Torn, Differentially Shorn? The Experience and Management of Conflict between Multiple Roles, Relationships, and Social Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Janelle M; Hynie, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    In three studies we examined the experience and management of conflict between different types of multiple identities. Participants described a conflict between pairs of role, relational, or social identities before rating the experience (i.e., magnitude, stress, and growth) and management of conflict on a newly developed scale assessing four strategies: reconciliation , where identities are integrated, realignment , where one identity is chosen over another, retreat , where both identities are avoided, and reflection , where fit (with others, situation) determines identity selection. In general, the types of identities mattered for conflict management but not its experience: Magnitude and growth did not differ, however, stress was greater for role identity conflicts ( Study 3 only ) and participants endorsed the use of more realignment for role conflicts ( Study 2 ) and more retreat for relational conflicts ( Study 3 ) relative to other types of identity conflicts. Furthermore, findings suggested that the perceived flexibility of identities, not their importance or valence, were associated with realignment and retreat for roles and with retreat for relationships. Experiencing conflicts between multiple identities leaves people similarly torn, but multiple roles and relationships may be differentially shorn to manage conflict.

  13. Interactions of cationic polystyrene nanoparticles with marine bivalve hemocytes in a physiological environment: Role of soluble hemolymph proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canesi, Laura, E-mail: Laura.Canesi@unige.it [Dept. of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences – DISTAV, University of Genoa (Italy); Ciacci, Caterina [Dept. of Biomolecular Sciences – DIBS, University of Urbino (Italy); Fabbri, Rita; Balbi, Teresa [Dept. of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences – DISTAV, University of Genoa (Italy); Salis, Annalisa; Damonte, Gianluca [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research – CEBR, University of Genoa (Italy); Cortese, Katia [Department of Experimental Medicine – DIMES, University of Genoa (Italy); Caratto, Valentina [Dept. of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences – DISTAV, University of Genoa (Italy); Monopoli, Marco P. [Centre for BioNanoInteractions, School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin (Ireland); Department of Pharmaceutical and Medical Chemistry, Royal College of Surgeons, 123 St. Stephen Green, Dublin (Ireland); Dawson, Kenneth [Centre for BioNanoInteractions, School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin (Ireland); Bergami, Elisa; Corsi, Ilaria [Dept. of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    The bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis has proven as a suitable model invertebrate for evaluating the potential impact of nanoparticles (NPs) in the marine environment. In particular, in mussels, the immune system represents a sensitive target for different types of NPs. In environmental conditions, both NP intrinsic properties and those of the receiving medium will affect particle behavior and consequent bioavailability/uptake/toxicity. However, the evaluation of the biological effects of NPs requires additional understanding of how, once within the organism, NPs interact at the molecular level with cells in a physiological environment. In mammalian systems, different NPs associate with serum soluble components, organized into a “protein corona”, which affects particle interactions with target cells. However, no information is available so far on the interactions of NPs with biological fluids of aquatic organisms. In this work, the influence of hemolymph serum (HS) on the in vitro effects of amino modified polystyrene NPs (PS-NH{sub 2}) on Mytilus hemocytes was investigated. Hemocytes were incubated with PS-NH{sub 2} suspensions in HS (1, 5 and 50 µg/mL) and the results were compared with those obtained in ASW medium. Cell functional parameters (lysosomal membrane stability, oxyradical production, phagocytosis) were evaluated, and morphological changes were investigated by TEM. The activation state of the signalling components involved in Mytilus immune response (p38 MAPK and PKC) was determined. The results show that in the presence of HS, PS-NH{sub 2} increased cellular damage and ROS production with respect to ASW medium. The effects were apparently mediated by disregulation of p38 MAPK signalling. The formation of a PS-NH{sub 2}-protein corona in HS was investigated by centrifugation, and 1D- gel electrophoresis and nano-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The results identified the Putative C1q domain containing protein (MgC1q6) as the only component of the PS-NH{sub 2} hard

  14. Interactions of cationic polystyrene nanoparticles with marine bivalve hemocytes in a physiological environment: Role of soluble hemolymph proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canesi, Laura; Ciacci, Caterina; Fabbri, Rita; Balbi, Teresa; Salis, Annalisa; Damonte, Gianluca; Cortese, Katia; Caratto, Valentina; Monopoli, Marco P.; Dawson, Kenneth; Bergami, Elisa; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    The bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis has proven as a suitable model invertebrate for evaluating the potential impact of nanoparticles (NPs) in the marine environment. In particular, in mussels, the immune system represents a sensitive target for different types of NPs. In environmental conditions, both NP intrinsic properties and those of the receiving medium will affect particle behavior and consequent bioavailability/uptake/toxicity. However, the evaluation of the biological effects of NPs requires additional understanding of how, once within the organism, NPs interact at the molecular level with cells in a physiological environment. In mammalian systems, different NPs associate with serum soluble components, organized into a “protein corona”, which affects particle interactions with target cells. However, no information is available so far on the interactions of NPs with biological fluids of aquatic organisms. In this work, the influence of hemolymph serum (HS) on the in vitro effects of amino modified polystyrene NPs (PS-NH 2 ) on Mytilus hemocytes was investigated. Hemocytes were incubated with PS-NH 2 suspensions in HS (1, 5 and 50 µg/mL) and the results were compared with those obtained in ASW medium. Cell functional parameters (lysosomal membrane stability, oxyradical production, phagocytosis) were evaluated, and morphological changes were investigated by TEM. The activation state of the signalling components involved in Mytilus immune response (p38 MAPK and PKC) was determined. The results show that in the presence of HS, PS-NH 2 increased cellular damage and ROS production with respect to ASW medium. The effects were apparently mediated by disregulation of p38 MAPK signalling. The formation of a PS-NH 2 -protein corona in HS was investigated by centrifugation, and 1D- gel electrophoresis and nano-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The results identified the Putative C1q domain containing protein (MgC1q6) as the only component of the PS-NH 2 hard protein corona in

  15. The role of ontogeny in physiological tolerance: decreasing hydrostatic pressure tolerance with development in the northern stone crab Lithodes maja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Catriona; Morris, James P; Brown, Alastair; Hauton, Chris; Thatje, Sven

    2015-06-22

    Extant deep-sea invertebrate fauna represent both ancient and recent invasions from shallow-water habitats. Hydrostatic pressure may present a significant physiological challenge to organisms seeking to colonize deeper waters or migrate ontogenetically. Pressure may be a key factor contributing to bottlenecks in the radiation of taxa and potentially drive speciation. Here, we assess shifts in the tolerance of hydrostatic pressure through early ontogeny of the northern stone crab Lithodes maja, which occupies a depth range of 4-790 m in the North Atlantic. The zoea I, megalopa and crab I stages were exposed to hydrostatic pressures up to 30.0 MPa (equivalent of 3000 m depth), and the relative fold change of genes putatively coding for the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-regulated protein 1 (narg gene), two heat-shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70) isoforms and mitochondrial Citrate Synthase (CS gene) were measured. This study finds a significant increase in the relative expression of the CS and hsp70a genes with increased hydrostatic pressure in the zoea I stage, and an increase in the relative expression of all genes with increased hydrostatic pressure in the megalopa and crab I stages. Transcriptional responses are corroborated by patterns in respiratory rates in response to hydrostatic pressure in all stages. These results suggest a decrease in the acute high-pressure tolerance limit as ontogeny advances, as reflected by a shift in the hydrostatic pressure at which significant differences are observed. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Proteomic and physiological analyses reveal the role of exogenous spermidine on cucumber roots in response to Ca(NO3)2 stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing; Guo, Shirong; Sun, Jin; Shu, Sheng

    2018-05-01

    The mechanism of exogenous Spd-induced Ca(NO 3 ) 2 stress tolerance in cucumber was studied by proteomics and physiological analyses. Protein-protein interaction network revealed 13 key proteins involved in Spd-induced Ca(NO 3 ) 2 stress resistance. Ca(NO 3 ) 2 stress is one of the major reasons for secondary salinization that limits cucumber plant development in greenhouse. The conferred protective role of exogenous Spd on cucumber in response to Ca(NO 3 ) 2 stress cues involves changes at the cellular and physiological levels. To investigate the molecular foundation of exogenous Spd in Ca(NO 3 ) 2 stress tolerance, a proteomic approach was performed in our work. After a 9 days period of Ca(NO 3 ) 2 stress and/or exogenous Spd, 71 differential protein spots were confidently identified. The resulting proteins were enriched in seven different categories of biological processes, including protein metabolism, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, ROS homeostasis and stress defense, cell wall related, transcription, others and unknown. Protein metabolism (31.2%), carbohydrate and energy metabolism (15.6%), ROS homeostasis and stress defense (32.5%) were the three largest functional categories in cucumber root and most of them were significantly increased by exogenous Spd. The Spd-responsive protein interaction network revealed 13 key proteins, whose accumulation changes could be critical for Spd-induced resistance; all 13 proteins were upregulated by Spd at transcriptional and protein levels in response to Ca(NO 3 ) 2 stress. Furthermore, accumulation of antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymatic antioxidant and polyamines, along with reduction of H 2 O 2 and MDA, were detected after exogenous Spd application during Ca(NO 3 ) 2 stress. The results of these proteomic and physiological analyses in cucumber root may facilitate a better understanding of the underlying mechanism of Ca(NO 3 ) 2 stress tolerance mediated by exogenous Spd.

  17. Multiple magnet ingestion: is there a role for early surgical intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Amrollah; Kooraki, Soheil; Esfahani, Shadi Abdar; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    Children often swallow foreign bodies. Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can result in serious complications. This study presents three unique cases of multiple magnet ingestion: one case an 8-year-old boy with multiple magnet ingestion resulting in gastric obstruction and the other two cases with intestinal perforations due to multiple magnet intake. History and physical examination are unreliable in children who swallow multiple magnets. Sometimes radiological findings are not conclusive, whether one magnet is swallowed or more. If magnets are not moved in sequential radiology images, we recommend early surgical intervention before gastrointestinal complications develop. Toy companies, parents, physicians, and radiologists should be warned about the potential complications of such toys.

  18. The expression and evolution of virulence in multiple infections: the role of specificity, relative virulence and relative dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Frida; Routtu, Jarkko

    2013-05-03

    Multiple infections of the same host by different strains of the same microparasite species are believed to play a crucial role during the evolution of parasite virulence. We investigated the role of specificity, relative virulence and relative dose in determining the competitive outcome of multiple infections in the Daphnia magna-Pasteuria ramosa host-parasite system. We found that infections by P. ramosa clones (single genotype) were less virulent and produced more spores than infections by P. ramosa isolates (possibly containing multiple genotypes). We also found that two similarly virulent isolates of P. ramosa differed considerably in their within-host competitiveness and their effects on host offspring production when faced with coinfecting P. ramosa isolates and clones. Although the relative virulence of a P. ramosa isolate/clone appears to be a good indicator of its competitiveness during multiple infections, the relative dose may alter the competitive outcome. Moreover, spore counts on day 20 post-infection indicate that the competitive outcome is largely decided early in the parasite's growth phase, possibly mediated by direct interference or apparent competition. Our results emphasize the importance of epidemiology as well as of various parasite traits in determining the outcome of within-host competition. Incorporating realistic epidemiological and ecological conditions when testing theoretical models of multiple infections, as well as using a wider range of host and parasite genotypes, will enable us to better understand the course of virulence evolution.

  19. Stress and serial adult metamorphosis: Multiple roles for the stress axis in socially regulated sex change

    OpenAIRE

    Tessa K Solomon-Lane; Erica J Crespi; Erica J Crespi; Matthew Scott Grober; Matthew Scott Grober

    2013-01-01

    Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds) has ...

  20. Stress and serial adult metamorphosis: multiple roles for the stress axis in socially regulated sex change

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon-Lane, Tessa K.; Crespi, Erica J.; Grober, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds) has be...

  1. Centrality of women's multiple roles: beneficial and detrimental consequences for psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, L M; Stephens, M A; Townsend, A L

    2000-03-01

    Theorists have proposed that greater centrality (personal importance) of a social role is associated with better psychological well-being but that role centrality exacerbates the negative effects of stress in that same social role on well-being. The present study found evidence to support both hypotheses in a sample of 296 women who simultaneously occupied the roles of parent care provider, mother, wife, and employee. Greater centrality of all four roles was related to better psychological well-being. As predicted, wife centrality exacerbated the effects of wife stress on life satisfaction, and employee centrality exacerbated the effects of employee stress on depressive symptoms. Contrary to prediction, centrality of the mother role buffered women from the negative effects of mother stress on depressive symptoms. These findings point to an aspect of role identity that can benefit well-being but that has complex effects in the context of role stress.

  2. Role Clarification Processes for Better Integration of Nurse Practitioners into Primary Healthcare Teams: A Multiple-Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Brault

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Role clarity is a crucial issue for effective interprofessional collaboration. Poorly defined roles can become a source of conflict in clinical teams and reduce the effectiveness of care and services delivered to the population. Our objective in this paper is to outline processes for clarifying professional roles when a new role is introduced into clinical teams, that of the primary healthcare nurse practitioner (PHCNP. To support our empirical analysis we used the Canadian National Interprofessional Competency Framework, which defines the essential components for role clarification among professionals. A qualitative multiple-case study was conducted on six cases in which the PHCNP role was introduced into primary care teams. Data collection included 34 semistructured interviews with key informants involved in the implementation of the PHCNP role. Our results revealed that the best performing primary care teams were those that used a variety of organizational and individual strategies to carry out role clarification processes. From this study, we conclude that role clarification is both an organizational process to be developed and a competency that each member of the primary care team must mobilize to ensure effective interprofessional collaboration.

  3. Role clarification processes for better integration of nurse practitioners into primary healthcare teams: a multiple-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Isabelle; Kilpatrick, Kelley; D'Amour, Danielle; Contandriopoulos, Damien; Chouinard, Véronique; Dubois, Carl-Ardy; Perroux, Mélanie; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Role clarity is a crucial issue for effective interprofessional collaboration. Poorly defined roles can become a source of conflict in clinical teams and reduce the effectiveness of care and services delivered to the population. Our objective in this paper is to outline processes for clarifying professional roles when a new role is introduced into clinical teams, that of the primary healthcare nurse practitioner (PHCNP). To support our empirical analysis we used the Canadian National Interprofessional Competency Framework, which defines the essential components for role clarification among professionals. A qualitative multiple-case study was conducted on six cases in which the PHCNP role was introduced into primary care teams. Data collection included 34 semistructured interviews with key informants involved in the implementation of the PHCNP role. Our results revealed that the best performing primary care teams were those that used a variety of organizational and individual strategies to carry out role clarification processes. From this study, we conclude that role clarification is both an organizational process to be developed and a competency that each member of the primary care team must mobilize to ensure effective interprofessional collaboration.

  4. Potential role of multiple carbon fixation pathways during lipid accumulation in Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela Jacob

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a unicellular diatom in the class Bacillariophyceae. The full genome has been sequenced (P. tricornutum gene expression profiles during nutrient-deprivation and lipid-accumulation, cell cultures were grown with a nitrate to phosphate ratio of 20:1 (N:P and whole-genome transcripts were monitored over time via RNA-sequence determination. Results The specific Nile Red (NR fluorescence (NR fluorescence per cell increased over time; however, the increase in NR fluorescence was initiated before external nitrate was completely exhausted. Exogenous phosphate was depleted before nitrate, and these results indicated that the depletion of exogenous phosphate might be an early trigger for lipid accumulation that is magnified upon nitrate depletion. As expected, many of the genes associated with nitrate and phosphate utilization were up-expressed. The diatom-specific cyclins cyc7 and cyc10 were down-expressed during the nutrient-deplete state, and cyclin B1 was up-expressed during lipid-accumulation after growth cessation. While many of the genes associated with the C3 pathway for photosynthetic carbon reduction were not significantly altered, genes involved in a putative C4 pathway for photosynthetic carbon assimilation were up-expressed as the cells depleted nitrate, phosphate, and exogenous dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC levels. P. tricornutum has multiple, putative carbonic anhydrases, but only two were significantly up-expressed (2-fold and 4-fold at the last time point when exogenous DIC levels had increased after the cessation of growth. Alternative pathways that could utilize HCO3- were also suggested by the gene expression profiles (e.g., putative propionyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylases. Conclusions The results indicate that P. tricornutum continued carbon dioxide reduction when population growth was arrested and different carbon-concentrating mechanisms were used dependent upon exogenous

  5. Attributing Increased River Flooding in the Future: Hydrodynamic Downscaling Reveals Role of Plant Physiological Responses to Increased CO2 is First Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, M. D.; Kooperman, G. J.; Pritchard, M. S.; Randerson, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    River flooding events, which are the most frequently occurring natural disaster today, are expected to become more frequent and intense in response to climate change. However, the magnitude of these changes remains debated, in part due to uncertainty in our understanding of the physical processes that contribute to these events and their representation in global climate models. While the intensification of precipitation has been shown to be a primary driver of increased flooding, plant physiological responses to increasing CO2 may also play an important role. As the atmospheric concentration of CO2 increases, plants may respond by reducing the width of their stomata (i.e. stomatal conductance), which can decrease water lost through transpiration and in turn maintain higher soil moisture levels. On long timescales, reduced transpiration has been shown to increase average runoff, but on short timescales elevated soil moisture can also increase instantaneous runoff by limiting the rate at which water is able to infiltrate the soil surface. Here, through hydrodynamic downscaling, we isolate the portion of flooding amplification that can be attributed to the physiological response to increasing CO2. This builds on a new analysis that has revealed such physiological effects can rival changes caused by the atmospheric response alone in the tails of the runoff distribution. We use a set of four simulations run with the Community Earth System Model: one pre-industrial control simulation and three others that are forced with four times CO2. In the three climate change simulations, the increased CO2 is applied only to the land-surface, only to the atmosphere, and to both, respectively. Thirty years of daily runoff from these experiments are used as input for the hydrodynamic CaMa-Flood model. Our results reveal that both the radiative and physiological responses to climate change contribute significantly to future changes in flood return period and inundated area. This

  6. Deletion of the budBAC operon in Klebsiella pneumoniae to understand the physiological role of 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Daun; Yang, Jeongmo; Lee, Soojin; Kim, Borim; Um, Youngsoon; Kim, Youngrok; Ha, Kyoung-Su; Lee, Jinwon

    2016-05-18

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is known to produce 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO), a valuable chemical. In K. pneumoniae, the 2,3-BDO operon (budBAC) is involved in the production of 2,3-BDO. To observe the physiological role of the 2,3-BDO operon in a mixed acid fermentation, we constructed a budBAC-deleted strain (SGSB109). The production of extracellular metabolites, CO2 emission, carbon distribution, and NADH/NAD(+) balance of SGSB109 were compared with the parent strain (SGSB100). When comparing the carbon distribution at 15 hr, four significant differences were observed: in 2,3-BDO biosynthesis, lactate and acetate production (lactate and acetate production increased 2.3-fold and 4.1-fold in SGSB109 compared to SGSB100), CO2 emission (higher in SGSB100), and carbon substrate uptake (higher in SGSB100). Previous studies on the inactivation of the 2,3-BDO operon were focused on the increase of 1,3-propanediol production. Few studies have been done observing the role of 2,3-BDO biosynthesis. This study provides a prime insight into the role of 2,3-BDO biosynthesis of K. pneumoniae.

  7. Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawcer, Stephen; Hellenthal, Garrett; Pirinen, Matti

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that g...

  8. The role of microcredit in reducing women's vulnerabilities to multiple disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Bennett, Nibedita S

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between microcredit and vulnerability reduction for women-headed households in'multiple disasters'. Here multiple disasters are understood as disasters that occur in one specific place and cause severe devastation. The case study covers the super-cyclone in 1999, floods in 2001 and 2003, and drought in 2002 in Orissa, India. The study entailed eight months fieldwork and interviews with several governmental and non-governmental officials and 12 women-headed households from different social castes. The findings suggest that microcredit is a useful tool to replace women's livelihood assets that have been lost in multiple disasters. But inefficient microcredit delivery can cause microdebts and exacerbate caste, class and gender inequalities. It is posited that microcredit delivery cannot achieve vulnerability reduction for women in multiple disasters unless it is complemented by effective financial services, integrated policy planning and disaster management between government, non-governmental organisations and the community.

  9. A role for VAV1 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagodic, Maja; Colacios, Celine; Nohra, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis, the most common cause of progressive neurological disability in young adults, is a chronic inflammatory disease. There is solid evidence for a genetic influence in multiple sclerosis, and deciphering the causative genes could reveal key pathways influencing the disease. A genome...... region on rat chromosome 9 regulates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model for multiple sclerosis. Using interval-specific congenic rat lines and association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms with inflammatory phenotypes, we localized the gene of influence to Vav1, which codes for a signal......-transducing protein in leukocytes. Analysis of seven human cohorts (12,735 individuals) demonstrated an association of rs2546133-rs2617822 haplotypes in the first VAV1 intron with multiple sclerosis (CA: odds ratio, 1.18; CG: odds ratio, 0.86; TG: odds ratio, 0.90). The risk CA haplotype also predisposed for higher...

  10. Behavioral and Genetic Evidence for GIRK Channels in the CNS: Role in Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Jody; Blednov, Yuri A; Harris, R Adron

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are widely expressed throughout the brain and mediate the inhibitory effects of many neurotransmitters. As a result, these channels are important for normal CNS function and have also been implicated in Down syndrome, Parkinson's disease, psychiatric disorders, epilepsy, and drug addiction. Knockout mouse models have provided extensive insight into the significance of GIRK channels under these conditions. This review examines the behavioral and genetic evidence from animal models and genetic association studies in humans linking GIRK channels with CNS disorders. We further explore the possibility that subunit-selective modulators and other advanced research tools will be instrumental in establishing the role of individual GIRK subunits in drug addiction and other relevant CNS diseases and in potentially advancing treatment options for these disorders. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The CCl4 action upon physiological indices in Lepus timidus and the protective role of some substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina PAUNESCU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study is to demonstrate the hepatoprotective role of grape seed oil and Cynara scolymus leaf extract. This experiment lasted for 12 days performed on male and female rabbit. The animals were intoxicated in the latest day of experiment (day 12th with CCl4 in a dose of 30μl/100g body weight and a group of them was treated for 12 days with 0.4 mg/kg body weight/day of Cynara scolymus (artichoke leaf extract while another group was treated with grape seed oil (1ml/kg body weight/day. Intoxication with CCl4 caused an increase a glycemia and a number of leukocytes, decrease cholesterol, triglycerides value, and a number of erythrocytes. We observed that the extract of Cynara scolymus leaf and the grape seed oil had a protective effect against CCl4 intoxication.

  12. Role of the mitochondrial sodium/calcium exchanger in neuronal physiology and in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, P; Cataldi, M; Magi, S; Lariccia, V; Arcangeli, S; Amoroso, S

    2009-01-12

    In neurons, as in other excitable cells, mitochondria extrude Ca(2+) ions from their matrix in exchange with cytosolic Na(+) ions. This exchange is mediated by a specific transporter located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX(mito)). The stoichiometry of NCX(mito)-operated Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange has been the subject of a long controversy, but evidence of an electrogenic 3 Na(+)/1 Ca(2+) exchange is increasing. Although the molecular identity of NCX(mito) is still undetermined, data obtained in our laboratory suggest that besides the long-sought and as yet unfound mitochondrial-specific NCX, the three isoforms of plasmamembrane NCX can contribute to NCX(mito) in neurons and astrocytes. NCX(mito) has a role in controlling neuronal Ca(2+) homeostasis and neuronal bioenergetics. Indeed, by cycling the Ca(2+) ions captured by mitochondria back to the cytosol, NCX(mito) determines a shoulder in neuronal [Ca(2+)](c) responses to neurotransmitters and depolarizing stimuli which may then outlast stimulus duration. This persistent NCX(mito)-dependent Ca(2+) release has a role in post-tetanic potentiation, a form of short-term synaptic plasticity. By controlling [Ca(2+)](m) NCX(mito) regulates the activity of the Ca(2+)-sensitive enzymes pyruvate-, alpha-ketoglutarate- and isocitrate-dehydrogenases and affects the activity of the respiratory chain. Convincing experimental evidence suggests that supraphysiological activation of NCX(mito) contributes to neuronal cell death in the ischemic brain and, in epileptic neurons coping with seizure-induced ion overload, reduces the ability to reestablish normal ionic homeostasis. These data suggest that NCX(mito) could represent an important target for the development of new neurological drugs.

  13. Novel role for the transient potential receptor melastatin 4 channel in guinea pig detrusor smooth muscle physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amy C.; Hristov, Kiril L.; Cheng, Qiuping; Xin, Wenkuan; Parajuli, Shankar P.; Earley, Scott; Malysz, John

    2013-01-01

    Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily, including the Ca2+-activated monovalent cation-selective TRP melastatin 4 (TRPM4) channel, have been recently identified in the urinary bladder. However, their expression and function at the level of detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) remain largely unexplored. In this study, for the first time we investigated the role of TRPM4 channels in guinea pig DSM excitation-contraction coupling using a multidisciplinary approach encompassing protein detection, electrophysiology, live-cell Ca2+ imaging, DSM contractility, and 9-phenanthrol, a recently characterized selective inhibitor of the TRPM4 channel. Western blot and immunocytochemistry experiments demonstrated the expression of the TRPM4 channel in whole DSM tissue and freshly isolated DSM cells with specific localization on the plasma membrane. Perforated whole cell patch-clamp recordings and real-time Ca2+ imaging experiments with fura 2-AM, both using freshly isolated DSM cells, revealed that 9-phenanthrol (30 μM) significantly reduced the cation current and decreased intracellular Ca2+ levels. 9-Phenanthrol (0.1–30 μM) significantly inhibited spontaneous, 0.1 μM carbachol-induced, 20 mM KCl-induced, and nerve-evoked contractions in guinea pig DSM-isolated strips with IC50 values of 1–7 μM and 70–80% maximum inhibition. 9-Phenanthrol also reduced nerve-evoked contraction amplitude induced by continuous repetitive electrical field stimulation of 10-Hz frequency and shifted the frequency-response curve (0.5–50 Hz) relative to the control. Collectively, our data demonstrate the novel finding that TRPM4 channels are expressed in guinea pig DSM and reveal their critical role in the regulation of guinea pig DSM excitation-contraction coupling. PMID:23302778

  14. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  15. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  16. Elder Care, Multiple Role Involvement, and Well-Being Among Middle-Aged Men and Women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuzawa, Saeko

    2015-12-01

    Japan's population is aging at an unprecedented rate. Combined with the tradition of family responsibility for elder care, this rapid population aging has resulted in middle-aged Japanese people being much more likely today than in past decades to face the responsibility of caring for their elderly parents alongside their other major roles. Using nationally representative Japanese data, this study assessed the individual and combined implications of caregiving and other role involvements for the well-being of middle-aged men and women. Some evidence was found for deleterious psychological consequences of the caregiver role. However, in contrast to expectations, the interaction between the roles of caregiver and worker was positively associated with well-being among both men and women. The results suggest the importance of middle-aged adults being able to keep working when they have to care for their aging parents. Another important finding was significant gender differences in the psychological consequences of holding multiple family- and work-related roles and in combining these with the caregiver role. Further analysis showed that the spousal role was also negatively associated with depressive symptoms and positively associated with satisfaction for men but not for women. Gender differences in the findings appear to reflect the significant gender asymmetry in role experiences in Japan.

  17. Physiological pseudomyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    1990-08-01

    Objective refraction through plus fogging lenses and base-in prisms revealed that normally accommodation is not completely relaxed when the stimulus to accommodation is zero. The myopic shift in the refractive error due to this focus error of accommodation was defined as physiological pseudomyopia. Two previously established features of accommodation are responsible for this behavior: (1) accommodation acts as a proportional control system for steady-state responses; and (2) the rest focus of accommodation is nonzero. It is proposed that the hyperopic shift in refraction observed in cycloplegia is the result of elimination of physiological pseudomyopia.

  18. Health Behavior Among Men Occupying Multiple Family Roles and the Moderating Effects of Perceived Partner Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasquale, Nicole; Polenick, Courtney A.; Hinde, Jesse; Bray, Jeremy W.; Zarit, Steven H.; Moen, Phyllis; Hammer, Leslie B.; Almeida, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Men in the U.S. are increasingly involved in their children’s lives and currently represent 40% of informal caregivers to dependent relatives or friends aged 18 years or older. Yet, much more is known about the health effects of varying family role occupancies for women relative to men. The present research sought to fill this empirical gap by first comparing the health behavior (sleep duration, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, fast food consumption) of men who only occupy partner roles and partnered men who also fill father, informal caregiver, or both father and informal caregiver (i.e., sandwiched) roles. The moderating effects of perceived partner relationship quality, conceptualized here as partner support and strain, on direct family role-health behavior linkages were also examined. Secondary analysis of survey data from 366 cohabiting and married men in the Work, Family and Health Study indicated that men’s multiple family role occupancies were generally not associated with health behavior. With men continuing to take on more family responsibilities, as well as the serious health consequences of unhealthy behavior, the implications of these null effects are encouraging: additional family roles can be integrated into cohabiting and married men’s role repertoires without health behavior risks. Moderation analysis revealed, however, that men’s perceived partner relationship constituted a significant factor in determining whether multiple family role occupancies had positive or negative consequences for their sleep duration, alcohol consumption, and fast food consumption. These findings are discussed in terms of their empirical and practical implications for partnered men and their families. PMID:27449994

  19. Gratitude and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being in School: The Multiple Mediating Roles of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Pi, Luyang; Huebner, E S; Du, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    Based on the relation between gratitude and general subjective well-being (SWB), and Basic Psychological Needs Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), the present study's aim was to use structural equation modeling to test the multiple mediational roles of the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school in accounting for the association between gratitude and SWB in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescents. A total of 881 Chinese adolescents (427 males; Mean age = 12.97) completed a multi-measure questionnaire that tapped the targeted variables. Findings revealed that gratitude related significantly, positively to adolescents' SWB in school. Moreover, a multiple-mediators analysis suggested that relatedness and competence needs satisfaction at school mediated the relation between gratitude and SWB in school. Lastly, a multiple-mediators analysis also indicated that autonomy needs satisfaction mediated the relation between relatedness and competence needs and SWB in school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed.

  20. Gratitude and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Multiple Mediating Roles of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Pi, Luyang; Huebner, E. S.; Du, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    Based on the relation between gratitude and general subjective well-being (SWB), and Basic Psychological Needs Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), the present study’s aim was to use structural equation modeling to test the multiple mediational roles of the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school in accounting for the association between gratitude and SWB in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescents. A total of 881 Chinese adolescents (427 males; Mean age = 12.97) completed a multi-measure questionnaire that tapped the targeted variables. Findings revealed that gratitude related significantly, positively to adolescents’ SWB in school. Moreover, a multiple-mediators analysis suggested that relatedness and competence needs satisfaction at school mediated the relation between gratitude and SWB in school. Lastly, a multiple-mediators analysis also indicated that autonomy needs satisfaction mediated the relation between relatedness and competence needs and SWB in school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed. PMID:27708601

  1. Cultural scripts, memories of childhood abuse, and multiple identities: a study of role-played enactments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Jane; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the reports of satanic, sexual, and physical abuse of persons instructed to role-play either dissociative identity disorder (DID) (n = 33), major depression (n = 33), or a college student who experienced minor adjustment problems ("normal") (n = 33) across a number of trials that included role-played hypnosis. As hypothesized, more of the participants who were asked to role-play DID reported at least one instance of satanic ritual abuse and sexual abuse compared with those who role-played depression or a college student with minor adjustment problems. DID role-players reported more incidents of sexual abuse and more severe physical and sexual abuse than did the major depression role-players. Further, the DID role-players differed from the normal role-players on all the measures of frequency and severity of physical and sexual abuse. Participants in all groups reported more frequent and severe incidents of physical abuse after role-played hypnosis than they did prior to it.

  2. In search for a common denominator for the diverse functions of arthropod corazonin: a role in the physiology of stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerjan, Bart; Verleyen, Peter; Huybrechts, Jurgen; Schoofs, Liliane; De Loof, Arnold

    2010-04-01

    Corazonin (Crz) is an 11 amino acid C-terminally amidated neuropeptide that has been identified in most arthropods examined with the notable exception of beetles and an aphid. The Crz-receptor shares sequence similarity to the GnRH-AKH receptor family thus suggesting an ancestral function related to the control of reproduction and metabolism. In 1989, Crz was purified and identified as a potent cardioaccelerating agent in cockroaches (hence the Crz name based on "corazon", the Spanish word for "heart"). Since the initial assignment as a cardioacceleratory peptide, additional functions have been discovered, ranging from pigment migration in the integument of crustaceans and in the eye of locusts, melanization of the locust cuticle, ecdysis initiation and in various aspects of gregarization in locusts. The high degree of structural conservation of Crz, its well-conserved (immuno)-localization, mainly in specific neurosecretory cells in the pars lateralis, and its many functions, suggest that Crz is vital. Yet, Crz-deficient insects develop normally. Upon reexamining all known effects of Crz, a hypothesis was developed that the evolutionary ancient function of Crz may have been "to prepare animals for coping with the environmental stressors of the day". This function would then complement the role of pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), the prime hormonal effector of the clock, which is thought "to set a coping mechanism for the night". (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The physiological role of orexin/hypocretin neurons in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness and neuroendocrine functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumu eInutsuka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus monitors body homeostasis and regulates various behaviors such as feeding, thermogenesis, and sleeping. Orexins (also known as hypocretins were identified as endogenous ligands for two orphan G-protein-coupled receptors in the lateral hypothalamic area. They were initially recognized as regulators of feeding behavior, but they are mainly regarded as key modulators of the sleep/wakefulness cycle. Orexins activate orexin neurons, monoaminergic and cholinergic neurons in the hypothalamus/brainstem regions, to maintain a long, consolidated awake period. Anatomical studies of neural projections from/to orexin neurons and phenotypic characterization of transgenic mice revealed various roles for orexin neurons in the coordination of emotion, energy homeostasis, reward system, and arousal. For example, orexin neurons are regulated by peripheral metabolic cues, including ghrelin, leptin, and glucose concentration. This suggests that they may provide a link between energy homeostasis and arousal states. A link between the limbic system and orexin neurons might be important for increasing vigilance during emotional stimuli. Orexins are also involved in reward systems and the mechanisms of drug addiction. These findings suggest that orexin neurons sense the outer and inner environment of the body and maintain the proper wakefulness level of animals for survival. This review discusses the mechanism by which orexins maintain sleep/wakefulness states and how this mechanism relates to other systems that regulate emotion, reward, and energy homeostasis.

  4. Physiological and proteomic changes suggest an important role of cell walls in the high tolerance to metals of Elodea nuttallii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larras, Floriane; Regier, Nicole; Planchon, Sébastien; Poté, John; Renaut, Jenny; Cosio, Claudia

    2013-12-15

    Macrophytes bioaccumulate metals, the suggestion being made that they be considered for phytoremediation. However, a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of metal tolerance in these plants is necessary to allow full optimization of this approach. The present study was undertaken to gain insight into Hg and Cd accumulation and their effects in a representative macrophyte, Elodea nuttallii. Exposure to methyl-Hg (23 ng dm(-3)) had no significant effect while inorganic Hg (70 ng dm(-3)) and Cd (281 μg dm(-3)) affected root growth but did not affect shoots growth, photosynthesis, or antioxidant enzymes. Phytochelatins were confirmed as having a role in Cd tolerance in this plant while Hg tolerance seems to rely on different mechanisms. Histology and subcellular distribution revealed a localized increase in lignification, and an increased proportion of metal accumulation in cell wall over time. Proteomics further suggested that E. nuttallii was able to efficiently adapt its energy sources and the structure of its cells during Hg and Cd exposure. Storage in cell walls to protect cellular machinery is certainly predominant at environmental concentrations of metals in this plant resulting in a high tolerance highlighted by the absence of toxicity symptoms in shoots despite the significant accumulation of metals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of Fish Oil against Physiological Disturbances in Rats Brain Induced by Sodium Fluoride and/or Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, U.Z.; El-Tahawy, N.A.; Ibrahim, F.R.; Kamal, G.M.; EL-Sayed, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of environmental and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and to long-term intake of high levels of fluoride have caused health problems and increasingly alarming in recent years. Fish oil omega-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids essential fatty acids) is found in the highest concentrations in fish oil, claim a plethora of health benefits. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of fish oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids on sodium fluoride (NaF) and or gamma (γ) rays in inducing neurological and biochemical disturbances in rat’s brain cerebral hemispheres. The results revealed that whole body exposure to γ- radiation at 6 Gy applied as fractionated doses (1.5 Gy x 4 times) and/or chronic receipt of NaF solution (0.13 mg/Kg/day) for a period of 28 days, significantly increased brain fluoride and calcium content, decreased level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and induced brain oxidative stress which led to neurotransmitters dysfunction. Supplementation of treated rats with fish oil, via gavages, at a dose of 400 mg/kg body wt has significantly modulated oxidative stress and neurotransmitters alterations. It could be concluded that EPA and DHA, found in fish oil, could possibly protect brain from damaging free radicals and consequently minimize the severity of brain biochemical disturbances

  6. Metabolic physiology of the invasive clam, Potamocorbula amurensis: the interactive role of temperature, salinity, and food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathan A; Chen, Xi; Stillman, Jonathon H

    2014-01-01

    In biological systems energy serves as the ultimate commodity, often determining species distributions, abundances, and interactions including the potential impact of invasive species on native communities. The Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis invaded the San Francisco Estuary (SFE) in 1986 and is implicated in the decline of native fish species through resource competition. Using a combined laboratory/field study we examined how energy expenditure in this clam is influenced by salinity, temperature and food availability. Measures of metabolism were made at whole organism (metabolic rate) and biochemical (pyruvate kinase (PK) and citrate synthase (CS) enzyme activities) levels. We found in the field, over the course of a year, the ratio of PK to CS was typically 1.0 suggesting that aerobic and fermentative metabolism were roughly equivalent, except for particular periods characterized by low salinity, higher temperatures, and intermediate food availabilities. In a 30-day laboratory acclimation experiment, however, neither metabolic rate nor PK:CS ratio was consistently influenced by the same variables, though the potential for fermentative pathways did predominate. We conclude that in field collected animals, the addition of biochemical measures of energetic state provide little additional information to the previously measured whole organism metabolic rate. In addition, much of the variation in the laboratory remained unexplained and additional variables, including reproductive stage or body condition may influence laboratory-based results. Further study of adult clams must consider the role of organismal condition, especially reproductive state, in comparisons of laboratory experiments and field observations.

  7. Language Learning Enhanced by Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) and the Underlying Behavioral and Neural Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yongjun; Song, Hongwen; Liu, Xiaoming; Tang, Dinghong; Chen, Yue-e; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) have increased in popularity among children, juveniles, and adults since MMORPGs’ appearance in this digital age. MMORPGs can be applied to enhancing language learning, which is drawing researchers’ attention from different fields and many studies have validated MMORPGs’ positive effect on language learning. However, there are few studies on the underlying behavioral or neural mechanism of such effect. This paper reviews the educational app...

  8. Study of physiological properties of some probiotics in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria by Flora Danica Ch. Hansen commercial starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA PARASCHIV

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the growth ability and stability of probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus (commercial code La-5®, Lactobacillus casei ssp. paracasei (commercial code L. casei 431® and Bifidobacterium bifidus (commercial code BB-12® in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic bacteria, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp. cremoris, as Flora Danica Chr. Hansen commercial starters. Under the controlled fermentative conditions described below, a good starter combination, for the high rate of cells multiplication and for the good viability during storage, was identified in the mixture of L. casei 431®, BB-12® and Flora Danica, in ratio of 1:1:1 (9 log CFU/mL for each starter culture.

  9. Study of physiological properties of some probiotics in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria by Flora Danica Ch. Hansen commercial starter

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELA PARASCHIV; AIDA VASILE; MADALINA CONSTANTIN; ALEXANDRU CIOBANU; GABRIELA BAHRIM

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the growth ability and stability of probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus (commercial code La-5®), Lactobacillus casei ssp. paracasei (commercial code L. casei 431®) and Bifidobacterium bifidus (commercial code BB-12®) in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic bacteria, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp. cremoris, as Flora Danica Chr. Hansen co...

  10. Estrogens of multiple classes and their role in mental health disease mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl S Watson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cheryl S Watson1, Rebecca A Alyea1, Kathryn A Cunningham2, Yow-Jiun Jeng11Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Univ of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USAAbstract: Gender and sex hormones can influence a variety of mental health states, including mood, cognitive development and function, and vulnerability to neurodegenerative diseases and brain damage. Functions of neuronal cells may be altered by estrogens depending upon the availability of different physiological estrogenic ligands; these ligands and their effects vary with life stages, the genetic or postgenetic regulation of receptor levels in specific tissues, or the intercession of competing nonphysiological ligands (either intentional or unintentional, beneficial to health or not. Here we review evidence for how different estrogens (physiological and environmental/dietary, acting via different estrogen receptor subtypes residing in alternative subcellular locations, influence brain functions and behavior. We also discuss the families of receptors and transporters for monoamine neurotransmitters and how they may interact with the estrogenic signaling pathways.Keywords: estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β, GPR30, GPER, xenoestrogens, phytoestrogens, transporters, brain function, neurotransmitter receptors

  11. The physiological role of fat body and muscle tissues in response to cold stress in the tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Chowański

    Full Text Available Protective mechanisms against cold stress are well studied in terrestrial and polar insects; however, little is known about these mechanisms in tropical insects. In our study, we tested if a tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana, possesses any protective mechanisms against cold stress. Based on the results of earlier studies, we examined how short-term (3 h cold (4°C influences biochemical parameters, mitochondrial respiration activity, and the level of HSPs and aquaporins expression in the fat body and leg muscles of G. coquereliana. Following cold exposure, we found that the level of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins did not change significantly. Nevertheless, we observed significant changes in mitochondrial respiration activity. The oxygen consumption of resting (state 4 and phosphorylating (state 3 mitochondria was altered following cold exposure. The increase in respiratory rate in state 4 respiration was observed in both tissues. In state 3, oxygen consumption by mitochondria in fat body was significantly lower compared to control insects, whereas there were no changes observed for mitochondria in muscle tissue. Moreover, there were cold-induced changes in UCP protein activity, but the changes in activity differed in fat body and in muscles. Additionally, we detected changes in the level of HSP70 and aquaporins expression. Insects treated with cold had significantly higher levels of HSP70 in fat body and muscles. On the other hand, there were lower levels of aquaporins in both tissues following exposure to cold. These results suggest that fat body play an important role in protecting tropical insects from cold stress.

  12. The Role of Gender on Consumer Attitudes toward Multiple Celebrity Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işık Özge YUMURTACI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although its has been widely used in advertising, the impact of multiple celebrity endorsement on consumers has not been known. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether consumers’ attitudes towards advertisement and brand, and their purchase intention differ regarding to the gender of consumers in multiple celebrity endorsement. Hence, survey study was conducted with 256 individuals. The findings of this study indicates that when two celebrities are used in an advertisement, based on the consumers’ attitudes towards the celebrities, the attitudes towards advertisement and brand, and purchase intentions may show discrepancies according to the gender of consumers. This study may shed light on how to use multiple celebrities in companies’ marketing strategies in a more accurate and effective way while considering consumer gender differences

  13. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...

  14. Role-Playing in Science Education: An Effective Strategy for Developing Multiple Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Elaine V.; Cruz, Barbara C.

    2009-01-01

    Role-playing can be an engaging and creative strategy to use in the college classroom. Using official accounts, personal narratives, and diaries to recreate a particular time period, event, or personality, the instructional strategy alternately referred to as role-playing, dramatic improvisation, or first-person characterization can be an…

  15. The Role of Metacognitive Strategies in Learning Music: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Barbara; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    The positive role of metacognition in music learning and practice is well assessed, but the role of musicians' metacognitive skills in such a context is not yet clear. Teachers often state that they apply a metacognitive approach during their lessons, but students fail to acknowledge it and report that they become metacognitive learners thanks to…

  16. The Emerging Role of Zinc in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Young Choi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Our lab has previously demonstrated that multiple sclerosis-induced spinal cord white matter damage and motor deficits are mediated by the pathological disruption of zinc homeostasis. Abnormal vesicular zinc release and intracellular zinc accumulation may mediate several steps in the pathophysiological processes of multiple sclerosis (MS, such as matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9 activation, blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, and subsequent immune cell infiltration from peripheral systems. Oral administration of a zinc chelator decreased BBB disruption, immune cell infiltration, and spinal white matter myelin destruction. Therefore, we hypothesized that zinc released into the extracellular space during MS progression is involved in destruction of the myelin sheath in spinal cord white mater and in generation of motor deficits. To confirm our previous study, we employed zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3 knockout mice to test whether vesicular zinc depletion shows protective effects on multiple sclerosis-induced white matter damage and motor deficits. ZnT3 gene deletion profoundly reduced the daily clinical score of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE by suppression of inflammation and demyelination in the spinal cord. ZnT3 gene deletion also remarkably inhibited formation of multiple sclerosis-associated aberrant synaptic zinc patches, MMP-9 activation, and BBB disruption. These two studies strongly support our hypothesis that zinc release from presynaptic terminals may be involved in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. Further studies will no doubt continue to add mechanistic detail to this process and with luck, clarify how these observations may lead to development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  17. The Emerging Role of Zinc in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo Young; Jung, Jong Won; Suh, Sang Won

    2017-09-28

    Our lab has previously demonstrated that multiple sclerosis-induced spinal cord white matter damage and motor deficits are mediated by the pathological disruption of zinc homeostasis. Abnormal vesicular zinc release and intracellular zinc accumulation may mediate several steps in the pathophysiological processes of multiple sclerosis (MS), such as matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) activation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and subsequent immune cell infiltration from peripheral systems. Oral administration of a zinc chelator decreased BBB disruption, immune cell infiltration, and spinal white matter myelin destruction. Therefore, we hypothesized that zinc released into the extracellular space during MS progression is involved in destruction of the myelin sheath in spinal cord white mater and in generation of motor deficits. To confirm our previous study, we employed zinc transporter 3 ( ZnT3 ) knockout mice to test whether vesicular zinc depletion shows protective effects on multiple sclerosis-induced white matter damage and motor deficits. ZnT3 gene deletion profoundly reduced the daily clinical score of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by suppression of inflammation and demyelination in the spinal cord. ZnT3 gene deletion also remarkably inhibited formation of multiple sclerosis-associated aberrant synaptic zinc patches, MMP-9 activation, and BBB disruption. These two studies strongly support our hypothesis that zinc release from presynaptic terminals may be involved in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. Further studies will no doubt continue to add mechanistic detail to this process and with luck, clarify how these observations may lead to development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  18. Seed Germination Ecology of the Cold Desert Annual Isatis violascens (Brassicaceae: Two Levels of Physiological Dormancy and Role of the Pericarp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan M Zhou

    Full Text Available The occurrence of various species of Brassicaceae with indehiscent fruits in the cold deserts of NW China suggests that there are adaptive advantages of this trait. We hypothesized that the pericarp of the single-seeded silicles of Isatis violascens restricts embryo expansion and thus prevents germination for 1 or more years. Thus, our aim was to investigate the role of the pericarp in seed dormancy and germination of this species. The effects of afterripening, treatment with gibberellic acid (GA3 and cold stratification on seed dormancy-break were tested using intact silicles and isolated seeds, and germination phenology was monitored in an experimental garden. The pericarp has a role in mechanically inhibiting germination of fresh seeds and promotes germination of nondormant seeds, but it does not facilitate formation of a persistent seed bank. Seeds in silicles in watered soil began to germinate earlier in autumn and germinated to higher percentages than isolated seeds. Sixty-two percent of seeds in the buried silicles germinated by the end of the first spring, and only 3% remained nongerminated and viable. Twenty to twenty-five percent of the seeds have nondeep physiological dormancy (PD and 75-80% intermediate PD. Seeds with nondeep PD afterripen in summer and germinate inside the silicles in autumn if the soil is moist. Afterripening during summer significantly decreased the amount of cold stratification required to break intermediate PD. The presence of both nondeep and intermediate PD in the seed cohort may be a bet-hedging strategy.

  19. The Role of Sound in Residential Facilities for People With Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Kirsten A.; Andringa, Tjeerd C.; Baskent, Deniz; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Attention to the auditory environment of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is limited, both in research and practice. As there is a dynamic interplay between the quality of the auditory environment and well-being, a study was undertaken to test the validity of the

  20. Resonance properties of tidal channels with multiple retention basisn: role of adjacent sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Pieter C.; Schuttelaars, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    We present an idealised model of the tidal response in a main channel with multiple secondary basins, co-oscillating with an adjacent sea. The sea is represented as a semi-infinite strip of finite width, anywhere between the limits of a channel extension (narrow) and a half-plane (wide). The sea

  1. Partial replicas of uv-irradiated bacteriophage T4 genomes and their role in multiplicity reactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayssiguier, C.; Kozinski, A.W.; Doermann, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    A physicochemical study was made of the replication and transmission of uv-irradiated T4 genomes. The data presented in this paper justify the following conclusions. (i) For both low and high multiplicity of infection there was abundant replication from uv-irradiated parental templates. It exceeded by far the efficiency predicted by the hypothesis that a single lethal hit completely prevents replication of the killed phage DNA: i.e., some dead phage particles must replicate parts of their DNA. (ii) Replication of the uv-irradiated DNA was repetitive as shown by density reversal experiments. (iii) Newly synthesized progeny DNA originating from uv-irradiated templates appeared as significantly shorter segments of the genomes than progeny DNA produced from non-uv-irradiated templates. A good correlation existed between the number of uv hits and the number of random cuts that would be needed to reduce replication fragments to the length observed. (iv) The contribution of uv-irradiated parental DNA among progeny phage in multiplicity reactivation was disposed in shorter subunits than was the DNA from unirradiated parental phage. It is important to emphasize that it was mainly in the form of replicative hybrid. These conclusions appear to justify excluding interparental recombination as a prerequisite for multiplicity reactivation. They lead directly to some form of partial replica hypothesis for multiplicity reactivation

  2. Investigating the Role of Multiple Intelligences in Determining Vocabulary Learning Strategies for L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistani, Mahsa; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    This study, first, examined whether there was any relationship between Iranian L2 learners' vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs), on the one hand, and their multiple intelligences (MI) types, on the other hand. In so doing, it explored the extent to which MI would predict L2 learners' VLSs. To these ends, 40 L2 learners from Isfahan University of…

  3. Pathogenesis of Renal Failure in Multiple Myeloma: Any Role of Contrast Media?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mussap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of kidney disease-associated monoclonal immunoglobulin and plasma cell malignancies is remarkably broad and encompasses nearly all nephropathologic entities. Multiple myeloma with kidney impairment at presentation is a medical emergency since the recovery of kidney function is associated with survival benefits. In most cases, kidney impairment may be the first clinical manifestation of malignant plasma cell dyscrasias like multiple myeloma and light chain amyloidosis. Multiple myeloma per se cannot be considered a main risk factor for developing acute kidney injury following intravascular administration of iodinated contrast media. The risk is increased by comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease, diabetes, hypercalcemia, dehydration, and use of nephrotoxic drugs. Before the administration of contrast media, the current recommended laboratory tests for assessing kidney function are serum creatinine measurement and the estimation of glomerular filtration rate by using the CKD-EPI equation. The assessment of Bence Jones proteinuria is unnecessary for evaluating the risk of kidney failure in patients with multiple myeloma, since this test cannot be considered a surrogate biomarker of kidney function.

  4. Pathogenesis of Renal Failure in Multiple Myeloma: Any Role of Contrast Media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussap, Michele; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum of kidney disease-associated monoclonal immunoglobulin and plasma cell malignancies is remarkably broad and encompasses nearly all nephropathologic entities. Multiple myeloma with kidney impairment at presentation is a medical emergency since the recovery of kidney function is associated with survival benefits. In most cases, kidney impairment may be the first clinical manifestation of malignant plasma cell dyscrasias like multiple myeloma and light chain amyloidosis. Multiple myeloma per se cannot be considered a main risk factor for developing acute kidney injury following intravascular administration of iodinated contrast media. The risk is increased by comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease, diabetes, hypercalcemia, dehydration, and use of nephrotoxic drugs. Before the administration of contrast media, the current recommended laboratory tests for assessing kidney function are serum creatinine measurement and the estimation of glomerular filtration rate by using the CKD-EPI equation. The assessment of Bence Jones proteinuria is unnecessary for evaluating the risk of kidney failure in patients with multiple myeloma, since this test cannot be considered a surrogate biomarker of kidney function. PMID:24877060

  5. The Role of CLEAR Thinking in Learning Science from Multiple-Document Inquiry Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Thomas D.; Wiley, Jennifer; Britt, M. Anne; Salas, Carlos R.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal for the current study was to investigate whether individual differences in domain-general thinking dispositions might affect learning from multiple-document inquiry tasks in science. Middle school students were given a set of documents and were tasked with understanding how and why recent patterns in global temperature might be…

  6. Transcriptional regulation of the outer membrane porin gene ompW reveals its physiological role during the transition from the aerobic to the anaerobic lifestyle of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minfeng eXiao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding bacterial physiology relies on elucidating the regulatory mechanisms and cellular functions of those differentially expressed genes in response to environmental changes. A widespread Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane protein OmpW has been implicated in the adaptation to stresses in various species. It is recently found to be present in the regulon of the global anaerobic transcription factor FNR and ArcA in E. coli. However, little is known about the physiological implications of this regulatory disposition. In this study, we demonstrate that transcription of ompW is indeed mediated by a series of global regulators involved in the anaerobiosis of E. coli. We show that FNR can both activate and repress the expression of ompW through its direct binding to two distinctive sites, -81.5 and -126.5 bp respectively, on ompW promoter. ArcA also participates in repression of ompW under anaerobic condition, but in an FNR dependent manner. Additionally, ompW is also subject to the regulation by CRP and NarL which senses the availability and types of carbon sources and respiration electron acceptors in the environment respectively, implying a role of OmpW in the carbon and energy metabolism of E. coli during its anaerobic adaptation. Molecular docking reveals that OmpW can bind fumarate, an alternative electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration, with sufficient affinity. Moreover, supplement of fumarate or succinate which belongs to the C4-dicarboxylates family of metabolite, to E. coli culture rescues OmpW-mediated colicin S4 killing. Taken together, we propose that OmpW is involved in anaerobic carbon and energy metabolism to mediate the transition from aerobic to anaerobic lifestyle in E. coli.

  7. New Roles Assigned to the α1–β1 (and α2–β2 Interface of the Human Hemoglobin Molecule from Physiological to Cellular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Sugawara

    2011-11-01

    assigned to the α1–β1 (and α2–β2 interface. The α1–β1 (and α2–β2 interface seems to adequately differentiate between the two types of function (dual roles from physiological to cellular.

  8. The interaction of psychological and physiological homeostatic drives and role of general control principles in the regulation of physiological systems, exercise and the fatigue process - The Integrative Governor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair Gibson, A; Swart, J; Tucker, R

    2018-02-01

    Either central (brain) or peripheral (body physiological system) control mechanisms, or a combination of these, have been championed in the last few decades in the field of Exercise Sciences as how physiological activity and fatigue processes are regulated. In this review, we suggest that the concept of 'central' or 'peripheral' mechanisms are both artificial constructs that have 'straight-jacketed' research in the field, and rather that competition between psychological and physiological homeostatic drives is central to the regulation of both, and that governing principles, rather than distinct physical processes, underpin all physical system and exercise regulation. As part of the Integrative Governor theory we develop in this review, we suggest that both psychological and physiological drives and requirements are underpinned by homeostatic principles, and that regulation of the relative activity of each is by dynamic negative feedback activity, as the fundamental general operational controller. Because of this competitive, dynamic interplay, we propose that the activity in all systems will oscillate, that these oscillations create information, and comparison of this oscillatory information with either prior information, current activity, or activity templates create efferent responses that change the activity in the different systems in a similarly dynamic manner. Changes in a particular system are always the result of perturbations occurring outside the system itself, the behavioural causative 'history' of this external activity will be evident in the pattern of the oscillations, and awareness of change occurs as a result of unexpected rather than planned change in physiological activity or psychological state.

  9. Application of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling to explore the role of kidney transporters in renal reabsorption of perfluorooctanoic acid in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, Rachel Rogers; Fisher, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Renal elimination and the resulting clearance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the serum exhibit pronounced sex differences in the adult rat. The literature suggests that this is largely due to hormonally regulated expression of organic anion transporters (OATs) on the apical and basolateral membranes of the proximal tubule cells that facilitate excretion and reabsorption of PFOA from the filtrate into the blood. Previously developed PBPK models of PFOA exposure in the rat have not been parameterized to specifically account for transporter-mediated renal elimination. We developed a PBPK model for PFOA in male and female rats to explore the role of Oat1, Oat3, and Oatp1a1 in sex-specific renal reabsorption and excretion of PFOA. Descriptions of the kinetic behavior of these transporters were extrapolated from in vitro studies and the model was used to simulate time-course serum, liver, and urine data for intravenous (IV) and oral exposures in both sexes. Model predicted concentrations of PFOA in the liver, serum, and urine showed good agreement with experimental data for both male and female rats indicating that in vitro derived physiological descriptions of transporter-mediated renal reabsorption can successfully predict sex-dependent excretion of PFOA in the rat. This study supports the hypothesis that sex-specific serum half-lives for PFOA are largely driven by expression of transporters in the kidney and contribute to the development of PBPK modeling as a tool for evaluating the role of transporters in renal clearance. - Highlights: • The PBPK model for PFOA in the rat explores the role of OATs in sex-specific clearance. • Descriptions of OAT kinetics were extrapolated from in vitro studies. • Model predictions showed good fit with experimental data for male and female rats.

  10. Application of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling to explore the role of kidney transporters in renal reabsorption of perfluorooctanoic acid in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, Rachel Rogers, E-mail: idz7@cdc.gov [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Community Health Investigations, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, 341 Pharmacy South, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey [Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, 341 Pharmacy South, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Food and Drug Administration, National Center for Toxicological Research, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    ABSTRACT: Renal elimination and the resulting clearance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the serum exhibit pronounced sex differences in the adult rat. The literature suggests that this is largely due to hormonally regulated expression of organic anion transporters (OATs) on the apical and basolateral membranes of the proximal tubule cells that facilitate excretion and reabsorption of PFOA from the filtrate into the blood. Previously developed PBPK models of PFOA exposure in the rat have not been parameterized to specifically account for transporter-mediated renal elimination. We developed a PBPK model for PFOA in male and female rats to explore the role of Oat1, Oat3, and Oatp1a1 in sex-specific renal reabsorption and excretion of PFOA. Descriptions of the kinetic behavior of these transporters were extrapolated from in vitro studies and the model was used to simulate time-course serum, liver, and urine data for intravenous (IV) and oral exposures in both sexes. Model predicted concentrations of PFOA in the liver, serum, and urine showed good agreement with experimental data for both male and female rats indicating that in vitro derived physiological descriptions of transporter-mediated renal reabsorption can successfully predict sex-dependent excretion of PFOA in the rat. This study supports the hypothesis that sex-specific serum half-lives for PFOA are largely driven by expression of transporters in the kidney and contribute to the development of PBPK modeling as a tool for evaluating the role of transporters in renal clearance. - Highlights: • The PBPK model for PFOA in the rat explores the role of OATs in sex-specific clearance. • Descriptions of OAT kinetics were extrapolated from in vitro studies. • Model predictions showed good fit with experimental data for male and female rats.

  11. Environmental physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. Subject areas include: the effects of environmental pollutants on homeostasis of the hematopoietic system; pollutant effects on steroid metabolism; pollutant effects on pulmonary macrophages; effects of toxic gases on lung cells; the development of immunological methods for assessing lung damage at the cellular level; the response of erythropoietin concentration to various physiological changes; and the study of actinide metabolism in monkey skeletons

  12. The role of multiple negative social relationships in inflammatory cytokine responses to a laboratory stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmi Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the unique impact of perceived negativity in multiple social relationships on endocrine and inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor. Via hierarchical cluster analysis, those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with a romantic partner, family, and their closest friend had higher mean IL-6 across time and a greater increase in TNF-α from 15 min to 75 min post stress. Those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with roommates, family, and their closest friend showed greater IL-6 responses to stress. Differences in mean IL-6 were accounted for by either depressed mood or hostility, whereas differences in the cytokine stress responses remained significant after controlling for those factors. Overall, this research provides preliminary evidence to suggest that having multiple negative relationships may exacerbate acute inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor independent of hostility and depressed mood.

  13. Pooling Data from Multiple Longitudinal Studies: The Role of Item Response Theory in Integrative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Patrick J.; Hussong, Andrea M.; Cai, Li; Huang, Wenjing; Chassin, Laurie; Sher, Kenneth J.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of significant challenges encountered when studying development over an extended period of time including subject attrition, changing measurement structures across group and developmental period, and the need to invest substantial time and money. Integrative data analysis is an emerging set of methodologies that overcomes many of the challenges of single sample designs through the pooling of data drawn from multiple existing developmental studies. This approach is characterized by a host of advantages, but this also introduces several new complexities that must be addressed prior to broad adoption by developmental researchers. In this paper we focus on methods for fitting measurement models and creating scale scores using data drawn from multiple longitudinal studies. We present findings from the analysis of repeated measures of internalizing symptomatology that were pooled from three existing developmental studies. We describe and demonstrate each step in the analysis and we conclude with a discussion of potential limitations and directions for future research. PMID:18331129

  14. The role of multiple negative social relationships in inflammatory cytokine responses to a laboratory stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sunmi; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E; Corwin, Elizabeth J; Ceballos, Rachel M; Taylor, Shelley E; Seeman, Teresa; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the unique impact of perceived negativity in multiple social relationships on endocrine and inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor. Via hierarchical cluster analysis, those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with a romantic partner, family, and their closest friend had higher mean IL-6 across time and a greater increase in TNF-α from 15 min to 75 min post stress. Those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with roommates, family, and their closest friend showed greater IL-6 responses to stress. Differences in mean IL-6 were accounted for by either depressed mood or hostility, whereas differences in the cytokine stress responses remained significant after controlling for those factors. Overall, this research provides preliminary evidence to suggest that having multiple negative relationships may exacerbate acute inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor independent of hostility and depressed mood.

  15. Quality of Care for Patients with Multiple Chronic Conditions: The Role of Comorbidity Interrelatedness

    OpenAIRE

    Zulman, Donna M.; Asch, Steven M.; Martins, Susana B.; Kerr, Eve A.; Hoffman, Brian B.; Goldstein, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    Multimorbidity—the presence of multiple chronic conditions in a patient—has a profound impact on health, health care utilization, and associated costs. Definitions of multimorbidity in clinical care and research have evolved over time, initially focusing on a patient’s number of comorbidities and the associated magnitude of required care processes, and later recognizing the potential influence of comorbidity characteristics on patient care and outcomes. In this article, we review the relation...

  16. The role of assessment in enhancing the vocational success of people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, R T

    1996-01-01

    The person/environment or ecological perspective on vocational evaluation provides a comprehensive assessment strategy for people with multiple sclerosis. The ecological model requires assessment of both personal variables such as rehabilitation outlook and MS symptoms and environmental variables such as barriers to workplace accessibility and performance of essential job functions. Measures of person and environment constructs are presented as are applications of the resulting information in vocational counseling and disability management services.

  17. HMGB1 and Histones Play a Significant Role in Inducing Systemic Inflammation and Multiple Organ Dysfunctions in Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runkuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP starts as a local inflammation of pancreatic tissue that induces the development of multiple extrapancreatic organs dysfunction; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Ischemia-reperfusion, circulating inflammatory cytokines, and possible bile cytokines significantly contribute to gut mucosal injury and intestinal bacterial translocation (BT during SAP. Circulating HMGB1 level is significantly increased in SAP patients and HMGB1 is an important factor that mediates (at least partly gut BT during SAP. Gut BT plays a critical role in triggering/inducing systemic inflammation/sepsis in critical illness, and profound systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS during SAP, and systemic inflammation with multiorgan dysfunction is the cause of death in experimental SAP. Therefore, HMGB1 is an important factor that links gut BT and systemic inflammation. Furthermore, HMGB1 significantly contributes to multiple organ injuries. The SAP patients also have significantly increased circulating histones and cell-free DNAs levels, which can reflect the disease severity and contribute to multiple organ injuries in SAP. Hepatic Kupffer cells (KCs are the predominant source of circulating inflammatory cytokines in SAP, and new evidence indicates that hepatocyte is another important source of circulating HMGB1 in SAP; therefore, treating the liver injury is important in SAP.

  18. The Drosophila BTB domain protein Jim Lovell has roles in multiple larval and adult behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M Bjorum

    Full Text Available Innate behaviors have their origins in the specification of neural fates during development. Within Drosophila, BTB (Bric-a-brac,Tramtrack, Broad domain proteins such as Fruitless are known to play key roles in the neural differentiation underlying such responses. We previously identified a gene, which we have termed jim lovell (lov, encoding a BTB protein with a role in gravity responses. To understand more fully the behavioral roles of this gene we have investigated its function through several approaches. Transcript and protein expression patterns have been examined and behavioral phenotypes of new lov mutations have been characterized. Lov is a nuclear protein, suggesting a role as a transcriptional regulator, as for other BTB proteins. In late embryogenesis, Lov is expressed in many CNS and PNS neurons. An examination of the PNS expression indicates that lov functions in the late specification of several classes of sensory neurons. In particular, only two of the five abdominal lateral chordotonal neurons express Lov, predicting functional variation within this highly similar group. Surprisingly, Lov is also expressed very early in embryogenesis in ways that suggests roles in morphogenetic movements, amnioserosa function and head neurogenesis. The phenotypes of two new lov mutations that delete adjacent non-coding DNA regions are strikingly different suggesting removal of different regulatory elements. In lov(47 , Lov expression is lost in many embryonic neurons including the two lateral chordotonal neurons. lov(47 mutant larvae show feeding and locomotor defects including spontaneous backward movement. Adult lov(47 males perform aberrant courtship behavior distinguished by courtship displays that are not directed at the female. lov(47 adults also show more defective negative gravitaxis than the previously isolated lov(91Y mutant. In contrast, lov(66 produces largely normal behavior but severe female sterility associated with ectopic lov

  19. Multiple Role Balance, Job Satisfaction, and Life Satisfaction in Women School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Rhonda M.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2006-01-01

    Many prior studies have reported that school counselors are at risk for experiencing mental health difficulties (e.g., professional burnout) as a result of their participation in a wide variety of service-oriented roles. The majority of school counselors are women, which underscores the importance of examining these individuals' unique…

  20. Neurodegeneration in ataxia-telangiectasia: Multiple roles of ATM kinase in cellular homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Kay Rui; Watters, Dianne J

    2018-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is characterized by neuronal degeneration, cancer, diabetes, immune deficiency, and increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation. A-T is attributed to the deficiency of the protein kinase coded by the ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) gene. ATM is a sensor of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and signals to cell cycle checkpoints and the DNA repair machinery. ATM phosphorylates numerous substrates and activates many cell-signaling pathways. There has been considerable debate about whether a defective DNA damage response is causative of the neurological aspects of the disease. In proliferating cells, ATM is localized mainly in the nucleus; however, in postmitotic cells such as neurons, ATM is mostly cytoplasmic. Recent studies reveal an increasing number of roles for ATM in the cytoplasm, including activation by oxidative stress. ATM associates with organelles including mitochondria and peroxisomes, both sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and aging. ATM is also associated with synaptic vesicles and has a role in regulating cellular homeostasis and autophagy. The cytoplasmic roles of ATM provide a new perspective on the neurodegenerative process in A-T. This review will examine the expanding roles of ATM in cellular homeostasis and relate these functions to the complex A-T phenotype. Developmental Dynamics 247:33-46, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Young Children's Role-Playing for Enhancing Personal Intelligences in Multiple Intelligences Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Su-Jeong; Shin, Hwa-Sik; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    This article examines young children's role-play in an effort to develop methods with which teachers can enhance children's interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. Examining how MI practice is applied in different cultural and social contexts is important because it can provide new insights on enriching and enhancing curricula and…

  2. Role of sequential hemi-body irradiation in multiple myeloma: preliminary observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, H.S.; Chaudhary, R.K.; Kumar, Vanita

    1993-01-01

    Ten patients with multiple myeloma presenting in a highly painful condition were included in the study. They were treated by sequential hemi-body irradiation. A dose of 600 cGy was delivered to the upper hemi-body and 800 c Gy to the lower hemi-body. All patients has appreciable relief from pain. The maximum effect was achieved within 24 to 48 hours of treatment. 9 out of the 10 patients has an improvement in the performance status. All these patients were later subjected to combination chemotherapy. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Chemotherapeutic-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction: Physiological Effects, Early Detection—The Role of Telomerase to Counteract Mitochondrial Defects and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quryshi, Nabeel; Norwood Toro, Laura E.; Ait-Aissa, Karima; Kong, Amanda; Beyer, Andreas M.

    2018-01-01

    Although chemotherapeutics can be highly effective at targeting malignancies, their ability to trigger cardiovascular morbidity is clinically significant. Chemotherapy can adversely affect cardiovascular physiology, resulting in the development of cardiomyopathy, heart failure and microvascular defects. Specifically, anthracyclines are known to cause an excessive buildup of free radical species and mitochondrial DNA damage (mtDNA) that can lead to oxidative stress-induced cardiovascular apoptosis. Therefore, oncologists and cardiologists maintain a network of communication when dealing with patients during treatment in order to treat and prevent chemotherapy-induced cardiovascular damage; however, there is a need to discover more accurate biomarkers and therapeutics to combat and predict the onset of cardiovascular side effects. Telomerase, originally discovered to promote cellular proliferation, has recently emerged as a potential mechanism to counteract mitochondrial defects and restore healthy mitochondrial vascular phenotypes. This review details mechanisms currently used to assess cardiovascular damage, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and troponin levels, while also unearthing recently researched biomarkers, including circulating mtDNA, telomere length and telomerase activity. Further, we explore a potential role of telomerase in the mitigation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and maintenance of mtDNA integrity. Telomerase activity presents a promising indicator for the early detection and treatment of chemotherapy-derived cardiac damage. PMID:29534446

  4. Production of glycolipidic bio surfactants by environment bacteria: diversity and physiological part; Production de biosurfactants glycolipidiques par les bacteries de l`environnement: diversite et role physiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arino, S

    1996-10-09

    About a hundred bacterial strains, isolated from soils, polluted or not by hydrocarbons, were tested for their capacity to excrete glycosides. The biggest productions were obtained for a soluble carbon source (glycerol) in a culture medium limited in the nitrogen source. In these conditions, 18 g/l of rhamnose lipids were produced by train Pseudomonas aeruginosa GL1 in a 200 h culture. Pseudomonas aeruginosa GL1, Cellulomonas celulans SA43 and Rhodococcus erythropolis DSM 43060 were studied in detail. The bio-surfactants produced were identified respectively as rhamnose lipids, oligosaccharide lipids and trehalose lipids, using various original analytical methods. Sugars and fatty acids composing these glycolipids had been shown to be usual components of the outer part of the cell wall in these microbial species. Moreover, cell hydrophobicity of the producing bacteria varied in time during culture. These results showed that both the cell wall and the extracellular glycolipids take part in the process of hydrocarbon uptake in the polluted environments. As other bacteria of the same species from different origins present the same characteristics, it may be concluded that glycolipid excretion does not constitute a specific response for hydrocarbon assimilation. In fact, a more general physiological role of glycolipids, concerning modifications of hydrophobic interfaces between the producing bacteria and their surrounding environment, could explain the production of glycolipids, and could also be utilized in hydrocarbon uptake. (author)

  5. Human stefin B normal and patho-physiological role: molecular and cellular aspects of amyloid-type aggregation of certain EPM1 mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira ePolajnar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsies are characterised by abnormal electrophysiological activity of the brain. Among various types of inherited epilepsies different epilepsy syndromes, among them progressive myoclonus epilepsies with features of ataxia and neurodegeneration, are counted. The progressive myoclonus epilepsy of type 1 (EPM1, also known as Unverricht-Lundborg disease presents with features of cerebellar atrophy and increased oxidative stress. It has been found that EPM1 is caused by mutations in human cystatin B gene (human stefin B. We first describe the role of protein aggregation in other neurodegenerative conditions. Protein aggregates appear intraneurally but are also excreted, such as is the case with senile plaques of amyloid- β (Aβ that accumulate in the brain parenchyma and vessel walls. A common characteristic of such diseases is the change of the protein conformation towards β secondary structure that accounts for the strong tendency of such proteins to aggregate and form amyloid fibrils. Second, we describe the patho-physiology of EPM1 and the normal and aberrant roles of stefin B in a mouse model of the disease. Furthermore, we discuss how the increased protein aggregation observed with some of the mutants of human stefin B may relate to the neurodegeneration that occurs in rare EPM1 patients. Our hypothesis (Ceru et al., 2005 states that some of the EPM1 mutants of human stefin B may undergo aggregation in neural cells, thus gaining additional toxic function (apart from loss of normal function. Our in vitro experiments thus far have confirmed that 4 mutants undergo increased aggregation relative to the wild-type protein. It has been shown that the R68X mutant forms amyloid-fibrils very rapidly, even at neutral pH and forms perinuclear inclusions, whereas the G4R mutant exhibits a prolonged lag phase, during which the toxic prefibrillar aggregates accumulate and are scattered more diffusely over the cytoplasm. Initial experiments on the G50E

  6. Physiological and Proteomic Analysis of the Rice Mutant cpm2 Suggests a Negative Regulatory Role of Jasmonic Acid in Drought Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Dhakarey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that numerous adaptive responses of drought-stressed plants are stimulated by chemical messengers known as phytohormones. Jasmonic acid (JA is one such phytohormone. But there are very few reports revealing its direct implication in drought related responses or its cross-talk with other phytohormones. In this study, we compared the morpho-physiological traits and the root proteome of a wild type (WT rice plant with its JA biosynthesis mutant coleoptile photomorphogenesis 2 (cpm2, disrupted in the allene oxide cyclase (AOC gene, for insights into the role of JA under drought. The mutant had higher stomatal conductance, higher water use efficiency and higher shoot ABA levels under severe drought as compared to the WT. Notably, roots of cpm2 were better developed compared to the WT under both, control and drought stress conditions. Root proteome was analyzed using the Tandem Mass Tag strategy to better understand this difference at the molecular level. Expectedly, AOC was unique but notably highly abundant under drought in the WT. Identification of other differentially abundant proteins (DAPs suggested increased energy metabolism (i.e., increased mobilization of resources and reactive oxygen species scavenging in cpm2 under drought. Additionally, various proteins involved in secondary metabolism, cell growth and cell wall synthesis were also more abundant in cpm2 roots. Proteome-guided transcript, metabolite, and histological analyses provided further insights into the favorable adaptations and responses, most likely orchestrated by the lack of JA, in the cpm2 roots. Our results in cpm2 are discussed in the light of JA crosstalk to other phytohormones. These results together pave the path for understanding the precise role of JA during drought stress in rice.

  7. Metabolomics: A potential way to know the role of vitamin D on multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Córdoba, Diego; Luque de Castro, María D

    2017-03-20

    The literature about the influence of vitamin D on multiple sclerosis (MS) is very controversial, possibly as a result of the way through which the research on the subject has been conducted. The studies developed so far have been focused exclusively on gene expression: the effect of a given vitamin D metabolite on target receptors. The influence of the vitamin D status (either natural or after supplementation) on MS has been studied by measurement of the 25 monohydroxylated metabolite (also known as circulating form), despite the 1,25 dihydroxylated metabolite is considered the active form. In the light of the multiple metabolic pathways in which both forms of vitamin D (D 2 and D 3 ) are involved, monitoring of the metabolites is crucial to know the activity of the target enzymes as a function of both the state of the MS patient and the clinical treatment applied. The study of metabolomics aspects is here proposed to clarify the present controversy. In "omics" terms, our proposal is to take profit from up-stream information-thus is, from metabolomics to genomics-with a potential subsequent step to systems biology, if required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of NIGMS P50 sponsored team science in our understanding of multiple organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Frederick A; Moore, Ernest E; Billiar, Timothy R; Vodovotz, Yoram; Banerjee, Anirban; Moldawer, Lyle L

    2017-09-01

    The history of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) Research Centers in Peri-operative Sciences (RCIPS) is the history of clinical, translational, and basic science research into the etiology and treatment of posttraumatic multiple organ failure (MOF). Born out of the activism of trauma and burn surgeons after the Viet Nam War, the P50 trauma research centers have been a nidus of research advances in the field and the training of future academic physician-scientists in the fields of trauma, burns, sepsis, and critical illness. For over 40 years, research conducted under the aegis of this funding program has led to numerous contributions at both the bedside and at the bench. In fact, it has been this requirement for team science with a clinician-scientist working closely with basic scientists from multiple disciplines that has led the RCIPS to its unrivaled success in the field. This review will briefly highlight some of the major accomplishments of the RCIPS program since its inception, how they have both led and evolved as the field moved steadily forward, and how they are responsible for much of our current understanding of the etiology and pathology of MOF. This review is not intended to be all encompassing nor a historical reference. Rather, it serves as recognition to the foresight and support of many past and present individuals at the NIGMS and at academic institutions who have understood the cost of critical illness and MOF to the individual and to society.

  9. The dual role of multiple-transistor charge sharing collection in single-event transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yang; Chen Jian-Jun; He Yi-Bai; Liang Bin; Liu Bi-Wei

    2013-01-01

    As technologies scale down in size, multiple-transistors being affected by a single ion has become a universal phenomenon, and some new effects are present in single event transients (SETs) due to the charge sharing collection of the adjacent multiple-transistors. In this paper, not only the off-state p-channel metal—oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (PMOS FET), but also the on-state PMOS is struck by a heavy-ion in the two-transistor inverter chain, due to the charge sharing collection and the electrical interaction. The SET induced by striking the off-state PMOS is efficiently mitigated by the pulse quenching effect, but the SET induced by striking the on-state PMOS becomes dominant. It is indicated in this study that in the advanced technologies, the SET will no longer just be induced by an ion striking the off-state transistor, and the SET sensitive region will no longer just surround the off-state transistor either, as it is in the older technologies. We also discuss this issue in a three-transistor inverter in depth, and the study illustrates that the three-transistor inverter is still a better replacement for spaceborne integrated circuit design in advanced technologies. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  10. New approaches in the management of spasticity in multiple sclerosis patients: role of cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F Smith

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul F SmithDepartment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandAbstract: Cannabinoids such as Cannabis-based medicinal extracts (CBMEs are increasingly being used in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS. They have been shown to have a beneficial effect on spasticity; however, this evidence is largely based on subjective rating scales. Objective measurements using the Ashworth scale have tended to show no significant effect; however, the validity of this scale has been questioned. The available clinical trial data suggest that the adverse side effects associated with using CBMEs are generally mild, such as dry mouth, dizziness, somnolence, nausea and intoxication. However, most of these trials were run over a period of months and it is possible that other adverse side effects could develop with long-term use. There may be reason to be concerned about the use of therapeutic cannabinoids by adolescents, people predisposed to psychosis and pregnant women.Keywords: multiple sclerosis, spasticity, cannabinoids, Cannabis

  11. The role of backward associative strength in false recognition of DRM lists with multiple critical words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, María S; Arndt, Jason

    2017-08-01

    Memory is a reconstruction of the past and is prone to errors. One of the most widely-used paradigms to examine false memory is the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In this paradigm, participants studied words associatively related to a non-presented critical word. In a subsequent memory test critical words are often falsely recalled and/or recognized. In the present study, we examined the influence of backward associative strength (BAS) on false recognition using DRM lists with multiple critical words. In forty-eight English DRM lists, we manipulated BAS while controlling forward associative strength (FAS). Lists included four words (e.g., prison, convict, suspect, fugitive) simultaneously associated with two critical words (e.g., CRIMINAL, JAIL). The results indicated that true recognition was similar in high-BAS and low-BAS lists, while false recognition was greater in high-BAS lists than in low-BAS lists. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between false recognition and the probability of a resonant connection between the studied words and their associates. These findings suggest that BAS and resonant connections influence false recognition, and extend prior research using DRM lists associated with a single critical word to studies of DRM lists associated with multiple critical words.

  12. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  13. Multiple roles of biosurfactants in structural biofilm development by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pamp, Sünje Johanna; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa play a role both in maintaining channels between multicellular structures in biofilms and in dispersal of cells from biofilms. Through the use of flow cell technology and enhanced confocal laser scanning microscopy......, we have obtained results which suggest that the biosurfactants produced by P. aeruginosa play additional roles in structural biofilm development. We present genetic evidence that during biofilm development by P. aeruginosa, biosurfactants promote microcolony formation in the initial phase...... and facilitate migration-dependent structural development in the later phase. P. aeruginosa rhl4 mutants, deficient in synthesis of biosurfactants, were not capable of forming microcolonies in the initial phase of biofilm formation. Experiments involving two-color-coded mixed-strain biofilms showed that P...

  14. Facebook Role Play Addiction - A Comorbidity with Multiple Compulsive-Impulsive Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Deeepa; Shukla, Lekhansh; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek

    2016-06-01

    Background Problematic Internet use (PIU) is an emerging entity with varied contents. Behavioral addictions have high comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Social networking site (SNS) addiction and role playing game (RPG) addiction are traditionally studied as separate entities. We present a case with excessive Internet use, with a particular focus on phenomenology and psychiatric comorbidities. Case presentation Fifteen-year-old girl with childhood onset attention deficit disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, adolescent onset trichotillomania, and disturbed family environment presented with excessive Facebook use. Main online activity was creating profiles in names of mainstream fictional characters and assuming their identity (background, linguistic attributes, etc.). This was a group activity with significant socialization in the virtual world. Craving, salience, withdrawal, mood modification, and conflict were clearly elucidated and significant social and occupational dysfunction was evident. Discussion This case highlights various vulnerability and sociofamilial factors contributing to behavioral addiction. It also highlights the presence of untreated comorbidities in such cases. The difference from contemporary RPGs and uniqueness of role playing on SNS is discussed. SNS role playing as a separate genre of PIU and its potential to reach epidemic proportions are discussed. Conclusions Individuals with temperamental vulnerability are likely to develop behavioral addictions. Identification and management of comorbid conditions are important. The content of PIU continues to evolve and needs further study.

  15. Electrophysiology and Beyond: Multiple roles of Na+ channel β subunits in development and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Gustavo A.; Isom, Lori L.

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channel (VGSC) β subunits are not “auxiliary.” These multifunctional molecules not only modulate Na+ current (INa), but also function as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) – playing roles in aggregation, migration, invasion, neurite outgrowth, and axonal fasciculation. β subunits are integral members of VGSC signaling complexes at nodes of Ranvier, axon initial segments, and cardiac intercalated disks, regulating action potential propagation through critical intermolecular and cell-cell communication events. At least in vitro, many β subunit cell adhesive functions occur both in the presence and absence of pore-forming VGSC α subunits, and in vivo β subunits are expressed in excitable as well as non-excitable cells, thus β subunits may play important functional roles on their own, in the absence of α subunits. VGSC β1 subunits are essential for life and appear to be especially important during brain development. Mutations in β subunit genes result in a variety of human neurological and cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, some cancer cells exhibit alterations in β subunit expression during metastasis. In short, these proteins, originally thought of as merely accessory to α subunits, are critical players in their own right in human health and disease. Here we discuss the role of VGSC β subunits in the nervous system. PMID:20600605

  16. Facebook Role Play Addiction – A Comorbidity with Multiple Compulsive–Impulsive Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Deeepa; Shukla, Lekhansh; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Background Problematic Internet use (PIU) is an emerging entity with varied contents. Behavioral addictions have high comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorders. Social networking site (SNS) addiction and role playing game (RPG) addiction are traditionally studied as separate entities. We present a case with excessive Internet use, with a particular focus on phenomenology and psychiatric comorbidities. Case presentation Fifteen-year-old girl with childhood onset attention deficit disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, adolescent onset trichotillomania, and disturbed family environment presented with excessive Facebook use. Main online activity was creating profiles in names of mainstream fictional characters and assuming their identity (background, linguistic attributes, etc.). This was a group activity with significant socialization in the virtual world. Craving, salience, withdrawal, mood modification, and conflict were clearly elucidated and significant social and occupational dysfunction was evident. Discussion This case highlights various vulnerability and sociofamilial factors contributing to behavioral addiction. It also highlights the presence of untreated comorbidities in such cases. The difference from contemporary RPGs and uniqueness of role playing on SNS is discussed. SNS role playing as a separate genre of PIU and its potential to reach epidemic proportions are discussed. Conclusions Individuals with temperamental vulnerability are likely to develop behavioral addictions. Identification and management of comorbid conditions are important. The content of PIU continues to evolve and needs further study. PMID:27156380

  17. The role of defoliation and root rot pathogen infection in driving the mode of drought-related physiological decline in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguadé, D; Poyatos, R; Gómez, M; Oliva, J; Martínez-Vilalta, J

    2015-03-01

    Drought-related tree die-off episodes have been observed in all vegetated continents. Despite much research effort, however, the multiple interactions between carbon starvation, hydraulic failure and biotic agents in driving tree mortality under field conditions are still not well understood. We analysed the seasonal variability of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in four organs (leaves, branches, trunk and roots), the vulnerability to embolism in roots and branches, native embolism (percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC)) in branches and the presence of root rot pathogens in defoliated and non-defoliated individuals in a declining Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) population in the NE Iberian Peninsula in 2012, which included a particularly dry and warm summer. No differences were observed between defoliated and non-defoliated pines in hydraulic parameters, except for a higher vulnerability to embolism at pressures below -2 MPa in roots of defoliated pines. No differences were found between defoliation classes in branch PLC. Total NSC (TNSC, soluble sugars plus starch) values decreased during drought, particularly in leaves. Defoliation reduced TNSC levels across tree organs, especially just before (June) and during (August) drought. Root rot infection by the fungal pathogen Onnia P. Karst spp. was detected but it did not appear to be associated to tree defoliation. However, Onnia infection was associated with reduced leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity and sapwood depth, and thus contributed to hydraulic impairment, especially in defoliated pines. Infection was also associated with virtually depleted root starch reserves during and after drought in defoliated pines. Moreover, defoliated and infected trees tended to show lower basal area increment. Overall, our results show the intertwined nature of physiological mechanisms leading to drought-induced mortality and the inherent difficulty of isolating their contribution under field conditions. © The

  18. B cell follicle-like structures in multiple sclerosis-with focus on the role of B cell activating factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morten, Haugen; Frederiksen, Jette L; Vinter, Matilda Degn

    2014-01-01

    B lymphocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Follicle-like structures (FLS) have recently been found in the subarachnoid space in the leptomeninges in some patients with secondary progressive MS (SPMS). They contain proliferating B lymphocytes, plasma cells......, helper T lymphocytes and a network of follicular dendritic cells. FLS have been shown to correlate with increased cortical demyelination, neuronal loss, meningeal infiltration and central nervous system inflammation, as well as lower age at disease onset and progression to severe disability and death....... In this review, we will discuss the role of FLS in MS pathogenesis and disease course and the possible influence by B cell activating factor (BAFF) and C-X-C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13)....

  19. Role of socio-economic and reproductive factors in the risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyari, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    rapid to be explained by gene alterations. We investigated the effect of numerous biological social physical and chemical environmental exposures in different periods of life. These data were available from population-based registries and were used in a case-control approach. This study database...... children reduced the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) in women but not in men. Childbirths reduced the risk of MS by about 46% during the following 5 years. Even pregnancies terminated early had a protective effect on the risk of developing MS suggesting a temporary immunosuppression during pregnancy. Our...... data on social behaviour regarding educational level income and relationship stability did not indicate reverse causality. A greater likelihood to be exposed to common infections did not show any effect on the risk of MS neither in puberty nor in adulthood. Socio-economic status and lifestyle expressed...

  20. The role of the thalamus and hippocampus in episodic memory performance in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Katherine A; Rao, Stephen M; Lowe, Mark J; Lin, Jian; Sakaie, Ken E; Stone, Lael; Bermel, Robert A; Trapp, Bruce D; Phillips, Micheal D

    2018-03-01

    Episodic memory loss is one of the most common cognitive symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but the pathophysiology of this symptom remains unclear. Both the hippocampus and thalamus have been implicated in episodic memory and show regional atrophy in patients with MS. In this work, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a verbal episodic memory task, lesion load, and volumetric measures of the hippocampus and thalamus to assess the relative contributions to verbal and visual-spatial episodic memory. Functional activation, lesion load, and volumetric measures from 32 patients with MS and 16 healthy controls were used in a predictive analysis of episodic memory function. After adjusting for disease duration, immediate recall performance on a visual-spatial episodic memory task was significantly predicted by hippocampal volume ( p memory measures, functional activation of the thalamus during encoding was more predictive than that of volume measures ( p episodic memory loss in patients with MS.

  1. The "Gut Feeling": Breaking Down the Role of Gut Microbiome in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Samantha N; Shahi, Shailesh K; Mangalam, Ashutosh K

    2018-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuroinflammatory disease of the central nervous system with unknown etiology. Recently, the gut microbiota has emerged as a potential factor in the development of MS, with a number of studies having shown that patients with MS exhibit gut dysbiosis. The gut microbiota helps the host remain healthy by regulating various functions, including food metabolism, energy homeostasis, maintenance of the intestinal barrier, inhibition of colonization by pathogenic organisms, and shaping of both mucosal and systemic immune responses. Alteration of the gut microbiota, and subsequent changes in its metabolic network that perturb this homeostasis, may lead to intestinal and systemic disorders such as MS. Here we discuss the findings of recent MS microbiome studies and potential mechanisms through which gut microbiota can predispose to, or protect against, MS. These findings highlight the need of an improved understanding of the interactions between the microbiota and host for developing therapies based on gut commensals with which to treat MS.

  2. A gene pathway analysis highlights the role of cellular adhesion molecules in multiple sclerosis susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damotte, V; Guillot-Noel, L; Patsopoulos, N A

    2014-01-01

    adhesion molecule (CAMs) biological pathway using Cytoscape software. This network is a strong candidate, as it is involved in the crossing of the blood-brain barrier by the T cells, an early event in MS pathophysiology, and is used as an efficient therapeutic target. We drew up a list of 76 genes...... in interaction with other genes as a group. Pathway analysis is an alternative way to highlight such group of genes. Using SNP association P-values from eight multiple sclerosis (MS) GWAS data sets, we performed a candidate pathway analysis for MS susceptibility by considering genes interacting in the cell...... belonging to the CAM network. We highlighted 64 networks enriched with CAM genes with low P-values. Filtering by a percentage of CAM genes up to 50% and rejecting enriched signals mainly driven by transcription factors, we highlighted five networks associated with MS susceptibility. One of them, constituted...

  3. UPDATE ON THE ROLE OF AUTOLOGOUS HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Tosi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Autologous stem cell transplantation is considered the standard of care for multiple myeloma patients aged < 65 years with no relevant comorbidities. The addition of drugs acting both on bone marrow microenvironment and on neoplastic plasma cells has significantly increased the proportion of patients achieving a complete remission after induction therapy, and these results are mantained after high-dose melphalan, leading to a prolonged disease control. Studies are being carried out in order to evaluate whether short term consolidation or long-term maintenance therapy can result into disease eradication at the molecular level thus increasing also patients survival. The efficacy of these new drugs has raised the issue of deferring the transplant after achivng a second response upon relapse. Another controversial point is the optimal treatment strategy for high-risk patients, that do not benefit from autologous stem cell transplantation and for whom the efficacy of new drugs is still matter of debate.

  4. Cerebellar metastases – may surgery play a role in the presence of multiple lesions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabija M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases are the most common form of malignancy presence in the CNS having a more frequent appearance than primary brain tumors. Although secondary cerebellar tumors represent only 15% of all intracranial metastases, they are quite frequent among primary oncological patients and pose a challenge for all of the medical caretakers starting with the neurosurgeon. Among those, a small percent of patients have multiple cerebellar lesions and the therapeutic challenge turns into a medical controversy, especially when it comes to surgical treatment taking into consideration that the life expectancy is lower than one year. A key asset which we have on our side is the anatomical vicinity these lesions occur, this leading us to take into consideration eliminating as many lesions in one single operative time as possible without changing the position of the head during surgery. Based on a retrospective study which concluded that patients with resection of all lesions tend to have a longer life expectancy, and on modern concepts of risks and benefits of oncological surgery and surgery in general, we followed up on three patients presenting posterior and even multiple posterior fossa metastases, taking into consideration individual comorbidities, tumor aspects and the possibility/opportunity of surgical treatment. It turned out that surgery is a safe and effective treatment option and should not be considered harmful or aggressive especially because all of the patients which were under study had a favorable post-operative prognostic and an improved quality of life. We emphasize furthermore the importance of complete lesion resection in as few interventions as possible followed up by radiotherapy/chemotherapy as a key in prolonging these patients life expectancy taking into consideration that the outcome is directly related to the number of lesions rather to the location or volume of them.

  5. Exposure to predator odor influences the relative use of multiple memory systems: role of basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kah-Chung; Packard, Mark G

    2014-03-01

    In a dual-solution plus-maze task in which both hippocampus-dependent place learning and dorsolateral striatal-dependent response learning provide an adequate solution, the relative use of multiple memory systems can be influenced by emotional state. Specifically, pre-training peripheral or intra-basolateral (BLA) administration of anxiogenic drugs result in the predominant use of response learning. The present experiments were designed to extend these findings by examining whether exposure to a putatively ethologically valid stressor would also produce a predominant use of response learning. In experiment 1, adult male Long-Evans rats were exposed to either a predator odor (trimethylthiazoline [TMT], a component of fox feces) or distilled water prior to training in a dual-solution water plus maze task. On a probe trial 24h following task acquisition, rats previously exposed to TMT predominantly displayed response learning relative to control animals. In experiment 2, rats trained on a single-solution plus maze task that required the use of response learning displayed enhanced acquisition following pre-training TMT exposure. In experiment 3, rats exposed to TMT or distilled water were trained in the dual-solution task and received post-training intra-BLA injections of the sodium channel blocker bupivacaine (1.0% solution, 0.5 μl) or saline. Relative to control animals, rats exposed to TMT predominantly displayed response learning on the probe trial, and this effect was blocked by neural inactivation of the BLA. The findings indicate that (1) the use of dorsal striatal-dependent habit memory produced by emotional arousal generalizes from anxiogenic drug administration to a putatively ecologically valid stressor (i.e. predator odor), and (2) the BLA mediates the modulatory effect of exposure to predator odor on the relative use of multiple memory systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors predicting work outcome in Japanese patients with schizophrenia: role of multiple functioning levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Sumiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia suggest recovery of cognitive, everyday, and social functioning. Specifically improvement of work status is considered to be most important for their independent living and self-efficacy. The main purposes of the present study were 1 to identify which outcome factors predict occupational functioning, quantified as work hours, and 2 to provide cut-offs on the scales for those factors to attain better work status. Forty-five Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 111 healthy controls entered the study. Cognition, capacity for everyday activities, and social functioning were assessed by the Japanese versions of the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB, the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment-Brief (UPSA-B, and the Social Functioning Scale Individuals’ version modified for the MATRICS-PASS (Modified SFS for PASS, respectively. Potential factors for work outcome were estimated by multiple linear regression analyses (predicting work hours directly and a multiple logistic regression analyses (predicting dichotomized work status based on work hours. ROC curve analyses were performed to determine cut-off points for differentiating between the better- and poor work status. The results showed that a cognitive component, comprising visual/verbal learning and emotional management, and a social functioning component, comprising independent living and vocational functioning, were potential factors for predicting work hours/status. Cut-off points obtained in ROC analyses indicated that 60–70% achievements on the measures of those factors were expected to maintain the better work status. Our findings suggest that improvement on specific aspects of cognitive and social functioning are important for work outcome in patients with schizophrenia.

  7. Factors predicting work outcome in Japanese patients with schizophrenia: role of multiple functioning levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Chika; Harvey, Philip D; Takaki, Manabu; Okahisa, Yuko; Sato, Taku; Sora, Ichiro; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki

    2015-09-01

    Functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia suggest recovery of cognitive, everyday, and social functioning. Specifically improvement of work status is considered to be most important for their independent living and self-efficacy. The main purposes of the present study were 1) to identify which outcome factors predict occupational functioning, quantified as work hours, and 2) to provide cut-offs on the scales for those factors to attain better work status. Forty-five Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 111 healthy controls entered the study. Cognition, capacity for everyday activities, and social functioning were assessed by the Japanese versions of the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB), the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment-Brief (UPSA-B), and the Social Functioning Scale Individuals' version modified for the MATRICS-PASS (Modified SFS for PASS), respectively. Potential factors for work outcome were estimated by multiple linear regression analyses (predicting work hours directly) and a multiple logistic regression analyses (predicting dichotomized work status based on work hours). ROC curve analyses were performed to determine cut-off points for differentiating between the better- and poor work status. The results showed that a cognitive component, comprising visual/verbal learning and emotional management, and a social functioning component, comprising independent living and vocational functioning, were potential factors for predicting work hours/status. Cut-off points obtained in ROC analyses indicated that 60-70% achievements on the measures of those factors were expected to maintain the better work status. Our findings suggest that improvement on specific aspects of cognitive and social functioning are important for work outcome in patients with schizophrenia.

  8. Role of thalamic diffusion for disease differentiation between multiple sclerosis and ischemic cerebral small vessel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztoprak, Bilge; Oeztoprak, Ibrahim; Salk, Ismail; Topalkara, Kamil; Erkoc, Mustafa F.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) both harbor multiple, T2-hyperintense white matter lesions on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).We aimed to determine the microstructural changes via diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in normal appearing thalami. We hypothesized that the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values would be different in CSVD and MS, since the extent of arterial involvement is different in these two diseases. DWI was performed for 50 patients with CSVD and 35 patients with MS along with gender- and age-matched controls whose conventional MRI revealed normal findings. DWI was done with 1.5 Tesla MR devices using echo planar imaging (EPI) for b = 0, 1000 s/mm 2 . ADC values were obtained from the thalami which appeared normal on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Standard oval regions of interest (ROIs) of 0.5 cm 2 which were oriented parallel to the long axis of the thalamus were used for this purpose. The mean ADC value of the thalamus was (0.99 ± 0.16) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in patients with CSVD, whereas the mean ADC value was (0.78 ± 0.06) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in the control group. The mean ADC value was significantly higher in patients with CSVD compared to the controls (p < 0.001). The mean ADC values of the thalamus were (0.78 ± 0.08) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in MS patients, and (0.75 ± 0.08) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in the control group, which are not significantly different (p > 0.05). Our study revealed a difference in the diffusion of the thalami between CSVD and MS. DWI may aid in the radiological disease differentiation. (orig.)

  9. Role of thalamic diffusion for disease differentiation between multiple sclerosis and ischemic cerebral small vessel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeztoprak, Bilge; Oeztoprak, Ibrahim; Salk, Ismail [Cumhuriyet University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sivas (Turkey); Topalkara, Kamil [Bayindir Hospital, Department of Neurology, Ankara (Turkey); Erkoc, Mustafa F. [Bozok University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yozgat (Turkey)

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) both harbor multiple, T2-hyperintense white matter lesions on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).We aimed to determine the microstructural changes via diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in normal appearing thalami. We hypothesized that the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values would be different in CSVD and MS, since the extent of arterial involvement is different in these two diseases. DWI was performed for 50 patients with CSVD and 35 patients with MS along with gender- and age-matched controls whose conventional MRI revealed normal findings. DWI was done with 1.5 Tesla MR devices using echo planar imaging (EPI) for b = 0, 1000 s/mm{sup 2}. ADC values were obtained from the thalami which appeared normal on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Standard oval regions of interest (ROIs) of 0.5 cm{sup 2} which were oriented parallel to the long axis of the thalamus were used for this purpose. The mean ADC value of the thalamus was (0.99 ± 0.16) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in patients with CSVD, whereas the mean ADC value was (0.78 ± 0.06) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in the control group. The mean ADC value was significantly higher in patients with CSVD compared to the controls (p < 0.001). The mean ADC values of the thalamus were (0.78 ± 0.08) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in MS patients, and (0.75 ± 0.08) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in the control group, which are not significantly different (p > 0.05). Our study revealed a difference in the diffusion of the thalami between CSVD and MS. DWI may aid in the radiological disease differentiation. (orig.)

  10. Celecoxib plays a multiple role to peripheral blood lymphocytes and allografts in acute rejection in rats after cardiac transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-feng; ZHANG Fan; LIU Hong-yu; SUN Guo-dong; LIU Zong-hong; L(U) Hang; CHI Chao; LI Chun-yu

    2009-01-01

    Background Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used as an adjuvant to sensitize cancer cells to apoptosis. However, in rats suffering from acute rejection, celecoxib reduced apoptosis of myocardial cells. We hypothesize that celecoxib reduces myocardial apoptosis either by inducing apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) or by altering the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. Methods After cardiac transplantation, rats were administered intragastrically with celecoxib (50 mg/kg per day) for 3, 5 or 7 days, at which time the graft was excised and evaluated for organ rejection. In addition, PBLs were isolated from the blood to determine PBLs apoptosis, and the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. Results Celecoxib induced PBLs apoptosis in 3 days, but protected the cells from apoptosis at 5 and 7 days. Also, the percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes decreased only at 3 days, but a reduction in the percentage of CD8+ lymphocytes was not seen until 7 days after the transplant surgery. Celecoxib only decreased acute rejection at 5 days, with no discernible difference in rejection after 3 and 7 days. Conclusions The results suggested that celecoxib displayed a multiple physiological function in a time-dependent manner.

  11. Impact of light on Hypocrea jecorina and the multiple cellular roles of ENVOY in this process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinina Irina S

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fungi, light is primarily known to influence general morphogenesis and both sexual and asexual sporulation. In order to expand the knowledge on the effect of light in fungi and to determine the role of the light regulatory protein ENVOY in the implementation of this effect, we performed a global screen for genes, which are specifically effected by light in the fungus Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei using Rapid Subtraction Hybridization (RaSH. Based on these data, we analyzed whether these genes are influenced by ENVOY and if overexpression of ENVOY in darkness would be sufficient to execute its function. Results The cellular functions of the detected light responsive genes comprised a variety of roles in transcription, translation, signal transduction, metabolism, and transport. Their response to light with respect to the involvement of ENVOY could be classified as follows: (i ENVOY-mediated upregulation by light; (ii ENVOY-independent upregulation by light; (iii ENVOY-antagonized upregulation by light; ENVOY-dependent repression by light; (iv ENVOY-independent repression by light; and (v both positive and negative regulation by ENVOY of genes not responsive to light in the wild-type. ENVOY was found to be crucial for normal growth in light on various carbon sources and is not able to execute its regulatory function if overexpressed in the darkness. Conclusion The different responses indicate that light impacts fungi like H. jecorina at several cellular processes, and that it has both positive and negative effects. The data also emphasize that ENVOY has an apparently more widespread cellular role in this process than only in modulating the response to light.

  12. Multiple roles of putrescine and spermidine in stress resistance and virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartas Espinel, Irene; Guerra, Priscila Regina; Jelsbak, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    . Typhimurium virulence is the ability to survive and replicate inside macrophages and resisting the antimicrobial attacks in the form of oxidative and nitrosative stress elicited from these cells. In the present study, we have investigated the role of polyamines in intracellular survival and systemic...... infections of mice. Using a S. Typhimurium mutant defective for putrescine and spermidine biosynthesis, we show that polyamines are essential for coping with reactive nitrogen species, possibly linking polyamines to increased intracellular stress resistance. However, using a mouse model defective for nitric...

  13. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  14. The Arabidopsis thaliana Homolog of the Helicase RTEL1 Plays Multiple Roles in Preserving Genome Stability[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recker, Julia; Knoll, Alexander; Puchta, Holger

    2014-01-01

    In humans, mutations in the DNA helicase Regulator of Telomere Elongation Helicase1 (RTEL1) lead to Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome, a severe, multisystem disorder. Here, we demonstrate that the RTEL1 homolog in Arabidopsis thaliana plays multiple roles in preserving genome stability. RTEL1 suppresses homologous recombination in a pathway parallel to that of the DNA translocase FANCM. Cytological analyses of root meristems indicate that RTEL1 is involved in processing DNA replication intermediates independently from FANCM and the nuclease MUS81. Moreover, RTEL1 is involved in interstrand and intrastrand DNA cross-link repair independently from FANCM and (in intrastrand cross-link repair) parallel to MUS81. RTEL1 contributes to telomere homeostasis; the concurrent loss of RTEL1 and the telomerase TERT leads to rapid, severe telomere shortening, which occurs much more rapidly than it does in the single-mutant line tert, resulting in developmental arrest after four generations. The double mutant rtel1-1 recq4A-4 exhibits massive growth defects, indicating that this RecQ family helicase, which is also involved in the suppression of homologous recombination and the repair of DNA lesions, can partially replace RTEL1 in the processing of DNA intermediates. The requirement for RTEL1 in multiple pathways to preserve genome stability in plants can be explained by its putative role in the destabilization of DNA loop structures, such as D-loops and T-loops. PMID:25516598

  15. Multiple functions and essential roles of nuclear receptor coactivators of bHLH-PAS family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenova, L; Farkas, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Classical non-peptide hormones, such as steroids, retinoids, thyroid hormones, vitamin D3 and their derivatives including prostaglandins, benzoates, oxysterols, and bile acids, are collectively designated as small lipophilic ligands, acting via binding to the nuclear receptors (NRs). The NRs form a large superfamily of transcription factors that participate virtually in every key biological process. They control various aspects of animal development, fertility, gametogenesis, and numerous metabolic pathways, and can be misregulated in many types of cancers. Their enormous functional plasticity, as transcription factors, relates in part to NR-mediated interactions with plethora of coregulatory proteins upon ligand binding to their ligand binding domains (LBD), or following covalent modification. Here, we review some general views of a specific group of NR coregulators, so-called nuclear receptor coactivators (NRCs) or steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) and highlight some of their unique functions/roles, which are less extensively mentioned and discussed in other reviews. We also try to pinpoint few neglected moments in the cooperative action of SRCs, which may also indicate their variable roles in the hormone-independent signaling pathways.

  16. Physiological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  17. Multiple Climate States of Habitable Exoplanets: The Role of Obliquity and Irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, C.; Raible, C. C.; Stocker, T. F.

    2017-01-01

    Stable, steady climate states on an Earth-size planet with no continents are determined as a function of the tilt of the planet’s rotation axis (obliquity) and stellar irradiance. Using a general circulation model of the atmosphere coupled to a slab ocean and a thermodynamic sea ice model, two states, the Aquaplanet and the Cryoplanet, are found for high and low stellar irradiance, respectively. In addition, four stable states with seasonally and perennially open water are discovered if comprehensively exploring a parameter space of obliquity from 0° to 90° and stellar irradiance from 70% to 135% of the present-day solar constant. Within 11% of today’s solar irradiance, we find a rich structure of stable states that extends the area of habitability considerably. For the same set of parameters, different stable states result if simulations are initialized from an aquaplanet or a cryoplanet state. This demonstrates the possibility of multiple equilibria, hysteresis, and potentially rapid climate change in response to small changes in the orbital parameters. The dynamics of the atmosphere of an aquaplanet or a cryoplanet state is investigated for similar values of obliquity and stellar irradiance. The atmospheric circulation substantially differs in the two states owing to the relative strength of the primary drivers of the meridional transport of heat and momentum. At 90° obliquity and present-day solar constant, the atmospheric dynamics of an Aquaplanet state and one with an equatorial ice cover is analyzed.

  18. Resonance properties of tidal channels with multiple retention basins: role of adjacent sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Pieter C.; Schuttelaars, Henk M.

    2015-03-01

    We present an idealised model of the tidal response in a main channel with multiple secondary basins, co-oscillating with an adjacent sea. The sea is represented as a semi-infinite strip of finite width, anywhere between the limits of a channel extension (narrow) and a half-plane (wide). The sea geometry controls the extent to which radiative damping takes place and hence the type of conditions that effectively apply at the channel mouth. These conditions range between the two extremes of prescribing elevation (deep sea limit) and prescribing the incoming wave (sea as channel extension of the same depth, as done in an earlier study). The closer to this first extreme, the stronger the oscillations in the secondary basins may feed back onto the channel mouth and thus produce an amplified or weakened response in the system as a whole. The possibly resonant response is explained by analysing the additional waves that emerge on either side of the entrance of the secondary basin. Finally, we show that the simultaneous presence of two secondary basins may amplify or weaken the accumulated responses to these basins individually.

  19. The Role of Allogeneic Transplantation in the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majolino, I

    1998-01-01

    In multiple myeloma (MM) attempts to improve upon the results of standard melphalanpredisone with other conventional dose drug combinations, have generally been unsuccessful, producing only minor improvements in response rate, with little effect on survival. The only treatment capable of producing a dramatic change in response and life expectancy is high-dose chemo-radiotherapy followed by stem cell transplantation. However, after autologous transplant relapse will almost inevitably occur, and freedom from recurrence curves show no plateau in most studies. Besides the resistance of the disease to chemotherapy, another possible explanation is tumor contamination of the graft. This is one major advantage of allogeneic transplantation over autologous, the other being an immune mediated mechanism of tumor suppression in part related to GVHD. Application of allogeneic transplantation to MM has met a number of obstacles, but is now entering a phase of reappraisal, due in part to a tendency to earlier transplantation, in part to the use of novel technologies such as allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells instead of marrow. The goal should be the reduction of transplant related deaths, to better exploit the higher eradication potential of allogeneic cell therapies. The most intriguing perspectives are those related to immune manipulation of recipient and/or donor.

  20. The Mechanisms of Water Exchange: The Regulatory Roles of Multiple Interactions in Social Wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Devanshu; Karsai, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary benefits of task fidelity and improving information acquisition via multiple transfers of materials between individuals in a task partitioned system have been shown before, but in this paper we provide a mechanistic explanation of these phenomena. Using a simple mathematical model describing the individual interactions of the wasps, we explain the functioning of the common stomach, an information center, which governs construction behavior and task change. Our central hypothesis is a symmetry between foragers who deposit water and foragers who withdraw water into and out of the common stomach. We combine this with a trade-off between acceptance and resistance to water transfer. We ultimately derive a mathematical function that relates the number of interactions that foragers complete with common stomach wasps during a foraging cycle. We use field data and additional model assumptions to calculate values of our model parameters, and we use these to explain why the fullness of the common stomach stabilizes just below 50 percent, why the average number of successful interactions between foragers and the wasps forming the common stomach is between 5 and 7, and why there is a variation in this number of interactions over time. Our explanation is that our proposed water exchange mechanism places natural bounds on the number of successful interactions possible, water exchange is set to optimize mediation of water through the common stomach, and the chance that foragers abort their task prematurely is very low.

  1. Examination of the role of magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis: A problem-orientated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarland Henry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI has brought in several benefits to the study of Multiple Sclerosis (MS. It provides accurate measurement of disease activity, facilitates precise diagnosis, and aid in the assessment of newer therapies. The imaging guidelines for MS are broadly divided in to approaches for imaging patients with suspected MS or clinically isolated syndromes (CIS or for monitoring patients with established MS. In this review, the technical aspects of MR imaging for MS are briefly discussed. The imaging process need to capture the twin aspects of acute MS viz. the autoimmune acute inflammatory process and the neurodegenerative process. Gadolinium enhanced MRI can identify acute inflammatory lesions precisely. The commonly applied MRI marker of disease progression is brain atrophy. Whole brain magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS are two other techniques use to monitor disease progression. A variety of imaging techniques such as Double Inversion Recovery (DIR, Spoiled Gradient Recalled (SPGR acquisition, and Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR have been utilized to study the cortical changes in MS. MRI is now extensively used in the Phase I, II and III clinical trials of new therapies. As the technical aspects of MRI advance rapidly, and higher field strengths become available, it is hoped that the impact of MRI on our understanding of MS will be even more profound in the next decade.

  2. Multiple Climate States of Habitable Exoplanets: The Role of Obliquity and Irradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, C.; Raible, C. C.; Stocker, T. F., E-mail: stocker@climate.unibe.ch [Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern (Switzerland)

    2017-08-01

    Stable, steady climate states on an Earth-size planet with no continents are determined as a function of the tilt of the planet’s rotation axis (obliquity) and stellar irradiance. Using a general circulation model of the atmosphere coupled to a slab ocean and a thermodynamic sea ice model, two states, the Aquaplanet and the Cryoplanet, are found for high and low stellar irradiance, respectively. In addition, four stable states with seasonally and perennially open water are discovered if comprehensively exploring a parameter space of obliquity from 0° to 90° and stellar irradiance from 70% to 135% of the present-day solar constant. Within 11% of today’s solar irradiance, we find a rich structure of stable states that extends the area of habitability considerably. For the same set of parameters, different stable states result if simulations are initialized from an aquaplanet or a cryoplanet state. This demonstrates the possibility of multiple equilibria, hysteresis, and potentially rapid climate change in response to small changes in the orbital parameters. The dynamics of the atmosphere of an aquaplanet or a cryoplanet state is investigated for similar values of obliquity and stellar irradiance. The atmospheric circulation substantially differs in the two states owing to the relative strength of the primary drivers of the meridional transport of heat and momentum. At 90° obliquity and present-day solar constant, the atmospheric dynamics of an Aquaplanet state and one with an equatorial ice cover is analyzed.

  3. The role of multiple-group measurement invariance in family psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Justin L; McBride, Brent A; Laxman, Daniel J; Dyer, W Justin; Santos, Rosa M; Jeans, Laurie M

    2016-04-01

    Measurement invariance (MI) is a property of measurement that is often implicitly assumed, but in many cases, not tested. When the assumption of MI is tested, it generally involves determining if the measurement holds longitudinally or cross-culturally. A growing literature shows that other groupings can, and should, be considered as well. Additionally, it is noted that the standard techniques for investigating MI have been focused almost exclusively on the case of 2 groups, with very little work on the case of more than 2 groups, even though the need for such techniques is apparent in many fields of research. This paper introduces and illustrates a model building technique to investigating MI for more than 2 groups. This technique is an extension of the already-existing hierarchy for testing MI introduced by Meredith (1993). An example using data on father involvement in 5 different groups of families of children with and without developmental disabilities from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort dataset will be given. We show that without considering the possible differential functioning of the measurements on multiple developmental groups, the differences present between the groups in terms of the measurements may be obscured. This could lead to incorrect conclusions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The Role of Clinical and Instrumented Outcome Measures in Balance Control of Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Kanekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to investigate differences in balance control between individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS and healthy control subjects using clinical scales and instrumented measures of balance and determine relationships between balance measures, fatigue, and disability levels in individuals with MS with and without a history of falls. Method. Twelve individuals with MS and twelve healthy controls were evaluated using the Berg Balance and Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scales, Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, and Limits of Stability Tests as well as Fatigue Severity Scale and Barthel Index. Results. Mildly affected individuals with MS had significant balance performance deficits and poor balance confidence levels (P<0.05. MS group had higher sway velocities and diminished stability limits (P<0.05, significant sensory impairments, high fatigue and disability levels (P<0.05. Sway velocity was a significant predictor of balance performance and the ability to move towards stability limits for the MS group. For the MS-fallers group, those with lower disability levels had faster movement velocities and better balance performance. Conclusion. Implementation of both clinical and instrumented tests of balance is important for the planning and evaluation of treatment outcomes in balance rehabilitation of people with MS.

  5. Management of multiple sclerosis: the role of coping self-efficacy and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, Pavol; Nagyova, Iveta; Vitkova, Marianna; Szilasiova, Jarmila

    2018-02-07

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) engage in various coping behaviours in order to manage their disease. The aim of this study is to find out if the self-esteem of patients is associated with coping strategies - problem-focused (e.g. making a plan of action when confronted with a problem); emotion focused (e.g. get emotional support from community); and focused on stopping unpleasant emotions and thoughts (e.g. keeping oneself from feeling sad), and if it can enhance or hinder coping efforts in the disease management. We collected data from 155 consecutive MS patients who completed the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale (CSE) and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE). Explained variance for problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping, and coping focused on stopping unpleasant emotions and thoughts was 33, 24, and 31%, respectively. Self-esteem seems to be associated with coping strategies indicating that feelings of self-worth are linked with the ability to handle difficult life situations and can be helpful in chronic disease management.

  6. UPDATE ON THE ROLE OF AUTOLOGOUS HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Tosi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Autologous stem cell transplantation is considered the standard of care for multiple myeloma patients aged < 65 years with no relevant comorbidities. The addition of drugs acting both on bone marrow microenvironment and on neoplastic plasma cells has significantly increased the proportion of patients achieving a complete remission after induction therapy, and these results are mantained after high-dose melphalan, leading to a prolonged disease control. Studies are being carried out in order to evaluate whether short term consolidation or long-term maintenance therapy can result into disease eradication at the molecular level thus increasing also patients survival. The efficacy of these new drugs has raised the issue of deferring the transplant after achivng a second response upon relapse. Another controversial point is the optimal treatment strategy for high-risk patients, that do not benefit from autologous stem cell transplantation and for whom the efficacy of new drugs is still matter of debate.

  7. Cortical injury in multiple sclerosis; the role of the immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Caroline A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The easily identifiable, ubiquitous demyelination and neuronal damage that occurs within the cerebral white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS has been the subject of extensive study. Accordingly, MS has historically been described as a disease of the white matter. Recently, the cerebral cortex (gray matter of patients with MS has been recognized as an additional and major site of disease pathogenesis. This acknowledgement of cortical tissue damage is due, in part, to more powerful MRI that allows detection of such injury and to focused neuropathology-based investigations. Cortical tissue damage has been associated with inflammation that is less pronounced to that which is associated with damage in the white matter. There is, however, emerging evidence that suggests cortical damage can be closely associated with robust inflammation not only in the parenchyma, but also in the neighboring meninges. This manuscript will highlight the current knowledge of inflammation associated with cortical tissue injury. Historical literature along with contemporary work that focuses on both the absence and presence of inflammation in the cerebral cortex and in the cerebral meninges will be reviewed.

  8. Multiple roles of the Y chromosome in the biology of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piergentili, Roberto

    2010-09-01

    The X and Y chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster were the first examples of chromosomes associated with genetic information. Thanks to the serendipitous discovery of a male with white eyes in 1910, T.H. Morgan was able to associate the X chromosome of the fruit fly with a phenotypic character (the eye color) for the first time. A few years later, his student, C.B. Bridges, demonstrated that X0 males, although phenotypically normal, are completely sterile. This means that the X chromosome, like the autosomes, harbors genes that control several phenotypic traits, while the Y chromosome is important for male fertility only. Notwithstanding its long history--almost 100 years in terms of genetic studies--most of the features of the Y chromosome are still a mystery. This is due to the intrinsic nature of this genetic element, namely, (1) its molecular composition (mainly transposable elements and satellite DNA), (2) its genetic inertia (lack of recombination due to its heterochromatic nature), (3) the absence of homology with the X (with the only exception of the nucleolar organizer), (4) the lack of visible phenotypes when it is missing (indeed, except for their sterility, X0 flies are normal males), and (5) its low density as for protein-coding sequences (to date, only 13 genes out of approximately 14,000 have been mapped on this chromosome in D. melanogaster, i.e., ~0.1% of the total). Nonetheless, a more accurate analysis reveals that this chromosome can influence several complex phenotypes: (1) it has a role in the fertility of both sexes and viability of males when over-represented; (2) it can unbalance the intracellular nucleotide pool; (3) it can interfere with the gene expression either by recruiting proteins involved in chromatin remodeling (PEV) or, to a higher extent, by influencing the expression of up to 1,000 different genes, probably by changing the availability of transcription factors; (4) it plays a major role (up to 50%) in the resistance to heat

  9. Brd4 and HEXIM1: Multiple Roles in P-TEFb Regulation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruichuan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (Brd4 and hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA inducible protein 1 (HEXIM1 are two opposing regulators of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb, which is the master modulator of RNA polymerase II during transcriptional elongation. While Brd4 recruits P-TEFb to promoter-proximal chromatins to activate transcription, HEXIM1 sequesters P-TEFb into an inactive complex containing the 7SK small nuclear RNA. Besides regulating P-TEFb’s transcriptional activity, recent evidence demonstrates that both Brd4 and HEXIM1 also play novel roles in cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. Here we will discuss the current knowledge on Brd4 and HEXIM1 and their implication as novel therapeutic options against cancer.

  10. The role of stem cell mobilization regimen on lymphocyte collection yield in patients with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwase, D K; Hiwase, S; Bailey, M; Bollard, G; Schwarer, A P

    2008-01-01

    The lymphocyte dose (LY-DO) infused during an autograft influences absolute lymphocyte (ALC) recovery and survival following autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Factors influencing lymphocyte yield (LY-C) during leukapheresis have been poorly studied. Factors that could influence survival, LY-C and CD34(+) cell yield were analyzed in 122 MM patients. Three mobilization regimens were used, granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone (n=13), cyclophosphamide 1-2 g/m(2) plus G-CSF (LD-CY, n=62) and cyclophosphamide 3-4 g/m(2) and G-CSF (ID-CY, n=47). Using multivariate analysis, age, LY-C, ALC on day 30 (ALC-30) and International Staging System stage significantly influenced overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) following ASCT. PFS (56 versus 29 months, P=0.05) and OS (72 versus 49 months; P=0.07) were longer in the LY-C>or=0.12x10(9)/kg group than the LY-Cradiotherapy and number of leukaphereses significantly influenced LY-C. Significantly higher LY-C was obtained with G-CSF alone compared with the LD-CY and ID-CY groups. CD34(+) count on the day of leukapheresis, prior chemotherapy with prednisone, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin and BCNU or melphalan, and stem cell mobilization regimen significantly influenced CD34(+) cell yield. LY-C influenced ALC-15 and survival following ASCT. Factors that influenced CD34(+) cell yield and LY-C during leukapheresis were different. Mobilization should be tailored to maximize the LY-C and CD34(+) cell yield.

  11. Critical appraisal of the role of fingolimod in the treatment of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warnke C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Clemens Warnke1,2, Olaf Stüve3,4, Hans-Peter Hartung1, Anna Fogdell-Hahn2, Bernd C Kieseier11Department of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Neurology, Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center, TX, USA; 4Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: This review summarizes Phase III clinical trial data available for fingolimod. The main purpose is to evaluate the benefit-risk profile of fingolimod, the first oral compound available for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS and just recently approved by the European authorities. The authors place this evaluation in the context of the known safety and efficacy profile of established compounds for therapy of MS to outline the current and future potential of fingolimod. The authors conclude that only long-term safety data from post-marketing surveillance plans, together with additional head-to-head studies, would allow evidence-based treatment decisions. Furthermore, risk-profile analyses including patient history, exposure data to certain pathogens, and genetic analyses may potentially help to choose the right drug for individual patients in the future. Until these approaches toward an individualized medicine have been validated, treatment decisions for one or the other compound will have to be based partly on class IV evidence. Therefore, a close dialog with the well-informed patient, secured by effective risk mitigation plans, is required to choose the compound.Keywords: FTY720, oral drug, spingosine 1-phosphate receptor

  12. On the role of the amygdala for experiencing fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanken, Katrin; Francis, Yoselin; Kastrup, Andreas; Eling, Paul; Klein, Jan; Hildebrandt, Helmut

    2018-02-01

    Recently, we proposed a model explaining the origin of fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. This model assumes that the feeling of fatigue results from inflammation-induced information processing within interoceptive brain areas. To investigate the association between self-reported cognitive fatigue and structural integrity of interoceptive brain areas in MS patients. 95 MS patients and 28 healthy controls participated in this study. All participants underwent diffusion tensor MRI and fractional anisotropy data were calculated for the amygdala, the stria terminalis and the corpus callosum, a non-interoceptive brain area. Based on the cognitive fatigue score of the Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognition, patients were divided into moderately cognitively fatigued (cognitive fatigue score ≥ 28) and cognitively non-fatigued (cognitive fatigue score < 28) MS patients. Healthy controls were recruited as a third group. Repeated measures analyses of covariance, controlling for age, depression and brain atrophy, were performed to investigate whether the factor Group had a significant effect on the fractional anisotropy data. A significant effect of Group was observed for the amygdala (F = 3.389, p = 0.037). MS patients without cognitive fatigue presented lower values of the amygdala than MS patients with cognitive fatigue and healthy controls. For the stria terminalis and the corpus callosum, no main effect of Group was observed. The structural integrity of the amygdala in non-fatigued MS patients appears to be reduced. According to our model this might indicate that the absence of fatigue in non-fatigued MS patients might result from disturbed inflammation-induced information processing in the amygdala. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Combined therapies to treat complex diseases: The role of the gut microbiota in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Barreiro, Laura; Eixarch, Herena; Montalban, Xavier; Espejo, Carmen

    2018-02-01

    The commensal microbiota has emerged as an environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models have shown that the commensal microbiota is an essential player in triggering autoimmune demyelination. Likewise, the commensal microbiota modulates the host immune system, alters the integrity and function of biological barriers and has a direct effect on several types of central nervous system (CNS)-resident cells. Moreover, a characteristic gut dysbiosis has been recognized as a consistent feature during the clinical course of MS, and the MS-related microbiota is gradually being elucidated. This review highlights animal studies in which commensal microbiota modulation was tested in EAE, as well as the mechanisms of action and influence of the commensal microbiota not only in the local milieu but also in the innate and adaptive immune system and the CNS. Regarding human research, this review focuses on studies that show how the commensal microbiota might act as a pathogenic environmental risk factor by directing immune responses towards characteristic pathogenic profiles of MS. We speculate how specific microbiome signatures could be obtained and used as potential pathogenic events and biomarkers for the clinical course of MS. Finally, we review recently published and ongoing clinical trials in MS patients regarding the immunomodulatory properties exerted by some microorganisms. Because MS is a complex disease with a large variety of associated environmental risk factors, we suggest that current treatments combined with strategies that modulate the commensal microbiota would constitute a broader immunotherapeutic approach and improve the clinical outcome for MS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tallner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients.

  15. Unraveling the Physiological Roles of the Cyanobacterium Geitlerinema sp. BBD and Other Black Band Disease Community Members through Genomic Analysis of a Mixed Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Uyl, Paul A.; Richardson, Laurie L.; Jain, Sunit

    2016-01-01

    Black band disease (BBD) is a cyanobacterial-dominated polymicrobial mat that propagates on and migrates across coral surfaces, necrotizing coral tissue. Culture-based laboratory studies have investigated cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria isolated from BBD, but the metabolic potential of various BBD microbial community members and interactions between them remain poorly understood. Here we report genomic insights into the physiological and metabolic potential of the BBD-associated cyanobacterium Geitlerinema sp. BBD 1991 and six associated bacteria that were also present in the non-axenic culture. The essentially complete genome of Geitlerinema sp. BBD 1991 contains a sulfide quinone oxidoreductase gene for oxidation of sulfide, suggesting a mechanism for tolerating the sulfidic conditions of BBD mats. Although the operon for biosynthesis of the cyanotoxin microcystin was surprisingly absent, potential relics were identified. Genomic evidence for mixed-acid fermentation indicates a strategy for energy metabolism under the anaerobic conditions present in BBD during darkness. Fermentation products may supply carbon to BBD heterotrophic bacteria. Among the six associated bacteria in the culture, two are closely related to organisms found in culture-independent studies of diseased corals. Their metabolic pathways for carbon and sulfur cycling, energy metabolism, and mechanisms for resisting coral defenses suggest adaptations to the coral surface environment and biogeochemical roles within the BBD mat. Polysulfide reductases were identified in a Flammeovirgaceae genome (Bacteroidetes) and the sox pathway for sulfur oxidation was found in the genome of a Rhodospirillales bacterium (Alphaproteobacteria), revealing mechanisms for sulfur cycling, which influences virulence of BBD. Each genomic bin possessed a pathway for conserving energy from glycerol degradation, reflecting adaptations to the glycerol-rich coral environment. The presence of genes for detoxification

  16. Unraveling the Physiological Roles of the Cyanobacterium Geitlerinema sp. BBD and Other Black Band Disease Community Members through Genomic Analysis of a Mixed Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Uyl, Paul A; Richardson, Laurie L; Jain, Sunit; Dick, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    Black band disease (BBD) is a cyanobacterial-dominated polymicrobial mat that propagates on and migrates across coral surfaces, necrotizing coral tissue. Culture-based laboratory studies have investigated cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria isolated from BBD, but the metabolic potential of various BBD microbial community members and interactions between them remain poorly understood. Here we report genomic insights into the physiological and metabolic potential of the BBD-associated cyanobacterium Geitlerinema sp. BBD 1991 and six associated bacteria that were also present in the non-axenic culture. The essentially complete genome of Geitlerinema sp. BBD 1991 contains a sulfide quinone oxidoreductase gene for oxidation of sulfide, suggesting a mechanism for tolerating the sulfidic conditions of BBD mats. Although the operon for biosynthesis of the cyanotoxin microcystin was surprisingly absent, potential relics were identified. Genomic evidence for mixed-acid fermentation indicates a strategy for energy metabolism under the anaerobic conditions present in BBD during darkness. Fermentation products may supply carbon to BBD heterotrophic bacteria. Among the six associated bacteria in the culture, two are closely related to organisms found in culture-independent studies of diseased corals. Their metabolic pathways for carbon and sulfur cycling, energy metabolism, and mechanisms for resisting coral defenses suggest adaptations to the coral surface environment and biogeochemical roles within the BBD mat. Polysulfide reductases were identified in a Flammeovirgaceae genome (Bacteroidetes) and the sox pathway for sulfur oxidation was found in the genome of a Rhodospirillales bacterium (Alphaproteobacteria), revealing mechanisms for sulfur cycling, which influences virulence of BBD. Each genomic bin possessed a pathway for conserving energy from glycerol degradation, reflecting adaptations to the glycerol-rich coral environment. The presence of genes for detoxification

  17. Unraveling the Physiological Roles of the Cyanobacterium Geitlerinema sp. BBD and Other Black Band Disease Community Members through Genomic Analysis of a Mixed Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Den Uyl

    Full Text Available Black band disease (BBD is a cyanobacterial-dominated polymicrobial mat that propagates on and migrates across coral surfaces, necrotizing coral tissue. Culture-based laboratory studies have investigated cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria isolated from BBD, but the metabolic potential of various BBD microbial community members and interactions between them remain poorly understood. Here we report genomic insights into the physiological and metabolic potential of the BBD-associated cyanobacterium Geitlerinema sp. BBD 1991 and six associated bacteria that were also present in the non-axenic culture. The essentially complete genome of Geitlerinema sp. BBD 1991 contains a sulfide quinone oxidoreductase gene for oxidation of sulfide, suggesting a mechanism for tolerating the sulfidic conditions of BBD mats. Although the operon for biosynthesis of the cyanotoxin microcystin was surprisingly absent, potential relics were identified. Genomic evidence for mixed-acid fermentation indicates a strategy for energy metabolism under the anaerobic conditions present in BBD during darkness. Fermentation products may supply carbon to BBD heterotrophic bacteria. Among the six associated bacteria in the culture, two are closely related to organisms found in culture-independent studies of diseased corals. Their metabolic pathways for carbon and sulfur cycling, energy metabolism, and mechanisms for resisting coral defenses suggest adaptations to the coral surface environment and biogeochemical roles within the BBD mat. Polysulfide reductases were identified in a Flammeovirgaceae genome (Bacteroidetes and the sox pathway for sulfur oxidation was found in the genome of a Rhodospirillales bacterium (Alphaproteobacteria, revealing mechanisms for sulfur cycling, which influences virulence of BBD. Each genomic bin possessed a pathway for conserving energy from glycerol degradation, reflecting adaptations to the glycerol-rich coral environment. The presence of genes

  18. Silencing of Iron and Heme-Related Genes Revealed a Paramount Role of Iron in the Physiology of the Hematophagous Vector Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Walter-Nuno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential element for most organisms However, free iron and heme, its complex with protoporphyrin IX, can be extremely cytotoxic, due to the production of reactive oxygen species, eventually leading to oxidative stress. Thus, eukaryotic cells control iron availability by regulating its transport, storage and excretion as well as the biosynthesis and degradation of heme. In the genome of Rhodnius prolixus, the vector of Chagas disease, we identified 36 genes related to iron and heme metabolism We performed a comprehensive analysis of these genes, including identification of homologous genes described in other insect genomes. We observed that blood-meal modulates the expression of ferritin, Iron Responsive protein (IRP, Heme Oxygenase (HO and the heme exporter Feline Leukemia Virus C Receptor (FLVCR, components of major pathways involved in the regulation of iron and heme metabolism, particularly in the posterior midgut (PM, where an intense release of free heme occurs during the course of digestion. Knockdown of these genes impacted the survival of nymphs and adults, as well as molting, oogenesis and embryogenesis at different rates and time-courses. The silencing of FLVCR caused the highest levels of mortality in nymphs and adults and reduced nymph molting. The oogenesis was mildly affected by the diminished expression of all of the genes whereas embryogenesis was dramatically impaired by the knockdown of ferritin expression. Furthermore, an intense production of ROS in the midgut of blood-fed insects occurs when the expression of ferritin, but not HO, was inhibited. In this manner, the degradation of dietary heme inside the enterocytes may represent an oxidative challenge that is counteracted by ferritins, conferring to this protein a major antioxidant role. Taken together these results demonstrate that the regulation of iron and heme metabolism is of paramount importance for R. prolixus physiology and imbalances in the levels of

  19. From "Cellular" RNA to "Smart" RNA: Multiple Roles of RNA in Genome Stability and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Flavia; Jalihal, Ameya P; Francia, Sofia; Meers, Chance; Neeb, Zachary T; Rossiello, Francesca; Gioia, Ubaldo; Aguado, Julio; Jones-Weinert, Corey; Luke, Brian; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Nowacki, Mariusz; Storici, Francesca; Carninci, Piero; Walter, Nils G; Fagagna, Fabrizio d'Adda di

    2018-03-30

    Coding for proteins has been considered the main function of RNA since the "central dogma" of biology was proposed. The discovery of noncoding transcripts shed light on additional roles of RNA, ranging from the support of polypeptide synthesis, to the assembly of subnuclear structures, to gene expression modulation. Cellular RNA has therefore been recognized as a central player in often unanticipated biological processes, including genomic stability. This ever-expanding list of functions inspired us to think of RNA as a "smart" phone, which has replaced the older obsolete "cellular" phone. In this review, we summarize the last two decades of advances in research on the interface between RNA biology and genome stability. We start with an account of the emergence of noncoding RNA, and then we discuss the involvement of RNA in DNA damage signaling and repair, telomere maintenance, and genomic rearrangements. We continue with the depiction of single-molecule RNA detection techniques, and we conclude by illustrating the possibilities of RNA modulation in hopes of creating or improving new therapies. The widespread biological functions of RNA have made this molecule a reoccurring theme in basic and translational research, warranting it the transcendence from classically studied "cellular" RNA to "smart" RNA.

  20. Role of multiple hosts in the cross-species transmission and emergence of a pandemic parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Andrew B; Harbison, Carole E; Pagan, Israel; Stucker, Karla M; Kaelber, Jason T; Brown, Justin D; Ruder, Mark G; Keel, M Kevin; Dubovi, Edward J; Holmes, Edward C; Parrish, Colin R

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of cross-species virus transmission is critical to anticipating emerging infectious diseases. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) emerged as a variant of a feline parvovirus when it acquired mutations that allowed binding to the canine transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR). However, CPV-2 was soon replaced by a variant virus (CPV-2a) that differed in antigenicity and receptor binding. Here we show that the emergence of CPV involved an additional host range variant virus that has circulated undetected in raccoons for at least 24 years, with transfers to and from dogs. Raccoon virus capsids showed little binding to the canine TfR, showed little infection of canine cells, and had altered antigenic structures. Remarkably, in capsid protein (VP2) phylogenies, most raccoon viruses fell as evolutionary intermediates between the CPV-2 and CPV-2a strains, suggesting that passage through raccoons assisted in the evolution of CPV-2a. This highlights the potential role of alternative hosts in viral emergence.

  1. Role of Multiple Hosts in the Cross-Species Transmission and Emergence of a Pandemic Parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Andrew B.; Harbison, Carole E.; Pagan, Israel; Stucker, Karla M.; Kaelber, Jason T.; Brown, Justin D.; Ruder, Mark G.; Keel, M. Kevin; Dubovi, Edward J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of cross-species virus transmission is critical to anticipating emerging infectious diseases. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) emerged as a variant of a feline parvovirus when it acquired mutations that allowed binding to the canine transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR). However, CPV-2 was soon replaced by a variant virus (CPV-2a) that differed in antigenicity and receptor binding. Here we show that the emergence of CPV involved an additional host range variant virus that has circulated undetected in raccoons for at least 24 years, with transfers to and from dogs. Raccoon virus capsids showed little binding to the canine TfR, showed little infection of canine cells, and had altered antigenic structures. Remarkably, in capsid protein (VP2) phylogenies, most raccoon viruses fell as evolutionary intermediates between the CPV-2 and CPV-2a strains, suggesting that passage through raccoons assisted in the evolution of CPV-2a. This highlights the potential role of alternative hosts in viral emergence. PMID:22072763

  2. The Role of Environment and Lifestyle in Determining the Risk of Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedström, Anna Karin; Olsson, Tomas; Alfredsson, Lars

    2015-01-01

    MS is a complex disease where both genetic and environmental factors contribute to disease susceptibility. The substantially increased risk of developing MS in relatives of affected individuals gives solid evidence for a genetic base for susceptibility, whereas the modest familial risk, most strikingly demonstrated in the twin studies, is a very strong argument for an important role of lifestyle/environmental factors in determining the risk of MS, sometimes interacting with MS risk genes. Lifestyle factors and environmental exposures are harder to accurately study and quantify than genetic factors. However, it is important to identify these factors since they, as opposed to risk genes, are potentially preventable. We have reviewed the evidence for environmental factors that have been repeatedly shown to influence the risk of MS: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure habits /vitamin D status, and smoking. We have also reviewed a number of additional environmental factors, published in the past 5 years, that have been described to influence MS risk. Independent replication, preferably by a variety of methods, may give still more firm evidence for their involvement.

  3. The multiple roles of computational chemistry in fragment-based drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Richard; Barker, Oliver; Barker, John J.; Hesterkamp, Thomas; Godemann, Robert; Andersen, Ole; Fryatt, Tara; Courtney, Steve; Hallett, Dave; Whittaker, Mark

    2009-08-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) represents a change in strategy from the screening of molecules with higher molecular weights and physical properties more akin to fully drug-like compounds, to the screening of smaller, less complex molecules. This is because it has been recognised that fragment hit molecules can be efficiently grown and optimised into leads, particularly after the binding mode to the target protein has been first determined by 3D structural elucidation, e.g. by NMR or X-ray crystallography. Several studies have shown that medicinal chemistry optimisation of an already drug-like hit or lead compound can result in a final compound with too high molecular weight and lipophilicity. The evolution of a lower molecular weight fragment hit therefore represents an attractive alternative approach to optimisation as it allows better control of compound properties. Computational chemistry can play an important role both prior to a fragment screen, in producing a target focussed fragment library, and post-screening in the evolution of a drug-like molecule from a fragment hit, both with and without the available fragment-target co-complex structure. We will review many of the current developments in the area and illustrate with some recent examples from successful FBDD discovery projects that we have conducted.

  4. Role of aliskiren in cardio-renal protection and use in hypertensives with multiple risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pimenta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Pimenta1, Suzanne Oparil21Endocrine Hypertension Research Center and Clinical Center of Research Excellence in Cardiovascular Disease and Metabolic Disorders, University of Queensland School of Medicine, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAbstract: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS is an important mediator of blood pressure (BP and volume regulation in both normotensive and hypertensive persons and is a major contributor to hypertension-related target organ damage. The concept of renin inhibition for managing hypertension by blocking the RAAS pathway at its point of activation is very attractive since the renin-angiotensinogen reaction is the first and rate-limiting step in the generation of angiotensin II (Ang II. Aliskiren, the first in a new class of orally effective direct renin inhibitors (DRIs, is approved for the treatment of hypertension. It is effective in reducing BP in the general population of hypertensive patients and in special patient groups such as obese persons, and has a tolerability and safety profile similar to placebo. Aliskiren has renoprotective, cardioprotective and anti-atherosclerotic effects in animal models that appear to be independent of BP lowering. It reduces proteinuria in diabetic patients and has favorable neurohumoral effects in patients with symptomatic heart failure. Additional outcome trials are needed to establish the role of this novel class of antihypertensive medication in the therapeutic armamentarium.Keywords: hypertension, renin inhibitors, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

  5. Multiple roles for apoptosis facilitating condensation of the Drosophila ventral nerve cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Damon T; Olofsson, Birgitta

    2008-02-01

    At the end of embryogenesis, the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of Drosophila undergoes a shape change, termed condensation. During condensation the length of the VNC shortens by 25%, a process dependent on extracellular matrix deposited by hemocytes, an intact cytoskeleton of glia and neurons and neural activity. Here we show that cell death contributes to nerve cord shortening. Firstly, apoptosis occurs at the interface of the epidermis and the nerve cord where it plays a role in the separation of these two tissues. Separation precedes condensation and in conditions where separation is prevented, condensation fails. Secondly, many cells undergo apoptosis within VNC during condensation. This cell death is localized mainly to the posterior part of the nerve cord where more than half of all cell death occurs. Preventing apoptosis either in neurons or glia partially inhibits VNC shortening during condensation. Despite the importance of midline glia in axon tract development, preventing midline glia cell death results in normal hatching and adult formation. We find that undead midline glia are eliminated from the midline and become mispositioned or expelled from the nervous system. We suggest that this represent a form of pattern repair that operates to reduce the impact of the additional cells. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Emotional and behavioural resilience to multiple risk exposure in early life: the role of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Joshi, Heather; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2015-07-01

    Ecological and transactional theories link child outcomes to neighbourhood disadvantage, family poverty and adverse life events. Traditionally, these three types of risk factors have been examined independently of one another or combined into one cumulative risk index. The first approach results in poor prediction of child outcomes, and the second is not well rooted in ecological theory as it does not consider that distal risk factors (such as poverty) may indirectly impact children through proximal risk factors (such as adverse life events). In this study, we modelled simultaneously the longitudinal effects of these three risk factors on children's internalising and externalising problems, exploring the role of parenting in moderating these effects. Our sample followed 16,916 children (at ages 3, 5 and 7 years; N = 16,916; 49% girls) from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Parenting was characterised by quality of parent-child relationship, parental involvement in learning and parental discipline. Neighbourhood disadvantage, family poverty and adverse events were all simultaneously related to the trajectories of both outcomes. As expected, parenting moderated risk effects. Positive parent-child relationship, rather than greater involvement or authoritative discipline, most consistently 'buffered' risk effects. These findings suggest that a good parent-child relationship may promote young children's emotional and behavioural resilience to different types of environmental risk.

  7. Role of aliskiren in cardio-renal protection and use in hypertensives with multiple risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pimenta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Pimenta1, Suzanne Oparil21Endocrine Hypertension Research Centre and Clinical Centre of Research Excellence in Cardiovascular Disease and Metabolic Disorders, University of Queensland School of Medicine, Greenslopes Princess Alexandra Hospitals, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS is a key mediator of blood pressure (BP and volume regulation in both normotensive and hypertensive persons. Stimulation of RAAS also contributes to hypertension-related target organ damage. The renin–angiotensinogen reaction is the first and rate-limiting step in the generation of angiotensin II (Ang II and has been a target of antihypertensive drug development for decades. Aliskiren is the first in a new class of orally effective direct renin inhibitors (DRIs and is approved for the treatment of hypertension in humans. It effectively reduces BP in the general population of hypertensive patients and has a tolerability and safety profile similar to placebo. Aliskiren has favorable effects on vascular inflammation and remodeling, on neurohumoral mediators of various forms of cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, and on proteinuria in diabetic patients. Additional outcome trials are needed to establish the role of this novel class of antihypertensive medication in preventing cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality.Keywords: hypertension, renin inhibitors, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

  8. The multiple roles of titin in muscle contraction and force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Walter

    2018-01-20

    Titin is a filamentous protein spanning the half-sarcomere, with spring-like properties in the I-band region. Various structural, signaling, and mechanical functions have been associated with titin, but not all of these are fully elucidated and accepted in the scientific community. Here, I discuss the primary mechanical functions of titin, including its accepted role in passive force production, stabilization of half-sarcomeres and sarcomeres, and its controversial contribution to residual force enhancement, passive force enhancement, energetics, and work production in shortening muscle. Finally, I provide evidence that titin is a molecular spring whose stiffness changes with muscle activation and actin-myosin-based force production, suggesting a novel model of force production that, aside from actin and myosin, includes titin as a "third contractile" filament. Using this three-filament model of sarcomeres, the stability of (half-) sarcomeres, passive force enhancement, residual force enhancement, and the decrease in metabolic energy during and following eccentric contractions can be explained readily.

  9. The role of multiple partners in a digestive mutualism with a protocarnivorous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Aline Hiroko; Vasconcellos-Neto, João; Romero, Gustavo Quevedo

    2013-01-01

    ). This is the first study that demonstrates partitioning effects from multiple partners in a digestion-based mutualism. Despite most of the nitrogen being absorbed through their roots (via termites), P. bromelioides has all the attributes necessary to be considered as a carnivorous plant in the context of digestive mutualism.

  10. The role of specialist nurses in multiple sclerosis: a rapid and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Broe, S; Christopher, F; Waugh, N

    2001-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system. The cause is unknown. There are about 80-160 people with MS per 100,000 population, with twice as many women affected as men. The management of individuals with MS includes treatment of acute relapses and chronic symptoms. The care of MS patients is provided by various healthcare professionals, such as general practitioners (GPs), neurologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists and nurses. Some MS patients have access to an MS specialist nurse, although this provision varies geographically. The aim of this report is to assess the effectiveness and relative cost-effectiveness of MS specialist nurses in improving care and outcomes for patients with MS. A systematic review of the literature, involving a range of databases, was performed. Full details are described in the main report. Only one study was identified that tried to evaluate the benefit of MS specialist nurses. The study concluded that MS patients and their carers found the MS specialist nurse to be helpful, particularly in improving their knowledge of MS, ability to cope, mood and confidence about the future. GPs also reported finding the nurse to be helpful with their MS patients, and 40% of the GPs stated they would purchase the services of an MS specialist nurse if their practices became fundholding. However, there were considerable methodological weaknesses inherent in the study design, and it was unclear whether the results of the study could be extrapolated to other settings or to other MS patient groups. RESULTS - ONGOING RESEARCH: There are two ongoing research studies regarding MS specialist nurses. One of these studies involves the provision of MS nurses to several areas, but also has two control populations to allow evaluation of the health benefits of the nurses to MS patients and their carers. This study will help to fill the evidence gap. RESULTS - COSTS: The costs of providing MS specialist nurses consist of their

  11. Language Learning Enhanced by Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) and the Underlying Behavioral and Neural Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Song, Hongwen; Liu, Xiaoming; Tang, Dinghong; Chen, Yue-e; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) have increased in popularity among children, juveniles, and adults since MMORPGs’ appearance in this digital age. MMORPGs can be applied to enhancing language learning, which is drawing researchers’ attention from different fields and many studies have validated MMORPGs’ positive effect on language learning. However, there are few studies on the underlying behavioral or neural mechanism of such effect. This paper reviews the educational application of the MMORPGs based on relevant macroscopic and microscopic studies, showing that gamers’ overall language proficiency or some specific language skills can be enhanced by real-time online interaction with peers and game narratives or instructions embedded in the MMORPGs. Mechanisms underlying the educational assistant role of MMORPGs in second language learning are discussed from both behavioral and neural perspectives. We suggest that attentional bias makes gamers/learners allocate more cognitive resources toward task-related stimuli in a controlled or an automatic way. Moreover, with a moderating role played by activation of reward circuit, playing the MMORPGs may strengthen or increase functional connectivity from seed regions such as left anterior insular/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and visual word form area to other language-related brain areas. PMID:28303097

  12. The Calibration Target for the Mars 2020 SHERLOC Instrument: Multiple Science Roles for Future Manned and Unmanned Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Bhartia, R.; Beegle, L.; Burton, A.; Ross, A.; Shahar, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics & Chemicals (SHERLOC) instrument is a deep ultraviolet (UV) Raman/fluorescence instrument selected as part of the Mars 2020 rover instrument suite. SHERLOC will be mounted on the rover arm and its primary role is to identify carbonaceous species in martian samples, which may be selected for inclusion into a returnable sample cache. The SHERLOC instrument will require the use of a calibration target, and by design, multiple science roles will be addressed in the design of the target. Samples of materials used in NASA Extravehicular Mobility unit (EMU, or "space suit") manufacture have been included in the target to serve as both solid polymer calibration targets for SHERLOC instrument function, as well as for testing the resiliency of those materials under martian ambient conditions. A martian meteorite will also be included in the target to serve as a well-characterized example of a martian rock that contains trace carbonaceous material. This rock will be the first rock that we know of that has completed a round trip between planets and will therefore serve an EPO role to attract public attention to science and planetary exploration. The SHERLOC calibration target will address a wide range of NASA goals to include basic science of interest to both the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).

  13. Language Learning Enhanced by Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) and the Underlying Behavioral and Neural Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Song, Hongwen; Liu, Xiaoming; Tang, Dinghong; Chen, Yue-E; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) have increased in popularity among children, juveniles, and adults since MMORPGs' appearance in this digital age. MMORPGs can be applied to enhancing language learning, which is drawing researchers' attention from different fields and many studies have validated MMORPGs' positive effect on language learning. However, there are few studies on the underlying behavioral or neural mechanism of such effect. This paper reviews the educational application of the MMORPGs based on relevant macroscopic and microscopic studies, showing that gamers' overall language proficiency or some specific language skills can be enhanced by real-time online interaction with peers and game narratives or instructions embedded in the MMORPGs. Mechanisms underlying the educational assistant role of MMORPGs in second language learning are discussed from both behavioral and neural perspectives. We suggest that attentional bias makes gamers/learners allocate more cognitive resources toward task-related stimuli in a controlled or an automatic way. Moreover, with a moderating role played by activation of reward circuit, playing the MMORPGs may strengthen or increase functional connectivity from seed regions such as left anterior insular/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and visual word form area to other language-related brain areas.

  14. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  15. Deconstructing the symbol digit modalities test in multiple sclerosis: The role of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Viral P; Walker, Lisa A S; Feinstein, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is a sensitive measure of impaired cognition in people with MS. While the SDMT is primarily considered a test of information processing speed, other components such as visual scanning and oral-motor ability have also been linked to performance. The objective of this study was to determine the role of memory in the performance of the SDMT. Two version of a modified computerized SDMT (c-SDMT) were employed, a fixed and a variable. For each group 50 MS and 33 healthy control (HC) participants were recruited. In the fixed c-SDMT, the symbol-digit code is kept constant for the entire test whereas in the variable version, it changes eight times. Unlike the traditional SDMT which records the correct number of responses, the c-SDMT presented here measures the mean response time (in seconds) for the eight trials. MS participants were slower than HC on the fixed (p < 0.001) and variable (p = 0.005) c-SDMT. Trend analysis showed performance improvement on the fixed, but not on the variable c-SDMT in both MS and HC groups. Furthermore, immediate visual memory recall was associated with the fixed (β = -0.299, p = 0.017), but not variable (B = -0.057, p = 0.260) c-SDMT. Immediate verbal memory was not associated with either versions of the c-SDMT. Given that the fixed and variable c-SDMTs are identical in every way apart from the fixity of the code, the ability of participants to speed up responses over the course of the fixed version only points to the contribution of incidental visual memory in test performance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Gamma-Klotho exhibits multiple roles in tumor growth of human bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Shunta; Miyake, Makito; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Morizawa, Yosuke; Nakai, Yasushi; Onishi, Sayuri; Onishi, Kenta; Iida, Kota; Gotoh, Daisuke; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2018-04-13

    Alpha-Klotho (KLα) and beta-Klotho (KLβ) have recently been reported to correlate with cancer prognosis in some malignancies and we previously reported the association between KLα, KLβ, and urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB), indicating that KLβ acts as a tumor promoter. However, the association between gamma-Klotho (KLγ) and cancer prognosis remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the association between KLγ and UCB. To evaluate the effect of KLγ on human bladder cancer cell lines in vitro assays were performed. Exogenous KLγ increased the ability of human bladder cancer cells to proliferate, migrate, invade, form colonies, and provide anchorage-independent growth potential. In in vivo assays, eighteen mice bearing xenografts inoculated using UM-UC-3, were randomly divided into three groups and treated with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) by intratumoral administration once a week for four weeks. Knockdown of KLγ with siRNA led to a dramatic change in tumor growth and suggested that KLγ had effects on tumor growth, including promotion of cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, and enhancement of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. To confirm the study, human tissue samples were used and patients were divided into two groups according to KLγ expression level. High expression of KLγ was significantly associated with higher stage and grade cancer and the presence of lymphovascular invasion compared to patients with lower expression of KLγ. Our results suggest that KLγ plays an important role in tumor invasion and progression and these results may lead to the development of new therapies and diagnostic methods for UCB.

  17. Qualitative aspects of representational competence among college chemistry students: Multiple representations and their role in the understanding of ideal gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Sean Patrick

    This study examined the role of multiple representations of chemical phenomena, specifically, the temperature-pressure relationship of ideal gases, in the problem solving strategies of college chemistry students. Volunteers included students enrolled in a first semester general chemistry course at a western university. Two additional volunteers from the same university were asked to participate and serve as models of greater sophistication. One was a senior chemistry major; another was a junior science writing major. Volunteers completed an initial screening task involving multiple representations of concentration and dilution concepts. Based on the results of this screening instrument a smaller set of subjects were asked to complete a think aloud session involving multiple representations of the temperature-pressure relationship. Data consisted of the written work of the volunteers and transcripts from videotaped think aloud sessions. The data were evaluated by the researcher and two other graduate students in chemical education using a coding scheme (Kozma, Schank, Coppola, Michalchik, and Allen. 2000). This coding scheme was designed to identify essential features of representational competence and differences in uses of multiple representations. The results indicate that students tend to have a strong preference for one type of representation. Students scoring low on representational competence, as measured by the rubric, ignored important features of some representations or acknowledged them only superficially. Students scoring higher on representational competence made meaningful connections among representations. The more advanced students, those who rated highly on representational competence, tended to use their preferred representation in a heuristic manner to establish meaning for other representations. The more advanced students also reflected upon the problem at greater length before beginning work. Molecular level sketches seemed to be the most

  18. Roles sociales de la sociedad contemporánea en la película 'Multiplicity' de Harold Ramis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Fernández Cobo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiplicity (2010, dirigida por Harold Ramis, plasma en pantalla a través del motivo del doble los elementos que constituyen la crisis del sujeto y que representan al individuo bajo el signo de la disipación. Mediante un análisis temático y discursivo del motivo del doble examinamos cómo el protagonista, al intentar llevar a cabo la totalidad de los roles sociales, se ve abocada a las contradicciones más agudas de la sociedad, manifestadas, sobre todo, a nivel del cuerpo, tanto en el manifiesto simbolismo del motivo del doble como en el “terror biológico” que de forma absolutamente irónica y humorística se representa en el último clon del protagonista.

  19. Ethnic and racial socialization and self-esteem of Asian adoptees: the mediating role of multiple identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Jayashree

    2013-02-01

    Positive identity development during adolescence in general is a complex process and may pose additional challenges for adolescents adopted from a different culture. Using a web-based survey design with a sample of 100 internationally adopted Asian adolescent and young adults, the present study examined the mediating role of multiple identities (i.e., ethnic, adoptive and interpersonal ego identities) in explaining the relationship between ethnic and racial socializations, ethnic neighborhood, and self-esteem. The results showed that (a) adoptive identity mediated the influence of racial socialization on psychological well-being, and (b) ethnic affirmation mediated the influence of ethnic socialization on adoptees' well-being. This study illustrates the importance of providing supportive counseling services for adoptees who are exploring their adoptive identity. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Podocalyxin Is a Novel Polysialylated Neural Adhesion Protein with Multiple Roles in Neural Development and Synapse Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitureira, Nathalia; Andrés, Rosa; Pérez-Martínez, Esther; Martínez, Albert; Bribián, Ana; Blasi, Juan; Chelliah, Shierley; López-Doménech, Guillermo; De Castro, Fernando; Burgaya, Ferran; McNagny, Kelly; Soriano, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Neural development and plasticity are regulated by neural adhesion proteins, including the polysialylated form of NCAM (PSA-NCAM). Podocalyxin (PC) is a renal PSA-containing protein that has been reported to function as an anti-adhesin in kidney podocytes. Here we show that PC is widely expressed in neurons during neural development. Neural PC interacts with the ERM protein family, and with NHERF1/2 and RhoA/G. Experiments in vitro and phenotypic analyses of podxl-deficient mice indicate that PC is involved in neurite growth, branching and axonal fasciculation, and that PC loss-of-function reduces the number of synapses in the CNS and in the neuromuscular system. We also show that whereas some of the brain PC functions require PSA, others depend on PC per se. Our results show that PC, the second highly sialylated neural adhesion protein, plays multiple roles in neural development. PMID:20706633

  1. Techno-economic assessment and policy of gas power generation considering the role of multiple stakeholders in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jun; Zhang Xu; Xu Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the energy planning in China, within the “Twelfth Five-Year” period (2011–2015), the proportion of natural gas among primary energy consumption is expected to increase from the current 4% to 8%. In 2015, about 17 natural gas pipelines will be completed. This paper reviews the current situation of gas power generation, analyzes the main opportunities and obstacles of gas power generation development in China, and conducts a techno-economic assessment of the natural gas power generation, taking into account the role and the interaction of the multiple stakeholders in the natural gas industry chain. Taking a power plant fueled with the natural gas transported by the second West-to-East Pipeline as an example, it is found that the on-grid power price fluctuates upward with the rise of gas price and downward with the increase of annual utilization hours, and the influences of tax policies on the on-grid power price prove to be highly significant. As the analysis and calculation indicate, the environmental benefits of natural gas power generation ought to be strongly emphasized, compared with coal-fired power generation. Finally, this paper puts forward specific policy recommendations, from the perspectives of electricity price, gas price, tax, power grid dispatching, etc. - Highlights: ► Presents the opportunities and obstacles of gas power generation development in China. ► Analyzes the interactions of multiple stakeholders in the natural gas industry chain. ► Conducts a techno-economic assessment on the natural gas power generation. ► Discusses the responsibilities and risks of multiple stakeholders. ► Puts forward policy recommendations, from electricity price, gas price, tax, etc.

  2. The Role of Coping Styles in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Quality of Life of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amir Hejazi Taghanaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS show different reactions to the disease according to their personality traits, which can affect their quality of life. In this research, the mediator role of coping styles was investigated in the relationship between personality traits and quality of life in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: Of all individuals with MS, who were member of MS Society of Qom province, 170 persons were selected using probability convenient sampling. All the patients were investigated using a general questionnaire in addition to 3 international approved standard tools (including Stress Coping Styles, Quality of life, and Personality Traits questionnaires. Data analysis was performed by descriptive-analytical statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The significance level was considered as p<0.05. Results: The mean age of the patients was in the range of 18-59 years, 32.34±8.71, of whom 138 subjects (83.2% were female. In this research, there was a significant correlation between coping styles and quality of life and its dimensions in MS patients. The correlation between coping styles and personality traits, was significant. There was a significant correlation between personality traits and quality of life and its dimensions in MS patients. In this study, path analysis results proved the mediator role of coping styles in the relationship between variables of quality of life and personality traits. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, there is a significant correlation between personality traits of the individuals with MS and type of the used coping styles, which can affect the quality of life in these patients.

  3. The role of multiple ionization and subshell coupling effects in L-shell ionization of Au by oxygen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Pajek, M.; Semaniak, J.; Czyzewski, T.; Fijal, I.; Jaskola, M.; Kretschmer, W.; Mukoyama, T.; Trautmann, D.

    2002-01-01

    The ionization of L-subshell electrons in gold by the impact of 0.4-2.2 MeV amu -1 O ions was studied by observing excited Lγ(L-N, O) x-rays. We demonstrate that both the multiple ionization in outer M- and N-shells as well as the coupling effects in the L-shell play an important role in understanding the measured L-subshell ionization cross sections. The multiple ionization was found to be important in two aspects: first, the analysis of x-ray energy shifts and line broadening was crucial for proper interpretation of measured x-ray spectra; second, the additional vacancies in the M- and N-shells substantially influenced the L 1 -subshell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig (CK) yields, mainly by closing strong L 1 -L 3 M 4,5 CK transitions. The data are compared with the simplified coupled-channels calculations using the 'coupled-subshell model' (CSM) based on the semiclassical approximation (SCA), which describes both direct Coulomb ionization as well as the L-subshell couplings within the same theoretical approach. A good agreement of the present data with the theoretical predictions based on the discussed SCA-CSM approach is observed. Present findings partly explain the long-standing problem of inadequate theoretical description of L-shell ionization by heavy ion impact. (author)

  4. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Novel Entry Mechanisms and a Central Role of SRC in Host Defense during High Multiplicity Mycobacterial Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Zhang

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB infects an estimated one-third of the global population and is one of the main causes of mortality from an infectious agent. The characteristics of macrophages challenged by MTB with a high multiplicity of infection (MOI, which mimics both clinical disseminated infection and granuloma formation, are distinct from macrophages challenged with a low MOI. To better understand the cross talk between macrophage host cells and mycobacteria, we compared the transcription patterns of mouse macrophages infected with bacille Calmette-Guérin, H37Ra and M. smegmatis. Attention was focused on the changes in the abundance of transcripts related to immune system function. From the results of a transcriptome profiling study with a high mycobacterial MOI, we defined a pathogen-specific host gene expression pattern. The present study suggests that two integrins, ITGA5 and ITGAV, are novel cell surface receptors mediating mycobacterium entry into macrophages challenged with high MOI. Our results indicate that SRC likely plays a central role in regulating multiple unique signaling pathways activated by MTB infection. The integrated results increase our understanding of the molecular networks behind the host innate immune response and identify important targets that might be useful for the development of tuberculosis therapy.

  5. Characterization of the rubber tree metallothionein family reveals a role in mitigating the effects of reactive oxygen species associated with physiological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yacheng; Fang, Yongjun; Long, Xiangyu; Liu, Linya; Wang, Jia; Zhu, Jinheng; Ma, Yanyan; Qin, Yunxia; Qi, Jiyan; Hu, Xinwen; Tang, Chaorong

    2018-02-07

    Metallothioneins (MTs) as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers play important roles in stress response and heavy metal homeostasis. In Hevea brasiliensis (the para rubber tree that is the source of commercial natural rubber) and in other trees, the functions of MTs are not well understood. Latex exudes when the rubber tree is tapped. The flow of latex and its regeneration can be enhanced by tapping, wounding and ethylene treatment, all of which produce ROS as a by-product. Here, we show the presence of four MT genes in H. brasiliensis, comprising three Type 2 (HbMT2, -2a and -2b) and one Type 3 (HbMT3L) isoforms, representing one of the smallest MT gene families among angiosperms. The four HbMTs exhibited distinct tissue expression patterns: HbMT2 and HbMT3L mainly in leaves, HbMT2a specifically in flowers and HbMT2b in diverse tissues. The expression of HbMT2b, an isoform present in latex, decreased significantly in the latex following the stress-inducing treatments of tapping, wounding and ethephon (an ethylene generator). The expressions of the leaf-abundant isoforms, HbMT2 and -3L were up-regulated following pathogenic fungus infection and high-temperature stress, but down-regulated by low-temperature stress. These reactions were consistent with multiple defense- and hormone-responsive cis-acting elements in the HbMT promoters. Nine transcription factors were shown to implicate in the high-temperature responsiveness of HbMT2 and -3L in leaves. Overexpression of HbMT2 in Escherichia coli enhanced the bacterium's tolerance to heavy metals and ROS, consistent with its predicted role as an ROS scavenger. Taken together, our results, along with other relevant studies, suggest an important role of HbMTs in latex regeneration as well as species adaptation via the regulation of ROS homeostasis. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Current Understanding on the Role of Standard and Immunoproteasomes in Inflammatory/Immunological Pathways of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bellavista

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major intracellular molecular machinery for protein degradation and maintenance of protein homeostasis in most human cells. As ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a critical role in the regulation of the immune system, it might also influence the development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS. Both ex vivo analyses and animal models suggest that activity and composition of ubiquitin-proteasome system are altered in MS. Proteasome isoforms endowed of immunosubunits may affect the functionality of different cell types such as CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and B cells as well as neurons during MS development. Furthermore, the study of proteasome-related biomarkers, such as proteasome antibodies and circulating proteasomes, may represent a field of interest in MS. Proteasome inhibitors are already used as treatment for cancer and the recent development of inhibitors selective for immunoproteasome subunits may soon represent novel therapeutic approaches to the different forms of MS. In this review we describe the current knowledge on the potential role of proteasomes in MS and discuss the pro et contra of possible therapies for MS targeting proteasome isoforms.

  7. Teacher’s Autonomy Support and Engagement in Math: Multiple Mediating Roles of Self-efficacy, Intrinsic Value, and Boredom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Xu, Le; Liu, Ying; Zhen, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have highlighted the impacts of environmental factors (teacher’s autonomy support) and individual factors (self-efficacy, intrinsic value, and boredom) on academic engagement. This study aimed to investigate these variables and examine the relations among them. Three structural equation models tested the multiple mediational roles of self-efficacy, intrinsic value, and boredom in the relation between teacher’s autonomy support and behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement, respectively, in math. A total of 637 Chinese middle school students (313 males, 324 females; mean age = 14.82) voluntarily participated in this study. Results revealed that self-efficacy, intrinsic value, and boredom played important and mediating roles between perceived teacher’s autonomy support and student engagement. Specifically, these three individual variables partly mediated the relations between perceived teacher’s autonomy support and behavioral and cognitive engagement, while fully mediating the relation between perceived teacher’s autonomy support and emotional engagement. These findings complement and extend the understanding of factors affecting students’ engagement in math. PMID:28690560

  8. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Shariat, K.; Kostopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [de

  9. The role of performing life support courses in rural areas in improving pre-hospital physiologic condition of patients with penetrating injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naffisi, N.; Mohebbi, H.A.; Moharamzadeh, Y.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of animal model based medical training courses for village healthcare workers on prehospital physiologic condition and prognosis of patients with penetrating injuries. Seventy-six village healthcare workers were trained and equipped to deliver in-field medical first cares. First group (226 patients) consisted of those who received this cares by the trained group and second group (245 patients) were those who received no in-field cares and were transported directly to the trauma center in provincial capital, Ilam. Physiologic Severity Score (PSS) was calculated to determine the physiologic condition of patients in both groups. Results: The most prevalent cause of trauma in both groups was car accidents (61.6%). Controlling of hemorrhage was the most frequent provided initial medical care (40.6%). A significant improvement regarding the PSS score was observed in the first group of patients compared to the second group (7.505 vs. 6.799, 95% CI for difference: 0.3 to 0.9). The mortality rates of the first and second group of patients were 3% and 7.3%, respectively (p=0.051). Performing life support courses in rural areas of low-income countries where there is no pre-hospital triage and emergency medical system and provision of classic resuscitative measures are limited, has a significant impact on improvement of pre-hospital physiologic condition and prognosis of patients with penetrating injuries. (author)

  10. Role of executive functions in prospective memory in multiple sclerosis: Impact of the strength of cue-action association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenais, Emmanuelle; Rouleau, Isabelle; Tremblay, Alexandra; Demers, Mélanie; Roger, Élaine; Jobin, Céline; Duquette, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) often report prospective memory (PM) deficits. Although PM is important for daily functioning, it is not formally assessed in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to examine the role of executive functions in MS patients' PM revealed by the effect of strength of cue-action association on PM performance. Thirty-nine MS patients were compared to 18 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and education on a PM task modulating the strength of association between the cue and the intended action. Deficits in MS patients affecting both prospective and retrospective components of PM were confirmed using 2 × 2 × 2 mixed analyses of variance (ANOVAs). Among patients, multiple regression analyses revealed that the impairment was modulated by the efficiency of executive functions, whereas retrospective memory seemed to have little impact on PM performance, contrary to expectation. More specifically, results of 2 × 2 × 2 mixed-model analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) showed that low-executive patients had more difficulty detecting and, especially, retrieving the appropriate action when the cue and the action were unrelated, whereas high-executive patients' performance seemed to be virtually unaffected by the cue-action association. Using an objective measure, these findings confirm the presence of PM deficits in MS. They also suggest that such deficits depend on executive functioning and can be reduced when automatic PM processes are engaged through semantic cue-action association. They underscore the importance of assessing PM in clinical settings through a cognitive evaluation and offer an interesting avenue for rehabilitation.

  11. L-Amino Acids Elicit Diverse Response Patterns in Taste Sensory Cells: A Role for Multiple Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal Choudhuri, Shreoshi; Delay, Rona J.; Delay, Eugene R.

    2015-01-01

    Umami, the fifth basic taste, is elicited by the L-amino acid, glutamate. A unique characteristic of umami taste is the response potentiation by 5’ ribonucleotide monophosphates, which are also capable of eliciting an umami taste. Initial reports using human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells suggested that there is one broadly tuned receptor heterodimer, T1r1+T1r3, which detects L-glutamate and all other L-amino acids. However, there is growing evidence that multiple receptors detect glutamate in the oral cavity. While much is understood about glutamate transduction, the mechanisms for detecting the tastes of other L-amino acids are less well understood. We used calcium imaging of isolated taste sensory cells and taste cell clusters from the circumvallate and foliate papillae of C57BL/6J and T1r3 knockout mice to determine if other receptors might also be involved in detection of L-amino acids. Ratiometric imaging with Fura-2 was used to study calcium responses to monopotassium L-glutamate, L-serine, L-arginine, and L-glutamine, with and without inosine 5’ monophosphate (IMP). The results of these experiments showed that the response patterns elicited by L-amino acids varied significantly across taste sensory cells. L-amino acids other than glutamate also elicited synergistic responses in a subset of taste sensory cells. Along with its role in synergism, IMP alone elicited a response in a large number of taste sensory cells. Our data indicate that synergistic and non-synergistic responses to L-amino acids and IMP are mediated by multiple receptors or possibly a receptor complex. PMID:26110622

  12. Health-related quality of life in multiple sclerosis: role of cognitive appraisals of self, illness and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilski, Maciej; Tasiemski, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is considered an important measure of treatment and rehabilitation outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In this study, we used multivariate regression analysis to examine the role of cognitive appraisals, adjusted for clinical, socioeconomic and demographic variables, as correlates of HRQoL in MS. The cross-sectional study included 257 MS patients, who completed Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale, Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, Treatment Beliefs Scale, Actually Received Support Scale (a part of Berlin Social Support Scale) and Socioeconomic Resources Scale. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants were collected with a self-report survey. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between the variables. Five variables, illness identity (β = 0.29, p ≤ 0.001), self-esteem (β = -0.22, p ≤ 0.001), general self-efficacy (β = -0.21, p ≤ 0.001), disability subgroup "EDSS" (β = 0.14, p = 0.006) and age (β = 0.12, p = 0.012), were significant correlates of HRQoL in MS. These variables explained 46 % of variance in the dependent variable. Moreover, we identified correlates of physical and psychological dimensions of HRQoL. Cognitive appraisals, such as general self-efficacy, self-esteem and illness perception, are more salient correlates of HRQoL than social support, socioeconomic resources and clinical characteristics, such as type and duration of MS. Therefore, interventions aimed at cognitive appraisals may also improve HRQoL of MS patients.

  13. Circadian physiology of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-11-25

    A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes. Experimental animal models and epidemiological data indicate that chronic circadian rhythm disruption increases the risk of metabolic diseases. Conversely, time-restricted feeding, which imposes daily cycles of feeding and fasting without caloric reduction, sustains robust diurnal rhythms and can alleviate metabolic diseases. These findings highlight an integrative role of circadian rhythms in physiology and offer a new perspective for treating chronic diseases in which metabolic disruption is a hallmark. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. The role of appraisal and coping style in relation with societal participation in fatigued patients with multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional multiple mediator analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, L.E. van den; Beckerman, H.; Collette, E.H.; Bleijenberg, G.; Dekker, J.; Knoop, H.; Groot, V. de; Jong, B.A. de; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    To determine the relationship between appraisal and societal participation in fatigued patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and whether this relation is mediated by coping styles. 265 severely-fatigued MS patients. Appraisal, a latent construct, was created from the General Self-Efficacy Scale and

  15. The role of appraisal and coping style in relation with societal participation in fatigued patients with multiple sclerosis : a cross-sectional multiple mediator analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, Lizanne Eva; Beckerman, Heleen; Collette, Emma Hubertine; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Dekker, Joost; Knoop, Hans; de Groot, Vincent; TREFAMS-ACE study group, study group; de Groot, V.; Beckerman, H.; Malekzadeh, A.; van den Akker, L. E.; Looijmans, M.; Sanches, S. A.; Dekker, J.; Collette, E. H.; van Oosten, B. W.; Teunissen, C. E.; Blankenstein, M. A.; Eijssen, I. C J M; Rietberg, M.; Heine, M.; Verschuren, O.; Kwakkel, G.; Visser-Meily, J. M A; van de Port, I. G L; Lindeman, E.; Blikman, L. J M; van Meeteren, J.; Bussmann, J. B J; Stam, H. J.; Hintzen, R. Q.; Hacking, H. G A; Hoogervorst, E. L.; Frequin, S. T F M; Knoop, H.; de Jong, B. A.; de Laat, F. A J; Verhulsdonck, M. C.; van Munster, E. T H; Oosterwijk, C. J.; Aarts, G. J.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the relationship between appraisal and societal participation in fatigued patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and whether this relation is mediated by coping styles. 265 severely-fatigued MS patients. Appraisal, a latent construct, was created from the General Self-Efficacy Scale and

  16. Beyond anaemia management: evolving role of erythropoietin therapy in neurological disorders, multiple myeloma and tumour hypoxia models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaerts, Marc; Mittelman, Moshe; Vaupel, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) has become the standard of care in the treatment of anaemia resulting from cancer and its treatment, and chronic kidney disease. The discovery that erythropoietin and its receptor are located in regions outside the erythropoietic system has led to interest in the potential role of epoetin in other tissues, such as the central nervous system. Animal studies have shown that systemically applied epoetin can cross the blood-brain barrier, where it reduces tissue injury associated with stroke, blunt trauma and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Pilot studies in humans have shown that epoetin treatment given within 8 h of stroke reduces infarct size and results in a significantly better outcome when compared with placebo treatment. Studies also suggest that epoetin has the potential to improve cognitive impairment associated with adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with cancer. Anaemia is a major factor causing tumour hypoxia, a condition that can promote changes within neoplastic cells that further tumour survival and malignant progression and also reduces the effectiveness of several anticancer therapies including radiotherapy and oxygen-dependent cytotoxic agents. Use of epoetin to prevent or correct anaemia has the potential to reduce tumour hypoxia and improve treatment outcome. Several therapeutic studies in anaemic animals with experimental tumours have shown a beneficial effect of epoetin on delaying tumour growth. Furthermore, clinical observations in patients with multiple myeloma and animal studies have suggested that epoetin has an antimyeloma effect, mediated via the immune system through activation of CD8+ T cells. Therefore, the role of epoetin may go well beyond that of increasing haemoglobin levels in anaemic patients, although additional studies are required to confirm these promising results. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. A qualitative study of Filipina immigrants' stress, distress and coping: the impact of their multiple, transnational roles as women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straiton, Melanie L; Ledesma, Heloise Marie L; Donnelly, Tam T

    2017-09-05

    Migration is associated with a number of stress factors which can affect mental health. Ethnicity, gender and socioeconomic status can intertwine with and influence the process of migration and mental health. Philippine migration to Europe has increased in recent years and has become more feminised. Knowing more about the factors that influence immigrants' mental health and coping can help aid health care delivery and policy planning. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the contextual factors that influence the mental health of Filipinas living in Norway and their coping strategies. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen Filipinas 24-49 years, living in Norway. The analysis was informed by the post-colonial feminist perspective in order to examine the process by which gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status interact with contextual factors in these women's lives and influence their wellbeing. Data analysis revealed that all informants experienced some level of stress or distress. Two main factors: Sense of belonging and Securing a future contributed to the women's level of distress associated with living abroad as an immigrant woman. Distress was heighted by the women's multiple, transnational roles they occupied; roles as workers, breadwinners, daughters, wives and mothers. None of the women had sought professional help for their distress. Religion and informal support from friends and family appear to help these women cope with many of the challenges they face as immigrant women living and working abroad. Filipinas face a number of challenges related to their status as immigrant women and the juggling of their transnational lives. Understanding the context of these women's lives may aid the identification of mental health problems. Although the women show resilience and appear to cope successfully, some may benefit from professional help.

  18. Evaluation of the role of 8-iso-PGF levels at multiple sites during intracranial hemorrhage in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, B-X; Yao, H; Shang, L; Sheng, L-P; Wang, X-C; Zhu, L; Zhang, X-X; Wang, J-P; Fang, D-H

    2017-09-01

    The present study was planned to explore the role of 8-isomeric-prostaglandinF2α (8-iso-PGF2α) levels at the multiple sites of cerebrospinal fluid in children with intracranial hemorrhage. 90 children with intracranial hemorrhage were admitted to Surgery Intensive Care Unit (SICU) of our hospital from January to December 2013 and were selected as study subjects. They were divided into group A (n=30), group B (n=30) and group C (n=30). The group A was given conventional treatment, the group B was treated with minimally invasive puncture and the group C was treated with cerebrospinal fluid decompression. After 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, and 7 d of hospitalization, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the 8-iso-PGF2α levels in peripheral blood of children in all groups. On the day of admission and 10 d after treatment, 3 groups of children were implemented with brain nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for metabolite analyses. On the day of admission there were no significant differences in the 8-iso-PGF2α levels among group A, B and C. Further, after 1 d, 3 d, 7 d of hospital stay, the 8-iso-PGF2α levels in peripheral blood showed a gradual downward trend, and decline range of the group C was greater than that of group A and B (p iso-PGF2α in peripheral blood (r = 0.546, p iso-PGF2α plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intracranial hemorrhage, and could be utilized as a biomarker of oxidative stress in children with intracranial hemorrhage. Further, cerebrospinal fluid decompression is a better method of treatment for intracranial hemorrhage.

  19. Retraction: Nucleophagy in Human Disease: Beyond the Physiological Role. [Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2018, 244 (1), 75-81. doi: 10.1620/tjem.244.75. Review.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Retracted Review article: Nucleophagy in Human Disease: Beyond the Physiological Role. [Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2018, 244 (1), 75-81. doi: 10.1620/tjem.244.75.] The above Review article was published online on January 27, 2018. Soon after its publication (on February 1, 2018), Dr. Nian Fu and Prof. Linxi Chen informed the Editor-in-Chief, The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (TJEM), about serious violation of publication ethics. Indeed, Dr. Nian Fu and Prof. Linxi Chen were astonished to find their names as coauthors of this Review article, because they were not involved in the submission process of this Review article and they do not know any of other coauthors. In addition, the Review article is similar to their unpublished manuscript. After a thorough investigation in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the Editor-in-Chief of TJEM decided to retract this Review article. The reasons for Retraction are summarized below: forged authors and an unexpected case of plagiarism. Forged authors: Dr. Nian Fu and Prof. Linxi Chen were added as co-authors of the Review article without their knowledge. In fact, the signature provided by Prof. Linxi Chen is apparently different from the signature of a coauthor, named Linxi Chen, on the AUTHORS’ RESPONSIBILITY FORM, provided by the corresponding author of the Review article. More critically, the signature provided by Dr. Nian Fu is completely different from the signature of Nian Fu, because the Chinese characters are different between the two signatures. In addition, the replies from three authors (Ming Zhou, Hongwen Ji and Yong Xia) clearly indicate that they misunderstand the identity of Dr. Nina Fu. We also attempted to contact two authors, named Nian Fu and Linxi Chen, via e-mail. As expected, the forged authors did not respond to our inquiries, despite that their e-mail addresses appear to be active. An unexpected case of plagiarism: This Review article is similar to the

  20. Role of BMI and age in predicting pathologic vertebral fractures in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lun; Liu, Yao-Chung; Wu, Chia-Hung; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chiu, Hsun-I; Lee, Gin-Yi; Lee, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Pei; Lin, Ting-Wei; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2018-04-01

    Vertebral fractures affect approximately 30% of myeloma patients and lead to a poor impact on survival and life quality. In general, age and body mass index (BMI) are reported to have an important role in vertebral fractures. However, the triangle relationship among age, BMI, and vertebral fractures is still unclear in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients. This study recruited consecutive 394 patients with NDMM at Taipei Veterans General Hospital between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2015. Risk factors for vertebral fractures in NDMM patients were collected and analyzed. The survival curves were demonstrated using Kaplan-Meier estimate. In total, 301 (76.4%) NDMM patients were enrolled in the cohort. In the median follow-up period of 18.0 months, the median survival duration in those with vertebral fractures ≥ 2 was shorter than those with vertebral fracture BMI BMI ≥ 24.0 kg/m 2 (adjusted RR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.44-5.43). In multivariable logistic regression, BMI BMI ≥ 24.0 kg/m 2 (adjusted OR, 6.05; 95% CI, 2.43-15.08). Among age stratifications, patients with both old age and low BMI were at a greater risk suffering from increased vertebral fractures, especially in patients > 75 years and BMI BMI. Elder patients with low BMI should consider to routinely receive spinal radiographic examinations and regular follow-up. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Deletion of GLUT1 and GLUT3 Reveals Multiple Roles for Glucose Metabolism in Platelet and Megakaryocyte Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor P. Fidler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anucleate platelets circulate in the blood to facilitate thrombosis and diverse immune functions. Platelet activation leading to clot formation correlates with increased glycogenolysis, glucose uptake, glucose oxidation, and lactic acid production. Simultaneous deletion of glucose transporter (GLUT 1 and GLUT3 (double knockout [DKO] specifically in platelets completely abolished glucose uptake. In DKO platelets, mitochondrial oxidative metabolism of non-glycolytic substrates, such as glutamate, increased. Thrombosis and platelet activation were decreased through impairment at multiple activation nodes, including Ca2+ signaling, degranulation, and integrin activation. DKO mice developed thrombocytopenia, secondary to impaired pro-platelet formation from megakaryocytes, and increased platelet clearance resulting from cytosolic calcium overload and calpain activation. Systemic treatment with oligomycin, inhibiting mitochondrial metabolism, induced rapid clearance of platelets, with circulating counts dropping to zero in DKO mice, but not wild-type mice, demonstrating an essential role for energy metabolism in platelet viability. Thus, substrate metabolism is essential for platelet production, activation, and survival.

  2. The Role of the Gut Microbiome in Multiple Sclerosis Risk and Progression: Towards Characterization of the "MS Microbiome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröbstel, Anne-Katrin; Baranzini, Sergio E

    2018-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the prototypic complex disease, in which both genes and the environment contribute to its pathogenesis. To date, > 200 independent loci across the genome have been associated with MS risk. However, these only explain a fraction of the total phenotypic variance, suggesting the possible presence of additional genetic factors, and, most likely, also environmental factors. New DNA sequencing technologies have enabled the sequencing of all kinds of microorganisms, including those living in and around humans (i.e., microbiomes). The study of bacterial populations inhabiting the gut is of particular interest in autoimmune diseases owing to their key role in shaping immune responses. In this review, we address the potential crosstalk between B cells and the gut microbiota, a relevant scenario in light of recently approved anti-B-cell therapies for MS. In addition, we review recent efforts to characterize the gut microbiome in patients with MS and discuss potential challenges and future opportunities. Finally, we describe the international MS microbiome study, a multicenter effort to study a large population of patients with MS and their healthy household partners to define the core MS microbiome, how it is shaped by disease-modifying therapies, and to explore potential therapeutic interventions.

  3. Multiple roles of the extracellular vestibule amino acid residues in the function of the rat P2X4 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos B Rokic

    Full Text Available The binding of ATP to trimeric P2X receptors (P2XR causes an enlargement of the receptor extracellular vestibule, leading to opening of the cation-selective transmembrane pore, but specific roles of vestibule amino acid residues in receptor activation have not been evaluated systematically. In this study, alanine or cysteine scanning mutagenesis of V47-V61 and F324-N338 sequences of rat P2X4R revealed that V49, Y54, Q55, F324, and G325 mutants were poorly responsive to ATP and trafficking was only affected by the V49 mutation. The Y54F and Y54W mutations, but not the Y54L mutation, rescued receptor function, suggesting that an aromatic residue is important at this position. Furthermore, the Y54A and Y54C receptor function was partially rescued by ivermectin, a positive allosteric modulator of P2X4R, suggesting a rightward shift in the potency of ATP to activate P2X4R. The Q55T, Q55N, Q55E, and Q55K mutations resulted in non-responsive receptors and only the Q55E mutant was ivermectin-sensitive. The F324L, F324Y, and F324W mutations also rescued receptor function partially or completely, ivermectin action on channel gating was preserved in all mutants, and changes in ATP responsiveness correlated with the hydrophobicity and side chain volume of the substituent. The G325P mutant had a normal response to ATP, suggesting that G325 is a flexible hinge. A topological analysis revealed that the G325 and F324 residues disrupt a β-sheet upon ATP binding. These results indicate multiple roles of the extracellular vestibule amino acid residues in the P2X4R function: the V49 residue is important for receptor trafficking to plasma membrane, the Y54 and Q55 residues play a critical role in channel gating and the F324 and G325 residues are critical for vestibule widening.

  4. The role of performing life support courses in rural areas in improving pre-hospital physiologic conditions of patients with penetrating injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Masoud Saghafi; Naffisi, Nahid; Mohebbi, Hassan Ali; Moharamzadeh, Yashar

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of animal model based medical training courses for village healthcare workers on prehospital physiologic condition and prognosis of patients with penetrating injuries. Experimental study. This study was carried out in Mehran city and its neighbouring rural districts in western part of Iran from 2002 to 2004. Seventy-six village healthcare workers were trained and equipped to deliver in-field medical first cares. First group (226 patients) consisted of those who received this cares by the trained group and second group (245 patients) were those who received no in-field cares and were transported directly to the trauma center in provincial capital, Ilam. Physiologic Severity Score (PSS) was calculated to determine the physiologic condition of patients in both groups. The most prevalent cause of trauma in both groups was car accidents (61.6%). Controlling of hemorrhage was the most frequent provided initial medical care (40.6%). A significant improvement regarding the PSS score was observed in the first group of patients compared to the second group (7.505 vs. 6.799, 95% CI for difference: 0.3 to 0.9). The mortality rates of the first and second group of patients were 3% and 7.3%, respectively (p=0.051). Performing life support courses in rural areas of low-income countries where there is no pre-hospital triage and emergency medical system and provision of classic resuscitative measures are limited, has a significant impact on improvement of pre-hospital physiologic condition and prognosis of patients with penetrating injuries.

  5. Does conflict between home and work explain the effect of multiple roles on mental health? A comparative study of Finland, Japan, and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandola, Tarani; Martikainen, Pekka; Bartley, Mel; Lahelma, Eero; Marmot, Michael; Michikazu, Sekine; Nasermoaddeli, Ali; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2004-08-01

    Although there have been a number of studies on the effects of multiple roles on health and how a combination of work and family roles may be either advantageous (role enhancement) or disadvantageous (role strain) for health, there has been relatively little investigation on the psychosocial content of such roles. Work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict could arise from inability to combine multiple roles and result in stress and ill health. The question of whether both types of conflict mediate between the association of multiple roles with health has not been analysed before. This paper sets out to investigate whether: (1) work-to-family conflict or family-to-work conflict contributes towards explaining the association of multiple roles with mental health; (2) the effect of work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict on mental health varies by gender; (3) the effect of work-to-family and family-to-work conflict on mental health vary between countries with different welfare state arrangements and social norms. Cross-sectional data of economically active male and female public sector employees aged 35-60 in London (UK), Helsinki (Finland), and the West Coast of Japan. Linear regression models (separate for each gender and cohort) of SF-36 mental component scores were analysed with role combinations, family-to-work and work-to-family conflict as explanatory variables. Single fathers in all three cohorts and of single mothers in the Helsinki cohort had poor mental health, and this was partly explained by their higher levels family-to-work conflict. Both types of conflict affect the mental health of men and women independently of each other. Japanese women had the greatest conflict and poorest mental health while Helsinki women had the lowest conflict and best mental health. Both work-to-family and family-to-work conflict affect the mental health of men and women in three different countries. Work and family roles and the balance between the two

  6. Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Feedback, D. L.; Feiverson, A. H.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts, S. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J.; Spiering, B. A.;