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Sample records for multiple physiological characterizations

  1. Physiological and molecular characterization of cowpea [Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diaga Diouf

    Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. presents phenotypical variabilities and in order to study the genetic diversity of cultivated Senegalese varieties, two experimental approaches were used. First, a physiological characterization based on nitrogen fixation was used to assess cowpea breeding lines. Inoculation with two ...

  2. Multiple regression for physiological data analysis: the problem of multicollinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinker, B K; Glantz, S A

    1985-07-01

    Multiple linear regression, in which several predictor variables are related to a response variable, is a powerful statistical tool for gaining quantitative insight into complex in vivo physiological systems. For these insights to be correct, all predictor variables must be uncorrelated. However, in many physiological experiments the predictor variables cannot be precisely controlled and thus change in parallel (i.e., they are highly correlated). There is a redundancy of information about the response, a situation called multicollinearity, that leads to numerical problems in estimating the parameters in regression equations; the parameters are often of incorrect magnitude or sign or have large standard errors. Although multicollinearity can be avoided with good experimental design, not all interesting physiological questions can be studied without encountering multicollinearity. In these cases various ad hoc procedures have been proposed to mitigate multicollinearity. Although many of these procedures are controversial, they can be helpful in applying multiple linear regression to some physiological problems.

  3. Towards Integration of Biological and Physiological Functions at Multiple Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taishin eNomura

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An aim of systems physiology today can be stated as to establish logical and quantitative bridges between phenomenological attributes of physiological entities such as cells and organs and physical attributes of biological entities, i.e., biological molecules, allowing us to describe and better understand physiological functions in terms of underlying biological functions. This article illustrates possible schema that can be used for promoting systems physiology by integrating quantitative knowledge of biological and physiological functions at multiple levels of time and space with the use of information technology infrastructure. Emphasis will be made for systematic, modular, hierarchical, and standardized descriptions of mathematical models of the functions and advantages for the use of them.

  4. Physiologically guided approach to characterizing respiratory motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Benjamin M.; Lamb, James M.; Low, Daniel A.; Zhao, Tianyu; Bradley, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 and Type 2 patients was found to be statistically significant at the 1% significance level. Three patients did not display a breathing stability curve that could be classified as Type 1 or Type 2 due to chaotic breathing patterns. These patients were classified as Type 3 patients. Conclusions: Based on an observed volume-flow curve pattern, the cohort of 50 patients was divided into three categories called Type 1, Type 2, and Type 3. There were statistically significant differences in breathing characteristics between Type 1 and Type 2 patients. The use of volume-flow curves to classify patients has been demonstrated as a physiological characterization metric that has the potential to optimize gating windows in radiation therapy

  5. Flexible carbon nanotube nanocomposite sensor for multiple physiological parameter monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2016-10-16

    The paper presents the design, development, and fabrication of a flexible and wearable sensor based on carbon nanotube nanocomposite for monitoring specific physiological parameters. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as the substrate with a thin layer of a nanocomposite comprising functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and PDMS as electrodes. The sensor patch functionalized on strain-sensitive capacitive sensing from interdigitated electrodes which were patterned with a laser on the nanocomposite layer. The thickness of the electrode layer was optimized regarding strain and conductivity. The sensor patch was connected to a monitoring device from one end and attached to the body on the other for examining purposes. Experimental results show the capability of the sensor patch used to detect respiration and limb movements. This work is a stepping stone of the sensing system to be developed for multiple physiological parameters.

  6. Flexible carbon nanotube nanocomposite sensor for multiple physiological parameter monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the design, development, and fabrication of a flexible and wearable sensor based on carbon nanotube nanocomposite for monitoring specific physiological parameters. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as the substrate with a thin layer of a nanocomposite comprising functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and PDMS as electrodes. The sensor patch functionalized on strain-sensitive capacitive sensing from interdigitated electrodes which were patterned with a laser on the nanocomposite layer. The thickness of the electrode layer was optimized regarding strain and conductivity. The sensor patch was connected to a monitoring device from one end and attached to the body on the other for examining purposes. Experimental results show the capability of the sensor patch used to detect respiration and limb movements. This work is a stepping stone of the sensing system to be developed for multiple physiological parameters.

  7. Noninvasive optical monitoring multiple physiological parameters response to cytokine storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zebin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Cancer and other disease originated by immune or genetic problems have become a main cause of death. Gene/cell therapy is a highlighted potential method for the treatment of these diseases. However, during the treatment, it always causes cytokine storm, which probably trigger acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. Here we developed a point-of-care device for noninvasive monitoring cytokine storm induced multiple physiological parameters simultaneously. Oxy-hemoglobin, deoxy-hemoglobin, water concentration and deep-tissue/tumor temperature variations were simultaneously measured by extended near infrared spectroscopy. Detection algorithms of symptoms such as shock, edema, deep-tissue fever and tissue fibrosis were developed and included. Based on these measurements, modeling of patient tolerance and cytokine storm intensity were carried out. This custom device was tested on patients experiencing cytokine storm in intensive care unit. The preliminary data indicated the potential of our device in popular and milestone gene/cell therapy, especially, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell immunotherapy (CAR-T).

  8. Physiological characterization of common fungi associated with cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haasum, Iben; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    A multivariate statistical method (PLS) was used for a physiological characterization of fungi associated with the cheese environment. The combined effects of pH, salt content, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels on growth and sporulation were studied. Significant factors affecting growth were salt...... may aid in eliminating unwanted fungal growth during cheese production....

  9. Controversial constitutive TSHR activity: patients, physiology, and in vitro characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, S; Jaeschke, H; Schaarschmidt, J; Paschke, R

    2014-06-01

    G protein-coupled receptors constitute a large family of transmembrane receptors, which activate cellular responses by signal transmission and regulation of second messenger metabolism after ligand binding. For several of these receptors it is known that they also signal ligand-independently. The G protein-coupled thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is characterized by a high level of constitutive activity in the wild type state. However, little is known yet concerning the physiological relevance of the constitutive wild type TSHR activity. Certainly, knowledge of the physiological relevance of constitutive wild type receptor activity is necessary to better understand thyroid physiology and it is a prerequisite for the development of better therapies for nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Based on a literature search regarding all published TSHR mutations, this review covers several mutations which are clearly associated with a hyperthyroidism-phenotype, but interestingly show a lack of constitutive activity determined by in vitro characterization. Possible reasons for the observed discrepancies between clinical phenotypes and in vitro characterization results for constitutive TSHR activity are reviewed. All current in vitro characterization methods for constitutive TSHR mutations are "preliminary attempts" and may well be revised by more comprehensive and even better approaches. However, a standardized approach for the determination of constitutive activity can help to identify TSHR mutations for which the investigation of additional signaling mechanisms would be most interesting to find explanations for the current clinical phenotype/in vitro discrepancies and thereby also define suitable methods to explore the physiological relevance of constitutive wild type TSHR activity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The hypocretins/orexins: integrators of multiple physiological functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingcheng; Hu, Zhian; Lecea, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The hypocretins (Hcrts), also known as orexins, are two peptides derived from a single precursor produced in the posterior lateral hypothalamus. Over the past decade, the orexin system has been associated with numerous physiological functions, including sleep/arousal, energy homeostasis, endocrine, visceral functions and pathological states, such as narcolepsy and drug abuse. Here, we review the discovery of Hcrt/orexins and their receptors and propose a hypothesis as to how the orexin system orchestrates these multifaceted physiological functions. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Orexin Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-2 PMID:24102345

  11. TAM receptors regulate multiple features of microglial physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourgeaud, Lawrence; Través, Paqui G; Tufail, Yusuf; Leal-Bailey, Humberto; Lew, Erin D; Burrola, Patrick G; Callaway, Perri; Zagórska, Anna; Rothlin, Carla V; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Lemke, Greg

    2016-04-14

    Microglia are damage sensors for the central nervous system (CNS), and the phagocytes responsible for routine non-inflammatory clearance of dead brain cells. Here we show that the TAM receptor tyrosine kinases Mer and Axl regulate these microglial functions. We find that adult mice deficient in microglial Mer and Axl exhibit a marked accumulation of apoptotic cells specifically in neurogenic regions of the CNS, and that microglial phagocytosis of the apoptotic cells generated during adult neurogenesis is normally driven by both TAM receptor ligands Gas6 and protein S. Using live two-photon imaging, we demonstrate that the microglial response to brain damage is also TAM-regulated, as TAM-deficient microglia display reduced process motility and delayed convergence to sites of injury. Finally, we show that microglial expression of Axl is prominently upregulated in the inflammatory environment that develops in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Together, these results establish TAM receptors as both controllers of microglial physiology and potential targets for therapeutic intervention in CNS disease.

  12. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of an In Silico Cell Physiology lab for Bio Sensing Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, A ul; Rokkam, M; De Carlo, A R; Wereley, S T; Wells, H W; McLamb, W T; Roux, S J; Irazoqui, P P; Porterfield, D M

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report the design, fabrication and characterization of an In Silico cell physiology biochip for measuring Ca 2+ ion concentrations and currents around single cells. This device has been designed around specific science objectives of measuring real time multidimensional calcium flux patterns around sixteen Ceratopteris richardii fern spores in microgravity flight experiments and ground studies. The sixteen microfluidic cell holding pores are 150 by 150 μm each and have 4 Ag/AgCl electrodes leading into them. An SU-8 structural layer is used for insulation and packaging purposes. The In Silico cell physiology lab is wire bonded on to a custom PCB for easy interface with a state of the art data acquisition system. The electrodes are coated with a Ca 2+ ion selective membrane based on ETH-5234 ionophore and operated against an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Initial characterization results have shown Nernst slopes of 30mv/decade that were stable over a number of measurement cycles. While this work is focused on technology to enable basic research on the Ceratopteris richardii spores, we anticipate that this type of cell physiology lab-on-a-chip will be broadly applied in biomedical and pharmacological research by making minor modifications to the electrode material and the measurement technique. Future applications include detection of glucose, hormones such as plant auxin, as well as multiple analyte detection on the same chip

  13. Synthesis, characterization and physiological activity of some novel isoxazoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NITIN G. GHODILE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hushare VJ, Rajput PR, Malpani MO, Ghodile NG. 2012. Synthesis, characterization and physiological activity of some novel isoxazoles. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 81-85. A series of chlorosubstituted 4-aroylisoxazoles have been synthesized by refluxing chlorosubstituted-3-aroylflavones and 3-alkoylchromone with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in dioxane medium containing 0.5 mL piperidine. Chlorosubstituted-3-aroylflavones and chlorosubstituted-3-alkoylchromone were prepared by refluxing them separately with iodine crystal in ethanol. Initially chlorosubstituted-3-aroylflavanones and 3-alkoylchromanone were prepared by the interaction of different aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes with 1-(2’-hydroxy-3’,5’-dichlorophenyl-3-phenyl-1,3-propanedione. Constitutions of synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of elemental analysis, molecular weight determination, UV-Visible, I.R. and 1H-NMR spectral data. The titled compounds were evaluated for their growth promoting activity on some flowering plants viz. Papaver rhoeas, Calendula officinalise, Gladiola tristis, Gaillardia aristata, Dianthus chinensis, and Iberis sp. (candytuft. The results indicate that applicated plants had higher shoots and more number of leaves.

  14. Morpho-physiological characterization of Indian wheat genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-14

    May 14, 2014 ... Key words: Wheat, morphological parameters, physiological growth attributes, proline. INTRODUCTION ... few years, climatic conditions have been drastically changed and ..... Poster presented in the XXVIIIth Meeting of the.

  15. Bayesian Population Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK Approach for a Physiologically Realistic Characterization of Interindividual Variability in Clinically Relevant Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Krauss

    Full Text Available Interindividual variability in anatomical and physiological properties results in significant differences in drug pharmacokinetics. The consideration of such pharmacokinetic variability supports optimal drug efficacy and safety for each single individual, e.g. by identification of individual-specific dosings. One clear objective in clinical drug development is therefore a thorough characterization of the physiological sources of interindividual variability. In this work, we present a Bayesian population physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK approach for the mechanistically and physiologically realistic identification of interindividual variability. The consideration of a generic and highly detailed mechanistic PBPK model structure enables the integration of large amounts of prior physiological knowledge, which is then updated with new experimental data in a Bayesian framework. A covariate model integrates known relationships of physiological parameters to age, gender and body height. We further provide a framework for estimation of the a posteriori parameter dependency structure at the population level. The approach is demonstrated considering a cohort of healthy individuals and theophylline as an application example. The variability and co-variability of physiological parameters are specified within the population; respectively. Significant correlations are identified between population parameters and are applied for individual- and population-specific visual predictive checks of the pharmacokinetic behavior, which leads to improved results compared to present population approaches. In the future, the integration of a generic PBPK model into an hierarchical approach allows for extrapolations to other populations or drugs, while the Bayesian paradigm allows for an iterative application of the approach and thereby a continuous updating of physiological knowledge with new data. This will facilitate decision making e.g. from preclinical to

  16. Assessing interactions among multiple physiological systems during walking outside a laboratory: An Android based gait monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejdić, E.; Millecamps, A.; Teoli, J.; Rothfuss, M. A.; Franconi, N. G.; Perera, S.; Jones, A. K.; Brach, J. S.; Mickle, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Gait function is traditionally assessed using well-lit, unobstructed walkways with minimal distractions. In patients with subclinical physiological abnormalities, these conditions may not provide enough stress on their ability to adapt to walking. The introduction of challenging walking conditions in gait can induce responses in physiological systems in addition to the locomotor system. There is a need for a device that is capable of monitoring multiple physiological systems in various walking conditions. To address this need, an Android-based gait-monitoring device was developed that enabled the recording of a patient's physiological systems during walking. The gait-monitoring device was tested during self-regulated overground walking sessions of fifteen healthy subjects that included 6 females and 9 males aged 18 to 35 years. The gait-monitoring device measures the patient's stride interval, acceleration, electrocardiogram, skin conductance and respiratory rate. The data is stored on an Android phone and is analyzed offline through the extraction of features in the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. The analysis of the data depicted multisystem physiological interactions during overground walking in healthy subjects. These interactions included locomotion-electrodermal, locomotion-respiratory and cardiolocomotion couplings. The current results depicting strong interactions between the locomotion system and the other considered systems (i.e., electrodermal, respiratory and cardivascular systems) warrant further investigation into multisystem interactions during walking, particularly in challenging walking conditions with older adults. PMID:26390946

  17. Physiological Characterization of Fungal Inoculum for Biotechnological Remediation of Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Ballaminut

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the bioremediating potential of Lentinus crinitus CCIBt2611 according to the physiological condition of the inoculum. Inoculum was prepared using sugarcane ground husk (C:N 90, at several physiological ages and applied in soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol. The inoculum's potential was assessed by evaluating the mycelium's vigor at soil's colonization, determination of peroxidase and phenoloxidase activities, in vitro degradation of Remazol Brilliant Blue R and in vivo degradation of pentachlorophenol. The results showed that the assessed parameters were relevant to identify the quality of the inoculum. For L. crinitus, 10 day old inoculum showed good soil-colonization speed with significant enzymatic activities, indicating the role of Manganese-dependent peroxidase and laccase in degradation, and efficient degradation of pentachlorophenol.

  18. Characterization of Gladiolus Germplasm Using Morphological, Physiological, and Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niraj; Pal, Ashish K; Roy, R K; Tewari, S K; Tamta, Sushma; Rana, T S

    2018-04-01

    Estimation of variability and genetic relationships among breeding materials is one of the important strategies in crop improvement programs. Morphological (plant height, spike length, a number of florets/spike), physiological (chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and rapid light curve parameters) and Directed amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD) markers were used to investigate the relationships among 50 Gladiolus cultivars. Cluster analysis based on morphological data, physiological characteristics, molecular markers, and cumulative data discriminated all cultivars into seven, five, seven, and six clusters in the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram, respectively. The results of the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) also supported UPGMA clustering. Variations among the Gladiolus cultivars at phenotypic level could be due to the changes in physiology, environmental conditions, and genetic variability. DAMD analysis using 10 primers produced 120 polymorphic bands with 80% polymorphism showing polymorphic information content (PIC = 0.28), Marker index (MI = 3.37), Nei's gene diversity (h = 0.267), and Shannon's information index (I = 0.407). Plant height showed a positive significant correlation with Spike length and Number of florets/spike (r = 0.729, p < 0.001 and r = 0.448, p = 0.001 respectively). Whereas, Spike length showed positive significant correlation with Number of florets/spike (r = 0.688, p < 0.001) and Chlorophyll content showed positive significant correlation with Electron transport rate (r = 0.863, p < 0.001). Based on significant morphological variations, high physiological performance, high genetic variability, and genetic distances between cultivars, we have been able to identify diverse cultivars of Gladiolus that could be the potential source as breeding material for further genetic improvement in this ornamental crop.

  19. Physiological characterization of Enterococcus faecalis during azoreductase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Punj, Sumit; John, Gilbert H.

    2011-01-01

    Azo dyes are widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, paper, and textile industries. Some azo dyes are known to produce carcinogenic compounds upon reductive cleavage of the azo bond (N=N) by intestinal flora. There is not much information available on the effect of these dyes on the physiology of the gut microflora as well as their kinetics of reduction in different environments. The azoreductase activity of Enterococcus faecalis, an important opportunistic intestinal pathogen, was tested us...

  20. FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A MULTIPLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Vitamin C, was incorporated into the inner aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water ... Multiple emulsion was prepared by two step method. ... that there was no significant change (p > 0.05) in globule sizes in most of the samples ... advantages of prolonged release of active agent, incorporation of incompatible materials and.

  1. Multiple subfailures characterize blunt aortic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Brasel, Karen J

    2007-05-01

    Blunt aortic injuries result from rapid deceleration of the thorax as may occur during automotive impacts and falls from extreme heights. Pathological findings can range from failure of specific vessel layers to immediate vessel wall rupture. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the sequence of local structural events that may lead to aortic wall disruption. Fourteen porcine aorta specimens were opened to expose the intima and longitudinally distracted until rupture. Longitudinal mechanics were quantified and subfailures were identified. Histology was used to examine internal layer subfailure. Videography demonstrated that subfailures propagated into complete vessel wall rupture. Subfailures occurred before complete vessel rupture in 93% of specimens. Intimal and medial subfailures were present at 74% of the stress and 82% of the strain to rupture. Multiple subfailures were evident in 79% of specimens. Present results supported the clinical theory that nonimmediate death as a result of blunt aortic injury is commonly caused by propagation of lesser lesions, initiating on the intimal layer, into complete vessel rupture including the adventitial layer. This finding, along with histologic evidence of subfailure pathological findings, confirms the presence of an acute window during which recognition and initiation of permissive hypotension may be lifesaving.

  2. Flow cytometric fingerprinting for microbial strain discrimination and physiological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysschaert, Benjamin; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; De Baets, Bernard; Boon, Nico

    2018-02-01

    The analysis of microbial populations is fundamental, not only for developing a deeper understanding of microbial communities but also for their engineering in biotechnological applications. Many methods have been developed to study their characteristics and over the last few decades, molecular analysis tools, such as DNA sequencing, have been used with considerable success to identify the composition of microbial populations. Recently, flow cytometric fingerprinting is emerging as a promising and powerful method to analyze bacterial populations. So far, these methods have primarily been used to observe shifts in the composition of microbial communities of natural samples. In this article, we apply a flow cytometric fingerprinting method to discriminate among 29 Lactobacillus strains. Our results indicate that it is possible to discriminate among 27 Lactobacillus strains by staining with SYBR green I and that the discriminatory power can be increased by combined SYBR green I and propidium iodide staining. Furthermore, we illustrate the impact of physiological changes on the fingerprinting method by demonstrating how flow cytometric fingerprinting is able to discriminate the different growth phases of a microbial culture. The sensitivity of the method is assessed by its ability to detect changes in the relative abundance of a mix of polystyrene beads down to 1.2%. When a mix of bacteria was used, the sensitivity was as between 1.2% and 5%. The presented data demonstrate that flow cytometric fingerprinting is a sensitive and reproducible technique with the potential to be applied as a method for the dereplication of bacterial isolates. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  3. The benefit of self-testing and interleaving for synthesizing concepts across multiple physiology texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderholm, Tracy; Dobson, John; Yarbrough, Mary Beth

    2016-09-01

    A testing-based learning strategy is one that relies on the act of recalling (i.e., testing) information after exposure, and interleaving is a strategy in which the learning materials are presented in a serial order (e.g., texts 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3) versus a blocked order (e.g., texts 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3). Although both learning strategies have been thoroughly investigated, few studies have examined their additive effect with higher-order cognitive tasks such as the ability to identify themes across multiple texts, and none of those did so using physiology information. The purpose of the present study was to compare recall and thematic processing across five different physiology texts. Participants were randomly assigned to learn the texts using one of the following four learning strategies: 1) study-study-study (S-S-S) using a blocked order, 2) S-S-S using an interleaved order, 3) study-test-study (S-T-S) using a blocked order, and 4) S-T-S using an interleaved order. Over the course of the following week, the S-T-S groups had more stable recall of key text ideas compared with the S-S-S groups, and the S-T-S group had more stable recall of thematic information than the S-S-S group when interleaving was used as the presentation order. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  4. Life under Multiple Extreme Conditions: Diversity and Physiology of the Halophilic Alkalithermophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegel, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Around the world, there are numerous alkaline, hypersaline environments that are heated either geothermally or through intense solar radiation. It was once thought that such harsh environments were inhospitable and incapable of supporting a variety of life. However, numerous culture-dependent and -independent studies revealed the presence of an extensive diversity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and archaea that survive and grow under these multiple harsh conditions. This diversity includes the halophilic alkalithermophiles, a novel group of polyextremophiles that require for growth and proliferation the multiple extremes of high salinity, alkaline pH, and elevated temperature. Life under these conditions undoubtedly involves the development of unique physiological characteristics, phenotypic properties, and adaptive mechanisms that enable control of membrane permeability, control of intracellular osmotic balance, and stability of the cell wall, intracellular proteins, and other cellular constituents. This minireview highlights the ecology and growth characteristics of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles that have been isolated thus far. Biochemical, metabolic, and physiological properties of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles are described, and their roles in resistance to the combined stressors of high salinity, alkaline pH, and high temperature are discussed. The isolation of halophilic alkalithermophiles broadens the physicochemical boundaries for life and extends the boundaries for the combinations of the maximum salinity, pH, and temperature that can support microbial growth. PMID:22492435

  5. Physiological and molecular characterization of genetic competence in Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, A M; Callahan, J E; Fawcett, P; Ge, X; Xu, P; Kitten, T

    2011-04-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a major component of the oral flora and an important cause of infective endocarditis. Although S. sanguinis is naturally competent, genome sequencing has suggested significant differences in the S. sanguinis competence system relative to those of other streptococci. An S. sanguinis mutant possessing an in-frame deletion in the comC gene, which encodes competence-stimulating peptide (CSP), was created. Addition of synthetic CSP induced competence in this strain. Gene expression in this strain was monitored by microarray analysis at multiple time-points from 2.5 to 30 min after CSP addition, and verified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Over 200 genes were identified whose expression was altered at least two-fold in at least one time point, with the majority upregulated. The 'late' response was typical of that seen in previous studies. However, comparison of the 'early' response in S. sanguinis with that of other oral streptococci revealed unexpected differences with regard to the number of genes induced, the nature of those genes, and their putative upstream regulatory sequences. Streptococcus sanguinis possesses a comparatively limited early response, which may define a minimal streptococcal competence regulatory circuit. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Characterization of esophageal physiology using mechanical state analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Eduard Leibbrandt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The esophagus functions to transport swallowed fluids and food from the pharynx to the stomach. The esophageal muscles governing bolus transport comprise circular striated muscle of the proximal esophagus and circular smooth muscle of the distal esophagus. Longitudinal smooth muscle contraction provides a mechanical advantage to bolus transit during circular smooth muscle contraction. Esophageal striated muscle is directly controlled by neural circuits originating in the central nervous system, resulting in coordinated contractions. In contrast, the esophageal smooth muscle is controlled by enteric circuits modulated by extrinsic central neural connections resulting in neural relaxation and contraction. The esophageal muscles are modulated by sensory information arising from within the lumen. Contraction or relaxation, which changes the diameter of the lumen, alters the intraluminal pressure and ultimately inhibits or promotes flow of content. This relationship that exists between the changes in diameter and concurrent changes in intraluminal pressure has been used previously to identify the ‘mechanical states’ of the circular muscle; that is when the muscles are passively or actively, relaxing or contracting. Detecting these changes in the mechanical state of the muscle has been difficult and, as the current interpretation of esophageal motility is based largely upon pressure measurement (manometry, subtle changes in the muscle function during peristalsis can be missed. We hypothesized that quantification of mechanical states of the esophageal circular muscles and the pressure-diameter properties that define them, would allow objective characterization of the mechanisms that govern esophageal peristalsis. To achieve this we analyzed barium swallows captured by simultaneous videofluoroscopy and pressure with impedance recording. From these data we demonstrated that intraluminal impedance measurements could be used to determine changes in the

  7. Characterization of Esophageal Physiology Using Mechanical State Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibbrandt, Richard E; Dinning, Phil G; Costa, Marcello; Cock, Charles; Wiklendt, Lukasz; Wang, Guangsong; Tack, Jan; van Beckevoort, Dirk; Rommel, Nathalie; Omari, Taher I

    2016-01-01

    The esophagus functions to transport swallowed fluids and food from the pharynx to the stomach. The esophageal muscles governing bolus transport comprise circular striated muscle of the proximal esophagus and circular smooth muscle of the distal esophagus. Longitudinal smooth muscle contraction provides a mechanical advantage to bolus transit during circular smooth muscle contraction. Esophageal striated muscle is directly controlled by neural circuits originating in the central nervous system, resulting in coordinated contractions. In contrast, the esophageal smooth muscle is controlled by enteric circuits modulated by extrinsic central neural connections resulting in neural relaxation and contraction. The esophageal muscles are modulated by sensory information arising from within the lumen. Contraction or relaxation, which changes the diameter of the lumen, alters the intraluminal pressure and ultimately inhibits or promotes flow of content. This relationship that exists between the changes in diameter and concurrent changes in intraluminal pressure has been used previously to identify the "mechanical states" of the circular muscle; that is when the muscles are passively or actively, relaxing or contracting. Detecting these changes in the mechanical state of the muscle has been difficult and as the current interpretation of esophageal motility is based largely upon pressure measurement (manometry), subtle changes in the muscle function during peristalsis can be missed. We hypothesized that quantification of mechanical states of the esophageal circular muscles and the pressure-diameter properties that define them, would allow objective characterization of the mechanisms that govern esophageal peristalsis. To achieve this we analyzed barium swallows captured by simultaneous videofluoroscopy and pressure with impedance recording. From these data we demonstrated that intraluminal impedance measurements could be used to determine changes in the internal diameter of

  8. Exercise and multiple sclerosis: physiological, psychological, and quality of life issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, G; Andersen, M B

    2001-12-01

    The case for the benefits of physical activity has been well documented in healthy individuals, and the potential for reducing the risk of mental and physical ill health is substantial. Yet, individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) have long been advised to avoid participation in exercise in order to minimise the risk of exacerbations and symptoms of fatigue. There is, however, increasing interest in how acute and chronic exercise affect physiological and psychological functioning in MS. Much of the research has examined physiological tolerance to exercise and focused on responses in terms of heart rate, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle function, and symptom stability. Little research has focused on understanding how exercise affects psychosocial functioning and brings about changes in depression, affect, mood, well-being, and quality of life. This paper provides a summary of the research exploring the efficacy of physical activity for people with MS. In addition, the key issues that face clinical practice are examined, and considerations for research are discussed.

  9. [Construction and analysis of a monitoring system with remote real-time multiple physiological parameters based on cloud computing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingyun; Li, Lianjie; Meng, Chunyan

    2014-12-01

    There have been problems in the existing multiple physiological parameter real-time monitoring system, such as insufficient server capacity for physiological data storage and analysis so that data consistency can not be guaranteed, poor performance in real-time, and other issues caused by the growing scale of data. We therefore pro posed a new solution which was with multiple physiological parameters and could calculate clustered background data storage and processing based on cloud computing. Through our studies, a batch processing for longitudinal analysis of patients' historical data was introduced. The process included the resource virtualization of IaaS layer for cloud platform, the construction of real-time computing platform of PaaS layer, the reception and analysis of data stream of SaaS layer, and the bottleneck problem of multi-parameter data transmission, etc. The results were to achieve in real-time physiological information transmission, storage and analysis of a large amount of data. The simulation test results showed that the remote multiple physiological parameter monitoring system based on cloud platform had obvious advantages in processing time and load balancing over the traditional server model. This architecture solved the problems including long turnaround time, poor performance of real-time analysis, lack of extensibility and other issues, which exist in the traditional remote medical services. Technical support was provided in order to facilitate a "wearable wireless sensor plus mobile wireless transmission plus cloud computing service" mode moving towards home health monitoring for multiple physiological parameter wireless monitoring.

  10. Characterizing interdependencies of multiple time series theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hosoya, Yuzo; Takimoto, Taro; Kinoshita, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces academic researchers and professionals to the basic concepts and methods for characterizing interdependencies of multiple time series in the frequency domain. Detecting causal directions between a pair of time series and the extent of their effects, as well as testing the non existence of a feedback relation between them, have constituted major focal points in multiple time series analysis since Granger introduced the celebrated definition of causality in view of prediction improvement. Causality analysis has since been widely applied in many disciplines. Although most analyses are conducted from the perspective of the time domain, a frequency domain method introduced in this book sheds new light on another aspect that disentangles the interdependencies between multiple time series in terms of long-term or short-term effects, quantitatively characterizing them. The frequency domain method includes the Granger noncausality test as a special case. Chapters 2 and 3 of the book introduce an i...

  11. The barley anion channel, HvALMT1, has multiple roles in guard cell physiology and grain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Muyun; Gruber, Benjamin D; Delhaize, Emmanuel; White, Rosemary G; James, Richard A; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Ryan, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene HvALMT1 encodes an anion channel in guard cells and in certain root tissues indicating that it may perform multiple roles. The protein localizes to the plasma membrane and facilitates malate efflux from cells when constitutively expressed in barley plants and Xenopus oocytes. This study investigated the function of HvALMT1 further by identifying its tissue-specific expression and by generating and characterizing RNAi lines with reduced HvALMT1 expression. We show that transgenic plants with 18-30% of wild-type HvALMT1 expression had impaired guard cell function. They maintained higher stomatal conductance in low light intensity and lost water more rapidly from excised leaves than the null segregant control plants. Tissue-specific expression of HvALMT1 was investigated in developing grain and during germination using transgenic barley lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the HvALMT1 promoter. We found that HvALMT1 is expressed in the nucellar projection, the aleurone layer and the scutellum of developing barley grain. Malate release measured from isolated aleurone layers prepared from imbibed grain was significantly lower in the RNAi barley plants compared with control plants. These data provide molecular and physiological evidence that HvALMT1 functions in guard cells, in grain development and during germination. We propose that HvALMT1 releases malate and perhaps other anions from guard cells to promote stomatal closure. The likely roles of HvALMT1 during seed development and grain germination are also discussed. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  12. Identification and characterization of contrasting sunflower genotypes to early leaf senescence process combining molecular and physiological studies (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gialdi, A I; Moschen, S; Villán, C S; López Fernández, M P; Maldonado, S; Paniego, N; Heinz, R A; Fernandez, P

    2016-09-01

    Leaf senescence is a complex mechanism ruled by multiple genetic and environmental variables that affect crop yields. It is the last stage in leaf development, is characterized by an active decline in photosynthetic rate, nutrients recycling and cell death. The aim of this work was to identify contrasting sunflower inbred lines differing in leaf senescence and to deepen the study of this process in sunflower. Ten sunflower genotypes, previously selected by physiological analysis from 150 inbred genotypes, were evaluated under field conditions through physiological, cytological and molecular analysis. The physiological measurement allowed the identification of two contrasting senescence inbred lines, R453 and B481-6, with an increase in yield in the senescence delayed genotype. These findings were confirmed by cytological and molecular analysis using TUNEL, genomic DNA gel electrophoresis, flow sorting and gene expression analysis by qPCR. These results allowed the selection of the two most promising contrasting genotypes, which enables future studies and the identification of new biomarkers associated to early senescence in sunflower. In addition, they allowed the tuning of cytological techniques for a non-model species and its integration with molecular variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of dynamic physiology of the bladder by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhijia; Keng, Kerri; Pan, Rubin; Ren, Hugang; Du, Congwu; Kim, Jason; Pan, Yingtian

    2012-03-01

    Because of its high spatial resolution and noninvasive imaging capabilities, optical coherence tomography has been used to characterize the morphological details of various biological tissues including urinary bladder and to diagnose their alternations (e.g., cancers). In addition to static morphology, the dynamic features of tissue morphology can provide important information that can be used to diagnose the physiological and functional characteristics of biological tissues. Here, we present the imaging studies based on optical coherence tomography to characterize motion related physiology and functions of rat bladder detrusor muscles and compared the results with traditional biomechanical measurements. Our results suggest that optical coherence tomography is capable of providing quantitative evaluation of contractile functions of intact bladder (without removing bladder epithelium and connective tissue), which is potentially of more clinical relevance for future clinical diagnosis - if incorporated with cystoscopic optical coherence tomography.

  14. Characterizing lentic freshwater fish assemblages using multiple sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jesse R.; Quist, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing fish assemblages in lentic ecosystems is difficult, and multiple sampling methods are almost always necessary to gain reliable estimates of indices such as species richness. However, most research focused on lentic fish sampling methodology has targeted recreationally important species, and little to no information is available regarding the influence of multiple methods and timing (i.e., temporal variation) on characterizing entire fish assemblages. Therefore, six lakes and impoundments (48–1,557 ha surface area) were sampled seasonally with seven gear types to evaluate the combined influence of sampling methods and timing on the number of species and individuals sampled. Probabilities of detection for species indicated strong selectivities and seasonal trends that provide guidance on optimal seasons to use gears when targeting multiple species. The evaluation of species richness and number of individuals sampled using multiple gear combinations demonstrated that appreciable benefits over relatively few gears (e.g., to four) used in optimal seasons were not present. Specifically, over 90 % of the species encountered with all gear types and season combinations (N = 19) from six lakes and reservoirs were sampled with nighttime boat electrofishing in the fall and benthic trawling, modified-fyke, and mini-fyke netting during the summer. Our results indicated that the characterization of lentic fish assemblages was highly influenced by the selection of sampling gears and seasons, but did not appear to be influenced by waterbody type (i.e., natural lake, impoundment). The standardization of data collected with multiple methods and seasons to account for bias is imperative to monitoring of lentic ecosystems and will provide researchers with increased reliability in their interpretations and decisions made using information on lentic fish assemblages.

  15. Molecular biophysics: detection and characterization of damage in molecular, cellular, and physiological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danyluk, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    This section contains summaries of research on the detection and characterization of damage in molecular, cellular, and physiological systems. Projects under investigation in this section include: chemical synthesis of nucleic acid derivatives; structural and conformational properties of biological molecules in solution; crystallographic and chemical studies of immunoglobulin structure; instrument design and development for x-ray and neutron scattering studies of biological molecules; and chromobiology and circadian regulation

  16. Relationship Between Physiological and Perceived Fall Risk in People With Multiple Sclerosis: Implications for Assessment and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Hilary; Cameron, Michelle; Hoang, Phu; Lord, Stephen; Shaw, Steve; Freeman, Jennifer

    2018-04-24

    This study evaluated the relationship between physiological and perceived fall risk in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Secondary analysis of data from prospective cohort studies undertaken in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Community. Ambulatory people with MS (N=416) (age 51.5±12.0 years; 73% female; 62% relapsing-remitting MS; 13.7±9.9 years disease duration). Not applicable. All participants completed measures of physiological (Physiological Profile Assessment [PPA]) and perceived (Falls Efficacy Scale-international [FESi]) fall risk and prospectively recorded falls for 3 months. 155 (37%) of the participants were recurrent fallers (≥2 falls). Mean PPA and FESi scores were high (PPA 2.14±1.87, FESi 34.27±11.18). The PPA and the FESi independently predicted faller classification in logistic regression, which indicated that the odds of being classified as a recurrent faller significantly increased with increasing scores (PPA odds ratio [OR] 1.30 [95% CI 1.17-1.46], FESi OR 1.05 [95% CI 1.03-1.07]). Classification and regression tree analysis divided the sample into four groups based on cutoff values for the PPA: (1) low physiological/low perceived risk (PPA 27.5), (3) high physiological/low perceived risk (PPA >2.83, FESi 35.5). Over 50% of participants had a disparity between perceived and physiological fall risk; most were in group 2. It is possible that physiological risk factors not detected by the PPA may also be influential. This study highlights the importance of considering both physiological and perceived fall risk in MS and the need for further research to explore the complex interrelationships of perceptual and physiological risk factors in this population. This study also supports the importance of developing behavioral and physical interventions that can be tailored to the individual's needs. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB/PK) model for multiple exposure routes for soman in multiple species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweeney, R.E.; Langenberg, J.P.; Maxwell, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB/PK) model has been developed in advanced computer simulation language (ACSL) to describe blood and tissue concentration-time profiles of the C(±)P(-) stereoisomers of soman after inhalation, subcutaneous and intravenous exposures at low (0.8-1.0 × LD50),

  18. Physiological characterization of the SynCardia total artificial heart in a mock circulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Jessica R; DeCook, Katrina J; Tran, Phat L; Smith, Richard G; Larson, Douglas F; Khalpey, Zain I; Burkhoff, Daniel; Slepian, Marvin J

    2015-01-01

    The SynCardia total artificial heart (TAH) has emerged as an effective, life-saving biventricular replacement system for a wide variety of patients with end-stage heart failure. Although the clinical performance of the TAH is established, modern physiological characterization, in terms of elastance behavior and pressure-volume (PV) characterization has not been defined. Herein, we examine the TAH in terms of elastance using a nonejecting left ventricle, and then characterize the PV relation of the TAH by varying preload and afterload parameters using a Donovan Mock Circulatory System. We demonstrate that the TAH does not operate with time-varying elastance, differing from the human heart. Furthermore, we show that the TAH has a PV relation behavior that also differs from that of the human heart. The TAH does exhibit Starling-like behavior, with output increasing via preload-dependent mechanisms, without reliance on an alteration of inotropic state within the operating window of the TAH. Within our testing range, the TAH is insensitive to variations in afterload; however, this insensitivity has a limit, the limit being the maximum driving pressure of the pneumatic driver. Understanding the physiology of the TAH affords insight into the functional parameters that govern artificial heart behavior providing perspective on differences compared with the human heart.

  19. A female sex offender with multiple paraphilias: a psychologic, physiologic (laboratory sexual arousal) and endocrine case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Swaminath, S; Baxter, D; Poulin, C

    1990-05-01

    A 20 year old female pedophile exhibiting multiple paraphilias and who had been both a victim of incest and an active participant, undertook extensive clinical, psychometric, endocrine and laboratory sexual arousal studies. Her psychiatric, psychometric and physiologic arousal profiles showed similarities to those of a sizable proportion of male child molesters, especially incestors. It is suggested that laboratory arousal tests (using the vaginal photoplethysmograph) may have a role in the assessment of some female sex offenders.

  20. Physiological and biochemical characterization of Azospirillum brasilense strains commonly used as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Luciana P; Silva, Esdras; Teixeira, Kátia R S; Cote, Rosalba Esquivel; Pereyra, M Alejandra; García de Salamone, Inés E

    2014-12-01

    Azospirillum is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) genus vastly studied and utilized as agriculture inoculants. Isolation of new strains under different environmental conditions allows the access to the genetic diversity and improves the success of inoculation procedures. Historically, the isolation of this genus has been performed by the use of some traditional culture media. In this work we characterized the physiology and biochemistry of five different A. brasilense strains, commonly used as cereal inoculants. The aim of this work is to contribute to pose into revision some concepts concerning the most used protocols to isolate and characterize this bacterium. We characterized their growth in different traditional and non-traditional culture media, evaluated some PGPR mechanisms and characterized their profiles of fatty acid methyl esters and carbon-source utilization. This work shows, for the first time, differences in both profiles, and ACC deaminase activity of A. brasilense strains. Also, we show unexpected results obtained in some of the evaluated culture media. Results obtained here and an exhaustive knowledge revision revealed that it is not appropriate to conclude about bacterial species without analyzing several strains. Also, it is necessary to continue developing studies and laboratory techniques to improve the isolation and characterization protocols. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Detection and Characterization of Circulating Tumour Cells in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangxuan Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM remains an incurable disease despite recent therapeutic improvements. The ability to detect and characterize MM circulating tumour cells (CTCs in peripheral blood provides an alternative to replace or augment invasive bone marrow (BM biopsies with a simple blood draw, providing real-time, clinically relevant information leading to improved disease manage‐ ment and therapy selection. Here we have developed and qualified an enrichment-free, cell-based immunofluores‐ cence MM CTC assay that utilizes an automated digital pathology algorithm to distinguish MM CTCs from white blood cells (WBCs on the basis of CD138 and CD45 expression levels, as well as a number of morphological parameters. These MM CTCs were further characterized for expression of phospho-ribosomal protein S6 (pS6 as a readout for PI3K/AKT pathway activation. Clinical feasi‐ bility of the assay was established by testing blood samples from a small cohort of patients, where we detected popu‐ lations of both CD138pos and CD138neg MM CTCs. In this study, we developed an immunofluorescent cell-based assay to detect and characterize CTCs in MM.

  2. Detection and Characterization of Circulating Tumour Cells in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangxuan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM remains an incurable disease despite recent therapeutic improvements. The ability to detect and characterize MM circulating tumour cells (CTCs in peripheral blood provides an alternative to replace or augment invasive bone marrow (BM biopsies with a simple blood draw, providing real-time, clinically relevant information leading to improved disease management and therapy selection. Here we have developed and qualified an enrichment-free, cell-based immunofluorescence MM CTC assay that utilizes an automated digital pathology algorithm to distinguish MM CTCs from white blood cells (WBCs on the basis of CD138 and CD45 expression levels, as well as a number of morphological parameters. These MM CTCs were further characterized for expression of phospho-ribosomal protein S6 (pS6 as a readout for PI3K/AKT pathway activation. Clinical feasibility of the assay was established by testing blood samples from a small cohort of patients, where we detected populations of both CD138 pos and CD138 neg MM CTCs. In this study, we developed an immunofluorescent cell-based assay to detect and characterize CTCs in MM.

  3. Physiology-based modelling approaches to characterize fish habitat suitability: Their usefulness and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, Lorna R.; Marras, Stefano; Peck, Myron A.; Domenici, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Models are useful tools for predicting the impact of global change on species distribution and abundance. As ectotherms, fish are being challenged to adapt or track changes in their environment, either in time through a phenological shift or in space by a biogeographic shift. Past modelling efforts have largely been based on correlative Species Distribution Models, which use known occurrences of species across landscapes of interest to define sets of conditions under which species are likely to maintain populations. The practical advantages of this correlative approach are its simplicity and the flexibility in terms of data requirements. However, effective conservation management requires models that make projections beyond the range of available data. One way to deal with such an extrapolation is to use a mechanistic approach based on physiological processes underlying climate change effects on organisms. Here we illustrate two approaches for developing physiology-based models to characterize fish habitat suitability. (i) Aerobic Scope Models (ASM) are based on the relationship between environmental factors and aerobic scope (defined as the difference between maximum and standard (basal) metabolism). This approach is based on experimental data collected by using a number of treatments that allow a function to be derived to predict aerobic metabolic scope from the stressor/environmental factor(s). This function is then integrated with environmental (oceanographic) data of current and future scenarios. For any given species, this approach allows habitat suitability maps to be generated at various spatiotemporal scales. The strength of the ASM approach relies on the estimate of relative performance when comparing, for example, different locations or different species. (ii) Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) models are based on first principles including the idea that metabolism is organised in the same way within all animals. The (standard) DEB model aims to describe

  4. Characterization of the Lung Parenchyma Using Ultrasound Multiple Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Kaustav; Blackwell, John; Egan, Thomas; Muller, Marie

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the study described here was to showcase the application of ultrasound to quantitative characterization of the micro-architecture of the lung parenchyma to predict the extent of pulmonary edema. The lung parenchyma is a highly complex and diffusive medium for which ultrasound techniques have remained qualitative. The approach presented here is based on ultrasound multiple scattering and exploits the complexity of ultrasound propagation in the lung structure. The experimental setup consisted of a linear transducer array with an 8-MHz central frequency placed in contact with the lung surface. The diffusion constant D and transport mean free path L* of the lung parenchyma were estimated by separating the incoherent and coherent intensities in the near field and measuring the growth of the incoherent diffusive halo over time. Significant differences were observed between the L* values obtained in healthy and edematous rat lungs in vivo. In the control rat lung, L* was found to be 332 μm (±48.8 μm), whereas in the edematous lung, it was 1040 μm (±90 μm). The reproducibility of the measurements of L* and D was tested in vivo and in phantoms made of melamine sponge with varying air volume fractions. Two-dimensional finite difference time domain numerical simulations were carried out on rabbit lung histology images with varying degrees of lung collapse. Significant correlations were observed between air volume fraction and L* in simulation (r = -0.9542, p lung in which edema was simulated by adding phosphate-buffered saline revealed a linear relationship between the fluid volume fraction and L*. These results illustrate the potential of methods based on ultrasound multiple scattering for the quantitative characterization of the lung parenchyma. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Morpho-physiological and mineral nutrient characterization of 45 collected Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Alam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine, evaluation and characterization of the morphological, physiological as well as mineral nutrient vitiations among all forty five purslane accessions collected from different locations of West Peninsular, Malaysia. Significant differences (p<0.05 were observed for all those traits measured regarding morphological, physiological and mineral composition. Morphological traits viz. plant height varied between 20.06-40.8 cm; number of main branch, 1.4-4.4; number of nodes, 8.4-31; internode distance, 2.1-3.43 cm; stem diameter, 2.12-3.8 mm; number of leaves, 97-1019; leaf area, 1.03-2.21 cm², number of flowers, 14-826.8; root length, 5.09-11.7 cm; fresh weight, 40-280 g; and dry weight varied between 2.71-29.16 g. Among physiological traits, total chlorophyll content varied between 26.2-39.52 (SPAD value, net photosynthesis, 20.8-28.73 µmol CO2/m²/sec; stomatal conductance, 0.02-0.28 cm/sec; transpiration rate, 0.46-2.48 mol/m²/sec; and water vapor deficit varied between 0.51-2.65 mol H2O/m²/sec. Analysis of mineral macro and micro nutrient compositions showed that all accessions contained appreciable amount of essential nutrients. Among the macro nutrient elements; N, P, K, Ca and Mg contents ranged respectively between 31.2-100, 2.51-8.2, 78.4-276, 9.1-62.2 and 8.7-32.55 ppm. Whereas micro nutrient elements; Zn, Fe and Mn ranged respectively between 0.31-1.09; 1.01-13.09 and 0.06-1.32 ppm. This great variability among the purslane accessions may contribute enhancing the genetic improvement of the species for desired traits.

  6. Isolation and Physiological Characterization of Psychrophilic Denitrifying Bacteria from Permanently Cold Arctic Fjord Sediments (Svalbard, Norway)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canion, Andy; Prakash, Om; Green, Stefan J.; Jahnke, Linda; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Kostka, Joel E.

    2013-01-01

    A large proportion of reactive nitrogen loss from polar sediments is mediated by denitrification, but microorganisms mediating denitrification in polar environments remain poorly characterized. A combined approach of most-probable-number (MPN) enumeration, cultivation and physiological characterization was used to describe psychrophilic denitrifying bacterial communities in sediments of three Arctic fjords in Svalbard (Norway). A MPN assay showed the presence of 10(sup 3)-10(sup 6) cells of psychrophilic nitrate-respiring bacteria g(sup -1) of sediment. Fifteen strains within the Proteobacteria were isolated using a systematic enrichment approach with organic acids as electron donors and nitrate as an electron acceptor. Isolates belonged to five genera, including Shewanella, Pseudomonas, Psychromonas (Gammaproteobacteria), Arcobacter (Epsilonproteobacteria) and Herminiimonas (Betaproteobacteria). All isolates were denitrifiers, except Shewanella, which exhibited the capacity for dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). Growth from 0 to 40 degC demonstrated that all genera except Shewanella were psychrophiles with optimal growth below 15 degC, and adaptation to low temperature was demonstrated as a shift from primarily C16:0 saturated fatty acids to C16:1 monounsaturated fatty acids at lower temperatures. This study provides the first targeted enrichment and characterization of psychrophilic denitrifying bacteria from polar sediments, and two genera, Arcobacter and Herminiimonas, are isolated for the first time from permanently cold marine sediments.

  7. Physiological and Molecular Characterization of Cephaleuros virescens Occurring in Mango Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Camila Vilela; Pereira, Fabíola Teodoro; Duarte, Elizabeth Amélia Alves; de Oliveira, Thiago Alves Santos; Peixoto, Nei; Carvalho, Daniel Diego Costa

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this work was to accomplish the isolation, molecular identification and characterizing the physiology of the causal agent of the algal spot in mango trees. For this purpose, the pathogen growth was assessed in different culture media, with subsequent observation and measurements of the filamentous cells. The molecular identification was made using mycelium obtained from leaf lesions and pure algae colonies grown in culture medium. Descriptions based on DNA sequencing indicated that the algae is Cephaleuros virescens . The algae must be isolated primarily in liquid medium for further pricking into agar medium. The highest mycelial growth average in Petri dishes occurred when the algae were grown in Trebouxia and BBM. Trebouxia enabled larger cells in the filamentous cells when compared to other culture media.

  8. Molecular clocks and the human condition: approaching their characterization in human physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, G A; Yang, G; Paschos, G K; Liang, X; Skarke, C

    2015-09-01

    Molecular clockworks knit together diverse biological networks and compelling evidence from model systems infers their importance in metabolism, immunological and cardiovascular function. Despite this and the diurnal variation in many aspects of human physiology and the phenotypic expression of disease, our understanding of the role and importance of clock function and dysfunction in humans is modest. There are tantalizing hints of connection across the translational divide and some correlative evidence of gene variation and human disease but most of what we know derives from forced desynchrony protocols in controlled environments. We now have the ability to monitor quantitatively ex vivo or in vivo the genome, metabolome, proteome and microbiome of humans in the wild. Combining this capability, with the power of mobile telephony and the evolution of remote sensing, affords a new opportunity for deep phenotyping, including the characterization of diurnal behaviour and the assessment of the impact of the clock on approved drug function. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Multiple Days of Heat Exposure on Firefighters' Work Performance and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rod; Vincent, Grace; Tran, Jacqueline; Wolkow, Alexander; Aisbett, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the accumulated effect of ambient heat on the performance of, and physiological and perceptual responses to, intermittent, simulated wildfire fighting tasks over three consecutive days. Firefighters (n = 36) were matched and allocated to either the CON (19°C) or HOT (33°C) condition. They performed three days of intermittent, self-paced simulated firefighting work, interspersed with physiological testing. Task repetitions were counted (and converted to distance or area) to determine work performance. Participants were asked to rate their perceived exertion and thermal sensation after each task. Heart rate, core temperature (Tc), and skin temperature (Tsk) were recorded continuously throughout the simulation. Fluids were consumed ad libitum. Urine volume was measured throughout, and urine specific gravity (USG) analysed, to estimate hydration. All food and fluid consumption was recorded. There was no difference in work output between experimental conditions. However, significant variation in performance responses between individuals was observed. All measures of thermal stress were elevated in the HOT, with core and skin temperature reaching, on average, 0.24 ± 0.08°C and 2.81 ± 0.20°C higher than the CON group. Participants' doubled their fluid intake in the HOT condition, and this was reflected in the USG scores, where the HOT participants reported significantly lower values. Heart rate was comparable between conditions at nearly all time points, however the peak heart rate reached each circuit was 7 ± 3% higher in the CON trial. Likewise, RPE was slightly elevated in the CON trial for the majority of tasks. Participants' work output was comparable between the CON and HOT conditions, however the performance change over time varied significantly between individuals. It is likely that the increased fluid replacement in the heat, in concert with frequent rest breaks and task rotation, assisted with the regulation of physiological responses

  10. Multiple Days of Heat Exposure on Firefighters’ Work Performance and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rod; Vincent, Grace; Tran, Jacqueline; Wolkow, Alexander; Aisbett, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the accumulated effect of ambient heat on the performance of, and physiological and perceptual responses to, intermittent, simulated wildfire fighting tasks over three consecutive days. Firefighters (n = 36) were matched and allocated to either the CON (19°C) or HOT (33°C) condition. They performed three days of intermittent, self-paced simulated firefighting work, interspersed with physiological testing. Task repetitions were counted (and converted to distance or area) to determine work performance. Participants were asked to rate their perceived exertion and thermal sensation after each task. Heart rate, core temperature (Tc), and skin temperature (Tsk) were recorded continuously throughout the simulation. Fluids were consumed ad libitum. Urine volume was measured throughout, and urine specific gravity (USG) analysed, to estimate hydration. All food and fluid consumption was recorded. There was no difference in work output between experimental conditions. However, significant variation in performance responses between individuals was observed. All measures of thermal stress were elevated in the HOT, with core and skin temperature reaching, on average, 0.24 ± 0.08°C and 2.81 ± 0.20°C higher than the CON group. Participants’ doubled their fluid intake in the HOT condition, and this was reflected in the USG scores, where the HOT participants reported significantly lower values. Heart rate was comparable between conditions at nearly all time points, however the peak heart rate reached each circuit was 7 ± 3% higher in the CON trial. Likewise, RPE was slightly elevated in the CON trial for the majority of tasks. Participants’ work output was comparable between the CON and HOT conditions, however the performance change over time varied significantly between individuals. It is likely that the increased fluid replacement in the heat, in concert with frequent rest breaks and task rotation, assisted with the regulation of physiological

  11. Multiple Days of Heat Exposure on Firefighters' Work Performance and Physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Larsen

    Full Text Available This study assessed the accumulated effect of ambient heat on the performance of, and physiological and perceptual responses to, intermittent, simulated wildfire fighting tasks over three consecutive days. Firefighters (n = 36 were matched and allocated to either the CON (19°C or HOT (33°C condition. They performed three days of intermittent, self-paced simulated firefighting work, interspersed with physiological testing. Task repetitions were counted (and converted to distance or area to determine work performance. Participants were asked to rate their perceived exertion and thermal sensation after each task. Heart rate, core temperature (Tc, and skin temperature (Tsk were recorded continuously throughout the simulation. Fluids were consumed ad libitum. Urine volume was measured throughout, and urine specific gravity (USG analysed, to estimate hydration. All food and fluid consumption was recorded. There was no difference in work output between experimental conditions. However, significant variation in performance responses between individuals was observed. All measures of thermal stress were elevated in the HOT, with core and skin temperature reaching, on average, 0.24 ± 0.08°C and 2.81 ± 0.20°C higher than the CON group. Participants' doubled their fluid intake in the HOT condition, and this was reflected in the USG scores, where the HOT participants reported significantly lower values. Heart rate was comparable between conditions at nearly all time points, however the peak heart rate reached each circuit was 7 ± 3% higher in the CON trial. Likewise, RPE was slightly elevated in the CON trial for the majority of tasks. Participants' work output was comparable between the CON and HOT conditions, however the performance change over time varied significantly between individuals. It is likely that the increased fluid replacement in the heat, in concert with frequent rest breaks and task rotation, assisted with the regulation of

  12. a New Approach to Physiologic Triggering in Medical Imaging Using Multiple Heart Sounds Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groch, Mark Walter

    A new method for physiological synchronization of medical image acquisition using both the first and second heart sound has been developed. Heart sounds gating (HSG) circuitry has been developed which identifies, individually, both the first (S1) and second (S2) heart sounds from their timing relationship alone, and provides two synchronization points during the cardiac cycle. Identification of first and second heart sounds from their timing relationship alone and application to medical imaging has, heretofore, not been performed in radiology or nuclear medicine. The heart sounds are obtained as conditioned analog signals from a piezoelectric transducer microphone placed on the patient's chest. The timing relationships between the S1 to S2 pulses and the S2 to S1 pulses are determined using a logic scheme capable of distinguishing the S1 and S2 pulses from the heart sounds themselves, using their timing relationships, and the assumption that initially the S1-S2 interval will be shorter than the S2-S1 interval. Digital logic circuitry is utilized to continually track the timing intervals and extend the S1/S2 identification to heart rates up to 200 beats per minute (where the S1-S2 interval is not shorter than the S2-S1 interval). Clinically, first heart sound gating may be performed to assess the systolic ejection portion of the cardiac cycle, with S2 gating utilized for reproduction of the diastolic filling portion of the cycle. One application of HSG used for physiologic synchronization is in multigated blood pool (MGBP) imaging in nuclear medicine. Heart sounds gating has been applied to twenty patients who underwent analysis of ventricular function in Nuclear Medicine, and compared to conventional ECG gated MGBP. Left ventricular ejection fractions calculated from MGBP studies using a S1 and a S2 heart sound trigger correlated well with conventional ECG gated acquisitions in patients adequately gated by HSG and ECG. Heart sounds gating provided superior

  13. Physiological Correlates of Multiple Parasitic Infections in Side-Blotched Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Austin R; Durso, Andrew M; Smith, Geoffrey D; Skinner, Heather M; French, Susannah S

    We investigated the presence of ectoparasites and hemoparasites in side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) across a large part of their range and measured how parasitic infection related to several key physiological indicators of health. Blood samples were collected from 132 lizards from central Arizona, southern Utah, and eastern Oregon. Hemoparasites were found in 22 individuals (3.2% prevalence in Arizona, 19.1% in Utah, and 6.3% in Oregon), and ectoparasites were found on 51 individuals (56.3% prevalence in Arizona, 56.1% in Utah, and 6.7% in Oregon), with 11 individuals infected with both. Hemoparasites and ectoparasites were found in all three states. Immunocompetence was higher in individuals infected with both hemoparasites and ectoparasites. Body condition, glucocorticoid levels, and reproductive investment were not related to infection status. Our study provides evidence that parasitic infection is associated with an active immune system in wild reptiles but may not impose other costs usually associated with parasites.

  14. The interactive effects of multiple stressors on physiological stress responses and club cell investment in fathead minnows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manek, Aditya K.; Ferrari, Maud C.O.; Niyogi, Som; Chivers, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have dramatically increased over the past decades, with the consequence that many organisms are simultaneously exposed to multiple stressors. Understanding how organisms respond to these stressors is a key focus for scientists from many disciplines. Here we investigated the interactive effects of two stressors, UV radiation (UVR) and cadmium (Cd) exposure on a common freshwater fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). UVR is known to influence the density of epidermal club cells (ECCs), which are not only a key component of the innate immune system of fishes, but are also the source of chemical alarm cues that serve to warn other fishes of nearby predators. In contrast, Cd impairs the physiological stress response and ability of fish to respond to alarm cues. We used an integrative approach to examine physiological stress response as well as investment in ECCs. Fish exposed to UVR had higher levels of cortisol than non-exposed controls, but Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UVR. Fish exposed to UVR, either in the presence or absence of Cd, showed consistent decreases in ECC investment compared to non-exposed controls. Despite differences in ECC number, there was no difference in the potency of alarm cues prepared from the skin of UVR and Cd exposed or non-exposed fish indicating that UVR and Cd exposure combined may have little influence on chemically-mediated predator–prey interactions. - Highlights: • UV radiation caused a physiological stress response (cortisol release) in fish. • Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UV. • Fish exposed to UV, with or without Cd, showed decreases in club cell investment. • There was no difference in alarm cues potency from UV and Cd exposed fish. • Our work highlights the difficulty of untangling effects of multiple stressors

  15. The interactive effects of multiple stressors on physiological stress responses and club cell investment in fathead minnows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manek, Aditya K., E-mail: aditya.manek@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada); Ferrari, Maud C.O. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, WCVM, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4 (Canada); Niyogi, Som; Chivers, Douglas P. [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities have dramatically increased over the past decades, with the consequence that many organisms are simultaneously exposed to multiple stressors. Understanding how organisms respond to these stressors is a key focus for scientists from many disciplines. Here we investigated the interactive effects of two stressors, UV radiation (UVR) and cadmium (Cd) exposure on a common freshwater fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). UVR is known to influence the density of epidermal club cells (ECCs), which are not only a key component of the innate immune system of fishes, but are also the source of chemical alarm cues that serve to warn other fishes of nearby predators. In contrast, Cd impairs the physiological stress response and ability of fish to respond to alarm cues. We used an integrative approach to examine physiological stress response as well as investment in ECCs. Fish exposed to UVR had higher levels of cortisol than non-exposed controls, but Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UVR. Fish exposed to UVR, either in the presence or absence of Cd, showed consistent decreases in ECC investment compared to non-exposed controls. Despite differences in ECC number, there was no difference in the potency of alarm cues prepared from the skin of UVR and Cd exposed or non-exposed fish indicating that UVR and Cd exposure combined may have little influence on chemically-mediated predator–prey interactions. - Highlights: • UV radiation caused a physiological stress response (cortisol release) in fish. • Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UV. • Fish exposed to UV, with or without Cd, showed decreases in club cell investment. • There was no difference in alarm cues potency from UV and Cd exposed fish. • Our work highlights the difficulty of untangling effects of multiple stressors.

  16. Physiological and molecular characterization of Si uptake in wild rice species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani-Ueno, Namiki; Ogai, Hisao; Yamaji, Naoki; Ma, Jian Feng

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) accumulates high concentration of silicon (Si), which is required for its high and sustainable production. High Si accumulation in cultivated rice is achieved by a high expression of both influx (Lsi1) and efflux (Lsi2) Si transporters in roots. Herein, we physiologically investigated Si uptake, isolated and functionally characterized Si transporters in six wild rice species with different genome types. Si uptake by the roots was lower in Oryza rufipogon, Oryza barthii (AA genome), Oryza australiensis (EE genome) and Oryza punctata (BB genome), but similar in Oryza glumaepatula and Oryza meridionalis (AA genome) compared with the cultivated rice (cv. Nipponbare). However, all wild rice species and the cultivated rice showed similar concentration of Si in the shoots when grown in a field. All species with AA genome showed the same amino acid sequence of both Lsi1 and Lsi2 as O. sativa, whereas species with EE and BB genome showed several nucleotide differences in both Lsi1 and Lsi2. However, proteins encoded by these genes also showed transport activity for Si in Xenopus oocyte. The mRNA expression of Lsi1 in all wild rice species was lower than that in the cultivated rice, whereas the expression of Lsi2 was lower in O. rufipogon and O. barthii but similar in other species. Similar cellular localization of Lsi1 and Lsi2 was observed in all wild rice as the cultivated rice. These results indicate that superior Si uptake, the important trait for rice growth, is basically conserved in wild and cultivated rice species. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. Physiological Characterization of Vestibular Efferent Brainstem Neurons Using a Transgenic Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijon, Sara; Magnusson, Anna K.

    2014-01-01

    The functional role of efferent innervation of the vestibular end-organs in the inner ear remains elusive. This study provides the first physiological characterization of the cholinergic vestibular efferent (VE) neurons in the brainstem by utilizing a transgenic mouse model, expressing eGFP under a choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT)-locus spanning promoter in combination with targeted patch clamp recordings. The intrinsic electrical properties of the eGFP-positive VE neurons were compared to the properties of the lateral olivocochlear (LOC) brainstem neurons, which gives rise to efferent innervation of the cochlea. Both VE and the LOC neurons were marked by their negative resting membrane potential neurons differed significantly in the depolarizing range. When injected with positive currents, VE neurons fired action potentials faithfully to the onset of depolarization followed by sparse firing with long inter-spike intervals. This response gave rise to a low response gain. The LOC neurons, conversely, responded with a characteristic delayed tonic firing upon depolarizing stimuli, giving rise to higher response gain than the VE neurons. Depolarization triggered large TEA insensitive outward currents with fast inactivation kinetics, indicating A-type potassium currents, in both the inner ear-projecting neuronal types. Immunohistochemistry confirmed expression of Kv4.3 and 4.2 ion channel subunits in both the VE and LOC neurons. The difference in spiking responses to depolarization is related to a two-fold impact of these transient outward currents on somatic integration in the LOC neurons compared to in VE neurons. It is speculated that the physiological properties of the VE neurons might be compatible with a wide-spread control over motion and gravity sensation in the inner ear, providing likewise feed-back amplification of abrupt and strong phasic signals from the semi-circular canals and of tonic signals from the gravito-sensitive macular organs. PMID:24867596

  18. Formulation and characterization of a multiple emulsion containing 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to prepare a stable multiple emulsion containing a skin anti-aging agent and using paraffin oil. Vitamin C, was incorporated into the inner aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) multiple emulsion at a concentration of 1%. Multiple emulsion was prepared by two step method. Stability ...

  19. Characterization and inhibitive study of gel-grown hydroxyapatite crystals at physiological temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Bharat; Joshi, Mihir; Vaidya, Ashok

    2008-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite is very useful for various biomedical applications, due to its chemical similarity with mineralized bone of human. Hydroxyapatite is also responsible for arthropathy (joint disease). In the present study, the growth of hydroxyapatite crystals was carried out by using single-diffusion gel growth technique in silica hydro gel media, at physiological temperature. The growth of hydroxyapatite crystals under slow and controlled environment in gel medium can be simulated in a simple manner to the growth in human body. The crystals, formed in the Liesegang rings, were characterized by powder XRD, FTIR and dielectric study. The diffusion study is also carried out for the hydroxyapatite crystals using the moving boundary model. The inhibitive influence of various Ayurvedic medicinal plant extracts such as Boswellia serrata gum resin , Tribulus terrestris fruits, Rotula aquatica roots, Boerhaavia diffusa roots and Commiphora wightii, on the growth of hydroxyapatite was studied. Roots of R. aquatica and B. diffusa show some inhibition of the hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro. This preclinical study will be helpful to design the therapy for prevention of hydroxyapatite-based ailments.

  20. Physiological Characterization and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of White and Green Leaves of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    Full Text Available Leaf coloration is one of the most important and attractive characteristics of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. The chimeric character is not stable during the in vitro tissue culturing. Many regenerated plants lost economic values for the loss of the chimeric character of leaves. In order to reveal the molecular mechanisms involved in the albino phenotype of the leaf cells, the physiological and transcriptional differences between complete white (CWh and green (CGr leaf cells of A. comosus var. bracteatus were analyzed. A total of 1,431 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs in CGr and CWh leaves were identified using RNA-seq. A comparison to the COG, GO and KEGG annotations revealed DEGs involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, chloroplast development and photosynthesis. Furthermore, the measurement of main precursors of chlorophyll in the CWh leaves confirmed that the rate-limiting step in chlorophyll biosynthesis, and thus the cause of the albino phenotype of the white cells, was the conversion of pyrrole porphobilinogen (PBG to uroporphyrinogen III (Uro III. The enzyme activity of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD and uroporporphyrinogn III synthase (UROS, which catalyze the transition of PBG to Uro III, was significantly decreased in the CWh leaves. Our data showed the transcriptional differences between the CWh and CGr plants and characterized key steps in chlorophyll biosynthesis of the CWh leaves. These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of pigment biosynthesis in the CWh leaf cells of A. comosus var. bracteatus.

  1. A comparative study of students' performance in preclinical physiology assessed by multiple choice and short essay questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebola, D D; Adewoye, O E; Iyaniwura, J O; Alada, A R; Fasanmade, A A; Raji, Y

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the performance of medical students in physiology when assessed by multiple choice questions (MCQs) and short essay questions (SEQs). The study also examined the influence of factors such as age, sex, O/level grades and JAMB scores on performance in the MCQs and SEQs. A structured questionnaire was administered to 264 medical students' four months before the Part I MBBS examination. Apart from personal data of each student, the questionnaire sought information on the JAMB scores and GCE O' Level grades of each student in English Language, Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics. The physiology syllabus was divided into five parts and the students were administered separate examinations (tests) on each part. Each test consisted of MCQs and SEQs. The performance in MCQs and SEQs were compared. Also, the effects of JAMB scores and GCE O/level grades on the performance in both the MCQs and SEQs were assessed. The results showed that the students performed better in all MCQ tests than in the SEQs. JAMB scores and O' level English Language grade had no significant effect on students' performance in MCQs and SEQs. However O' level grades in Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics had significant effects on performance in MCQs and SEQs. Inadequate knowledge of physiology and inability to present information in a logical sequence are believed to be major factors contributing to the poorer performance in the SEQs compared with MCQs. In view of the finding of significant association between performance in MCQs and SEQs and GCE O/level grades in science subjects and mathematics, it was recommended that both JAMB results and the GCE results in the four O/level subjects above may be considered when selecting candidates for admission into the medical schools.

  2. Physiological Mechanisms Only Tell Half Story: Multiple Biological Processes are involved in Regulating Freezing Tolerance of Imbibed Lactuca sativa Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Ganesh K; Han, Yingying; Li, Weijie; Song, Danping; Song, Xiaoyan; Shen, Mengqi; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Chenxue; Liu, Baolin

    2017-03-13

    The physiological mechanisms by which imbibed seeds survive freezing temperatures in their natural environment have been categorized as freezing avoidance by supercooling and freezing tolerance by extracellular freeze-desiccation, but the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring seed freezing tolerance is unexplored. In this study, using imbibed Lactuca sativa seeds we show that fast cooled seeds (60 °C h -1 ) suffered significantly higher membrane damage at temperature between -20 °C and -10 °C than slow cooled (3 °Ch -1 ) seeds (P  0.05). However, both SOD activity and accumulation of free proline were induced significantly after slow cooling to -20 °C compared with fast cooling. RNA-seq demonstrated that multiple pathways were differentially regulated between slow and fast cooling. Real-time verification of some differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that fast cooling caused mRNA level changes of plant hormone and ubiquitionation pathways at higher sub-zero temperature, whilst slow cooling caused mRNA level change of those pathways at lower sub-zero ttemperatures. Thus, we conclude that imbibed seed tolerate low temperature not only by physiological mechanisms but also by biochemical and molecular changes.

  3. Enrichment and physiological characterization of an anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacterium ‘ Candidatus Brocadia sapporoensis’

    KAUST Repository

    Narita, Yuko; Zhang, Lei; Kimura, Zen-ichiro; Ali, Muhammad; Fujii, Takao; Okabe, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidation (anammox) is recognized as an important microbial process in the global nitrogen cycle and wastewater treatment. In this study, we successfully enriched a novel anammox bacterium affiliated with the genus ‘Candidatus Brocadia’ with high purity (>90%) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). The enriched bacterium was distantly related to the hitherto characterized ‘Ca. Brocadia fulgida’ and ‘Ca. Brocadia sinica’ with 96% and 93% of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence identity, respectively. The bacterium exhibited the common structural features of anammox bacteria and the production of hydrazine in the presence of hydroxylamine under anoxic conditions. The temperature range of anammox activity was 20 − 45°C with a maximum activity at 37°C. The maximum specific growth rate (μmax) was determined to be 0.0082h−1 at 37°C, corresponding to a doubling time of 3.5 days. The half-saturation constant (KS) for nitrite was 5±2.5μM. The anammox activity was inhibited by nitrite with 11.6mM representing the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) but no significant inhibition was observed in the presence of formate and acetate. The major respiratory quinone was identified to be menaquinone-7 (MK-7). Comparative genome analysis revealed that the anammox bacterium enriched in present study shared nearly half of genes with ‘Ca. Brocadia sinica’ and ‘Ca. Brocadia fulgida’. The bacterium enriched in this study showed all known physiological characteristics of anammox bacteria and can be distinguished from the close relatives by its rRNA gene sequences. Therefore, we proposed the name ‘Ca. Brocadia sapporoensis’ sp. nov.

  4. Enrichment and physiological characterization of an anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacterium ‘ Candidatus Brocadia sapporoensis’

    KAUST Repository

    Narita, Yuko

    2017-08-18

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidation (anammox) is recognized as an important microbial process in the global nitrogen cycle and wastewater treatment. In this study, we successfully enriched a novel anammox bacterium affiliated with the genus ‘Candidatus Brocadia’ with high purity (>90%) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). The enriched bacterium was distantly related to the hitherto characterized ‘Ca. Brocadia fulgida’ and ‘Ca. Brocadia sinica’ with 96% and 93% of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence identity, respectively. The bacterium exhibited the common structural features of anammox bacteria and the production of hydrazine in the presence of hydroxylamine under anoxic conditions. The temperature range of anammox activity was 20 − 45°C with a maximum activity at 37°C. The maximum specific growth rate (μmax) was determined to be 0.0082h−1 at 37°C, corresponding to a doubling time of 3.5 days. The half-saturation constant (KS) for nitrite was 5±2.5μM. The anammox activity was inhibited by nitrite with 11.6mM representing the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) but no significant inhibition was observed in the presence of formate and acetate. The major respiratory quinone was identified to be menaquinone-7 (MK-7). Comparative genome analysis revealed that the anammox bacterium enriched in present study shared nearly half of genes with ‘Ca. Brocadia sinica’ and ‘Ca. Brocadia fulgida’. The bacterium enriched in this study showed all known physiological characteristics of anammox bacteria and can be distinguished from the close relatives by its rRNA gene sequences. Therefore, we proposed the name ‘Ca. Brocadia sapporoensis’ sp. nov.

  5. Plant eco-physiological responses to multiple environmental and climate changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rost Albert, K.

    2009-03-15

    The current global changes of temperature, precipitation, atmospheric CO{sub 2} and UV-B radiation impact in concert ecosystems and processes in an unpredictable way. Therefore multifactor experimentation is needed to unravel the variability in strength of these drivers, whether the factors act additively or synergistically and to establish cause-effect relations between ecosystem processes. This thesis deals with heath plant responses to global change factors (the CLIMAITE project). In a Danish temperate heath ecosystem elevated CO{sub 2}, experimental summer drought, and passive nighttime warming was applied in all combinations (based on the scenario for Denmark anno 2075) and the responses after one year of treatment were investigated through a growing season in Hairgrass (Deschampsia flexousa) and Heather (Calluna vulgaris). In a high arctic heath ecosystem situated in NE-Greenland UV-B exclusion experiments were conducted on Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum during six years. Responses of photosynthesis performance were characterized on the leaf scale by means of leaf gas-exchange (A/Ci curves), chlorophyll-a fluorescence, leaf nitrogen, carbon and delta13C and secondary compounds. The main findings were 1) The different growth strategies of the evergreen Calluna versus the opportunistic bi-phasic Deschampsia affects the photosynthesis response to drought and autumn warming; 2) Elevated CO{sub 2} and warming synergistically increase photosynthesis in spring and autumn; 3) Summer drought decreased photosynthesis in both species, but where Calluna maintained photosynthetic metabolism then major proportion of grass leaves wilted down; 4) Elevated CO{sub 2} did not decrease stomatal conductance, but the treatments affected soil water content positively, pointing to the complex water relations when plants of contrasting growth strategy co-occur; 5) Water availability affected the magnitude of photosynthesis to a higher degree than warming and elevated CO{sub 2

  6. Multiple regulatory roles of the mouse transmembrane adaptor protein NTAL in gene transcription and mast cell physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Polakovicova

    Full Text Available Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL; also called LAB or LAT2 is a transmembrane adaptor protein that is expressed in a subset of hematopoietic cells, including mast cells. There are conflicting reports on the role of NTAL in the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcεRI signaling. Studies carried out on mast cells derived from mice with NTAL knock out (KO and wild type mice suggested that NTAL is a negative regulator of FcεRI signaling, while experiments with RNAi-mediated NTAL knockdown (KD in human mast cells and rat basophilic leukemia cells suggested its positive regulatory role. To determine whether different methodologies of NTAL ablation (KO vs KD have different physiological consequences, we compared under well defined conditions FcεRI-mediated signaling events in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs with NTAL KO or KD. BMMCs with both NTAL KO and KD exhibited enhanced degranulation, calcium mobilization, chemotaxis, tyrosine phosphorylation of LAT and ERK, and depolymerization of filamentous actin. These data provide clear evidence that NTAL is a negative regulator of FcεRI activation events in murine BMMCs, independently of possible compensatory developmental alterations. To gain further insight into the role of NTAL in mast cells, we examined the transcriptome profiles of resting and antigen-activated NTAL KO, NTAL KD, and corresponding control BMMCs. Through this analysis we identified several genes that were differentially regulated in nonactivated and antigen-activated NTAL-deficient cells, when compared to the corresponding control cells. Some of the genes seem to be involved in regulation of cholesterol-dependent events in antigen-mediated chemotaxis. The combined data indicate multiple regulatory roles of NTAL in gene expression and mast cell physiology.

  7. Characterizing ξ-Lie Multiplicative Isomorphisms on Von Neumann Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamin Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let ℳ and be von Neumann algebras without central summands of type I1. Assume that ξ∈ℂ with ξ≠1. In this paper, all maps Φ:ℳ→ satisfying ΦAB-ξBA=ΦAΦB-ξΦBΦ(A are characterized.

  8. Morphological, Physiological, and Taxonomic Characterization of Actinobacterial Isolates Living as Endophytes of Cacao Pods and Cacao Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchinda, Romaric Armel Mouafo; Boudjeko, Thaddée; Simao-Beaunoir, Anne-Marie; Lerat, Sylvain; Tsala, Éric; Monga, Ernest; Beaulieu, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Vascular plants are commonly colonized by endophytic actinobacteria. However, very little is known about the relationship between these microorganisms and cacao fruits. In order to determine the physiological and taxonomic relationships between the members of this community, actinobacteria were isolated from cacao fruits and seeds. Among the 49 isolates recovered, 11 morphologically distinct isolates were selected for further characterization. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed the partition of the selected isolates into three phylogenetic clades. Most of the selected endophytic isolates belonged to the Streptomyces violaceusniger clade. Physiological characterization was carried out and a similarity index was used to cluster the isolates. However, clustering based on physiological properties did not match phylogenetic lineages. Isolates were also characterized for traits commonly associated with plant growth-promoting bacteria, including antibiosis and auxin biosynthesis. All isolates exhibited resistance to geldanamycin, whereas only two isolates were shown to produce this antibiotic. Endophytes were inoculated on radish seedlings and most isolates were found to possess plant growth-promoting abilities. These endophytic actinobacteria inhibited the growth of various plant pathogenic fungi and/or bacteria. The present study showed that S. violaceusniger clade members represent a significant part of the actinobacterial community living as endophytes in cacao fruits and seeds. While several members of this clade are known to be geldanamycin producers and efficient biocontrol agents of plant diseases, we herein established the endophytic lifestyle of some of these microorganisms, demonstrating their potential as plant health agents.

  9. Application of Physiologically Based Absorption Modeling to Characterize the Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Oral Extended Release Methylphenidate Products in Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Yang

    Full Text Available A previously presented physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for immediate release (IR methylphenidate (MPH was extended to characterize the pharmacokinetic behaviors of oral extended release (ER MPH formulations in adults for the first time. Information on the anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal (GI tract, together with the biopharmaceutical properties of MPH, was integrated into the original model, with model parameters representing hepatic metabolism and intestinal non-specific loss recalibrated against in vitro and in vivo kinetic data sets with IR MPH. A Weibull function was implemented to describe the dissolution of different ER formulations. A variety of mathematical functions can be utilized to account for the engineered release/dissolution technologies to achieve better model performance. The physiological absorption model tracked well the plasma concentration profiles in adults receiving a multilayer-release MPH formulation or Metadate CD, while some degree of discrepancy was observed between predicted and observed plasma concentration profiles for Ritalin LA and Medikinet Retard. A local sensitivity analysis demonstrated that model parameters associated with the GI tract significantly influenced model predicted plasma MPH concentrations, albeit to varying degrees, suggesting the importance of better understanding the GI tract physiology, along with the intestinal non-specific loss of MPH. The model provides a quantitative tool to predict the biphasic plasma time course data for ER MPH, helping elucidate factors responsible for the diverse plasma MPH concentration profiles following oral dosing of different ER formulations.

  10. Coursera's Introductory Human Physiology Course: Factors That Characterize Successful Completion of a MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Deborah; Mankoff, Chris; Carbrey, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Since Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are accessible by anyone in the world at no cost, they have large enrollments that are conducive to educational research. This study examines students in the Coursera MOOC, Introductory Human Physiology. Of the 33,378 students who accessed the course, around 15,000 students responded to items on the…

  11. Understanding the Biological Roles of Pectins in Plants through Physiological and Functional Characterizations of Plant and Fungal Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stranne, Maria

    The plant cell wall is a dynamic structure and it is involved in regulating a number of physiological features of plants such as physical strength, growth, cell differentiation, intercellular communication, water movement and defense responses. Pectins constitute a major class of plant cell wall...... polysaccharides and consist of backbones rich in galacturonic acids, which are decorated with a range of functional groups including acetyl esters and arabinan sidechains. Although much effort has been made to uncover biological functions of pectins in plants and remarkable progresses have taken place, many...... aspects remain elusive. Studies described in this thesis aimed at gaining new insights into the biological roles of pectin acetylation and arabinosylation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The thesis consists of four chapters: physiological characterization of cell wall mutants affected in cell...

  12. Evidence for the different physiological significance of the 6- and 2-minute walk tests in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motl Robert W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers have recently advocated for the 2-minute walk (2MW as an alternative for the 6-minute walk (6MW to assess long distance ambulation in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS. This recommendation has not been based on physiological considerations such as the rate of oxygen consumption (V·O2 over the 6MW range. Objective This study examined the pattern of change in V·O2 over the range of the 6MW in a large sample of persons with MS who varied as a function of disability status. Method Ninety-five persons with clinically-definite MS underwent a neurological examination for generating an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score, and then completion of the 6MW protocol while wearing a portable metabolic unit and an accelerometer. Results There was a time main effect on V·O2 during the 6MW (p = .0001 such that V·O2 increased significantly every 30 seconds over the first 3 minutes of the 6MW, and then remained stable over the second 3 minutes of the 6MW. This occurred despite no change in cadence across the 6MW (p = .84. Conclusions The pattern of change in V·O2 indicates that there are different metabolic systems providing energy for ambulation during the 6MW in MS subjects and steady state aerobic metabolism is reached during the last 3 minutes of the 6MW. By extension, the first 3 minutes would represent a test of mixed aerobic and anaerobic work, whereas the second 3 minutes would represent a test of aerobic work during walking.

  13. Characterization of human monoclonal antibodies that neutralize multiple poliovirus serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puligedda, Rama Devudu; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Al-Saleem, Fetweh H; Kattala, Chandana Devi; Nabi, Usman; Yaqoob, Hamid; Bhagavathula, V Sandeep; Sharma, Rashmi; Chumakov, Konstantin; Dessain, Scott K

    2017-10-04

    Following the eradication of wild poliovirus (PV), achieving and maintaining a polio-free status will require eliminating potentially pathogenic PV strains derived from the oral attenuated vaccine. For this purpose, a combination of non-cross-resistant drugs, such as small molecules and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), may be ideal. We previously isolated chimpanzee and human mAbs capable of neutralizing multiple PV types (cross-neutralization). Here, we describe three additional human mAbs that neutralize types 1 and 2 PV and one mAb that neutralizes all three types. Most bind conformational epitopes and have unusually long heavy chain complementarity determining 3 domains (HC CDR3). We assessed the ability of the mAbs to neutralize A12 escape mutant PV strains, and found that the neutralizing activities of the mAbs were disrupted by different amino acid substitutions. Competitive binding studies further suggested that the specific mAb:PV interactions that enable cross-neutralization differ among mAbs and serotypes. All of the cloned mAbs bind PV in the vicinity of the "canyon", a circular depression around the 5-fold axis of symmetry through which PV recognizes its cellular receptor. We were unable to generate escape mutants to two of the mAbs, suggesting that their epitopes are important for the PV life cycle. These data indicate that PV cross-neutralization involves binding to highly conserved structures within the canyon that binds to the cellular receptor. These may be facilitated by the long HC CDR3 domains, which may adopt alternative binding configurations. We propose that the human and chimpanzee mAbs described here could have potential as anti-PV therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using endogenous saccades to characterize fatigue in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marisa; Pereira, Paulo A; Parreira, Marta; Sousa, Inês; Figueiredo, José; Cerqueira, João J; Macedo, Antonio F

    2017-05-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is likely to cause dysfunction of neural circuits between brain regions increasing brain working load or a subjective overestimation of such working load leading to fatigue symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate if saccades can reveal the effect of fatigue in patients with MS. Patients diagnosed with MS (EDSSendogenous generated saccade paradigm (valid and invalid trials). The fatigue severity scale (FSS) was used to assess the severity of fatigue. FSS scores were used to define two subgroups, the MS fatigue group (score above normal range) and the MS non-fatigue. Differences between groups were tested using linear mixed models. Thirty-one MS patients and equal number of controls participated in this study. FSS scores were above the normal range in 11 patients. Differences in saccade latency were found according to group (p<0.001) and trial validity (p=0.023). Differences were 16.9ms, between MS fatigue and MS non-fatigue, 15.5ms between MS fatigue and control. The mean difference between valid and invalid trials was 7.5ms. Differences in saccade peak velocity were found according to group (p<0.001), the difference between MS fatigue and control was 22.3°/s and between MS fatigue and non-fatigue was 12.3°/s. Group was a statistically significant predictor for amplitude (p<0.001). FSS scores were correlated with peak velocity (p=0.028) and amplitude (p=0.019). Consistent with the initial hypothesis, our study revealed altered saccade latency, peak velocity and amplitude in patients with fatigue symptoms. Eye movement testing can complement the standard inventories when investigating fatigue because they do not share similar limitations. Our findings contribute to the understanding of functional changes induced by MS and might be useful for clinical trials and treatment decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of a managed aquifer recharge system using multiple tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Christian; Radny, Dirk; Popp, Andrea; Brennwald, Matthias; Stoll, Sebastian; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Berg, Michael; Schirmer, Mario

    2017-12-31

    various subsurface processes necessitate application of multiple tracers to quantify uncertainty when identifying flow processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,AFU.; Portela,MCC.; Sousa,MB.; Martins,FS.; Rocha,FC.; Farias,DF.; Feitosa,JPA.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical properties: water reten...

  17. Physiological Characterization and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of White and Green Leaves of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xia; Kanakala, Surapathrudu; He, Yehua; Zhong, Xiaolan; Yu, Sanmiao; Li, Ruixue; Sun, Lingxia; Ma, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Leaf coloration is one of the most important and attractive characteristics of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. The chimeric character is not stable during the in vitro tissue culturing. Many regenerated plants lost economic values for the loss of the chimeric character of leaves. In order to reveal the molecular mechanisms involved in the albino phenotype of the leaf cells, the physiological and transcriptional differences between complete white (CWh) and green (CGr) leaf cells of A. comosus ...

  18. Characterizing the angiogenic activity of patients with single ventricle physiology and aortopulmonary collateral vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, Nefthi; Uchida, Yutaka; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; McCarter, Robert; Hanumanthaiah, Sridhar; Bangoura, Aminata; Zhao, Zhen; Oliver-Danna, Jacqueline; Leatherbury, Linda; Kanter, Joshua; Mukouyama, Yoh-Suke

    2016-04-01

    Patients with single ventricle congenital heart disease often form aortopulmonary collateral vessels via an unclear mechanism. To gain insights into the pathogenesis of aortopulmonary collateral vessels, we correlated angiogenic factor levels with in vitro activity and angiographic aortopulmonary collateral assessment and examined whether patients with single ventricle physiology have increased angiogenic factors that can stimulate endothelial cell sprouting in vitro. In patients with single ventricle physiology (n = 27) and biventricular acyanotic control patients (n = 21), hypoxia-inducible angiogenic factor levels were measured in femoral venous and arterial plasma at cardiac catheterization. To assess plasma angiogenic activity, we used a 3-dimensional in vitro cell sprouting assay that recapitulates angiogenic sprouting. Aortopulmonary collateral angiograms were graded using a 4-point scale. Compared with controls, patients with single ventricle physiology had increased vascular endothelial growth factor (artery: 58.7 ± 1.2 pg/mL vs 35.3 ± 1.1 pg/mL, P collateral severity. We are the first to correlate plasma angiogenic factor levels with angiography and in vitro angiogenic activity in patients with single ventricle disease with aortopulmonary collaterals. Patients with single ventricle disease have increased stromal-derived factor 1-alpha and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and their roles in aortopulmonary collateral formation require further investigation. Plasma factors and angiogenic activity correlate poorly with aortopulmonary collateral severity in patients with single ventricles, suggesting complex mechanisms of angiogenesis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Gawlik, Dale E.; Beerens, James M.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate), and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index) and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term) were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  20. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Herring

    Full Text Available The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba and white ibises (Eudocimus albus to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate, and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  1. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Gawlik, Dale E; Beerens, James M; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2014-01-01

    The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate), and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index) and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term) were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  2. Physiological and biochemical characterization of mango tree with paclobutrazol application via irrigation.

    OpenAIRE

    SOUZA, M. A. de; MESQUITA, A. C.; SIMOES, W. L.; FERREITA, K. M.; ARAÚJO, E. F. J.

    2017-01-01

    Paclobutrazol application in mango tree floral induction is followed by changes in the hormonal balance and carbohydrates production. This study aimed at evaluating the physiological and biochemical variables of mango tree (Palmer cultivar) by applying paclobutrazol doses via irrigation. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five paclobutrazol doses (0.7 g, 1.0 g, 1.3 g, 1.6 g and 1.9 g of a.i. per linear meter of canopy) and one additional treatment, with one dose in the conven...

  3. Biochemical and physiological characterization of three rice cultivars under different daytime temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alefsi David Sanchez-Reinoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress due to high daytime temperatures is one of the main limiting factors in rice (Oryza sativa L. yield in Colombia. Thus, the objective of the present research was to analyze the effect of three different daytime temperatures (25, 35, and 40 °C on the physiological responses of three Colombian rice cultivars (F60, F733, and F473, thereby contributing to the knowledge of rice acclimation mechanisms. For 10 d, eight plants of each of the three cultivars were subjected daily to 5 h periods of 35 and 40 °C. The control treatment corresponded to normal growth conditions (25 °C. Thermal stress was assessed based on a series of physiological and biochemical parameters. The 35 °C treatment produced photosynthetic and respiratory differences in all three cultivars. At 40 °C, 'F60' displayed the lowest photosynthetic rate and the highest respiratory rate. Although this cultivar experienced particularly strong electrolyte leakage and changes in proline when subjected to the high-temperature treatments, similar trends were observed in 'F733' and 'F473'. At 40 °C, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA was lower in 'F473' than in the other cultivars. These results may explain the poor agronomic performance of 'F60' in the field under daytime heat stress. The methodologies employed in the present work may be useful in Colombian rice breeding programs, particularly for the selection of heat-tolerant breeding stocks.

  4. Physicochemical characterization of engineered nanoparticles under physiological conditions: effect of culture media components and particle surface coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatisson, Julien; Quevedo, Ivan R; Wilkinson, Kevin J; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2012-03-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in commercial products has increased substantially over the last few years. Some research has been conducted in order to determine whether or not such materials are cytotoxic, but questions remain regarding the role that physiological media and sera constituents play in ENP aggregation or stabilization. In this study, several characterization methods were used to evaluate the particle size and surface potential of 6 ENPs suspended in a number of culture media and in the presence of different culture media constituents. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) were employed for size determinations. Results were interpreted on the basis of ENP surface potentials evaluated from particle electrophoretic mobilities (EPM). Measurements made after 24h of incubation at 37°C showed that the cell culture medium constituents had only moderate impact on the physicochemical properties of the ENP, although incubation in bovine serum albumin destabilized the colloidal system. In contrast, most of the serum proteins increased colloidal stabilization. Moreover, the type of ENP surface modification played a significant role in ENP behavior whereby the complexity of interactions between the ENPs and the medium components generally decreased with increasing complexity of the particle surface. This investigation emphasizes the importance of ENP characterization under conditions that are representative of cell culture media or physiological conditions for improved assessments of nanoparticle cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of physiological networks in sleep apnea patients using artificial neural networks for Granger causality computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Jhon; Orjuela-Cañón, Alvaro D.; Cerquera, Alexander; Ravelo, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    Different studies have used Transfer Entropy (TE) and Granger Causality (GC) computation to quantify interconnection between physiological systems. These methods have disadvantages in parametrization and availability in analytic formulas to evaluate the significance of the results. Other inconvenience is related with the assumptions in the distribution of the models generated from the data. In this document, the authors present a way to measure the causality that connect the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Cardiac System (CS) in people diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) before and during treatment with continuous positive air pressure (CPAP). For this purpose, artificial neural networks were used to obtain models for GC computation, based on time series of normalized powers calculated from electrocardiography (EKG) and electroencephalography (EEG) signals recorded in polysomnography (PSG) studies.

  6. Physiological characterization of gravitaxis in Euglena gracilis and Astasia longa studied on sounding rocket flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, P R; Lebert, M; Tahedl, H; Hader, D P

    2001-01-01

    Euglena gracilis is a photosynthetic, unicellular flagellate found in eutrophic freshwater habitats. The organisms control their vertical position in the water column using gravi- and phototaxis. Recent experiments demonstrated that negative gravitaxis cannot be explained by passive buoyancy but by an active physiological mechanism. During space experiments, the threshold of gravitaxis was determined to be between 0.08 and 0.12 x g. A strong correlation between the applied acceleration and the intracellular cAMP and Ca2+ was observed. The results support the hypothesis, that the cell body of Euglena, which is denser than the surrounding medium exerts a pressure onto the lower membrane and activates mechanosensitive Ca2+ channels. Changes in the membrane potential and the cAMP concentration are most likely subsequent elements in a signal transduction chain, which results in reorientation strokes of the flagellum. c 2001 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physiological and Biochemical characterization of Chlamydomonas sp. the Hydrogen Production's Strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chader, S.; Belhamel, M.; H Hacene

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen produced by biological way became, one of the most interesting subjects of research relating to development the energy system starting from renewable sources. This study describes the closed relation between the physiological behaviour, biochemical and rate of gases produced by Chlamydomonas sp. strain AT14, isolated in the area of Touat (the Sahara Algerian) and cultivated in a toric photo-bioreactor. A considerable growth was noted, where the concentration of the biomass double in only two days after incubation. The micro-algal cells present a 100% of viability, which relocate has satisfactory behaviour in the toric engine. In addition, the displacement water level in the system of measurement implies has gas production (0.1 ml) in coordination with the anaerobic period of the reactional enclosure. The yield of this way of hydrogen production is depending on the species used, the light intensity, and the conditions of culture. (authors)

  8. Research on Healthy Anomaly Detection Model Based on Deep Learning from Multiple Time-Series Physiological Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Health is vital to every human being. To further improve its already respectable medical technology, the medical community is transitioning towards a proactive approach which anticipates and mitigates risks before getting ill. This approach requires measuring the physiological signals of human and analyzes these data at regular intervals. In this paper, we present a novel approach to apply deep learning in physiological signals analysis that allows doctor to identify latent risks. However, extracting high level information from physiological time-series data is a hard problem faced by the machine learning communities. Therefore, in this approach, we apply model based on convolutional neural network that can automatically learn features from raw physiological signals in an unsupervised manner and then based on the learned features use multivariate Gauss distribution anomaly detection method to detect anomaly data. Our experiment is shown to have a significant performance in physiological signals anomaly detection. So it is a promising tool for doctor to identify early signs of illness even if the criteria are unknown a priori.

  9. Morphological and Physiological Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes Subjected to High Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, M.; Tholozan, J. L.; Federighi, M.; Pilet, M. F.

    2001-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is a new food preservation technology known for its capacity to inactivate spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. That inactivation is usually assessed by the number of colonies growing on solid media after treatment. Under normal conditions the method does not permit recovery of damaged cells and may underestimate the number of cells that will remain viable and grow after a few days in high-pressure-processed foodstuffs. This study investigated the damage inflicted on Listeria monocytogenes cells treated by high pressure for 10 min at 400 MPa in pH 5.6 citrate buffer. Under these conditions, no cell growth occurred after 48 h on plate count agar. Scanning electron microscopy, light scattering by flow cytometry, and cell volume measurements were compared to evaluate the morphological changes in cells after pressurization. All these methods revealed that cellular morphology was not really affected. Esterase activity, as assessed either by enzymatic activity assays or by carboxy fluorescein diacetate fluorescence monitored by flow cytometry, was dramatically lowered, but not totally obliterated, under the effects of treatment. The measurement of propidium iodide uptake followed by flow cytometry demonstrated that membrane integrity was preserved in a small part of the population, although the membrane potential measured by analytical methods or evaluated by oxonol uptake was reduced from −86 to −5 mV. These results showed that such combined methods as fluorescent dyes monitored by flow cytometry and physiological activity measurements provide valuable indications of cellular viability. PMID:11319107

  10. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A F U; Portela, M C C; Sousa, M B; Martins, F S; Rocha, F C; Farias, D F; Feitosa, J P A

    2009-08-01

    This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical properties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract) and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract). The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC) down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g) than that fed on cellulose diet (7 g) (p seaweed the potential to be used in food technology for the acquisition of low-calorie food and might be important in body weight control, reduction of blood TC and LDL-C as well as in prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

  11. Physiological and molecular characterization of Phytophthora infestans isolates from the Central Colombian Andean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, María C; Cárdenas, Martha E; Vargas, Angela M; Rojas, Alejandro; Morales, Juan G; Jiménez, Pedro; Bernal, Adriana J; Restrepo, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most devastating diseases found in potato and tomato crops worldwide. In Colombia it also attacks other important crops: cape gooseberry and tree tomato. The knowledge of the pathogen population is determinant to effectively design control strategies. To determine the physiological and molecular characteristics of a set of Colombian P. infestans isolates. Strains isolated from Cundinamarca and Boyacá were examined for the level of resistance to mefenoxam and cymoxanil. Virulence was tested for all strains and crosses between A1 mating type, from different hosts, and the Colombian A2 mating type were tested for the production and viability of oospores in different substrates. Additionally, the molecular diversity of the avirulence gene Avr3a, the β-tubulin gene, and two single copy genes showing RxLR motif, was assessed. We found all levels of mefenoxam sensitivity, with 48% of the strains resistant. A high diversity of races was detected and the population was genetically clonal. Colombian strains had the possibility of sexual reproduction. These results will help in optimizing the use of fungicides and deployment of resistance as control strategies and will contribute to broader studies on diversity of this pathogen. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFU. Carvalho

    Full Text Available This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF. Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis and interesting physico-chemical properties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract, lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract, intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract. The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g than that fed on cellulose diet ( 7 g (p < 0.05. These properties confer on the seaweed the potential to be used in food technology for the acquisition of low-calorie food and might be important in body weight control, reduction of blood TC and LDL-C as well as in prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

  13. Effect of salicylic acid on physiological and biochemical characterization of maize grown in saline area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahad, S.; Bano, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effect of exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) on physiology of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid cv. 3025 grown in saline field (pH 8.4 and EC 4.2 ds/m) as well as on the nutrient status of saline soil. The salicylic acid (10/sup -5/M) was applied as foliar spray, 40 days after sowing (DAS) at vegetative stage of maize plants. The salinity significantly increased sugar contents, protein, proline and superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) activities but the chlorophyll, carotenoid contents, osmotic potential and membrane stability index (MSI) were lower than the control. Foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) to salt stressed plants further augmented the sugar, protein, proline, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) activities, endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) , indole acetic acid (IAA) content, and root length, fresh and dry weights of roots whereas, the chlorophyll a/b and ABA/IAA ratio were decreased. The exogenous application of SA significantly decreased the Na/sup +/, Ni/sup +3/, Pb/sup +4/, Zn/sup +2/, and Na/sup +//K/sup +/ content of soil and roots while increased the Co/sup +3/, Mn/sup +2/, Cu/sup +3/, Fe/sup +2/, K/sup +/ and Mg/sup +2/ content under salinity stress. It can be inferred that exogenous application of SA (10/sup -5/M) was effective in ameliorating the adverse effects of salinity on nutrient status of soil. SA (10/sup -5/M) can be implicated to mitigate the adverse effects of salinity on maize plants. (author)

  14. Characterization of a second physiologically relevant lactose permease gene (lacpB) in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Erzsébet; Orosz, Anita; Kulcsár, László; Kavalecz, Napsugár; Flipphi, Michel; Karaffa, Levente

    2016-05-01

    In Aspergillus nidulans, uptake rather than hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step of lactose catabolism. Deletion of the lactose permease A-encoding gene (lacpA) reduces the growth rate on lactose, while its overexpression enables faster growth than wild-type strains are capable of. We have identified a second physiologically relevant lactose transporter, LacpB. Glycerol-grown mycelia from mutants deleted for lacpB appear to take up only minute amounts of lactose during the first 60 h after a medium transfer, while mycelia of double lacpA/lacpB-deletant strains are unable to produce new biomass from lactose. Although transcription of both lacp genes was strongly induced by lactose, their inducer profiles differ markedly. lacpA but not lacpB expression was high in d-galactose cultures. However, lacpB responded strongly also to β-linked glucopyranose dimers cellobiose and sophorose, while these inducers of the cellulolytic system did not provoke any lacpA response. Nevertheless, lacpB transcript was induced to higher levels on cellobiose in strains that lack the lacpA gene than in a wild-type background. Indeed, cellobiose uptake was faster and biomass formation accelerated in lacpA deletants. In contrast, in lacpB knockout strains, growth rate and cellobiose uptake were considerably reduced relative to wild-type, indicating that the cellulose and lactose catabolic systems employ common elements. Nevertheless, our permease mutants still grew on cellobiose, which suggests that its uptake in A. nidulans prominently involves hitherto unknown transport systems.

  15. Physiological and biochemical characterization of mango tree with paclobutrazol application via irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Alves de Souza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Paclobutrazol application in mango tree floral induction is followed by changes in the hormonal balance and carbohydrates production. This study aimed at evaluating the physiological and biochemical variables of mango tree (Palmer cultivar by applying paclobutrazol doses via irrigation. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five paclobutrazol doses (0.7 g, 1.0 g, 1.3 g, 1.6 g and 1.9 g of a.i. per linear meter of canopy and one additional treatment, with one dose in the conventional form of application (1.9 g of a.i. per linear meter of canopy, and four replicates. The variables analyzed were: photosynthesis rate; stomatal conductance; transpiration; leaf temperature; CO2 ratio; total protein content; reducing, non-reducing and total soluble sugars in leaf tissue and fruit; and nitrate reductase enzyme. The lowest values for photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance were obtained with paclobutrazol applied via irrigation. The highest values for gas exchange were obtained with the lowest paclobutrazol doses applied via irrigation, showing that this kind of application is efficient and that it is possible to reduce the application dose via irrigation system. The highest carbohydrate contents in the leaf tissue were observed for the doses of 1.06 g and 1.09 g of a.i. per linear meter of canopy, applied via irrigation. The carbohydrate contents in fruits decreased in response to the paclobutrazol dose. The application methods and doses applied via irrigation did not influence the nitrate reductase activity.

  16. Biochemical and physiological characterization of oil palm interspecific hybrids (elaeis oleifera x elaeis guineensis) grown in hydroponics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera Mendez, Yurany Dayanna; Moreno Chacon, Andres Leonardo; Romero, Hernan Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    The interspecific hybrid, Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensis (OxG) is an alternative for improving the competitiveness and sustainability of the Latin American oil palm agro-industry, because of its partial resistance to some lethal diseases and also because of the high quality of its oil. A comparative characterization was conducted of the physiological and biochemical performance of seedlings of six OxG hybrids grown in hydroponics. Gas exchange, vegetative growth, protein, sugar and photosynthetic pigment content, and antioxidant system activity were determined. With the exception of gas exchange, the other variables showed significant differences between materials. The U1273 and U1737 materials showed greater vegetative growth with no expression of biochemical traits, while the U1914 and U1990 materials showed high levels of reducing and total sugars, photosynthetic pigments, and antioxidant system activities, characteristics that could confer them adaptation to stress conditions. With the standardized hydroponics technique, the optimal conditions for the growth of seedlings were ensured, the differences between materials were established, and so those with promising features from the physiological and biochemical standpoint were identified. Finally, it could be used to study in a simple, fast, clean and inexpensive way, the effect of levels and sources of mineral nutrients on the growth and development of oil palm.

  17. Physiological characterization of formyl peptide receptor expressing cells in the mouse vomeronasal organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eAckels

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO is a chemosensory structure that detects both hetero- and conspecific social cues. Based on largely monogenic expression of either type 1 or 2 vomeronasal receptors (V1Rs / V2Rs or members of the formyl peptide receptor (FPR family, the vomeronasal sensory epithelium harbors at least three neuronal subpopulations. While various neurophysiological properties of both V1R- and V2R-expressing neurons have been described using genetically engineered mouse models, the basic biophysical characteristics of the more recently identified FPR-expressing vomeronasal neurons have not been studied. Here, we employ a transgenic mouse strain that coexpresses an enhanced variant of yellow fluorescent protein together with FPR-rs3 allowing to identify and analyze FPR-rs3-expressing neurons in acute VNO tissue slices. Single neuron electrophysiological recordings allow comparative characterization of the biophysical properties inherent to a prototypical member of the FPR-expressing subpopulation of VNO neurons. In this study, we provide an in-depth analysis of both passive and active membrane properties, including detailed characterization of several types of voltage-activated conductances and action potential discharge patterns, in fluorescently labeled versus unmarked vomeronasal neurons. Our results reveal striking similarities in the basic (electrophysiological architecture of both transgene-expressing and non-expressing neurons, confirming the suitability of this genetically engineered mouse model for future studies addressing more specialized issues in vomeronasal FPR neurobiology.

  18. Failure to respond to physiologic challenge characterizes esophageal motility in erosive gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, C; Sweis, R; Kaufman, E; Fuellemann, A; Anggiansah, A; Fried, M; Fox, M

    2011-06-01

    Non-specific esophageal dysmotility with impaired clearance is often present in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), especially those with erosive disease; however the physio-mechanic basis of esophageal dysfunction is not well defined. Retrospective assessment of patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD; n=20) and endoscopy negative reflux disease (ENRD; n=20) with pathologic acid exposure on pH studies (>4.2% time/24 h) and also healthy controls (n=20) studied by high resolution manometry. Esophageal motility in response to liquid and solid bolus swallows and multiple water swallows (MWS) was analyzed. Peristaltic dysfunction was defined as failed peristalsis, spasm, weak or poorly coordinated esophageal contraction (>3cm break in 30 mmHg isocontour). Peristaltic dysfunction was present in 33% of water swallows in controls, 56% ENRD and 76% ERD respectively (Preflux events and increase exposure to gastric refluxate. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Physiological adaptations to osmotic stress and characterization of a polyethylene glycol-responsive gene in Braya humilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lirong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Braya humilis (Brassicaceae is a widely distributed plant in arid and semi-arid regions of northern Asia. This plant is well adapted to extremely arid conditions and is a promising candidate species to discover novel drought tolerance strategies. However, not much information about the mechanism(s mediating drought resistance in this species is currently available. Therefore, the present study aimed to characterize the physiological traits and expression patterns of a polyethylene glycol (PEG-responsive gene in B. humilis responding to different levels of osmotic stress induced by PEG-6000. Several important physiological parameters were examined, including the levels of relative water content, soluble protein, malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzyme activity. A tolerance threshold between 20 and 30% PEG-6000 was identified for B. humilis. The water status and oxidative damage below this threshold were maintained at a relatively constant level during the 12 h of treatment. However, once the threshold was exceeded, the water status and oxidative damage were obviously affected after treatment for 4 h. The soluble protein results suggest that B. humilis maintains a vigorous resistance to osmotic stress and that it may play a greater role in osmotic regulation at late stages of stress. Moreover, superoxide dismutase and catalase may be important at preventing oxidative damage in plants at early stages of stress, while peroxidase may be more involved in some biological processes that resist osmotic stress at the late stage, especially in severely damaged plants. Furthermore, a PEG-responsive gene, BhCIPK12, was identified by differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR, cloned, and characterized by quantitative real-time PCR. We hypothesized that this gene may play an important role in mediating osmotic stress or drought resistance in plants. Altogether, these results provide valuable insights into the mechanism

  20. Implementation of physiological fluids to provide insight into the characterization, fate, and biological interactions of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitner, Emily K.; Burns, Katherine E.; Hussain, Saber M.; Comfort, Kristen K.

    2018-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are being increasingly utilized in consumer and medical applications. However, there remains conflicting reports on their safety, which are evaluated through a combination of in vitro and in vivo exposure models. These discrepancies may arise, in part, due to the inherent differences between cell-based and animal systems. It is well established that nanotoxicological effects are highly dependent on the unique physicochemical properties and behavior of the particle set, including size, surface chemistry, agglomeration, and ionic dissolution. However, recent studies have identified that these properties vary as a function of exposure environment; providing a rationale for the contradictory results between in vitro and in vivo assessments. Artificial physiological fluids are emerging as a powerful tool as they allow for the characterization of NPs in an environment which they would likely encounter in vivo, in addition to having the experimental advantages of flexibility and consistency. Here, we demonstrated that the utilization of artificial fluids provided a mechanism to assess AgNP behavior and induced bioresponses in environments that they would likely encounter in vivo. AgNPs were introduced within an alveolar-based exposure model, which included alveolar epithelial (A549) cells incubated within artificial alveolar fluid (AF). Additionally, the particles underwent extensive characterization within both AF and lysosomal fluid, which the AgNPs would encounter following cellular internalization. Following incubation in physiological environments AgNP properties were significantly modified versus a traditional media environment, including alterations to both extent of agglomeration and rate of ionic dissolution. Moreover, when A549s were exposed to AgNPs in AF, the cells displayed lower cytotoxicity and stress rates, corresponding to a fluid-dependent drop in silver ion production. This work highlights the need for enhanced in vitro

  1. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  2. Molecular and physiological characterization of AtHIGD1 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Soong-Taek; Li, Huiling; Alavilli, Hemasundar; Lee, Byeong-Ha; Choi, Dongsu

    2017-06-10

    Flooding is a principal stress that limits plant productivity. The sensing of low oxygen levels (hypoxia) plays a critical role in the signaling pathway that functions in plants in flooded environments. In this study, to investigate hypoxia response mechanisms in Arabidopsis, we identified three hypoxia-related genes and subjected one of these genes, Arabidopsis thaliana HYPOXIA-INDUCED GENE DOMAIN 1 (AtHIGD1), to molecular characterization including gene expression analysis and intracellular localization of the encoded protein. AtHIGD1 was expressed in various organs but was preferentially expressed in developing siliques. Confocal microscopy of transgenic plants harboring eGFP-tagged AtHIGD1 indicated that AtHIGD1 is localized to mitochondria. Importantly, plants overexpressing AtHIGD1 exhibited increased resistance to hypoxia compared to wild type. Our results represent the first report of a biological function for an HIGD protein in plants and indicate that AtHIGD1 is a mitochondrial protein that plays an active role in mitigating the effects of hypoxia on plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genomic, Physiologic, and Symbiotic Characterization of Serratia marcescens Strains Isolated from the Mosquito Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shicheng Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Strains of Serratia marcescens, originally isolated from the gut lumen of adult female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, established persistent infection at high rates in adult A. stephensi whether fed to larvae or in the sugar meal to adults. By contrast, the congener S. fonticola originating from Aedes triseriatus had lower infection in A. stephensi, suggesting co-adaptation of Serratia strains in different species of host mosquitoes. Coinfection at high infection rate in adult A. stephensi resulted after feeding S. marcescens and Elizabethkingia anophelis in the sugar meal, but when fed together to larvae, infection rates with E. anophelis were much higher than were S. marcescens in adult A. stephensi, suggesting a suppression effect of coinfection across life stages. A primary isolate of S. marcescens was resistant to all tested antibiotics, showed high survival in the mosquito gut, and produced alpha-hemolysins which contributed to lysis of erythrocytes ingested with the blood meal. Genomes of two primary isolates from A. stephensi, designated S. marcescens ano1 and ano2, were sequenced and compared to other Serratia symbionts associated with insects, nematodes and plants. Serratia marcescens ano1 and ano2 had predicted virulence factors possibly involved in attacking parasites and/or causing opportunistic infection in mosquito hosts. S. marcescens ano1 and ano2 possessed multiple mechanisms for antagonism against other microorganisms, including production of bacteriocins and multi-antibiotic resistance determinants. These genes contributing to potential anti-malaria activity including serralysins, hemolysins and chitinases are only found in some Serratia species. It is interesting that genome sequences in S. marcescens ano1 and ano2 are distinctly different from those in Serratia sp. Ag1 and Ag2 which were isolated from Anopheles gambiae. Compared to Serratia sp. Ag1 and Ag2, S. marcescens ano1 and ano2 have more rRNAs and many important

  4. Genomic, Physiologic, and Symbiotic Characterization of Serratia marcescens Strains Isolated from the Mosquito Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shicheng; Blom, Jochen; Walker, Edward D

    2017-01-01

    Strains of Serratia marcescens , originally isolated from the gut lumen of adult female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, established persistent infection at high rates in adult A. stephensi whether fed to larvae or in the sugar meal to adults. By contrast, the congener S. fonticola originating from Aedes triseriatus had lower infection in A. stephensi , suggesting co-adaptation of Serratia strains in different species of host mosquitoes. Coinfection at high infection rate in adult A. stephensi resulted after feeding S. marcescens and Elizabethkingia anophelis in the sugar meal, but when fed together to larvae, infection rates with E. anophelis were much higher than were S. marcescens in adult A. stephensi , suggesting a suppression effect of coinfection across life stages. A primary isolate of S. marcescens was resistant to all tested antibiotics, showed high survival in the mosquito gut, and produced alpha-hemolysins which contributed to lysis of erythrocytes ingested with the blood meal. Genomes of two primary isolates from A. stephensi , designated S. marcescens ano1 and ano2, were sequenced and compared to other Serratia symbionts associated with insects, nematodes and plants. Serratia marcescens ano1 and ano2 had predicted virulence factors possibly involved in attacking parasites and/or causing opportunistic infection in mosquito hosts. S. marcescens ano1 and ano2 possessed multiple mechanisms for antagonism against other microorganisms, including production of bacteriocins and multi-antibiotic resistance determinants. These genes contributing to potential anti-malaria activity including serralysins, hemolysins and chitinases are only found in some Serratia species. It is interesting that genome sequences in S. marcescens ano1 and ano2 are distinctly different from those in Serratia sp. Ag1 and Ag2 which were isolated from Anopheles gambiae . Compared to Serratia sp. Ag1 and Ag2, S. marcescens ano1 and ano2 have more rRNAs and many important genes involved in

  5. Isolation of butanol- and isobutanol-tolerant bacteria and physiological characterization of their butanol tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Manabu; Katayama, Taiki; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Mitani, Yasuo; Meng, Xian-Ying; Hori, Tomoyuki; Narihiro, Takashi; Morita, Naoki; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Yumoto, Isao; Kimura, Nobutada; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2013-11-01

    Despite their importance as a biofuel production platform, only a very limited number of butanol-tolerant bacteria have been identified thus far. Here, we extensively explored butanol- and isobutanol-tolerant bacteria from various environmental samples. A total of 16 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria that could tolerate greater than 2.0% (vol/vol) butanol and isobutanol were isolated. A 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed that the isolates were phylogenetically distributed over at least nine genera: Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Rummeliibacillus, Brevibacillus, Coprothermobacter, Caloribacterium, Enterococcus, Hydrogenoanaerobacterium, and Cellulosimicrobium, within the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Ten of the isolates were phylogenetically distinct from previously identified butanol-tolerant bacteria. Two relatively highly butanol-tolerant strains CM4A (aerobe) and GK12 (obligate anaerobe) were characterized further. Both strains changed their membrane fatty acid composition in response to butanol exposure, i.e., CM4A and GK12 exhibited increased saturated and cyclopropane fatty acids (CFAs) and long-chain fatty acids, respectively, which may serve to maintain membrane fluidity. The gene (cfa) encoding CFA synthase was cloned from strain CM4A and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant E. coli showed relatively higher butanol and isobutanol tolerance than E. coli without the cfa gene, suggesting that cfa can confer solvent tolerance. The exposure of strain GK12 to butanol by consecutive passages even enhanced the growth rate, indicating that yet-unknown mechanisms may also contribute to solvent tolerance. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a wide variety of butanol- and isobutanol-tolerant bacteria that can grow in 2.0% butanol exist in the environment and have various strategies to maintain structural integrity against detrimental solvents.

  6. Physiological and pharmacological characterization of transmembrane acid extruders in cultured human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunng-Shinng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intracellular pH (pH i is a pivotal factor for cellular functions and homeostasis. Apart from passive intracellular buffering capacity, active transmembrane transporters responsible for kinetic changes of pH i impacts. Acid extrusion transporters such as Na + /H + exchanger (NHE and Na + /HCO3− cotransporter (NBC have been found to be activated when cells are in an acidic condition in different cell types. However, such far, the pH i regulators have not been characterized in human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs. Materials and Methods: We, therefore, investigated the mechanism of pH i recovery from intracellular acidosis, induced by NH 4 Cl-prepulse, using pH-sensitive fluorescence dye: 2′,7′-bis(2-carboxethyl-5(6-carboxy-fluorescein in HUASMCs. Cultured HUASMCs were derived from the segments of the human umbilical artery that were obtained from women undergoing children delivery. Results: The resting pH i is 7.23 ± 0.03 when cells in HEPES (nominally HCO 3− -free buffered solution. The resting pH i is higher as 7.27 ± 0.03 when cells in CO 2 /HCO3− -buffered solution. In HEPES-buffered solution, a pH i recovery following induced intracellular acidosis could be inhibited completely by 30 μM HOE 694 (a specific NHE inhibitor or by removing [Na +]o . In 5% CO2/HCO3− -buffered solution, 30 μM HOE 694 slowed the pH i recovery from the induced intracellular acidosis only. On the contrary, HOE 694 adding together with 0.2 mM 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (a specific NBC inhibitor or removal of [Na +]o entirely blocked the acid extrusion. By using Western blot technique, we demonstrated that four different isoforms of NBC, that is, SLC4A8 (NBCBE, SLC4A7 (NBCn1, SLC4A5 (NBCe2 and SLC4A4 (NBCe1, co-exist in the HUASMCs. Conclusions: We demonstrate, for the 1 st time, that apart from the housekeeping NHE1, another Na + couple HCO3− -transporter, that is, NBC, functionally coexists to

  7. Resolving the role of plant glutamate dehydrogenase: II. Physiological characterization of plants overexpressing the two enzyme subunits individually or simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercé-Laforgue, Thérèse; Bedu, Magali; Dargel-Grafin, Céline; Dubois, Frédéric; Gibon, Yves; Restivo, Francesco M; Hirel, Bertrand

    2013-10-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH; EC 1.4.1.2) is able to carry out the deamination of glutamate in higher plants. In order to obtain a better understanding of the physiological function of GDH in leaves, transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants were constructed that overexpress two genes from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (GDHA and GDHB under the control of the Cauliflower mosiac virus 35S promoter), which encode the α- and β-subunits of GDH individually or simultaneously. In the transgenic plants, the GDH protein accumulated in the mitochondria of mesophyll cells and in the mitochondria of the phloem companion cells (CCs), where the native enzyme is normally expressed. Such a shift in the cellular location of the GDH enzyme induced major changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolite accumulation and a reduction in growth. These changes were mainly characterized by a decrease in the amount of sucrose, starch and glutamine in the leaves, which was accompanied by an increase in the amount of nitrate and Chl. In addition, there was an increase in the content of asparagine and a decrease in proline. Such changes may explain the lower plant biomass determined in the GDH-overexpressing lines. Overexpressing the two genes GDHA and GDHB individually or simultaneously induced a differential accumulation of glutamate and glutamine and a modification of the glutamate to glutamine ratio. The impact of the metabolic changes occurring in the different types of GDH-overexpressing plants is discussed in relation to the possible physiological function of each subunit when present in the form of homohexamers or heterohexamers.

  8. Characterizing functional connectivity during rest in multiple sclerosis patients versus healthy volunteers using independent component analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacio Garcia, L.; Andrzejak, R.; Prchkovska, V.; Rodrigues, P.

    2016-07-01

    It is commonly thought that our brain is not active when it does not receive any external input. However, during rest, there are still certain distant regions of the brain that are functionally correlated between them: the so-called resting-state networks. This functional connectivity of the brain is disrupted in many neurological diseases. In particular, it has been shown that one of the most studied resting-state networks (the default-mode network) is affected in multiple sclerosis, which is the most common disabling neurological condition affecting the central nervous system of young adults. In this work, I focus on the study of the differences in the resting-state networks between multiple sclerosis patients and healthy volunteers. In order to study the effects of multiple sclerosis on the functional connectivity of the brain, a numerical method known as independent component analysis (ICA) is applied. This technique divides the resting-state fMRI data into independent components. Nonetheless, noise, which could be due to head motion or physiological artifacts, may corrupt the data by indicating a false activation. Therefore, I create a web user interface that allows the user to manually classify all the independent components for a given subject. Eventually, the components classified as noise should be removed from the functional data in order to prevent them from taking part in any further analysis. (Author)

  9. Physiological and molecular characterization of atypical lipid-dependent Malassezia yeasts from a dog with skin lesions: adaptation to a new host?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cafarchia, C.; Latrofa, M.S.; Figueredo, L.A.; da Silva Machado, M.L.; Ferreiro, L.; Guillot, J.; Boekhout, T.; Otranto, D.

    2011-01-01

    Three lipid-dependent Malassezia isolates (here named 114A, 114B and 114C) recovered from a dog with skin lesions were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. All presented ovoid cells and buds formed on a narrow base. Most of the results from physiological tests were consistent with those

  10. A coupled photometric assay for characterization of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolases in the physiological hydrolytic direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailing, Lyn L; Bertinetti, Daniela; Herberg, Friedrich W; Pavlidis, Ioannis V

    2017-10-25

    S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolases (SAHases) are important metabolic enzymes and their dysregulation is associated with some severe diseases. In vivo they catalyze the hydrolysis of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH), the by-product of methylation reactions in various organisms. SAH is a potent inhibitor of methyltransferases, thus its removal from the equilibrium is an important requirement for methylation reactions. SAH hydrolysis is also the first step in the cellular regeneration process of the methyl donor S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). However, in vitro the equilibrium lies towards the synthetic direction. To enable characterization of SAHases in the physiologically relevant direction, we have developed a coupled photometric assay that shifts the equilibrium towards hydrolysis by removing the product adenosine, using a high affinity adenosine kinase (AK). This converts adenosine to AMP and thereby forms equimolar amounts of ADP, which is phosphorylated by a pyruvate kinase (PK), in turn releasing pyruvate. The readout of the assay is the consumption of NADH during the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzed reduction of pyruvate to lactic acid. The applicability of the assay is showcased for the determination of the kinetic constants of an SAHase from Bradyrhizobium elkanii (K M,SAH 41±5μM, v max,SAH 25±1μM/min with 0.13mg/mL enzyme). This assay is a valuable tool for in vitro characterization of SAHases with biotechnological potential, and for monitoring SAHase activity in diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Physiological and Pathogenic Roles of Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 in Metabolic Regulations via Multiple Signal Transduction Pathway Modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Nakatsu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prolyl isomerases are divided into three groups, the FKBP family, Cyclophilin and the Parvulin family (Pin1 and Par14. Among these isomerases, Pin1 is a unique prolyl isomerase binding to the motif including pSer/pThr-Pro that is phosphorylated by kinases. Once bound, Pin1 modulates the enzymatic activity, protein stability or subcellular localization of target proteins by changing the cis- and trans-formations of proline. Several studies have examined the roles of Pin1 in the pathogenesis of cancers and Alzheimer’s disease. On the other hand, recent studies have newly demonstrated Pin1 to be involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Interestingly, while Pin1 expression is markedly increased by high-fat diet feeding, Pin1 KO mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and diabetic vascular dysfunction. These phenomena result from the binding of Pin1 to several key factors regulating metabolic functions, which include insulin receptor substrate-1, AMPK, Crtc2 and NF-κB p65. In this review, we focus on recent advances in elucidating the physiological roles of Pin1 as well as the pathogenesis of disorders involving this isomerase, from the viewpoint of the relationships between signal transductions and metabolic functions.

  12. Identification of drought-responsive miRNAs and physiological characterization of tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuqiong; Zhao, Shanshan; Zhu, Chen; Chang, Xiaojun; Yue, Chuan; Wang, Zhong; Lin, Yuling; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2017-11-21

    Drought stress is one of the major natural challenges in the main tea-producing regions of China. The tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is a traditional beverage plant whose growth status directly affects tea quality. Recent studies have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) play key functions in plant growth and development. Although some miRNAs have been identified in C. sinensis, little is known about their roles in the drought stress response of tea plants. Physiological characterization of Camellia sinensis 'Tieguanyin' under drought stress showed that the malondialdehyde concentration and electrical conductivity of leaves of drought-stressed plants increased when the chlorophyll concentration decreased under severe drought stress. We sequenced four small-RNA (sRNA) libraries constructed from leaves of plants subjected to four different treatments, normal water supply (CK); mild drought stress (T1); moderate drought stress (T2) and severe drought stress (T3). A total of 299 known mature miRNA sequences and 46 novel miRNAs were identified. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed that most of the differentially expressed-miRNA target genes were related to regulation of transcription. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that the most highly enriched pathways under drought stress were D-alanine metabolism, sulfur metabolism, and mineral absorption pathways. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to validate the expression patterns of 21 miRNAs (2 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated under drought stress). The observed co-regulation of the miR166 family and their targets ATHB-14-like and ATHB-15-like indicate the presence of negative feedback regulation in miRNA pathways. Analyses of drought-responsive miRNAs in tea plants showed that most of differentially expressed-miRNA target genes were related to regulation of transcription. The results of study revealed that the expressions of phase-specific miRNAs vary with morphological, physiological, and

  13. Synthesis and characterization of cationic lipid coated magnetic nanoparticles using multiple emulsions as microreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbaba, Hasan; Karagöz, Uğur [Ege University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Selamet, Yusuf [Izmir Institute of Technology, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, 35433 Izmir (Turkey); Kantarcı, A. Gülten, E-mail: gulten.kantarci@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 35100 Izmir (Turkey)

    2017-03-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis method with in-situ surface coating. For this purpose multiple emulsions were used as microreactors for the first time and magnetic iron oxide particles synthesized in the core of cationic solid lipid nanoparticles. DLS, SEM, TEM, VSM, Raman Spectrometer, XRD, and XPS techniques were performed for characterization of the magnetic nanoparticles. Obtained magnetic nanoparticles are superparamagnetic and no additional process was needed for surface adjustments. They are positively charged as a result of cationic lipid coating and has appropriate particle size (<30 nm) for drug or nucleic acid delivery. Structure analysis showed that magnetic core material is in the form of magnetite. Saturation magnetization value was measured as 15–17 emu g{sup −1} for lipid coated magnetic nanoparticles obtained by multiple emulsion method which is reasonably sufficient for magnetic targeting. - Highlights: • A novel iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis method with in-situ surface coating. • Combining advantages of microemulsions and multiple emulsion methods. • Multiple emulsions were used as microreactors for magnetic nanoparticle synthesis. • Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles synthesized in the core of cationic lipids. • Possible delivery systems for nucleic acids, oil soluble compounds or drugs.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of cationic lipid coated magnetic nanoparticles using multiple emulsions as microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaba, Hasan; Karagöz, Uğur; Selamet, Yusuf; Kantarcı, A. Gülten

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis method with in-situ surface coating. For this purpose multiple emulsions were used as microreactors for the first time and magnetic iron oxide particles synthesized in the core of cationic solid lipid nanoparticles. DLS, SEM, TEM, VSM, Raman Spectrometer, XRD, and XPS techniques were performed for characterization of the magnetic nanoparticles. Obtained magnetic nanoparticles are superparamagnetic and no additional process was needed for surface adjustments. They are positively charged as a result of cationic lipid coating and has appropriate particle size (<30 nm) for drug or nucleic acid delivery. Structure analysis showed that magnetic core material is in the form of magnetite. Saturation magnetization value was measured as 15-17 emu g-1 for lipid coated magnetic nanoparticles obtained by multiple emulsion method which is reasonably sufficient for magnetic targeting.

  15. Identification an characterization of QTL underlying whole plant physiology in Arabidopsis taliana: 13C, stomatal conduction and transpiration efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juenger, T.E.; McKay, J.K.; Hausmann, N.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Sen, S.; Stowe, K.A.; Dawson, T.E.; Simms, E.L.; Richards, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Water limitation is one of the most important factors limiting crop productivity world-wide and has likely been an important selective regime influencing the evolution of plant physiology. Understanding the genetic and physiological basis of drought adaptation is therefore important for improving

  16. Characterization of annual disease progression of multiple sclerosis patients: A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freilich, Jonatan; Manouchehrinia, Ali; Trusheim, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Previous research characterizing factors influencing multiple sclerosis (MS) disease progression has typically been based on time to disease milestones (Kaplan-Meier, Cox hazard regression, etc.). A limitation of these methods is the handling of the often large groups of patients not reaching...... the milestone. To characterize clinical factors influencing MS disease progression as annual transitions from each Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The annual progression of 11,964 patients from the Swedish MS Registry was analysed with 10 multinomial logistic regressions, that is, one for transition...... from each full EDSS with explanatory variables age, sex, age at onset, time in current EDSS, highest prior EDSS, MS course and treatment. All factors (except sex) investigated had statistically significant impacts on transitions from at least one EDSS. However, significance and size of the effect...

  17. Exploring transcriptional signalling mediated by OsWRKY13, a potential regulator of multiple physiological processes in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xianghua

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice transcription regulator OsWRKY13 influences the functioning of more than 500 genes in multiple signalling pathways, with roles in disease resistance, redox homeostasis, abiotic stress responses, and development. Results To determine the putative transcriptional regulation mechanism of OsWRKY13, the putative cis-acting elements of OsWRKY13-influenced genes were analyzed using the whole genome expression profiling of OsWRKY13-activated plants generated with the Affymetrix GeneChip Rice Genome Array. At least 39 transcription factor genes were influenced by OsWRKY13, and 30 of them were downregulated. The promoters of OsWRKY13-upregulated genes were overrepresented with W-boxes for WRKY protein binding, whereas the promoters of OsWRKY13-downregulated genes were enriched with cis-elements putatively for binding of MYB and AP2/EREBP types of transcription factors. Consistent with the distinctive distribution of these cis-elements in up- and downregulated genes, nine WRKY genes were influenced by OsWRKY13 and the promoters of five of them were bound by OsWRKY13 in vitro; all seven differentially expressed AP2/EREBP genes and six of the seven differentially expressed MYB genes were suppressed by in OsWRKY13-activated plants. A subset of OsWRKY13-influenced WRKY genes were involved in host-pathogen interactions. Conclusion These results suggest that OsWRKY13-mediated signalling pathways are partitioned by different transcription factors. WRKY proteins may play important roles in the monitoring of OsWRKY13-upregulated genes and genes involved in pathogen-induced defence responses, whereas MYB and AP2/EREBP proteins may contribute most to the control of OsWRKY13-downregulated genes.

  18. Characterization of recombination features and the genetic basis in multiple cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Botong; Jiang, Jicai; Seroussi, Eyal; Liu, George E; Ma, Li

    2018-04-27

    Crossover generated by meiotic recombination is a fundamental event that facilitates meiosis and sexual reproduction. Comparative studies have shown wide variation in recombination rate among species, but the characterization of recombination features between cattle breeds has not yet been performed. Cattle populations in North America count millions, and the dairy industry has genotyped millions of individuals with pedigree information that provide a unique opportunity to study breed-level variations in recombination. Based on large pedigrees of Jersey, Ayrshire and Brown Swiss cattle with genotype data, we identified over 3.4 million maternal and paternal crossover events from 161,309 three-generation families. We constructed six breed- and sex-specific genome-wide recombination maps using 58,982 autosomal SNPs for two sexes in the three dairy cattle breeds. A comparative analysis of the six recombination maps revealed similar global recombination patterns between cattle breeds but with significant differences between sexes. We confirmed that male recombination map is 10% longer than the female map in all three cattle breeds, consistent with previously reported results in Holstein cattle. When comparing recombination hotspot regions between cattle breeds, we found that 30% and 10% of the hotspots were shared between breeds in males and females, respectively, with each breed exhibiting some breed-specific hotspots. Finally, our multiple-breed GWAS found that SNPs in eight loci affected recombination rate and that the PRDM9 gene associated with hotspot usage in multiple cattle breeds, indicating a shared genetic basis for recombination across dairy cattle breeds. Collectively, our results generated breed- and sex-specific recombination maps for multiple cattle breeds, provided a comprehensive characterization and comparison of recombination patterns between breeds, and expanded our understanding of the breed-level variations in recombination features within an

  19. Physiological and Morphological Characterization of Organotypic Cocultures of the Chick Forebrain Area MNH and its Main Input Area DMA/DMP

    OpenAIRE

    Endepols, Heike; Jungnickel, Julia; Braun, Katharina

    2001-01-01

    Cocultures of the learning-relevant forebrain region mediorostrai neostriatum and hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH) and its main glutamatergic input area nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami/posterior thalami were morphologically and physiologically characterized. Synaptic contacts of thalamic fibers were lightand electron-microscopically detected on MNH neurons by applying the fluorescence tracer DiI-C18(3) into the thalamus part of the coculture. Most thalamic syn...

  20. Cold in-place recycling characterization framework for single or multiple component binder systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Benjamin C.

    Cold in-place recycling (CIR) is a pavement rehabilitation technique which has gained momentum in recent years. This momentum is due partly to its economic and sustainability characteristics, which has led to CIR market expansion. When pavement network deterioration is considered alongside increasing material costs, it is not beyond reason to expect demands on CIR to continue to increase. Historically, single component binder (SCB) systems, those with one stabilization binder (or two if the secondary binder dosage is 1% or less), have dominated the CIR market and could be considered the general state of practice. Common stabilization binders are either bituminous or cementitious. Two example SCB systems would be: 1) 3% portland cement, or 2) 3% asphalt emulsion with 1% hydrated lime. While traditional SCB systems have demonstrated positive economic and sustainability impacts, this dissertation focuses on multiple component binder (MCB) systems (bituminous and cementitious combined) which exhibit the potential to provide better overall economics and performance. Use of MCBs has the potential to alleviate SCB issues to some extent (e.g. cracking with cementitious SCBs, rutting with bituminous SCBs). Furthermore, to fairly represent both binders in an MCB system a universal design method which can accommodate multiple binder types is needed. The main objectives of this dissertation are to develop a universal CIR design framework and, using this framework, characterize multiple SCB and MCB systems. Approximately 1500 CIR specimens were tested herein along with approximately 300 asphalt concrete specimens which serve as a reference data set for CIR characterization. A case study of a high-traffic Mississippi CIR project which included cement SCB and emulsion SCB sections is also presented to support laboratory efforts. Individual components needed to comprise a universal design framework, such as curing protocols, were developed. SCB and MCB characterization indicated

  1. In vivo characterization of cortical and white matter neuroaxonal pathology in early multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Tobias; Fan, Qiuyun; Treaba, Constantina Andrada; Ouellette, Russell; Herranz, Elena; Mangeat, Gabriel; Louapre, Céline; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Klawiter, Eric C; Sloane, Jacob A; Mainero, Caterina

    2017-11-01

    Neuroaxonal pathology is a main determinant of disease progression in multiple sclerosis; however, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, including its link to inflammatory demyelination and temporal occurrence in the disease course are still unknown. We used ultra-high field (7 T), ultra-high gradient strength diffusion and T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging to characterize microstructural changes in myelin and neuroaxonal integrity in the cortex and white matter in early stage multiple sclerosis, their distribution in lesional and normal-appearing tissue, and their correlations with neurological disability. Twenty-six early stage multiple sclerosis subjects (disease duration ≤5 years) and 24 age-matched healthy controls underwent 7 T T2*-weighted imaging for cortical lesion segmentation and 3 T T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging for assessing microstructural myelin, axonal and dendrite integrity in lesional and normal-appearing tissue of the cortex and the white matter. Conventional mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy metrics were also assessed for comparison. Cortical lesions were identified in 92% of early multiple sclerosis subjects and they were characterized by lower intracellular volume fraction (P = 0.015 by paired t-test), lower myelin-sensitive contrast (P = 0.030 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) and higher mean diffusivity (P = 0.022 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) relative to the contralateral normal-appearing cortex. Similar findings were observed in white matter lesions relative to normal-appearing white matter (all P test) and lower fractional anisotropy (P Wilcoxon signed-rank test) suggestive of less coherent underlying fibre orientation. Additionally, the normal-appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis subjects had diffusely lower intracellular volume fractions than the white matter in controls (P = 0.029 by unpaired

  2. High dietary fat and sucrose results in an extensive and time-dependent deterioration in health of multiple physiological systems in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, James G; Kebede, Melkam A; Meoli, Christopher C; Stöckli, Jacqueline; Whitworth, P Tess; Wright, Amanda L; Hoffman, Nolan J; Minard, Annabel Y; Ma, Xiuquan; Krycer, James R; Nelson, Marin E; Tan, Shi-Xiong; Yau, Belinda; Thomas, Kristen C; Wee, Natalie K Y; Khor, Ee-Cheng; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Vissel, Bryce; Biden, Trevor J; Baldock, Paul A; Hoehn, Kyle L; Cantley, James; Cooney, Gregory J; James, David E; Fazakerley, Daniel J

    2018-04-13

    Obesity is associated with metabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and with disorders such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and neurodegeneration. Typically, these pathologies are examined in discrete model systems and with limited temporal resolution, and whether these disorders co-occur is therefore unclear. To address this question, here we examined multiple physiological systems in male C57BL/6J mice following prolonged exposure to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFHSD). HFHSD-fed mice rapidly exhibited metabolic alterations, including obesity, hyperleptinemia, physical inactivity, glucose intolerance, peripheral insulin resistance, fasting hyperglycemia, ectopic lipid deposition, and bone deterioration. Prolonged exposure to HFHSD resulted in morbid obesity, ectopic triglyceride deposition in liver and muscle, extensive bone loss, sarcopenia, hyperinsulinemia, and impaired short-term memory. Although many of these defects are typically associated with aging, HFHSD did not alter telomere length in white blood cells, indicating that this diet did not generally promote all aspects of aging. Strikingly, glucose homeostasis was highly dynamic. Glucose intolerance was evident in HFHSD-fed mice after 1 week and was maintained for 24 weeks. Beyond 24 weeks, however, glucose tolerance improved in HFHSD-fed mice, and by 60 weeks, it was indistinguishable from that of chow-fed mice. This improvement coincided with adaptive β-cell hyperplasia and hyperinsulinemia, without changes in insulin sensitivity in muscle or adipose tissue. Assessment of insulin secretion in isolated islets revealed that leptin, which inhibited insulin secretion in the chow-fed mice, potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the HFHSD-fed mice after 60 weeks. Overall, the excessive calorie intake was accompanied by deteriorating function of numerous physiological systems. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Multiple technologies applied to characterization of the porosity and permeability of the Biscayne aquifer, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, K.J.; Sukop, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Research is needed to determine how seepage-control actions planned by the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) will affect recharge, groundwater flow, and discharge within the dual-porosity karstic Biscayne aquifer where it extends eastward from the Everglades to Biscayne Bay. A key issue is whether the plan can be accomplished without causing urban flooding in adjacent populated areas and diminishing coastal freshwater flow needed in the restoration of the ecologic systems. Predictive simulation of groundwater flow is a prudent approach to understanding hydrologic change and potential ecologic impacts. A fundamental problem to simulation of karst groundwater flow is how best to represent aquifer heterogeneity. Currently, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers and academic partners are applying multiple innovative technologies to characterize the spatial distribution of porosity and permeability within the Biscayne aquifer.

  4. Methods for radiation detection and characterization using a multiple detector probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Douglas William; Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2014-11-04

    Apparatuses, methods, and systems relating to radiological characterization of environments are disclosed. Multi-detector probes with a plurality of detectors in a common housing may be used to substantially concurrently detect a plurality of different radiation activities and types. Multiple multi-detector probes may be used in a down-hole environment to substantially concurrently detect radioactive activity and contents of a buried waste container. Software may process, analyze, and integrate the data from the different multi-detector probes and the different detector types therein to provide source location and integrated analysis as to the source types and activity in the measured environment. Further, the integrated data may be used to compensate for differential density effects and the effects of radiation shielding materials within the volume being measured.

  5. Characterization of the infrared spectra of serum from patients with multiple myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotnikova, L., E-mail: ljusja@mail.ru; Nosenko, T.; Uspenskaya, M., E-mail: mv-uspenskaya@mail.ru [Saint Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Kronverksky Pr., Saint Petersburg, 197101 (Russian Federation); Polyanichko, A. [Saint Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya Nab. 7/9, Saint Petersburg, 199034 (Russian Federation); Garifullin, A.; Voloshin, S. [Russian Scientific Research Institute of Hematology and Transfusiology, 2nd Sovetskaya Str. 16, Saint Petersburg, 191024 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Multiple myeloma (MM) accounts for about 1% of all types of cancers. MM is characterized by the proliferation of a single clone of plasma cells, which may produce and secrete a homogeneous monoclonal immunoglobulin. The monoclonal immunoglobulin is commonly referred to as an M protein. The M protein acts as a serological “tumor” marker that is useful for diagnosis and disease monitoring. The electrophoretic pattern reveals the M-protein in 80% of MM patients as a single peak or localized band. In our study we applied a combination of high-resolution agarose gel protein electrophoresis (PEL), spectroscopic techniques and thermal analysis to identify the key differences in protein composition, protein structure and their thermal behavior for the samples obtained from the serum of MM patients and healthy donors.

  6. Analytical characterization of high-level mixed wastes using multiple sample preparation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.G.; Baldwin, D.L.; Urie, M.W.; McKinley, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington, is actively involved in performing analytical characterization of high-level mixed waste from Hanford's single shell and double shell tank characterization programs. A full suite of analyses is typically performed on homogenized tank core samples. These analytical techniques include inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, total organic carbon methods and radiochemistry methods, as well as many others, all requiring some type of remote sample-preparation treatment to solubilize the tank sludge material for analysis. Most of these analytical methods typically use a single sample-preparation treatment, inherently providing elemental information only. To better understand and interpret tank chemistry and assist in identifying chemical compounds, selected analytical methods are performed using multiple sample-preparation treatments. The sample preparation treatments used at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for this work with high-level mixed waste include caustic fusion, acid digestion, and water leach. The type of information available by comparing results from different sample-prep treatments includes evidence for the presence of refractory compounds, acid-soluble compounds, or water-soluble compounds. Problems unique to the analysis of Hanford tank wastes are discussed. Selected results from the Hanford single shell ferrocyanide tank, 241-C-109, are presented, and the resulting conclusions are discussed

  7. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  8. Assessing human variability in kinetics for exposures to multiple environmental chemicals: a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling case study with dichloromethane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcke, Mathieu; Haddad, Sami

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude of interindividual variability in internal dose for inhalation exposure to single versus multiple chemicals. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for adults (AD), neonates (NEO), toddlers (TODD), and pregnant women (PW) were used to simulate inhalation exposure to "low" (RfC-like) or "high" (AEGL-like) air concentrations of benzene (Bz) or dichloromethane (DCM), along with various levels of toluene alone or toluene with ethylbenzene and xylene. Monte Carlo simulations were performed and distributions of relevant internal dose metrics of either Bz or DCM were computed. Area under the blood concentration of parent compound versus time curve (AUC)-based variability in AD, TODD, and PW rose for Bz when concomitant "low" exposure to mixtures of increasing complexities occurred (coefficient of variation (CV) = 16-24%, vs. 12-15% for Bz alone), but remained unchanged considering DCM. Conversely, AUC-based CV in NEO fell (15 to 5% for Bz; 12 to 6% for DCM). Comparable trends were observed considering production of metabolites (AMET), except for NEO's CYP2E1-mediated metabolites of Bz, where an increased CV was observed (20 to 71%). For "high" exposure scenarios, Cmax-based variability of Bz and DCM remained unchanged in AD and PW, but decreased in NEO (CV= 11-16% to 2-6%) and TODD (CV= 12-13% to 7-9%). Conversely, AMET-based variability for both substrates rose in every subpopulation. This study analyzed for the first time the impact of multiple exposures on interindividual variability in toxicokinetics. Evidence indicates that this impact depends upon chemical concentrations and biochemical properties, as well as the subpopulation and internal dose metrics considered.

  9. Meta-analysis methods for combining multiple expression profiles: comparisons, statistical characterization and an application guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lun-Ching; Lin, Hui-Min; Sibille, Etienne; Tseng, George C

    2013-12-21

    As high-throughput genomic technologies become accurate and affordable, an increasing number of data sets have been accumulated in the public domain and genomic information integration and meta-analysis have become routine in biomedical research. In this paper, we focus on microarray meta-analysis, where multiple microarray studies with relevant biological hypotheses are combined in order to improve candidate marker detection. Many methods have been developed and applied in the literature, but their performance and properties have only been minimally investigated. There is currently no clear conclusion or guideline as to the proper choice of a meta-analysis method given an application; the decision essentially requires both statistical and biological considerations. We performed 12 microarray meta-analysis methods for combining multiple simulated expression profiles, and such methods can be categorized for different hypothesis setting purposes: (1) HS(A): DE genes with non-zero effect sizes in all studies, (2) HS(B): DE genes with non-zero effect sizes in one or more studies and (3) HS(r): DE gene with non-zero effect in "majority" of studies. We then performed a comprehensive comparative analysis through six large-scale real applications using four quantitative statistical evaluation criteria: detection capability, biological association, stability and robustness. We elucidated hypothesis settings behind the methods and further apply multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) and an entropy measure to characterize the meta-analysis methods and data structure, respectively. The aggregated results from the simulation study categorized the 12 methods into three hypothesis settings (HS(A), HS(B), and HS(r)). Evaluation in real data and results from MDS and entropy analyses provided an insightful and practical guideline to the choice of the most suitable method in a given application. All source files for simulation and real data are available on the author's publication website.

  10. Characterization of a Mouse Model of Emphysema Induced by Multiple Instillations of Low-Dose Elastase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena V. Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many experimental models have been proposed to study the pathophysiological features of emphysema, as well as to search for new therapeutic approaches for acute or chronically injured lung parenchyma. We aimed to characterize an emphysema model induced by multiple instillations of elastase by tracking the changes in inflammation, remodeling, and cardiac function after each instillation. Forty-eight C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned across 2 groups. Emphysema (ELA animals received 1, 2, 3, or 4 intratracheal instillations of pancreatic porcine elastase (PPE, 0.2 IU with a 1-week interval between them. Controls (C received saline following the same protocol. Before and after implementation of the protocol, animals underwent echocardiographic analysis. After the first instillation of PPE, the percentage of mononuclear cells in the lung parenchyma was increased compared to C (p = 0.0001. The second instillation resulted in hyperinflated alveoli, increased mean linear intercept, and reduced elastic fiber content in lung parenchyma compared to C (p=0.0197. Following the third instillation, neutrophils and collagen fiber content in alveolar septa and airways were increased, whereas static lung elastance was reduced compared to C (p=0.0094. After the fourth instillation, the percentage of M1 macrophages in lungs; levels of interleukin-1beta, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, hepatocyte growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor; and collagen fiber content in the pulmonary vessel wall were increased compared to C (p=0.0096. At this time point, pulmonary arterial hypertension was apparent, with increased diastolic right ventricular wall thickness. In conclusion, the initial phase of emphysema was characterized by lung inflammation with predominance of mononuclear cells, whereas at the late stage, impairment of pulmonary and cardiovascular functions was observed. This model enables analysis of therapies at different time points during controlled

  11. Multiple cyber attacks against a target with observation errors and dependent outcomes: Characterization and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Maochao; Xu, Shouhuai; Zhao, Peng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a cybersecurity model: An attacker can launch multiple attacks against a target with a termination strategy that says that the attacker will stop after observing a number of successful attacks or when the attacker is out of attack resources. However, the attacker's observation of the attack outcomes (i.e., random variables indicating whether the target is compromised or not) has an observation error that is specified by both a false-negative and a false-positive probability. The novelty of the model we study is the accommodation of the dependence between the attack outcomes, because the dependence was assumed away in the literature. In this model, we characterize the monotonicity and bounds of the compromise probability (i.e., the probability that the target is compromised). In addition to extensively showing the impact of dependence on quantities such as compromise probability and attack cost, we give methods for finding the optimal strategy that leads to maximum compromise probability or minimum attack cost. This study highlights that the dependence between random variables cannot be assumed away, because the results will be misleading. - Highlights: • A novel cybersecurity model is proposed to accommodate the dependence among attack outcomes. • The monotonicity and bounds of the compromise probability are studied. • The dependence effect on the compromise probability and attack cost is discussed via simulation. • The optimal strategy that leads to maximum compromise probability or minimum attack cost is presented.

  12. Characterize kinematic rupture history of large earthquakes with Multiple Haskell sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Z.; Zhan, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquakes are often regarded as continuous rupture along a single fault, but the occurrence of complex large events involving multiple faults and dynamic triggering challenges this view. Such rupture complexities cause difficulties in existing finite fault inversion algorithms, because they rely on specific parameterizations and regularizations to obtain physically meaningful solutions. Furthermore, it is difficult to assess reliability and uncertainty of obtained rupture models. Here we develop a Multi-Haskell Source (MHS) method to estimate rupture process of large earthquakes as a series of sub-events of varying location, timing and directivity. Each sub-event is characterized by a Haskell rupture model with uniform dislocation and constant unilateral rupture velocity. This flexible yet simple source parameterization allows us to constrain first-order rupture complexity of large earthquakes robustly. Additionally, relatively few parameters in the inverse problem yields improved uncertainty analysis based on Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling in a Bayesian framework. Synthetic tests and application of MHS method on real earthquakes show that our method can capture major features of large earthquake rupture process, and provide information for more detailed rupture history analysis.

  13. Buried interfaces - A systematic study to characterize an adhesive interface at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubrich, Jan; Löbbecke, Miriam; Watermeyer, Philipp; Wilde, Fabian; Requena, Guillermo; da Silva, Julio

    2018-03-01

    A comparative study of a model adhesive interface formed between laser-pretreated Ti15-3-3-3 and the thermoplastic polymer PEEK has been carried out in order to characterize the interfaces' structural details and the infiltration of the surface nano-oxide by the polymer at multiple scales. Destructive approaches such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy of microsections prepared by focused ion beam, and non-destructive imaging approaches including laser scanning and scanning electron microscopy of pretreated surfaces as well as synchrotron computed tomography techniques (micro- and ptychographic tomographies) were employed for resolving the large, μm-sized melt-structures and the fine nano-oxide substructure within the buried interface. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the fine, open-porous nano-oxide homogeneously covers the larger macrostructure features which in turn cover the joint surface. The open-porous nano-oxide forming the interface itself appears to be fully infiltrated and wetted by the polymer. No voids or even channels were detected down to the respective resolution limits of scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

  14. Identification and characterization of novel multiple bacteriocins produced by Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides QU 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, N; Okamura, K; Zendo, T; Himeno, K; Nakayama, J; Sonomoto, K

    2010-07-01

    To characterize novel multiple bacteriocins produced by Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides QU 15. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides QU 15 isolated from Nukadoko (rice bran bed) produced novel bacteriocins. By using three purification steps, four antimicrobial peptides termed leucocin A (ΔC7), leucocin A-QU 15, leucocin Q and leucocin N were purified from the culture supernatant. The amino acid sequences of leucocin A (ΔC7) and leucocin A-QU 15 were identical to that of leucocin A-UAL 187 belonging to class IIa bacteriocins, but leucocin A (ΔC7) was deficient in seven C-terminal residues. Leucocin Q and leucocin N are novel class IId bacteriocins. Moreover, the DNA sequences encoding three bacteriocins, leucocin A-QU 15, leucocin Q and leucocin N were obtained. These bacteriocins including two novel bacteriocins were identified from Leuc. pseudomesenteroides QU 15. They showed similar antimicrobial spectra, but their intensities differed. The C-terminal region of leucocin A-QU 15 was important for its antimicrobial activity. Leucocins Q and N were encoded by adjacent open reading frames (ORFs) in the same operon, but leucocin A-QU 15 was not. These leucocins were produced concomitantly by the same strain. Although the two novel bacteriocins were encoded by adjacent ORFs, a characteristic of class IIb bacteriocins, they did not show synergistic activity. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Characterization of CD4+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in patients with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaole; Gao, Lei; Meng, Kai; Han, Chunting; Li, Qiang; Feng, Zhenjun; Chen, Lei

    2018-05-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable cancer characterized by the development of malignant plasma cells. The CD8 T cell-mediated cytotoxicity is considered a major player in antitumor immunity, but in MM patients, the CD8 T cells displayed senescence markers and were functionally impaired. To investigate whether cytotoxic CD4 T cells could act as a treatment alternative in MM, we examined the frequency and function of naturally occurring cytotoxic CD4 T cells in MM patients. The cytotoxic CD4 T cells were identified as granzyme-A, granzyme B-, and perforin-expressing CD4 T cells, and their frequencies were significantly upregulated in MM patients when compared with healthy controls. The frequencies of cytotoxic CD4 T cells in MM patients were not associated with the frequencies of cytotoxic CD8 T cells, but were negatively associated with disease severity. Interestingly, the expression levels of inhibitory molecules, including PD-1 and CTLA-4, were significantly lower in cytotoxic CD4 T cells than in cytotoxic CD8 T cells. When co-incubated with autologous CD38 + CD138 + plasma cells, CD4 T cells were capable of eliminating plasma cells with varying degrees of efficacy. In MM patients, the frequency of circulating plasma cells was negatively correlated with the frequency of cytotoxic CD4 T cells. Therefore, CD4 T cell-mediated cytotoxicity existed naturally in MM patients and could potentially act as an option in antitumor therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrometric, Hydrochemical, and Hydrogeophysical Runoff Characterization Across Multiple Land Covers in the Agua Salud Project, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Guy Finley

    As the Panama Canal Authority faces sensitivity to water shortages, managing water resources becomes crucial for the global shipping industry's security. These studies address knowledge gaps in tropical water resources to aid hydrological model development and validation. Field-based hydrological investigations in the Agua Salud Project within the Panama Canal Watershed employed multiple tools across a variety of land covers to investigate hydrological processes. Geochemical tracers informed where storm runoff in a stream comes from and identified electrical conductivity (EC) as an economical, high sample frequency tracer during small storms. EC-based hydrograph separation coupled with hydrograph recession rate analyses identified shallow and deep groundwater storage-discharge relationships that varied by season and land cover. A series of plot-scale electrical resistivity imaging geophysical experiments coupled with rainfall simulation characterized subsurface flow pathway behavior and quantified respectively increasing infiltration rates across pasture, 10 year old secondary succession forest, teak (tectona grandis), and 30 year old secondary succession forest land covers. Additional soil water, groundwater, and geochemical studies informed conceptual model development in subsurface flow pathways and groundwater, and identified future research needs.

  17. Mycobacterium malmesburyense sp. nov., a non-tuberculous species of the genus Mycobacterium revealed by multiple gene sequence characterization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gcebe, N

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology: DOI 10.1099/ijsem.0.001678 Mycobacterium malmesburyense sp. nov., a non-tuberculous species of the genus Mycobacterium revealed by multiple gene sequence characterization Gcebe N Rutten V Gey...

  18. Fabrication and characterization of one- and two-dimensional regular patterns produced employing multiple exposure holographic lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamulevičius, S.; Jurkevičiute, A.; Armakavičius, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we describe fabrication and characterization methods of two-dimensional periodic microstructures in photoresist with pitch of 1.2 urn and lattice constant 1.2-4.8 μm, formed using two-beam multiple exposure holographic lithography technique. The regular structures were recorded empl...

  19. Characterization of the psychological, physiological and EEG profile of acute betel quid intoxication in naïve subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Peter G; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (Pbetel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (Pbetel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug.

  20. Characterization of the Psychological, Physiological and EEG Profile of Acute Betel Quid Intoxication in Naïve Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Peter G.; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (Pchewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C) in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (Pincreased arousal (Pchewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug. PMID:21909371

  1. Socioeconomic and demographic characterization of an endemic malaria region in Brazil by multiple correspondence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Raquel M; Riback, Thais I S; Lima, Tiago F M; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; Cruz, Oswaldo G; Oliveira, Francisco G S; Moresco, Gilberto G; Honório, Nildimar A; Codeço, Cláudia T

    2017-10-02

    In the process of geographical retraction of malaria, some important endemicity pockets remain. Here, we report results from a study developed to obtain detailed community data from an important malaria hotspot in Latin America (Alto Juruá, Acre, Brazil), to investigate the association of malaria with socioeconomic, demographic and living conditions. A household survey was conducted in 40 localities (n = 520) of Mâncio Lima and Rodrigues Alves municipalities, Acre state. Information on previous malaria, schooling, age, gender, income, occupation, household structure, habits and behaviors related to malaria exposure was collected. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was applied to characterize similarities between households and identify gradients. The association of these gradients with malaria was assessed using regression. The first three dimensions of MCA accounted for almost 50% of the variability between households. The first dimension defined an urban/rurality gradient, where urbanization was associated with the presence of roads, basic services as garbage collection, water treatment, power grid energy, and less contact with the forest. There is a significant association between this axis and the probability of malaria at the household level, OR = 1.92 (1.23-3.02). The second dimension described a gradient from rural settlements in agricultural areas to those in forested areas. Access via dirt road or river, access to electricity power-grid services and aquaculture were important variables. Malaria was at lower risk at the forested area, OR = 0.55 (1.23-1.12). The third axis detected intraurban differences and did not correlate with malaria. Living conditions in the study area are strongly geographically structured. Although malaria is found throughout all the landscapes, household traits can explain part of the variation found in the odds of having malaria. It is expected these results stimulate further discussions on modelling approaches targeting a

  2. Improving the characterization of radiologically isolated syndrome suggestive of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola De Stefano

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To improve the characterization of asymptomatic subjects with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI abnormalities highly suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS, a condition named as "radiologically isolated syndrome" (RIS. METHODS: Quantitative MRI metrics such as brain volumes and magnetization transfer (MT were assessed in 19 subjects previously classified as RIS, 20 demographically-matched relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS patients and 20 healthy controls (HC. Specific measures were: white matter (WM lesion volumes (LV, total and regional brain volumes, and MT ratio (MTr in lesions, normal-appearing WM (NAWM and cortex. RESULTS: LV was similar in RIS and RRMS, without differences in distribution and frequency at lesion mapping. Brain volumes were similarly lower in RRMS and RIS than in HC (p<0.001. Lesional-MTr was lower in RRMS than in RIS (p = 0.048; NAWM-MTr and cortical-MTr were similar in RIS and HC and lower (p<0.01 in RRMS. These values were particularly lower in RRMS than in RIS in the sensorimotor and memory networks. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that 13/19 RIS had ≥70% probability of being classified as RRMS on the basis of their brain volume and lesional-MTr values. CONCLUSIONS: Macroscopic brain damage was similar in RIS and RRMS. However, the subtle tissue damage detected by MTr was milder in RIS than in RRMS in clinically relevant brain regions, suggesting an explanation for the lack of clinical manifestations of subjects with RIS. This new approach could be useful for narrowing down the RIS individuals with a high risk of progression to MS.

  3. Characterization of the psychological, physiological and EEG profile of acute betel quid intoxication in naïve subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Osborne

    Full Text Available Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm and elevated face temperature (0.7°C (P<0.001 above the effects observed in response to chewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (P<0.05 and perceived increased arousal (P<0.01 and perceived decreased ability to think (P<0.05 in 31 subjects. The EEG spectral profile recorded from mental states associated with open and closed eyes, and mental tasks such as reading and eyes closed mental arithmetic were significantly modified (P<0.05 relative to chewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug.

  4. Rice Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.A. Counce; Davidi R. Gealy; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2002-01-01

    Physiology occurs tn physical space through chemical reactions constrained by anatomy and morphology, yet guided by genetics. Physiology has been called the logic of life. Genes encode structural and fimcdonal proteins. These proteins are subsequently processed to produce enzymes that direct and govern the biomechanical processes involved in the physiology of the...

  5. Characterization of Anatomical and Physiological Adaptations in Cassytha filiformis L.—An Advanced Obligate Hemiparasite on Morinda tinctoria Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Balasubramanian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to understand the host-parasite relationship in terms of anatomical and physiological adaptations in Morinda tinctoria Roxb. and Cassytha filiformis L. Anatomically the haustorium of Cassytha is found to have two parts, the upper haustorium and the endophyte. The former is the portion of a haustorium that lies external to the host organ, whereas the endophyte is the portion of a haustorium that penetrates host tissues. It was also observed that the host organ triggers the dedifferentiation of cortical parenchyma to develop dense cytoplasm, conspicuous nuclei and numerous starch grains and these cells are found to serve as the initials of upper haustorium. The level of Chl b was lower than Chl a and xanthophylls in Cassytha when compared to Morinda. The photosynthetic activity was measured in intact leaves/stems of both the host and parasitic plant using Chl a fluorescence induction kinetics, which revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency was very low in the infected sample as well as in the parasite stem. Over all, the reduction in the photosynthetic efficiency was correlated to the poorly developed PS II complex.

  6. Towards a More Biologically-meaningful Climate Characterization: Variability in Space and Time at Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, D. S.; Kaufman, C. G.; Kueppers, L. M.; Harte, J.

    2013-12-01

    Sampling limitations and current modeling capacity justify the common use of mean temperature values in summaries of historical climate and future projections. However, a monthly mean temperature representing a 1-km2 area on the landscape is often unable to capture the climate complexity driving organismal and ecological processes. Estimates of variability in addition to mean values are more biologically meaningful and have been shown to improve projections of range shifts for certain species. Historical analyses of variance and extreme events at coarse spatial scales, as well as coarse-scale projections, show increasing temporal variability in temperature with warmer means. Few studies have considered how spatial variance changes with warming, and analysis for both temporal and spatial variability across scales is lacking. It is unclear how the spatial variability of fine-scale conditions relevant to plant and animal individuals may change given warmer coarse-scale mean values. A change in spatial variability will affect the availability of suitable habitat on the landscape and thus, will influence future species ranges. By characterizing variability across both temporal and spatial scales, we can account for potential bias in species range projections that use coarse climate data and enable improvements to current models. In this study, we use temperature data at multiple spatial and temporal scales to characterize spatial and temporal variability under a warmer climate, i.e., increased mean temperatures. Observational data from the Sierra Nevada (California, USA), experimental climate manipulation data from the eastern and western slopes of the Rocky Mountains (Colorado, USA), projected CMIP5 data for California (USA) and observed PRISM data (USA) allow us to compare characteristics of a mean-variance relationship across spatial scales ranging from sub-meter2 to 10,000 km2 and across temporal scales ranging from hours to decades. Preliminary spatial analysis at

  7. The existence and characterization of self-sustaining multiplicative fusion and fission reaction chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, A.A.; Heindler, M.

    1980-01-01

    The mathematical-physical similarities and differences between fusion and fission multiplication processes are investigated. It is shown that advanced fusion cycles can sustain excursion tendencies which are essentially analogous to conventional fission cycles. The result that fission excursions are unbounded and that fusion excursions eventually attain an asymptote represents a significant distinction between these fundamental self-sustaining nuclear multiplicative chains. (Auth.)

  8. Using Information on Exposure to Characterizing Risks to Human Health from Concurrent Exposures to Multiple Chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mr Price, PSP

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the concept of using exposure information to understand, organize, and manage the risks associated with cumulative exposures to chemicals (exposures to multiple chemicals from multiple sources). The issue of cumulative exposures was identified in more than 30 years ago, but in

  9. Structure-function relations in physiology education: Where's the mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Matthew E; Gardner, Stephanie M

    2017-06-01

    Physiology demands systems thinking: reasoning within and between levels of biological organization and across different organ systems. Many physiological mechanisms explain how structures and their properties interact at one level of organization to produce emergent functions at a higher level of organization. Current physiology principles, such as structure-function relations, selectively neglect mechanisms by not mentioning this term explicitly. We explored how students characterized mechanisms and functions to shed light on how students make sense of these terms. Students characterized mechanisms as 1 ) processes that occur at levels of organization lower than that of functions; and 2 ) as detailed events with many steps involved. We also found that students produced more variability in how they characterized functions compared with mechanisms: students characterized functions in relation to multiple levels of organization and multiple definitions. We interpret these results as evidence that students see mechanisms as holding a more narrow definition than used in the biological sciences, and that students struggle to coordinate and distinguish mechanisms from functions due to cognitive processes germane to learning in many domains. We offer the instructional suggestion that we scaffold student learning by affording students opportunities to relate and also distinguish between these terms so central to understanding physiology. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Hydrologic test plans for large-scale, multiple-well tests in support of site characterization at Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, P.M.; Stone, R.; Lu, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project is preparing plans for tests and has begun work on some tests that will provide the data necessary for the hydrogeologic characterization of a site located on a United States government reservation at Hanford, Washington. This site is being considered for the Nation's first geologic repository of high level nuclear waste. Hydrogeologic characterization of this site requires several lines of investigation which include: surface-based small-scale tests, testing performed at depth from an exploratory shaft, geochemistry investigations, regional studies, and site-specific investigations using large-scale, multiple-well hydraulic tests. The large-scale multiple-well tests are planned for several locations in and around the site. These tests are being designed to provide estimates of hydraulic parameter values of the geologic media, chemical properties of the groundwater, and hydrogeologic boundary conditions at a scale appropriate for evaluating repository performance with respect to potential radionuclide transport

  11. Isolation and Characterization of melanized yeast form of Aureobasidium pullulans and physiological studies on the melanization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gamal, M.S.; El-Bialy, H.A.; Elsayed, M.A.; Khalifa, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Melanin pigments have immense application potentials in the fields of agriculture , cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries . Isolation and characterization of melanin producer from local resources is the main aim of the present study . Six melanized yeast isolates were selected from seventeen isolation resources including natural sources (Eucalyptus globules plant), industrial wastes (Tomato paste processing) and surface contaminants (Bathrooms). The selected yeasts were screened for melanin production in an individual experiment , results revealed the ability of yeast isolate selected from wastes of tomato paste processing (W 3 ) to produce melanin at 300 mM concentration . The selected melanized yeast was identified as Aureobasidium pullulans according to the morphological characteristics and 18S rRNA . Melanin production by the selected yeast was maximized by optimization of the cultural conditions and nutritional parameters by nearly two folds ( 550 mM ). The highest melanin yield was achieved in the fermentation medium contains 30 gl -1 sucrose , 35 gl -1 peptone and 1 mM L - DOPA concentration after nine days of incubation at 30°C and its pH value is adjusted at 7.0. Melanin characterization by FTIR and NMR resemble aliphatic and aromatic composition of A . pullulans ’ s melanin . In conclusion, the selected yeast is a promising candidate for melanin production in a semipilot scale

  12. Characterizations of double pulsing in neutron multiplicity and coincidence counting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Katrina E., E-mail: kkoehler@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P. O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P. O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Croft, Stephen S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Henzlova, Daniela; Santi, Peter A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P. O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Passive neutron coincidence/multiplicity counters are subject to non-ideal behavior, such as double pulsing and dead time. It has been shown in the past that double-pulsing exhibits a distinct signature in a Rossi-alpha distribution, which is not readily noticed using traditional Multiplicity Shift Register analysis. However, it has been assumed that the use of a pre-delay in shift register analysis removes any effects of double pulsing. In this work, we use high-fidelity simulations accompanied by experimental measurements to study the effects of double pulsing on multiplicity rates. By exploiting the information from the double pulsing signature peak observable in the Rossi-alpha distribution, the double pulsing fraction can be determined. Algebraic correction factors for the multiplicity rates in terms of the double pulsing fraction have been developed. We discuss the role of these corrections across a range of scenarios.

  13. Characterization of UAV Performance and Development of a Formation Flight Controller for Multiple Small UAVS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Patrick A

    2006-01-01

    ... (UAV). One area of particular interest is using multiple small UAVs cooperatively to improve mission efficiency, as well as perform missions that couldn't be performed using vehicles independently...

  14. Physiological characterization of brewer's yeast in high-gravity beer fermentations with glucose or maltose syrups as adjuncts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piddocke, Maya Petrova; kreisz, Stefan; Heldt-Hansen, Hans Peter

    2009-01-01

    High-gravity brewing, which can decrease production costs by increasing brewery yields, has become an attractive alternative to traditional brewing methods. However, as higher sugar concentration is required, the yeast is exposed to various stresses during fermentation. We evaluated the influence...... of high-gravity brewing on the fermentation performance of the brewer’s yeast under model brewing conditions. The lager brewer’s strain Weihenstephan 34/70 strain was characterized at three different gravities by adding either glucose or maltose syrups to the basic wort. We observed that increased gravity...... resulted in more balanced fermentation performance in terms of higher cell numbers, respectively, higher wort fermentability and a more favorable flavor profile of the final beer. Our study underlines the effects of the various stress factors on brewer’s yeast metabolism and the influence of the type...

  15. Statistics and methodology of multiple cell upset characterization under heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebrev, G.I.; Gorbunov, M.S.; Useinov, R.G.; Emeliyanov, V.V.; Ozerov, A.I.; Anashin, V.S.; Kozyukov, A.E.; Zemtsov, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Mean and partial cross-section concepts and their connections to multiplicity and statistics of multiple cell upsets (MCUs) in highly-scaled digital memories are introduced and discussed. The important role of the experimental determination of the upset statistics is emphasized. It was found that MCU may lead to quasi-linear dependence of cross-sections on linear energy transfer (LET). A new form of function for interpolation of mean cross-section dependences on LET has been proposed

  16. Characterization of the biochemical, physiological, and medicinal properties of Streptomyces hygroscopicus ACTMS-9H isolated from the Amazon (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Sandrine M A; Melo, Janaína G S; Militão, Gardênia C G; Lima, Gláucia M S; do Carmo A Lima, Maria; Aguiar, Jaciana S; Araújo, Renata M; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Marchand, Pascal; Araújo, Janete M; Silva, Teresinha G

    2017-01-01

    Actinomycetes are known to produce numerous secondary bioactive metabolites of pharmaceutical interest. The purpose of this study was to isolate, characterize, and investigate the antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities of metabolites produced by Actinobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Paullinia cupana. The Actinobacteria was identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus ACTMS-9H. Based on a bioguided study, the methanolic biomass extract obtained from submerged cultivation had the most potent antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activities. This extract was partitioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and 2-butanol. Elaiophylin was isolated from the methanolic biomass extract, and its molecular formula was determined (C 54 H 88 O 18 ) based on 1 H and 13 C NMR, IR and MS analyses. The 2-butanol phase was fractionated into four fractions (EB1, EB2A, EB2B, and EB3M). Chemical prospecting indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponins, and reducing sugars in the methanolic extract and 2-butanol phase. The elaiophylin displayed anticancer activity in HEp-2 and HL-60 cells with an IC 50 of 1 μg/mL. The EB1 fraction was selectively toxic to HL-60 cells with IC 50 of 9 ng/mL. Bioautography showed that the EB1 fraction contained an alkaloid with antibacterial and antifungal activities (MIC values ≤1.9 and anticancer activities.

  17. Molecular identification and physiological characterization of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria isolated from heap and box cocoa bean fermentations in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintin, Simonetta; Alessandria, Valentina; Valente, Antonio; Dolci, Paola; Cocolin, Luca

    2016-01-04

    Yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) populations, isolated from cocoa bean heap and box fermentations in West Africa, have been investigated. The fermentation dynamicswere determined by viable counts, and 106 yeasts, 105 LAB and 82 AAB isolateswere identified by means of rep-PCR grouping and sequencing of the rRNA genes. During the box fermentations, the most abundant species were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ethanolica, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii, while S. cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia manshurica, C. ethanolica, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Lb. fermentum, Lb. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and Acetobacter lovaniensis were identified in the heap fermentations. Furthermore, the most abundant species were molecularly characterized by analyzing the rep-PCR profiles. Strains grouped according to the type of fermentations and their progression during the transformation process were also highlighted. The yeast, LAB and AAB isolates were physiologically characterized to determine their ability to grow at different temperatures, as well as at different pH, and ethanol concentrations, tolerance to osmotic stress, and lactic acid and acetic acid inhibition. Temperatures of 45 °C, a pH of 2.5 to 3.5, 12% (v/v) ethanol and high concentrations of lactic and acetic acid have a significant influence on the growth of yeasts, LAB and AAB. Finally, the yeastswere screened for enzymatic activity, and the S. cerevisiae, H. guilliermondii, H. uvarumand C. ethanolica species were shown to possess several enzymes that may impact the quality of the final product.

  18. Molecular, cellular and physiological characterization of the cancer cachexia-inducing C26 colon carcinoma in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldi Alfonso

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of cancer patients experience dramatic weight loss, due to cachexia and consisting of skeletal muscle and fat tissue wasting. Cachexia is a negative prognostic factor, interferes with therapy and worsens the patients' quality of life by affecting muscle function. Mice bearing ectopically-implanted C26 colon carcinoma are widely used as an experimental model of cancer cachexia. As part of the search for novel clinical and basic research applications for this experimental model, we characterized novel cellular and molecular features of C26-bearing mice. Methods A fragment of C26 tumor was subcutaneously grafted in isogenic BALB/c mice. The mass growth and proliferation rate of the tumor were analyzed. Histological and cytofluorometric analyses were used to assess cell death, ploidy and differentiation of the tumor cells. The main features of skeletal muscle atrophy, which were highlighted by immunohistochemical and electron microscopy analyses, correlated with biochemical alterations. Muscle force and resistance to fatigue were measured and analyzed as major functional deficits of the cachectic musculature. Results We found that the C26 tumor, ectopically implanted in mice, is an undifferentiated carcinoma, which should be referred to as such and not as adenocarcinoma, a common misconception. The C26 tumor displays aneuploidy and histological features typical of transformed cells, incorporates BrdU and induces severe weight loss in the host, which is largely caused by muscle wasting. The latter appears to be due to proteasome-mediated protein degradation, which disrupts the sarcomeric structure and muscle fiber-extracellular matrix interactions. A pivotal functional deficit of cachectic muscle consists in increased fatigability, while the reported loss of tetanic force is not statistically significant following normalization for decreased muscle fiber size. Conclusions We conclude, on the basis of the definition of

  19. Molecular, cellular and physiological characterization of the cancer cachexia-inducing C26 colon carcinoma in mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulino, Paola [Department of Histology and Medical Embryology, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Scarpa 16, 00161 Rome, Italy and Interuniversity Institute of Myology (Italy); Faiola, Fabio [DVM Veterinarian chief, Health Status and Animal Welfare, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Scarpa 16, 00161 Rome (Italy); Adamo, Sergio; Coletti, Dario; Berardi, Emanuele; Cardillo, Veronica M; Rizzuto, Emanuele; Perniconi, Barbara; Ramina, Carla; Padula, Fabrizio [Department of Histology and Medical Embryology, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Scarpa 16, 00161 Rome, Italy and Interuniversity Institute of Myology (Italy); Spugnini, Enrico P [SAFU Department, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Via delle Messi d' Oro 156, 00158 Rome (Italy); Baldi, Alfonso [Department Biochemistry, Section of Pathology, Second University of Naples, Via L. Armanni 5, 80138 Naples (Italy)

    2010-07-08

    The majority of cancer patients experience dramatic weight loss, due to cachexia and consisting of skeletal muscle and fat tissue wasting. Cachexia is a negative prognostic factor, interferes with therapy and worsens the patients' quality of life by affecting muscle function. Mice bearing ectopically-implanted C26 colon carcinoma are widely used as an experimental model of cancer cachexia. As part of the search for novel clinical and basic research applications for this experimental model, we characterized novel cellular and molecular features of C26-bearing mice. A fragment of C26 tumor was subcutaneously grafted in isogenic BALB/c mice. The mass growth and proliferation rate of the tumor were analyzed. Histological and cytofluorometric analyses were used to assess cell death, ploidy and differentiation of the tumor cells. The main features of skeletal muscle atrophy, which were highlighted by immunohistochemical and electron microscopy analyses, correlated with biochemical alterations. Muscle force and resistance to fatigue were measured and analyzed as major functional deficits of the cachectic musculature. We found that the C26 tumor, ectopically implanted in mice, is an undifferentiated carcinoma, which should be referred to as such and not as adenocarcinoma, a common misconception. The C26 tumor displays aneuploidy and histological features typical of transformed cells, incorporates BrdU and induces severe weight loss in the host, which is largely caused by muscle wasting. The latter appears to be due to proteasome-mediated protein degradation, which disrupts the sarcomeric structure and muscle fiber-extracellular matrix interactions. A pivotal functional deficit of cachectic muscle consists in increased fatigability, while the reported loss of tetanic force is not statistically significant following normalization for decreased muscle fiber size. We conclude, on the basis of the definition of cachexia, that ectopically-implanted C26 carcinoma represents a

  20. Molecular, cellular and physiological characterization of the cancer cachexia-inducing C26 colon carcinoma in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulino, Paola; Faiola, Fabio; Adamo, Sergio; Coletti, Dario; Berardi, Emanuele; Cardillo, Veronica M; Rizzuto, Emanuele; Perniconi, Barbara; Ramina, Carla; Padula, Fabrizio; Spugnini, Enrico P; Baldi, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    The majority of cancer patients experience dramatic weight loss, due to cachexia and consisting of skeletal muscle and fat tissue wasting. Cachexia is a negative prognostic factor, interferes with therapy and worsens the patients' quality of life by affecting muscle function. Mice bearing ectopically-implanted C26 colon carcinoma are widely used as an experimental model of cancer cachexia. As part of the search for novel clinical and basic research applications for this experimental model, we characterized novel cellular and molecular features of C26-bearing mice. A fragment of C26 tumor was subcutaneously grafted in isogenic BALB/c mice. The mass growth and proliferation rate of the tumor were analyzed. Histological and cytofluorometric analyses were used to assess cell death, ploidy and differentiation of the tumor cells. The main features of skeletal muscle atrophy, which were highlighted by immunohistochemical and electron microscopy analyses, correlated with biochemical alterations. Muscle force and resistance to fatigue were measured and analyzed as major functional deficits of the cachectic musculature. We found that the C26 tumor, ectopically implanted in mice, is an undifferentiated carcinoma, which should be referred to as such and not as adenocarcinoma, a common misconception. The C26 tumor displays aneuploidy and histological features typical of transformed cells, incorporates BrdU and induces severe weight loss in the host, which is largely caused by muscle wasting. The latter appears to be due to proteasome-mediated protein degradation, which disrupts the sarcomeric structure and muscle fiber-extracellular matrix interactions. A pivotal functional deficit of cachectic muscle consists in increased fatigability, while the reported loss of tetanic force is not statistically significant following normalization for decreased muscle fiber size. We conclude, on the basis of the definition of cachexia, that ectopically-implanted C26 carcinoma represents

  1. Formulation and characterization of a multiple emulsion containing 1% L-ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Akhtar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to prepare a stable multiple emulsion containing a skin anti-aging agent and using paraffin oil. Vitamin C, was incorporated into the inner aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w multiple emulsion at a concentration of 1%. Multiple emulsion was prepared by two step method. Stability studies were performed at different accelerated conditions, i.e. 8 oC (in refrigerator, 25 oC (in oven, 40 oC (in oven, and 40 oC at 75% RH (in stability cabin for 28 days to predict the stability of formulations. Different parameters, namely pH, globule size, electrical conductivity and effect of centrifugation (simulating gravity were determined during stability studies. Data obtained was evaluated statistically using ANOVA two way analyses and LSD tests. Multiple emulsion formulated was found to be stable at lower temperatures (i.e. 8 and 25 oC for 28 days. No phase separation was observed in the samples during stability testing. It was found that there was no significant change (p > 0.05 in globule sizes in most of the samples kept at various conditions. Insignificant changes (p > 0.05 in both pH and conductivity values were determined for the samples kept at 8, 40, and 40 oC at 75% RH, throughout the study period. Further studies are needed to formulate more stable emulsions with other emulsifying agents.

  2. Vital Recorder—a free research tool for automatic recording of high-resolution time-synchronised physiological data from multiple anaesthesia devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyung-Chul; Jung, Chul-Woo

    2018-01-01

    The current anaesthesia information management system (AIMS) has limited capability for the acquisition of high-quality vital signs data. We have developed a Vital Recorder program to overcome the disadvantages of AIMS and to support research. Physiological data of surgical patients were collected from 10 operating rooms using the Vital Recorder. The basic equipment used were a patient monitor, the anaesthesia machine, and the bispectral index (BIS) monitor. Infusion pumps, cardiac output mon...

  3. Vital Recorder-a free research tool for automatic recording of high-resolution time-synchronised physiological data from multiple anaesthesia devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Chul; Jung, Chul-Woo

    2018-01-24

    The current anaesthesia information management system (AIMS) has limited capability for the acquisition of high-quality vital signs data. We have developed a Vital Recorder program to overcome the disadvantages of AIMS and to support research. Physiological data of surgical patients were collected from 10 operating rooms using the Vital Recorder. The basic equipment used were a patient monitor, the anaesthesia machine, and the bispectral index (BIS) monitor. Infusion pumps, cardiac output monitors, regional oximeter, and rapid infusion device were added as required. The automatic recording option was used exclusively and the status of recording was frequently checked through web monitoring. Automatic recording was successful in 98.5% (4,272/4,335) cases during eight months of operation. The total recorded time was 13,489 h (3.2 ± 1.9 h/case). The Vital Recorder's automatic recording and remote monitoring capabilities enabled us to record physiological big data with minimal effort. The Vital Recorder also provided time-synchronised data captured from a variety of devices to facilitate an integrated analysis of vital signs data. The free distribution of the Vital Recorder is expected to improve data access for researchers attempting physiological data studies and to eliminate inequalities in research opportunities due to differences in data collection capabilities.

  4. Characterization of the human plasma phosphoproteome using linear ion trap mass spectrometry and multiple search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascal, Montserrat; Gay, Marina; Ovelleiro, David; Casas, Vanessa; Gelpí, Emilio; Abian, Joaquin

    2010-02-05

    Major plasma protein families play different roles in blood physiology and hemostasis and in immunodefense. Other proteins in plasma can be involved in signaling as chemical messengers or constitute biological markers of the status of distant tissues. In this respect, the plasma phosphoproteome holds potentially relevant information on the mechanisms modulating these processes through the regulation of protein activity. In this work we describe for the first time a collection of phosphopeptides identified in human plasma using immunoaffinity separation of the seven major serum protein families from other plasma proteins, SCX fractionation, and TiO(2) purification prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. One-hundred and twenty-seven phosphosites in 138 phosphopeptides mapping 70 phosphoproteins were identified with FDR search engines.

  5. Characterizing multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation via internal symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballar, Roland Cristopher F.; Ocampo, Leonard R.; Galapon, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Internal symmetries can be used to classify multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation (TE-CCR). The dynamical behavior of solutions to the TE-CCR possessing particular internal symmetries involving time reversal differ significantly from solutions to the TE-CCR without those particular symmetries, implying a connection between the internal symmetries of a quantum system, its internal unitary dynamics, and the TE-CCR.

  6. Characterization of the first symptoms of multiple sclerosis in a Brazilian center: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Breseghello Cavenaghi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic, immune-mediated and degenerative central nervous system (CNS disease with well-established diagnostic criteria. Treatment can modify the course of the disease. The objective of this study was to describe the initial symptoms of multiple sclerosis in a Brazilian medical center. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study, conducted in a Brazilian reference center for multiple sclerosis treatment. METHODS: Data on 299 patients with confirmed diagnoses of MS were included in the study. Their medical files were evaluated and the data were analyzed. RESULTS: The most common symptom involved the cranial nerves (50.83% and unifocal manifestation was presented by the majority of this population (73.91%. The mean time between the first symptom and the diagnosis was 2.84 years. Unifocal symptoms correlated with longer time taken to establish the diagnosis, with an average of 3.20 years, while for multifocal symptoms the average time taken for the diagnosis was 1.85 years. Unifocal onset was related to greater diagnostic difficulty. CONCLUSIONS: MS is a heterogeneous disease and its initial clinical manifestation is very variable.

  7. Experimental characterization of a prototype secondary spectrometer for vertically scattering multiple energy analysis at cold-neutron triple axis spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Petersen, Rasmus; Groitl, Felix; Kure, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    A thorough experimental characterization of a multiplexing backend with multiple energy analysis on a cold-neutron triple axis spectrometer (cTAS) is presented. The prototype employs two angular segments (2 theta-segments) each containing five vertically scattering analyzers (energy channels...... to the energy resolution of a standard cTAS. The dispersion relation of the antiferromagnetic excitations in MnF2 has been mapped out by performing constant energy transfer maps. These results show that the tested setup is virtually spurion free. In addition, focusing effects due to (mis...

  8. Role of NAA in characterizations of sampling behaviors of multiple elements in CRMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi; Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Nie Huiling

    1997-01-01

    Taking the advantage of high precision and accuracy of neutron activation analysis (NAA), sampling constants have been determined for multielements in several international and Chinese reference materials. The suggested technique may be used for finding elements in existing CRMs qualified for quality control (QC) of small size samples (several mg or less), and characterizing sampling behaviors of multielements in new CRMs specifically made for QC of microanalysis

  9. Personalized physiological medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ince, Can

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of personalized physiological medicine that is specifically directed at the needs of the critically ill patient. This differs from the conventional view of personalized medicine, characterized by biomarkers and gene profiling, instead focusing on time-variant

  10. Genome-wide characterization of centromeric satellites from multiple mammalian genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Can; Cardone, Maria Francesca; Catacchio, Claudia Rita; Antonacci, Francesca; O'Brien, Stephen J; Ryder, Oliver A; Purgato, Stefania; Zoli, Monica; Della Valle, Giuliano; Eichler, Evan E; Ventura, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Despite its importance in cell biology and evolution, the centromere has remained the final frontier in genome assembly and annotation due to its complex repeat structure. However, isolation and characterization of the centromeric repeats from newly sequenced species are necessary for a complete understanding of genome evolution and function. In recent years, various genomes have been sequenced, but the characterization of the corresponding centromeric DNA has lagged behind. Here, we present a computational method (RepeatNet) to systematically identify higher-order repeat structures from unassembled whole-genome shotgun sequence and test whether these sequence elements correspond to functional centromeric sequences. We analyzed genome datasets from six species of mammals representing the diversity of the mammalian lineage, namely, horse, dog, elephant, armadillo, opossum, and platypus. We define candidate monomer satellite repeats and demonstrate centromeric localization for five of the six genomes. Our analysis revealed the greatest diversity of centromeric sequences in horse and dog in contrast to elephant and armadillo, which showed high-centromeric sequence homogeneity. We could not isolate centromeric sequences within the platypus genome, suggesting that centromeres in platypus are not enriched in satellite DNA. Our method can be applied to the characterization of thousands of other vertebrate genomes anticipated for sequencing in the near future, providing an important tool for annotation of centromeres.

  11. Assessment of multiple geophysical techniques for the characterization of municipal waste deposit sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaël, Dumont; Tanguy, Robert; Nicolas, Marck; Frédéric, Nguyen

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we tested the ability of geophysical methods to characterize a large technical landfill installed in a former sand quarry. The geophysical surveys specifically aimed at delimitating the deposit site horizontal extension, at estimating its thickness and at characterizing the waste material composition (the moisture content in the present case). The site delimitation was conducted with electromagnetic (in-phase and out-of-phase) and magnetic (vertical gradient and total field) methods that clearly showed the transition between the waste deposit and the host formation. Regarding waste deposit thickness evaluation, electrical resistivity tomography appeared inefficient on this particularly thick deposit site. Thus, we propose a combination of horizontal to vertical noise spectral ratio (HVNSR) and multichannel analysis of the surface waves (MASW), which successfully determined the approximate waste deposit thickness in our test landfill. However, ERT appeared to be an appropriate tool to characterize the moisture content of the waste, which is of prior information for the organic waste biodegradation process. The global multi-scale and multi-method geophysical survey offers precious information for site rehabilitation studies, water content mitigation processes for enhanced biodegradation or landfill mining operation planning.

  12. Characterization of microcirculation in multiple sclerosis lesions by dynamic texture parameter analysis (DTPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Verma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Texture analysis is an alternative method to quantitatively assess MR-images. In this study, we introduce dynamic texture parameter analysis (DTPA, a novel technique to investigate the temporal evolution of texture parameters using dynamic susceptibility contrast enhanced (DSCE imaging. Here, we aim to introduce the method and its application on enhancing lesions (EL, non-enhancing lesions (NEL and normal appearing white matter (NAWM in multiple sclerosis (MS. METHODS: We investigated 18 patients with MS and clinical isolated syndrome (CIS, according to the 2010 McDonald's criteria using DSCE imaging at different field strengths (1.5 and 3 Tesla. Tissues of interest (TOIs were defined within 27 EL, 29 NEL and 37 NAWM areas after normalization and eight histogram-based texture parameter maps (TPMs were computed. TPMs quantify the heterogeneity of the TOI. For every TOI, the average, variance, skewness, kurtosis and variance-of-the-variance statistical parameters were calculated. These TOI parameters were further analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by multiple Wilcoxon sum rank testing corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Tissue- and time-dependent differences were observed in the dynamics of computed texture parameters. Sixteen parameters discriminated between EL, NEL and NAWM (pAVG = 0.0005. Significant differences in the DTPA texture maps were found during inflow (52 parameters, outflow (40 parameters and reperfusion (62 parameters. The strongest discriminators among the TPMs were observed in the variance-related parameters, while skewness and kurtosis TPMs were in general less sensitive to detect differences between the tissues. CONCLUSION: DTPA of DSCE image time series revealed characteristic time responses for ELs, NELs and NAWM. This may be further used for a refined quantitative grading of MS lesions during their evolution from acute to chronic state. DTPA discriminates lesions beyond features of enhancement or T2

  13. Characterization of multiple antibiotic resistant clinical strains of Staphylococcus isolated from pregnant women vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetsa, Bakwena Ashton; Kumar, Ajay; Ateba, Collins Njie

    2018-03-29

    Vagina which is one of the important reservoirs for Staphylococcus and in pregnant women pathogenic strains may infect the child during the birth or by vertical transmission. A total of 68 presumptive Staphylococcus strains isolated from human vagina were found to be gram-positive cocci, and only 32 (47%) isolates were found beta-hemolytic. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) results confirmed 33 isolates belonged to Staphylococcus which consisting of 6 species, i.e., S. aureus (14), S. vitulinus (7), S. epidermidis (4), S cohnii (3), S. equorum (3), and S. succinus (2). Further, the result of antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that large proportions (76%-100%) of the isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics and more often resistant to penicillin (100%), ampicillin (100%), oxacillin (97%), oxytetracycline (97%), vancomycin (97%), rifampin (85%), erythromycin (82%), and streptomycin (76%). In the present study, only the sec enterotoxin gene was detected in four S. aureus strains. DNA fingerprints of the 33 isolates that were generated using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR analysis revealed great genetic relatedness of isolates. High prevalence of vaginal colonization with multiple antibiotic-resistant staphylococci among pregnant women was observed which were emerged from the single respective species clones that underwent evolution. The vertical transmission of these multiple antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus species to the infant is possible; therefore, the findings of this study emphasize the need for regular surveillance of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains in pregnant women in this area.

  14. Nonimmune immunoglobulin binding and multiple adhesion characterize Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes of placental origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasti, Niloofar; Namusoke, Fatuma; Chêne, Arnaud

    2006-01-01

    The harmful effects of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) are engendered by the heavy sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized RBCs in the placenta. It is well documented that this process is mediated by interactions of parasite-encoded variant surface antigens and placental receptors...... and adhesion to multiple receptors (IgG/IgM/HA/CSA) rather than the exclusive binding to CSA is a characteristic of fresh Ugandan placental isolates. These findings are of importance for the understanding of the pathogenesis of placental malaria and have implications for the ongoing efforts to develop a global...

  15. The Impact of Genetic Variants for Different Physiological Characterization of Type 2 Diabetes Loci on Gestational Insulin Signaling in Nondiabetic Pregnant Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shunyao; Liu, Yunqiang; Chen, Xiaojuan; Tan, Yuande; Mei, Jie; Song, Wenzhong; Gan, Lu; Wang, Hailian; Yin, Shi; Dong, Xianjue; Chi, Shu; Deng, Shaoping

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the impact of genetic variants on transiently upregulated gestational insulin signaling. We recruited 1152 unrelated nondiabetic pregnant Han Chinese women (age 28.5 ± 4.1 years; body mass index [BMI] 21.4 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) and gave them oral glucose tolerance tests. Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, indices of insulin disposition, early-phase insulin release, fasting state, and 0 to 120 minute's proinsulin to insulin conversion were used to dissect insulin physiological characterization. Several variants related to β-cell function were genotyped. The genetic impacts were analyzed using logistic regression under an additive model. By adjusting for maternal age, BMI, and the related interactions, the genetic variants in ABCC8, CDKAL1, CDKN2A, HNF1B, KCNJ11, and MTNR1B were detected to impact gestational insulin signaling through heterogeneous mechanisms; however, compared with that in nonpregnant metabolism, the genetic effects seem to be eminently and heavily influenced by maternal age and BMI, indicating possible particular mechanisms underlying gestational metabolism and diabetic pathogenesis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Physiological and morphological characterization of organotypic cocultures of the chick forebrain area MNH and its main input area DMA/DMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endepols, H; Jungnickel, J; Braun, K

    2001-01-01

    Cocultures of the learning-relevant forebrain region mediorostral neostriatum and hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH) and its main glutamatergic input area nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami/posterior thalami were morphologically and physiologically characterized. Synaptic contacts of thalamic fibers were light- and electron-microscopically detected on MNH neurons by applying the fluorescence tracer DiI-C18(3) into the thalamus part of the coculture. Most thalamic synapses on MNH neurons were symmetric and located on dendritic shafts, but no correlation between Gray-type ultrastructure and dendritic localization was found. Using intracellular current clamp recordings, we found that the electrophysiological properties, such as input resistance, time constant, action potential threshold, amplitude, and duration of MNH neurons, remain stable for over 30 days in vitro. Pharmacological blockade experiments revealed glutamate as the main neurotransmitter of thalamic synapses on MNH neurons, which were also found on inhibitory neurons. High frequency stimulation of thalamic inputs evoked synaptic potentiation in 22% of MNH neurons. The results indicate that DMA/DMP-MNH cocultures, which can be maintained under stable conditions for at least 4 weeks, provide an attractive in vitro model for investigating synaptic plasticity in the avian brain.

  17. Graphene quantum dots decorated with magnetic nanoparticles: Synthesis, electrodeposition, characterization and application as an electrochemical sensor towards determination of some amino acids at physiological pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Karimzadeh, Ayub; Shadjou, Nasrin; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Bageri, Leyla; Sadeghi, Sattar; Mahboob, Soltanali

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the synthesis and characterization of a novel nano-composite, Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles/graphene quantum dots (Fe 3 O 4 MNP-GQDs), for sensing of some amino acids. For the first time, as-synthesized GQDs and Fe 3 O 4 MNPs-GQDs was electrodeposited on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) regime in the potential range from − 1.0 to 1.0 V. Fe 3 O 4 MNP-GQDs is engineered to specifically and effectively capture and enhancement the electrochemical signals of some amino acids at physiological pH due to the synergy among GQDs and magnetic nanoparticles. We have illustrated that the obtained Fe 3 O 4 MNPs-GQDs exhibited a much higher electroactivity individual GQDs and Fe 3 O 4 MNPs for the electrooxidation and detection of amino acid which was about 10 fold higher than for GQDs. Magnetic and specific properties of the Fe 3 O 4 MNP-GQDs can be exploited to capture and pre-concentration the amino acids onto its surface, which are important for detection of multi-amino acids. - Highlights: • Electrooxidation of amino acids was performed using Fe 3 O 4 MNP-GQDs. • Modified electrode shows new advantages as an amino acids sensor. • Excellent electrocatalytic activity was obtained for amino acids oxidation.

  18. Identification and characterization of multiple conserved nuclear localization signals within adenovirus E1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Kris S.; Cohen, Michael J.; Fonseca, Greg J.; Todorovic, Biljana; King, Cason R. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Western University, London Regional Cancer Program, London, ON, Canada N6A 4L6 (Canada); Yousef, Ahmed F. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Masdar Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Zhang, Zhiying [College of Animal Science and Technologies, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Mymryk, Joe S., E-mail: jmymryk@uwo.ca [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Western University, London Regional Cancer Program, London, ON, Canada N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Oncology, Western University, London Regional Cancer Program, London, ON, Canada N6A 4L6 (Canada)

    2014-04-15

    The human adenovirus 5 (HAdV-5) E1A protein has a well defined canonical nuclear localization signal (NLS) located at its C-terminus. We used a genetic assay in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to demonstrate that the canonical NLS is present and functional in the E1A proteins of each of the six HAdV species. This assay also detects a previously described non-canonical NLS within conserved region 3 and a novel active NLS within the N-terminal/conserved region 1 portion of HAdV-5 E1A. These activities were also present in the E1A proteins of each of the other five HAdV species. These results demonstrate that, despite substantial differences in primary sequence, HAdV E1A proteins are remarkably consistent in that they contain one canonical and two non-canonical NLSs. By utilizing independent mechanisms, these multiple NLSs ensure nuclear localization of E1A in the infected cell. - Highlights: • HAdV E1A uses multiple mechanisms for nuclear import. • We identified an additional non-canonical NLS in the N-terminal/CR1 portion of E1A. • The new NLS does not contact importin-alpha directly. • All NLSs are functionally conserved in the E1A proteins of all 6 HAdV species.

  19. Characterization of plant polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale by multiple chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huiying; Zhang, Keke; Jiang, Qing; Dai, Diya; Li, Hongli; Bi, Wentao; Chen, David Da Yong

    2018-04-27

    Plant polysaccharides have numerous medicinal functions. Due to the differences in their origins, regions of production, and cultivation conditions, the quality and the functions of polysaccharides can vary significantly. They are macromolecules with large molecular weight (MW) and complex structure, and pose great challenge for the analytical technology used. Taking Dendrobium officinale (DO) from various origins and locations as model samples. In this investigation, mechanochemical extraction method was used to successfully extract polysaccharides from DO using water as solvent, the process is simple, fast (40 s) and with high yield. The MWs of the intact saccharides from calibration curve and light scattering measurement were determined and compared after separation with size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The large polysaccharide was acid hydrolyzed to oligosaccharides and the products were efficiently separated and identified using liquid chromatography coupled to a high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS 2 ). Obvious differences were observed among LC-MS 2 chromatograms of digested products, and the chemical structures for the products were proposed based on accurate mass values. More importantly, isomeric digested carbohydrate compounds were explored and characterized. All the chromatographic and mass spectrometric results in this study provided a multi-dimensional characterization, fingerprint analysis, and molecular structure level assessment of plant polysaccharides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization and Optimization of LDPC Codes for the 2-User Gaussian Multiple Access Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declercq David

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of designing good LDPC codes for the Gaussian multiple access channel (MAC. The framework we choose is to design multiuser LDPC codes with joint belief propagation decoding on the joint graph of the 2-user case. Our main result compared to existing work is to express analytically EXIT functions of the multiuser decoder with two different approximations of the density evolution. This allows us to propose a very simple linear programming optimization for the complicated problem of LDPC code design with joint multiuser decoding. The stability condition for our case is derived and used in the optimization constraints. The codes that we obtain for the 2-user case are quite good for various rates, especially if we consider the very simple optimization procedure.

  1. On applicability of crack shape characterization rules for multiple in-plane surface cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Min; Choi, Suhn; Park, Keun Bae; Choi, Jae Boong; Huh, Nam Su

    2009-01-01

    The fracture mechanics assessment parameters, such as the elastic stress intensity factor and the elastic-plastic J-integral, for a surface crack can be significantly affected by adjacent cracks. Regarding such an interaction effect, the relative distance between adjacent cracks, crack aspect ratio and loading condition were known to be important factors for multiple cracks, which affects the fracture mechanics assessment parameters. Although several guidance (ASME Sec. XI, BS7910, British Energy R6 and API RP579) on a crack interaction effect (crack combination rule) have been proposed and used for assessing the interaction effect, each guidance provides different rules for combining multiple surface cracks into a single surface crack. Based on the systematic elastic and elastic-plastic finite element analyses, the present study investigated the acceptability of the crack combination rules provided in the existing guidance, and the relevant recommendations on a crack interaction for in-plane surface cracks in a plate were discussed. To quantify the interaction effect, the elastic stress intensity factor and elastic-plastic J-integral along the crack front were used. As for the loading condition, only axial tension was considered. As a result, BS7910 seems to provide the most relevant crack combination rule for in-plane dual surface cracks, whereas API RP579 provides the most conservative results. In particular, ASME Sec. XI still seems to have some room for a revision to shorten the critical distance between two adjacent cracks for a crack combination. The overall tendency of the elastic-plastic analyses results is identical to that of the elastic analyses results.

  2. Characterization of halogenated DBPs and identification of new DBPs trihalomethanols in chlorine dioxide treated drinking water with multiple extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiarui; Zhang, Xiangru; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhu, Xiaohu; Gong, Tingting

    2017-08-01

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) is a widely used alternative disinfectant due to its high biocidal efficiency and low-level formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. A major portion of total organic halogen (TOX), a collective parameter for all halogenated DBPs, formed in ClO 2 -treated drinking water is still unknown. A commonly used pretreatment method for analyzing halogenated DBPs in drinking water is one-time liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which may lead to a substantial loss of DBPs prior to analysis. In this study, characterization and identification of polar halogenated DBPs in a ClO 2 -treated drinking water sample were conducted by pretreating the sample with multiple extractions. Compared to one-time LLE, the combined four-time LLEs improved the recovery of TOX by 2.3 times. The developmental toxicity of the drinking water sample pretreated with the combined four-time LLEs was 1.67 times higher than that pretreated with one-time LLE. With the aid of ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, a new group of polar halogenated DBPs, trihalomethanols, were detected in the drinking water sample pretreated with multiple extractions; two of them, trichloromethanol and bromodichloromethanol, were identified with synthesized standard compounds. Moreover, these trihalomethanols were found to be the transformation products of trihalomethanes formed during ClO 2 disinfection. The results indicate that multiple LLEs can significantly improve extraction efficiencies of polar halogenated DBPs and is a better pretreatment method for characterizing and identifying new polar halogenated DBPs in drinking water. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  4. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  5. Personalized physiological medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Can

    2017-12-28

    This paper introduces the concept of personalized physiological medicine that is specifically directed at the needs of the critically ill patient. This differs from the conventional view of personalized medicine, characterized by biomarkers and gene profiling, instead focusing on time-variant changes in the pathophysiology and regulation of various organ systems and their cellular and subcellular constituents. I propose that personalized physiological medicine is composed of four pillars relevant to the critically ill patient. Pillar 1 is defined by the frailty and fitness of the patient and their physiological reserve to cope with the stress of critical illness and therapy. Pillar 2 involves monitoring of the key physiological variables of the different organ systems and their response to disease and therapy. Pillar 3 concerns the evaluation of the success of resuscitation by assessment of the hemodynamic coherence between the systemic and microcirculation and parenchyma of the organ systems. Finally, pillar 4 is defined by the integration of the physiological and clinical data into a time-learning adaptive model of the patient to provide feedback about the function of organ systems and to guide and assess the response to disease and therapy. I discuss each pillar and describe the challenges to research and development that will allow the realization of personalized physiological medicine to be practiced at the bedside for critically ill patients.

  6. Identification and characterization of multiple curcumin synthases from the herb Curcuma longa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Yohei; Kita, Tomoko; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2009-09-03

    Curcuminoids are pharmaceutically important compounds isolated from the herb Curcuma longa. Two additional type III polyketide synthases, named CURS2 and CURS3, that are capable of curcuminoid synthesis were identified and characterized. In vitro analysis revealed that CURS2 preferred feruloyl-CoA as a starter substrate and CURS3 preferred both feruloyl-CoA and p-coumaroyl-CoA. These results suggested that CURS2 synthesizes curcumin or demethoxycurcumin and CURS3 synthesizes curcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin and demethoxycurcumin. The availability of the substrates and the expression levels of the three different enzymes capable of curcuminoid synthesis with different substrate specificities might influence the composition of curcuminoids in the turmeric and in different cultivars.

  7. Physiological pseudomyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    1990-08-01

    Objective refraction through plus fogging lenses and base-in prisms revealed that normally accommodation is not completely relaxed when the stimulus to accommodation is zero. The myopic shift in the refractive error due to this focus error of accommodation was defined as physiological pseudomyopia. Two previously established features of accommodation are responsible for this behavior: (1) accommodation acts as a proportional control system for steady-state responses; and (2) the rest focus of accommodation is nonzero. It is proposed that the hyperopic shift in refraction observed in cycloplegia is the result of elimination of physiological pseudomyopia.

  8. Hierarchical sampling of multiple strata: an innovative technique in exposure characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, J.E.; Gonzalez, Elisabeth J.

    2003-01-01

    Sampling of multiple strata, or hierarchical sampling of various exposure sources and activity areas, has been tested and is suggested as a method to sample (or to locate) areas with a high prevalence of elevated blood lead in children. Hierarchical sampling was devised to supplement traditional soil lead sampling of a single stratum, either residential or fixed point source, using a multistep strategy. Blood lead (n=1141) and soil lead (n=378) data collected under the USEPA/UCI Tijuana Lead Project (1996-1999) were analyzed to evaluate the usefulness of sampling soil lead from background sites, schools and parks, point sources, and residences. Results revealed that industrial emissions have been a contributing factor to soil lead contamination in Tijuana. At the regional level, point source soil lead was associated with mean blood lead levels and concurrent high background, and point source soil lead levels were predictive of a high percentage of subjects with blood lead equal to or greater than 10 μg/dL (pe 10). Significant relationships were observed between mean blood lead level and fixed point source soil lead (r=0.93; P 2 =0.72 using a quadratic model) and between residential soil lead and fixed point source soil lead (r=0.90; P 2 =0.86 using a cubic model). This study suggests that point sources alone are not sufficient for predicting the relative risk of exposure to lead in the urban environment. These findings will be useful in defining regions for targeted or universal soil lead sampling by site type. Point sources have been observed to be predictive of mean blood lead at the regional level; however, this relationship alone was not sufficient to predict pe 10. It is concluded that when apparently undisturbed sites reveal high soil lead levels in addition to local point sources, dispersion of lead is widespread and will be associated with a high prevalence of elevated blood lead in children. Multiple strata sampling was shown to be useful in

  9. Study of physiological properties of some probiotics in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria by Flora Danica Ch. Hansen commercial starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA PARASCHIV

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the growth ability and stability of probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus (commercial code La-5®, Lactobacillus casei ssp. paracasei (commercial code L. casei 431® and Bifidobacterium bifidus (commercial code BB-12® in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic bacteria, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp. cremoris, as Flora Danica Chr. Hansen commercial starters. Under the controlled fermentative conditions described below, a good starter combination, for the high rate of cells multiplication and for the good viability during storage, was identified in the mixture of L. casei 431®, BB-12® and Flora Danica, in ratio of 1:1:1 (9 log CFU/mL for each starter culture.

  10. Study of physiological properties of some probiotics in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria by Flora Danica Ch. Hansen commercial starter

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELA PARASCHIV; AIDA VASILE; MADALINA CONSTANTIN; ALEXANDRU CIOBANU; GABRIELA BAHRIM

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the growth ability and stability of probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus (commercial code La-5®), Lactobacillus casei ssp. paracasei (commercial code L. casei 431®) and Bifidobacterium bifidus (commercial code BB-12®) in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic bacteria, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp. cremoris, as Flora Danica Chr. Hansen co...

  11. Development and Characterization a Single-Active-Chamber Piezoelectric Membrane Pump with Multiple Passive Check Valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ronghui; You, Feng; Lv, Zhihan; He, Zhaocheng; Wang, Haiwei; Huang, Ling

    2016-12-12

    In order to prevent the backward flow of piezoelectric pumps, this paper presents a single-active-chamber piezoelectric membrane pump with multiple passive check valves. Under the condition of a fixed total number of passive check valves, by means of changing the inlet valves and outlet valves' configuration, the pumping characteristics in terms of flow rate and backpressure are experimentally investigated. Like the maximum flow rate and backpressure, the testing results show that the optimal frequencies are significantly affected by changes in the number inlet valves and outlet valves. The variation ratios of the maximum flow rate and the maximum backpressure are up to 66% and less than 20%, respectively. Furthermore, the piezoelectric pump generally demonstrates very similar flow rate and backpressure characteristics when the number of inlet valves in one kind of configuration is the same as that of outlet valves in another configuration. The comparison indicates that the backflow from the pumping chamber to inlet is basically the same as the backflow from the outlet to the pumping chamber. No matter whether the number of inlet valves or the number of outlet valves is increased, the backflow can be effectively reduced. In addition, the backpressure fluctuation can be significantly suppressed with an increase of either inlet valves or outlet valves. It also means that the pump can prevent the backflow more effectively at the cost of power consumption. The pump is very suitable for conditions where more accurate flow rates are needed and wear and fatigue of check valves often occur.

  12. Characterization of γδ regulatory T cells from peripheral blood in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yongyong; Lei, Huyi; Tan, Jie; Xuan, Li; Wu, Xiuli; Liu, Qifa

    2016-01-01

    γδ regulatory T cells are able to inhibit the activation and function of T cells involved in antigen-specific immune responses. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of γδ regulatory T cells in inhibiting anti-tumor immune responses in patients diagnosed as multiple myeloma (MM). We measured the levels of γδ T cells, the distribution and clonally amplified TCR Vγ and VδT cells in peripheral blood of healthy donors, patients recently diagnosed with MM, and MM patients in remission cohorts. In addition, we evaluated the ability of γδ regulatory T cells to inhibit the proliferation of CD4+CD25- T cells and detected the expression of immunoregulatory-associated molecules. We found that the levels of γδ regulatory T cells from the peripheral blood in patients of MM were significantly higher than those in healthy donors. Comparison of γδT regulatory cells function in MM and healthy donors showed similarly inhibitory effects on the proliferation of T cells. Additionally, TLR8 expression level increased significantly in MM patients compared to healthy donors, while the expression levels of Foxp3, CD25, CTLA4, GITR, GATA3 and Tbet in MM patients and healthy donors showed no significant difference. Taken together, our study reveals the potential role of γδ regulatory T cells in inhibiting anti-tumor immune responses in MM patients.

  13. Modular time division multiplexer: Efficient simultaneous characterization of fast and slow transients in multiple samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stephan D.; Luo, Jiajun; Buchholz, D. Bruce; Chang, R. P. H.; Grayson, M.

    2016-09-01

    A modular time division multiplexer (MTDM) device is introduced to enable parallel measurement of multiple samples with both fast and slow decay transients spanning from millisecond to month-long time scales. This is achieved by dedicating a single high-speed measurement instrument for rapid data collection at the start of a transient, and by multiplexing a second low-speed measurement instrument for slow data collection of several samples in parallel for the later transients. The MTDM is a high-level design concept that can in principle measure an arbitrary number of samples, and the low cost implementation here allows up to 16 samples to be measured in parallel over several months, reducing the total ensemble measurement duration and equipment usage by as much as an order of magnitude without sacrificing fidelity. The MTDM was successfully demonstrated by simultaneously measuring the photoconductivity of three amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin films with 20 ms data resolution for fast transients and an uninterrupted parallel run time of over 20 days. The MTDM has potential applications in many areas of research that manifest response times spanning many orders of magnitude, such as photovoltaics, rechargeable batteries, amorphous semiconductors such as silicon and amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide.

  14. Molecular characterization of breast cancer cell lines through multiple omic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shari E; Mellor, Paul; Ward, Alison K; Kendall, Stephanie; McDonald, Megan; Vizeacoumar, Frederick S; Vizeacoumar, Franco J; Napper, Scott; Anderson, Deborah H

    2017-06-05

    Breast cancer cell lines are frequently used as model systems to study the cellular properties and biology of breast cancer. Our objective was to characterize a large, commonly employed panel of breast cancer cell lines obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 30-4500 K) to enable researchers to make more informed decisions in selecting cell lines for specific studies. Information about these cell lines was obtained from a wide variety of sources. In addition, new information about cellular pathways that are activated within each cell line was generated. We determined key protein expression data using immunoblot analyses. In addition, two analyses on serum-starved cells were carried out to identify cellular proteins and pathways that are activated in these cells. These analyses were performed using a commercial PathScan array and a novel and more extensive phosphopeptide-based kinome analysis that queries 1290 phosphorylation events in major signaling pathways. Data about this panel of breast cancer cell lines was also accessed from several online sources, compiled and summarized for the following areas: molecular classification, mRNA expression, mutational status of key proteins and other possible cancer-associated mutations, and the tumorigenic and metastatic capacity in mouse xenograft models of breast cancer. The cell lines that were characterized included 10 estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, 12 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-amplified and 18 triple negative breast cancer cell lines, in addition to 4 non-tumorigenic breast cell lines. Within each subtype, there was significant genetic heterogeneity that could impact both the selection of model cell lines and the interpretation of the results obtained. To capture the net activation of key signaling pathways as a result of these mutational combinations, profiled pathway activation status was examined. This provided further clarity for which cell lines were particularly deregulated

  15. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...

  16. Assessments at multiple levels of biological organization allow for an integrative determination of physiological tolerances to turbidity in an endangered fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenbein, Matthias; Fangue, Nann A; Geist, Juergen; Komoroske, Lisa M; Truong, Jennifer; McPherson, Rina; Connon, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity can influence trophic levels by altering species composition and can potentially affect fish feeding strategies and predator-prey interactions. The estuarine turbidity maximum, described as an area of increased suspended particles, phytoplankton and zooplankton, generally represents a zone with higher turbidity and enhanced food sources important for successful feeding and growth in many fish species. The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endangered, pelagic fish species endemic to the San Francisco Estuary and Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, USA, where it is associated with turbid waters. Turbidity is known to play an important role for the completion of the species' life cycle; however, turbidity ranges in the Delta are broad, and specific requirements for this fish species are still unknown. To evaluate turbidity requirements for early life stages, late-larval delta smelt were maintained at environmentally relevant turbidity levels ranging from 5 to 250 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for 24 h, after which a combination of physiological endpoints (molecular biomarkers and cortisol), behavioural indices (feeding) and whole-organism measures (survival) were determined. All endpoints delivered consistent results and identified turbidities between 25 and 80 NTU as preferential. Delta smelt survival rates were highest between 12 and 80 NTU and feeding rates were highest between 25 and 80 NTU. Cortisol levels indicated minimal stress between 35 and 80 NTU and were elevated at low turbidities (5, 12 and 25 NTU). Expression of stress-related genes indicated significant responses for gst, hsp70 and glut2 in high turbidities (250 NTU), and principal component analysis on all measured genes revealed a clustering of 25, 35, 50 and 80 NTU separating the medium-turbidity treatments from low- and high-turbidity treatments. Taken together, these data demonstrate that turbidity levels that are either too low or too high affect delta

  17. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of multiple NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductases from Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huixin; Wang, Jian; Qi, Mengdie; Guo, Juan; Rong, Qixian; Tang, Jinfu; Wu, Yisheng; Ma, Xiaojing; Huang, Luqi

    2017-09-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees is widely used as medicinal herb in Southern and Southeastern Asia and andrographolide is its main medicinal constituent. Based on the structure of andrographolide, it has been proposed that cytochrome P450 enzymes play vital roles on its biosynthesis. NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is the most important redox partner of multiple P450s. In this study, three CPRs were identified in the genomic data of A. paniculata (namely ApCPR1, ApCPR2, and ApCPR3), and their coding regions were cloned. They varied from 62% to 70% identities to each other at the amino acid sequence level. ApCPR1 belongs to Class I of dicotyledonous CPR while both ApCPR2 and ApCPR3 are grouped to Class II. The recombinant enzymes ApCPR1 and ApCPR2 reduced cytochrome c and ferricyanide in an NADPH-dependent manner. In yeast, they supported the activity of CYP76AH1, a ferruginol-forming enzyme. However, ApCPR3 did not show any enzymatic activities either in vitro or in vivo. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that both ApCPR1 and ApCPR2 expressed in all tissues examined, but ApCPR2 showed higher expression in leaves. Expression of ApCPR2 was inducible by MeJA and its pattern matched with andrographolide accumulation. Present investigation suggested ApCPR2 involves in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites including andrographolide. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Development and Characterization a Single-Active-Chamber Piezoelectric Membrane Pump with Multiple Passive Check Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghui Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent the backward flow of piezoelectric pumps, this paper presents a single-active-chamber piezoelectric membrane pump with multiple passive check valves. Under the condition of a fixed total number of passive check valves, by means of changing the inlet valves and outlet valves’ configuration, the pumping characteristics in terms of flow rate and backpressure are experimentally investigated. Like the maximum flow rate and backpressure, the testing results show that the optimal frequencies are significantly affected by changes in the number inlet valves and outlet valves. The variation ratios of the maximum flow rate and the maximum backpressure are up to 66% and less than 20%, respectively. Furthermore, the piezoelectric pump generally demonstrates very similar flow rate and backpressure characteristics when the number of inlet valves in one kind of configuration is the same as that of outlet valves in another configuration. The comparison indicates that the backflow from the pumping chamber to inlet is basically the same as the backflow from the outlet to the pumping chamber. No matter whether the number of inlet valves or the number of outlet valves is increased, the backflow can be effectively reduced. In addition, the backpressure fluctuation can be significantly suppressed with an increase of either inlet valves or outlet valves. It also means that the pump can prevent the backflow more effectively at the cost of power consumption. The pump is very suitable for conditions where more accurate flow rates are needed and wear and fatigue of check valves often occur.

  19. Vipie: web pipeline for parallel characterization of viral populations from multiple NGS samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jake; Kramna, Lenka; Autio, Reija; Hyöty, Heikki; Nykter, Matti; Cinek, Ondrej

    2017-05-15

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology allows laboratories to investigate virome composition in clinical and environmental samples in a culture-independent way. There is a need for bioinformatic tools capable of parallel processing of virome sequencing data by exactly identical methods: this is especially important in studies of multifactorial diseases, or in parallel comparison of laboratory protocols. We have developed a web-based application allowing direct upload of sequences from multiple virome samples using custom parameters. The samples are then processed in parallel using an identical protocol, and can be easily reanalyzed. The pipeline performs de-novo assembly, taxonomic classification of viruses as well as sample analyses based on user-defined grouping categories. Tables of virus abundance are produced from cross-validation by remapping the sequencing reads to a union of all observed reference viruses. In addition, read sets and reports are created after processing unmapped reads against known human and bacterial ribosome references. Secured interactive results are dynamically plotted with population and diversity charts, clustered heatmaps and a sortable and searchable abundance table. The Vipie web application is a unique tool for multi-sample metagenomic analysis of viral data, producing searchable hits tables, interactive population maps, alpha diversity measures and clustered heatmaps that are grouped in applicable custom sample categories. Known references such as human genome and bacterial ribosomal genes are optionally removed from unmapped ('dark matter') reads. Secured results are accessible and shareable on modern browsers. Vipie is a freely available web-based tool whose code is open source.

  20. Multiple factors and processes involved in host cell killing by bacteriophage Mu: characterization and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, B T; Marrs, C F; Howe, M M; Pato, M L

    1984-07-15

    The regions of bacteriophage Mu involved in host cell killing were determined by infection of a lambda-immune host with 12 lambda pMu-transducing phages carrying different amounts of Mu DNA beginning at the left end. Infecting lambda pMu phages containing 5.0 (+/- 0.2) kb or less of the left end of Mu DNA did not kill the lambda-immune host, whereas lambda pMu containing 5.1 kb did kill, thus locating the right end of the kil gene between approximately 5.0 and 5.1 kb. For the Kil+ phages the extent of killing increased as the multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) increased. In addition, killing was also affected by the presence of at least two other regions of Mu DNA: one, located between 5.1 and 5.8 kb, decreased the extent of killing; the other, located between 6.3 and 7.9 kb, greatly increased host cell killing. Killing was also assayed after lambda pMu infection of a lambda-immune host carrying a mini-Mu deleted for most of the B gene and the middle region of Mu DNA. Complementation of mini-Mu replication by infecting B+ lambda pMu phages resulted in killing of the lambda-immune, mini-Mu-containing host, regardless of the presence or absence of the Mu kil gene. The extent of host cell killing increased as the m.o.i. of the infecting lambda pMu increased, and was further enhanced by both the presence of the kil gene and the region located between 6.3 and 7.9 kb. These distinct processes of kil-mediated killing in the absence of replication and non-kil-mediated killing in the presence of replication were also observed after induction of replication-deficient and kil mutant prophages, respectively.

  1. A theoretical characterization of multiple isomers of the He2I2 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdés, Álvaro; Barragán, Patricia; Pérez de Tudela, Ricardo; Delgado-Tellez, Laura; Medina, Juan S.; Prosmiti, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Minimum energy path as a function of angle for planar (a) and non-planar (b) configurations. The probability distributions for the five lowest vibrational vdW states of He 2 I 2 are also depicted. Highlights: ► The work presented here is the most detailed description on intermolecular interactions and model structures for the He 2 I 2 cluster. ► The results obtained from high level ab initio calculations and exact quantum calculations. ► Comparison with available experimental data from similar He 2 -dihalogen complexes provides information on intermolecular forces. ► These findings contributes to evaluate our approaches for extending them to larger systems. ► Accurate PESs for small molecules interacting with He atoms are in demand for studying superfluidity in He nanodroplets. - Abstract: The present work has been directed at studying the structures and stabilization energetics of different conformers of the ground state He 2 I 2 cluster. The full interaction between I 2 molecule and the He atoms is obtained from a sum-of-potentials scheme, using an analytical He–I 2 potential parametrized to ab initio calculations plus the He–He interaction. Quantum mechanical variational calculations are carried out, and binding energies as well as radial/angular probability density distributions are computed for the lower-lying vibrational van der Waals states. We found that they correspond to three different structural models, namely tetrahedral, linear and ‘police-nightstick’. Comparison of these results with recent experimental data available from high-resolution spectroscopy for similar tetraatomic He 2 -dihalogen complexes, contributes to evaluate their relative stability, and provides information about the importance of the multiple minima (global and local) of the potential surface used.

  2. Development and characterization of human monoclonal antibodies that neutralize multiple TGFβ isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, Daniel; Lao, Llewelyn; Khan, Shireen; Lee, Steve; Takeuchi, Toshihiko; Mirza, Amer M

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)β levels are elevated in, and drive the progression of, numerous disease states such as advanced metastatic cancer and systemic and ocular fibrosis. There are 3 main isoforms, TGFβ1, 2, and 3. As multiple TGFβ isoforms are involved in disease processes, maximal therapeutic efficacy may require neutralization of 2 or more of the TGFβ isoforms. Fully human antibody phage display libraries were used to discover a number of antibodies that bind and neutralize various combinations of TGFβ1, 2 or 3. The primary panning did not yield any uniformly potent pan-isoform neutralizing antibodies; therefore, an antibody that displayed potent TGFβ 1, 2 inhibition, but more modest affinity versus TGFβ3, was affinity matured by shuffling with a light chain sub-library and further screening. This process yielded a high affinity pan-isoform neutralizing clone. Antibodies were analyzed and compared by binding affinity, as well as receptor and epitope competition by surface plasmon resonance methods. The antibodies were also shown to neutralize TGFβ effects in vitro in 3 assays: 1) interleukin (IL)-4 induced HT-2 cell proliferation; 2) TGFβ-mediated IL-11 release by A549 cells; and 3) decreasing SMAD2 phosphorylation in Detroit 562 cells. The antibodies' potency in these in vitro assays correlated well with their isoform-specific affinities. Furthermore, the ability of the affinity-matured clone to decrease tumor burden in a Detroit 562 xenograft study was superior to that of the parent clone. This affinity-matured antibody acts as a very potent inhibitor of all 3 main isoforms of TGFβ and may have utility for therapeutic intervention in human disease.

  3. The continuum of physiological impairment during treadmill walking in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD: patient characterization phase of a randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis E O'Donnell

    Full Text Available To have a better understanding of the mechanisms of exercise limitation in mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, we compared detailed respiratory physiology in patients with COPD and healthy age- and sex-matched controls.Data were collected during the pre-treatment, patient characterization phase of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Patients with COPD met Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD 1 or 2 spirometric criteria, were symptomatic, and had evidence of gas trapping during exercise. All participants completed pulmonary function and symptom-limited incremental treadmill exercise tests.Chronic activity-related dyspnea measured by Baseline Dyspnea Index was similarly increased in patients with GOLD 1 (n = 41 and 2 (n = 63 COPD compared with controls (n = 104. Plethysmographic lung volumes were increased and lung diffusing capacity was decreased in both GOLD groups. Peak oxygen uptake and work rate were reduced in both GOLD groups compared with controls (p<0.001. Submaximal ventilation, dyspnea, and leg discomfort ratings were higher for a given work rate in both GOLD groups compared with controls. Resting inspiratory capacity, peak ventilation, and tidal volume were reduced in patients with GOLD 2 COPD compared with patients with GOLD 1 COPD and controls (p<0.001.Lower exercise tolerance in patients with GOLD 1 and 2 COPD compared with controls was explained by greater mechanical abnormalities, greater ventilatory requirements, and increased subjective discomfort. Lower resting inspiratory capacity in patients with GOLD 2 COPD was associated with greater mechanical constraints and lower peak ventilation compared with patients with GOLD 1 COPD and controls.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01072396.

  4. Graphene quantum dots decorated with magnetic nanoparticles: Synthesis, electrodeposition, characterization and application as an electrochemical sensor towards determination of some amino acids at physiological pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad, E-mail: mhmmd_hasanzadeh@yahoo.com [Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pharmaceutical Analysis Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimzadeh, Ayub [Department of Biochemistry, Higher Education Institute of Rab-Rashid, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shadjou, Nasrin [Department of Nanochemistry, Nano Technology Research Center, Urmia University, Urmia 57154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nano Technology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia 57154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad [School of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, Higher Education Institute of Rab-Rashid, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bageri, Leyla [Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Sattar; Mahboob, Soltanali [Department of Biochemistry, Higher Education Institute of Rab-Rashid, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    This study reports on the synthesis and characterization of a novel nano-composite, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles/graphene quantum dots (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNP-GQDs), for sensing of some amino acids. For the first time, as-synthesized GQDs and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs-GQDs was electrodeposited on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) regime in the potential range from − 1.0 to 1.0 V. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNP-GQDs is engineered to specifically and effectively capture and enhancement the electrochemical signals of some amino acids at physiological pH due to the synergy among GQDs and magnetic nanoparticles. We have illustrated that the obtained Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs-GQDs exhibited a much higher electroactivity individual GQDs and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs for the electrooxidation and detection of amino acid which was about 10 fold higher than for GQDs. Magnetic and specific properties of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNP-GQDs can be exploited to capture and pre-concentration the amino acids onto its surface, which are important for detection of multi-amino acids. - Highlights: • Electrooxidation of amino acids was performed using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNP-GQDs. • Modified electrode shows new advantages as an amino acids sensor. • Excellent electrocatalytic activity was obtained for amino acids oxidation.

  5. The proteolytic system of pineapple stems revisited: Purification and characterization of multiple catalytically active forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matagne, André; Bolle, Laetitia; El Mahyaoui, Rachida; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Azarkan, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    Crude pineapple proteases extract (aka stem bromelain; EC 3.4.22.4) is an important proteolytic mixture that contains enzymes belonging to the cysteine proteases of the papain family. Numerous studies have been reported aiming at the fractionation and characterization of the many molecular species present in the extract, but more efforts are still required to obtain sufficient quantities of the various purified protease forms for detailed physicochemical, enzymatic and structural characterization. In this work, we describe an efficient strategy towards the purification of at least eight enzymatic forms. Thus, following rapid fractionation on a SP-Sepharose FF column, two sub-populations with proteolytic activity were obtained: the unbound (termed acidic) and bound (termed basic) bromelain fractions. Following reversible modification with monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG), both fractions were further separated on Q-Sepharose FF and SP-Sepharose FF, respectively. This procedure yielded highly purified molecular species, all titrating ca. 1 mol of thiol group per mole of enzyme, with distinct biochemical properties. N-terminal sequencing allowed identifying at least eight forms with proteolytic activity. The basic fraction contained previously identified species, i.e. basic bromelain forms 1 and 2, ananain forms 1 and 2, and comosain (MEROPS identifier: C01.027). Furthermore, a new proteolytic species, showing similarities with basic bomelain forms 1 and 2, was discovered and termed bromelain form 3. The two remaining species were found in the acidic bromelain fraction and were arbitrarily named acidic bromelain forms 1 and 2. Both, acidic bromelain forms 1, 2 and basic bromelain forms 1, 2 and 3 are glycosylated, while ananain forms 1 and 2, and comosain are not. The eight protease forms display different amidase activities against the various substrates tested, namely small synthetic chromogenic compounds (DL-BAPNA and Boc-Ala-Ala-Gly-pNA), fluorogenic compounds

  6. Multiple-scale hydraulic characterization of a surficial clayey aquitard overlying a regional aquifer in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Steven W.; Cherry, John A.; Parker, Beth L.

    2018-03-01

    The vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) of a 30-m thick surficial clayey aquitard overlying a regional aquifer at an industrial site in the Mississippi River Valley in Louisiana was investigated via intensive hydraulic characterization using high resolution vertical hydraulic head profiles with temporal monitoring and laboratory tests. A study area was instrumented with a semi-circular array of piezometers at many depths in the aquitard at equal distance from a large capacity pumping well including replicate piezometers. Profiles showed negligible head differential to 20 m bgs, below which there was an abrupt change in vertical gradients over the lower 8-10 m of the aquitard. Hydraulic characteristics are strongly associated with depositional environment; the upper zone of minimal head differentials with depth and minimal variation over time correlates with Paleo-Mississippi River backswamp deposits, while the lower zone with large head differentials and slow but moderate head changes correlates with lacustrine deposits. The lower zone restricts groundwater flow between the surface and underlying regional aquifer, which is hydraulically connected to the Mississippi River. Lab tests on lacustrine samples show low Kv (8 × 10-11-4 × 10-9 m/s) bracketing field estimates (6 × 10-10 m/s) from 1-D model fits to piezometric data in response to large aquifer head changes. The slow response indicates absence of through-going open fractures in the lacustrine unit, consistent with geotechnical properties (high plasticity, normal consolidation), suggesting high integrity that protects the underlying aquifer from surficial contamination. The lack of vertical gradients in the overlying backswamp unit indicates abundant secondary permeability features (e.g. fractures, rootholes) consistent with depositional and weathering conditions. 2-D stylized transient flow simulations including both units supports this interpretation. Other published reports on surficial aquitards in the

  7. Structural characterization of tartrate dehydrogenase: a versatile enzyme catalyzing multiple reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Radhika; Viola, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    The first structure of an NAD-dependent tartrate dehydrogenase (TDH) has been solved to 2 (angstrom) resolution by single anomalous diffraction (SAD) phasing as a complex with the intermediate analog oxalate, Mg 2+ and NADH. This TDH structure from Pseudomonas putida has a similar overall fold and domain organization to other structurally characterized members of the hydroxy-acid dehydrogenase family. However, there are considerable differences between TDH and these functionally related enzymes in the regions connecting the core secondary structure and in the relative positioning of important loops and helices. The active site in these complexes is highly ordered, allowing the identification of the substrate-binding and cofactor-binding groups and the ligands to the metal ions. Residues from the adjacent subunit are involved in both the substrate and divalent metal ion binding sites, establishing a dimer as the functional unit and providing structural support for an alternating-site reaction mechanism. The divalent metal ion plays a prominent role in substrate binding and orientation, together with several active-site arginines. Functional groups from both subunits form the cofactor-binding site and the ammonium ion aids in the orientation of the nicotinamide ring of the cofactor. A lysyl amino group (Lys192) is the base responsible for the water-mediated proton abstraction from the C2 hydroxyl group of the substrate that begins the catalytic reaction, followed by hydride transfer to NAD. A tyrosyl hydroxyl group (Tyr141) functions as a general acid to protonate the enolate intermediate. Each substrate undergoes the initial hydride transfer, but differences in substrate orientation are proposed to account for the different reactions catalyzed by TDH.

  8. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J.; Cattadori, Isabella M.; Fitch, Adam; Geber, Adam; Liu, June; Sim, Derek G.; Boag, Brian; Ghedin, Elodie

    2017-01-01

    The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954–1955) and between 2008–2013. The later UK viruses fell into three distinct lineages indicative of a long period of separation and independent evolution. Although rates of evolutionary change were almost identical to those previously described for MYXV in Australia and strongly clock-like, genome evolution in the UK and Australia showed little convergence. The phenotypes of eight UK viruses from three lineages were characterized in laboratory rabbits and compared to the progenitor (release) Lausanne strain. Inferred virulence ranged from highly virulent (grade 1) to highly attenuated (grade 5). Two broad disease types were seen: cutaneous nodular myxomatosis characterized by multiple raised secondary cutaneous lesions, or an amyxomatous phenotype with few or no secondary lesions. A novel clinical outcome was acute death with pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, often associated with bacteria in many tissues but an absence of inflammatory cells. Notably, reading frame disruptions in genes defined as essential for virulence in the progenitor Lausanne strain were compatible with the acquisition of high virulence. Combined, these data support a model of ongoing host-pathogen co-evolution in which multiple genetic pathways can produce successful outcomes in the field that involve both different virulence grades and disease phenotypes, with alterations in tissue tropism and disease mechanisms. PMID:28253375

  9. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Kerr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954-1955 and between 2008-2013. The later UK viruses fell into three distinct lineages indicative of a long period of separation and independent evolution. Although rates of evolutionary change were almost identical to those previously described for MYXV in Australia and strongly clock-like, genome evolution in the UK and Australia showed little convergence. The phenotypes of eight UK viruses from three lineages were characterized in laboratory rabbits and compared to the progenitor (release Lausanne strain. Inferred virulence ranged from highly virulent (grade 1 to highly attenuated (grade 5. Two broad disease types were seen: cutaneous nodular myxomatosis characterized by multiple raised secondary cutaneous lesions, or an amyxomatous phenotype with few or no secondary lesions. A novel clinical outcome was acute death with pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, often associated with bacteria in many tissues but an absence of inflammatory cells. Notably, reading frame disruptions in genes defined as essential for virulence in the progenitor Lausanne strain were compatible with the acquisition of high virulence. Combined, these data support a model of ongoing host-pathogen co-evolution in which multiple genetic pathways can produce successful outcomes in the field that involve both different virulence grades and disease phenotypes, with alterations in tissue tropism and disease mechanisms.

  10. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J; Cattadori, Isabella M; Rogers, Matthew B; Fitch, Adam; Geber, Adam; Liu, June; Sim, Derek G; Boag, Brian; Eden, John-Sebastian; Ghedin, Elodie; Read, Andrew F; Holmes, Edward C

    2017-03-01

    The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954-1955) and between 2008-2013. The later UK viruses fell into three distinct lineages indicative of a long period of separation and independent evolution. Although rates of evolutionary change were almost identical to those previously described for MYXV in Australia and strongly clock-like, genome evolution in the UK and Australia showed little convergence. The phenotypes of eight UK viruses from three lineages were characterized in laboratory rabbits and compared to the progenitor (release) Lausanne strain. Inferred virulence ranged from highly virulent (grade 1) to highly attenuated (grade 5). Two broad disease types were seen: cutaneous nodular myxomatosis characterized by multiple raised secondary cutaneous lesions, or an amyxomatous phenotype with few or no secondary lesions. A novel clinical outcome was acute death with pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, often associated with bacteria in many tissues but an absence of inflammatory cells. Notably, reading frame disruptions in genes defined as essential for virulence in the progenitor Lausanne strain were compatible with the acquisition of high virulence. Combined, these data support a model of ongoing host-pathogen co-evolution in which multiple genetic pathways can produce successful outcomes in the field that involve both different virulence grades and disease phenotypes, with alterations in tissue tropism and disease mechanisms.

  11. Environmental physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. Subject areas include: the effects of environmental pollutants on homeostasis of the hematopoietic system; pollutant effects on steroid metabolism; pollutant effects on pulmonary macrophages; effects of toxic gases on lung cells; the development of immunological methods for assessing lung damage at the cellular level; the response of erythropoietin concentration to various physiological changes; and the study of actinide metabolism in monkey skeletons

  12. Biochemical Characterization and Relative Expression Levels of Multiple Carbohydrate Esterases of the Xylanolytic Rumen Bacterium Prevotella ruminicola 23 Grown on an Ester-Enriched Substrate ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabel, Mirjam A.; Yeoman, Carl J.; Han, Yejun; Dodd, Dylan; Abbas, Charles A.; de Bont, Jan A. M.; Morrison, Mark; Cann, Isaac K. O.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2011-01-01

    We measured expression and used biochemical characterization of multiple carbohydrate esterases by the xylanolytic rumen bacterium Prevotella ruminicola 23 grown on an ester-enriched substrate to gain insight into the carbohydrate esterase activities of this hemicellulolytic rumen bacterium. The P. ruminicola 23 genome contains 16 genes predicted to encode carbohydrate esterase activity, and based on microarray data, four of these were upregulated >2-fold at the transcriptional level during growth on an ester-enriched oligosaccharide (XOSFA,Ac) from corn relative to a nonesterified fraction of corn oligosaccharides (AXOS). Four of the 16 esterases (Xyn10D-Fae1A, Axe1-6A, AxeA1, and Axe7A), including the two most highly induced esterases (Xyn10D-Fae1A and Axe1-6A), were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and biochemically characterized. All four enzymes showed the highest activity at physiologically relevant pH (6 to 7) and temperature (30 to 40°C) ranges. The P. ruminicola 23 Xyn10D-Fae1A (a carbohydrate esterase [CE] family 1 enzyme) released ferulic acid from methylferulate, wheat bran, corn fiber, and XOSFA,Ac, a corn fiber-derived substrate enriched in O-acetyl and ferulic acid esters, but exhibited negligible activity on sugar acetates. As expected, the P. ruminicola Axe1-6A enzyme, which was predicted to possess two distinct esterase family domains (CE1 and CE6), released ferulic acid from the same substrates as Xyn10D-Fae1 and was also able to cleave O-acetyl ester bonds from various acetylated oligosaccharides (AcXOS). The P. ruminicola 23 AxeA1, which is not assigned to a CE family, and Axe7A (CE7) were found to be acetyl esterases that had activity toward a broad range of mostly nonpolymeric acetylated substrates along with AcXOS. All enzymes were inhibited by the proximal location of other side groups like 4-O-methylglucuronic acid, ferulic acid, or acetyl groups. The unique diversity of carbohydrate esterases in P. ruminicola 23

  13. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  14. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of an antagonist (SM-406/AT-406) of multiple inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) in a mouse xenograft model of human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Yanyan; Zou, Peng; Yu, Jing-yu; McEachern, Donna; Wang, Shaomeng; Sun, Duxin

    2013-09-01

    The inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are a class of key apoptosis regulators overexpressed or dysregulated in cancer. SM-406/AT-406 is a potent and selective small molecule mimetic of Smac that antagonizes the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK-PD) model was developed to predict the tissue concentration-time profiles of SM-406, the related onco-protein levels in tumor, and the tumor growth inhibition in a mouse model bearing human breast cancer xenograft. In the whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for pharmacokinetics characterization, a well stirred (perfusion rate-limited) model was used to describe SM-406 pharmacokinetics in the lung, heart, kidney, intestine, liver and spleen, and a diffusion rate-limited (permeability limited) model was used for tumor. Pharmacodynamic (PD) models were developed to correlate the SM-406 concentration in tumor to the cIAP1 degradation, pro-caspase 8 decrease, CL-PARP accumulation and tumor growth inhibition. The PBPK-PD model well described the experimental pharmacokinetic data, the pharmacodynamic biomarker responses and tumor growth. This model may be helpful to predict tumor and plasma SM-406 concentrations in the clinic. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Drawing on student knowledge in human anatomy and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Tara Nicole

    Prior to instruction, students may have developed alternative conceptions about the mechanics behind human physiology. To help students re-shape these ideas into correct reasoning, the faulty characteristics reinforcing the alternative conceptions need to made explicit. This study used student-generated drawings to expose alternative conceptions Human Anatomy and Physiology students had prior to instruction on neuron physiology. Specifically, we investigated how students thought about neuron communication across a synapse (n=355) and how neuron activity can be modified (n=311). When asked to depict basic communication between two neurons, at least 80% of students demonstrated incorrect ideas about synaptic transmission. When targeting spatial and temporal summation, only eleven students (3.5%) were able to accurately depict at least one form of summation. In response to both drawing questions, student drawings revealed multiple alternative conceptions that resulted in a deeper analysis and characterization of the wide variation of student ideas.

  16. Palm Swamp Wetland Ecosystems of the Upper Amazon: Characterizing their Distribution and Inundation State Using Multiple Resolution Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Schröder, R.; Pinto, N.; Zimmermann, R.; Horna, V.

    2011-12-01

    Palm swamp wetlands are prevalent in the Amazon basin, including extensive regions in northern Peru. These ecosystems are characterized by constant surface inundation and moderate seasonal water level variation. The combination of constantly saturated soils, giving rise to low oxygen conditions, and warm temperatures year-round can lead to considerable methane release to the atmosphere. Because of the widespread occurrence and expected sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate change, knowledge of their spatial extent and inundation state is crucial for assessing the associated land-atmosphere carbon exchange. Precise spatio-temporal information on palm swamps is difficult to gather because of their remoteness and difficult accessibility. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing is an effective tool for characterizing these ecosystems since it is sensitive to surface water and vegetation structure and allows monitoring large inaccessible areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We are developing a remote sensing methodology using multiple resolution microwave remote sensing data to determine palm swamp distribution and inundation state over focus regions in the Amazon basin in northern Peru. For this purpose, two types of multi-temporal microwave data are used: 1) high-resolution (100 m) data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) to derive maps of palm swamp extent and inundation from dual-polarization fine-beam and multi-temporal HH-polarized ScanSAR, and 2) coarse resolution (25 km) combined active and passive microwave data from QuikSCAT and AMSR-E to derive inundated area fraction on a weekly basis. We compare information content and accuracy of the coarse resolution products to the PALSAR-based datasets to ensure information harmonization. The synergistic combination of high and low resolution datasets will allow for characterization of palm swamps and

  17. Physiological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  18. High-throughput quantitative biochemical characterization of algal biomass by NIR spectroscopy; multiple linear regression and multivariate linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurens, L M L; Wolfrum, E J

    2013-12-18

    One of the challenges associated with microalgal biomass characterization and the comparison of microalgal strains and conversion processes is the rapid determination of the composition of algae. We have developed and applied a high-throughput screening technology based on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the rapid and accurate determination of algal biomass composition. We show that NIR spectroscopy can accurately predict the full composition using multivariate linear regression analysis of varying lipid, protein, and carbohydrate content of algal biomass samples from three strains. We also demonstrate a high quality of predictions of an independent validation set. A high-throughput 96-well configuration for spectroscopy gives equally good prediction relative to a ring-cup configuration, and thus, spectra can be obtained from as little as 10-20 mg of material. We found that lipids exhibit a dominant, distinct, and unique fingerprint in the NIR spectrum that allows for the use of single and multiple linear regression of respective wavelengths for the prediction of the biomass lipid content. This is not the case for carbohydrate and protein content, and thus, the use of multivariate statistical modeling approaches remains necessary.

  19. The expression pattern of small nucleolar and small Cajal body-specific RNAs characterizes distinct molecular subtypes of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchetti, D; Todoerti, K; Tuana, G; Agnelli, L; Mosca, L; Lionetti, M; Fabris, S; Colapietro, P; Miozzo, M; Ferrarini, M; Tassone, P; Neri, A

    2012-01-01

    Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and small Cajal body-specific RNAs (scaRNAs) are non-coding RNAs involved in the maturation of other RNA molecules and generally located in the introns of host genes. It is now emerging that altered sno/scaRNAs expression may have a pathological role in cancer. This study elucidates the patterns of sno/scaRNAs expression in multiple myeloma (MM) by profiling purified malignant plasma cells from 55 MMs, 8 secondary plasma cell leukemias (sPCLs) and 4 normal controls. Overall, a global sno/scaRNAs downregulation was found in MMs and, even more, in sPCLs compared with normal plasma cells. Whereas SCARNA22 resulted the only sno/scaRNA characterizing the translocation/cyclin D4 (TC4) MM, TC2 group displayed a distinct sno/scaRNA signature overexpressing members of SNORD115 and SNORD116 families located in a region finely regulated by an imprinting center at 15q11, which, however, resulted overall hypomethylated in MMs independently of the SNORD115 and SNORD116 expression levels. Finally, integrative analyses with available gene expression and genome-wide data revealed the occurrence of significant sno/scaRNAs/host genes co-expression and the putative influence of allelic imbalances on specific snoRNAs expression. Our data extend the current view of sno/scaRNAs deregulation in cancer and add novel information to the bio-molecular complexity of plasma cell dyscrasias

  20. The Role of the Gut Microbiome in Multiple Sclerosis Risk and Progression: Towards Characterization of the "MS Microbiome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröbstel, Anne-Katrin; Baranzini, Sergio E

    2018-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the prototypic complex disease, in which both genes and the environment contribute to its pathogenesis. To date, > 200 independent loci across the genome have been associated with MS risk. However, these only explain a fraction of the total phenotypic variance, suggesting the possible presence of additional genetic factors, and, most likely, also environmental factors. New DNA sequencing technologies have enabled the sequencing of all kinds of microorganisms, including those living in and around humans (i.e., microbiomes). The study of bacterial populations inhabiting the gut is of particular interest in autoimmune diseases owing to their key role in shaping immune responses. In this review, we address the potential crosstalk between B cells and the gut microbiota, a relevant scenario in light of recently approved anti-B-cell therapies for MS. In addition, we review recent efforts to characterize the gut microbiome in patients with MS and discuss potential challenges and future opportunities. Finally, we describe the international MS microbiome study, a multicenter effort to study a large population of patients with MS and their healthy household partners to define the core MS microbiome, how it is shaped by disease-modifying therapies, and to explore potential therapeutic interventions.

  1. Use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) typing to characterize Salmonella Typhimurium DT41 broiler breeder infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litrup, E.; Christensen, H.; Nordentoft, Steen

    2010-01-01

    To characterize isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium DT41 obtained from infected flocks of broiler breeders by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) and compare results with a diverse strain collection from Germany and United Kingdom and isolates from Danish patients. A total...

  2. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  3. Mapping and characterization of positive and negative BOLD responses to visual stimulation in multiple brain regions at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Gruetter, Rolf; van der Zwaag, Wietske

    2018-02-20

    External stimuli and tasks often elicit negative BOLD responses in various brain regions, and growing experimental evidence supports that these phenomena are functionally meaningful. In this work, the high sensitivity available at 7T was explored to map and characterize both positive (PBRs) and negative BOLD responses (NBRs) to visual checkerboard stimulation, occurring in various brain regions within and beyond the visual cortex. Recently-proposed accelerated fMRI techniques were employed for data acquisition, and procedures for exclusion of large draining vein contributions, together with ICA-assisted denoising, were included in the analysis to improve response estimation. Besides the visual cortex, significant PBRs were found in the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus, as well as the pre-central sulcus; in these regions, response durations increased monotonically with stimulus duration, in tight covariation with the visual PBR duration. Significant NBRs were found in the visual cortex, auditory cortex, default-mode network (DMN) and superior parietal lobule; NBR durations also tended to increase with stimulus duration, but were significantly less sustained than the visual PBR, especially for the DMN and superior parietal lobule. Responses in visual and auditory cortex were further studied for checkerboard contrast dependence, and their amplitudes were found to increase monotonically with contrast, linearly correlated with the visual PBR amplitude. Overall, these findings suggest the presence of dynamic neuronal interactions across multiple brain regions, sensitive to stimulus intensity and duration, and demonstrate the richness of information obtainable when jointly mapping positive and negative BOLD responses at a whole-brain scale, with ultra-high field fMRI. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Early Characterization of the Severity and Transmissibility of Pandemic Influenza Using Clinical Episode Data from Multiple Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Riley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential rapid availability of large-scale clinical episode data during the next influenza pandemic suggests an opportunity for increasing the speed with which novel respiratory pathogens can be characterized. Key intervention decisions will be determined by both the transmissibility of the novel strain (measured by the basic reproductive number R0 and its individual-level severity. The 2009 pandemic illustrated that estimating individual-level severity, as described by the proportion pC of infections that result in clinical cases, can remain uncertain for a prolonged period of time. Here, we use 50 distinct US military populations during 2009 as a retrospective cohort to test the hypothesis that real-time encounter data combined with disease dynamic models can be used to bridge this uncertainty gap. Effectively, we estimated the total number of infections in multiple early-affected communities using the model and divided that number by the known number of clinical cases. Joint estimates of severity and transmissibility clustered within a relatively small region of parameter space, with 40 of the 50 populations bounded by: pC, 0.0133-0.150 and R0, 1.09-2.16. These fits were obtained despite widely varying incidence profiles: some with spring waves, some with fall waves and some with both. To illustrate the benefit of specific pairing of rapidly available data and infectious disease models, we simulated a future moderate pandemic strain with pC approximately ×10 that of 2009; the results demonstrating that even before the peak had passed in the first affected population, R0 and pC could be well estimated. This study provides a clear reference in this two-dimensional space against which future novel respiratory pathogens can be rapidly assessed and compared with previous pandemics.

  5. Multiple-indicator dilution technique for characterization of normal and retrograde flow in once-through rat liver perfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Pierre, M.V.; Schwab, A.J.; Goresky, C.A.; Lee, W.F.; Pang, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    The technique of normal and retrograde rat liver perfusion has been widely used to probe zonal differences in drug-metabolizing activities. The validity of this approach mandates the same tissue spaces being accessed by substrates during both normal and retrograde perfusions. Using the multiple-indicator dilution technique, we presently examine the extent to which retrograde perfusion alters the spaces accessible to noneliminated references. A bolus dose of 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, 125I-albumin, 14C-sucrose and 3H2O was injected into the portal (normal) or hepatic (retrograde) vein of rat livers perfused at 10 ml per min per liver. The outflow perfusate was serially collected over 220 sec to characterize the transit times and the distribution spaces of the labels. During retrograde perfusion, red blood cells, albumin and sucrose profiles peaked later and lower than during normal perfusion, whereas the water curves were similar. The transit times of red blood cells, albumin and sucrose were longer (p less than 0.005), whereas those for water did not change. Consequently, retrograde flow resulted in significantly larger sinusoidal blood volumes (45%), albumin Disse space (42%) and sucrose Disse space (25%) than during normal flow, whereas the distribution spaces for total and intracellular water remained unaltered. The distension of the vascular tree was confirmed by electron microscopy, by which occasional isolated foci of widened intercellular recesses and spaces of Disse were observed. Cellular ultrastructure was otherwise unchanged, and there was no difference found between normal and retrograde perfusion for bile flow rates, AST release, perfusion pressure, oxygen consumption and metabolic removal of ethanol, a substrate with flow-limited distribution, which equilibrates rapidly with cell water (hepatic extraction ratios were virtually identical: normal vs. retrograde, 0.50 vs. 0.48 at 6 to 7.4 mM input concentration)

  6. Production and Characterization of α-Galactosidase by a Multiple Mutant of Aspergillus niger in Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Siddique Awan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Galactosidase is applied in the sugar industry to enhance sugar recovery from sugar beet syrup and to improve nutritional value of the soymilk. In the present investigation, the influence of process variables on the production of this important enzyme has been explored in a newly isolated multiple mutant strain of Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation (SSF. Defined fermentation parameters include substrate type (pure lactose and by-products of rice and flour mills as prime substrates, nitrogen source, incubation time, initial pH of the medium and incubation temperature. Extracellular α-galactosidase reached the value of 135.4 IU/g of dry substrate (IU/g after 96 h of fermentation. Supplementation with 2 g of glucose and 3 g of corn steep liquor significantly increased the enzyme production, and maximum value of product yield (318 IU/g by the mutant strain was significantly higher than that reported by the wild type (this work, or other A. niger mutants, recombinants and yeasts reported in literature as producers of elevated levels of α-galactosidase. Among three α-galactosidases, one possessing high subunit molecular mass proteins (99 and 100 kDa has been characterized in both wild and mutant organisms. Thermal properties of the purified enzymes indicate that the mutation decreased the values of activation energy for the formation of enzyme-substrate (ES complex, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy demand for substrate binding, and transition state stabilization. A thermodynamic study of irreversible inactivation of enzymes suggests that the mutant–derived enzyme is more thermostable than the native enzyme, which is attributable to amino acids involved in active catalysis. Because of these properties, the mutant organism is a novel organism and may be exploited for bulk production of thermostable α-galactosidase for the above industrial and nutritional applications.

  7. Prevalence and Characterization of Integrons in Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Eastern China: A Multiple-Hospital Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this multiple-hospital study was to investigate the prevalence of integrons in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB in Eastern China, and characterize the integron-integrase genes, so as to provide evidence for the management and appropriate antibiotic use of MDRAB infections. Methods: A total of 425 clinical isolates of A. baumannii were collected from 16 tertiary hospitals in 11 cities of four provinces (Fujian, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shandong from January 2009 to June 2012. The susceptibility of A. baumannii isolates to ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, aztreonam, meropenem, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole/trimenthoprim, minocycline and imipenem was tested, and integrons and their gene cassettes were characterized in these isolates using PCR assay. In addition, integron-positive A. baumannii isolates were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE assay, and intI1 gene cassette was sequenced. Results: intI1 gene was carried in 69.6% of total A. baumannii isolates, while intI2 and intI3 genes were not detected. The prevalence of resistance to ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, aztreonam, imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole/trimenthoprim was significantly higher in integron-positive A. baumannii isolates than in negative isolates (all p values <0.05, while no significant difference was observed in the prevalence of minocycline resistance (p > 0.05. PFGE assay revealed 27 PFGE genotypes and 4 predominant genotypes, P1, P4, P7 and P19. The PFGE genotype P1 contained 13 extensive-drug resistant and 89 non-extensive-drug resistant A. baumannii isolates, while the genotype P4 contained 34 extensive-drug resistant and 67 non-extensive-drug resistant isolates, appearing a significant

  8. Transcriptional and Physiological Characterizations of Escherichia coli MG1655 that have been grown under Low Shear Stress Environment for 1000 Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Tirumalai, Madhan R.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Ott, Mark C.; Pierson, Duane L.; Fofanov, Yuriy; Willson, Richard C.; Fox, George E.

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physio-logic adaptation. One of the important regulatory biology interactions affected by space flight is the alteration of the immune response. As such, the impairment of the immune system may lead to higher risk of bacterial and/or viral infection during human space flight missions. Mi-crobiological contaminants have been a source of concern over the years for NASA and there is evidence to suggest that microbes in space do not behave like they do on Earth. Previ-ous studies have examined the physiological response of bacteria when exposed to short-term microgravity either during spaceflight or in a Low Shear Modeled Microgravity (LSMMG) en-vironment. Exposure to these environments has been found to induce increased resistance to stresses and antibiotics, and in one case increase of virulence. As NASA increases the duration of space flight missions and is starting to envision human presence on the lunar surface and Mars, it becomes legitimate to question the long-term effects of microgravity on bacteria. The effect of long-term exposure to LSMMG on microbial gene expression and physiology in Escherichia coli (E. coli) is being examined using functional genomics, and molecular tech-niques. In previous E. coli short term studies, reproducible changes in transcription were seen but no direct responses to changes in the gravity vector were identified. Instead, absence of shear and a randomized gravity vector appeared to cause local extra-cellular environmental changes, which elicited cellular responses. In order to evaluate the long-term effects of micro-gravity on bacteria, E. coli was grown under simulated microgravity for 1000 generations and gene expression patterns and cellular physiology were analyzed in comparison with short-term exposure. The analysis revealed that the long-term response differed significantly from the short-term exposure and 357 genes were expressed

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae variety diastaticus friend or foe?-spoilage potential and brewing ability of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae variety diastaticus yeast isolates by genetic, phenotypic and physiological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Dörnberg, Tim; Kory, Oliver Ingo; Jacob, Fritz; Michel, Maximilian; Hutzler, Mathias

    2018-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae variety diastaticus is generally considered to be an obligatory spoilage microorganism and spoilage yeast in beer and beer-mixed beverages. Their super-attenuating ability causes increased carbon dioxide concentrations, beer gushing and potential bottle explosion along with changes in flavor, sedimentation and increased turbidity. This research shows clear differences in the super-attenuating properties of S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus yeast strains and their potential for industrial brewing applications. Nineteen unknown spoilage yeast cultures were obtained as isolates and characterized using a broad spectrum of genetic and phenotypic methods. Results indicated that all isolates represent genetically different S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus strains except for strain TUM PI BA 124. Yeast strains were screened for their super-attenuating ability and sporulation. Even if the STA1 gene responsible for super-attenuation by encoding for the enzyme glucoamylase could be verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction, no correlation to the spoilage potential could be demonstrated. Seven strains were further characterized focusing on brewing and sensory properties according to the yeast characterization platform developed by Meier-Dörnberg. Yeast strain TUM 3-H-2 cannot metabolize dextrin and soluble starch and showed no spoilage potential or super-attenuating ability even when the strain belongs to the species S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus. Overall, the beer produced with S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus has a dry and winey body with noticeable phenolic off-flavors desirable in German wheat beers.

  10. Physiological and immunological characterization of Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus naturally infected with Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual Jiménez, Cristina; Huchin-Mian, Juan Pablo; Simões, Nuno; Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Lozano-Álvarez, Enrique; Sánchez Arteaga, Ariadna; Pérez-Vega, Juan Antonio; Simá-Álvarez, Raúl; Rosas Vazquez, Carlos; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2012-08-27

    The present study compares 13 physiological and immunological variables between a group of healthy Panulirus argus lobsters and a group of lobsters naturally infected with Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1). Viral infection was determined through histopathology and PCR. Ten of the 13 variables differed significantly between the 2 groups. Using these variables, a principal component analysis yielded 2 separate clusters: one corresponding to the healthy group and the other corresponding to the infected group. In particular, infected lobsters exhibited significantly lower levels of osmotic pressure, total hemocyte counts, plasmatic proteins, and total phenoloxidase (PO) activity in plasma, as well as significantly higher levels of cholesterol and acylglycerides. These features are consistent with metabolic wasting, hyperlipidemia, and presumed immune suppression. Infection with PaV1 appears to increase the susceptibility of lobsters to some other opportunistic pathogens, as 61.1% of infected lobsters presented infestations of ciliate epibionts (Epystilis and Zoothamniun) in the gill chamber compared with 11.5% lobsters in the healthy group. Infected lobsters also showed significantly higher levels of total PO activity in degranulated hemocytes and trypsin inhibitor activity, potentially indicating activation of immune response by the PO system during the systemic infection with PaV1.

  11. Characterization of Dutch Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis using a Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikawaty, R.; Brouwer, E.C.; Jansen, M.D.; Duijkeren, van E.; Mevius, D.J.; Verhoef, J.; Fluit, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Current typing methods for Staphylococcus aureus have important drawbacks. We evaluated a Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) scheme with 6 loci which lacks most drawbacks on 85 bovine mastitis isolates from The Netherlands. For each locus the number of repeat units (RU) was

  12. Multiplication in egg yolk and survival in egg albumen of genetically and phenotypically characterized Salmonella Enteritidis strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prompt refrigeration of eggs to prevent the multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis to high levels during storage is an important practice for reducing the risk of egg-transmitted human illness. The efficacy of egg refrigeration for achieving this goal depends on the location of contamination, the ...

  13. Characterizing the Range of Extracellular Protein Post-Translational Modifications in a Cellulose-Degrading Bacteria Using a Multiple Proteolyic Digestion/Peptide Fragmentation Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykstra, Andrew B [ORNL; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Raman, Babu [Dow Chemical Company, The; Cook, Kelsey [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are known to play a significant role in many biological functions. The focus of this study is to characterize the post-translational modifications of the cellulosome protein complex used by the bacterium Clostridium thermocellum to better understand how this protein machine is tuned for enzymatic cellulose solubilization. To enhance comprehensive characterization, the extracellular cellulosome proteins were analyzed using multiple proteolytic digests (trypsin, Lys-C, Glu-C) and multiple fragmentation techniques (collisionally-activated dissociation, electron transfer dissociation, decision tree). As expected, peptide and protein identifications were increased by utilizing alternate proteases and fragmentation methods, in addition to the increase in protein sequence coverage. The complementarity of these experiments also allowed for a global exploration of PTMs associated with the cellulosome based upon a set of defined PTMs that included methylation, oxidation, acetylation, phosphorylation, and signal peptide cleavage. In these experiments, 85 modified peptides corresponding to 28 cellulosome proteins were identified. Many of these modifications were located in active cellulolytic or structural domains of the cellulosome proteins, suggesting a level of possible regulatory control of protein function in various cellulotyic conditions. The use of multiple enzymes and fragmentation technologies allowed for independent verification of PTMs in different experiments, thus leading to increased confidence in PTM identifications.

  14. Do the rich always become richer? Characterizing the leaf physiological response of the high-yielding rice cultivar Takanari to free-air CO2 enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Charles P; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Tokida, Takeshi; Usui, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro

    2014-02-01

    The development of crops which are well suited to growth under future environmental conditions such as higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) is essential to meeting the challenge of ensuring food security in the face of the growing human population and changing climate. A high-yielding indica rice variety (Oryza sativa L. cv. Takanari) has been recently identified as a potential candidate for such breeding, due to its high productivity in present [CO2]. To test if it could further increase its productivity under elevated [CO2] (eCO2), Takanari was grown in the paddy field under season-long free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE, approximately 200 µmol mol(-1) above ambient [CO2]) and its leaf physiology was compared with the representative japonica variety 'Koshihikari'. Takanari showed consistently higher midday photosynthesis and stomatal conductance than Koshihikari under both ambient and FACE growth conditions over 2 years. Maximum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation and electron transport rates were higher for Takanari at the mid-grain filling stage in both years. Mesophyll conductance was higher in Takanari than in Koshihikari at the late grain-filling stage. In contrast to Koshihikari, Takanari grown under FACE conditions showed no decrease in total leaf nitrogen on an area basis relative to ambient-grown plants. Chl content was higher in Takanari than in Koshihikari at the same leaf nitrogen level. These results indicate that Takanari maintains its superiority over Koshihikari in regards to its leaf-level productivity when grown in elevated [CO2] and it may be a valuable resource for rice breeding programs which seek to increase crop productivity under current and future [CO2].

  15. Improving the characterization of fish assemblage structure through the use of multiple sampling methods: a case study in a subtropical tidal flat ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contente, Riguel Feltrin; Del Bianco Rossi-Wongtschowski, Carmen Lucia

    2017-06-01

    The use of multiple sampling gears is indispensible to obtain robust characterizations of fish assemblage structure in species-rich subtropical ecosystems. In this study, such a dependence was demonstrated by characterizing the structure of the high-tide fish assemblage in a subtropical tidal flat ecosystem (the Araçá Bay, southeastern Brazil) using eight different gears along five seasonal surveys and estimating the bay's fish species richness, combining these data with those from local tide pool fish surveys. The high-tide fish assemblage was spatially structured, contained five threatened species, and was dominated by persistent and large populations of Eucinostomus argenteus and of the fisheries species Mugil curema and Diapterus rhombeus that intensively use the bay throughout their life cycles. Large, small-bodied fish populations supported a regular use of the bay by piscivores. The autumn-winter peak in abundance of juvenile fishes caused a subsequent increase in piscivore abundance, and both events explained the bulk of the seasonal variability of the fish assemblage. The estimated richness revealed that the combination of sampling methods was enough for sampling the bulk of the local richness, and the bay may hold a surprisingly high richness compared to other costal ecosystem of the region. This faunal characterization, only viable using multiple gears, will be critical to support the implementation of a future study to monitor the impacts on local fish biodiversity of an imminent port expansion over the tidal flat.

  16. Cone penetrometer testing and discrete-depth groundwater sampling techniques: A cost-effective method of site characterization in a multiple-aquifer setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemo, D.A.; Pierce, Y.G.; Gallinatti, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Cone penetrometer testing (CPT), combined with discrete-depth groundwater sampling methods, can reduce significantly the time and expense required to characterize large sites that have multiple aquifers. Results from the screening site characterization can be used to design and install a cost-effective monitoring well network. At a site in northern California, it was necessary to characterize the stratigraphy and the distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to a depth of 80 feet within a 1/2 mile-by-1/4-mile residential and commercial area in a complex alluvial fan setting. To expedite site characterization, a five-week field screening program was implemented that consisted of a shallow groundwater survey, CPT soundings, and discrete-depth groundwater sampling. Based on continuous lithologic information provided by the CPT soundings, four coarse-grained water-yielding sedimentary packages were identified. Eighty-three discrete-depth groundwater samples were collected using shallow groundwater survey techniques, the BAT Enviroprobe, or the QED HydroPunch 1, depending on subsurface conditions. A 20-well monitoring network was designed and installed to monitor critical points within each sedimentary package. Understanding the vertical VOC distribution and concentrations produced substantial cost savings by minimizing the number of permanent monitoring wells and reducing the number of costly conductor casings to be installed. Significant long-term cost savings will result from reduced sampling costs. Where total VOC concentrations exceeded 20 φg/l in the screening samples, a good correlation was found between the discrete-depth screening data and data from monitoring wells. Using a screening program to characterize the site before installing monitoring wells resulted in an estimated 50-percent reduction in costs for site characterization, 65-percent reduction in time for site characterization, and 50-percent reduction in long-term monitoring costs

  17. Mapping and characterization of positive and negative BOLD responses to visual stimulation in multiple brain regions at 7T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorge, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Gruetter, Rolf; Van der Zwaag, W.

    External stimuli and tasks often elicit negative BOLD responses in various brain regions, and growing experimental evidence supports that these phenomena are functionally meaningful. In this work, the high sensitivity available at 7T was explored to map and characterize both positive (PBRs) and

  18. Mycobacterium malmesburyense sp. nov., a non-tuberculous species of the genus Mycobacterium revealed by multiple gene sequence characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gcebe, Nomakorinte; Rutten, Victor; Pittius, Nicolaas Gey van; Naicker, Brendon; Michel, Anita

    2017-04-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in the environment, and an increasing number of NTM species have been isolated and characterized from both humans and animals, highlighting the zoonotic potential of these bacteria. Host exposure to NTM may impact on cross-reactive immune responsiveness, which may affect diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis and may also play a role in the variability of the efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against tuberculosis. In this study we characterized 10 NTM isolates originating from water, soil, nasal swabs of cattle and African buffalo as well as bovine tissue samples. These isolates were previously identified during an NTM survey and were all found, using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to be closely related to Mycobacterium moriokaense. A polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterization, antibiotic susceptibility profiling, mycolic acid profiling and phylogenetic analysis of four gene loci, 16S rRNA, hsp65, sodA and rpoB, was employed to characterize these isolates. Sequence data analysis of the four gene loci revealed that these isolates belong to a unique species of the genus Mycobacterium. This evidence was further supported by several differences in phenotypic characteristics between the isolates and the closely related species. We propose the name Mycobacterium malmesburyense sp. nov. for this novel species. The type strain is WCM 7299T (=ATCC BAA-2759T=CIP 110822T).

  19. Characterization and minimization of the stress response to trapping in free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus): insights from physiology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nuno; Rio-Maior, Helena; Nakamura, Mónia; Roque, Sara; Brandão, Ricardo; Álvares, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    Wildlife capture is an essential management tool that induces a reactive homeostasis response in the captured animals. The aim of this study was to characterize the reactive homeostatic response to trapping in free-ranging wolves and assess the mitigation achieved by reducing the duration of restraint. Making use of wolves captured for ecological research as a model for wildlife acute stress, we characterize 25 reactive homeostasis mediators and we assess the effect on these mediators of reducing the duration of restraint in trap by using remote trap activation alarms. Free-ranging wolves trapped by leg-hold snares (n = 15) showed higher stress leukogram, tissue injury and hematocrit; while lower glucose, ions and cardiac rate compared with captive wolves. They also showed higher leukocyte count and creatine kinase; but lower hematocrit, cardiac rate and rectal body temperature compared to wolves captured by darting from a helicopter. Daily distance travelled was significantly lower up to day 12 post-capture compared to the remainder of the telemetry follow-up and this effect was more noticeable on the nocturnal distance travelled. Reducing the duration of restraint on trap significantly lowered the stress leukogram and dehydration. Daily distance travelled during the night by wolves captured using trap-alarms was significantly lower only up to day 4 post-capture compared to up to day 28 for wolves captured without trap-alarms. The capture method and duration of restraint influence the reactive homeostasis response of free-ranging wolves. Technological solutions that reduce the duration of restraint on trap significantly dampen this influence. Wildlife trapping actions should strive to minimize the delay from capture to manipulation.

  20. Structural characterization and discrimination of Chinese medicinal materials with multiple botanical origins based on metabolite profiling and chemometrics analysis: Clematidis Radix et Rhizoma as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lin-Xiu; Li, Rui; Liu, Ke; Yang, Jie; Li, Hui-Jun; Li, Song-Lin; Liu, Jian-Qun; Liu, Li-Fang; Xin, Gui-Zhong

    2015-12-18

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs)-based products are becoming more and more popular over the world. To ensure the safety and efficacy, authentication of Chinese medicinal materials has been an important issue, especially for that with multiple botanical origins (one-to-multiple). Taking Clematidis Radix et Rhizoma (CRR) as a case study, we herein developed an integrated platform based on metabolite profiling and chemometrics analysis to characterize, classify, and predict the "one-to-multiple" herbs. Firstly, the predominant constituents, triterpenoid saponins, in three Clematis CRR were rapid characterized by a novel UPLC-QTOF/MS-based strategy, and a total of 49 triterpenoid saponins were identified. Secondly, metabolite profiling was performed by UPLC-QTOF/MS, and 4623 variables were extracted and aligned as dataset. Thirdly, by using pattern recognition analysis, a clear separation of the three Clematis CRR was achieved as well as a total number of 28 variables were screened as the valuable variables for discrimination. By matching with identified saponins, these 28 variables were corresponding to 10 saponins which were identified as marker compounds. Fourthly, based on the relative intensity of the marker compounds-related variables, genetic algorithm optimized support vector machines (GA-SVM) was employed to predict the species of CRR samples. The obtained model showed excellent prediction performance with a prediction accuracy of 100%. Finally, a heatmap visualization was employed for clarifying the distribution of identified saponins, which could be useful for phytochemotaxonomy study of Clematis herbs. These results indicated that our proposed platform was a powerful tool for chemical profiling and discrimination of herbs with multiple botanical origins, providing promising perspectives in tracking the formulation processes of TCMs products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Photoreflectance Spectroscopy Characterization of Ge/Si0.16Ge0.84 Multiple Quantum Wells on Ge Virtual Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Hung-Pin; Yang, Pong-Hong; Huang, Jeng-Kuang; Wu, Po-Hung; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Li, Cheng; Huang, Shi-Hao; Tiong, Kwong-Kau

    2013-01-01

    We report a detailed characterization of a Ge/Si0.16Ge0.84 multiple quantum well (MQW) structure on Ge-on-Si virtual substrate (VS) grown by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition by using temperature-dependent photoreflectance (PR) in the temperature range from 10 to 300 K. The PR spectra revealed a wide range of optical transitions from the MQW region as well as transitions corresponding to the light-hole and heavy-hole splitting energies of Ge-on-Si VS. A detailed comparison of PR spec...

  2. Physiology of fish endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plisetskaya, E M

    1989-06-01

    From the very beginning of physiological studies on the endocine pancreas, fish have been used as experimental subjects. Fish insulin was one of the first vertebrate insulins isolated and one of the first insulins whose primary and then tertiary structures were reported. Before a second pancreatic hormone, glucagon, was characterized, a physiologically active 'impurity', similar to that in mammalian insulin preparations, was found in fish insulins.Fish have become the most widely used model for studies of biosynthesis and processing of the pancreatic hormones. It seems inconceivable, therefore, that until the recent past cod and tuna insulins have been the only purified piscine islet hormones available for physiological experiments. The situation has changed remarkably during the last decade.In this review the contemporary status of physiological studies on the fish pancreas is outlined with an emphasis on the following topics: 1) contents of pancreatic peptides in plasma and in islet tissue; 2) actions of piscine pancreatic hormones in fish; 3) specific metabolic consequences of an acute insufficiency of pancreatic peptides; 4) functional interrelations among pancreatic peptides which differ from those of mammals. The pitfalls, lacunae and the perspectives of contemporary physiological studies on fish endocrine pancreas are outlined.

  3. Molecular evidence and physiological characterization of iron absorption in isolated enterocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Implications for dietary cadmium and lead absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, Raymond W.M.; Andres, Jose A.; Niyogi, Som

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggested the probable involvement of an apical iron (Fe 2+ ) transporter, the divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1), in the uptake of several divalent metals in fish. The present study examined the gastrointestinal expression of the DMT1 gene, and investigated the kinetics of Fe 2+ uptake and its interactions with cadmium and lead in isolated enterocytes of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The expressions of two DMT1 isoforms (Nramp-β and -γ) were recorded along the entire gastrointestinal tract of fish as well as in the enterocytes. Fe 2+ uptake in isolated enterocytes was saturable and sensitive to the proton gradient and membrane potential, suggesting DMT1-mediated transport. Both cadmium and lead inhibited Fe 2+ uptake in isolated enterocytes in a concentration-dependent manner, and lead appeared to be a stronger inhibitor than cadmium. The kinetic characterization of Fe 2+ uptake revealed that the apparent affinity of uptake was significantly decreased (increased K m ) in the presence of either cadmium or lead, whereas the maximum uptake rate (J max ) remained unchanged-indicating that the interaction between Fe 2+ and cadmium or lead is competitive in nature. Overall, our study suggests that the uptake of dietary cadmium and lead may occur via the iron-transporting pathway in fish.

  4. Molecular evidence and physiological characterization of iron absorption in isolated enterocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Implications for dietary cadmium and lead absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, Raymond W.M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK., S7N 5B3 (Canada); Andres, Jose A. [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK., S7N 5E2 (Canada); Niyogi, Som, E-mail: som.niyogi@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK., S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies suggested the probable involvement of an apical iron (Fe{sup 2+}) transporter, the divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1), in the uptake of several divalent metals in fish. The present study examined the gastrointestinal expression of the DMT1 gene, and investigated the kinetics of Fe{sup 2+} uptake and its interactions with cadmium and lead in isolated enterocytes of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The expressions of two DMT1 isoforms (Nramp-{beta} and -{gamma}) were recorded along the entire gastrointestinal tract of fish as well as in the enterocytes. Fe{sup 2+} uptake in isolated enterocytes was saturable and sensitive to the proton gradient and membrane potential, suggesting DMT1-mediated transport. Both cadmium and lead inhibited Fe{sup 2+} uptake in isolated enterocytes in a concentration-dependent manner, and lead appeared to be a stronger inhibitor than cadmium. The kinetic characterization of Fe{sup 2+} uptake revealed that the apparent affinity of uptake was significantly decreased (increased K{sub m}) in the presence of either cadmium or lead, whereas the maximum uptake rate (J{sub max}) remained unchanged-indicating that the interaction between Fe{sup 2+} and cadmium or lead is competitive in nature. Overall, our study suggests that the uptake of dietary cadmium and lead may occur via the iron-transporting pathway in fish.

  5. Physiological and morphological characterization of american oil palms (Elaeis oleifera HBK Cortes and their hybrids (Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis on the Indupalma plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurany Dayanna Rivera M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphological and photosynthetic activity were characterized in six genotypes of American oil palm (E. oleifera of different origins and three of their OxG hybrids (E. oleifera × E. guineensis with a completely randomized experimental design, three replications and 16 palms per replication. Determinations were made for: photosynthesis, internal CO2 concentration, chlorophyll content, stomatal openings and density, specific leaf area, and measurements of vegetative growth. The genotypes were differentiated by growth rate, emission, area and dry weight of the leaves. The stomatal openings of all the genotypes were maximum in the morning hours, with partial closures at midday; therefore, the maximum rate of photosynthesis was between 9:00 and 12:00 hr. The "Perú" American oil palm and "hybrid 2" (Sinú-Coarí × La Mé showed higher CO2 internal concentrations, total chlorophyll contents, light saturation points and photosynthetic rates, even with low levels of photosynthetically active radiation; characteristics that indicate a high capacity for the fixation of CO2. The photosynthetic rate showed a high positive correlation with the chlorophyll content and a negative correlation with the specific leaf area. In conclusion, the "Perú" American oil palm showed relevant characteristics for use in breeding programs as female parent of OxG hybrids, while "hybrid 2", due to its outstanding morphophysiological characteristics, is considered a genotype with good agronomic performance

  6. Morphological characterization and topographic analysis of multiple photoreceptor types in the retinae of mesopelagic hatchetfishes with tubular eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Michelle Biagioni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine hatchetfishes, Argyropelecus spp., are one of the 14 genera of mesopelagic teleosts, which possess tubular eyes. The tubular eyes are positioned dorsally on the head and consist of a main retina, which subtends a large dorsal binocular field, and an accessory retina, which subtends the lateral monocular visual field. The topographic distribution of photoreceptors in the retina of Argyropelecus sladeni, A. affinis and A. aculeatus was determined using a random, unbiased and systematic stereological approach, which consistently revealed a region of high density (area centralis in the central region of the main retina (up to a peak of 96,000 receptors per mm2 and a relatively homogeneous density of photoreceptors in the accessory retina (of approximately 20,000 receptors per mm2. The position of the area centralis in the main retina indicates this retinal region subserves greater spatial resolution in the centre of the dorsal binocular visual field. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy also revealed the presence of multiple photoreceptor types (two rod-like and one cone-like based on the size and shape of the inner and outer segments and ultrastructural differences in the ellipsoidal region. The presence of multiple photoreceptor types in these tubular-eyed, mesopelagic hatchetfishes may reflect the need for the visual system to function under different lighting conditions during vertical migratory behavior, especially given their unique dorsally-facing eyes.

  7. Genetic and physiological analysis of an envB spherelike mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 and characterization of its transductants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westling-Haggstrom, B.; Normark, S.

    1975-01-01

    The envB1 mutation mediating a distorted cell morphology of Escherichia coli K-12 was cotransducible with strA, aroE, aspB, and argG. The mapping data is consistent with a gene location for envB around 62.5 min. In partial diploids envB1 was recessive to its wild-type allele. The original envB mutant contained a second mutation in a locus denoted sloB close to strA. The following gene order is suggested: sloB-strA-aroE-envB-aspB-argG. The sloB1 mutation caused a marked reduction in the growth rate of both envB and envB + strains. Moreover, this mutation in the presence of envB1 appears to increase the ratio between deoxyribonucleic acid and protein in cells growing in rich medium. The phenotypic properties of envB1, sloB + , and envB + transductants were characterized. Cells with envB1, sloB + genotype were hypersensitive to several penicillins including the β-lactam compound, amidino penicillin. Penicillin hypersensitivity could not be explained by increased outer membrane penetrability. The original envB mutant (envB1, sloB1), as well as envB1, sloB1 or envB + , sloB1 transductants were resistant to amidino penicillin. Resistance was explained by the slow growth rate medicated by the sloB1 mutation. The similarity between envB cells and wild-type cells treated with sublethal concentrations of amidino penicillin was emphasized. (U.S.)

  8. Molecular characterization of Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from Argentina by Multiple-Loci VNTR Analysis (MLVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Ana V.; Lucchesi, Paula M.A.; Parma, Alberto E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to adapt described MLVA protocols to the molecular typing and characterization of VTEC O157:H7 isolates from Argentina. Nine VNTR loci were amplified by PCR showing diversity values from 0.49 to 0.73. Nine MLVA profiles were observed and the cluster analysis indicated both unrelated and closely related VTEC O157:H7 strains. In spite of the limited number of isolates studied, the panel of VNTR used made it possible to perform a first approach of the high genetic diversity of native strains of O157:H7 by MLVA. PMID:24031443

  9. Characterization of the rubber tree metallothionein family reveals a role in mitigating the effects of reactive oxygen species associated with physiological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yacheng; Fang, Yongjun; Long, Xiangyu; Liu, Linya; Wang, Jia; Zhu, Jinheng; Ma, Yanyan; Qin, Yunxia; Qi, Jiyan; Hu, Xinwen; Tang, Chaorong

    2018-02-07

    Metallothioneins (MTs) as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers play important roles in stress response and heavy metal homeostasis. In Hevea brasiliensis (the para rubber tree that is the source of commercial natural rubber) and in other trees, the functions of MTs are not well understood. Latex exudes when the rubber tree is tapped. The flow of latex and its regeneration can be enhanced by tapping, wounding and ethylene treatment, all of which produce ROS as a by-product. Here, we show the presence of four MT genes in H. brasiliensis, comprising three Type 2 (HbMT2, -2a and -2b) and one Type 3 (HbMT3L) isoforms, representing one of the smallest MT gene families among angiosperms. The four HbMTs exhibited distinct tissue expression patterns: HbMT2 and HbMT3L mainly in leaves, HbMT2a specifically in flowers and HbMT2b in diverse tissues. The expression of HbMT2b, an isoform present in latex, decreased significantly in the latex following the stress-inducing treatments of tapping, wounding and ethephon (an ethylene generator). The expressions of the leaf-abundant isoforms, HbMT2 and -3L were up-regulated following pathogenic fungus infection and high-temperature stress, but down-regulated by low-temperature stress. These reactions were consistent with multiple defense- and hormone-responsive cis-acting elements in the HbMT promoters. Nine transcription factors were shown to implicate in the high-temperature responsiveness of HbMT2 and -3L in leaves. Overexpression of HbMT2 in Escherichia coli enhanced the bacterium's tolerance to heavy metals and ROS, consistent with its predicted role as an ROS scavenger. Taken together, our results, along with other relevant studies, suggest an important role of HbMTs in latex regeneration as well as species adaptation via the regulation of ROS homeostasis. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. What Characterizes the Polymodal Media of the Mobile Phone? The Multiple Media within the World’s Most Popular Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hilbert

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available While the mobile phone is the world’s most popular media device, it is actually not one single medium, but is effectively used as a different medium by different user groups. The article characterizes polymodal differences in mobile apps usage among different user groups, including gender, education, occupation, screen size, and price. We monitored the complete app usage of 10,725 smartphone users for one month each (56 million sessions, recording almost 1 million hours. Our key contribution consists in developing and analyzing a theoretical framework to classify the over 16,000 apps used into five categories. Exploring nine research questions we provide a broad characterization by asking who, with which characteristics, uses which kinds of apps in what extensity and intensity? For example, it is not the young and high occupational grades that use the mobile phone as a human-to-machine computer (including gaming and artificial intelligence tools. Large screen size is related to extensive long sessions, while a small screen size is related to intensive frequent usage. The results go beyond providing ample empirical evidence for the inherently polymodal nature of the mobile phone, but also proposes a framework on how to deal with it analytically.

  11. How do Bacteria Adapt to the Red Sea? Cultivation and Genomic and Physiological Characterization of Oligotrophic Bacteria of the PS1, OM43, and SAR11 Clades

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez Infante, Francy M.

    2015-05-01

    Given the high salinity, prevailing annual high temperatures, and ultra-oligotrophic conditions in the Red Sea isolation and characterization of important microbial groups thriving in this environment is important in understanding the ecological significance and metabolic capabilities of these communities. By using a high-­throughput cultivation technique in natural seawater amended with minute amounts of nutrients, members of the rare biosphere (PS1), methylotrophic Betaproteobacteria (OM43), and the ubiquitous and abundant SAR11 group (Pelagibacterales), were isolated in pure culture. Phylogenetic analyses of Red Sea isolates along with comparative genomics with close representatives from disparate provinces revealed ecotypes and genomic differentiation among the groups. Firstly, the PS1 alphaproteobacterial clade was found to be present in very low abundance in several metagenomic datasets form divergent environments. While strain RS24 (Red Sea) harbored genomic islands involved in polymer degradation, IMCC14465 (East (Japan) Sea) contained unique genes for degradation of aromatic compounds. Secondly, methylotrophic OM43 bacteria from the Red Sea (F5, G12 and H7) showed higher similarities with KB13 isolate from Hawaii, forming a ‘H-­RS’ (Hawaii-­Red Sea) cluster separate from HTCC2181 (Oregon isolate). HTCC2181 members were shown to prevail in cold, productive coastal environments and had an nqrA-­F system for energy generation by sodium motive force. On the contrary, H-­RS cluster members may be better adapted to warm and oligotrophic environments, and seem to generate energy by using a proton-­translocating NADH:Quinone oxidoreductase (complex I; nuoA-­N subunits). Moreover, F5, G12, and H7 had unique proteins related to resistance to UV, temperature and salinity, in addition to a heavy metal ‘resistance island’ as adaptive traits to cope with the environmental conditions in the Red Sea. Finally, description of the Red Sea Pelagibacterales

  12. Morphology and physiology characterization of activated sludge by image analysis; Caracterisation morphologique et physiologique de la biomasse des boues activees par analyse d'images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandolfi, D.

    2006-01-15

    The biological reactors of wastewater treatment by activated sludge are hosting a complex ecosystem, composed of different types of bacteria (filamentous, non filamentous), protozoa and metazoa. A good balance between the different types of bacteria is essential to achieve good settleability properties for the flocs in the clarifier. The flocs are formed by filamentous bacteria and exo-polymers produced by zoogleal bacteria. When filamentous bacteria are in excess, the floes do not settle correctly (bulking and foaming phenomena). Methods based on image analysis have been used to detect and characterize automatically filamentous bacteria as well as the abundance of exo-polymers. Monochrome or colour-images have been obtained by optical microscopy with classical (Gram, Neisser, Soudan Black) and fluorescent staining (BacLight, FISH). The validation of the different procedures was achieved on various full-scale treatment plants in Lorraine. Further experiments were carried out on lab-scale continuous and sequential reactors, in order to observe the effect of substrates, of temperature and starvation on the behavior of filamentous microorganisms. Under continuous or sequential aeration, for the same substrate, different Gram characteristics are observed. The study carried out on extracellular polymers with varying carbon/nitrogen ratios reveals that an excess of carbonaceous substance favors the production of polymers, which are essential for flocculation. The results obtained with the Gram and PHB (presence of lipids) procedures in condition of environmental stress (starvation and temperature) have shown that the populations have experienced structural alterations of their membranes. We have noticed that in periods of aerobic starvation the lipids which were present were used in ambient temperature, whereas in anaerobic conditions the polyphosphates were consumed. In absence or presence oxygen at a temperature of 4 deg C, it seems easier for filamentous bacteria to

  13. Morphology and physiology characterization of activated sludge by image analysis; Caracterisation morphologique et physiologique de la biomasse des boues activees par analyse d'images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandolfi, D

    2006-01-15

    The biological reactors of wastewater treatment by activated sludge are hosting a complex ecosystem, composed of different types of bacteria (filamentous, non filamentous), protozoa and metazoa. A good balance between the different types of bacteria is essential to achieve good settleability properties for the flocs in the clarifier. The flocs are formed by filamentous bacteria and exo-polymers produced by zoogleal bacteria. When filamentous bacteria are in excess, the floes do not settle correctly (bulking and foaming phenomena). Methods based on image analysis have been used to detect and characterize automatically filamentous bacteria as well as the abundance of exo-polymers. Monochrome or colour-images have been obtained by optical microscopy with classical (Gram, Neisser, Soudan Black) and fluorescent staining (BacLight, FISH). The validation of the different procedures was achieved on various full-scale treatment plants in Lorraine. Further experiments were carried out on lab-scale continuous and sequential reactors, in order to observe the effect of substrates, of temperature and starvation on the behavior of filamentous microorganisms. Under continuous or sequential aeration, for the same substrate, different Gram characteristics are observed. The study carried out on extracellular polymers with varying carbon/nitrogen ratios reveals that an excess of carbonaceous substance favors the production of polymers, which are essential for flocculation. The results obtained with the Gram and PHB (presence of lipids) procedures in condition of environmental stress (starvation and temperature) have shown that the populations have experienced structural alterations of their membranes. We have noticed that in periods of aerobic starvation the lipids which were present were used in ambient temperature, whereas in anaerobic conditions the polyphosphates were consumed. In absence or presence oxygen at a temperature of 4 deg C, it seems easier for filamentous bacteria to

  14. Growth and characterization of semi-insulating carbon-doped/undoped GaN multiple-layer buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Seok; Won, Chul-Ho; Kang, Hee-Sung; Kim, Young-Jo; Kang, In Man; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Yong Tae

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed a new semi-insulating GaN buffer layer, which consists of multiple carbon-doped and undoped GaN layer. The buffer layer showed sufficiently good semi-insulating characteristics, attributed to the depletion effect between the carbon-doped GaN and the undoped GaN layers, even though the thickness of the carbon-doped GaN layer in the periodic structure was designed to be very thin to minimize the total carbon incorporation into the buffer layer. The AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure grown on the proposed buffer exhibited much better electrical and structural properties than that grown on the conventional thick carbon-doped semi-insulating GaN buffer layer, confirmed by Hall measurement, x-ray diffraction, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The fabricated device also showed excellent buffer breakdown characteristics. (paper)

  15. Multiple approaches to characterize the microbial community in a thermophilic anaerobic digester running on swine manure: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Nguyen Ngoc; Chang, Yi-Chia; Yu, Chang-Ping; Huang, Shir-Ly

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the first survey of microbial community in thermophilic anaerobic digester using swine manure as sole feedstock was performed by multiple approaches including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), clone library and pyrosequencing techniques. The integrated analysis of 21 DGGE bands, 126 clones and 8506 pyrosequencing read sequences revealed that Clostridia from the phylum Firmicutes account for the most dominant Bacteria. In addition, our analysis also identified additional taxa that were missed by the previous researches, including members of the bacterial phyla Synergistetes, Planctomycetes, Armatimonadetes, Chloroflexi and Nitrospira which might also play a role in thermophilic anaerobic digester. Most archaeal 16S rRNA sequences could be assigned to the order Methanobacteriales instead of Methanomicrobiales comparing to previous studies. In addition, this study reported that the member of Methanothermobacter genus was firstly found in thermophilic anaerobic digester. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid Generation of Multiple Loci-Engineered Marker-free Poxvirus and Characterization of a Clinical-Grade Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Sheng Guo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant poxviruses, utilized as vaccine vectors and oncolytic viruses, often require manipulation at multiple genetic loci in the viral genome. It is essential for viral vectors to possess no adventitious mutations and no (antibiotic selection marker in the final product for human patients in order to comply with the guidance from the regulatory agencies. Rintoul et al. have previously developed a selectable and excisable marker (SEM system for the rapid generation of recombinant vaccinia virus. In the current study, we describe an improved methodology for rapid creation and selection of recombinant poxviruses with multiple genetic manipulations solely based on expression of a fluorescent protein and with no requirement for drug selection that can lead to cellular stress and the risk of adventitious mutations throughout the viral genome. Using this improved procedure combined with the SEM system, we have constructed multiple marker-free oncolytic poxviruses expressing different cytokines and other therapeutic genes. The high fidelity of inserted DNA sequences validates the utility of this improved procedure for generation of therapeutic viruses for human patients. We have created an oncolytic poxvirus expressing human chemokine CCL5, designated as vvDD-A34R-hCCL5, with manipulations at two genetic loci in a single virus. Finally, we have produced and purified this virus in clinical grade for its use in a phase I clinical trial and presented data on initial in vitro characterization of the virus.

  17. Characterizing uncertainty and population variability in the toxicokinetics of trichloroethylene and metabolites in mice, rats, and humans using an updated database, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, and Bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Okino, Miles S.; Evans, Marina V.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive, Bayesian, PBPK model-based analysis of the population toxicokinetics of trichloroethylene (TCE) and its metabolites in mice, rats, and humans, considering a wider range of physiological, chemical, in vitro, and in vivo data than any previously published analysis of TCE. The toxicokinetics of the 'population average,' its population variability, and their uncertainties are characterized in an approach that strives to be maximally transparent and objective. Estimates of experimental variability and uncertainty were also included in this analysis. The experimental database was expanded to include virtually all available in vivo toxicokinetic data, which permitted, in rats and humans, the specification of separate datasets for model calibration and evaluation. The total combination of these approaches and PBPK analysis provides substantial support for the model predictions. In addition, we feel confident that the approach employed also yields an accurate characterization of the uncertainty in metabolic pathways for which available data were sparse or relatively indirect, such as GSH conjugation and respiratory tract metabolism. Key conclusions from the model predictions include the following: (1) as expected, TCE is substantially metabolized, primarily by oxidation at doses below saturation; (2) GSH conjugation and subsequent bioactivation in humans appear to be 10- to 100-fold greater than previously estimated; and (3) mice had the greatest rate of respiratory tract oxidative metabolism as compared to rats and humans. In a situation such as TCE in which there is large database of studies coupled with complex toxicokinetics, the Bayesian approach provides a systematic method of simultaneously estimating model parameters and characterizing their uncertainty and variability. However, care needs to be taken in its implementation to ensure biological consistency, transparency, and objectivity.

  18. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  19. Plant Physiology in Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The

  20. Sequence characterization and glycosylation sites identification of donkey milk lactoferrin by multiple enzyme digestions and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallina, Serafina; Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Saletti, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin, a protein showing an array of biochemical properties, including immuno-modulation, iron-binding ability, as well as antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral activities, but which may also represent a potential milk allergen, was isolated from donkey milk by ion exchange chromatography...... characterization of donkey lactoferrin sequence, that, at least for the covered sequence, differs from the horse genomic deduced sequence (UniProtKB Acc. Nr. O77811) by five point substitutions located at positions 91 (Arg → His), 328 (Thr → Ile/Leu), 466 (Ala → Gly), 642 (Asn → Ser) and 668 (Ser → Ala). Analysis...... of the glycosylated protein showed that glycans in donkey lactoferrin are linked to the protein backbone via an amide bond to asparagine residues located at the positions 137, 281 and 476....

  1. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multiple detections: A complementary approach in the characterization of egg yolk plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Haiyang; Li, Yueqiu; Choi, Jaeyeong; Huo, Shuying; Ding, Liang; Shen, Shigang; Lee, Seungho

    2016-09-23

    The capability of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with UV/VIS, multiangle light scattering (MALS) and quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) (AF4-UV-MALS-QELS) for separation and characterization of egg yolk plasma was evaluated. The accuracy of hydrodynamic radius (Rh) obtained from QELS and AF4 theory (using both simplified and full expression of AF4 retention equations) was discussed. The conformation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and its aggregates in egg yolk plasma was discussed based on the ratio of radius of gyration (Rg) to Rh together with the results from bio-transmission electron microscopy (Bio-TEM). The results indicate that the full retention equation is more relevant than simplified version for the Rh determination at high cross flow rate. The Rh from online QELS is reliable only at a specific range of sample concentration. The effect of programmed cross flow rate (linear and exponential decay) on the analysis of egg yolk plasma was also investigated. It was found that the use of an exponentially decaying cross flow rate not only reduces the AF4 analysis time of the egg yolk plasma, but also provides better resolution than the use of either a constant or linearly decaying cross flow rate. A combination of an exponentially decaying cross flow AF4-UV-MALS-QELS and the utilization of full retention equation was proved to be a useful method for the separation and characterization of egg yolk plasma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multilevel functional genomics data integration as a tool for understanding physiology: a network biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Peter K; Turan, Nil; Egginton, Stuart; Falciani, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    The overall aim of physiological research is to understand how living systems function in an integrative manner. Consequently, the discipline of physiology has since its infancy attempted to link multiple levels of biological organization. Increasingly this has involved mathematical and computational approaches, typically to model a small number of components spanning several levels of biological organization. With the advent of "omics" technologies, which can characterize the molecular state of a cell or tissue (intended as the level of expression and/or activity of its molecular components), the number of molecular components we can quantify has increased exponentially. Paradoxically, the unprecedented amount of experimental data has made it more difficult to derive conceptual models underlying essential mechanisms regulating mammalian physiology. We present an overview of state-of-the-art methods currently used to identifying biological networks underlying genomewide responses. These are based on a data-driven approach that relies on advanced computational methods designed to "learn" biology from observational data. In this review, we illustrate an application of these computational methodologies using a case study integrating an in vivo model representing the transcriptional state of hypoxic skeletal muscle with a clinical study representing muscle wasting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The broader application of these approaches to modeling multiple levels of biological data in the context of modern physiology is discussed. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  4. Use of the SSHAC methodology within regulated environments: Cost-effective application for seismic characterization at multiple sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Bommer, Julian J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► SSHAC processes provide high levels of regulatory assurance in hazard assessments for purposes of licensing and safety review. ► SSHAC projects provide structure to the evaluation of available data, models, and methods for building hazard input models. ► Experience on several nuclear projects in the past 15 years leads to the identification of key essential procedural steps. ► Conducting a regional SSHAC Level 3 study, followed by Level 2 site-specific studies can be time and cost effective. - Abstract: Essential elements of license applications and safety reviews for nuclear facilities are quantifications of earthquake and other natural hazards. A Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 3 or 4 process provides regulatory assurance that the hazard assessment considers all data and models proposed by members of the technical community and the associated uncertainties have been properly quantified. The SSHAC process has been endorsed as an acceptable hazard assessment methodology in US NRC regulatory guidance. Where hazard studies are required for multiple sites, regional SSHAC Level 3 or 4 studies followed by site-specific Level 2 refinements can provide major benefits in cost and duration.

  5. EUV soft X-ray characterization of a FEL multilayer optics damaged by multiple shot laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giglia, A.; Mahne, N.; Bianco, A.; Svetina, C.; Nannarone, S.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the damaging effects of a femtosecond pulsed laser beam with 400 nm wavelength on a Mo/Si EUV multilayer. The exposures have been done in vacuum with multiple pulses (5 pulses/mm 2 ) of 120 fs varying the laser fluence in the 38-195 mJ/cm 2 range. The analysis of the different irradiated regions has been performed ex-situ by means of different techniques, including specular and diffuse reflectivity, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and total electron yield (TEY) in the EUV and soft X-ray range. Surface images have been acquired by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results clearly indicate a progressive degradation of the EUV multilayer performances with the increase of the laser fluence. Spectroscopic analysis allowed to correlate the decrease of reflectivity with the degradation of the multilayer stacking, ascribed to Mo-Si intermixing at the Mo/Si interfaces of the first layers, close to the surface of the mirror.

  6. Trace metal characterization and speciation in geothermal effluent by multiple scanning anodic stripping voltammetry and atomic absorption analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, B.R.

    1979-05-25

    Recent studies have shown geothermal power plants to have a significant environmental impact on the ground water of the area. The heavy metals arsenic and mercury are special problems, as both are concentrated by flora and fauna exposed to the effluent waters. Because the toxicity of these and other metallic pollutants present in geothermal effluent depends on the chemical form, or speciation, of the particular metal, any serious study of the environmental impact of a geothermal development should include studies of trace metal speciation, in addition to trace metal concentration. This proposal details a method for determining metal speciation in dilute waters. The method is based on ion-exchange and backed by atomic absorption spectrometry and multiple scanning anodic stripping voltammetry. Special laboratory studies will be performed on mercury, arsenic and selenium speciation in synthetic geothermal water. The method will be applied to three known geothermal areas in Washington and Oregon, with emphasis on the speciation of mercury, arsenic and selenium in these waters. The computer controlled electrochemical instrumentation was built and tested. Using this instrumentation, a new experimental procedure was developed to determine the chemical form (speciation) of metal ions in very dilute solutions (ng/ml). This method was tested on model systems including Pb, Cd, and As with C1/sup -/, CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ and glycine ligands. Finally, the speciation of lead in a geothermal water was examined and the PbC1/sup +/ complex was observed and quantified.

  7. Cloning and Characterization of Sf9 Cell Lamin and the Lamin Conformational Changes during Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Wei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, the details of lamina alterations after baculovirus infection remain elusive. In this study, a lamin gene in the Sf9 cell line of Spodoptera frugiperda was cloned. The open reading frame (orf of the Sf9 lamin was 1860 bp and encoded a protein with a molecular weight of 70 kDa. A transfection assay with a red fluorescence protein (rfp-lamin fusion protein indicated that Sf9 lamin was localized in the nuclear rim. Transmission electron microscopy observations indicated that Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV nucleocapsids may pass through the nuclear envelope. Immunofluorescence assay indicated that the lamina showed a ruffled staining pattern with the formation of invaginations in the Sf9 cells infected with AcMNPV, while it was evenly distributed at the nuclear periphery of mock-infected cells. Western blotting results indicated that the total amount of lamin in the baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells was significantly decreased compared with the mock-infected cells. These results imply that AcMNPV infection induces structural and biochemical rearrangements of lamina of Sf9 cells.

  8. Characterization of the multiple drug resistance phenotype expressed by tumour cells following in vitro exposure to fractionated X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, B.T.; McClean, S.; Hosking, L.; Shellard, S.; Dempke, W.; Whelan, R.

    1992-01-01

    The major clinical problem of the emergence of drug resistant tumor cell populations is recognized in patients previously treated with antitumor drugs and with radiotherapy. It is proposed that, although radiation-induced vascular fibrosis may limit drug delivery to the tumor, exposure to radiation may 'induce' or 'select for' drug resistance. This hypothesis was examined by establishing in vitro model systems to investigate the resistance phenotype of tumor cells following exposure to X-rays. Characteristically tumor cells surviving exposure to a series of fractions of X-irradiation are shown to have consistently expressed resistance to multiple drugs, including the Vinca alkaloids and the epipodophyllotoxins. Currently this research is aimed at determining whether distinctive resistance mechanisms operate depending on whether resistance results following drug or X-ray exposure. Initial results indicate that whilst some common mechanisms operate, drug resistant tumor cells identified following exposure to X-irradiation appear to exhibit a novel multidrug resistance phenotype. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab

  9. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie-Jeanne Richard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI. We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone. The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the

  10. Skin age testing criteria: characterization of human skin structures by 500 MHz MRI multiple contrast and image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    Ex vivo magnetic resonance microimaging (MRM) image characteristics are reported in human skin samples in different age groups. Human excised skin samples were imaged using a custom coil placed inside a 500 MHz NMR imager for high-resolution microimaging. Skin MRI images were processed for characterization of different skin structures. Contiguous cross-sectional T1-weighted 3D spin echo MRI, T2-weighted 3D spin echo MRI and proton density images were compared with skin histopathology and NMR peaks. In all skin specimens, epidermis and dermis thickening and hair follicle size were measured using MRM. Optimized parameters TE and TR and multicontrast enhancement generated better MRI visibility of different skin components. Within high MR signal regions near to the custom coil, MRI images with short echo time were comparable with digitized histological sections for skin structures of the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles in 6 (67%) of the nine specimens. Skin % tissue composition, measurement of the epidermis, dermis, sebaceous gland and hair follicle size, and skin NMR peaks were signatures of skin type. The image processing determined the dimensionality of skin tissue components and skin typing. The ex vivo MRI images and histopathology of the skin may be used to measure the skin structure and skin NMR peaks with image processing may be a tool for determining skin typing and skin composition.

  11. Skin age testing criteria: characterization of human skin structures by 500 MHz MRI multiple contrast and image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rakesh, E-mail: rs05h@fsu.ed [Departments of Chemical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2010-07-21

    Ex vivo magnetic resonance microimaging (MRM) image characteristics are reported in human skin samples in different age groups. Human excised skin samples were imaged using a custom coil placed inside a 500 MHz NMR imager for high-resolution microimaging. Skin MRI images were processed for characterization of different skin structures. Contiguous cross-sectional T1-weighted 3D spin echo MRI, T2-weighted 3D spin echo MRI and proton density images were compared with skin histopathology and NMR peaks. In all skin specimens, epidermis and dermis thickening and hair follicle size were measured using MRM. Optimized parameters TE and TR and multicontrast enhancement generated better MRI visibility of different skin components. Within high MR signal regions near to the custom coil, MRI images with short echo time were comparable with digitized histological sections for skin structures of the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles in 6 (67%) of the nine specimens. Skin % tissue composition, measurement of the epidermis, dermis, sebaceous gland and hair follicle size, and skin NMR peaks were signatures of skin type. The image processing determined the dimensionality of skin tissue components and skin typing. The ex vivo MRI images and histopathology of the skin may be used to measure the skin structure and skin NMR peaks with image processing may be a tool for determining skin typing and skin composition.

  12. Hydraulic characterization of volcanic rocks in Pahute Mesa using an integrated analysis of 16 multiple-well aquifer tests, Nevada National Security Site, 2009–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Jackson, Tracie R.; Halford, Keith J.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Damar, Nancy A.; Fenelon, Joseph M.; Reiner, Steven R.

    2017-01-20

    An improved understanding of groundwater flow and radionuclide migration downgradient from underground nuclear-testing areas at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, requires accurate subsurface hydraulic characterization. To improve conceptual models of flow and transport in the complex hydrogeologic system beneath Pahute Mesa, the U.S. Geological Survey characterized bulk hydraulic properties of volcanic rocks using an integrated analysis of 16 multiple-well aquifer tests. Single-well aquifer-test analyses provided transmissivity estimates at pumped wells. Transmissivity estimates ranged from less than 1 to about 100,000 square feet per day in Pahute Mesa and the vicinity. Drawdown from multiple-well aquifer testing was estimated and distinguished from natural fluctuations in more than 200 pumping and observation wells using analytical water-level models. Drawdown was detected at distances greater than 3 miles from pumping wells and propagated across hydrostratigraphic units and major structures, indicating that neither faults nor structural blocks noticeably impede or divert groundwater flow in the study area.Consistent hydraulic properties were estimated by simultaneously interpreting drawdown from the 16 multiple-well aquifer tests with an integrated groundwater-flow model composed of 11 well-site models—1 for each aquifer test site. Hydraulic properties were distributed across volcanic rocks with the Phase II Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley Hydrostratigraphic Framework Model. Estimated hydraulic-conductivity distributions spanned more than two orders of magnitude in hydrostratigraphic units. Overlapping hydraulic conductivity ranges among units indicated that most Phase II Hydrostratigraphic Framework Model units were not hydraulically distinct. Simulated total transmissivity ranged from 1,600 to 68,000 square feet per day for all pumping wells analyzed. High-transmissivity zones exceeding 10,000 square feet per day exist near caldera margins and extend

  13. Primary Dermal Melanoma in a Patient with a History of Multiple Malignancies: A Case Report with Molecular Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Sini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary dermal melanoma (PDM is a recently described clinical entity accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Histologically, it is located in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue, and it shows no connections with the overlying epidermis. The differential diagnosis is principally made along with that of metastatic cutaneous melanoma. Case Report: A 72-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of multiple cancers (metachronous bilateral breast cancer, meningioma, clear cell renal cell carcinoma, uterine fibromatosis and intestinal adenomatous polyposis, came to our attention with a nodular lesion on her back. After removal of the lesion, the histology report indicated malignant PDM or metastatic malignant melanoma. The clinical and instrumental evaluation of the patient did not reveal any other primary tumour, suggesting the primitive nature of the lesion. The absence of an epithelial component argued for a histological diagnosis of PDM. Subsequently, the patient underwent a wide surgical excision with sentinel node biopsy, which was positive for metastatic melanoma. Finally, the mutational status was studied in the main genes that regulate proliferation, apoptosis and cellular senescence. No pathogenetic mutations in CDKN2A, BRAF, NRAS, KRAS, cKIT, TP53 and PTEN genes were observed. This suggests that alternative pathways and low-frequency alterations may be involved. Conclusions: The differential diagnosis between PDM and isolated metastatic melanoma depends on the negativity of imaging studies and clinical findings for other primary lesions. This distinction is important because 5-year survival rates in such cases are higher than in metastatic cases (80-100 vs. 5-20%, respectively.

  14. Characterization of interactions of simvastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin, and pitavastatin with bovine serum albumin: multiple spectroscopic and molecular docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie-Hua; Wang, Qi; Pan, Dong-Qi; Liu, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Min

    2017-05-01

    The binding interactions of simvastatin (SIM), pravastatin (PRA), fluvastatin (FLU), and pitavastatin (PIT) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated for determining the affinity of four statins with BSA through multiple spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. The experimental results showed that SIM, PRA, FLU, and PIT statins quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA through a static quenching process and the stable stains-BSA complexes with the binding constants in the order of 10 4  M -1 at 298 K were formed through intermolecular nonbond interaction. The values of ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 and ΔG 0 in the binding process of SIM, PRA, FLU, and PIT with BSA were negative at the studied temperature range, suggesting that the binding process of four statins and BSA was spontaneous and the main interaction forces were van der Waals force and hydrogen-bonding interactions. Moreover, the binding of four statins with BSA was enthalpy-driven process due to |ΔH°|>|TΔS°| under the studied temperature range. From the results of site marker competitive experiments and molecular docking, subdomain IIIA (site II) was the primary binding site for SIM, PRA, FLU, and PIT on BSA. The results of UV-vis absorption, synchronous fluorescence, 3D fluorescence and FT-IR spectra proved that the slight change in the conformation of BSA, while the significant changes in the conformation of SIM, PRA, FLU, and PIT drug in statin-BSA complexes, indicating that the flexibility of statin molecules plays an important role in increasing the stability of statin-BSA complexes.

  15. Isolation and characterization of large spectrum and multiple bacteriocin-producing Enterococcus faecium strain from raw bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaaloul, N; ben Braiek, O; Hani, K; Volski, A; Chikindas, M L; Ghrairi, T

    2015-02-01

    To assess the antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria from Tunisian raw bovine milk. A bacteriocin-producing Enterococcus faecium strain was isolated from raw cow milk with activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Antimicrobial substances produced by this strain were sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and were thermostable and resistant to a broad range of pH (2-10). Mode of action of antimicrobial substances was determined as bactericidal. Maximum activity was reached at the end of the exponential growth phase when checked against Listeria ivanovii BUG 496 (2366.62 AU ml(-1)). However, maximum antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28753 was recorded at the beginning of the exponential growth phase. Enterococcus faecium GGN7 was characterized as free from virulence factors and was susceptible to tested antibiotics. PCR analysis of the micro-organism's genome revealed the presence of genes coding for enterocins A and B. Mass spectrometry analysis of RP-HPLC active fractions showed molecular masses corresponding to enterocins A (4835.77 Da) and B (5471.56 Da), and a peptide with a molecular mass of 3215.5 Da active only against Gram-negative indicator strains. The latter was unique in the databases. Enterococcus faecium GGN7 produces three bacteriocins with different inhibitory spectra. Based on its antimicrobial properties and safety, Ent. faecium GGN7 is potentially useful for food biopreservation. The results suggest the bacteriocins from GGN7 strain could be useful for food biopreservation. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Molecular characterization of a human G20P[28] rotavirus a strain with multiple genes related to bat rotaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esona, Mathew D; Roy, Sunando; Rungsrisuriyachai, Kunchala; Gautam, Rashi; Hermelijn, Sandra; Rey-Benito, Gloria; Bowen, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses are the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in the young of mammals and birds. This report describes characterization of an unusual G20P[28] rotavirus strain detected in a 24month old child from Suriname. Genomic sequence analyses revealed that the genotype constellation of the Suriname strain RVA/Human-wt/SUR/2014735512/2013/G20P[28] was G20-P[28]-I13-R13-C13-M12-A23-N13-T15-E20-H15. Genes VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5 were recently assigned novel genotypes by the Rotavirus Classification Working Group (RCWG). Three of the 11 gene segments (VP7, VP4, VP6) were similar to cognate gene sequences of bat-like human rotavirus strain Ecu534 from Ecuador and the VP7, NSP3 and NSP5 gene segments of strain RVA/Human-wt/SUR/2014735512/2013/G20P[28] were found to be closely related to gene sequences of bat rotavirus strain 3081/BRA detected in Brazil. Although distantly related, the VP1 gene of the study strain and bat strain BatLi09 detected in Cameroon in 2014 are monophyletic. The NSP1 gene was found to be most closely related to human strain QUI-35-F5 from Brazil. These findings suggest that strain RVA/Human-wt/SUR/2014735512/2013/G20P[28] represents a zoonotic infection from a bat host. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Robo-AO Discovery and Basic Characterization of Wide Multiple Star Systems in the Pleiades, Praesepe, and NGC 2264 Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Zhang, Celia; Riddle, Reed L.; Baranec, Christoph; Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M.; Stauffer, John

    2018-02-01

    We identify and roughly characterize 66 candidate binary star systems in the Pleiades, Praesepe, and NGC 2264 star clusters, based on robotic adaptive optics imaging data obtained using Robo-AO at the Palomar 60″ telescope. Only ∼10% of our imaged pairs were previously known. We detect companions at red optical wavelengths, with physical separations ranging from a few tens to a few thousands of au. A three-sigma contrast curve generated for each final image provides upper limits to the brightness ratios for any undetected putative companions. The observations are sensitive to companions with a maximum contrast of ∼6m at larger separations. At smaller separations, the mean (best) raw contrast at 2″ is 3.ͫ8 (6m), at 1″ is 3.ͫ0 (4.ͫ5), and at 0.″5 is 1.ͫ9 (3m). Point-spread function subtraction can recover nearly the full contrast in the closer separations. For detected candidate binary pairs, we report separations, position angles, and relative magnitudes. Theoretical isochrones appropriate to the Pleiades and Praesepe clusters are then used to determine the corresponding binary mass ratios, which range from 0.2 to 0.9 in q={m}2/{m}1. For our sample of roughly solar-mass (FGK type) stars in NGC 2264 and sub-solar-mass (K and early M-type) primaries in the Pleiades and Praesepe, the overall binary frequency is measured at ∼15.5% ± 2%. However, this value should be considered a lower limit to the true binary fraction within the specified separation and mass ratio ranges in these clusters, given that complex and uncertain corrections for sensitivity and completeness have not been applied.

  18. Polyamines in plant physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galston, A. W.; Sawhney, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing.

  19. Photoreflectance Spectroscopy Characterization of Ge/Si0.16Ge0.84 Multiple Quantum Wells on Ge Virtual Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Pin Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a detailed characterization of a Ge/Si0.16Ge0.84 multiple quantum well (MQW structure on Ge-on-Si virtual substrate (VS grown by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition by using temperature-dependent photoreflectance (PR in the temperature range from 10 to 300 K. The PR spectra revealed a wide range of optical transitions from the MQW region as well as transitions corresponding to the light-hole and heavy-hole splitting energies of Ge-on-Si VS. A detailed comparison of PR spectral line shape fits and theoretical calculation led to the identification of various quantum-confined interband transitions. The temperature-dependent PR spectra of Ge/Si0.16Ge0.84 MQW were analyzed using Varshni and Bose-Einstein expressions. The parameters that describe the temperature variations of various quantum-confined interband transition energies were evaluated and discussed.

  20. The isolation and characterization of new C. thermocellum strains and the evaluation of multiple anaerobic digestion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wen

    The overall objective of my research was to improve the efficiencies of bioconversions that produce renewable energy from lignocellulosic biomass. To this end, my studies addressed issues important to two promising strategies: consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) and anaerobic digestion (AD). CBP achieves saccharolytic enzyme production, hydrolysis, and fermentation in a single step and is considered to be the most cost-effective model. Anaerobic bacteria that can be used in CBP are highly desirable. To that end, two thermophilic and cellulolytic bacterial strains were isolated and characterized (Chapter 3). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, both strains CS7 and CS8 are closely related to Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. However, they had significantly higher specific cellulase activities and ethanol/acetate ratios than C. thermocellum ATCC 27405. As a result, CS7 and CS8 are two new highly cellulolytic and ethanologenic C. thermocellum strains, with application potentials in research and development of CBP. As some of the most promising AD processes, two temperature-phased AD (TPAD) systems, in comparison with a thermophilic single-stage AD (TSAD) system and a mesophilic two-stage AD (MTAD) system, were studied in treating high-strength dairy cattle manure. The TPAD systems, with the thermophilic digesters acidified (AT-TPAD, Chapter 4) or operated at neutral pH (NT-TPAD, Chapter 5), were optimized at the thermophilic temperature of 50°C and a volume ratio between the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters of 1:2. Despite similar methane productions, the NT-TPAD system achieved significantly higher volatile solid (VS) removal than the AT-TPAD system and needed no external pH adjustments (Chapter 6). At the same overall OLR, the TSAD system achieved the highest performance, followed by the NT-TPAD and the MTAD systems (Chapter 7). Each digester harbored distinct yet dynamic microbial populations, some of which were significantly correlated or associated

  1. Caracterización bromatológica de Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray en dos etapas de su ciclo fisiológico Bromatological characterization of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A.Gray in two stages of its physiological cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanka Lezcano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue caracterizar bromatológicamente algunos componentes esenciales del valor nutritivo de Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. Grayen dos etapas del ciclo fisiológico (30 y 60 días, en los períodos lluvioso (PLL y poco lluvioso (PPLL. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, con seis tratamientos derivados de la relación entre las fracciones comestibles (hojas, tallos tiernos y hojas más tallos tiernos y los momentos del ciclo fisiológico de la planta. Los indicadores medidos fueron: la materia seca (MS, la proteína bruta (PB, la fibra bruta (FB, el calcio (Ca, el magnesio (Mg y la ceniza. Para el análisis de varianza se utilizó el paquete estadístico SPSS versión 15.0 para Windows. El follaje de tithonia presentó variaciones en su calidad nutritiva. A los 30 días se encontraron los mejores valores de PB (29,79% y 28,69%, Mg (0,094% y 0,210% y ceniza (16,32% y 20,59% para el PLL y el PPLL, respectivamente, con resultados similares entre las fracciones comestibles para las dos etapas del ciclo fisiológico, en los dos períodos evaluados. El contenido de FB en los tallos tiernos a los 60 días fue el más representativo en ambos períodos (5,29 y 5,27%, respectivamente. Integralmente, la fracción hoja más tallo tierno alcanzó los mejores valores de los indicadores medidos para ser utilizada en la alimentación animal.The objective of the study was to characterize bromatologically some essential components of the nutritional value of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray in two stages of the physiological cycle (30 and 60 days, during the rainy (RS and dry seasons (DS. A completely randomized experimental design was used, with six treatments derived from the relationship between the edible fractions (leaves, fresh stems and leaves plus fresh stems and the moments of the plant physiological cycle. The indicators measured were: dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, calcium (Ca

  2. Advances in physiological computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairclough, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    This edited collection will provide an overview of the field of physiological computing, i.e. the use of physiological signals as input for computer control. It will cover a breadth of current research, from brain-computer interfaces to telemedicine.

  3. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  4. Inhibitory phenotype of HBV-specific CD4+ T-cells is characterized by high PD-1 expression but absent coregulation of multiple inhibitory molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Raziorrouh

    Full Text Available T-cell exhaustion seems to play a critical role in CD8+ T-cell dysfunction during chronic viral infections. However, up to now little is known about the mechanisms underlying CD4+ T-cell dysfunction during chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB infection and the role of inhibitory molecules such as programmed death 1 (PD-1 for CD4+ T-cell failure.The expression of multiple inhibitory molecules such as PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3, CD244, KLRG1 and markers defining the grade of T-cell differentiation as CCR7, CD45RA, CD57 and CD127 were analyzed on virus-specific CD4+ T-cells from peripheral blood using a newly established DRB1*01-restricted MHC class II Tetramer. Effects of in vitro PD-L1/2 blockade were defined by investigating changes in CD4+ T-cell proliferation and cytokine production.CD4+ T-cell responses during chronic HBV infection was characterized by reduced Tetramer+CD4+ T-cell frequencies, effector memory phenotype, sustained PD-1 but low levels of CTLA-4, TIM-3, KLRG1 and CD244 expression. PD-1 blockade revealed individualized patterns of in vitro responsiveness with partly increased IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α secretion as well as enhanced CD4+ T-cell expansion almost in treated patients with viral control.HBV-specific CD4+ T-cells are reliably detectable during different courses of HBV infection by MHC class II Tetramer technology. CD4+ T-cell dysfunction during chronic HBV is basically linked to strong PD-1 upregulation but absent coregulation of multiple inhibitory receptors. PD-L1/2 neutralization partly leads to enhanced CD4+ T-cell functionality with heterogeneous patterns of CD4+ T-cell rejunivation.

  5. Structural characterization of a novel full-length transcript promoter from Horseradish Latent Virus (HRLV) and its transcriptional regulation by multiple stress responsive transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahamed; Shrestha, Ankita; Bhuyan, Kashyap; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2018-01-01

    The promoter fragment described in this study can be employed for strong transgene expression under both biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Plant-infecting Caulimoviruses have evolved multiple regulatory mechanisms to address various environmental stimuli during the course of evolution. One such mechanism involves the retention of discrete stress responsive cis-elements which are required for their survival and host-specificity. Here we describe the characterization of a novel Caulimoviral promoter isolated from Horseradish Latent Virus (HRLV) and its regulation by multiple stress responsive Transcription factors (TFs) namely DREB1, AREB1 and TGA1a. The activity of full length transcript (Flt-) promoter from HRLV (- 677 to + 283) was investigated in both transient and transgenic assays where we identified H12 (- 427 to + 73) as the highest expressing fragment having ~ 2.5-fold stronger activity than the CaMV35S promoter. The H12 promoter was highly active and near-constitutive in the vegetative and reproductive parts of both Tobacco and Arabidopsis transgenic plants. Interestingly, H12 contains a distinct cluster of cis-elements like dehydration-responsive element (DRE-core; GCCGAC), an ABA-responsive element (ABRE; ACGTGTC) and as-1 element (TGACG) which are known to be induced by cold, drought and pathogen/SA respectively. The specific binding of DREB1, AREB1 and TGA1a to DRE, ABRE and as-1 elements respectively were confirmed by the gel-binding assays using H12 promoter-specific probes. Detailed mutational analysis of the H12 promoter suggested that the presence of DRE-core and as-1 element was indispensable for its activity which was further confirmed by the transactivation assays. Our studies imply that H12 could be a valuable genetic tool for regulated transgene expression under diverse environmental conditions.

  6. Spatiotemporal characteristics of physiological gastroesophageal reflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weusten, B. L.; Akkermans, L. M.; vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Recent technological developments have made it possible to measure intraluminal pH simultaneously at multiple sites using one single small-caliber catheter. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of physiological gastroesophageal reflux in eight ambulatory healthy volunteers (age

  7. The Effect of 12 Weeks Individualized Combined Exercise Rehabilitation Training on Physiological Cost Index (PCI and Walking Speed in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis at all Levels of Physical Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Narimani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Most research on the effects of exercise on people with MS rehabilitation exercises sclerosis (MS  have been carried out on patients with low to moderate disability, but research on patients with different severity of disability (physical disability scale of zero to 10 still has to be carefully considered. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of twelve weeks of rehabilitation exercises personalized compound exercise on physiological cost index (PCI and average speed walking in patients with MS at various levels of disability. Methods: The present research was a semi-experimental practical study. Thus among female patients admitted to the MS Association of Shahrekord city, 96 people were chosen on the basis of physical disability scores and divided into three groups. The first group consisted of less than 5/4 a total of 44 people, the second group between 5/65 and 5/6 up third of each 26 patients were then randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. Afterwards each group was divided randomly into an experimental group and a control group. The first group (the scale of disability less than 4.5, N= 44. The second group (the scale of disability 5 - 6.5, N=26. Also 26 patients were in the third group (the scale of disability 6.5 and above. In addition, they were divided into 6 experimental and control groups. Training programs for experimental groups were 12 weeks, three sessions per week and one hour for each session. Factors such as physiological cost index and walking speed were measured with the appropriate tools before and after training. The experimental groups of 1, 2 and 3 each did their own intervention, while the control groups received only stretching exercises. Analysis of data obtained from 96 patients studied was done using descriptive statistics and the analysis of covariance and paired comparing of the adjusted means (P<0.05. ‌‌‌ Results: A significant difference in walking

  8. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DWARF COCONUT PLANTS UNDER WATER DEFICIT IN SALT - AFFECTED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE REUBER ALMEIDA DA SILVA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the physiological acclimation responses of young plants of the dwarf coconut cultivar ̳Jiqui Green‘ associated with tolerance to conditions of multiple abiotic stresses (drought and soil salinity, acting either independently or in combination. The study was conducted under controlled conditions and evaluated the following parameters: leaf gas exchange, quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and relative contents of total chlorophyll (SPAD index. The experiment was conducted under a randomized block experimental design, in a split plot arrangement. In the plots, plants were exposed to different levels of water stress, by imposing potential crop evapotranspiration replacement levels equivalent to 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20%, whereas in subplots, plants were exposed to different levels of soil salinity (1.72, 6.25, 25.80, and 40.70 dS m - 1 . Physiological mechanisms were effectively limited when water deficit and salinity acted separately and/or together. Compared with soil salinity, water stress was more effective in reducing the measured physiological parameters. The magnitudes of the responses of plants to water supply and salinity depended on the intensity of stress and evaluation period. The physiological acclimation responses of plants were mainly related to stomatal regulation. The coconut tree has a number of physiological adjustment mechanisms that give the species partial tolerance to drought stress and/or salt, thereby enabling it to revegetate salinated areas, provided that its water requirements are at least partially met.

  9. Characterization of the multiple components of Acanthopanax Senticosus stem by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Liu, Jianhua; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Ying; Meng, Xiangcai; Han, Ying; Zhang, Yingzhi; Wang, Xijun

    2016-02-01

    Acanthopanax Senticosus Harms. has been used widely in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, neurasthenia, hypertension and ischemic heart disease. However, the in vivo constituents of the stem of Acanthopanax Senticosus remain unknown. In this paper, ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and the MarkerLynx(TM) software combined with multiple data processing approach were used to study the constituents in vitro and in vivo. The aqueous extract from the Acanthopanax Senticosus stem and the compositions in rat serum after intragastric administration were completely analyzed. Consequently, 115 compounds in the aqueous extract from Acanthopanax Senticosus stem and 41 compounds absorbed into blood were characterized. Of the 115 compounds in vitro, 54 were reported for first time, including sinapyl alcohol, sinapyl alcohol diglucoside, and 1-O-sinapoyl-β-D-glucose. In the 41 compounds in vivo, 7 were prototype components and 34 were metabolites which were from 21 components of aqueous extract from Acanthopanax Senticosus stem, and the metabolic pathways of the metabolites were elucidated for first time. The results narrowed the range of screening the active components and provided a basis for the study of action mechanism and pharmacology. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Structural characterization and in vitro antioxidant activity of kojic dipalmitate loaded w/o/w multiple emulsions intended for skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalez, Maíra Lima; Marcussi, Diana Gleide; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio; Chorilli, Marlus

    2015-01-01

    Multiple emulsions (MEs) are intensively being studied for drug delivery due to their ability to load and increase the bioavailability of active lipophilic antioxidant, such as kojic dipalmitate (KDP). The aim of this study was to structurally characterize developed MEs by determining the average droplet size (Dnm) and zeta potential (ZP), performing macroscopic and microscopic analysis and analyzing their rheological behavior and in vitro bioadhesion. Furthermore, the in vitro safety profile and antioxidant activity of KDP-loaded MEs were evaluated. The developed MEs showed a Dnm of approximately 1 micrometer and a ZP of -13 mV, and no change was observed in Dnm or ZP of the system with the addition of KDP. KDP-unloaded MEs exhibited ''shear thinning" flow behavior whereas KDP-loaded MEs exhibited Newtonian behavior, which are both characteristic of antithixotropic materials. MEs have bioadhesion properties that were not influenced by the incorporation of KDP. The results showed that the incorporation of KDP into MEs improved the safety profile of the drug. The in vitro antioxidant activity assay suggested that MEs presented a higher capacity for maintaining the antioxidant activity of KDP. ME-based systems may be a promising platform for the topical application of KDP in the treatment of skin disorders.

  11. Structural Characterization and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Kojic Dipalmitate Loaded W/O/W Multiple Emulsions Intended for Skin Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Lima Gonçalez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple emulsions (MEs are intensively being studied for drug delivery due to their ability to load and increase the bioavailability of active lipophilic antioxidant, such as kojic dipalmitate (KDP. The aim of this study was to structurally characterize developed MEs by determining the average droplet size (Dnm and zeta potential (ZP, performing macroscopic and microscopic analysis and analyzing their rheological behavior and in vitro bioadhesion. Furthermore, the in vitro safety profile and antioxidant activity of KDP-loaded MEs were evaluated. The developed MEs showed a Dnm of approximately 1 micrometer and a ZP of −13 mV, and no change was observed in Dnm or ZP of the system with the addition of KDP. KDP-unloaded MEs exhibited ‘‘shear thinning’’ flow behavior whereas KDP-loaded MEs exhibited Newtonian behavior, which are both characteristic of antithixotropic materials. MEs have bioadhesion properties that were not influenced by the incorporation of KDP. The results showed that the incorporation of KDP into MEs improved the safety profile of the drug. The in vitro antioxidant activity assay suggested that MEs presented a higher capacity for maintaining the antioxidant activity of KDP. ME-based systems may be a promising platform for the topical application of KDP in the treatment of skin disorders.

  12. Application of multiple parallel perfused microbioreactors: Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity testing of the novel rare earth complexes with indole acid as a ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qing-Lin; Xing, Yong-Heng; Liu, Jing; Wei, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xuan; Bai, Feng-Ying

    2013-11-01

    Three novel complexes, [La(phen)2(IAA)2]·NO3 (1), [Sm(phen)2(IAA)2]·NO3 (2) and [Sm(IBA)3(phen)]·phen·HNO3·H2O (3) (phen: 1,10-phenanthroline, IAA: indole-3-acetic acid, IBA: indole-3-butyric acid), were synthesized and characterized with spectroscopy (infrared and UV-visible), X-ray crystal diffraction and elemental analysis. Structural analysis revealed that each lanthanide atom in complexes 1-3 held a distorted tricapped trigonal prism geometry in a nine-coordinate mode. There were two types of coordination modes of the IAA ligand in complexes 1 and 2: a μ2-η(1):η(2) bridging mode linking two lanthanide atoms and a μ2-η(1):η(1) double monodentate bridging mode. There were three types of coordination modes of the IBA ligand: a μ2-η(1):η(1) double monodentate bridging mode, a μ1-η(2) bridging mode and a μ2-η(1):η(2) bridging mode linking two lanthanide atoms. Adjacent Sm atoms were linked via the μ2-bridging carboxylate groups of the IBA ligands to generate a binuclear building unit. The biological activity of the complexes was evaluated in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hADSCs) and Chang liver cells using a multiple parallel perfused microbioreactor. The results showed that cytotoxicity increased as the concentrations of complexes 1-3 increased. © 2013.

  13. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  14. Endogenous Pyrogen Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisel, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the physiology of endogenous pyrogen (EP), the fever-producing factor of cellular origin. Included are: its hormone-like role, its molecular nature, bioassay procedures, cellular production and mechanisms of EP action. (SA)

  15. Biophysics and cell physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on research activities in the fields of physiology and low-temperature biology of mammalian embryos; effects of sub-zero temperatures on eggs and embryos of sea urchins; survival of frozen-thawed human red cells; effects of radiation on physiology of Escherichia coli; transfer of triplet electronic energy in dinucleotides; effects of x radiation on DNA degradation; energy deposition by neutrons; photosynthesis; excision repair of uv-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA of plant cells

  16. Physiology of Ramadan fasting

    OpenAIRE

    Shokoufeh Bonakdaran

    2016-01-01

    Considering the emphasis of Islam on the importance of fasting, Muslims attempt to fast from dawn until sunset during the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting is associated with several benefits for normal and healthy individuals. However, it could pose high risks to the health of diabetic patients due to certain physiological changes. This study aimed to compare the physiological changes associated with fasting in healthy individuals and diabetic patients during Ramadan. Furthermore, we reviewed t...

  17. Caracterização morfológica e fisiológica de isolados de Colletotrichum sp. causadores de antracnose em solanáceas Morphological and physiological characterization of Colletotrichum sp. isolates from solanaceous crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo J. Tozze Júnior

    2006-03-01

    , ficou demonstrado que C. acutatum também está associado à antracnose nessas solanáceas.Anthracnose is a very frequent disease of solanaceous crops. The causal agent is reported as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. In this work, Colletotrichum sp. isolates from hot pepper, sweet pepper and garden egg were characterized based on some of their morphological and physiological characteristics. Morphological characterization was based on the size and shape of conidia and the shape of the apressoria of 30 isolates. Physiological characterization was based on growth in different temperatures, use of different carbon sources and sensitivity to benomyl. Fifteen isolates were cultured on PDA under 10, 15, 20, 25, 28 and 30ºC. Use of carbon sources was achieved by culturing 32 isolates on minimal medium supplemented with glucose, fructose, lactose, maltose, sucrose or starch. To establish benomyl sensitivity, 43 isolates were cultured on PDA supplemented with 0, 1, 10 and 100 mug/mL of the fungicide. Garden egg isolates were less sensitive to benomyl and showed mainly fusiform conidia, with acute ends, similar to C. acutatum. Isolates from hot pepper and sweet pepper were highly sensitive to benomyl and showed mainly cylindrical conidia, with round ends, similar to C. gloeosporioides. Irregular, clavate or circular apressoria were observed in all isolates. Starch was the carbon source that led to the greater mycelial development of most isolates. The optimal temperature for almost all isolates was near to 25ºC, except for an isolate from hot pepper, which developed better at 28ºC. The mycelial growth rates of all isolates, for all tested temperatures, were similar to those showed by C. acutatum used as reference. The isolates collected from sweet pepper and hot pepper showed the greatest variability among the studied characteristics. Finally, it was shown that C. acutatum is also associated to anthracnose in solanaceous crops.

  18. Pro-inflammatory State in Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance and in Multiple Myeloma Is Characterized by Low Sialylation of Pathogen-Specific and Other Monoclonal Immunoglobulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Bosseboeuf

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM and its pre-cancerous stage monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS allow to study immune responses and the chronology of inflammation in the context of blood malignancies. Both diseases are characterized by the production of a monoclonal immunoglobulin (mc Ig which for subsets of MGUS and MM patients targets pathogens known to cause latent infection, a major cause of inflammation. Inflammation may influence the structure of both polyclonal (pc Ig and mc Ig produced by malignant plasma cells via the sialylation of Ig Fc fragment. Here, we characterized the sialylation of purified mc and pc IgGs from 148 MGUS and MM patients, in comparison to pc IgGs from 46 healthy volunteers. The inflammatory state of patients was assessed by the quantification in serum of 40 inflammation-linked cytokines, using Luminex technology. While pc IgGs from MGUS and MM patients showed heterogeneity in sialylation level, mc IgGs from both MGUS and MM patients exhibited a very low level of sialylation. Furthermore, mc IgGs from MM patients were less sialylated than mc IgGs from MGUS patients (p < 0.01, and mc IgGs found to target an infectious pathogen showed a lower level of sialylation than mc IgGs of undetermined specificity (p = 0.048. Regarding inflammation, 14 cytokines were similarly elevated with a p value < 0.0001 in MGUS and in MM compared to healthy controls. MM differed from MGUS by higher levels of HGF, IL-11, RANTES and SDF-1-α (p < 0.05. MGUS and MM patients presenting with hyposialylated pc IgGs had significantly higher levels of HGF, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, TGF-β1, IL-17, and IL-33 compared to patients with hyper-sialylated pc IgGs (p < 0.05. In MGUS and in MM, the degree of sialylation of mc and pc IgGs and the levels of four cytokines important for the anti-microbial response were correlated, either positively (IFN-α2, IL-13 or negatively (IL-17, IL-33. Thus in MGUS as in MM

  19. Characterizing Microstructural Tissue Properties in Multiple Sclerosis with Diffusion MRI at 7 T and 3 T: The Impact of the Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Silvia; Bastiani, Matteo; Droby, Amgad; Kolber, Pierre; Zipp, Frauke; Pracht, Eberhard; Stoecker, Tony; Groppa, Sergiu; Roebroeck, Alard

    2018-04-07

    The recent introduction of advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques to characterize focal and global degeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS), like the Composite Hindered and Restricted Model of Diffusion, or CHARMED, diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) and Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) made available new tools to image axonal pathology non-invasively in vivo. These methods already showed greater sensitivity and specificity compared to conventional diffusion tensor-based metrics (e.g., fractional anisotropy), overcoming some of its limitations. While previous studies uncovered global and focal axonal degeneration in MS patients compared to healthy controls, here our aim is to investigate and compare different diffusion MRI acquisition protocols in their ability to highlight microstructural differences between MS and control tissue over several much used models. For comparison, we contrasted the ability of fractional anisotropy measurements to uncover differences between lesion, normal-appearing white matter (WM), gray matter and healthy tissue under the same imaging protocols. We show that: (1) focal and diffuse differences in several microstructural parameters are observed under clinical settings; (2) advanced models (CHARMED, DKI and NODDI) have increased specificity and sensitivity to neurodegeneration when compared to fractional anisotropy measurements; and (3) both high (3 T) and ultra-high fields (7 T) are viable options for imaging tissue change in MS lesions and normal appearing WM, while higher b-values are less beneficial under the tested short-time (10 min acquisition) conditions. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Human physiology in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  1. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...... Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from...

  2. Genetic approaches in comparative and evolutionary physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgham, Jamie T.; Kelly, Scott A.; Garland, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Whole animal physiological performance is highly polygenic and highly plastic, and the same is generally true for the many subordinate traits that underlie performance capacities. Quantitative genetics, therefore, provides an appropriate framework for the analysis of physiological phenotypes and can be used to infer the microevolutionary processes that have shaped patterns of trait variation within and among species. In cases where specific genes are known to contribute to variation in physiological traits, analyses of intraspecific polymorphism and interspecific divergence can reveal molecular mechanisms of functional evolution and can provide insights into the possible adaptive significance of observed sequence changes. In this review, we explain how the tools and theory of quantitative genetics, population genetics, and molecular evolution can inform our understanding of mechanism and process in physiological evolution. For example, lab-based studies of polygenic inheritance can be integrated with field-based studies of trait variation and survivorship to measure selection in the wild, thereby providing direct insights into the adaptive significance of physiological variation. Analyses of quantitative genetic variation in selection experiments can be used to probe interrelationships among traits and the genetic basis of physiological trade-offs and constraints. We review approaches for characterizing the genetic architecture of physiological traits, including linkage mapping and association mapping, and systems approaches for dissecting intermediary steps in the chain of causation between genotype and phenotype. We also discuss the promise and limitations of population genomic approaches for inferring adaptation at specific loci. We end by highlighting the role of organismal physiology in the functional synthesis of evolutionary biology. PMID:26041111

  3. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences (Niger. J. Physiol. Sci.) is a biannual publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria. It covers diverse areas of research in physiological sciences, publishing reviews in current research areas and original laboratory and clinical research in physiological sciences. Other websites ...

  4. Simulated Exercise Physiology Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Pivarnik, James M.

    This book consists of a lab manual and computer disks for either Apple or IBM hardware. The lab manual serves as "tour guide" for the learner going through the various lab experiences. The manual contains definitions, proper terminology, and other basic information about physiological principles. It is organized so a step-by-step procedure may be…

  5. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Physiological responses to hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Thomas; Thoresen, Marianne

    2015-04-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is the only treatment currently recommended for moderate or severe encephalopathy of hypoxic‒ischaemic origin in term neonates. Though the effects of hypothermia on human physiology have been explored for many decades, much of the data comes from animal or adult studies; the latter originally after accidental hypothermia, followed by application of controlled hypothermia after cardiac arrest or trauma, or during cardiopulmonary bypass. Though this work is informative, the effects of hypothermia on neonatal physiology after perinatal asphyxia must be considered in the context of a prolonged hypoxic insult that has already induced a number of significant physiological sequelae. This article reviews the effects of therapeutic hypothermia on respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic parameters, including glycaemic control and feeding requirements. The potential pitfalls of blood‒gas analysis and overtreatment of physiological changes in cardiovascular parameters are also discussed. Finally, the effects of hypothermia on drug metabolism are covered, focusing on how the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and dosing requirements of drugs frequently used in neonatal intensive care may change during therapeutic hypothermia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Face of Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between the physiology of the emotions and the display of character in Victorian Britain. Charles Bell and others had begun to link certain physiological functions, such as respiration, with the expression of feelings such as fear, regarding the heart and other internal organs as instruments by which the emotions were made visible. But a purely functional account of the emotions, which emerged through the development of reflex physiology during the second half of the century, would dramatically alter the nature of feelings and the means of observing them. At the same time, instinctual or acquired sympathy, which had long underpinned the accurate reading of expressions, became a problem to be surmounted by new 'objectively'. Graphic recording instruments measuring a variety of physiological functions and used with increasing frequency in clinical diagnostics became of fundamental importance for tracing the movement of feelings during the period prior to the development of cinematography. They remained, in the form of devices such as the polygraph, a crucial and controversial means of measuring affective states, beneath the potentially deceptive surface of the body.

  8. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  9. A Novel Bifunctional Amino Acid Racemase With Multiple Substrate Specificity, MalY From Lactobacillus sakei LT-13: Genome-Based Identification and Enzymological Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Kato

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lactobacillus sakei strain LK-145 isolated from Moto, a starter of sake, produces potentially large amounts of three D-amino acids, D-Ala, D-Glu, and D-Asp, in a medium containing amylase-digested rice as a carbon source. The comparison of metabolic pathways deduced from the complete genome sequence of strain LK-145 to the type culture strain of Lactobacillus sakei strain LT-13 showed that the L- and D-amino acid metabolic pathways are similar between the two strains. However, a marked difference was observed in the putative cysteine/methionine metabolic pathways of strain LK-145 and LT-13. The cystathionine β-lyase homolog gene malY was annotated only in the genome of strain LT-13. Cystathionine β-lyase is an important enzyme in the cysteine/methionine metabolic pathway that catalyzes the conversion of L-cystathionine into L-homocysteine. In addition to malY, most genome-sequenced strains of L. sakei including LT-13 lacked the homologous genes encoding other putative enzymes in this pathway. Accordingly, the cysteine/methionine metabolic pathway likely does not function well in almost all strains of L. sakei. We succeeded in cloning and expressing the malY gene from strain LT-13 (Ls-malY in the cells of Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 and characterized the enzymological properties of Ls-MalY. Spectral analysis of purified Ls-MalY showed that Ls-MalY contained a pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP as a cofactor, and this observation agreed well with the prediction based on its primary structure. Ls-MalY showed amino acid racemase activity and cystathionine β-lyase activity. Ls-MalY showed amino acid racemase activities in various amino acids, such as Ala, Arg, Asn, Glu, Gln, His, Leu, Lys, Met, Ser, Thr, Trp, and Val. Mutational analysis revealed that the -amino group of Lys233 in the primary structure of Ls-MalY likely bound to PLP, and Lys233 was an essential residue for Ls-MalY to catalyze both the amino acid racemase and β-lyase reactions. In

  10. Fabrication, physicochemical characterization and preliminary efficacy evaluation of a W/O/W multiple emulsion loaded with 5% green tea extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Mahmood

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex multiple emulsions have an excellent ability to fill large volumes of functional cosmetic agents. This study was aimed to encapsulate large volume of green tea in classical multiple emulsion and to compare its stability with a multiple emulsion without green tea extract. Multiple emulsions were developed using Cetyl dimethicone copolyol as lipophilic emulsifier and classic polysorbate-80 as hydrophilic emulsifier. Multiple emulsions were evaluated for various physicochemical aspects like conductivity, pH, microscopic analysis, rheology and these characteristics were followed for a period of 30 days in different storage conditions. In vitro and in vivo skin protection tests were also performed for both kinds of multiple emulsions i.e. with active (MeA and without active (MeB. Both formulations showed comparable characteristics regarding various physicochemical characteristics in different storage conditions. Rheological analysis showed that formulations showed pseudo plastic behavior upon continuous shear stress. Results of in vitro and in vivo skin protection data have revealed that the active formulation has comparable skin protection effects to that of control formulation. It was presumed that stable multiple emulsions could be a promising choice for topical application of green tea but multiple emulsions presented in this study need improvement in the formula, concluded on the basis of pH, conductivity and apparent viscosity data.

  11. Physiology for the pulmonary functional imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, David L., E-mail: levin.david@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Schiebler, Mark L. [Department of Radiology, UW-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792-3252 (United States); Hopkins, Susan R., E-mail: shopkins@ucsd.edu [Division of Physiology 0623A, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • An understanding of the relevant pulmonary physiology is crucial to functional lung imaging. • Spatial resolution for pulmonary functional imaging can be substantially less than that used for anatomic/clinical imaging. • Regional deformation of the lung under the influence of gravity significantly affects the measurement of pulmonary perfusion. • Large vessels identified on perfusion imaging do not represent local blood flow. • Pulmonary diseases are typically characterized by a change in the matching of ventilation and perfusion. - Abstract: As pulmonary functional imaging moves beyond the realm of the radiologist and physicist, it is important that imagers have a common language and understanding of the relevant physiology of the lung. This review will focus on key physiological concepts and pitfalls relevant to functional lung imaging.

  12. Physiology for the pulmonary functional imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, David L.; Schiebler, Mark L.; Hopkins, Susan R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An understanding of the relevant pulmonary physiology is crucial to functional lung imaging. • Spatial resolution for pulmonary functional imaging can be substantially less than that used for anatomic/clinical imaging. • Regional deformation of the lung under the influence of gravity significantly affects the measurement of pulmonary perfusion. • Large vessels identified on perfusion imaging do not represent local blood flow. • Pulmonary diseases are typically characterized by a change in the matching of ventilation and perfusion. - Abstract: As pulmonary functional imaging moves beyond the realm of the radiologist and physicist, it is important that imagers have a common language and understanding of the relevant physiology of the lung. This review will focus on key physiological concepts and pitfalls relevant to functional lung imaging.

  13. Agreeableness, Extraversion, Stressor and Physiological Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyuan Chu; Zhentao Ma; Yuan Li; Jing Han

    2015-01-01

    Based on the theoretical analysis, with first-hand data collection and using multiple regression models, this study explored the relationship between agreeableness, extraversion, stressor and stress response and figured out interactive effect of agreeableness, extraversion, and stressor on stress response. We draw on the following conclusions: (1) the interaction term of stressor (work) and agreeableness can negatively predict physiological stress response; (2) the interaction term of stresso...

  14. Lab-on-a-brane: A novel physiologically relevant planar arterial model to study transendothelial transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, Karim Ismail

    The tremendous quality of life impact notwithstanding, cardiovascular diseases and Cancer add up to over US$ 700bn each year in financial costs alone. Aging and population growth are expected to further expand the problem space while drug research and development remain expensive. However, preclinical costs can be substantially mitigated by substituting animal models with in vitro devices that accurately model human cardiovascular transport. Here we present a novel physiologically relevant lab-on-a-brane that simulates in vivo pressure, flow, strain, and shear waveforms associated with normal and pathological conditions in large and small blood vessels for studying molecular transport across the endothelial monolayer. The device builds upon previously demonstrated integrated microfluidic loop design by: (a) introducing nanoscale pores in the substrate membrane to enable transmembrane molecular transport, (b) transforming the substrate membrane into a nanofibrous matrix for 3D smooth muscle cell (SMC) tissue culture, (c) integrating electrospinning fabrication methods, (d) engineering an invertible sandwich cell culture device architecture, and (e) devising a healthy co-culture mechanism for human arterial endothelial cell (HAEC) monolayer and multiple layers of human smooth muscle cells (HSMC) to accurately mimic arterial anatomy. Structural and mechanical characterization was conducted using confocal microscopy, SEM, stress/strain analysis, and infrared spectroscopy. Transport was characterized using FITC-Dextran hydraulic permeability protocol. Structure and transport characterization successfully demonstrate device viability as a physiologically relevant arterial mimic for testing transendothelial transport. Thus, our lab-on-a-brane provides a highly effective and efficient, yet considerably inexpensive, physiologically relevant alternative for pharmacokinetic evaluation; possibly reducing animals used in pre-clinical testing, clinical trials cost from false

  15. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  16. Circadian physiology of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-11-25

    A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes. Experimental animal models and epidemiological data indicate that chronic circadian rhythm disruption increases the risk of metabolic diseases. Conversely, time-restricted feeding, which imposes daily cycles of feeding and fasting without caloric reduction, sustains robust diurnal rhythms and can alleviate metabolic diseases. These findings highlight an integrative role of circadian rhythms in physiology and offer a new perspective for treating chronic diseases in which metabolic disruption is a hallmark. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Applied physiology of triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, M L; Douglas, P S

    1995-04-01

    The triathlon is a 3-event endurance sport in which athletes compete sequentially in swimming, cycling and running. The primary determinant of success is the ability to sustain a high rate of energy expenditure for prolonged periods of time. Exercise training-induced physiological adaptations in virtually all systems of the body allow the athlete to accomplish this. Aerobic capacity (measured as maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max), economy of motion (submaximal VO2) and fractional utilisation of maximal capacity (%VO2max) reflect the integrated responses of these physiological adaptations. Numerous studies have reported relatively high mean VO2max values for various groups of triathletes that are comparable to those reported for athletes in single-event endurance sports and clearly above those reported for untrained individuals. In shorter distance triathlons and in studies using recreational (rather than elite) triathletes, VO2max is related to performance in the corresponding event of the triathlon (e.g. tethered swimming VO2max with swim time). In longer events and with more elite triathletes, VO2max correlates less well with performance. The physiological adaptations that correspond to and facilitate improved VO2max occur centrally in the cardiovascular system, centred on increased maximal cardiac output, and peripherally in the metabolic systems, centred around increased arterio-venous O2 (a-v O2) difference. While a high VO2max in individuals is clearly of importance to triathlon performance, energy output must be sustained for long periods of time, making economy of motion also very important. Studies suggests that competitive swimmers have better swimming economy than triathletes. However, since many triathletes have previously been competitive swimmers this finding is questionable. The finding suggests that triathletes from nonswimming backgrounds would benefit from improving swimming technique rather than concentrating training workouts solely on distance. In

  18. Coronary physiology assessment in the catheterization laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Díez-delhoyo, Felipe; Gutiérrez-Ibañes, Enrique; Loughlin, Gerard; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Vázquez-Álvarez, María Eugenia; Sarnago-Cebada, Fernando; Angulo-Llanos, Rocío; Casado-Plasencia, Ana; Elízaga, Jaime; Fernández Avilés Diáz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Physicians cannot rely solely on the angiographic appearance of epicardial coronary artery stenosis when evaluating patients with myocardial ischemia. Instead, sound knowledge of coronary vascular physiology and of the methods currently available for its characterization can improve the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of invasive assessment of the coronary circulation, and help improve clinical decision-making. In this article we summarize the current methods available for a thorough asses...

  19. The emergence of Applied Physiology within the discipline of Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M

    2016-08-01

    Despite the availability and utilization of the physiology textbooks authored by Albrecht von Haller during the 18th century that heralded the modern age of physiology, not all physicians or physiologists were satisfied with its presentation, contents, or application to medicine. Initial reasons were fundamental disagreements between the "mechanists," represented by Boerhaave, Robinson, and von Haller, and the "vitalists," represented by the faculty and graduates of the Montpellier School of Medicine in France, notably, Bordeu and Barthez. Subsequently, objections originated from Europe, United Kingdom, and the United States in publications that focused not only on the teaching of physiology to medical and secondary students, but on the specific applications of the content of physiology to medicine, health, hygiene, pathology, and chronic diseases. At the turn of the 20th century, texts began to appear with applied physiology in their titles and in 1926, physician Samson Wright published a textbook entitled Applied Physiology that was intended for both medical students and the medical profession. Eleven years later, physicians Best and Taylor published The Physiological Basis of Medical Practice: A University of Toronto Texbook in Applied Physiology Although both sets of authors defined the connection between applied physiology and physiology, they failed to define the areas of physiology that were included within applied physiology. This was accomplished by the American Physiological Society (APS) Publications Committee in 1948 with the publication of the Journal of Appplied Physiology, that stated the word "applied" would broadly denote human physiology whereas the terms stress and environment would broadly include work, exercise, plus industrial, climatic and social factors. NIH established a study section (SS) devoted to applied physiology in 1964 which remained active until 2001 when it became amalgamated into other SSs. Before the end of the 20th century when

  20. Physiology of woody plants

    CERN Document Server

    Hazewinkel, Michiel; Pallardy, Stephen G

    1996-01-01

    This completely revised classic volume is an up-to-date synthesis of the intensive research devoted to woody plants. Intended primarily as a text for students and a reference for researchers, this interdisciplinary book should be useful to a broad range of scientists from agroforesters, agronomists, and arborists to plant pathologists, ecophysiologists, and soil scientists. Anyone interested in plant physiology will find this text invaluable. Key Features * Includes supplementary chapter summaries and lists of general references * Provides a solid foundation of reference information * Thoroughly updated classic text/reference.

  1. Multiple Perspectives / Multiple Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Biggs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available People experience things from their own physical point of view. What they see is usually a function of where they are and what physical attitude they adopt relative to the subject. With augmented vision (periscopes, mirrors, remote cameras, etc we are able to see things from places where we are not present. With time-shifting technologies, such as the video recorder, we can also see things from the past; a time and a place we may never have visited.In recent artistic work I have been exploring the implications of digital technology, interactivity and internet connectivity that allow people to not so much space/time-shift their visual experience of things but rather see what happens when everybody is simultaneously able to see what everybody else can see. This is extrapolated through the remote networking of sites that are actual installation spaces; where the physical movements of viewers in the space generate multiple perspectives, linked to other similar sites at remote locations or to other viewers entering the shared data-space through a web based version of the work.This text explores the processes involved in such a practice and reflects on related questions regarding the non-singularity of being and the sense of self as linked to time and place.

  2. Patients with multiple contact allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Patients with multiple contact allergies, also referred to as polysensitized, are more frequent than predicted from prevalence of single sensitivities. The understanding of why some people develop multiple contact allergies, and characterization of patients with multiple contact allergies...... of developing multiple contact allergies. Evidence of allergen clusters among polysensitized individuals is also reviewed. The literature supports the idea that patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special entity within the field of contact allergy. There is no generally accepted definition...... of patients with multiple contact allergies. We suggest that contact allergy to 3 or more allergens are defined as multiple contact allergies....

  3. Fusing Multiple Sensor Modalities for Complex Physiological State Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    STDLAT has been correlated to the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), with a chi-squared value of 11 (p < 0.001) (17). For this study, we look at the...width at half maximum GAZEDIS gaze distribution HRED Human Research and Engineering Directorate KSS Karolinska Sleepiness Scale NTSB National

  4. Nitrite disrupts multiple physiological functions in aquatic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo

    2003-01-01

    be inhibited, while changes in ammonia and urea levels and excretion rates reflect an influence of nitrite on nitrogen metabolism. Detoxification of nitrite occurs via endogenous oxidation to nitrate, and elimination of nitrite takes place both via gills and urine. The susceptibility to nitrite varies between...... nitrite-induced vasodilation (possibly via nitric oxide generated from nitrite) that is countered by increased cardiac pumping to re-establish blood pressure. Nitrite can form and/or mimic nitric oxide and thereby interfere with processes regulated by this local hormone. Steroid hormone synthesis may...

  5. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  6. Physiology of bile secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller, Alejandro

    2008-10-07

    The formation of bile depends on the structural and functional integrity of the bile-secretory apparatus and its impairment, in different situations, results in the syndrome of cholestasis. The structural bases that permit bile secretion as well as various aspects related with its composition and flow rate in physiological conditions will first be reviewed. Canalicular bile is produced by polarized hepatocytes that hold transporters in their basolateral (sinusoidal) and apical (canalicular) plasma membrane. This review summarizes recent data on the molecular determinants of this primary bile formation. The major function of the biliary tree is modification of canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes in bile-duct epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) as bile passes through bile ducts. The mechanisms of fluid and solute transport in cholangiocytes will also be discussed. In contrast to hepatocytes where secretion is constant and poorly controlled, cholangiocyte secretion is regulated by hormones and nerves. A short section dedicated to these regulatory mechanisms of bile secretion has been included. The aim of this revision was to set the bases for other reviews in this series that will be devoted to specific issues related with biliary physiology and pathology.

  7. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  8. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  9. Teaching physics in a physiologically meaningful manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Plomer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The learning outcome of a physics laboratory course for medical students was examined in an interdisciplinary field study and discussed for the electrical physiology (“Propagation of Excitation and Nerve Cells”. At the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (LMU at a time about 300 medicine students were assessed in two successive years. Students from the control group worked with standard experiments, while students from the treatment group performed newly developed “addressee-specific” experiments, designed to guide students to transfer physics knowledge to physiological problems. The assessment took place within the laboratory course on physiology, after the students had finished their laboratory classes in physics, and consisted of the construction of a concept map with additional multiple choice questions. The results showed that standard physics experiments are not adequate for teaching students to transfer physical principles to physiology. Introducing new addressee-specific experiments enriched the physics laboratory course by improving student attitudes toward physics and demonstrating better ability of students to relate concepts of physics and medicine, and overall to improve their understanding of the physics taught in the course.

  10. Success stories and emerging themes in conservation physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madliger, Christine L; Cooke, Steven J; Crespi, Erica J; Funk, Jennifer L; Hultine, Kevin R; Hunt, Kathleen E; Rohr, Jason R; Sinclair, Brent J; Suski, Cory D; Willis, Craig K R; Love, Oliver P

    2016-01-01

    The potential benefits of physiology for conservation are well established and include greater specificity of management techniques, determination of cause-effect relationships, increased sensitivity of health and disturbance monitoring and greater capacity for predicting future change. While descriptions of the specific avenues in which conservation and physiology can be integrated are readily available and important to the continuing expansion of the discipline of 'conservation physiology', to date there has been no assessment of how the field has specifically contributed to conservation success. However, the goal of conservation physiology is to foster conservation solutions and it is therefore important to assess whether physiological approaches contribute to downstream conservation outcomes and management decisions. Here, we present eight areas of conservation concern, ranging from chemical contamination to invasive species to ecotourism, where physiological approaches have led to beneficial changes in human behaviour, management or policy. We also discuss the shared characteristics of these successes, identifying emerging themes in the discipline. Specifically, we conclude that conservation physiology: (i) goes beyond documenting change to provide solutions; (ii) offers a diversity of physiological metrics beyond glucocorticoids (stress hormones); (iii) includes approaches that are transferable among species, locations and times; (iv) simultaneously allows for human use and benefits to wildlife; and (v) is characterized by successes that can be difficult to find in the primary literature. Overall, we submit that the field of conservation physiology has a strong foundation of achievements characterized by a diversity of conservation issues, taxa, physiological traits, ecosystem types and spatial scales. We hope that these concrete successes will encourage the continued evolution and use of physiological tools within conservation-based research and management

  11. [Anatomy and physiology of sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cour, F; Droupy, S; Faix, A; Methorst, C; Giuliano, F

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of the physiology of male and female sexuality has advanced considerably. Initially there is always desire with its biological neuroendocrine components and its emotional field which is particularly marked in women. There is a distinction between "spontaneous" sexual desire related to intrinsic affective, cognitive stimuli, and fantasies, and "reactive" sexual desire in response to physical arousal. There are similarities between men and women concerning the activation of cerebral zones in sexual arousal contexts in laboratory conditions. The neural pathways for sexual arousal are similar between men and women, bringing into play the sympathetic centres of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord and, at the sacral level, the parasympathetic center and the motoneurons controlling the muscular contractions of the pelviperineal striated muscles. Genital sensitivity is mainly transmitted by the pudendal nerve in both men and women. Sexual arousal in men consists of penile erection, and ejaculation accompanied with orgasm. In women, sexual arousal causes increase in blood to flow to the vagina leading to lubrication and to the vulva leading to the erection of the clitoris and vulvar hyperaemia. The orgasm which can be multiple in women is accompanied by contractions of the striated perineal muscles. Several neurotransmitters are closely involved in the control of sexuality at the central level: dopamine, ocytocin, serotonin, and peripheral: nitric oxide and noradrenaline in men, vasoactive intestinal peptide and neuropeptide Y in women. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Home geriatric physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Toshiyo

    2012-10-01

    In an ageing society, the elderly can be monitored with numerous physiological, physical and passive devices. Sensors can be installed in the home for continuous mobility assistance and unobtrusive disease prevention. This review presents several modern sensors, which improve the quality of life and assist the elderly, disabled people and their caregivers. The main concept of geriatric sensors is that they are capable of providing assistance without limiting or disturbing the subject's daily routine, giving him or her greater comfort, pleasure and well-being. Furthermore, this review includes associated technologies of wearable/implantable monitoring systems and the 'smart-house' project. This review concludes by discussing future challenges of the future aged society.

  13. Home geriatric physiological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Toshiyo

    2012-01-01

    In an ageing society, the elderly can be monitored with numerous physiological, physical and passive devices. Sensors can be installed in the home for continuous mobility assistance and unobtrusive disease prevention. This review presents several modern sensors, which improve the quality of life and assist the elderly, disabled people and their caregivers. The main concept of geriatric sensors is that they are capable of providing assistance without limiting or disturbing the subject's daily routine, giving him or her greater comfort, pleasure and well-being. Furthermore, this review includes associated technologies of wearable/implantable monitoring systems and the ‘smart-house’ project. This review concludes by discussing future challenges of the future aged society. (topical review)

  14. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  15. Multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indwelling catheter Osteoporosis or thinning of the bones Pressure sores Side effects of medicines used to treat the ... Daily bowel care program Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Swallowing problems Images Multiple sclerosis MRI of the ...

  16. Roles of computed tomography and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the characterization of multiple solitary solid lung nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Travaini, LL; Trifirò, G; Vigna, PD; Veronesi, G; De Pas, TM; Spaggiari, L; Paganelli, G; Bellomi, M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of multidetector computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose in the diagnosis of multiple solitary lung nodules in 14 consecutive patients with suspicious lung cancer. CT and PET/CT findings were reviewed by a radiologist and nuclear medicine physician, respectively, blinded to the pathological diagnoses of lung cancer, considering nodule size, shape, and location (CT) and maximum st...

  17. Thiolated alginate-based multiple layer mucoadhesive films of metformin forintra-pocket local delivery: in vitro characterization and clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Abeer Ahmed; Issa, Doaa Ahmed Elsayed; Kotry, Gehan Sherif; Farid, Ragwa Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease broadly defines group of conditions in which the supportive structure of the tooth (periodontium) is destroyed. Recent studies suggested that the anti-diabetic drug metformin hydrochloride (MF) has an osteogenic effect and is beneficial for the management of periodontitis. Development of strong mucoadhesive multiple layer film loading small dose of MF for intra-pocket application. Multiple layer film was developed by double casting followed by compression method. Either 6% carboxy methyl cellulose sodium (CMC) or sodium alginate (ALG) constituted the inner drug (0.6%) loaded layer. Thiolated sodium alginate (TSA; 2 or 4%) constituted the outer drug free layers to enhance mucoadhesion and achieve controlled drug release. Optimized formulation was assessed clinically on 20 subjects. Films were uniform, thin and hard enough for easy insertion into periodontal pockets. Based on water uptake and in vitro drug release, CMC based film with 4% TSA as an outer layer was the optimized formulation with enhanced mucoadhesion and controlled drug release (83.73% over 12 h). SEM showed the effective fabrication of the triple layer film in which connective lines between the layers could be observed. FTIR examination suggests possibility of hydrogen bonding between the -NH groups of metformin and -OH groups of CMC. DSC revealed the presence of MF mainly in the amorphous form. Clinical results indicated improvement of all clinical parameters six months post treatment. The results suggested that local application of the mucoadhesive multiple layer films loaded with metformin hydrochloride was able to manage moderate chronic periodontitis.

  18. Success stories and emerging themes in conservation physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madliger, Christine L.; Cooke, Steven J.; Crespi, Erica J.; Funk, Jennifer L.; Hultine, Kevin R.; Hunt, Kathleen E.; Rohr, Jason R.; Sinclair, Brent J.; Suski, Cory D.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    The potential benefits of physiology for conservation are well established and include greater specificity of management techniques, determination of cause–effect relationships, increased sensitivity of health and disturbance monitoring and greater capacity for predicting future change. While descriptions of the specific avenues in which conservation and physiology can be integrated are readily available and important to the continuing expansion of the discipline of ‘conservation physiology’, to date there has been no assessment of how the field has specifically contributed to conservation success. However, the goal of conservation physiology is to foster conservation solutions and it is therefore important to assess whether physiological approaches contribute to downstream conservation outcomes and management decisions. Here, we present eight areas of conservation concern, ranging from chemical contamination to invasive species to ecotourism, where physiological approaches have led to beneficial changes in human behaviour, management or policy. We also discuss the shared characteristics of these successes, identifying emerging themes in the discipline. Specifically, we conclude that conservation physiology: (i) goes beyond documenting change to provide solutions; (ii) offers a diversity of physiological metrics beyond glucocorticoids (stress hormones); (iii) includes approaches that are transferable among species, locations and times; (iv) simultaneously allows for human use and benefits to wildlife; and (v) is characterized by successes that can be difficult to find in the primary literature. Overall, we submit that the field of conservation physiology has a strong foundation of achievements characterized by a diversity of conservation issues, taxa, physiological traits, ecosystem types and spatial scales. We hope that these concrete successes will encourage the continued evolution and use of physiological tools within conservation-based research and

  19. Characterization of multiple platelet activation pathways in patients with bleeding as a high-throughput screening option: use of 96-well Optimul assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Lowe, Gillian C; Kirkby, Nicholas S; Chan, Melissa V; Lundberg, Martina H; Morgan, Neil V; Bem, Danai; Nisar, Shaista P; Leo, Vincenzo C; Jones, Matthew L; Mundell, Stuart J; Daly, Martina E; Mumford, Andrew D; Warner, Timothy D; Watson, Steve P

    2014-02-20

    Up to 1% of the population have mild bleeding disorders, but these remain poorly characterized, particularly with regard to the roles of platelets. We have compared the usefulness of Optimul, a 96-well plate-based assay of 7 distinct pathways of platelet activation to characterize inherited platelet defects in comparison with light transmission aggregometry (LTA). Using Optimul and LTA, concentration-response curves were generated for arachidonic acid, ADP, collagen, epinephrine, Thrombin receptor activating-peptide, U46619, and ristocetin in samples from (1) healthy volunteers (n = 50), (2) healthy volunteers treated with antiplatelet agents in vitro (n = 10), and (3) patients with bleeding of unknown origin (n = 65). The assays gave concordant results in 82% of cases (κ = 0.62, P < .0001). Normal platelet function results were particularly predictive (sensitivity, 94%; negative predictive value, 91%), whereas a positive result was not always substantiated by LTA (specificity, 67%; positive predictive value, 77%). The Optimul assay was significantly more sensitive at characterizing defects in the thromboxane pathway, which presented with normal responses with LTA. The Optimul assay is sensitive to mild platelet defects, could be used as a rapid screening assay in patients presenting with bleeding symptoms, and detects changes in platelet function more readily than LTA. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.org as #ISRCTN 77951167.

  20. Polyamine Metabolites Profiling for Characterization of Lung and Liver Cancer Using an LC-Tandem MS Method with Multiple Statistical Data Mining Strategies: Discovering Potential Cancer Biomarkers in Human Plasma and Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huarong Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyamines, one of the most important kind of biomarkers in cancer research, were investigated in order to characterize different cancer types. An integrative approach which combined ultra-high performance liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry detection and multiple statistical data processing strategies including outlier elimination, binary logistic regression analysis and cluster analysis had been developed to discover the characteristic biomarkers of lung and liver cancer. The concentrations of 14 polyamine metabolites in biosamples from lung (n = 50 and liver cancer patients (n = 50 were detected by a validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. Then the concentrations were converted into independent variables to characterize patients of lung and liver cancer by binary logic regression analysis. Significant independent variables were regarded as the potential biomarkers. Cluster analysis was engaged for further verifying. As a result, two values was discovered to identify lung and liver cancer, which were the product of the plasma concentration of putrescine and spermidine; and the ratio of the urine concentration of S-adenosyl-l-methionine and N-acetylspermidine. Results indicated that the established advanced method could be successfully applied to characterize lung and liver cancer, and may also enable a new way of discovering cancer biomarkers and characterizing other types of cancer.

  1. Procedures of Exercise Physiology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip A.; Fortney, Suzanne; Greenisen, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Squires, William

    1998-01-01

    This manual describes the laboratory methods used to collect flight crew physiological performance data at the Johnson Space Center. The Exercise Countermeasures Project Laboratory is a standard physiology laboratory; only the application to the study of human physiological adaptations to spaceflight is unique. In the absence of any other recently published laboratory manual, this manual should be a useful document staffs and students of other laboratories.

  2. Hyolaryngeal excursion as the physiological source of swallowing accelerometry signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoratto, D C B; Chau, T; Steele, C M

    2010-01-01

    Swallowing dysfunction, or dysphagia, is a serious condition that can result from any structural or neurological impairment (such as stroke, neurodegenerative disease or brain injury) that affects the swallowing mechanism. The gold-standard method of instrumental swallowing assessment is an x-ray examination known as the videofluoroscopic swallowing study, which involves radiation exposure. Consequently, there is interest in exploring the potential of less invasive methods, with lesser risks of biohazard, to accurately detect swallowing abnormalities. Accelerometry is one such technique, which measures the epidermal vibration signals on a patient's neck during swallowing. Determining the utility of accelerometry signals for detecting dysphagia requires an understanding of the physiological source of the vibrations that are measured on the neck during swallowing. The purpose of the current study was to determine the extent to which movement of the hyoid bone and larynx contributes to the vibration signal that is registered during swallowing accelerometry. This question was explored by mapping the movement trajectories of the hyoid bone and the arytenoid cartilages from lateral videofluoroscopy recordings collected during thin liquid swallowing, and comparing these trajectories to time-linked signals obtained from a dual-axis accelerometer placed on the neck, just anterior to the cricoid cartilage. Participants for this study included 43 adult patients referred for videofluoroscopic swallowing studies to characterize the nature and severity of suspected neurogenic dysphagia. A software program was created to allow frame-by-frame tracking of structural movement on the videofluoroscopy recordings. These movement data were then compared to the integrated acceleration data using multiple linear regressions. The results concur with previous studies, implicating hyolaryngeal excursion as the primary physiological source of swallowing accelerometry signals, with both

  3. Paradoxical physiological transitions from aging to late life in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, Parvin; Quach, Julie; Mueller, Laurence D; Rose, Michael R

    2012-02-01

    In a variety of organisms, adulthood is divided into aging and late life, where aging is a period of exponentially increasing mortality rates and late life is a period of roughly plateaued mortality rates. In this study we used ∼57,600 Drosophila melanogaster from six replicate populations to examine the physiological transitions from aging to late life in four functional characters that decline during aging: desiccation resistance, starvation resistance, time spent in motion, and negative geotaxis. Time spent in motion and desiccation resistance declined less quickly in late life compared to their patterns of decline during aging. Negative geotaxis declined at a faster rate in late life compared to its rate of decline during aging. These results yield two key findings: (1) Late-life physiology is distinct from the physiology of aging, in that there is not simply a continuation of the physiological trends which characterize aging; and (2) late life physiology is complex, in that physiological characters vary with respect to their stabilization, deceleration, or acceleration in the transition from aging to late life. These findings imply that a correct understanding of adulthood requires identifying and appropriately characterizing physiology during properly delimited late-life periods as well as aging periods.

  4. Furan-based benzene mono- and dicarboxylic acid derivatives as multiple inhibitors of the bacterial Mur ligases (MurC-MurF): experimental and computational characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdih, Andrej; Hrast, Martina; Pureber, Kaja; Barreteau, Hélène; Grdadolnik, Simona Golič; Kocjan, Darko; Gobec, Stanislav; Solmajer, Tom; Wolber, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial resistance to the available antibiotic agents underlines an urgent need for the discovery of novel antibacterial agents. Members of the bacterial Mur ligase family MurC-MurF involved in the intracellular stages of the bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis have recently emerged as a collection of attractive targets for novel antibacterial drug design. In this study, we have first extended the knowledge of the class of furan-based benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid derivatives by first showing a multiple MurC-MurF ligase inhibition for representatives of the extended series of this class. Steady-state kinetics studies on the MurD enzyme were performed for compound 1, suggesting a competitive inhibition with respect to ATP. To the best of our knowledge, compound 1 represents the first ATP-competitive MurD inhibitor reported to date with concurrent multiple inhibition of all four Mur ligases (MurC-MurF). Subsequent molecular dynamic (MD) simulations coupled with interaction energy calculations were performed for two alternative in silico models of compound 1 in the UMA/ d-Glu- and ATP-binding sites of MurD, identifying binding in the ATP-binding site as energetically more favorable in comparison to the UMA/ d-Glu-binding site, which was in agreement with steady-state kinetic data. In the final stage, based on the obtained MD data novel furan-based benzene monocarboxylic acid derivatives 8- 11, exhibiting multiple Mur ligase (MurC-MurF) inhibition with predominantly superior ligase inhibition over the original series, were discovered and for compound 10 it was shown to possess promising antibacterial activity against S. aureus. These compounds represent novel leads that could by further optimization pave the way to novel antibacterial agents.

  5. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  6. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  7. Molecular physiology of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduch, M.

    2014-05-01

    Plant development is well described. However, full understanding of the regulation of processes associated with plant development is still missing. Present Dr.Sc. thesis advances our understanding of the regulation of plant development by quantitative proteomics analyses of seed development of soybean, canola, castor, flax, and model plant arabidopsis in control and environmentally challenged environments. The analysis of greenhouse-grown soybean, canola, castor, and arabidospis provided complex characterization of metabolic processes during seed development, for instance, of carbon assimilation into fatty acids. Furthermore, the analyses of soybean and flax grown in Chernobyl area provided in-depth characterization of seed development in radio-contaminated environment. Soybean and flax were altered by radio-contaminated environment in different way. However, these alterations resulted into modifications in seed oil content. Further analyses showed that soybean and flax possess alterations of carbon metabolism in cytoplasm and plastids along with increased activity of photosynthetic apparatus. Our present experiments are focused on further characterization of molecular bases that might be responsible for alterations of seed oil content in Chernobyl grown plants. (author)

  8. Smolt physiology and endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  9. Clinical physiology grand rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jeremy; Schwartzstein, Richard; Irish, Julie; Almeida, Jacqueline; Roberts, David

    2013-04-01

    Clinical Physiology Grand Rounds (CPGR) is an interactive, case-based conference for medical students designed to: (1) integrate preclinical and clinical learning; (2) promote inductive clinical reasoning; and (3) emphasise students as peer teachers. CPGR specifically encourages mixed learning level student interactions and emphasises the use of concept mapping. We describe the theoretical basis and logistical considerations for an interactive, integrative, mixed-learner environment such as CPGR. In addition, we report qualitative data regarding students' attitudes towards and perceptions of CPGR. Medical students from first to fourth year participate in a monthly, interactive conference. The CPGR was designed to bridge gaps and reinforce linkages between basic science and clinical concepts, and to incorporate interactive vertical integration between preclinical and clinical students. Medical education and content experts use Socratic, interactive teaching methods to develop real-time concept maps to emphasise the presence and importance of linkages across curricula. Student focus groups were held to assess attitudes towards and perceptions of the mixed-learner environment and concept maps in CPGR. Qualitative analyses of focus group transcripts were performed to develop themes and codes describing the students' impressions of CPGR. CPGR is a case-based, interactive conference designed to help students gain an increased appreciation of linkages between basic science and clinical medicine concepts, and an increased awareness of clinical reasoning thought processes. Success is dependent upon explicit attention being given to goals for students' integrated learning. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  10. Characterization of forsythoside A metabolites in rats by a combination of UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer with multiple data processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Cao, Guang-Shang; Li, Yun; Xu, Lu-Lu; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Liu, Ying; Lu, Jian-Qiu; Zhang, Jia-Yu

    2018-05-01

    Forsythoside A (FTA), the main active constituent isolated from Fructus Forsythiae, has various biological functions including anti-oxidant, anti-viral and anti-microbial activities. However, while research on FTA has been mainly focused on the treatment of diseases on a material basis, FTA metabolites in vivo have not been comprehensively evaluated. Here, a rapid and sensitive method using a UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer with multiple data processing techniques including high-resolution extracted ion chromatograms, multiple mass defect filters and diagnostic product ions was developed for the screening and identification of FTA metabolites in rats. As the result, a total of 43 metabolites were identified in biological samples including 42 metabolites in urine, 22 metabolites in plasma and 15 metabolites in feces. These results demonstrated that FTA underwent a series of in vivo metabolic reactions including methylation, dimethylation, sulfation, glucuronidation, diglucuronidation, cysteine conjugation and their composite reactions. The research enhanced our understanding of FTA metabolism and built a foundation for further toxicity and safety studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Characterization of anomalous relaxation using the time-fractional Bloch equation and multiple echo T2 *-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shanlin; Liu, Fawang; Turner, Ian W; Yu, Qiang; Yang, Qianqian; Vegh, Viktor

    2017-04-01

    To study the utility of fractional calculus in modeling gradient-recalled echo MRI signal decay in the normal human brain. We solved analytically the extended time-fractional Bloch equations resulting in five model parameters, namely, the amplitude, relaxation rate, order of the time-fractional derivative, frequency shift, and constant offset. Voxel-level temporal fitting of the MRI signal was performed using the classical monoexponential model, a previously developed anomalous relaxation model, and using our extended time-fractional relaxation model. Nine brain regions segmented from multiple echo gradient-recalled echo 7 Tesla MRI data acquired from five participants were then used to investigate the characteristics of the extended time-fractional model parameters. We found that the extended time-fractional model is able to fit the experimental data with smaller mean squared error than the classical monoexponential relaxation model and the anomalous relaxation model, which do not account for frequency shift. We were able to fit multiple echo time MRI data with high accuracy using the developed model. Parameters of the model likely capture information on microstructural and susceptibility-induced changes in the human brain. Magn Reson Med 77:1485-1494, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Characterizing the Joint Effect of Diverse Test-Statistic Correlation Structures and Effect Size on False Discovery Rates in a Multiple-Comparison Study of Many Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

    2011-01-01

    In their 2009 Annals of Statistics paper, Gavrilov, Benjamini, and Sarkar report the results of a simulation assessing the robustness of their adaptive step-down procedure (GBS) for controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) when normally distributed test statistics are serially correlated. In this study we extend the investigation to the case of multiple comparisons involving correlated non-central t-statistics, in particular when several treatments or time periods are being compared to a control in a repeated-measures design with many dependent outcome measures. In addition, we consider several dependence structures other than serial correlation and illustrate how the FDR depends on the interaction between effect size and the type of correlation structure as indexed by Foerstner s distance metric from an identity. The relationship between the correlation matrix R of the original dependent variables and R, the correlation matrix of associated t-statistics is also studied. In general R depends not only on R, but also on sample size and the signed effect sizes for the multiple comparisons.

  13. Comparison of multiple quantitative MRI parameters for characterization of the goat cartilage in an ongoing osteoarthritis: dGEMRIC, T1ρ and sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrauth, Joachim H.X.; Lykowsky, Gunthard; Hemberger, Kathrin; Kreutner, Jakob; Jakob, Peter M.; Weber, Daniel; Haddad, Daniel; Rackwitz, Lars; Noeth, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease leading to cartilage deterioration by loss of matrix, fibrillation, formation of fissures, and ultimately complete loss of the cartilage surface. Here, three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, dGEMRIC (delayed Gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage; dG 1 = T 1,post ; dG 2 = 1/T 1,post -1/T 1,pre ), T 1ρ , and sodium MRI, are compared in a preclinical in vivo study to evaluate the differences in their potential for cartilage characterization and to establish an examination protocol for a following clinical study. OA was induced in 12 caprine knees (6 control, 6 therapy). Adipose derived stem cells were injected afterwards as a treatment. The animals were examined healthy, 3 and 16 weeks postoperatively with all three MRI methods. Using statistical analysis, the OA development and the degree of correlation between the different MRI methods were determined. A strong correlation was observed between the dGEMRIC indices dG 1 and dG 2 (r=-0.87) which differ only in considering or not considering the T 1 baseline. Moderate correlations were found between T 1ρ and dG 1 (r=0.55), T 1ρ and dG 2 (r=0.47) and at last, sodium and dG 1 (r=0.45). The correlations found in this study match to the biomarkers which the methods are sensitive to. Even though the goat cartilage is significantly thinner than the human cartilage and even more in a degenerated cartilage, all three methods were able to characterize the cartilage over the whole period of time during an ongoing OA.Due to measurement and post processing optimizations, as well as the correlations detected in this work, the overall measurement time in future goat studies can be minimized. Moreover, an examination protocol for characterizing the cartilage in a clinical study was established.

  14. Multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Kupers, Ron

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent, non-specific symptoms in response to chemically unrelated exposures in non-toxic concentrations. Although the pathophysiology of MCS remains unknown, central sensitization may be an important factor...

  15. High-throughput LC-MS method for the rapid characterization of multiple chemical constituents and metabolites of Da-Bu-Yin-Wan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianna; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Aihua; Liu, Zhidong; Zou, Di; Song, Yanhua; Liu, Liang; Wang, Xijun

    2017-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is the clinical experience accumulated by Chinese people against diseases. Da-Bu-Yin-Wan is a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula consisting of Phellodendri amurensis Rupr., Anemarrhenae asphodeloides Bge., Radix Rehmanniae Preparata and Chinemys reevesii. In this study, ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight high-definition mass spectrometry with the control software of Masslynx (V4.1) was established for comprehensive screening and identification of the chemical constituents and serum metabolites of Da-Bu-Yin-Wan in vivo and in vitro. Consequently, 70 peaks in the methanol extract from Da-Bu-Yin-Wan and 38 peaks absorbed into rat blood were characterized. The 70 constituents in vitro included alkaloids, flavonoids, polysaccharide, limonoids, flavonoid, etc. And the 38 constituents consist of 22 absorbed prototypes and 16 metabolites of Da-Bu-Yin-Wan absorbed in vivo. We fully clarified the chemical constituents of Da-Bu-Yin-Wan and provided a scientific strategy for the screening and characterization of the chemical constituents and metabolites of traditional Chinese medicine in vitro and in vivo. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Characterization of multiple antibiotic resistance of culturable microorganisms and metagenomic analysis of total microbial diversity of marine fish sold in retail shops in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Onkar A; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Rath, Devashish; Bandekar, Jayant R; Rath, Archana

    2018-03-01

    Marine fish species were analyzed for culturable and total metagenomic microbial diversity, antibiotic resistance (AR) pattern, and horizontal gene transfer in culturable microorganisms. We observed a high AR microbial load of 3 to 4 log CFU g -1 . Many fish pathogens like Providencia, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter, Vagococcus, and Aeromonas veronii were isolated. Photobacterium and Vibrio were two major fish and human pathogens which were identified in the fish metagenome. Other pathogens that were identified were Shewanella, Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter, and Flavobacterium. Most of these pathogens were resistant to multiple antibiotics such as erythromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, penicillin, cefotaxime, bacitracin, rifampicin, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline with a high multiple antibiotic resistance index of 0.54-0.77. The fish microflora showed high prevalence of AR genes like bla TEM , Class I integron, tetA, aph(3')-IIIa, ermB, aadA, and sul1. Nineteen of 26 AR isolates harbored Class I integrons showing high co-resistance to trimethoprim, kanamycin, doxycycline, and cefotaxime. Mobile R-plasmids from 6 of the 12 AR pathogens were transferred to recipient E. coli after conjugation. The transconjugants harbored the same R-plasmid carrying bla CTX-M , dfr1, tetA, bla TEM , and cat genes. This study confirms that fish is a potential carrier of AR pathogens which can enter the human gut via food chain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the Indian subcontinent reporting a direct evidence of spread of AR pathogens to humans from specific marine fish consumption.

  17. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite the universal use of bowel preparation before colonoscopy and colorectal surgery, the physiologic effects have not been described in a standardized setting. This study was designed to investigate the physiologic effects of bowel preparation. METHODS: In a prospective study, 12...

  18. Influences of sex and activity level on physiological changes in individual adult sockeye salmon during rapid senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Kimberly A; Hinch, Scott G; Healey, Michael C; Patterson, David A; Larsson, Stefan; Farrell, Anthony P

    2010-01-01

    A noninvasive biopsy protocol was used to sample plasma and gill tissue in individual sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during the critical life stage associated with spawning-arrival at a spawning channel through senescence to death several days later. Our main objective was to characterize the physiological changes associated with rapid senescence in terms of the physiological stress/cortisol hypersecretion model and the energy exhaustion model. Salmon lived an average of 5 d in the spawning channel, during which time there were three major physiological trends that were independent of sexual status: a large increase in plasma indicators of stress and exercise (i.e., lactate and cortisol), a decrease in the major plasma ions (i.e., Cl(-) and Na(+)) and osmolality, and a decrease in gross somatic energy reserves. Contrary to a generalized stress response, plasma glucose decreased in approximately 2/3 of the fish after arrival, as opposed to increasing. Furthermore, plasma cortisol levels at spawning-ground arrival were not correlated with the degree of ionoregulatory changes during rapid senescence. One mechanism of mortality in some fish may involve the exhaustion of energy reserves, resulting in the inability to mobilize plasma glucose. Sex had a significant modulating effect on the degree of physiological change. Females exhibited a greater magnitude of change for gross somatic energy, osmolality, and plasma concentrations of Cl(-), Na(+), cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, 17,20beta-progesterone, and estradiol. The activity level of an individual on the spawning grounds appeared to influence the degree of some physiological changes during senescence. For example, males that received a greater frequency of attacks exhibited larger net decreases in plasma 11-ketotestosterone while on the spawning grounds. These results suggest that rapid senescence on spawning grounds is influenced by multiple physiological processes and perhaps behavior. This study

  19. Flow pumping system for physiological waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, William; Savaş, Omer

    2010-02-01

    A pulsatile flow pumping system is developed to replicate flow waveforms with reasonable accuracy for experiments simulating physiological blood flows at numerous points in the body. The system divides the task of flow waveform generation between two pumps: a gear pump generates the mean component and a piston pump generates the oscillatory component. The system is driven by two programmable servo controllers. The frequency response of the system is used to characterize its operation. The system has been successfully tested in vascular flow experiments where sinusoidal, carotid, and coronary flow waveforms are replicated.

  20. Caracterização morfo-fisiológica e patogenicidade de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides da pupunheira Characterization morpho-physiological and pathogenicity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from peach palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudimar Mafacioli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Isolados de Colletotorichum sp. de folhas de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes com sintomas de antracnose foram comparados fenotipicamente, visando a sua caracterização e identificação. Foram analisados 17 isolados, oriundos dos Estados do Acre, Rondônia, Espírito Santo, São Paulo e Paraná. Caracterizaram-se os sintomas da doença e os isolados foram comparados em relação à forma e tamanho de conídios e apressórios, e quanto a coloração das colônias, crescimento micelial e esporulação em meio de cultura. A patogenicidade dos isolados foi confirmada em folhas de pupunheira destacadas. Todos os isolados foram identificados como Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e a fase meiospórica in vitro (Glomerella cingulata ocorreu apenas em um isolado procedente de Linhares, Espírito Santo.Isolates of Colletotrichum sp. obtained from leaves of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes showing symptoms of anthracnosis from several regions of Brazil were characterized and identified based on their phenotypic traits. A total of 17 isolates collected from the states of Acre and Rondônia, where the peach palm is originated as well as from Southern States such as Espirito Santo, São Paulo and Paraná, where peach palm has been introduced for the production of palm heart, were studied. Disease symptoms were characterized and the isolates were compared based on form and size of conidia and apressoria, color of the colony, mycelial growth and sporulation in vitro. The pathogenicity of all isolates was confirmed based on a detached leaf of peach palm assay. All isolates were characterized as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the occurrence of the meiosporic stage (Glomerella cingulata was observed only for one isolate.

  1. Comparison of multiple quantitative MRI parameters for characterization of the goat cartilage in an ongoing osteoarthritis: dGEMRIC, T{sub 1ρ} and sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrauth, Joachim H.X.; Lykowsky, Gunthard; Hemberger, Kathrin; Kreutner, Jakob; Jakob, Peter M. [MRB Research Center for Magnetic Resonance Bavaria, Wuerzburg (Germany); Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Experimental Physics 5 (Biophysics); Weber, Daniel; Haddad, Daniel [MRB Research Center for Magnetic Resonance Bavaria, Wuerzburg (Germany); Rackwitz, Lars; Noeth, Ulrich [Orthopedic Center for Musculoskeletal Research, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease leading to cartilage deterioration by loss of matrix, fibrillation, formation of fissures, and ultimately complete loss of the cartilage surface. Here, three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, dGEMRIC (delayed Gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage; dG{sub 1} = T{sub 1,post}; dG{sub 2} = 1/T{sub 1,post}-1/T{sub 1,pre}), T{sub 1ρ}, and sodium MRI, are compared in a preclinical in vivo study to evaluate the differences in their potential for cartilage characterization and to establish an examination protocol for a following clinical study. OA was induced in 12 caprine knees (6 control, 6 therapy). Adipose derived stem cells were injected afterwards as a treatment. The animals were examined healthy, 3 and 16 weeks postoperatively with all three MRI methods. Using statistical analysis, the OA development and the degree of correlation between the different MRI methods were determined. A strong correlation was observed between the dGEMRIC indices dG{sub 1} and dG{sub 2} (r=-0.87) which differ only in considering or not considering the T{sub 1} baseline. Moderate correlations were found between T{sub 1ρ} and dG{sub 1} (r=0.55), T{sub 1ρ} and dG{sub 2} (r=0.47) and at last, sodium and dG{sub 1} (r=0.45). The correlations found in this study match to the biomarkers which the methods are sensitive to. Even though the goat cartilage is significantly thinner than the human cartilage and even more in a degenerated cartilage, all three methods were able to characterize the cartilage over the whole period of time during an ongoing OA.Due to measurement and post processing optimizations, as well as the correlations detected in this work, the overall measurement time in future goat studies can be minimized. Moreover, an examination protocol for characterizing the cartilage in a clinical study was established.

  2. Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Circulating Covalent Protein Adducts Derived from a Drug Acyl Glucuronide Metabolite: Multiple Albumin Adductions in Diclofenac Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Thomas G.; Meng, Xiaoli; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Maggs, James L.; Castelazo, Anahi Santoyo; Regan, Sophie L.; Bennett, Stuart N. L.; Earnshaw, Caroline J.; Aithal, Guruprasad P.; Pande, Ira; Kenna, J. Gerry; Stachulski, Andrew V.; Park, B. Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Covalent protein modifications by electrophilic acyl glucuronide (AG) metabolites are hypothetical causes of hypersensitivity reactions associated with certain carboxylate drugs. The complex rearrangements and reactivities of drug AG have been defined in great detail, and protein adducts of carboxylate drugs, such as diclofenac, have been found in liver and plasma of experimental animals and humans. However, in the absence of definitive molecular characterization, and specifically, identification of signature glycation conjugates retaining the glucuronyl and carboxyl residues, it cannot be assumed any of these adducts is derived uniquely or even fractionally from AG metabolites. We have therefore undertaken targeted mass spectrometric analyses of human serum albumin (HSA) isolated from diclofenac patients to characterize drug-derived structures and, thereby, for the first time, have deconstructed conclusively the pathways of adduct formation from a drug AG and its isomeric rearrangement products in vivo. These analyses were informed by a thorough understanding of the reactions of HSA with diclofenac AG in vitro. HSA from six patients without drug-related hypersensitivities had either a single drug-derived adduct or one of five combinations of 2–8 adducts from among seven diclofenac N-acylations and three AG glycations on seven of the protein’s 59 lysines. Only acylations were found in every patient. We present evidence that HSA modifications by diclofenac in vivo are complicated and variable, that at least a fraction of these modifications are derived from the drug’s AG metabolite, and that albumin adduction is not inevitably a causation of hypersensitivity to carboxylate drugs or a coincidental association. PMID:24902585

  3. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  4. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Shariat, K.; Kostopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [de

  5. Plant aquaporins: roles in plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Santoni, Véronique; Maurel, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes of most living organisms. Here, we present comprehensive insights made on plant aquaporins in recent years, pointing to their molecular and physiological specificities with respect to animal or microbial counterparts. In plants, aquaporins occur as multiple isoforms reflecting a high diversity of cellular localizations and various physiological substrates in addition to water. Of particular relevance for plants is the transport by aquaporins of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide or metalloids such as boric or silicic acid. The mechanisms that determine the gating and subcellular localization of plant aquaporins are extensively studied. They allow aquaporin regulation in response to multiple environmental and hormonal stimuli. Thus, aquaporins play key roles in hydraulic regulation and nutrient transport in roots and leaves. They contribute to several plant growth and developmental processes such as seed germination or emergence of lateral roots. Plants with genetically altered aquaporin functions are now tested for their ability to improve plant resistance to stresses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Aquaporins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of IGH locus breakpoints in multiple myeloma indicates a subset of translocations appear to occur in pregerminal center B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brian A; Wardell, Christopher P; Johnson, David C; Kaiser, Martin F; Begum, Dil B; Dahir, Nasrin B; Ross, Fiona M; Davies, Faith E; Gonzalez, David; Morgan, Gareth J

    2013-04-25

    Translocations in myeloma are thought to occur solely in mature B cells in the germinal center through class switch recombination (CSR). We used a targeted captured technique followed by massively parallel sequencing to determine the exact breakpoints in both the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus and the partner chromosome in 61 presentation multiple myeloma samples. The majority of samples (62%) have a breakpoint within the switch regions upstream of the IGH constant genes and are generated through CSR in a mature B cell. However, the proportion of CSR translocations is not consistent between cytogenetic subgroups. We find that 100% of t(4;14) are CSR-mediated; however, 21% of t(11;14) and 25% of t(14;20) are generated through DH-JH recombination activation gene-mediated mechanisms, indicating they occur earlier in B-cell development at the pro-B-cell stage in the bone marrow. These 2 groups also generate translocations through receptor revision, as determined by the breakpoints and mutation status of the segments used in 10% and 50% of t(11;14) and t(14;20) samples, respectively. The study indicates that in a significant number of cases the translocation-based etiological events underlying myeloma may arise at the pro-B-cell hematological progenitor cell level, much earlier in B-cell development than was previously thought.

  7. Multiple Time-Point 68Ga-PSMA I&T PET/CT for Characterization of Primary Prostate Cancer: Value of Early Dynamic and Delayed Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, Sebastian; Mamach, Martin; Wilke, Florian; von Klot, Christoph A; Henkenberens, Christoph; Thackeray, James T; Sohns, Jan M; Geworski, Lilli; Ross, Tobias L; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Christiansen, Hans; Bengel, Frank M; Derlin, Thorsten

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to gain mechanistic insights into prostate cancer biology using dynamic imaging and to evaluate the usefulness of multiple time-point Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) I&T PET/CT for the assessment of primary prostate cancer before prostatectomy. Twenty patients with prostate cancer underwent Ga-PSMA I&T PET/CT before prostatectomy. The PET protocol consisted of early dynamic pelvic imaging, followed by static scans at 60 and 180 minutes postinjection (p.i.). SUVs, time-activity curves, quantitative analysis based on a 2-tissue compartment model, Patlak analysis, histopathology, and Gleason grading were compared between prostate cancer and benign prostate gland. Primary tumors were identified on both early dynamic and delayed imaging in 95% of patients. Tracer uptake was significantly higher in prostate cancer compared with benign prostate tissue at any time point (P ≤ 0.0003) and increased over time. Consequently, the tumor-to-nontumor ratio within the prostate gland improved over time (2.8 at 10 minutes vs 17.1 at 180 minutes p.i.). Tracer uptake at both 60 and 180 minutes p.i. was significantly higher in patients with higher Gleason scores (P dynamic and static delayed Ga-PSMA ligand PET images. The tumor-to-nontumor ratio in the prostate gland improves over time, supporting a role of delayed imaging for optimal visualization of prostate cancer.

  8. Common Student Misconceptions in Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, James P.; Doran, Dominic A.; MacLaren, Don P. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study represents a preliminary investigation designed to identify common misconceptions in students' understanding of physiological and biochemical topics within the academic domain of sport and exercise sciences. A specifically designed misconception inventory (consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions) was administered to a cohort…

  9. The last glacial inception in continental northwestern Europe: characterization and timing of the Late Eemian Aridity Pulse (LEAP) recorded in multiple Belgian speleothems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenberge, Stef; Verheyden, Sophie; Quinif, Yves; Genty, Dominique; Blamart, Dominique; Deprez, Maxim; Van Stappen, Jeroen; Cnudde, Veerle; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Claeys, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Interglacial-glacial transitions represent important turnovers in the climate system. In contrast with glacial terminations, they are described as a more gradual cooling. So far, the last interglacial has yielded a wealth of knowledge regarding climate dynamics during past warm periods. On top of the assumed gradual temperature drop starting at 119 ka, evidence for the presence of a drastic drying/cooling event in northern Europe has been observed. In lake records from Germany, a distinct shift in pollen assembly at 117.5 ka is interpreted as the consequence of a short dry event lasting 470 years, defined as the Late Eemian Aridity Pulse (LEAP, Sirocko et al., 2005). In a Belgian stalagmite from Han-sur-Lesse Cave, the LEAP is characterized by a 5‰ increase in δ13C occurring in just 200 years. The δ13C enrichment is dated at 117.5 ka and associated with a vegetation change above the cave, induced by a drying and/or cooling event (Vansteenberge et al., 2016). Also, within North Atlantic sediment cores, an increase in ice rafted debris was linked to the occurrence of a colder period at 117 ka (Irvali et al., 2016). Its coevality with the LEAP indicates a likely more regional extent than previously thought. Up to now, no independent chronology exists and little is known about the continental climatic expression of the LEAP. This study aims at 1) constructing an improved and independent chronology for the LEAP event, 2) characterizing this event in terms of its climatic expression and 3) placing the LEAP within the context of an interglacial-glacial transition. For this, two additional speleothems (Han-8, RSM-17) from two different Belgian caves (Han-sur-Lesse, Remouchamps) are added to the existing Han-9 dataset. Exceptionally high growth rates (0.5 mm yr-1) and a presumed annual layering of the RSM-17 sample enable an annual to decadal resolution to investigate the LEAP. U-Th age models covering the glacial inception are constructed with 25 dates on the three

  10. Molecular characterization of a rice mutator-phenotype derived from an incompatible cross-pollination reveals transgenerational mobilization of multiple transposable elements and extensive epigenetic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chunming

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inter-specific hybridization occurs frequently in plants, which may induce genetic and epigenetic instabilities in the resultant hybrids, allopolyploids and introgressants. It remains unclear however whether pollination by alien pollens of an incompatible species may impose a "biological stress" even in the absence of genome-merger or genetic introgression, whereby genetic and/or epigenetic instability of the maternal recipient genome might be provoked. Results We report here the identification of a rice mutator-phenotype from a set of rice plants derived from a crossing experiment involving two remote and apparently incompatible species, Oryza sativa L. and Oenothera biennis L. The mutator-phenotype (named Tong211-LP showed distinct alteration in several traits, with the most striking being substantially enlarged panicles. Expectably, gel-blotting by total genomic DNA of the pollen-donor showed no evidence for introgression. Characterization of Tong211-LP (S0 and its selfed progenies (S1 ruled out contamination (via seed or pollen or polyploidy as a cause for its dramatic phenotypic changes, but revealed transgenerational mobilization of several previously characterized transposable elements (TEs, including a MITE (mPing, and three LTR retrotransposons (Osr7, Osr23 and Tos17. AFLP and MSAP fingerprinting revealed extensive, transgenerational alterations in cytosine methylation and to a less extent also genetic variation in Tong211-LP and its immediate progenies. mPing mobility was found to correlate with cytosine methylation alteration detected by MSAP but not with genetic variation detected by AFLP. Assay by q-RT-PCR of the steady-state transcript abundance of a set of genes encoding for the various putative DNA methyltransferases, 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases, and small interference RNA (siRNA pathway-related proteins showed that, relative to the rice parental line, heritable perturbation in expression of 12 out of

  11. Analysis of shipboard aerosol optical thickness measurements from multiple sunphotometers aboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown during the Aerosol Characterization Experiment - Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Mark A.; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Frouin, Robert; Bartholomew, Mary Jane; Reynolds, R. Michael; Pietras, Christophe; Fargion, Giulietta; Quinn, Patricia; Thieuleux, Francois

    2005-01-01

    Marine sunphotometer measurements collected aboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown during the Aerosol Characterization Experiment - Asia (ACE-Asia) are used to evaluate the ability of complementary instrumentation to obtain the best possible estimates of aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent from ships at sea. A wide range of aerosol conditions, including clean maritime conditions and highly polluted coastal environments, were encountered during the ACE-Asia cruise. The results of this study suggest that shipboard hand-held sunphotometers and fast-rotating shadow-band radiometers (FRSRs) yield similar measurements and uncertainties if proper measurement protocols are used and if the instruments are properly calibrated. The automated FRSR has significantly better temporal resolution (2 min) than the hand-held sunphotometers when standard measurement protocols are used, so it more faithfully represents the variability of the local aerosol structure in polluted regions. Conversely, results suggest that the hand-held sunphotometers may perform better in clean, maritime air masses for unknown reasons. Results also show that the statistical distribution of the Angstrom exponent measurements is different when the distributions from hand-held sunphotometers are compared with those from the FRSR and that the differences may arise from a combination of factors

  12. Purification and characterization of multiple bacteriocins and an inducing peptide produced by Enterococcus faecium NKR-5-3 from Thai fermented fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Naoki; Himeno, Kohei; Fujita, Koji; Masuda, Yoshimitsu; Perez, Rodney Honrada; Zendo, Takeshi; Wilaipun, Pongtep; Leelawatcharamas, Vichien; Nakayama, Jiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Enterocins NKR-5-3A, B, C, and D were purified from the culture supernatant of Enterococcus faecium NKR-5-3 and characterized. Among the four purified peptides, enterocin NKR-5-3A (5242.3 Da) was identical to brochocin A, produced by Brochothrix campestris ATCC 43754, in mature peptides, and its putative synergistic peptide, enterocin NKR-5-3Z, was found to be encoded in ent53Z downstream of ent53A, encoding enterocin NKR-5-3A. Enterocin NKR-5-3B (6316.4 Da) showed a broad antimicrobial spectrum, and enterocin NKR-5-3C (4512.8 Da) showed high activity against Listeria. Enterocin NKR-5-3D (2843.5 Da), showing high homology to an inducing peptide produced by Lactobacillus sakei 5, induced the production of the enterocins. The enterocins showed different antimicrobial spectra and intensities. E. faecium NKR-5-3 concomitantly produced enterocins NKR-5-3A, B, C, and D which probably belong to different classes of bacteriocins. Furthermore, NKR-5-3 production was induced by enterocin NKR-5-3D.

  13. Physiology of free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals imply that every atom, molecule, ion, group of atoms, or molecules with one or several non-paired electrons in outer orbital. Among these are: nitrogenoxide (NO•, superoxide-anion-radical (O2•-, hydroxyl radical (OH•, peroxyl radical (ROO•, alcoxyl radical (RO• and hydroperoxyl radical (HO2•. However, reactive oxygen species also include components without non-paired electrons in outer orbital (so-called reactive non-radical agents, such as: singlet oxygen (1O2, peroxynitrite (ONOO-, hydrogen-peroxide (H2O2, hypochloric acid (eg. HOCl and ozone (O3. High concentrations of free radicals lead to the development of oxidative stress which is a precondition for numerous pathological effects. However, low and moderate concentrations of these matter, which occur quite normally during cell metabolic activity, play multiple significant roles in many reactions. Some of these are: regulation of signal pathways within the cell and between cells, the role of chemoattractors and leukocyte activators, the role in phagocytosis, participation in maintaining, changes in the position and shape of the cell, assisting the cell during adaption and recovery from damage (e.g.caused by physical effort, the role in normal cell growth, programmed cell death (apoptosis and cell ageing, in the synthesis of essential biological compounds and energy production, as well as the contribution to the regulation of the vascular tone, actually, tissue vascularization.

  14. Contrasting physiological plasticity in response to environmental stress within different cnidarians and their respective symbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Kenneth D.; Pettay, Daniel. T.; Dodge, Danielle; Warner, Mark E.

    2016-06-01

    Given concerns surrounding coral bleaching and ocean acidification, there is renewed interest in characterizing the physiological differences across the multiple host-algal symbiont combinations commonly found on coral reefs. Elevated temperature and CO2 were used to compare physiological responses within the scleractinian corals Montipora hirsuta ( Symbiodinium C15) and Pocillopora damicornis ( Symbiodinium D1), as well as the corallimorph (a non-calcifying anthozoan closely related to scleractinians) Discosoma nummiforme ( Symbiodinium C3). Several physiological proxies were affected more by temperature than CO2, including photochemistry, algal number and cellular chlorophyll a. Marked differences in symbiont number, chlorophyll and volume contributed to distinctive patterns of chlorophyll absorption among these animals. In contrast, carbon fixation either did not change or increased under elevated temperature. Also, the rate of photosynthetically fixed carbon translocated to each host did not change, and the percent of carbon translocated to the host increased in the corallimorph. Comparing all data revealed a significant negative correlation between photosynthetic rate and symbiont density that corroborates previous hypotheses about carbon limitation in these symbioses. The ratio of symbiont-normalized photosynthetic rate relative to the rate of symbiont-normalized carbon translocation (P:T) was compared in these organisms as well as the anemone, Exaiptasia pallida hosting Symbiodinium minutum, and revealed a P:T close to unity ( D. nummiforme) to a range of 2.0-4.5, with the lowest carbon translocation in the sea anemone. Major differences in the thermal responses across these organisms provide further evidence of a range of acclimation potential and physiological plasticity that highlights the need for continued study of these symbioses across a larger group of host taxa.

  15. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1992-06-01

    A variety of different media were used to isolate facultatively (FAB) and obligately anaerobic bacteria (OAB). These bacteria were isolated from core subsamples obtained from boreholes at the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) or at the Hanford Lab. (Yakima). Core material was sampled at various depths to 600 feet below the surface. All core samples with culturable bacteria contained at least FAB making thisthe most common physiological type of anaerobic bacteria present in the deep subsurface at these two sites. INEL core samples are characterized by isolates of both FAB and OAB. No isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, or sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. Yakima core samples are characterized by a marked predominance of FAB in comparison to OAB. In addition, isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, and sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. The Yakima site has the potential for complete anaerobic mineralization of organic compounds whereas this potential appears to be lacking at INEL.

  16. Emerging Importance of Helicases in Plant Stress Tolerance: Characterization of Oryza sativa Repair Helicase XPB2 Promoter and Its Functional Validation in Tobacco under Multiple Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikwar, Shailendra; Srivastava, Vineet K; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Genetic material always remains at the risk of spontaneous or induced damage which challenges the normal functioning of DNA molecule, thus, DNA repair is vital to protect the organisms against genetic damage. Helicases, the unique molecular motors, are emerged as prospective molecules to engineer stress tolerance in plants and are involved in nucleic acid metabolism including DNA repair. The repair helicase, XPB is an evolutionary conserved protein present in different organisms, including plants. Availability of few efficient promoters for gene expression in plants provoked us to study the promoter of XPB for better understanding of gene regulation under stress conditions. Here, we report the in silico analysis of novel stress inducible promoter of Oryza sativa XPB2 (OsXPB2). The in vivo validation of functionality/activity of OsXPB2 promoter under abiotic and hormonal stress conditions was performed by Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay in tobacco leaves using OsXPB2::GUS chimeric construct. The present research revealed that OsXPB2 promoter contains cis-elements accounting for various abiotic stresses (salt, dehydration, or cold) and hormone (Auxin, ABA, or MeJA) induced GUS expression/activity in the promoter-reporter assay. The promoter region of OsXPB2 contains CACG, GTAACG, CACGTG, CGTCA CCGCCGCGCT cis acting-elements which are reported to be salt, dehydration, cold, MeJA, or ABA responsive, respectively. Functional analysis was done by Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay using agroinfiltration in tobacco leaves, followed by GUS staining and fluorescence quantitative analyses. The results revealed high induction of GUS activity under multiple abiotic stresses as compared to mock treated control. The present findings suggest that OsXPB2 promoter is a multi-stress inducible promoter and has potential applications in sustainable crop production under abiotic stresses by regulating desirable pattern of gene expression.

  17. Isolation and characterization of multiple F-box genes linked to the S9- and S10-RNase in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazuma; Moriya, Shigeki; Haji, Takashi; Abe, Kazuyuki

    2013-06-01

    Using 11 consensus primer pairs designed from S-linked F-box genes of apple and Japanese pear, 10 new F-box genes (MdFBX21 to 30) were isolated from the apple cultivar 'Spartan' (S(9)S(10)). MdFBX21 to 23 and MdFBX24 to 30 were completely linked to the S(9) -RNase and S(10-)RNase, respectively, and showed pollen-specific expression and S-haplotype-specific polymorphisms. Therefore, these 10 F-box genes are good candidates for the pollen determinant of self-incompatibility in apple. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison of deduced amino acid sequences of MdFBX21 to 30 with those of 25 S-linked F-box genes previously isolated from apple showed that a deduced amino acid identity of greater than 88.0 % can be used as the tentative criterion to classify F-box genes into one type. Using this criterion, 31 of 35 F-box genes of apple were classified into 11 types (SFBB1-11). All types included F-box genes derived from S(3-) and S(9-)haplotypes, and seven types included F-box genes derived from S(3-), S(9-), and S(10-)haplotypes. Moreover, comparison of nucleotide sequences of S-RNases and multiple F-box genes among S(3-), S(9-), and S(10-)haplotypes suggested that F-box genes within each type showed high nucleotide identity regardless of the identity of the S-RNase. The large number of F-box genes as candidates for the pollen determinant and the high degree of conservation within each type are consistent with the collaborative non-self-recognition model reported for Petunia. These findings support that the collaborative non-self-recognition system also exists in apple.

  18. Characterization of weakly absorbing thin films by multiple linear regression analysis of absolute unwrapped phase in angle-resolved spectral reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jingtao; Lu, Rongsheng

    2018-04-30

    The simultaneous determination of t, n(λ), and κ(λ) of thin films can be a tough task for the high correlation of fit parameters. The strong assumptions about the type of dispersion relation are commonly used as a consequence to alleviate correlation concerns by reducing the free parameters before the nonlinear regression analysis. Here we present an angle-resolved spectral reflectometry for the simultaneous determination of weakly absorbing thin film parameters, where a reflectance interferogram is recorded in both angular and spectral domains in a single-shot measurement for the point of the sample being illuminated. The variations of the phase recovered from the interferogram as functions of t, n, and κ reveals that the unwrapped phase is monotonically related to t, n, and κ, thereby allowing the problem of correlation to be alleviated by multiple linear regression. After removing the 2π ambiguity of the unwrapped phase, the merit function based on the absolute unwrapped phase performs a 3D data cube with variables of t, n and κ at each wavelength. The unique solution of t, n, and κ can then be directly determined from the extremum of the 3D data cube at each wavelength with no need of dispersion relation. A sample of GaN thin film grown on a polished sapphire substrate is tested. The experimental data of t and [n(λ), κ(λ)] are confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy and the comparison with the results of other related works, respectively. The consistency of the results shows the proposed method provides a useful tool for the determination of the thickness and optical constants of weakly absorbing thin films.

  19. Emerging use of gene expression microarrays in plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, Stan D; Difazio, Stephen P

    2003-01-01

    Microarrays have become an important technology for the global analysis of gene expression in humans, animals, plants, and microbes. Implemented in the context of a well-designed experiment, cDNA and oligonucleotide arrays can provide highthroughput, simultaneous analysis of transcript abundance for hundreds, if not thousands, of genes. However, despite widespread acceptance, the use of microarrays as a tool to better understand processes of interest to the plant physiologist is still being explored. To help illustrate current uses of microarrays in the plant sciences, several case studies that we believe demonstrate the emerging application of gene expression arrays in plant physiology were selected from among the many posters and presentations at the 2003 Plant and Animal Genome XI Conference. Based on this survey, microarrays are being used to assess gene expression in plants exposed to the experimental manipulation of air temperature, soil water content and aluminium concentration in the root zone. Analysis often includes characterizing transcript profiles for multiple post-treatment sampling periods and categorizing genes with common patterns of response using hierarchical clustering techniques. In addition, microarrays are also providing insights into developmental changes in gene expression associated with fibre and root elongation in cotton and maize, respectively. Technical and analytical limitations of microarrays are discussed and projects attempting to advance areas of microarray design and data analysis are highlighted. Finally, although much work remains, we conclude that microarrays are a valuable tool for the plant physiologist interested in the characterization and identification of individual genes and gene families with potential application in the fields of agriculture, horticulture and forestry.

  20. Emerging Use of Gene Expression Microarrays in Plant Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Difazio

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Microarrays have become an important technology for the global analysis of gene expression in humans, animals, plants, and microbes. Implemented in the context of a well-designed experiment, cDNA and oligonucleotide arrays can provide highthroughput, simultaneous analysis of transcript abundance for hundreds, if not thousands, of genes. However, despite widespread acceptance, the use of microarrays as a tool to better understand processes of interest to the plant physiologist is still being explored. To help illustrate current uses of microarrays in the plant sciences, several case studies that we believe demonstrate the emerging application of gene expression arrays in plant physiology were selected from among the many posters and presentations at the 2003 Plant and Animal Genome XI Conference. Based on this survey, microarrays are being used to assess gene expression in plants exposed to the experimental manipulation of air temperature, soil water content and aluminium concentration in the root zone. Analysis often includes characterizing transcript profiles for multiple post-treatment sampling periods and categorizing genes with common patterns of response using hierarchical clustering techniques. In addition, microarrays are also providing insights into developmental changes in gene expression associated with fibre and root elongation in cotton and maize, respectively. Technical and analytical limitations of microarrays are discussed and projects attempting to advance areas of microarray design and data analysis are highlighted. Finally, although much work remains, we conclude that microarrays are a valuable tool for the plant physiologist interested in the characterization and identification of individual genes and gene families with potential application in the fields of agriculture, horticulture and forestry.

  1. Multiple homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  2. Characterization of a recombinant humanized anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody produced from multiple clones for the selection of a master cell bank candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Hanna N; Webster, Rose P; Saeed, Fatima O; Kirley, Terence L; Ball, William J; Norman, Andrew B

    2017-06-03

    We have generated a humanized anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody (mAb), which is at an advanced stage of pre-clinical development. We report here in vitro binding affinity studies, and in vivo pharmacokinetic and efficacy studies of the recombinant mAb. The overall aim was to characterize the recombinant antibody from each of the three highest producing transfected clones and to select one to establish a master cell bank. In mAb pharmacokinetic studies, after injection with h2E2 (120 mg/kg iv) blood was collected from the tail tip of mice over 28 days. Antibody concentrations were quantified using ELISA. The h2E2 concentration as a function of time was fit using a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model. To test in vivo efficacy, mice were injected with h2E2 (120 mg/kg iv), then one hour later injected with an equimolar dose of cocaine. Blood and brain were collected 5 min after cocaine administration. Cocaine concentrations were quantified using LC/MS. The affinity of the antibody for cocaine was determined using a [ 3 H] cocaine binding assay. All three antibodies had long elimination half-lives, 2-5 nM Kd for cocaine, and prevented cocaine's entry into the brain by sequestering it in the plasma. Pharmacokinetic and radioligand binding assays supported designation of the highest producing clone 85 as the master cell bank candidate. Overall, the recombinant h2E2 showed favorable binding properties, pharmacokinetics, and in vivo efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Emerging importance of helicases in plant stress tolerance: characterization of Oryza sativa repair helicase XPB2 promoter and its functional validation in tobacco under multiple stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra eRaikwar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic material always remains at the risk of spontaneous or induced damage which challenges the normal functioning of DNA molecule, thus, DNA repair is vital to protect the organisms against genetic damage. DNA hHelicases, the unique molecular motors, are emerged as potentialprospective molecules to engineer stress tolerance in plants and are involved in a variety of DNA nucleic acid metabolismc processes including DNA repair. The DNA repair helicase, OsXPB2 is an evolutionary conserved protein present in different organisms, including plants. Availability of few efficient promoters for gene expression in plants provoked us to study the promoter of XPB for better understanding of gene regulation under stress The analysis of promoter sequence from plant genome is important in understanding the gene regulation. Hereconditions. Here, we report the in silico analysis of novel stress inducible promoter of rice Oryza sativa OsXPB2 (OsXPB2. gene is reported. The in vivo validation of functionality/activity of novel stress inducible promoter of rice OsXPB2 gene promoter under abiotic and hormonal stress conditions was performed by Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay in tobacco leaves using OsXPB2::GUS chimeric construct. Our resultsThe present research revealed that OsXPB2 promoter contains cis-elements accounting for various abiotic stresses (salt, dehydration or cold and hormone (Auxin, ABA or MeJA induced GUS expression/activity in the promoter-reporter assay. The promoter region of OsXPB2 contains CACG, GTAACG, CACGTG, CGTCA CCGCCGCGCT cis acting-elements which are reported to be salt, dehydration, cold, MeJA or ABA responsive, respectively. Functional analysis was done by Agrobacterium-transient assays using agroinfiltration in tobacco leaves, followed by GUS staining and fluorescence quantitative analyses. The results revealed high induction of GUS activity under multiple abiotic stresses as compared to mock treated control. The present

  4. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects your nerve cells. This damage slows down ...

  5. Multiple myeloma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Conor D

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management.

  6. Multiple mononeuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with multiple mononeuropathy are prone to new nerve injuries at pressure points such as the knees and elbows. They should avoid putting pressure on these areas, for example, by not leaning on the elbows, crossing the knees, ...

  7. Characterization of a ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx'Cdy'Mg1-x'-y'Se multiple quantum well structure for mid-infrared device applications by contactless electroreflectance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J D; Lin, J W; Huang, Y S; Charles, W O; Shen, A; Zhang, Q; Tamargo, M C

    2009-01-01

    Contactless electroreflectance (CER) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to study the intersubband transitions of a Zn x Cd 1-x Se/Zn x' Cd y' Mg 1-x'-y' Se multiple quantum well (MQW) structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy for mid-infrared device applications. The CER spectrum revealed a wide range of possible optical transitions in the MQW structure. The ground state transition was assigned by comparison with the photoluminescence emission signal taken from the same structure. A comprehensive analysis of the CER spectrum led to the identification of various interband transitions. The intersubband transitions were estimated and confirmed by FTIR measurements. The results demonstrate the potential of using CER as a complementary technique for the contactless and nondestructive characterization of the wide band gap II-VI MQW structures for mid-IR intersubband device applications.

  8. Chemical characterization and source identification of PM2.5 at multiple sites in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Zirui; Liu, Jingyun; Hu, Bo; Wen, Tianxue; Tang, Guiqian; Zhang, Junke; Wu, Fangkun; Ji, Dongsheng; Wang, Lili; Wang, Yuesi

    2017-11-01

    The simultaneous observation and analysis of atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5) on a regional scale is an important approach to develop control strategies for haze pollution. In this study, samples of filtered PM2.5 were collected simultaneously at three urban sites (Beijing, Tianjin, and Shijiazhuang) and at a regional background site (Xinglong) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region from June 2014 to April 2015. The PM2.5 at the four sites was mainly comprised of organic matter, secondary inorganic ions, and mineral dust. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) demonstrated that, on an annual basis, secondary inorganic aerosol was the largest PM2.5 source in this region, accounting for 29.2-40.5 % of the PM2.5 mass at the urban sites; the second-largest PM2.5 source was motor vehicle exhaust, particularly in Beijing (24.9 %), whereas coal combustion was also a large source in Tianjin (12.4 %) and Shijiazhuang (15.5 %), with particular dominance in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosol plays a vital role in the haze process, with the exception of the spring haze in Shijiazhuang and Tianjin, for which the dust source was crucial. In addition to secondary transformations, local direct emissions (coal combustion and motor vehicle exhaust) significantly contribute to the winter haze at the urban sites. Moreover, with the aggravation of haze pollution, the OC / EC mass ratio of PM2.5 decreased considerably and the nitrate-rich secondary aerosol increased during all four seasons in Beijing, both of which indicate that local motor vehicle emissions significantly contribute to the severe haze episodes in Beijing. To assess the impacts of regional transport on haze pollution, the PMF results were further processed with backward-trajectory cluster analysis, revealing that haze pollution usually occurred when air masses originating from polluted industrial regions in the south prevailed and is characterized by high PM2.5 loadings with considerable contributions from secondary

  9. Chemical characterization and source identification of PM2.5 at multiple sites in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous observation and analysis of atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5 on a regional scale is an important approach to develop control strategies for haze pollution. In this study, samples of filtered PM2.5 were collected simultaneously at three urban sites (Beijing, Tianjin, and Shijiazhuang and at a regional background site (Xinglong in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH region from June 2014 to April 2015. The PM2.5 at the four sites was mainly comprised of organic matter, secondary inorganic ions, and mineral dust. Positive matrix factorization (PMF demonstrated that, on an annual basis, secondary inorganic aerosol was the largest PM2.5 source in this region, accounting for 29.2–40.5 % of the PM2.5 mass at the urban sites; the second-largest PM2.5 source was motor vehicle exhaust, particularly in Beijing (24.9 %, whereas coal combustion was also a large source in Tianjin (12.4 % and Shijiazhuang (15.5 %, with particular dominance in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosol plays a vital role in the haze process, with the exception of the spring haze in Shijiazhuang and Tianjin, for which the dust source was crucial. In addition to secondary transformations, local direct emissions (coal combustion and motor vehicle exhaust significantly contribute to the winter haze at the urban sites. Moreover, with the aggravation of haze pollution, the OC ∕ EC mass ratio of PM2.5 decreased considerably and the nitrate-rich secondary aerosol increased during all four seasons in Beijing, both of which indicate that local motor vehicle emissions significantly contribute to the severe haze episodes in Beijing. To assess the impacts of regional transport on haze pollution, the PMF results were further processed with backward-trajectory cluster analysis, revealing that haze pollution usually occurred when air masses originating from polluted industrial regions in the south prevailed and is characterized by high PM2.5 loadings with considerable

  10. Nest predation, clutch size, and physiological costs of egg production in the song sparrow (Melospiza melodia)

    OpenAIRE

    Travers, Marc Simon

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of nest predation on both clutch size and the physiological cost of egg production using a clutch removal experiment in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), inducing “high nest predation” (HNP) females to produce many replacement clutches compared to “low nest predation” (LNP) females. In a preliminary analysis we investigated the utility of multiple measures to assess “physiological condition”, including inter-correlations between physiological traits, sex d...

  11. Altered Resting and Exercise Respiratory Physiology in Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Akshay

    2009-01-01

    Obesity, particularly severe obesity, affects both resting and exercise-related respiratory physiology. Severe obesity classically produces a restrictive ventilatory abnormality, characterized by reduced expiratory reserve volume. However, obstructive ventilatory abnormality may also be associated with abdominal obesity. Decreased peak work rates are usually seen among obese subjects in a setting of normal or decreased ventilatory reserve and normal cardiovascular response to exercise. Weight...

  12. Sleep: a physiological "cerveau isolé" stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesmann, C; User, P; Gioanni, H

    1980-01-01

    Rapid or paradoxical sleep in the rat is usually preceded and often followed by a stage of short duration characterized by large spindles in the frontal cortex and theta rhythm in the hippocampus. The midbrain transection induces for hours the same electrophysiological patterns suggesting the existence in the rat of a short physiologically isolated, forebrain stage during sleep.

  13. Temporal Characterization of Hydrates System Dynamics beneath Seafloor Mounds. Integrating Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Methods and In Situ Observations of Multiple Oceanographic Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutken, Carol [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); Macelloni, Leonardo [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); D' Emidio, Marco [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); Dunbar, John [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); Higley, Paul [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This study was designed to investigate temporal variations in hydrate system dynamics by measuring changes in volumes of hydrate beneath hydrate-bearing mounds on the continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico, the landward extreme of hydrate occurrence in this region. Direct Current Resistivity (DCR) measurements were made contemporaneously with measurements of oceanographic parameters at Woolsey Mound, a carbonate-hydrate complex on the mid-continental slope, where formation and dissociation of hydrates are most vulnerable to variations in oceanographic parameters affected by climate change, and where changes in hydrate stability can readily translate to loss of seafloor stability, impacts to benthic ecosystems, and venting of greenhouse gases to the water-column, and eventually, the atmosphere. We focused our study on hydrate within seafloor mounds because the structurally-focused methane flux at these sites likely causes hydrate formation and dissociation processes to occur at higher rates than at sites where the methane flux is less concentrated and we wanted to maximize our chances of witnessing association/dissociation of hydrates. We selected a particularly well-studied hydrate-bearing seafloor mound near the landward extent of the hydrate stability zone, Woolsey Mound (MC118). This mid-slope site has been studied extensively and the project was able to leverage considerable resources from the team’s research experience at MC118. The site exhibits seafloor features associated with gas expulsion, hydrates have been documented at the seafloor, and changes in the outcropping hydrates have been documented, photographically, to have occurred over a period of months. We conducted observatory-based, in situ measurements to 1) characterize, geophysically, the sub-bottom distribution of hydrate and its temporal variability, and 2) contemporaneously record relevant environmental parameters (temperature, pressure, salinity, turbidity, bottom currents) to

  14. Comparative genomic mapping of the bovine Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT tumour suppressor gene: characterization of a 2 Mb BAC contig covering the locus, complete annotation of the gene, analysis of cDNA and of physiological expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussaha Mekki

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Fragile Histidine Triad gene (FHIT is an oncosuppressor implicated in many human cancers, including vesical tumors. FHIT is frequently hit by deletions caused by fragility at FRA3B, the most active of human common fragile sites, where FHIT lays. Vesical tumors affect also cattle, including animals grazing in the wild on bracken fern; compounds released by the fern are known to induce chromosome fragility and may trigger cancer with the interplay of latent Papilloma virus. Results The bovine FHIT was characterized by assembling a contig of 78 BACs. Sequence tags were designed on human exons and introns and used directly to select bovine BACs, or compared with sequence data in the bovine genome database or in the trace archive of the bovine genome sequencing project, and adapted before use. FHIT is split in ten exons like in man, with exons 5 to 9 coding for a 149 amino acids protein. VISTA global alignments between bovine genomic contigs retrieved from the bovine genome database and the human FHIT region were performed. Conservation was extremely high over a 2 Mb region spanning the whole FHIT locus, including the size of introns. Thus, the bovine FHIT covers about 1.6 Mb compared to 1.5 Mb in man. Expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and Northern blot, and was found to be ubiquitous. Four cDNA isoforms were isolated and sequenced, that originate from an alternative usage of three variants of exon 4, revealing a size very close to the major human FHIT cDNAs. Conclusion A comparative genomic approach allowed to assemble a contig of 78 BACs and to completely annotate a 1.6 Mb region spanning the bovine FHIT gene. The findings confirmed the very high level of conservation between human and bovine genomes and the importance of comparative mapping to speed the annotation process of the recently sequenced bovine genome. The detailed knowledge of the genomic FHIT region will allow to study the role of FHIT in bovine cancerogenesis

  15. Comparative genomic mapping of the bovine Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT) tumour suppressor gene: characterization of a 2 Mb BAC contig covering the locus, complete annotation of the gene, analysis of cDNA and of physiological expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uboldi, Cristina; Guidi, Elena; Roperto, Sante; Russo, Valeria; Roperto, Franco; Di Meo, Giulia Pia; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo; Floriot, Sandrine; Boussaha, Mekki; Eggen, André; Ferretti, Luca

    2006-05-23

    The Fragile Histidine Triad gene (FHIT) is an oncosuppressor implicated in many human cancers, including vesical tumors. FHIT is frequently hit by deletions caused by fragility at FRA3B, the most active of human common fragile sites, where FHIT lays. Vesical tumors affect also cattle, including animals grazing in the wild on bracken fern; compounds released by the fern are known to induce chromosome fragility and may trigger cancer with the interplay of latent Papilloma virus. The bovine FHIT was characterized by assembling a contig of 78 BACs. Sequence tags were designed on human exons and introns and used directly to select bovine BACs, or compared with sequence data in the bovine genome database or in the trace archive of the bovine genome sequencing project, and adapted before use. FHIT is split in ten exons like in man, with exons 5 to 9 coding for a 149 amino acids protein. VISTA global alignments between bovine genomic contigs retrieved from the bovine genome database and the human FHIT region were performed. Conservation was extremely high over a 2 Mb region spanning the whole FHIT locus, including the size of introns. Thus, the bovine FHIT covers about 1.6 Mb compared to 1.5 Mb in man. Expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and Northern blot, and was found to be ubiquitous. Four cDNA isoforms were isolated and sequenced, that originate from an alternative usage of three variants of exon 4, revealing a size very close to the major human FHIT cDNAs. A comparative genomic approach allowed to assemble a contig of 78 BACs and to completely annotate a 1.6 Mb region spanning the bovine FHIT gene. The findings confirmed the very high level of conservation between human and bovine genomes and the importance of comparative mapping to speed the annotation process of the recently sequenced bovine genome. The detailed knowledge of the genomic FHIT region will allow to study the role of FHIT in bovine cancerogenesis, especially of vesical papillomavirus-associated cancers of

  16. [Multiple meningiomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, L-M; François, P

    2016-06-01

    Multiple meningiomas (MMs) or meningiomatosis are defined by the presence of at least 2 lesions that appear simultaneously or not, at different intracranial locations, without the association of neurofibromatosis. They present 1-9 % of meningiomas with a female predominance. The occurrence of multiple meningiomas is not clear. There are 2 main hypotheses for their development, one that supports the independent evolution of these tumors and the other, completely opposite, that suggests the propagation of tumor cells of a unique clone transformation, through cerebrospinal fluid. NF2 gene mutation is an important intrinsic risk factor in the etiology of multiple meningiomas and some exogenous risk factors have been suspected but only ionizing radiation exposure has been proven. These tumors can grow anywhere in the skull but they are more frequently observed in supratentorial locations. Their histologic types are similar to unique meningiomas of psammomatous, fibroblastic, meningothelial or transitional type and in most cases are benign tumors. The prognosis of these tumors is eventually good and does not differ from the unique tumors except for the cases of radiation-induced multiple meningiomas, in the context of NF2 or when diagnosed in children where the outcome is less favorable. Each meningioma lesion should be dealt with individually and their multiple character should not justify their resection at all costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  18. Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bošnjak-Pašić, Marija; Vidrih, Branka; Miškov, Snježana; Demarin, Vida

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, characterized by multifocal inflammatory destruction of myelin, axonal damage and loss of oligodendrocytes. The disease is carried through two stages: inflammatory and degenerative. The most common form of disease in approximately 85% of the cases is RRMS (relapsing-remitting form). The treatment of MS is divided into: treatment of the acute phase of illness, prevention of new relapses and di...

  19. Midkine and multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disease characterized by inflammatory demyelination with subsequent neuronal damage in the CNS. MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have been thought as autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated diseases. CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cell (Treg) plays a pivotal role in autoimmune tolerance, and tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCreg) drive the development of inducible Treg cells. Thus, a dysfunction in the d...

  20. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent......, need for structural changes in home and need for pension became greater with increasing physical handicap. No significant differences between gender were found. It is concluded that patients and relatives are under increased social strain, when multiple sclerosis progresses to a moderate handicap...

  1. Recognition of American Physiological Society members whose research publications had a significant impact on the discipline of physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M

    2013-03-01

    Society members whose research publication during the past 125 yr had an important impact on the discipline of physiology were featured at the American Physiological Society (APS)'s 125th Anniversary symposium. The daunting and challenging task of identifying and selecting significant publications was assumed by the Steering Committee of the History of Physiology Interest Group, who requested recommendations and rationales from all Sections, select Interest Groups, and active senior APS members. The request resulted in recommendations and rationales from nine Sections, one Interest Group, and 28 senior members, identifying 38 publications and 43 members for recognition purposes. The publication recommendations included 5 individuals (Cournand, Erlanger, Gasser, Hubel, and Wiesel) whose research significantly contributed to their selection for the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology, 4 individuals who received multiple recommendations [i.e., Cannon (3), Curran (2), Fenn (3), and Hamilton (2)], and 11 members who had been APS Presidents. Of the recommended articles, 33% were from the American Journal of Physiology, with the earliest being published in 1898 (Cannon) and the latest in 2007 (Sigmund). For the brief oral presentations, the History of Physiology Steering Committee selected the first choices of the Sections or Interest Group, whereas rationales and representation of the membership were used for the presentations by senior members.

  2. Multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jeong Ick; Ha, Choon Ho; Choi, Karp Shik

    1994-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell tumor that is thought to originate proliferation of a single clone of abnormal plasma cell resulting production of a whole monoclonal paraprotein. The authors experienced a case of multiple myeloma with severe mandibular osteolytic lesions in 46-year-old female. As a result of careful analysis of clinical, radiological, histopathological features, and laboratory findings, we diagnosed it as multiple myeloma, and the following results were obtained. 1. Main clinical symptoms were intermittent dull pain on the mandibular body area, abnormal sensation of lip and pain due to the fracture on the right clavicle. 2. Laboratory findings revealed M-spike, reversed serum albumin-globulin ratio, markedly elevated ESR and hypercalcemia. 3. Radiographically, multiple osteolytic punched-out radiolucencies were evident on the skull, zygoma, jaw bones, ribs, clavicle and upper extremities. Enlarged liver and increased uptakes on the lesional sites in RN scan were also observed. 4. Histopathologically, markedly hypercellular marrow with sheets of plasmoblasts and megakaryocytes were also observed.

  3. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two (12%) of a total of 366 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) had psychiatric admissions. Of these, 34 (81%) had their first psychiatric admission in conjunction with or after the onset of MS. Classification by psychiatric diagnosis showed that there was a significant positive correlation...

  4. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional investigation of 116 patients with multiple sclerosis, the social and sparetime activities of the patient were assessed by both patient and his/her family. The assessments were correlated to physical disability which showed that particularly those who were moderately disabled...

  5. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1990-01-01

    An investigation on the correlation between ability to read TV subtitles and the duration of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in 14 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated that VEP latency in patients unable to read the TV subtitles was significantly delayed in comparison...

  6. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 94 patients (42 males, 52 females) with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) in the age range 25-55 years, the correlation of neuropsychological tests with the ability to read TV-subtitles and with the use of sedatives is examined. A logistic regression analysis reveals...

  7. Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  8. Parenting Multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when your babies do. Though it can be hard to let go of the thousand other things you need to do, remember that your well-being is key to your ability to take care of your babies. What Problems Can Happen? It may be hard to tell multiple babies apart when they first ...

  9. Prohibitin( PHB) roles in granulosa cell physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Indrajit; Thomas, Kelwyn; Thompson, Winston E

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian granulosa cells (GC) play an important role in the growth and development of the follicle in the process known as folliculogenesis. In the present review, we focus on recent developments in prohibitin (PHB) research in relation to GC physiological functions. PHB is a member of a highly conserved eukaryotic protein family containing the repressor of estrogen activity (REA)/stomatin/PHB/flotillin/HflK/C (SPFH) domain (also known as the PHB domain) found in diverse species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. PHB is ubiquitously expressed in a circulating free form or is present in multiple cellular compartments including mitochondria, nucleus and plasma membrane. In mitochondria, PHB is anchored to the mitochondrial inner membrane and forms complexes with the ATPases associated with proteases having diverse cellular activities. PHB continuously shuttles between the mitochondria, cytosol and nucleus. In the nucleus, PHB interacts with various transcription factors and modulates transcriptional activity directly or through interactions with chromatin remodeling proteins. Many functions have been attributed to the mitochondrial and nuclear PHB complexes such as cellular differentiation, anti-proliferation, morphogenesis and maintenance of the functional integrity of the mitochondria. However, to date, the regulation of PHB expression patterns and GC physiological functions are not completely understood.

  10. Physiological roles of acid-base sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis is essential for life. The macromolecules upon which living organisms depend are sensitive to pH changes, and physiological systems use the equilibrium between carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, and protons to buffer their pH. Biological processes and environmental insults are constantly challenging an organism's pH; therefore, to maintain a consistent and proper pH, organisms need sensors that measure pH and that elicit appropriate responses. Mammals use multiple sensors for measuring both intracellular and extracellular pH, and although some mammalian pH sensors directly measure protons, it has recently become apparent that many pH-sensing systems measure pH via bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase.

  11. Stimulating Student Interest in Physiology: The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) was initiated in 2003 during the author's last sabbatical from the University of Malaya. At this inaugural event, there were just seven competing teams from Malaysian medical schools. The challenge trophy for the IMSPQ is named in honor of Prof. A. Raman, who was the first Malaysian Professor of…

  12. From Physiology to Prevention: Further remarks on a physiological imperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Jouanjean

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Physiology, is the fundamental and functional expression of life. It is the study of all the representative functions of Man in all his capacities, and in particular, his capacity to work. It is very possible to establish a link between a physiological and physiopathological state, the capacity of work and the economy, which can be understood as the articulation between the physiological capacities of Man and the production of work. If these functions are innately acquired by Man they are likewise maintained by regulatory functions throughout life. The stability of these regulatory mechanisms represent the state of good health. The management of this state, constitutes Primary Prevention where both chronic and acute physiopathology defines an alteration in these regulatory mechanisms. We deduce from this reasoning that a tripartite management adapted to the physiological situation is viable and that by choosing parameters specific to individual and collective behavior, it is possible to inject, and combine, at each level and to each demand in order to budget a healthcare system in a more balanced and equitable way. 

  13. The Limits of Exercise Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Brendan M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-01-01

    Many of the established positive health benefits of exercise have been documented by historical discoveries in the field of exercise physiology. These investigations often assess limits: the limits of performance, or the limits of exercise-induced health benefits. Indeed, several key findings have...... been informed by studying highly trained athletes, in addition to healthy or unhealthy people. Recent progress has been made in regard to skeletal muscle metabolism and personalized exercise regimes. In this perspective, we review some of the historical milestones of exercise physiology, discuss how...

  14. Tunable Collagen I Hydrogels for Engineered Physiological Tissue Micro-Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Elizabeth E.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Rylander, Marissa N.

    2015-01-01

    Collagen I hydrogels are commonly used to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) for tissue engineering applications. However, the ability to design collagen I hydrogels similar to the properties of physiological tissues has been elusive. This is primarily due to the lack of quantitative correlations between multiple fabrication parameters and resulting material properties. This study aims to enable informed design and fabrication of collagen hydrogels in order to reliably and reproducibly mimic a variety of soft tissues. We developed empirical predictive models relating fabrication parameters with material and transport properties. These models were obtained through extensive experimental characterization of these properties, which include compression modulus, pore and fiber diameter, and diffusivity. Fabrication parameters were varied within biologically relevant ranges and included collagen concentration, polymerization pH, and polymerization temperature. The data obtained from this study elucidates previously unknown fabrication-property relationships, while the resulting equations facilitate informed a priori design of collagen hydrogels with prescribed properties. By enabling hydrogel fabrication by design, this study has the potential to greatly enhance the utility and relevance of collagen hydrogels in order to develop physiological tissue microenvironments for a wide range of tissue engineering applications. PMID:25822731

  15. The physiological basis of complementary and alternative medicines for polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja-Khan, Nazia; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Wu, XiaoKe; Legro, Richard S

    2011-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that is characterized by chronic hyperandrogenic anovulation leading to symptoms of hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, and infertility. Multiple metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors are associated with PCOS, including insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, and subclinical atherosclerosis. However, current treatments for PCOS are only moderately effective at controlling symptoms and preventing complications. This article describes how the physiological effects of major complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments could reduce the severity of PCOS and its complications. Acupuncture reduces hyperandrogenism and improves menstrual frequency in PCOS. Acupuncture's clinical effects are mediated via activation of somatic afferent nerves innervating the skin and muscle, which, via modulation of the activity in the somatic and autonomic nervous system, may modulate endocrine and metabolic functions in PCOS. Chinese herbal medicines and dietary supplements may also exert beneficial physiological effects in PCOS, but there is minimal evidence that these CAM treatments are safe and effective. Mindfulness has not been investigated in PCOS, but it has been shown to reduce psychological distress and exert positive effects on the central and autonomic nervous systems, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and immune system, leading to reductions in blood pressure, glucose, and inflammation. In conclusion, CAM treatments may have beneficial endocrine, cardiometabolic, and reproductive effects in PCOS. However, most studies of CAM treatments for PCOS are small, nonrandomized, or uncontrolled. Future well-designed studies are needed to further evaluate the safety, effectiveness, and mechanisms of CAM treatments for PCOS.

  16. Fractal physiology and the fractional calculus: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce J West

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a restricted overview of Fractal Physiology focusing on the complexity of the human body and the characterization of that complexity through fractal measures and their dynamics, with fractal dynamics being described by the fractional calculus. We review the allometric aggregation approach to the processing of physiologic time series as a way of determining the fractal character of the underlying phenomena. This straight forward method establishes the scaling behavior of complex physiologic networks and some dynamic models capable of generating such scaling are reviewed. These models include simple and fractional random walks, which describe how the scaling of correlation functions and probability densities are related to time series data. Subsequently, it is suggested that a proper methodology for describing the dynamics of fractal time series may well be the fractional calculus, either through the fractional Langevin equation or the fractional diffusion equation. Fractional operators acting on fractal functions yield fractal functions, allowing us to construct a fractional Langevin equation to describe the evolution of a fractal statistical process. Control of physiologic complexity is one of the goals of medicine. Allometric control incorporates long-time memory, inverse power-law (IPL correlations, and long-range interactions in complex phenomena as manifest by IPL distributions. We hypothesize that allometric control, rather than homeostatic control, maintains the fractal character of erratic physiologic time series to enhance the robustness of physiological networks. Moreover, allometric control can be described using the fractional calculus to capture the dynamics of complex physiologic networks. This hypothesis is supported by a number of physiologic time series data.

  17. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences (Niger. J. Physiol. Sci.) is a biannual publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria. It covers diverse areas of research in physiological sciences, publishing reviews in current research areas and original laboratory and clinical research in physiological ...

  18. Amateur boxing: physical and physiological attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabène, Helmi; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Franchini, Emerson; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Raja Bouguezzi; Hachana, Younés

    2015-03-01

    Boxing is one of the oldest combat sports. The aim of the current review is to critically analyze the amateur boxer's physical and physiological characteristics and to provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research. High-level male and female boxers show a propensity for low body fat levels. Although studies on boxer somatotypes are limited, the available information shows that elite-level male boxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorphy with a well-developed muscle mass and a low body fat level. To help support the overall metabolic demands of a boxing match and to accelerate the recovery process between rounds, athletes of both sexes require a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness. International boxers show a high peak and mean anaerobic power output. Muscle strength in both the upper and lower limbs is paramount for a fighter's victory and is one of the keys to success in boxing. As boxing punches are brief actions and very dynamic, high-level boxing performance requires well-developed muscle power in both the upper and lower limbs. Albeit limited, the available studies reveal that isometric strength is linked to high-level boxing performance. Future investigations into the physical and physiological attributes of boxers are required to enrich the current data set and to help create a suitable training program.

  19. Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Feedback, D. L.; Feiverson, A. H.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts, S. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J.; Spiering, B. A.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on lunar and Martian surfaces. To date, changes in functional performance have not been systematically studied or correlated with physiological changes. To understand how changes in physiological function impact functional performance an interdisciplinary pre/postflight testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) has been developed that systematically evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The overall objectives of the FTT are to: Develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for Constellation. Determine the ability to perform these tasks after flight. Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements. Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures. The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper and lower body muscle strength, power, fatigue, control and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers will perform both functional and physiological tests before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data will be collected on R+0 (Shuttle only), R

  20. Estimating physiological skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    We describe an approach for estimating human skin parameters, such as melanosome concentration, collagen concentration, oxygen saturation, and blood volume, using hyperspectral radiometric measurements (signatures) obtained from in vivo skin. We use a computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel equations. This model forward maps the skin parameters to a corresponding multiband reflectance spectra. Machine-learning-based regression is used to generate the inverse map, and hence estimate skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures. We test our methods using synthetic and in vivo skin signatures obtained in the visible through the short wave infrared domains from 24 patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian, and African American ethnicities. Performance validation shows promising results: good agreement with the ground truth and well-established physiological precepts. These methods have potential use in the characterization of skin abnormalities and in minimally-invasive prescreening of malignant skin cancers.

  1. FROM PHYSIOLOGICAL TO PATHOLOGICAL METEOSENSITIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Yabluchanskiy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the problem of physiological and pathological meteosensitivity (meteodependency or meteopathy.We introduce and discuss the definition for individual meteodependency, define factors, mechanisms, clinical signs, diagnosis, and approaches to prophylaxy and treatment of individual pathological meteosensitivity.

  2. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  3. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  4. Electronic Textbook in Human Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broering, Naomi C.; Lilienfield, Lawrence S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development of an electronic textbook in human physiology at the Georgetown University Medical Center Library that was designed to enhance learning and visualization through a prototype knowledge base of core instructional materials stored in digital format on Macintosh computers. The use of computers in the medical curriculum is…

  5. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunao eUchida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. Thus, research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960’s, with a focus primarily on sleep EEG (CNS sleep changes. Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. More recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. As physical exercise mostly affects somatic functions, endocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS changes that occur during sleep should be affected by daytime exercise. Since endocrinological, metabolic and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, building from standard polysomnographic (PSG techniques. Incorporating measures of somatic physiology in the quantitative assessment of sleep could further our understanding of sleep's function as an auto-regulatory, global phenomenon.

  6. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals Andreas...825-2025 email: andreas.fahlman@tamucc.edu Peter L. Tyack School of Biology Sea Mammal Research Unit Scottish Oceans Institute...OBJECTIVES This project is separated into three aims: Aim 1: Develop a new generation of tags/data logger for marine mammals that will

  7. Nitric oxide: a physiologic messenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, C J; Dinerman, J L; Snyder, S H

    1994-02-01

    To review the physiologic role of nitric oxide, an unusual messenger molecule that mediates blood vessel relaxation, neurotransmission, and pathogen suppression. A MEDLINE search of articles published from 1987 to 1993 that addressed nitric oxide and the enzyme that synthesizes it, nitric oxide synthase. Animal and human studies were selected from 3044 articles to analyze the clinical importance of nitric oxide. Descriptions of the structure and function of nitric oxide synthase were selected to show how nitric oxide acts as a biological messenger molecule. Biochemical and physiologic studies were analyzed if the same results were found by three or more independent observers. Two major classes of nitric oxide synthase enzymes produce nitric oxide. The constitutive isoforms found in endothelial cells and neurons release small amounts of nitric oxide for brief periods to signal adjacent cells, whereas the inducible isoform found in macrophages releases large amounts of nitric oxide continuously to eliminate bacteria and parasites. By diffusing into adjacent cells and binding to enzymes that contain iron, nitric oxide plays many important physiologic roles. It regulates blood pressure, transmits signals between neurons, and suppresses pathogens. Excess amounts, however, can damage host cells, causing neurotoxicity during strokes and causing the hypotension associated with sepsis. Nitric oxide is a simple molecule with many physiologic roles in the cardiovascular, neurologic, and immune systems. Although the general principles of nitric oxide synthesis are known, further research is necessary to determine what role it plays in causing disease.

  8. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadashima, Hiromichi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Imai, Terukuni; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi

    1986-01-01

    Eleven patients with a definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis were examined in terms of correlations between the clinical features and the results of cranial computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: In 5 of the 11 patients, both CT and MRI demonstrated lesions consistent with a finding of multiple sclerosis. In 3 patients, only MRI demonstrated lesions. In the remaining 3 patients, neither CT nor MRI revealed any lesion in the brain. All 5 patients who showed abnormal findings on both CT and MRI had clinical signs either of cerebral or brainstem - cerebellar lesions. On the other hand, two of the 3 patients with normal CT and MRI findings had optic-nerve and spinal-cord signs. Therefore, our results suggested relatively good correlations between the clinical features, CT, and MRI. MRI revealed cerebral lesions in two of the four patients with clinical signs of only optic-nerve and spinal-cord lesions. MRI demonstrated sclerotic lesions in 3 of the 6 patients whose plaques were not detected by CT. In conclusion, MRI proved to be more helpful in the demonstration of lesions attributable to chronic multiple sclerosis. (author)

  9. Medical student attitudes toward kidney physiology and nephrology: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, John K; Sparks, Matthew A; Lehrich, Ruediger W

    2016-11-01

    Interest in nephrology among trainees is waning in the USA. Early perceptions and attitudes to subject matter can be linked to the quality of pre-clinical curricula. We wanted to explore these attitudes in the setting of modern curriculum redesign. We utilized Q methodology to understand first-year medical student attitudes after an innovative kidney physiology curriculum redesign that focuses on blending multiple learning methods. First-year medical students were invited to take a Q sort survey at the conclusion of a kidney physiology course. Students prioritized statements related to their understanding of kidney physiology, learning preferences, preferred course characteristics, perceived clinical relevance of kidney physiology, and interest in nephrology as a career. Factor analysis was performed to identify different student viewpoints. At the conclusion of our modified course, all students (n = 108) were invited to take the survey and 44 (41%) Q sorts were returned. Two dominant viewpoints were defined according to interest in nephrology. The Potentials are students who understand kidney physiology, perceive kidney physiology as clinically relevant, attend class sessions, utilize videos, and are willing to shadow a nephrologist. The Uninterested are students who are less satisfied with their kidney physiology knowledge, prefer to study alone with a textbook, avoid lectures, and are not interested in learning about nephrology. In an updated renal physiology course, students that use multiple learning methods also have favorable attitudes toward learning kidney physiology. Thus, modern curriculum changes that accommodate a variety of learning styles may promote positive attitudes toward nephrology.

  10. Assessment of the physiological and biochemical characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 16S-rDNAsequence analysis revealed that the isolate was phylogenetically a member of the genus Lactobacillus and formed a subline within the Lactobacillus casei cluster. The minimal inhibitory concentration of CWBI-B623 for bile salts was higher than 1% and the survival rates to acidity with pH 3.0 and pH 2.5 were ...

  11. Physiological and molecular characterization of genetic competence in Streptococcus sanguinis

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Alejandro Miguel; Callahan, Jill E.; Fawcett, Paul; Ge, Xiuchun; Xu, Ping; Kitten, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a major component of the oral flora and an important cause of infective endocarditis. Although S. sanguinis is naturally competent, genome sequencing has suggested significant differences in the S. sanguinis competence system relative to those of other streptococci. An S. sanguinis mutant possessing an in-frame deletion in the comC gene, which encodes competence-stimulating peptide (CSP), was created. Addition of synthetic CSP induced competence in this strain. Gene...

  12. Physiologic characterization of type 2 diabetes-related loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Sparsø, Thomas; Hansen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    For the past two decades, genetics has been widely explored as a tool for unraveling the pathogenesis of diabetes. Many risk alleles for type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia have been detected in recent years through massive genome-wide association studies and evidence exists that most...... diabetes-related traits is a likely scenario and identification of new pathways involved in type 2 diabetes predisposition will offer opportunities for the development of novel therapeutic and preventative approaches....... indications of more specific pathologic mechanisms for diabetes-related risk variants. Such studies have shed light on the function of some loci but also underlined the complex nature of disease mechanism. In the future, sequencing-based discovery of low-frequency variants with higher impact on intermediate...

  13. Physiology Data - Characterization of Sexual Growth Dimorphism in Sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sexual growth dimorphism (SGD) is a common phenomenon in nature. Numerous marine fishes exhibit SGD, with females often growing faster and attaining larger sizes...

  14. Herbs and spices: characterization and quantitation of biologically-active markers for routine quality control by multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with separative or non-separative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgorbini, Barbara; Bicchi, Carlo; Cagliero, Cecilia; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2015-01-09

    Herbs and spices are used worldwide as food flavoring, thus determination of their identity, origin, and quality is mandatory for safe human consumption. An analysis strategy based on separative (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and non-separative (HS-SPME-MS) approaches is proposed for the volatile fraction of herbs and spices, for quality control and to quantify the aromatic markers with a single analysis directly on the plant material as such. Eight-to-ten lots of each of the following herbs/spices were considered: cloves (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry), American peppertree (Schinus molle L.), black pepper and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Homogeneity, origin, and chemotypes of the investigated lots of each herb/spice were defined by fingerprinting, through statistical elaboration with principal component analysis (PCA). Characterizing aromatic markers were directly quantified on the solid matrix through multiple headspace extraction-HS-SPME (MHS-SPME). Reliable results were obtained with both separative and non-separative methods (where the latter were applicable); the two were in full agreement, RSD% ranging from 1.8 to 7.7% for eugenol in cloves, 2.2-18.4% for carvacrol+thymol in thyme, and 3.1-16.8% for thujones in sage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrated physiological, biochemical and molecular analysis identifies important traits and mechanisms associated with differential response of rice genotypes to elevated temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghireddy eSailaja

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In changing climate, heat stress caused by high temperature poses a serious threat to rice cultivation. A multiple organizational analysis at physiological, biochemical and molecular level is required to fully understand the impact of elevated temperature in rice. This study was aimed at deciphering the elevated temperature response in eleven popular and mega rice cultivars widely grown in India. Physiological and biochemical traits specifically membrane thermostability (MTS, antioxidants, and photosynthesis were studied at vegetative and reproductive phases which were used to establish a correlation with grain yield under stress. Several useful traits in different genotypes were identified which will be important resource to develop high temperature tolerant rice cultivars. Interestingly, Nagina22 emerged as best performer in terms of yield as well as expression of physiological and biochemical traits at elevated temperature. It showed lesser relative injury, lesser reduction in chlorophyll content, increased super oxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity, lesser reduction in net photosynthetic rate (PN, high transpiration rate (E and other photosynthetic/ fluorescence parameters contributing to least reduction in spikelet fertility and grain yield at elevated temperature. Further, expression of 14 genes including heat shock transcription factors and heat shock proteins was analyzed in Nagina22 (tolerant and Vandana (susceptible at flowering phase, strengthening the fact that N22 performs better at molecular level also during elevated temperature. This study shows that elevated temperature response is complex and involves multiple biological processes which are needed to be characterized to address the challenges of future climate extreme conditions.

  16. 14{sup C}-Metampicillin stability in several physiological

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimeno, F; Casas, F; Carriazo, D

    1981-07-01

    Degradation of 14{sup C}-metampicillin incorporated to several physiological sera for medical uses has been studied. Influence of environmental conditions as well as possible interaction with the solvent have been specially analyzed. Degradation level of the labelled multiplication has been determined and its degradation products have been separated by using chromatographic and radiochemical methods. Likewise, the 14{sup C}-metam picill synthesis has been described. Finally, the results obtained have been discussed and evaluated. (Author) 9 refs.

  17. 14C-Metampicillin stability in several physiological sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.; Casas Medica, F.; Carriazo Tovar, D.

    1981-01-01

    Degradation of 14 C -metampicillin incorporated to several physiological sera for medical uses has been studied. Influence of environmental conditions as well as possible interaction with the solvent have been specially analyzed. Degradation level of the labelled multiplication has been determined and its degradation products have been separated by using chromatographic and radiochemical methods. Likewise, the 14 C -metam picill synthesis has been described. Finally, the results obtained have been discussed and evaluated. (Author) 9 refs

  18. Systems physiology in dairy cattle: nutritional genomics and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor, Juan J; Bionaz, Massimo; Drackley, James K

    2013-01-01

    Microarray development changed the way biologists approach the holistic study of cells and tissues. In dairy cattle biosciences, the application of omics technology, from spotted microarrays to next-generation sequencing and proteomics, has grown steadily during the past 10 years. Omics has found application in fields such as dairy cattle nutritional physiology, reproduction, and immunology. Generating biologically meaningful data from omics studies relies on bioinformatics tools. Both are key components of the systems physiology toolbox, which allows study of the interactions between a condition (e.g., nutrition, physiological state) with tissue gene/protein expression and the associated changes in biological functions. The nature of physiologic and metabolic adaptations in dairy cattle at any stage of the life cycle is multifaceted, involves multiple tissues, and is dynamic, e.g., the transition from late-pregnancy to lactation. Application of integrative systems physiology in periparturient dairy cattle has already advanced knowledge of the simultaneous functional adaptations in liver, adipose, and mammary tissue.

  19. Improved nonparametric inference for multiple correlated periodic sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Hart, Jeffrey D.; Genton, Marc G.

    2013-01-01

    cross-validation method to the temperature data obtained from multiple ice cores, investigating the periodicity of the El Niño effect. Our methodology is also illustrated by estimating patients' cardiac cycle from different physiological signals

  20. Multiple inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Theory of Inflation, namely, that at some point the entropy content of the universe was greatly increased, has much promise. It may solve the puzzles of homogeneity and the creation of structure. However, no particle physics model has yet been found that can successfully drive inflation. The difficulty in satisfying the constraint that the isotropy of the microwave background places on the effective potential of prospective models is immense. In this work we have codified the requirements of such models in a most general form. We have carefully calculated the amounts of inflation the various problems of the Standard Model need for their solution. We have derived a completely model independent upper bond on the inflationary Hubble parameter. We have developed a general notation with which to probe the possibilities of Multiple Inflation. We have shown that only in very unlikely circumstances will any evidence of an earlier inflation, survive the de Sitter period of its successor. In particular, it is demonstrated that it is most unlikely that two bouts of inflation will yield high amplitudes of density perturbations on small scales and low amplitudes on large. We conclude that, while multiple inflation will be of great theoretical interest, it is unlikely to have any observational impact

  1. Characterization of a novel phosphorylation site in the sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaek, L L; Assentoft, M; Pedersen, N B

    2012-01-01

    The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho-specific antib......The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho......-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidative stress-response kinases (SPAK and OSR1) were not able to phosphorylate NCC at S124. Protein kinase arrays identified multiple kinases that were able to bind to the region surrounding S124. Four of these kinases (IRAK2, CDK6/Cyclin D1, NLK and m...

  2. PHYSIOLOGY OF ACID BASE BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid-base, electrolyte, and metabolic disturbances are common in the intensive care unit. Almost all critically ill patients often suffer from compound acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Successful evaluation and management of such patients requires recognition of common patterns (e.g., metabolic acidosis and the ability to dissect one disorder from another. The intensivists needs to identify and correct these condition with the easiest available tools as they are the associated with multiorgan failure. Understanding the elements of normal physiology in these areas is very important so as to diagnose the pathological condition and take adequate measures as early as possible. Arterial blood gas analysis is one such tool for early detection of acid base disorder. Physiology of acid base is complex and here is the attempt to simplify it in our day to day application for the benefit of critically ill patients.

  3. Physiological Studies of Arctic Carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    All transmitters were maintained in a cold sterilant ( benzalkonium chloride ) until implanted in a bear. Radio-transmitters for monitoring temperature...body was unknown, particularly during the winter when bears are in dens and there is a generalized reduction in metabolism and other physiological... reduction in core body temperature from summer to winter closely agrees with those reported earlier for bears maintained in captivity under simulated

  4. System Theory and Physiological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R W

    1963-05-03

    Engineers and physiologists working together in experimental and theoretical studies predict that the application of system analysis to biological processes will increase understanding of these processes and broaden the base of system theory. Richard W. Jones, professor of electrical engineering at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, and John S. Gray, professor of physiology at Northwestern's Medical School, discuss these developments. Their articles are adapted from addresses delivered in Chicago in November 1962 at the 15th Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology.

  5. Human physiological models of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Gary S

    2007-12-01

    Despite the wide prevalence and important consequences of insomnia, remarkably little is known about its pathophysiology. Available models exist primarily in the psychological domain and derive from the demonstrated efficacy of behavioral treatment approaches to insomnia management. However, these models offer little specific prediction about the anatomic or physiological foundation of chronic primary insomnia. On the other hand, a growing body of data on the physiology of sleep supports a reasonably circumscribed overview of possible pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as the development of physiological models of insomnia to guide future research. As a pragmatic step, these models focus on primary insomnia, as opposed to comorbid insomnias, because the latter is by its nature a much more heterogeneous presentation, reflecting the effects of the distinct comorbid condition. Current understanding of the regulation of sleep and wakefulness in mammalian brain supports four broad candidate areas: 1) disruption of the sleep homeostat; 2) disruption of the circadian clock; 3) disruption of intrinsic systems responsible for the expression of sleep states; or 4) disruption (hyperactivity) of extrinsic systems capable of over-riding normal sleep-wake regulation. This review examines each of the four candidate pathophysiological mechanisms and the available data in support of each. While studies that directly test the viability of each model are not yet available, descriptive data on primary insomnia favor the involvement of dysfunctional extrinsic stress-response systems in the pathology of primary chronic insomnia.

  6. Klismaphilia--a physiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, J

    1982-10-01

    Dr. Joanne Denko coined the work klismaphilia to describe the practices of some of her patients who enjoyed the use of enemas as a sexual stimulant. Since then questions occasionally appear in the professional literature asking about the relationship between enemas and sexual pleasure. This paper considers some of the physiological aspects of the human sexual apparatus that relate to anal sensitivity and explores why klismaphilia can be sexually grafifying. The paper starts with a discussion of the physiological basis for anal sensitivity and anal masturbation in both the human male and the human female. The paper then goes on to relate all this to the sexual sensations received from an enema, and discusses the similarities and differences between all these types of stimulation. Some of the psychological aspects of klismaphilia are also considered in relationship to the physiology involved. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of masked anal masturbation among the population at large. A comprehensive list of references from the literature is given to support these findings.

  7. Physiology of in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Cañal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture procedures described up to the eighties, did not made any mention to the environmental control of in vitro plant development. However, growth rate, development and many of the physiologic-morphologic features of the in vitro grown plants are influenced by the culture vessel. The increasing knowledge about the environmental control of culture vessels under sterile conditions, is helping to change micorpropagation procedures. The in vitro environment with lower rate ventilation, brings about low flow rates of matter and energy, with minimum variations of temperature, high relative humidity and large daily changes of the concentration of CO2 inside the culture vessel. The type of culture vessel (size, shape, fabric and closing system can influence the evolution of the atmosphere along the time of culture. Although submitted to different stresses factors plant can be grown in vitro, but plants can be faulty in their anatomy, morphology and physiology. As a consequence, these plants shown a phenotype unable to survive to ex vitro conditions. Different strategies can be used to control the atmosphere along the different phases of micropropagation, in heterotrophic, mixotrophic or autotrophic cultures. The election of the best strategy will be based on different factors as species, number of transplantes required, or quality-price relationship. enviromental control, tissue culture, micropropagation Keywords: in vitro enviromental, characteristic physiology,

  8. Major component analysis of dynamic networks of physiologic organ interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kang K L; Ma, Qianli D Y; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Bartsch, Ronny P

    2015-01-01

    The human organism is a complex network of interconnected organ systems, where the behavior of one system affects the dynamics of other systems. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse physiologic systems under varied conditions is a challenge due to the complexity in the output dynamics of the individual systems and the transient and nonlinear characteristics of their coupling. We introduce a novel computational method based on the concept of time delay stability and major component analysis to investigate how organ systems interact as a network to coordinate their functions. We analyze a large database of continuously recorded multi-channel physiologic signals from healthy young subjects during night-time sleep. We identify a network of dynamic interactions between key physiologic systems in the human organism. Further, we find that each physiologic state is characterized by a distinct network structure with different relative contribution from individual organ systems to the global network dynamics. Specifically, we observe a gradual decrease in the strength of coupling of heart and respiration to the rest of the network with transition from wake to deep sleep, and in contrast, an increased relative contribution to network dynamics from chin and leg muscle tone and eye movement, demonstrating a robust association between network topology and physiologic function. (paper)

  9. The physiology of the normal human breast: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Dixie; Gordon, Eva J; Casano, Ashley; Lahti, Sarah Michelle; Nguyen, Tinh; Preston, Alex; Tondre, Julie; Wu, Kuan; Yanase, Tiffany; Chan, Henry; Chia, David; Esfandiari, Mahtash; Himmel, Tiffany; Love, Susan M

    2011-12-01

    The physiology of the nonlactating human breast likely plays a key role in factors that contribute to the etiology of breast cancer and other breast conditions. Although there has been extensive research into the physiology of lactation, few reports explore the physiology of the resting mammary gland, including mechanisms by which compounds such as hormones, drugs, and potential carcinogens enter the breast ducts. The purpose of this study was to explore transport of exogenous drugs into ductal fluid in nonlactating women and determine if their concentrations in the fluid are similar to those observed in the breast milk of lactating women. We selected two compounds that have been well characterized during lactation, caffeine and cimetidine. Caffeine passively diffuses into breast milk, but cimetidine is actively transported and concentrated in breast milk. After ingestion of caffeine and cimetidine, 14 nonlactating subjects had blood drawn and underwent ductal lavage at five time points over 12 h to measure drug levels in the fluid and blood. The concentrations of both caffeine and cimetidine in lavage fluid were substantially less than those observed in breast milk. Our results support recent evidence that the cimetidine transporter is not expressed in the nonlactating mammary gland, and highlight intriguing differences in the physiology and molecular transport of the lactating and nonlactating breast. The findings of this exploratory study warrant further exploration into the physiology of the nonlactating mammary gland to elucidate factors involved in disease initiation and progression.

  10. Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Behrenfeld

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton photosynthesis links global ocean biology and climate-driven fluctuations in the physical environment. These interactions are largely expressed through changes in phytoplankton physiology, but physiological status has proven extremely challenging to characterize globally. Phytoplankton fluorescence does provide a rich source of physiological information long exploited in laboratory and field studies, and is now observed from space. Here we evaluate the physiological underpinnings of global variations in satellite-based phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence. The three dominant factors influencing fluorescence distributions are chlorophyll concentration, pigment packaging effects on light absorption, and light-dependent energy-quenching processes. After accounting for these three factors, resultant global distributions of quenching-corrected fluorescence quantum yields reveal a striking consistency with anticipated patterns of iron availability. High fluorescence quantum yields are typically found in low iron waters, while low quantum yields dominate regions where other environmental factors are most limiting to phytoplankton growth. Specific properties of photosynthetic membranes are discussed that provide a mechanistic view linking iron stress to satellite-detected fluorescence. Our results present satellite-based fluorescence as a valuable tool for evaluating nutrient stress predictions in ocean ecosystem models and give the first synoptic observational evidence that iron plays an important role in seasonal phytoplankton dynamics of the Indian Ocean. Satellite fluorescence may also provide a path for monitoring climate-phytoplankton physiology interactions and improving descriptions of phytoplankton light use efficiencies in ocean productivity models.

  11. Repression of Salmonella enterica phoP Expression by Small Molecules from Physiological Bile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, L. Caetano M.; Wang, Melody; Andersen, Sarah K.; Ferreira, Rosana B. R.; Kappelhoff, Reinhild; Han, Jun; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in humans causes the life-threatening disease typhoid fever. In the laboratory, typhoid fever can be modeled through the inoculation of susceptible mice with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Using this murine model, we previously characterized the interactions between Salmonella Typhimurium and host cells in the gallbladder and showed that this pathogen can successfully invade gallbladder epithelial cells and proliferate. Additionally, we showed that Salmonella Typhimurium can use bile phospholipids to grow at high rates. These abilities are likely important for quick colonization of the gallbladder during typhoid fever and further pathogen dissemination through fecal shedding. To further characterize the interactions between Salmonella and the gallbladder environment, we compared the transcriptomes of Salmonella cultures grown in LB broth or physiological murine bile. Our data showed that many genes involved in bacterial central metabolism are affected by bile, with the citric acid cycle being repressed and alternative respiratory systems being activated. Additionally, our study revealed a new aspect of Salmonella interactions with bile through the identification of the global regulator phoP as a bile-responsive gene. Repression of phoP expression could also be achieved using physiological, but not commercial, bovine bile. The biological activity does not involve PhoPQ sensing of a bile component and is not caused by bile acids, the most abundant organic components of bile. Bioactivity-guided purification allowed the identification of a subset of small molecules from bile that can elicit full activity; however, a single compound with phoP inhibitory activity could not be isolated, suggesting that multiple molecules may act in synergy to achieve this effect. Due to the critical role of phoP in Salmonella virulence, further studies in this area will likely reveal aspects of the interaction between Salmonella

  12. Fractal physiology and the fractional calculus: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bruce J

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a restricted overview of Fractal Physiology focusing on the complexity of the human body and the characterization of that complexity through fractal measures and their dynamics, with fractal dynamics being described by the fractional calculus. Not only are anatomical structures (Grizzi and Chiriva-Internati, 2005), such as the convoluted surface of the brain, the lining of the bowel, neural networks and placenta, fractal, but the output of dynamical physiologic networks are fractal as well (Bassingthwaighte et al., 1994). The time series for the inter-beat intervals of the heart, inter-breath intervals and inter-stride intervals have all been shown to be fractal and/or multifractal statistical phenomena. Consequently, the fractal dimension turns out to be a significantly better indicator of organismic functions in health and disease than the traditional average measures, such as heart rate, breathing rate, and stride rate. The observation that human physiology is primarily fractal was first made in the 1980s, based on the analysis of a limited number of datasets. We review some of these phenomena herein by applying an allometric aggregation approach to the processing of physiologic time series. This straight forward method establishes the scaling behavior of complex physiologic networks and some dynamic models capable of generating such scaling are reviewed. These models include simple and fractional random walks, which describe how the scaling of correlation functions and probability densities are related to time series data. Subsequently, it is suggested that a proper methodology for describing the dynamics of fractal time series may well be the fractional calculus, either through the fractional Langevin equation or the fractional diffusion equation. A fractional operator (derivative or integral) acting on a fractal function, yields another fractal function, allowing us to construct a fractional Langevin equation to describe the evolution of a

  13. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic disorder characterized by reports of symptoms from various organ systems attributed by the individuals to exposure to common odors and airborne chemicals in doses far below those known to induce toxic effects. There exists a general lack of knowledge......, significantly reduced levels of IL-13 in the MCS group and no group differences in the allergen specific IgE measures. The differences were independent of factors such as sex, age, Body Mass Index, asthma, smoking, depression, anxiety and allergen-specific IgE. In conclusion, the study identified a distinct...

  14. SHP2 sails from physiology to pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajan, Mylène; de Rocca Serra, Audrey; Valet, Philippe; Edouard, Thomas; Yart, Armelle

    2015-10-01

    Over the two past decades, mutations of the PTPN11 gene, encoding the ubiquitous protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 (SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2), have been identified as the causal factor of several developmental diseases (Noonan syndrome (NS), Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NS-ML), and metachondromatosis), and malignancies (juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia). SHP2 plays essential physiological functions in organism development and homeostasis maintenance by regulating fundamental intracellular signaling pathways in response to a wide range of growth factors and hormones, notably the pleiotropic Ras/Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and the Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase (PI3K)/AKT cascades. Analysis of the biochemical impacts of PTPN11 mutations first identified both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations, as well as more subtle defects, highlighting the major pathophysiological consequences of SHP2 dysregulation. Then, functional genetic studies provided insights into the molecular dysregulations that link SHP2 mutants to the development of specific traits of the diseases, paving the way for the design of specific therapies for affected patients. In this review, we first provide an overview of SHP2's structure and regulation, then describe its molecular roles, notably its functions in modulating the Ras/MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, and its physiological roles in organism development and homeostasis. In the second part, we describe the different PTPN11 mutation-associated pathologies and their clinical manifestations, with particular focus on the biochemical and signaling outcomes of NS and NS-ML-associated mutations, and on the recent advances regarding the pathophysiology of these diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. NASA Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerch, Linda; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Efficient exercise countermeasures are necessary to offset or minimize spaceflight-induced deconditioning and to maximize crew performance of mission tasks. These countermeasure protocols should use the fewest crew and vehicle resources. NASA s Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) Project works to identify, collect, interpret, and summarize evidence that results in effective exercise countermeasure protocols which protect crew health and performance during International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions. The ExPC and NASA s Human Research Program are sponsoring multiple studies to evaluate and improve the efficacy of spaceflight exercise countermeasures. First, the Project will measure maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) during cycle ergometry before, during, and after ISS missions. Second, the Project is sponsoring an evaluation of a new prototype harness that offers improved comfort and increased loading during treadmill operations. Third, the Functional Tasks Test protocol will map performance of anticipated lunar mission tasks with physiologic systems before and after short and long-duration spaceflight, to target system contributions and the tailoring of exercise protocols to maximize performance. In addition to these studies that are actively enrolling crewmember participants, the ExPC is planning new studies that include an evaluation of a higher-intensity/lower-volume exercise countermeasure protocol aboard the ISS using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and second-generation treadmill, studies that evaluate bone loading during spaceflight exercise, and ground-based studies that focus on fitness for duty standards required to complete lunar mission tasks and for which exercise protocols need to protect. Summaries of these current and future studies and strategies will be provided to international colleagues for knowledge sharing and possible collaboration.

  16. Physiology of excitable membranes: proceedings of the 28th International Congress of Physiological Sciences, Budapest, 1980

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salánki, J; Meves, H

    1981-01-01

    ... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Regulatory Functions of the CNS. Principles of Motion and Organization Regulatory Functions of the CNS. Subsystems Physiology of Non-excitable Cells Physiology...

  17. Influence of Population Variation of Physiological Parameters in Computational Models of Space Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. G.; Feola, A.; Werner, C.; Nelson, E. S.; Raykin, J.; Samuels, B.; Ethier, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    intracranial pressure had dominant impact on the peak strains in the ONH and retro-laminar optic nerve, respectively; optic nerve and lamina cribrosa stiffness were also important. This investigation illustrates the ability of LHSPRCC to identify the most influential physiological parameters, which must therefore be well-characterized to produce the most accurate numerical results.

  18. Towards Individualized Physiology Lecturing in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye Samuel

    1 (1): 13 - 16. Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences ... import from validated text format question series and seamless use of any computer program or internet .... Silverthorn D U, Human Physiology, an Integrated. Approach ...

  19. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educational - Medicine Prize Related The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to people and ... this page MLA style: "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine – Educational". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media ...

  20. Physiological determinants of human acute hypoxia tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    AbstractIntroduction. We investigated possible physiological determinants of variability in hypoxia tolerance in subjects given a 5-minute normobaric exposure to 25,000 ft equivalent. Physiological tolerance to hypoxia was defined as the magnitude of...

  1. Archives: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 19 of 19 ... Archives: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Physiology of High-Altitude Acclimatization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Sonam Chawla1 Shweta Saxena2. Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Delhi; Experimental Biology Division Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences Defence Research and Development Organisation Lucknow Road, Timarpur Delhi 110054 ...

  3. Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults is available for download and contains physiological parameters values for healthy older human adults (age 60...

  4. T₂ mapping provides multiple approaches for the characterization of muscle involvement in neuromuscular diseases: a cross-sectional study of lower leg muscles in 5-15-year-old boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpan, Ishu; Forbes, Sean C; Lott, Donovan J; Senesac, Claudia R; Daniels, Michael J; Triplett, William T; Deol, Jasjit K; Sweeney, H Lee; Walter, Glenn A; Vandenborne, Krista

    2013-03-01

    Skeletal muscles of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) show enhanced susceptibility to damage and progressive lipid infiltration, which contribute to an increase in the MR proton transverse relaxation time (T₂). Therefore, the examination of T₂ changes in individual muscles may be useful for the monitoring of disease progression in DMD. In this study, we used the mean T₂, percentage of elevated pixels and T₂ heterogeneity to assess changes in the composition of dystrophic muscles. In addition, we used fat saturation to distinguish T₂ changes caused by edema and inflammation from fat infiltration in muscles. Thirty subjects with DMD and 15 age-matched controls underwent T₂ -weighted imaging of their lower leg using a 3-T MR system. T₂ maps were developed and four lower leg muscles were manually traced (soleus, medial gastrocnemius, peroneal and tibialis anterior). The mean T₂ of the traced regions of interest, width of the T₂ histograms and percentage of elevated pixels were calculated. We found that, even in young children with DMD, lower leg muscles showed elevated mean T₂, were more heterogeneous and had a greater percentage of elevated pixels than in controls. T₂ measures decreased with fat saturation, but were still higher (P muscles than in controls. Further, T₂ measures showed positive correlations with timed functional tests (r = 0.23-0.79). The elevated T₂ measures with and without fat saturation at all ages of DMD examined (5-15 years) compared with unaffected controls indicate that the dystrophic muscles have increased regions of damage, edema and fat infiltration. This study shows that T₂ mapping provides multiple approaches that can be used effectively to characterize muscle tissue in children with DMD, even in the early stages of the disease. Therefore, T₂ mapping may prove to be clinically useful in the monitoring of muscle changes caused by the disease process or by therapeutic interventions in DMD

  5. Physiological control of behaviour in tephritid fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Eric B.

    2000-01-01

    Studies on the behaviour of tephritid fruit flies have historically focused on the interaction of external stimuli such as temperature, semiochemicals, seasonality, etc., or the interactions of flies between and among species for a number of observed behaviours such as mating, pheromone calling and oviposition. While descriptive behaviour represent much of what we know about these pest species, less is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms which function in priming or modulation of the observed behaviour. Central to our understanding of tephritid behaviour are the multiple and often complex internal factors which are involved, and the path/mechanisms by which external stimuli result in observed behaviour. Tephritid fruit fly physiology is a vastly understudied research area which may provide important information on how peripheral receptors receive information, the transduction and coding of information centrally and how behaviour is regulated biochemically. The integration of physiology disciplines to help explain behaviour is central to the goal of developing new technology which may be useful in fruit fly control. In our laboratory, we have been studying the mechanisms of chemoreception and its link to behaviour in tephritids in such areas as olfaction, feeding, mating and oviposition. Our approach has been that tephritid behaviour can be largely influenced by their peripheral receptors which are responsible for receiving olfactory, gustatory, visual and tactile information inputs and their physiological state which controls internal modulation of behaviour. Thus, differences in behaviour between species might be explained on the basis of differences in their peripheral receptors, and the plasticity in which observed behaviour vary between the same species could very well be attributed to changes in their physiological state that are not readily apparent merely from visual observation. The importance of the physiological state in behavioural

  6. Physiological basis for human autonomic rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckberg, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Oscillations of arterial pressures, heart periods, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity have been studied intensively in recent years to explore otherwise obscure human neurophysiological mechanisms. The best-studied rhythms are those occurring at breathing frequencies. Published evidence indicates that respiratory fluctuations of muscle sympathetic nerve activity and electrocardiographic R-R intervals result primarily from the action of a central 'gate' that opens during expiration and closes during inspiration. Parallel respiratory fluctuations of arterial pressures and R-R intervals are thought to be secondary to arterial baroreflex physiology: changes in systolic pressure provoke changes in the R-R interval. However, growing evidence suggests that these parallel oscillations result from the influence of respiration on sympathetic and vagal-cardiac motoneurones rather than from baroreflex physiology. There is a rapidly growing literature on the use of mathematical models of low- and high-frequency (respiratory) R-R interval fluctuations in characterizing instantaneous 'sympathovagal balance'. The case for this approach is based primarily on measurements made with patients in upright tilt. However, the strong linear relation between such measures as the ratio of low- to high-frequency R-R interval oscillations and the angle of the tilt reflects exclusively the reductions of the vagal (high-frequency) component. As the sympathetic component does not change in tilt, the low- to high-frequency R-R interval ratio provides no proof that sympathetic activity increases. Moreover, the validity of extrapolating from measurements performed during upright tilt to measurements during supine rest has not been established. Nonetheless, it is clear that measures of heart rate variability provide important prognostic information in patients with cardiovascular diseases. It is not known whether reduced heart rate variability is merely a marker for the severity of disease or a

  7. Bengt Saltin and exercise physiology: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    This perspective highlights some of the key contributions of Professor Bengt Saltin (1935-2014) to exercise physiology. The emergence of exercise physiology from work physiology as his career began is discussed as are his contributions in a number of areas. Saltin's open and question-based style of leadership is a model for the future of our field.

  8. Lacrimal system physiology: radioisotope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rossi, G.; Salvatori, M.; Focosi, F.; Dickmann, A.

    1982-01-01

    Lacrimal scintigraphy was used to illustrate the physiology of the lacrimal drainage system in 37 normal patients. Sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate was dropped on to the conjunctive near the lateral chantus and serial images were displayed dynamically on a video display. It was concluded that this technique provides a very sensitive and reproducible test of the functional status of nasolacrimal drainage along with a graphic documentation at any given time and thus could be extremely useful in the diagnosis of lacrimal pathology. (U.K.)

  9. Chemostat Culture for Yeast Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Emily O; Dunham, Maitreya J

    2017-07-05

    The use of chemostat culture facilitates the careful comparison of different yeast strains growing in well-defined conditions. Variations in physiology can be measured by examining gene expression, metabolite levels, protein content, and cell morphology. In this protocol, we show how a combination of sample types can be collected during harvest from a single 20-mL chemostat in a ministat array, with special attention to coordinating the handling of the most time-sensitive sample types. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Physiological Effects of Touching Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Ikei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the physiological effects of touching wood with the palm, in comparison with touching other materials on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Eighteen female university students (mean age, 21.7  ±  1.6 years participated in the study. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentrations were measured in the left/right prefrontal cortex using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV was used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF component of HRV, which reflected parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF/HF ratio, which reflected sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated white oak, marble, tile, and stainless steel were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed, participants touched the materials for 90 s. As a result, tactile stimulation with white oak significantly (1 decreased the oxy-Hb concentration in the left/right prefrontal cortex relative to marble, tile, and stainless steel and (2 increased ln(HF-reflected parasympathetic nervous activity relative to marble and stainless steel. In conclusion, our study revealed that touching wood with the palm calms prefrontal cortex activity and induces parasympathetic nervous activity more than other materials, thereby inducing physiological relaxation.

  11. Physiological aspects of forest disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, H.

    1986-01-01

    Many kinds of forest disease having the most varied causes are currently classified as 'forest die-back'. These include for one part diseases of obvious etiology: infectious diseases, damage from frost and drought, as well as harmful effects of defined air pollutants from known sources. But apart from this, a fast growing tendency is noted for extensive damage to appear whose origin is not yet clearly elucidated and which are probably the result of many factors, in other words, which can be termed as 'chain disease'. A striking fact is that any scientist who has so far attributed that last-mentioned disease condition of forests to any single decisive cause, has chosen one from his own specific scientific field. Physiologic-biochemical analysis of the damage symptoms is impaired by the fact that trees are, for obvious biological reasons, difficult objects for providing precise data. Yet reliable statements can be made on the paths by which wet and dry depositions penetrate into the plant organs, the penetration of pollutants into the cell, their points of attack in cells and tissue (above all photosynthesis, material transport, and hormone balance), and their influence on the correlations between the individual organs. Particular attention should be paid to possible or indirect effects on the mycorrhiza of forest trees, i.e. on the symbiosis between roots and fungi. The physiologic-biochemical investigations and considerations reported provide circumstantial evidence, but no proof regarding the causes hitherto unexplained. (orig.) [de

  12. Environmental Physiology and Diving Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Bosco

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Man’s experience and exploration of the underwater environment has been recorded from ancient times and today encompasses large sections of the population for sport enjoyment, recreational and commercial purpose, as well as military strategic goals. Knowledge, respect and maintenance of the underwater world is an essential development for our future and the knowledge acquired over the last few dozen years will change rapidly in the near future with plans to establish secure habitats with specific long-term goals of exploration, maintenance and survival. This summary will illustrate briefly the physiological changes induced by immersion, swimming, breath-hold diving and exploring while using special equipment in the water. Cardiac, circulatory and pulmonary vascular adaptation and the pathophysiology of novel syndromes have been demonstrated, which will allow selection of individual characteristics in order to succeed in various environments. Training and treatment for these new microenvironments will be suggested with description of successful pioneers in this field. This is a summary of the physiology and the present status of pathology and therapy for the field.

  13. Human physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for propofol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnider Thomas W

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propofol is widely used for both short-term anesthesia and long-term sedation. It has unusual pharmacokinetics because of its high lipid solubility. The standard approach to describing the pharmacokinetics is by a multi-compartmental model. This paper presents the first detailed human physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model for propofol. Methods PKQuest, a freely distributed software routine http://www.pkquest.com, was used for all the calculations. The "standard human" PBPK parameters developed in previous applications is used. It is assumed that the blood and tissue binding is determined by simple partition into the tissue lipid, which is characterized by two previously determined set of parameters: 1 the value of the propofol oil/water partition coefficient; 2 the lipid fraction in the blood and tissues. The model was fit to the individual experimental data of Schnider et. al., Anesthesiology, 1998; 88:1170 in which an initial bolus dose was followed 60 minutes later by a one hour constant infusion. Results The PBPK model provides a good description of the experimental data over a large range of input dosage, subject age and fat fraction. Only one adjustable parameter (the liver clearance is required to describe the constant infusion phase for each individual subject. In order to fit the bolus injection phase, for 10 or the 24 subjects it was necessary to assume that a fraction of the bolus dose was sequestered and then slowly released from the lungs (characterized by two additional parameters. The average weighted residual error (WRE of the PBPK model fit to the both the bolus and infusion phases was 15%; similar to the WRE for just the constant infusion phase obtained by Schnider et. al. using a 6-parameter NONMEM compartmental model. Conclusion A PBPK model using standard human parameters and a simple description of tissue binding provides a good description of human propofol kinetics. The major advantage of a

  14. Carbon Dioxide Physiological Training at NASA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Young, Millennia; Alexander, David; Mason, Sara S; Wear, Mary L; Méndez, Claudia M; Stanley, David; Ryder, Valerie Meyers; Van Baalen, Mary

    2017-10-01

    Astronauts undergo CO2 exposure training to recognize their symptoms that can arise acutely both on the ground and in spaceflight. This article describes acute CO2 exposure training at NASA and examines the symptoms reported by astronauts during training. In a controlled training environment, astronauts are exposed to up to 8% CO2 (60 mmHg) by a rebreathing apparatus. Symptoms are reported using a standard form. Symptom documentation forms between April 1994 and February 2012 were obtained for 130 astronauts. The number of symptoms reported per session out of the possible 24 was related to age and sex, with those older slightly more likely to report symptoms. Women reported more symptoms on average than men (men: 3.7, women: 4.7). Respiratory symptoms (90%), flushing sensation/sweating (56%), and dizziness/feeling faint/lightheadedness (43%) were the top symptoms. Only headache reached statistical significance in differences between men (13%) and women (37%) after adjustment for multiple testing. Among those with multiple training sessions, respiratory symptoms were the most consistently reported. CO2 exposure training is an important tool to educate astronauts about their potential acute CO2 symptoms. Wide interindividual and temporal variations were observed in symptoms reported during astronaut CO2 exposure training. Headache could not be relied on as a marker of acute exposure during testing since fewer than half the subjects reported it. Our results support periodic refresher training since symptoms may change over time. Further study is needed to determine the optimal interval of training to maximize symptom recognition and inform operational decisions.Law J, Young M, Alexander D, Mason SS, Wear ML, Méndez CM, Stanley D, Meyers Ryder V, Van Baalen M. Carbon dioxide physiological training at NASA. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):897-902.

  15. Effects of exercise on tumor physiology and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Line; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Hojman, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is a potent regulator of a range of physiological processes in most tissues. Solid epidemiological data show that exercise training can reduce disease risk and mortality for several cancer diagnoses, suggesting that exercise training may directly regulate tumor physiology and metabolism. Here, we review the body of literature describing exercise intervention studies performed in rodent tumor models and elaborate on potential mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology. Exercise has been shown to reduce tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor growth across numerous different transplantable, chemically induced or genetic tumor models. We propose 4 emerging mechanistic effects of exercise, including (1) vascularization and blood perfusion, (2) immune function, (3) tumor metabolism, and (4) muscle-to-cancer cross-talk, and discuss these in details. In conclusion, exercise training has the potential to be a beneficial and integrated component of cancer management, but has yet to fully elucidate its potential. Understanding the mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology is warranted. Insight into these mechanistic effects is emerging, but experimental intervention studies are still needed to verify the cause-effect relationship between these mechanisms and the control of tumor growth.

  16. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P; Liu, Kang K L; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems.

  17. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Liu, Kang K. L.; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems. PMID:26555073

  18. Fluoxetine: clinical pharmacology and physiologic disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemberger, L.; Bergstrom, R.F.; Wolen, R.L.; Farid, N.A.; Enas, G.G.; Aronoff, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Fluoxetine (30 mg), administered for 7 days to normal volunteers, produced a 66% inhibition of tritiated serotonin uptake into platelets. Plasma concentrations of fluoxetine correlated positively with inhibition of serotonin uptake. Fluoxetine is well absorbed after oral administration in both the fed and fasted states and demonstrates dose proportionality. Fluoxetine disappears from plasma with a half-life of 1-3 days; its metabolite norfluoxetine has a plasma half-life of 7-15 days. After administration of 14 C-fluoxetine, approximately 65% of the administered dose of radioactivity is recovered in urine and about 15% in feces. Fluoxetine, given as a single dose or in multiple doses over 8 days, did not produce significant effects on the plasma disappearance of warfarin, diazepam, tolbutamide, or chlorothiazide. Coadministration of fluoxetine and ethanol did not result in an increase from control values in the blood ethanol levels, nor did it produce significant changes in physiologic, psychometric, or psychomotor activity. Pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine in the elderly and normal volunteers appear to be similar. In addition, pharmacokinetic analyses in patients with varying degrees of renal impairment did not show significant differences from healthy subjects

  19. Anabolic steroids alter the physiological activity of aggression circuits in the lateral anterior hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, T R; Sikes, R W; Melloni, R H

    2016-02-19

    Syrian hamsters exposed to anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence consistently show increased aggressive behavior across studies. Although the behavioral and anatomical profiles of AAS-induced alterations have been well characterized, there is a lack of data describing physiological changes that accompany these alterations. For instance, behavioral pharmacology and neuroanatomical studies show that AAS-induced changes in the vasopressin (AVP) neural system within the latero-anterior hypothalamus (LAH) interact with the serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) systems to modulate aggression. To characterize the electrophysiological profile of the AAS aggression circuit, we recorded LAH neurons in adolescent male hamsters in vivo and microiontophoretically applied agonists and antagonists of aggressive behavior. The interspike interval (ISI) of neurons from AAS-treated animals correlated positively with aggressive behaviors, and adolescent AAS exposure altered parameters of activity in regular firing neurons while also changing the proportion of neuron types (i.e., bursting, regular, irregular). AAS-treated animals had more responsive neurons that were excited by AVP application, while cells from control animals showed the opposite effect and were predominantly inhibited by AVP. Both DA D2 antagonists and 5HT increased the firing frequency of AVP-responsive cells from AAS animals and dual application of AVP and D2 antagonists doubled the excitatory effect of AVP or D2 antagonist administration alone. These data suggest that multiple DA circuits in the LAH modulate AAS-induced aggressive responding. More broadly, these data show that multiple neurochemical interactions at the neurophysiological level are altered by adolescent AAS exposure. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CH2 - Lighting and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Altomonte

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the designed performances of the new CH2 building in Melbourne, Australia. CH2 is an environmentally significant project that involves biomimicry of natural systems to produce indoor conditions that are conducive to user comfort, health and productivity. This paper focuses on lighting and physiology and examines the solutions chosen for artificial and natural lighting and the likely effects these will have on building occupants. The purpose of the paper is to critically comment on the adopted strategy and, cognisance of contemporary thinking in lighting design, to judge the effectiveness of this aspect of the project with a view to later verification and post-occupancy review. The paper concludes that CH2 is an exemplar of lighting innovation that provides valuable lessons to designers of office buildings, particularly in the Melbourne CSD.

  1. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John

    2012-01-01

    damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses......Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged...... by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner...

  2. Physiology declines prior to death in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, Parvin; Tran, Xuan; Mueller, Laurence D

    2012-10-01

    For a period of 6-15 days prior to death, the fecundity and virility of Drosophila melanogaster fall significantly below those of same-aged flies that are not near death. It is likely that other aspects of physiology may decline during this period. This study attempts to document changes in two physiological characteristics prior to death: desiccation resistance and time-in-motion. Using individual fecundity estimates and previously described models, it is possible to accurately predict which flies in a population are near death at any given age; these flies are said to be in the "death spiral". In this study of approximately 7,600 females, we used cohort mortality data and individual fecundity estimates to dichotomize each of five replicate populations of same-aged D. melanogaster into "death spiral" and "non-spiral" groups. We then compared these groups for two physiological characteristics that decline during aging. We describe the statistical properties of a new multivariate test statistic that allows us to compare the desiccation resistance and time-in-motion for two populations chosen on the basis of their fecundity. This multivariate representation of the desiccation resistance and time-in-motion of spiral and non-spiral females was shown to be significantly different with the spiral females characterized by lower desiccation resistance and time spent in motion. Our results suggest that D. melanogaster may be used as a model organism to study physiological changes that occur when death is imminent.

  3. Cesium-137: A physiological disruptor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souidi, Maamar; Grison, Stephane; Dublineau, Isabelle; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Today, radiation protection is a major issue for the nuclear industry throughout the world, particularly in France. The 2011 disaster of Fukushima Dai-ichi has brought back to public attention questions about the risks associated with nuclear power for civilian purposes. The risk of accidental release of radioactive molecules, including cesium-137 ( 137 Cs), from these facilities cannot be completely eliminated. The non-cancer-related health consequences of chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain poorly understood. After absorption, cesium is distributed throughout the body. The toxicity of 137 Cs is due mainly to its radiological properties. Studies in humans report that 137 Cs impairs the immune system and induces neurological disorders. Children appear more susceptible than adults to its toxic effects. In animals, and most particularly in rodents, low-dose internal contamination disrupts the sleep-wake cycle, but without behavioural disorders. Impairment of the cardiovascular system has also been observed. Physiologic systems such as the metabolism of vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones are altered, although without leading to the emergence of diseases with clinical symptoms. Recently, a metabolomics study based on contamination levels comparable to those around Chernobyl after the accident showed that it is possible to identify individual rats chronically exposed to low doses of 137 Cs, even though the exposure was too low to affect the standard clinical markers. In conclusion, the scientific evidence currently available, particularly that from experimental animal models exposed to chronic contamination, suggests that 137 Cs is likely to affect many physiologic and metabolic functions. Thus, it could contribute, with other artificial substances in the environment, to increasing the risk of developing non-cancer diseases in some regions. (authors)

  4. The physiology of mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, Franco M; Marcora, Samuele M

    2007-01-01

    Mountain biking is a popular outdoor recreational activity and an Olympic sport. Cross-country circuit races have a winning time of approximately equal 120 minutes and are performed at an average heart rate close to 90% of the maximum, corresponding to 84% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). More than 80% of race time is spent above the lactate threshold. This very high exercise intensity is related to the fast starting phase of the race; the several climbs, forcing off-road cyclists to expend most of their effort going against gravity; greater rolling resistance; and the isometric contractions of arm and leg muscles necessary for bike handling and stabilisation. Because of the high power output (up to 500W) required during steep climbing and at the start of the race, anaerobic energy metabolism is also likely to be a factor of off-road cycling and deserves further investigation. Mountain bikers' physiological characteristics indicate that aerobic power (VO2max >70 mL/kg/min) and the ability to sustain high work rates for prolonged periods of time are prerequisites for competing at a high level in off-road cycling events. The anthropometric characteristics of mountain bikers are similar to climbers and all-terrain road cyclists. Various parameters of aerobic fitness are correlated to cross-country performance, suggesting that these tests are valid for the physiological assessment of competitive mountain bikers, especially when normalised to body mass. Factors other than aerobic power and capacity might influence off-road cycling performance and require further investigation. These include off-road cycling economy, anaerobic power and capacity, technical ability and pre-exercise nutritional strategies.

  5. Urban plant physiology: adaptation-mitigation strategies under permanent stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Peñuelas, Josep; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-02-01

    Urban environments that are stressful for plant function and growth will become increasingly widespread in future. In this opinion article, we define the concept of 'urban plant physiology', which focuses on plant responses and long term adaptations to urban conditions and on the capacity of urban vegetation to mitigate environmental hazards in urbanized settings such as air and soil pollution. Use of appropriate control treatments would allow for studies in urban environments to be comparable to expensive manipulative experiments. In this opinion article, we propose to couple two approaches, based either on environmental gradients or manipulated gradients, to develop the concept of urban plant physiology for assessing how single or multiple environmental factors affect the key environmental services provided by urban forests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of exercise on tumor physiology and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Hojman, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    . Here, we review the body of literature describing exercise intervention studies performed in rodent tumor models and elaborate on potential mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology. Exercise has been shown to reduce tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor growth across numerous...... different transplantable, chemically induced or genetic tumor models. We propose 4 emerging mechanistic effects of exercise, including (1) vascularization and blood perfusion, (2) immune function, (3) tumor metabolism, and (4) muscle-to-cancer cross-talk, and discuss these in details. In conclusion......, exercise training has the potential to be a beneficial and integrated component of cancer management, but has yet to fully elucidate its potential. Understanding the mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology is warranted. Insight into these mechanistic effects is emerging, but experimental...

  7. Heterogeneity in the multiple myeloma tumor clone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guikema, Jeroen E. J.; Hovenga, Sjoerd; Vellenga, Edo; Bos, Nicolaas A.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy which is characterized by a very heterogeneous disease outcome. Heterogeneity in plasma cell characteristics, including morphology, maturation status, immunophenotype and genetic abnormalities partly account for the variable disease outcome. Although

  8. Heterogeneity in the multiple myeloma tumor clone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guikema, JEJ; Hovenga, S; Vellenga, E; Bos, NA

    Multiple Myeloma ( MM) is a plasma cell malignancy which is characterized by a very heterogeneous disease outcome. Heterogeneity in plasma cell characteristics, including morphology, maturation status, immunophenotype and genetic abnormalities partly account for the variable disease outcome.

  9. Translational physiology: from molecules to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R

    2013-07-15

    The term 'translational research' was coined 20 years ago and has become a guiding influence in biomedical research. It refers to a process by which the findings of basic research are extended to the clinical research setting (bench to bedside) and then to clinical practice and eventually health policy (bedside to community). It is a dynamic, multidisciplinary research approach. The concept of translational physiology applies the translational research model to the physiological sciences. It differs from the traditional areas of integrative and clinical physiology by its broad investigative scope of basic research to community health. Translational physiology offers exciting opportunities, but presently is under-developed and -utilized. A key challenge will be to expand physiological research by extending investigations to communities of patients and healthy (or at risk) individuals. This will allow bidirectional physiological investigation throughout the translational continuum: basic research observations can be studied up to the population level, and mechanisms can be assessed by 'reverse translation' in clinical research settings and preclinical models based on initial observations made in populations. Examples of translational physiology questions, experimental approaches, roadblocks and strategies for promotion are discussed. Translational physiology provides a novel framework for physiology programs and an investigational platform for physiologists to study function from molecular events to public health. It holds promise for enhancing the completeness and societal impact of our work, while further solidifying the critical role of physiology in the biomedical research enterprise.

  10. Thyroid in pregnancy: From physiology to screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Drahomira; Jiskra, Jan; Limanova, Zdenka; Zima, Tomas; Potlukova, Eliska

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are crucial for the growth and maturation of many target tissues, especially the brain and skeleton. During critical periods in the first trimester of pregnancy, maternal thyroxine is essential for fetal development as it supplies thyroid hormone-dependent tissues. The ontogeny of mature thyroid function involves organogenesis, and maturation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and the thyroid gland; and it is almost complete by the 12th-14th gestational week. In case of maternal hypothyroidism, substitution with levothyroxine must be started in early pregnancy. After the 14th gestational week, fetal brain development may already be irreversibly affected by lack of thyroid hormones. The prevalence of manifest hypothyroidism in pregnancy is about 0.3-0.5%. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism varies between 4 and 17%, strongly depending on the definition of the upper TSH cutoff limit. Hyperthyroidism occurs in 0.1-1% of all pregnancies. Positivity for antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) is common in women of childbearing age with an incidence rate of 5.1-12.4%. TPOAb-positivity may be regarded as a manifestation of a general autoimmune state which may alter the fertilization and implantation processes or cause early missed abortions. Women positive for TPOAb are at a significant risk of developing hypothyroidism during pregnancy and postpartum. Laboratory diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is based upon serum TSH concentration. TSH in pregnancy is physiologically lower tha