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Sample records for multiple organ segmentation

  1. Performance evaluation of 2D and 3D deep learning approaches for automatic segmentation of multiple organs on CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangrong; Yamada, Kazuma; Kojima, Takuya; Takayama, Ryosuke; Wang, Song; Zhou, Xinxin; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the performance of modern deep learning techniques for automatically recognizing and segmenting multiple organ regions on 3D CT images. CT image segmentation is one of the important task in medical image analysis and is still very challenging. Deep learning approaches have demonstrated the capability of scene recognition and semantic segmentation on nature images and have been used to address segmentation problems of medical images. Although several works showed promising results of CT image segmentation by using deep learning approaches, there is no comprehensive evaluation of segmentation performance of the deep learning on segmenting multiple organs on different portions of CT scans. In this paper, we evaluated and compared the segmentation performance of two different deep learning approaches that used 2D- and 3D deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) without- and with a pre-processing step. A conventional approach that presents the state-of-the-art performance of CT image segmentation without deep learning was also used for comparison. A dataset that includes 240 CT images scanned on different portions of human bodies was used for performance evaluation. The maximum number of 17 types of organ regions in each CT scan were segmented automatically and compared to the human annotations by using ratio of intersection over union (IU) as the criterion. The experimental results demonstrated the IUs of the segmentation results had a mean value of 79% and 67% by averaging 17 types of organs that segmented by a 3D- and 2D deep CNN, respectively. All the results of the deep learning approaches showed a better accuracy and robustness than the conventional segmentation method that used probabilistic atlas and graph-cut methods. The effectiveness and the usefulness of deep learning approaches were demonstrated for solving multiple organs segmentation problem on 3D CT images.

  2. Joint Segmentation of Multiple Thoracic Organs in CT Images with Two Collaborative Deep Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trullo, Roger; Petitjean, Caroline; Nie, Dong; Shen, Dinggang; Ruan, Su

    2017-09-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is the standard imaging technique for radiotherapy planning. The delineation of Organs at Risk (OAR) in thoracic CT images is a necessary step before radiotherapy, for preventing irradiation of healthy organs. However, due to low contrast, multi-organ segmentation is a challenge. In this paper, we focus on developing a novel framework for automatic delineation of OARs. Different from previous works in OAR segmentation where each organ is segmented separately, we propose two collaborative deep architectures to jointly segment all organs, including esophagus, heart, aorta and trachea. Since most of the organ borders are ill-defined, we believe spatial relationships must be taken into account to overcome the lack of contrast. The aim of combining two networks is to learn anatomical constraints with the first network, which will be used in the second network, when each OAR is segmented in turn. Specifically, we use the first deep architecture, a deep SharpMask architecture, for providing an effective combination of low-level representations with deep high-level features, and then take into account the spatial relationships between organs by the use of Conditional Random Fields (CRF). Next, the second deep architecture is employed to refine the segmentation of each organ by using the maps obtained on the first deep architecture to learn anatomical constraints for guiding and refining the segmentations. Experimental results show superior performance on 30 CT scans, comparing with other state-of-the-art methods.

  3. Multiple Segmentation of Image Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smets, Jonathan; Jaeger, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for the simultaneous construction of multiple image segmentations by combining a recently proposed “convolution of mixtures of Gaussians” model with a multi-layer hidden Markov random field structure. The resulting method constructs for a single image several, alternative...

  4. A toolbox for multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roura, Eloy; Oliver, Arnau; Valverde, Sergi; Llado, Xavier [University of Girona, Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Cabezas, Mariano; Pareto, Deborah; Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Dept. of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Lesion segmentation plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of multiple sclerosis (MS). This task is very time-consuming and subject to intra- and inter-rater variability. In this paper, we present a new tool for automated MS lesion segmentation using T1w and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our approach is based on two main steps, initial brain tissue segmentation according to the gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) performed in T1w images, followed by a second step where the lesions are segmented as outliers to the normal apparent GM brain tissue on the FLAIR image. The tool has been validated using data from more than 100 MS patients acquired with different scanners and at different magnetic field strengths. Quantitative evaluation provided a better performance in terms of precision while maintaining similar results on sensitivity and Dice similarity measures compared with those of other approaches. Our tool is implemented as a publicly available SPM8/12 extension that can be used by both the medical and research communities. (orig.)

  5. A toolbox for multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roura, Eloy; Oliver, Arnau; Valverde, Sergi; Llado, Xavier; Cabezas, Mariano; Pareto, Deborah; Rovira, Alex; Vilanova, Joan C.; Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis

    2015-01-01

    Lesion segmentation plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of multiple sclerosis (MS). This task is very time-consuming and subject to intra- and inter-rater variability. In this paper, we present a new tool for automated MS lesion segmentation using T1w and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our approach is based on two main steps, initial brain tissue segmentation according to the gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) performed in T1w images, followed by a second step where the lesions are segmented as outliers to the normal apparent GM brain tissue on the FLAIR image. The tool has been validated using data from more than 100 MS patients acquired with different scanners and at different magnetic field strengths. Quantitative evaluation provided a better performance in terms of precision while maintaining similar results on sensitivity and Dice similarity measures compared with those of other approaches. Our tool is implemented as a publicly available SPM8/12 extension that can be used by both the medical and research communities. (orig.)

  6. Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petzold, Axel; Balcer, Laura J; Calabresi, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Structural retinal imaging biomarkers are important for early recognition and monitoring of inflammation and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis. With the introduction of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), supervised automated segmentation of individual retinal...... layers is possible. We aimed to investigate which retinal layers show atrophy associated with neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis when measured with SD-OCT. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched for studies in which SD-OCT was used to look at the retina in people...... with multiple sclerosis with or without optic neuritis in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar between Nov 22, 1991, and April 19, 2016. Data were taken from cross-sectional cohorts and from one timepoint from longitudinal studies (at least 3 months after onset in studies of optic neuritis). We classified...

  7. Segmentation of multiple sclerosis lesions in MR images: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi, Daryoush; Kouzani, Abbas Z. [Deakin University, School of Engineering, Geelong, Victoria (Australia); Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid [Henry Ford Health System, Image Analysis Laboratory, Radiology Department, Detroit, MI (United States); University of Tehran, Control and Intelligent Processing Center of Excellence (CIPCE), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Cognitive Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that the parts of the nervous system through the lesions generated in the white matter of the brain. It brings about disabilities in different organs of the body such as eyes and muscles. Early detection of MS and estimation of its progression are critical for optimal treatment of the disease. For diagnosis and treatment evaluation of MS lesions, they may be detected and segmented in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of the brain. However, due to the large amount of MRI data to be analyzed, manual segmentation of the lesions by clinical experts translates into a very cumbersome and time consuming task. In addition, manual segmentation is subjective and prone to human errors. Several groups have developed computerized methods to detect and segment MS lesions. These methods are not categorized and compared in the past. This paper reviews and compares various MS lesion segmentation methods proposed in recent years. It covers conventional methods like multilevel thresholding and region growing, as well as more recent Bayesian methods that require parameter estimation algorithms. It also covers parameter estimation methods like expectation maximization and adaptive mixture model which are among unsupervised techniques as well as kNN and Parzen window methods that are among supervised techniques. Integration of knowledge-based methods such as atlas-based approaches with Bayesian methods increases segmentation accuracy. In addition, employing intelligent classifiers like Fuzzy C-Means, Fuzzy Inference Systems, and Artificial Neural Networks reduces misclassified voxels. (orig.)

  8. Segmentation of multiple sclerosis lesions in MR images: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Daryoush; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that the parts of the nervous system through the lesions generated in the white matter of the brain. It brings about disabilities in different organs of the body such as eyes and muscles. Early detection of MS and estimation of its progression are critical for optimal treatment of the disease. For diagnosis and treatment evaluation of MS lesions, they may be detected and segmented in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of the brain. However, due to the large amount of MRI data to be analyzed, manual segmentation of the lesions by clinical experts translates into a very cumbersome and time consuming task. In addition, manual segmentation is subjective and prone to human errors. Several groups have developed computerized methods to detect and segment MS lesions. These methods are not categorized and compared in the past. This paper reviews and compares various MS lesion segmentation methods proposed in recent years. It covers conventional methods like multilevel thresholding and region growing, as well as more recent Bayesian methods that require parameter estimation algorithms. It also covers parameter estimation methods like expectation maximization and adaptive mixture model which are among unsupervised techniques as well as kNN and Parzen window methods that are among supervised techniques. Integration of knowledge-based methods such as atlas-based approaches with Bayesian methods increases segmentation accuracy. In addition, employing intelligent classifiers like Fuzzy C-Means, Fuzzy Inference Systems, and Artificial Neural Networks reduces misclassified voxels. (orig.)

  9. Organic Food Market Segmentation in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tleis, Malak; Roma, Rocco; Callieris, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    Organic farming in Lebanon is not a new concept. It started with the efforts of the private sector more than a decade ago and is still present even with the limited agricultural production. The local market is quite developed in comparison to neighboring countries, depending mainly on imports. Few studies were addressed to organic consumption in Lebanon, were none of them dealt with organic consumers analysis. Therefore, our objectives were to identify the profiles of Lebanese organic consumer and non organic consumer and to propose appropriate marketing strategies for each segment of consumer with the final aim of developing the Lebanese organic market. A survey, based on the use of closed-ended questionnaire, was addressed to 400 consumers in the capital, Beirut, from the end of February till the end of March 2014. Data underwent descriptive analyses, principal component analyses (PCA) and cluster analyses (k-means method) through the statistical software SPSS. Four cluster were obtained based on psychographic characteristics and willingness to pay (WTP) for the principal organic products purchased. "Localists" and "Health conscious" clusters constituted the largest proportion of the selected sample, thus were the most critical to be addressed by specific marketing strategies emphasizing the combination of local and organic food and the healthy properties of organic products. "Rational" and "Irregular" cluster were relatively small groups, addressed by pricing and promotional strategies. This study showed a positive attitude among Lebanese consumer towards organic food, where egoistic motives are prevailing over altruistic motives. High prices of organic commodities and low trust in organic farming, remain a constraint to levitating organic consumption. The combined efforts of the public and the private sector are required to spread the knowledge about positive environmental payback of organic agriculture and for the promotion of locally produced organic goods.

  10. A level set method for multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Guo, Shuxu; Luo, Min; Shi, Xue; Bilello, Michel; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Li, Chunming

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we present a level set method for multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion segmentation from FLAIR images in the presence of intensity inhomogeneities. We use a three-phase level set formulation of segmentation and bias field estimation to segment MS lesions and normal tissue region (including GM and WM) and CSF and the background from FLAIR images. To save computational load, we derive a two-phase formulation from the original multi-phase level set formulation to segment the MS lesions and normal tissue regions. The derived method inherits the desirable ability to precisely locate object boundaries of the original level set method, which simultaneously performs segmentation and estimation of the bias field to deal with intensity inhomogeneity. Experimental results demonstrate the advantages of our method over other state-of-the-art methods in terms of segmentation accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Using piecewise sinusoidal basis functions to blanket multiple wire segments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses application of the piecewise sinusoidal (PWS) basis function (BF) over a chain of several wire segments, for example as a multiple domain basis function. The usage of PWS BF is compared to results based on the piecewise linear...

  12. Hierarchical Multiple Markov Chain Model for Unsupervised Texture Segmentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scarpa, G.; Gaetano, R.; Haindl, Michal; Zerubia, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 8 (2009), s. 1830-1843 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0593 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Classification * texture analysis * segmentation * hierarchical image models * Markov process Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.848, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/RO/haindl-hierarchical multiple markov chain model for unsupervised texture segmentation.pdf

  13. Automatic Story Segmentation for TV News Video Using Multiple Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Émilie Dumont

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While video content is often stored in rather large files or broadcasted in continuous streams, users are often interested in retrieving only a particular passage on a topic of interest to them. It is, therefore, necessary to split video documents or streams into shorter segments corresponding to appropriate retrieval units. We propose here a method for the automatic segmentation of TV news videos into stories. A-multiple-descriptor based segmentation approach is proposed. The selected multimodal features are complementary and give good insights about story boundaries. Once extracted, these features are expanded with a local temporal context and combined by an early fusion process. The story boundaries are then predicted using machine learning techniques. We investigate the system by experiments conducted using TRECVID 2003 data and protocol of the story boundary detection task, and we show that the proposed approach outperforms the state-of-the-art methods while requiring a very small amount of manual annotation.

  14. Multiple sclerosis and organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J T; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    We investigated a possible causal relation between exposure to organic solvents in Danish workers (housepainters, typographers/printers, carpenters/cabinetmakers) and onset of multiple sclerosis. Data on men included in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Register (3,241 men) were linked with data from......, and butchers. Over a follow-up period of 20 years, we observed no increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis among men presumed to be exposed to organic solvents. It was not possible to obtain data on potential confounders, and the study design has some potential for selection bias. Nevertheless......, the study does not support existing hypotheses regarding an association between occupational exposure to organic solvents and multiple sclerosis....

  15. OASIS is Automated Statistical Inference for Segmentation, with applications to multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Elizabeth M; Shinohara, Russell T; Shiee, Navid; Mateen, Farrah J; Chudgar, Avni A; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L; Calabresi, Peter A; Pham, Dzung L; Reich, Daniel S; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to detect lesions in the brains of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and is essential for diagnosing the disease and monitoring its progression. In practice, lesion load is often quantified by either manual or semi-automated segmentation of MRI, which is time-consuming, costly, and associated with large inter- and intra-observer variability. We propose OASIS is Automated Statistical Inference for Segmentation (OASIS), an automated statistical method for segmenting MS lesions in MRI studies. We use logistic regression models incorporating multiple MRI modalities to estimate voxel-level probabilities of lesion presence. Intensity-normalized T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and proton density volumes from 131 MRI studies (98 MS subjects, 33 healthy subjects) with manual lesion segmentations were used to train and validate our model. Within this set, OASIS detected lesions with a partial area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for clinically relevant false positive rates of 1% and below of 0.59% (95% CI; [0.50%, 0.67%]) at the voxel level. An experienced MS neuroradiologist compared these segmentations to those produced by LesionTOADS, an image segmentation software that provides segmentation of both lesions and normal brain structures. For lesions, OASIS out-performed LesionTOADS in 74% (95% CI: [65%, 82%]) of cases for the 98 MS subjects. To further validate the method, we applied OASIS to 169 MRI studies acquired at a separate center. The neuroradiologist again compared the OASIS segmentations to those from LesionTOADS. For lesions, OASIS ranked higher than LesionTOADS in 77% (95% CI: [71%, 83%]) of cases. For a randomly selected subset of 50 of these studies, one additional radiologist and one neurologist also scored the images. Within this set, the neuroradiologist ranked OASIS higher than LesionTOADS in 76% (95% CI: [64%, 88%]) of cases, the neurologist 66% (95% CI: [52%, 78

  16. Classification and Weakly Supervised Pain Localization using Multiple Segment Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Karan; Dhall, Abhinav; Bartlett, Marian Stewart

    2014-10-01

    Automatic pain recognition from videos is a vital clinical application and, owing to its spontaneous nature, poses interesting challenges to automatic facial expression recognition (AFER) research. Previous pain vs no-pain systems have highlighted two major challenges: (1) ground truth is provided for the sequence, but the presence or absence of the target expression for a given frame is unknown, and (2) the time point and the duration of the pain expression event(s) in each video are unknown. To address these issues we propose a novel framework (referred to as MS-MIL) where each sequence is represented as a bag containing multiple segments, and multiple instance learning (MIL) is employed to handle this weakly labeled data in the form of sequence level ground-truth. These segments are generated via multiple clustering of a sequence or running a multi-scale temporal scanning window, and are represented using a state-of-the-art Bag of Words (BoW) representation. This work extends the idea of detecting facial expressions through 'concept frames' to 'concept segments' and argues through extensive experiments that algorithms such as MIL are needed to reap the benefits of such representation. The key advantages of our approach are: (1) joint detection and localization of painful frames using only sequence-level ground-truth, (2) incorporation of temporal dynamics by representing the data not as individual frames but as segments, and (3) extraction of multiple segments, which is well suited to signals with uncertain temporal location and duration in the video. Extensive experiments on UNBC-McMaster Shoulder Pain dataset highlight the effectiveness of the approach by achieving competitive results on both tasks of pain classification and localization in videos. We also empirically evaluate the contributions of different components of MS-MIL. The paper also includes the visualization of discriminative facial patches, important for pain detection, as discovered by our

  17. Abdominal multi-organ CT segmentation using organ correlation graph and prediction-based shape and location priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Toshiyuki; Linguraru, Marius George; Hori, Masatoshi; Summers, Ronald M; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    The paper addresses the automated segmentation of multiple organs in upper abdominal CT data. We propose a framework of multi-organ segmentation which is adaptable to any imaging conditions without using intensity information in manually traced training data. The features of the framework are as follows: (1) the organ correlation graph (OCG) is introduced, which encodes the spatial correlations among organs inherent in human anatomy; (2) the patient-specific organ shape and location priors obtained using OCG enable the estimation of intensity priors from only target data and optionally a number of untraced CT data of the same imaging condition as the target data. The proposed methods were evaluated through segmentation of eight abdominal organs (liver, spleen, left and right kidney, pancreas, gallbladder, aorta, and inferior vena cava) from 86 CT data obtained by four imaging conditions at two hospitals. The performance was comparable to the state-of-the-art method using intensity priors constructed from manually traced data.

  18. Multiple Vehicle Detection and Segmentation in Malaysia Traffic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariz Hasan, Ahmad; Fikri Che Husin, Mohd; Affendi Rosli, Khairul; Norhafiz Hashim, Mohd; Faiz Zainal Abidin, Amar

    2018-03-01

    Vision based system are widely used in the field of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) to extract a large amount of information to analyze traffic scenes. By rapid number of vehicles on the road as well as significant increase on cameras dictated the need for traffic surveillance systems. This system can take over the burden some task was performed by human operator in traffic monitoring centre. The main technique proposed by this paper is concentrated on developing a multiple vehicle detection and segmentation focusing on monitoring through Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) video. The system is able to automatically segment vehicle extracted from heavy traffic scene by optical flow estimation alongside with blob analysis technique in order to detect the moving vehicle. Prior to segmentation, blob analysis technique will compute the area of interest region corresponding to moving vehicle which will be used to create bounding box on that particular vehicle. Experimental validation on the proposed system was performed and the algorithm is demonstrated on various set of traffic scene.

  19. Multi-atlas segmentation for abdominal organs with Gaussian mixture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ryan P.; Xu, Zhoubing; Lee, Christopher P.; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Abramson, Richard G.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal organ segmentation with clinically acquired computed tomography (CT) is drawing increasing interest in the medical imaging community. Gaussian mixture models (GMM) have been extensively used through medical segmentation, most notably in the brain for cerebrospinal fluid / gray matter / white matter differentiation. Because abdominal CT exhibit strong localized intensity characteristics, GMM have recently been incorporated in multi-stage abdominal segmentation algorithms. In the context of variable abdominal anatomy and rich algorithms, it is difficult to assess the marginal contribution of GMM. Herein, we characterize the efficacy of an a posteriori framework that integrates GMM of organ-wise intensity likelihood with spatial priors from multiple target-specific registered labels. In our study, we first manually labeled 100 CT images. Then, we assigned 40 images to use as training data for constructing target-specific spatial priors and intensity likelihoods. The remaining 60 images were evaluated as test targets for segmenting 12 abdominal organs. The overlap between the true and the automatic segmentations was measured by Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). A median improvement of 145% was achieved by integrating the GMM intensity likelihood against the specific spatial prior. The proposed framework opens the opportunities for abdominal organ segmentation by efficiently using both the spatial and appearance information from the atlases, and creates a benchmark for large-scale automatic abdominal segmentation.

  20. Multiple Scale Music Segmentation Using Rhythm, Timbre, and Harmony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Jensen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The segmentation of music into intro-chorus-verse-outro, and similar segments, is a difficult topic. A method for performing automatic segmentation based on features related to rhythm, timbre, and harmony is presented, and compared, between the features and between the features and manual segmentation of a database of 48 songs. Standard information retrieval performance measures are used in the comparison, and it is shown that the timbre-related feature performs best.

  1. Fully convolutional neural networks improve abdominal organ segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Meg F.; Bao, Shunxing; Huo, Yuankai; Yao, Yuang; Virostko, Jack; Plassard, Andrew J.; Lyu, Ilwoo; Assad, Albert; Abramson, Richard G.; Hilmes, Melissa A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2018-03-01

    Abdominal image segmentation is a challenging, yet important clinical problem. Variations in body size, position, and relative organ positions greatly complicate the segmentation process. Historically, multi-atlas methods have achieved leading results across imaging modalities and anatomical targets. However, deep learning is rapidly overtaking classical approaches for image segmentation. Recently, Zhou et al. showed that fully convolutional networks produce excellent results in abdominal organ segmentation of computed tomography (CT) scans. Yet, deep learning approaches have not been applied to whole abdomen magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation. Herein, we evaluate the applicability of an existing fully convolutional neural network (FCNN) designed for CT imaging to segment abdominal organs on T2 weighted (T2w) MRI's with two examples. In the primary example, we compare a classical multi-atlas approach with FCNN on forty-five T2w MRI's acquired from splenomegaly patients with five organs labeled (liver, spleen, left kidney, right kidney, and stomach). Thirty-six images were used for training while nine were used for testing. The FCNN resulted in a Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 0.930 in spleens, 0.730 in left kidneys, 0.780 in right kidneys, 0.913 in livers, and 0.556 in stomachs. The performance measures for livers, spleens, right kidneys, and stomachs were significantly better than multi-atlas (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). In a secondary example, we compare the multi-atlas approach with FCNN on 138 distinct T2w MRI's with manually labeled pancreases (one label). On the pancreas dataset, the FCNN resulted in a median DSC of 0.691 in pancreases versus 0.287 for multi-atlas. The results are highly promising given relatively limited training data and without specific training of the FCNN model and illustrate the potential of deep learning approaches to transcend imaging modalities. 1

  2. High intensity region segmentation in MR imaging of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, F; Filipuzzi, M; Graffigna, J P; Isoardi, R; Noceti, M

    2013-01-01

    Numerous pathologies are often manifest in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as hyperintense or bright regions as compared to normal tissue. It is of particular interest to develop an algorithm to detect, identify and define those Regions of Interest (ROI) when analyzing MRI studies, particularly for lesions of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study is to analyze those parameters which optimize segmentation of the areas of interest. To establish which areas should be considered as hyperintense regions, we developed a database (DB), with studies of patients diagnosed with MS. This disease causes axonal demyelination and it is expressed as bright regions in PD, T2 and FLAIR MRI sequences. Thus, with more than 4300 hyperintense regions validated by an expert physician, an algorithm was developed to detect such spots, approximating the results the expert obtained. Alongside these hyperintense lesion regions, it also detected bone regions with high intensity levels, similar to the intensity of the lesions, but with other features that allow a good differentiation.The algorithm will then detect ROIs with similar intensity levels and performs classification through data mining techniques

  3. Abdominal multi-organ segmentation from CT images using conditional shape-location and unsupervised intensity priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Toshiyuki; Linguraru, Marius George; Hori, Masatoshi; Summers, Ronald M; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the automated segmentation of multiple organs in upper abdominal computed tomography (CT) data. The aim of our study is to develop methods to effectively construct the conditional priors and use their prediction power for more accurate segmentation as well as easy adaptation to various imaging conditions in CT images, as observed in clinical practice. We propose a general framework of multi-organ segmentation which effectively incorporates interrelations among multiple organs and easily adapts to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. The features of the framework are as follows: (1) A method for modeling conditional shape and location (shape-location) priors, which we call prediction-based priors, is developed to derive accurate priors specific to each subject, which enables the estimation of intensity priors without the need for supervised intensity information. (2) Organ correlation graph is introduced, which defines how the conditional priors are constructed and segmentation processes of multiple organs are executed. In our framework, predictor organs, whose segmentation is sufficiently accurate by using conventional single-organ segmentation methods, are pre-segmented, and the remaining organs are hierarchically segmented using conditional shape-location priors. The proposed framework was evaluated through the segmentation of eight abdominal organs (liver, spleen, left and right kidneys, pancreas, gallbladder, aorta, and inferior vena cava) from 134 CT data from 86 patients obtained under six imaging conditions at two hospitals. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed prediction-based priors and the applicability to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. Average Dice coefficients for the liver, spleen, and kidneys were more than 92%, and were around 73% and 67% for the pancreas and gallbladder, respectively. Copyright © 2015

  4. Business Client Segmentation in Banking Using Self-Organizing Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Mirjana Pejić

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation in banking for the business client market is traditionally based on size measured in terms of income and the number of employees, and on statistical clustering methods (e.g. hierarchical clustering, k-means. The goal of the paper is to demonstrate that self-organizing maps (SOM effectively extend the pool of possible criteria for segmentation of the business client market with more relevant criteria, including behavioral, demographic, personal, operational, situational, and cross-selling products. In order to attain the goal of the paper, the dataset on business clients of several banks in Croatia, which, besides size, incorporates a number of different criteria, is analyzed using the SOM-Ward clustering algorithm of Viscovery SOMine software. The SOM-Ward algorithm extracted three segments that differ with respect to the attributes of foreign trade operations (import/export, annual income, origin of capital, important bank selection criteria, views on the loan selection and the industry. The analyzed segments can be used by banks for deciding on the direction of further marketing activities.

  5. Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic (HAL) Multiple Segmental Colorectal Resections: Are They Feasible and Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggarshe, Deepa; Attuwaybi, Bashir O; Matier, Brian; Visco, Jeffrey J; Butler, Bryan N

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term outcomes of synchronous hand-assisted laparoscopic (HAL) segmental colorectal resections. The surgical options for synchronous colonic pathology include extensive colonic resection with single anastomosis, multiple synchronous segmental resections with multiple anastomoses, or staged resections. Traditionally, multiple open, synchronous, segmental resections have been performed. There is a lack of data on HAL multiple segmental colorectal resections. A retrospective chart review was compiled on all patients who underwent HAL synchronous segmental colorectal resections by all the colorectal surgeons from our Group during the period of 1999 to 2014. Demographics, operative details, and short-term outcomes are reported. During the period, 9 patients underwent HAL synchronous multiple segmental colorectal resections. There were 5 women and 4 men, with median age of 54 (24-83) years and median BMI of 24 (19.8-38.7) kg/m(2). Two patients were on long-term corticosteroid therapy. The median operative time was 210 (120-330) minutes and median operative blood loss was 200 (75-300) mLs. The median duration for return of bowel function was 2 days and the median length of stay was 3.5 days. We had 2 minor wound infections. There were no deaths. Synchronous segmental colorectal resections with anastomoses using the hand-assisted laparoscopic technique are safe. Early conversion to open and use of stomas are advisable in challenging cases.

  6. Automatic abdominal multi-organ segmentation using deep convolutional neural network and time-implicit level sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peijun; Wu, Fa; Peng, Jialin; Bao, Yuanyuan; Chen, Feng; Kong, Dexing

    2017-03-01

    Multi-organ segmentation from CT images is an essential step for computer-aided diagnosis and surgery planning. However, manual delineation of the organs by radiologists is tedious, time-consuming and poorly reproducible. Therefore, we propose a fully automatic method for the segmentation of multiple organs from three-dimensional abdominal CT images. The proposed method employs deep fully convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for organ detection and segmentation, which is further refined by a time-implicit multi-phase evolution method. Firstly, a 3D CNN is trained to automatically localize and delineate the organs of interest with a probability prediction map. The learned probability map provides both subject-specific spatial priors and initialization for subsequent fine segmentation. Then, for the refinement of the multi-organ segmentation, image intensity models, probability priors as well as a disjoint region constraint are incorporated into an unified energy functional. Finally, a novel time-implicit multi-phase level-set algorithm is utilized to efficiently optimize the proposed energy functional model. Our method has been evaluated on 140 abdominal CT scans for the segmentation of four organs (liver, spleen and both kidneys). With respect to the ground truth, average Dice overlap ratios for the liver, spleen and both kidneys are 96.0, 94.2 and 95.4%, respectively, and average symmetric surface distance is less than 1.3 mm for all the segmented organs. The computation time for a CT volume is 125 s in average. The achieved accuracy compares well to state-of-the-art methods with much higher efficiency. A fully automatic method for multi-organ segmentation from abdominal CT images was developed and evaluated. The results demonstrated its potential in clinical usage with high effectiveness, robustness and efficiency.

  7. Model selection in Bayesian segmentation of multiple DNA alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldmeadow, Christopher; Keith, Jonathan M

    2011-03-01

    The analysis of multiple sequence alignments is allowing researchers to glean valuable insights into evolution, as well as identify genomic regions that may be functional, or discover novel classes of functional elements. Understanding the distribution of conservation levels that constitutes the evolutionary landscape is crucial to distinguishing functional regions from non-functional. Recent evidence suggests that a binary classification of evolutionary rates is inappropriate for this purpose and finds only highly conserved functional elements. Given that the distribution of evolutionary rates is multi-modal, determining the number of modes is of paramount concern. Through simulation, we evaluate the performance of a number of information criterion approaches derived from MCMC simulations in determining the dimension of a model. We utilize a deviance information criterion (DIC) approximation that is more robust than the approximations from other information criteria, and show our information criteria approximations do not produce superfluous modes when estimating conservation distributions under a variety of circumstances. We analyse the distribution of conservation for a multiple alignment comprising four primate species and mouse, and repeat this on two additional multiple alignments of similar species. We find evidence of six distinct classes of evolutionary rates that appear to be robust to the species used. Source code and data are available at http://dl.dropbox.com/u/477240/changept.zip.

  8. Segmenting health maintenance organizations to study productivity and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, M G

    2000-01-01

    As the decade ended, health maintenance organizations (HMOs) were increasing in popularity as a means of health care delivery. These groups take many forms, so it is important for the analyst to see if the efficiency and financial results for these different forms vary. The four major forms are profit vs. not-for-profit, chain vs. non-chain, group/staff vs. individual practice association (IPA), and federally qualified vs. non-federally qualified. Using a nationwide database of all the HMOs in the United States, the article compares liquidity rates, leverage ratios, profitability ratios, marketing, and per member ratios across the four groups using paired t tests. The two classifications that showed the most differences were group/staff vs. IPA and federally qualified vs. non-federally qualified. IPAs have a better liquidity position and lower leverage ratios than group/staff but their administrative costs are higher and the time to receive payments and to pay debts is higher. Non-federally qualified have somewhat higher liquidity ratios and higher profitability ratios. These significant differences in financial outcomes indicate that studies of HMOs should segment different major forms of organizations and study them separately before trying to show the effects of different policies on HMO efficiency and effectiveness.

  9. User Interaction in Semi-Automatic Segmentation of Organs at Risk : A Case Study in Radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramkumar, A.; Dolz, J.; Kirisli, H.A.; Adebahr, S.; Schimek-Jasch, T.; Nestle, U.; Massoptier, L.; Varga, E.; Stappers, P.J.; Niessen, W.J.; Song, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate segmentation of organs at risk is an important step in radiotherapy planning. Manual segmentation being a tedious procedure and prone to inter- and intra-observer variability, there is a growing interest in automated segmentation methods. However, automatic methods frequently fail to

  10. User Interaction in Semi-Automatic Segmentation of Organs at Risk: a Case Study in Radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ramkumar (Anjana); J. Dolz (Jose); H.A. Kirisli (Hortense); S. Adebahr (Sonja); T. Schimek-Jasch (Tanja); U. Nestle (Ursula); L. Massoptier (Laurent); E. Varga (Edit); P.J. Stappers (P.); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); Y. Song (Yu)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAccurate segmentation of organs at risk is an important step in radiotherapy planning. Manual segmentation being a tedious procedure and prone to inter- and intra-observer variability, there is a growing interest in automated segmentation methods. However, automatic methods frequently

  11. 3D Filament Network Segmentation with Multiple Active Contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Huang, Xiaolei

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is frequently used to study two and three dimensional network structures formed by cytoskeletal polymer fibers such as actin filaments and microtubules. While these cytoskeletal structures are often dilute enough to allow imaging of individual filaments or bundles of them, quantitative analysis of these images is challenging. To facilitate quantitative, reproducible and objective analysis of the image data, we developed a semi-automated method to extract actin networks and retrieve their topology in 3D. Our method uses multiple Stretching Open Active Contours (SOACs) that are automatically initialized at image intensity ridges and then evolve along the centerlines of filaments in the network. SOACs can merge, stop at junctions, and reconfigure with others to allow smooth crossing at junctions of filaments. The proposed approach is generally applicable to images of curvilinear networks with low SNR. We demonstrate its potential by extracting the centerlines of synthetic meshwork images, actin networks in 2D TIRF Microscopy images, and 3D actin cable meshworks of live fission yeast cells imaged by spinning disk confocal microscopy.

  12. Analysis on the use of Multi-Sequence MRI Series for Segmentation of Abdominal Organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selver, M A; Selvi, E; Kavur, E; Dicle, O

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of abdominal organs from MRI data sets is a challenging task due to various limitations and artefacts. During the routine clinical practice, radiologists use multiple MR sequences in order to analyze different anatomical properties. These sequences have different characteristics in terms of acquisition parameters (such as contrast mechanisms and pulse sequence designs) and image properties (such as pixel spacing, slice thicknesses and dynamic range). For a complete understanding of the data, computational techniques should combine the information coming from these various MRI sequences. These sequences are not acquired in parallel but in a sequential manner (one after another). Therefore, patient movements and respiratory motions change the position and shape of the abdominal organs. In this study, the amount of these effects is measured using three different symmetric surface distance metrics performed to three dimensional data acquired from various MRI sequences. The results are compared to intra and inter observer differences and discussions on using multiple MRI sequences for segmentation and the necessities for registration are presented

  13. Quantifying brain tissue volume in multiple sclerosis with automated lesion segmentation and filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesion filling has been successfully applied to reduce the effect of hypo-intense T1-w Multiple Sclerosis (MS lesions on automatic brain tissue segmentation. However, a study of fully automated pipelines incorporating lesion segmentation and lesion filling on tissue volume analysis has not yet been performed. Here, we analyzed the % of error introduced by automating the lesion segmentation and filling processes in the tissue segmentation of 70 clinically isolated syndrome patient images. First of all, images were processed using the LST and SLS toolkits with different pipeline combinations that differed in either automated or manual lesion segmentation, and lesion filling or masking out lesions. Then, images processed following each of the pipelines were segmented into gray matter (GM and white matter (WM using SPM8, and compared with the same images where expert lesion annotations were filled before segmentation. Our results showed that fully automated lesion segmentation and filling pipelines reduced significantly the % of error in GM and WM volume on images of MS patients, and performed similarly to the images where expert lesion annotations were masked before segmentation. In all the pipelines, the amount of misclassified lesion voxels was the main cause in the observed error in GM and WM volume. However, the % of error was significantly lower when automatically estimated lesions were filled and not masked before segmentation. These results are relevant and suggest that LST and SLS toolboxes allow the performance of accurate brain tissue volume measurements without any kind of manual intervention, which can be convenient not only in terms of time and economic costs, but also to avoid the inherent intra/inter variability between manual annotations.

  14. Combining multiple FDG-PET radiotherapy target segmentation methods to reduce the effect of variable performance of individual segmentation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGurk, Ross J. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Bowsher, James; Das, Shiva K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Lee, John A [Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy Unit, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-15

    different between 128 Multiplication-Sign 128 and 256 Multiplication-Sign 256 grid sizes for either method (MJV, p= 0.0519; STAPLE, p= 0.5672) but was for SMASD values (MJV, p < 0.0001; STAPLE, p= 0.0164). The best individual method varied depending on object characteristics. However, both MJV and STAPLE provided essentially equivalent accuracy to using the best independent method in every situation, with mean differences in DSC of 0.01-0.03, and 0.05-0.12 mm for SMASD. Conclusions: Combining segmentations offers a robust approach to object segmentation in PET. Both MJV and STAPLE improved accuracy and were robust against the widely varying performance of individual segmentation methods. Differences between MJV and STAPLE are such that either offers good performance when combining volumes. Neither method requires a training dataset but MJV is simpler to interpret, easy to implement and fast.

  15. Robust segmentation of focal lesions on multi-sequence MRI in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Lorenzo, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects around 80.000 people in France. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an essential tool for diagnosis of MS and MRI-derived surrogate markers such as MS lesion volumes are often used as measures in MS clinical trials for the development of new treatments. The manual segmentation of these MS lesions is a time-consuming task that shows high inter- and intra-rater variability. We developed an automatic work flow for the segmentation of focal MS lesions on MRI. The segmentation method is based on the robust estimation of a parametric model of the intensities of the brain; lesions are detected as outliers to the model. We proposed two methods to include spatial information in the segmentation using mean shift and graph cut. We performed a quantitative evaluation of our work flow using synthetic and clinical images of two different centers to verify its accuracy and robustness. (author)

  16. Multiple Active Contours Guided by Differential Evolution for Medical Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Aceves, I.; Avina-Cervantes, J. G.; Lopez-Hernandez, J. M.; Rostro-Gonzalez, H.; Garcia-Capulin, C. H.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; Guzman-Cabrera, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new image segmentation method based on multiple active contours guided by differential evolution, called MACDE. The segmentation method uses differential evolution over a polar coordinate system to increase the exploration and exploitation capabilities regarding the classical active contour model. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, a set of synthetic images with complex objects, Gaussian noise, and deep concavities is introduced. Subsequently, MACDE is applied on datasets of sequential computed tomography and magnetic resonance images which contain the human heart and the human left ventricle, respectively. Finally, to obtain a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the medical image segmentations compared to regions outlined by experts, a set of distance and similarity metrics has been adopted. According to the experimental results, MACDE outperforms the classical active contour model and the interactive Tseng method in terms of efficiency and robustness for obtaining the optimal control points and attains a high accuracy segmentation. PMID:23983809

  17. Multiple Active Contours Guided by Differential Evolution for Medical Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cruz-Aceves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new image segmentation method based on multiple active contours guided by differential evolution, called MACDE. The segmentation method uses differential evolution over a polar coordinate system to increase the exploration and exploitation capabilities regarding the classical active contour model. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, a set of synthetic images with complex objects, Gaussian noise, and deep concavities is introduced. Subsequently, MACDE is applied on datasets of sequential computed tomography and magnetic resonance images which contain the human heart and the human left ventricle, respectively. Finally, to obtain a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the medical image segmentations compared to regions outlined by experts, a set of distance and similarity metrics has been adopted. According to the experimental results, MACDE outperforms the classical active contour model and the interactive Tseng method in terms of efficiency and robustness for obtaining the optimal control points and attains a high accuracy segmentation.

  18. Multiple Active Contours Driven by Particle Swarm Optimization for Cardiac Medical Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Aceves, I.; Aviña-Cervantes, J. G.; López-Hernández, J. M.; González-Reyna, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel image segmentation method based on multiple active contours driven by particle swarm optimization (MACPSO). The proposed method uses particle swarm optimization over a polar coordinate system to increase the energy-minimizing capability with respect to the traditional active contour model. In the first stage, to evaluate the robustness of the proposed method, a set of synthetic images containing objects with several concavities and Gaussian noise is presented. Subsequently, MACPSO is used to segment the human heart and the human left ventricle from datasets of sequential computed tomography and magnetic resonance images, respectively. Finally, to assess the performance of the medical image segmentations with respect to regions outlined by experts and by the graph cut method objectively and quantifiably, a set of distance and similarity metrics has been adopted. The experimental results demonstrate that MACPSO outperforms the traditional active contour model in terms of segmentation accuracy and stability. PMID:23762177

  19. Market segmentation for multiple option healthcare delivery systems--an application of cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboe, G R; Gates, R H; McDaniel, C D

    1990-01-01

    Healthcare providers of multiple option plans may be confronted with special market segmentation problems. This study demonstrates how cluster analysis may be used for discovering distinct patterns of preference for multiple option plans. The availability of metric, as opposed to categorical or ordinal, data provides the ability to use sophisticated analysis techniques which may be superior to frequency distributions and cross-tabulations in revealing preference patterns.

  20. An explicit statistical model of learning lexical segmentation using multiple cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çöltekin, Ça ̆grı; Nerbonne, John; Lenci, Alessandro; Padró, Muntsa; Poibeau, Thierry; Villavicencio, Aline

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an unsupervised and incremental model of learning segmentation that combines multiple cues whose use by children and adults were attested by experimental studies. The cues we exploit in this study are predictability statistics, phonotactics, lexical stress and partial lexical

  1. Segmenting Multiple Sclerosis Lesions using a Spatially Constrained K-Nearest Neighbour approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyksborg, Mark; Larsen, Rasmus; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for the segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis lesions. The method is based on probability maps derived from a K-Nearest Neighbours classication. These are used as a non parametric likelihood in a Bayesian formulation with a prior that assumes connectivity of neighbouring voxels. ...

  2. Application of In-Segment Multiple Sampling in Object-Based Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Đurić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When object-based analysis is applied to very high-resolution imagery, pixels within the segments reveal large spectral inhomogeneity; their distribution can be considered complex rather than normal. When normality is violated, the classification methods that rely on the assumption of normally distributed data are not as successful or accurate. It is hard to detect normality violations in small samples. The segmentation process produces segments that vary highly in size; samples can be very big or very small. This paper investigates whether the complexity within the segment can be addressed using multiple random sampling of segment pixels and multiple calculations of similarity measures. In order to analyze the effect sampling has on classification results, statistics and probability value equations of non-parametric two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and parametric Student’s t-test are selected as similarity measures in the classification process. The performance of both classifiers was assessed on a WorldView-2 image for four land cover classes (roads, buildings, grass and trees and compared to two commonly used object-based classifiers—k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN and Support Vector Machine (SVM. Both proposed classifiers showed a slight improvement in the overall classification accuracies and produced more accurate classification maps when compared to the ground truth image.

  3. MULTI-SCALE SEGMENTATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING IMAGES BY INTEGRATING MULTIPLE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Di

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of multi-scale segmentation algorithms are not aiming at high resolution remote sensing images and have difficulty to communicate and use layers’ information. In view of them, we proposes a method of multi-scale segmentation of high resolution remote sensing images by integrating multiple features. First, Canny operator is used to extract edge information, and then band weighted distance function is built to obtain the edge weight. According to the criterion, the initial segmentation objects of color images can be gained by Kruskal minimum spanning tree algorithm. Finally segmentation images are got by the adaptive rule of Mumford–Shah region merging combination with spectral and texture information. The proposed method is evaluated precisely using analog images and ZY-3 satellite images through quantitative and qualitative analysis. The experimental results show that the multi-scale segmentation of high resolution remote sensing images by integrating multiple features outperformed the software eCognition fractal network evolution algorithm (highest-resolution network evolution that FNEA on the accuracy and slightly inferior to FNEA on the efficiency.

  4. FogBank: a single cell segmentation across multiple cell lines and image modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Joe; Majurski, Michael; Dima, Alden; Stuelten, Christina; Peskin, Adele; Brady, Mary

    2014-12-30

    sheets with high accuracy. It can be applied to microscopy images of multiple cell lines and a variety of imaging modalities. The code for the segmentation method is available as open-source and includes a Graphical User Interface for user friendly execution.

  5. An argument for the use of multiple segment stents in curved arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiri, Saeid; Kelly, Daniel J

    2011-08-01

    Stenting of curved arteries is generally perceived to be more challenging than straight vessels. Conceptually implanting multiple shorter stents rather than a single longer stent into such a curved artery represents a promising concept, but little is known about the impact of such an approach. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of using a multiple segment stent rather than a single long stent to dilate a curved artery using the finite element method. A double segment stent (DSS) and a single segment stent (SSS) were modeled. The stents were compared when expanded into a model of a curved artery. The model predicts that the DSS provides higher flexibility, more conformity, and lower recoil in comparison to the SSS. The volume of arterial tissue experiencing high levels of stress due to stent implantation is also reduced for the DSS. It is suggested that a multiple segment stenting system is a potential solution to the problem of higher rates of in-stent restenosis in curved arteries and mechanically challenging environments.

  6. Segmentation of multiple heart cavities in 3-D transesophageal ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Alexander; Vegas-Sánchez-Ferrero, Gonzalo; Mulder, Harriët W; Ren, Ben; Kirişli, Hortense A; Metz, Coert; van Burken, Gerard; van Stralen, Marijn; Pluim, Josien P W; van der Steen, Antonius F W; van Walsum, Theo; Bosch, Johannes G

    2015-06-01

    Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is an excellent modality for real-time visualization of the heart and monitoring of interventions. To improve the usability of 3-D TEE for intervention monitoring and catheter guidance, automated segmentation is desired. However, 3-D TEE segmentation is still a challenging task due to the complex anatomy with multiple cavities, the limited TEE field of view, and typical ultrasound artifacts. We propose to segment all cavities within the TEE view with a multi-cavity active shape model (ASM) in conjunction with a tissue/blood classification based on a gamma mixture model (GMM). 3-D TEE image data of twenty patients were acquired with a Philips X7-2t matrix TEE probe. Tissue probability maps were estimated by a two-class (blood/tissue) GMM. A statistical shape model containing the left ventricle, right ventricle, left atrium, right atrium, and aorta was derived from computed tomography angiography (CTA) segmentations by principal component analysis. ASMs of the whole heart and individual cavities were generated and consecutively fitted to tissue probability maps. First, an average whole-heart model was aligned with the 3-D TEE based on three manually indicated anatomical landmarks. Second, pose and shape of the whole-heart ASM were fitted by a weighted update scheme excluding parts outside of the image sector. Third, pose and shape of ASM for individual heart cavities were initialized by the previous whole heart ASM and updated in a regularized manner to fit the tissue probability maps. The ASM segmentations were validated against manual outlines by two observers and CTA derived segmentations. Dice coefficients and point-to-surface distances were used to determine segmentation accuracy. ASM segmentations were successful in 19 of 20 cases. The median Dice coefficient for all successful segmentations versus the average observer ranged from 90% to 71% compared with an inter-observer range of 95% to 84%. The

  7. Automatic segmentation and volumetry of multiple sclerosis brain lesions from MR images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The location and extent of white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are important criteria for diagnosis, follow-up and prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS. Clinical trials have shown that quantitative values, such as lesion volumes, are meaningful in MS prognosis. Manual lesion delineation for the segmentation of lesions is, however, time-consuming and suffers from observer variability. In this paper, we propose MSmetrix, an accurate and reliable automatic method for lesion segmentation based on MRI, independent of scanner or acquisition protocol and without requiring any training data. In MSmetrix, 3D T1-weighted and FLAIR MR images are used in a probabilistic model to detect white matter (WM lesions as an outlier to normal brain while segmenting the brain tissue into grey matter, WM and cerebrospinal fluid. The actual lesion segmentation is performed based on prior knowledge about the location (within WM and the appearance (hyperintense on FLAIR of lesions. The accuracy of MSmetrix is evaluated by comparing its output with expert reference segmentations of 20 MRI datasets of MS patients. Spatial overlap (Dice between the MSmetrix and the expert lesion segmentation is 0.67 ± 0.11. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC equals 0.8 indicating a good volumetric agreement between the MSmetrix and expert labelling. The reproducibility of MSmetrix' lesion volumes is evaluated based on 10 MS patients, scanned twice with a short interval on three different scanners. The agreement between the first and the second scan on each scanner is evaluated through the spatial overlap and absolute lesion volume difference between them. The spatial overlap was 0.69 ± 0.14 and absolute total lesion volume difference between the two scans was 0.54 ± 0.58 ml. Finally, the accuracy and reproducibility of MSmetrix compare favourably with other publicly available MS lesion segmentation algorithms, applied on the same data using default

  8. Multiple Organ Dysfunction After Cardiosurgical Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Barbarash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the clinical efficiency of introducing an algorithm for organ-protective intensive care. Materials and methods. 3278 case histories of patients admitted to the clinic in 2000—2009 for surgical treatment (under extracorporeal circulation for coronary heart disease (CHD and acquired heart defects (AHD were retrospectively analyzed. Throughout the analyzed period, the patients operated on for CHD and AHD were 2068 (63.1% and 1210 (36.9%, respectively; the postoperative incidence of multiple organ dysfunction (MOD among all the patients was 11.8% (378 patients; mortality in MOD was 3.75% (n=123 of the operated patients (included into the study or 32.5% of all the patients with MOD. Conclusion. The incidence of MOD is in proportion to the number of surgical interventions and depends on their specific features (recurrence, baseline severity, comorbidity, or multifocal atherosclerosis. Preventive intensive therapy for MOD reduced mortality and altered its syndromic pattern towards a preponderance of pyoseptic complications. Key words: cardiosurgery, extracorporeal circulation, multiple organ dysfunction.

  9. Segmentation of deformable organs from medical images using particle swarm optimization and nonlinear shape priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Ahmed; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2010-03-01

    In many medical applications, the automatic segmentation of deformable organs from medical images is indispensable and its accuracy is of a special interest. However, the automatic segmentation of these organs is a challenging task according to its complex shape. Moreover, the medical images usually have noise, clutter, or occlusion and considering the image information only often leads to meager image segmentation. In this paper, we propose a fully automated technique for the segmentation of deformable organs from medical images. In this technique, the segmentation is performed by fitting a nonlinear shape model with pre-segmented images. The kernel principle component analysis (KPCA) is utilized to capture the complex organs deformation and to construct the nonlinear shape model. The presegmentation is carried out by labeling each pixel according to its high level texture features extracted using the overcomplete wavelet packet decomposition. Furthermore, to guarantee an accurate fitting between the nonlinear model and the pre-segmented images, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is employed to adapt the model parameters for the novel images. In this paper, we demonstrate the competence of proposed technique by implementing it to the liver segmentation from computed tomography (CT) scans of different patients.

  10. Pattern of Presentation of Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome is the sequential failure of several organ systems after a trigger event, like sepsis, massive transfusions, burns, trauma and cardiogenic shock. Aim and Objectives- The pattern of presentation of multiple organ dysfunction and the risk factors associated with multiple organ ...

  11. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Inventor); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Inventor); Myers, Andrew William (Inventor); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Inventor); Elliott, Brian John (Inventor); Kreutzer, Cory (Inventor); Wilson, Carolina (Inventor); Meiser, Manfred (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  12. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ronald Lee; Luebben, Silvia DeVito; Myers, Andrew William; Smith, Bryan Matthew; Elliott, Brian John; Kreutzer, Cory; Wilson, Carolina; Meiser, Manfred

    2007-07-17

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  13. Ontology-Based Knowledge Organization for the Radiograph Images Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATEI, O.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The quantity of thoracic radiographies in the medical field is ever growing. An automated system for segmenting the images would help doctors enormously. Some approaches are knowledge-based; therefore we propose here an ontology for this purpose. Thus it is machine oriented, rather than human-oriented. That is all the structures visible on a thoracic image are described from a technical point of view.

  14. Segmentation of organs at risk in CT volumes of head, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Miaofei; Ma, Jinfeng; Li, Yan; Li, Meiling; Song, Yanli; Li, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of organs at risk (OARs) is a key step in treatment planning system (TPS) of image guided radiation therapy. We are developing three classes of methods to segment 17 organs at risk throughout the whole body, including brain, brain stem, eyes, mandible, temporomandibular joints, parotid glands, spinal cord, lungs, trachea, heart, livers, kidneys, spleen, prostate, rectum, femoral heads, and skin. The three classes of segmentation methods include (1) threshold-based methods for organs of large contrast with adjacent structures such as lungs, trachea, and skin; (2) context-driven Generalized Hough Transform-based methods combined with graph cut algorithm for robust localization and segmentation of liver, kidneys and spleen; and (3) atlas and registration-based methods for segmentation of heart and all organs in CT volumes of head and pelvis. The segmentation accuracy for the seventeen organs was subjectively evaluated by two medical experts in three levels of score: 0, poor (unusable in clinical practice); 1, acceptable (minor revision needed); and 2, good (nearly no revision needed). A database was collected from Ruijin Hospital, Huashan Hospital, and Xuhui Central Hospital in Shanghai, China, including 127 head scans, 203 thoracic scans, 154 abdominal scans, and 73 pelvic scans. The percentages of "good" segmentation results were 97.6%, 92.9%, 81.1%, 87.4%, 85.0%, 78.7%, 94.1%, 91.1%, 81.3%, 86.7%, 82.5%, 86.4%, 79.9%, 72.6%, 68.5%, 93.2%, 96.9% for brain, brain stem, eyes, mandible, temporomandibular joints, parotid glands, spinal cord, lungs, trachea, heart, livers, kidneys, spleen, prostate, rectum, femoral heads, and skin, respectively. Various organs at risk can be reliably segmented from CT scans by use of the three classes of segmentation methods.

  15. Automated vessel shadow segmentation of fovea-centered spectral-domain images from multiple OCT devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Gerendas, Bianca S.; Waldstein, Sebastian M.; Simader, Christian; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2014-03-01

    Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) is a non-invasive modality for acquiring high reso- lution, three-dimensional (3D) cross sectional volumetric images of the retina and the subretinal layers. SD-OCT also allows the detailed imaging of retinal pathology, aiding clinicians in the diagnosis of sight degrading diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma.1 Disease diagnosis, assessment, and treatment requires a patient to undergo multiple OCT scans, possibly using different scanning devices, to accurately and precisely gauge disease activity, progression and treatment success. However, the use of OCT imaging devices from different vendors, combined with patient movement may result in poor scan spatial correlation, potentially leading to incorrect patient diagnosis or treatment analysis. Image registration can be used to precisely compare disease states by registering differing 3D scans to one another. In order to align 3D scans from different time- points and vendors using registration, landmarks are required, the most obvious being the retinal vasculature. Presented here is a fully automated cross-vendor method to acquire retina vessel locations for OCT registration from fovea centred 3D SD-OCT scans based on vessel shadows. Noise filtered OCT scans are flattened based on vendor retinal layer segmentation, to extract the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer of the retina. Voxel based layer profile analysis and k-means clustering is used to extract candidate vessel shadow regions from the RPE layer. In conjunction, the extracted RPE layers are combined to generate a projection image featuring all candidate vessel shadows. Image processing methods for vessel segmentation of the OCT constructed projection image are then applied to optimize the accuracy of OCT vessel shadow segmentation through the removal of false positive shadow regions such as those caused by exudates and cysts. Validation of segmented vessel shadows uses

  16. Multiple functional units in the preattentive segmentation of speech in Japanese: evidence from word illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Miyoko; Kolinsky, Régine

    2014-12-01

    We explored the functional units of speech segmentation in Japanese using dichotic presentation and a detection task requiring no intentional sublexical analysis. Indeed, illusory perception of a target word might result from preattentive migration of phonemes, morae, or syllables from one ear to the other. In Experiment I, Japanese listeners detected targets presented in hiragana and/or kanji. Phoneme migrations did occur, suggesting that orthography-independent sublexical constituents play some role in segmentation. However, syllable and especially mora migrations were more numerous. This pattern of results was not observed in French speakers (Experiment 2), suggesting that it reflects native segmentation in Japanese. To control for the intervention of kanji representations (many words are written in kanji, and one kanji often corresponds to one syllable), in Experiment 3, Japanese listeners were presented with target loanwords that can be written only in katakana. Again, phoneme migrations occurred, while the first mora and syllable led to similar rates of illusory percepts. No migration occurred for the second, "special" mora (/J/ or/N/), probably because this constitutes the latter part of a heavy syllable. Overall, these findings suggest that multiple units, such as morae, syllables, and even phonemes, function independently of orthographic knowledge in Japanese preattentive speech segmentation.

  17. Effects of organ motion on IMRT treatments with segments of few monitor units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seco, J.; Sharp, G. C.; Turcotte, J.; Gierga, D.; Bortfeld, T.; Paganetti, H.

    2007-01-01

    Interplay between organ (breathing) motion and leaf motion has been shown in the literature to have a small dosimetric impact for clinical conditions (over a 30 fraction treatment). However, previous studies did not consider the case of treatment beams made up of many few-monitor-unit (MU) segments, where the segment delivery time (1-2 s) is of the order of the breathing period (3-5 s). In this study we assess if breathing compromises the radiotherapy treatment with IMRT segments of low number of MUs. We assess (i) how delivered dose varies, from patient to patient, with the number of MU per segment, (ii) if this delivered dose is identical to the average dose calculated without motion over the path of the motion, and (iii) the impact of the daily variation of the delivered dose as a function of MU per segment. The organ motion was studied along two orthogonal directions, representing the left-right and cranial-caudal directions of organ movement for a patient setup in the supine position. Breathing motion was modeled as sin(x), sin 4 (x), and sin 6 (x), based on functions used in the literature to represent organ motion. Measurements were performed with an ionization chamber and films. For a systematic study of motion effects, a MATLAB simulation was written to model organ movement and dose delivery. In the case of a single beam made up of one single segment, the dose delivered to point in a moving target over 30 fractions can vary up to 20% and 10% for segments of 10 MU and 20 MU, respectively. This dose error occurs because the tumor spends most of the time near the edges of the radiation beam. In the case of a single beam made of multiple segments with low MU, we observed 2.4%, 3.3%, and 4.3% differences, respectively, for sin(x), sin 4 (x), and sin 6 (x) motion, between delivered dose and motion-averaged dose for points in the penumbra region of the beam and over 30 fractions. In approximately 5-10% of the cases, differences between the motion-averaged dose

  18. AUDIT DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL INFORMATION ON OPERATING SEGMENTS THE ACTIVITIES OF THE ORGANIZATIONS OF TOURIST SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Николаевна Скорикова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions market economy for take decisions of use services tourist organizations, users not enough relevant information of financial result activities.The article considered audit disclosure relevant information on operating segments activities, for example tourist organizations.In result research considered operating segments on current and discontinued activities, and their impact on disclosure relevant information of financial result.Proposed option disclosure relevant information on operating segments activities in explanatory Note to the annual financial statements.Received results prove, that information on operating segments activities essential in all aspects.Results research has as theoretical so and practical significance, and can used at further development theoretical and practical questions on disclosure relevant information of activities organizations of tourist sphere.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-2

  19. Multi-output decision trees for lesion segmentation in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jog, Amod; Carass, Aaron; Pham, Dzung L.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2015-03-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system in which the protective myelin sheath of the neurons is damaged. MS leads to the formation of lesions, predominantly in the white matter of the brain and the spinal cord. The number and volume of lesions visible in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) are important criteria for diagnosing and tracking the progression of MS. Locating and delineating lesions manually requires the tedious and expensive efforts of highly trained raters. In this paper, we propose an automated algorithm to segment lesions in MR images using multi-output decision trees. We evaluated our algorithm on the publicly available MICCAI 2008 MS Lesion Segmentation Challenge training dataset of 20 subjects, and showed improved results in comparison to state-of-the-art methods. We also evaluated our algorithm on an in-house dataset of 49 subjects with a true positive rate of 0.41 and a positive predictive value 0.36.

  20. Improving automated multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation with a cascaded 3D convolutional neural network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Sergi; Cabezas, Mariano; Roura, Eloy; González-Villà, Sandra; Pareto, Deborah; Vilanova, Joan C; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Rovira, Àlex; Oliver, Arnau; Lladó, Xavier

    2017-07-15

    In this paper, we present a novel automated method for White Matter (WM) lesion segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patient images. Our approach is based on a cascade of two 3D patch-wise convolutional neural networks (CNN). The first network is trained to be more sensitive revealing possible candidate lesion voxels while the second network is trained to reduce the number of misclassified voxels coming from the first network. This cascaded CNN architecture tends to learn well from a small (n≤35) set of labeled data of the same MRI contrast, which can be very interesting in practice, given the difficulty to obtain manual label annotations and the large amount of available unlabeled Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data. We evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method on the public MS lesion segmentation challenge MICCAI2008 dataset, comparing it with respect to other state-of-the-art MS lesion segmentation tools. Furthermore, the proposed method is also evaluated on two private MS clinical datasets, where the performance of our method is also compared with different recent public available state-of-the-art MS lesion segmentation methods. At the time of writing this paper, our method is the best ranked approach on the MICCAI2008 challenge, outperforming the rest of 60 participant methods when using all the available input modalities (T1-w, T2-w and FLAIR), while still in the top-rank (3rd position) when using only T1-w and FLAIR modalities. On clinical MS data, our approach exhibits a significant increase in the accuracy segmenting of WM lesions when compared with the rest of evaluated methods, highly correlating (r≥0.97) also with the expected lesion volume. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fast automated segmentation of multiple objects via spatially weighted shape learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Shekhar S.; Dowling, Jason A.; Greer, Peter B.; Martin, Jarad; Wratten, Chris; Pichler, Peter; Fripp, Jurgen; Crozier, Stuart

    2016-11-01

    Active shape models (ASMs) have proved successful in automatic segmentation by using shape and appearance priors in a number of areas such as prostate segmentation, where accurate contouring is important in treatment planning for prostate cancer. The ASM approach however, is heavily reliant on a good initialisation for achieving high segmentation quality. This initialisation often requires algorithms with high computational complexity, such as three dimensional (3D) image registration. In this work, we present a fast, self-initialised ASM approach that simultaneously fits multiple objects hierarchically controlled by spatially weighted shape learning. Prominent objects are targeted initially and spatial weights are progressively adjusted so that the next (more difficult, less visible) object is simultaneously initialised using a series of weighted shape models. The scheme was validated and compared to a multi-atlas approach on 3D magnetic resonance (MR) images of 38 cancer patients and had the same (mean, median, inter-rater) Dice’s similarity coefficients of (0.79, 0.81, 0.85), while having no registration error and a computational time of 12-15 min, nearly an order of magnitude faster than the multi-atlas approach.

  2. Brain tissue segmentation using q-entropy in multiple sclerosis magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, P.R.B.; Brum, D.G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurociencias e Ciencias do Comportamento; Santos, A. C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Clinica Medica; Murta-Junior, L.O.; Araujo, D.B. de, E-mail: murta@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2010-01-15

    The loss of brain volume has been used as a marker of tissue destruction and can be used as an index of the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we tested a new method for tissue segmentation based on pixel intensity threshold using generalized Tsallis entropy to determine a statistical segmentation parameter for each single class of brain tissue. We compared the performance of this method using a range of different q parameters and found a different optimal q parameter for white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Our results support the conclusion that the differences in structural correlations and scale invariant similarities present in each tissue class can be accessed by generalized Tsallis entropy, obtaining the intensity limits for these tissue class separations. In order to test this method, we used it for analysis of brain magnetic resonance images of 43 patients and 10 healthy controls matched for gender and age. The values found for the entropic q index were 0.2 for cerebrospinal fluid, 0.1 for white matter and 1.5 for gray matter. With this algorithm, we could detect an annual loss of 0.98% for the patients, in agreement with literature data. Thus, we can conclude that the entropy of Tsallis adds advantages to the process of automatic target segmentation of tissue classes, which had not been demonstrated previously. (author)

  3. Brain tissue segmentation using q-entropy in multiple sclerosis magnetic resonance images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.B. Diniz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of brain volume has been used as a marker of tissue destruction and can be used as an index of the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we tested a new method for tissue segmentation based on pixel intensity threshold using generalized Tsallis entropy to determine a statistical segmentation parameter for each single class of brain tissue. We compared the performance of this method using a range of different q parameters and found a different optimal q parameter for white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Our results support the conclusion that the differences in structural correlations and scale invariant similarities present in each tissue class can be accessed by generalized Tsallis entropy, obtaining the intensity limits for these tissue class separations. In order to test this method, we used it for analysis of brain magnetic resonance images of 43 patients and 10 healthy controls matched for gender and age. The values found for the entropic q index were 0.2 for cerebrospinal fluid, 0.1 for white matter and 1.5 for gray matter. With this algorithm, we could detect an annual loss of 0.98% for the patients, in agreement with literature data. Thus, we can conclude that the entropy of Tsallis adds advantages to the process of automatic target segmentation of tissue classes, which had not been demonstrated previously.

  4. Brain tissue segmentation using q-entropy in multiple sclerosis magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, P.R.B.; Brum, D.G.; Santos, A. C.; Murta-Junior, L.O.; Araujo, D.B. de

    2010-01-01

    The loss of brain volume has been used as a marker of tissue destruction and can be used as an index of the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we tested a new method for tissue segmentation based on pixel intensity threshold using generalized Tsallis entropy to determine a statistical segmentation parameter for each single class of brain tissue. We compared the performance of this method using a range of different q parameters and found a different optimal q parameter for white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Our results support the conclusion that the differences in structural correlations and scale invariant similarities present in each tissue class can be accessed by generalized Tsallis entropy, obtaining the intensity limits for these tissue class separations. In order to test this method, we used it for analysis of brain magnetic resonance images of 43 patients and 10 healthy controls matched for gender and age. The values found for the entropic q index were 0.2 for cerebrospinal fluid, 0.1 for white matter and 1.5 for gray matter. With this algorithm, we could detect an annual loss of 0.98% for the patients, in agreement with literature data. Thus, we can conclude that the entropy of Tsallis adds advantages to the process of automatic target segmentation of tissue classes, which had not been demonstrated previously. (author)

  5. 3D liver segmentation using multiple region appearances and graph cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Jialin, E-mail: 2004pjl@163.com; Zhang, Hongbo [College of Computer Science and Technology, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021 (China); Hu, Peijun; Lu, Fang; Kong, Dexing [College of Mathematics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Peng, Zhiyi [Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Efficient and accurate 3D liver segmentations from contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) images play an important role in therapeutic strategies for hepatic diseases. However, inhomogeneous appearances, ambiguous boundaries, and large variance in shape often make it a challenging task. The existence of liver abnormalities poses further difficulty. Despite the significant intensity difference, liver tumors should be segmented as part of the liver. This study aims to address these challenges, especially when the target livers contain subregions with distinct appearances. Methods: The authors propose a novel multiregion-appearance based approach with graph cuts to delineate the liver surface. For livers with multiple subregions, a geodesic distance based appearance selection scheme is introduced to utilize proper appearance constraint for each subregion. A special case of the proposed method, which uses only one appearance constraint to segment the liver, is also presented. The segmentation process is modeled with energy functions incorporating both boundary and region information. Rather than a simple fixed combination, an adaptive balancing weight is introduced and learned from training sets. The proposed method only calls initialization inside the liver surface. No additional constraints from user interaction are utilized. Results: The proposed method was validated on 50 3D CT images from three datasets, i.e., Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI) training and testing set, and local dataset. On MICCAI testing set, the proposed method achieved a total score of 83.4 ± 3.1, outperforming nonexpert manual segmentation (average score of 75.0). When applying their method to MICCAI training set and local dataset, it yielded a mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 97.7% ± 0.5% and 97.5% ± 0.4%, respectively. These results demonstrated the accuracy of the method when applied to different computed tomography (CT) datasets

  6. An Innovative Technique to Assess Spontaneous Baroreflex Sensitivity with Short Data Segments: Multiple Trigonometric Regressive Spectral Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Rüdiger, Heinz; Haase, Rocco; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2018-01-01

    Objective: As the multiple trigonometric regressive spectral (MTRS) analysis is extraordinary in its ability to analyze short local data segments down to 12 s, we wanted to evaluate the impact of the data segment settings by applying the technique of MTRS analysis for baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) estimation using a standardized data pool. Methods: Spectral and baroreflex analyses were performed on the EuroBaVar dataset (42 recordings, including lying and standing positions). For this analysis, the technique of MTRS was used. We used different global and local data segment lengths, and chose the global data segments from different positions. Three global data segments of 1 and 2 min and three local data segments of 12, 20, and 30 s were used in MTRS analysis for BRS. Results: All the BRS-values calculated on the three global data segments were highly correlated, both in the supine and standing positions; the different global data segments provided similar BRS estimations. When using different local data segments, all the BRS-values were also highly correlated. However, in the supine position, using short local data segments of 12 s overestimated BRS compared with those using 20 and 30 s. In the standing position, the BRS estimations using different local data segments were comparable. There was no proportional bias for the comparisons between different BRS estimations. Conclusion: We demonstrate that BRS estimation by the MTRS technique is stable when using different global data segments, and MTRS is extraordinary in its ability to evaluate BRS in even short local data segments (20 and 30 s). Because of the non-stationary character of most biosignals, the MTRS technique would be preferable for BRS analysis especially in conditions when only short stationary data segments are available or when dynamic changes of BRS should be monitored.

  7. Single locus affects embryonic segment polarity and multiple aspects of an adult evolutionary novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saenko Suzanne V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The characterization of the molecular changes that underlie the origin and diversification of morphological novelties is a key challenge in evolutionary developmental biology. The evolution of such traits is thought to rely largely on co-option of a toolkit of conserved developmental genes that typically perform multiple functions. Mutations that affect both a universal developmental process and the formation of a novelty might shed light onto the genetics of traits not represented in model systems. Here we describe three pleiotropic mutations with large effects on a novel trait, butterfly eyespots, and on a conserved stage of embryogenesis, segment polarity. Results We show that three mutations affecting eyespot size and/or colour composition in Bicyclus anynana butterflies occurred in the same locus, and that two of them are embryonic recessive lethal. Using surgical manipulations and analysis of gene expression patterns in developing wings, we demonstrate that the effects on eyespot morphology are due to changes in the epidermal response component of eyespot induction. Our analysis of morphology and of gene expression in mutant embryos shows that they have a typical segment polarity phenotype, consistent with the mutant locus encoding a negative regulator of Wingless signalling. Conclusions This study characterizes the segregation and developmental effects of alleles at a single locus that controls the morphology of a lineage-specific trait (butterfly eyespots and a conserved process (embryonic segment polarity and, specifically, the regulation of Wingless signalling. Because no gene with such function was found in the orthologous, highly syntenic genomic regions of two other lepidopterans, we hypothesize that our locus is a yet undescribed, possibly lineage-specific, negative regulator of the conserved Wnt/Wg pathway. Moreover, the fact that this locus interferes with multiple aspects of eyespot morphology and maps to a

  8. Structural controls on the megathrust segmentation of the Middle America Trench from multiple geophysical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naif, S.; Bassett, D.

    2016-12-01

    Subduction zone megathrusts display complex seismogenic behaviors that vary at intra- and inter-margin scales. Many different physical properties have been proposed to be primarily responsible for this behavior, such as the composition of subducted sediments, the hydration state of the incoming oceanic plate, and the pore-fluid pressure at the plate interface. Here, we focus on the northern Middle America Trench and show that subducting plate structures control megathrust segmentation. We analyze multiple types of seafloor geophysical observations and compare them to the distinct behavioral and spatial characteristics of the 1992 Nicaragua (Mw7.6), 2012 El Salvador (Mw7.3), 2012 Guatemala (Mw7.4), and 2012 Costa Rica (Mw7.6) events. The residual topography, residual gravity, and magnetic anomaly structure of the incoming oceanic plate and forearc seafloor are correlated. The forearc is composed of multiple unique segments that are bounded by subducting fracture zones. These boundaries correlate with foreshock and aftershock seismicity and also coincide with the hypocenter of all four earthquakes. The relationship between observed structures, earthquake slip inversions, and radiated energy of the four large events will be discussed.

  9. Integrated readout of organic scintillator and ZnS:Ag/6LiF for segmented antineutrino detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiff, Scott D.; Reyna, David; Monahan, James; Bowden, Nathaniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Antineutrino detection using inverse beta decay conversion has demonstrated the capability to measure nuclear reactor power and fissile material content for nuclear safeguards. Current efforts focus on aboveground deployment scenarios, for which highly efficient capture and identification of neutrons is needed to measure the anticipated antineutrino event rates in an elevated background environment. In this submission, we report on initial characterization of a new scintillation-based segmented design that uses layers of ZnS:Ag/ 6 LiF and an integrated readout technique to capture and identify neutrons created in the inverse beta decay reaction. Laboratory studies with multiple organic scintillator and ZnS:Ag/ 6 LiF configurations reliably identify 6 Li neutron captures in 60 cm-long segments using pulse shape discrimination.

  10. Coronary artery analysis: Computer-assisted selection of best-quality segments in multiple-phase coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Chuan, E-mail: chuan@umich.edu; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiyski, Lubomir M.; Chughtai, Aamer; Wei, Jun; Kazerooni, Ella A. [Department of Radiology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0904 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: The authors are developing an automated method to identify the best-quality coronary arterial segment from multiple-phase coronary CT angiography (cCTA) acquisitions, which may be used by either interpreting physicians or computer-aided detection systems to optimally and efficiently utilize the diagnostic information available in multiple-phase cCTA for the detection of coronary artery disease. Methods: After initialization with a manually identified seed point, each coronary artery tree is automatically extracted from multiple cCTA phases using our multiscale coronary artery response enhancement and 3D rolling balloon region growing vessel segmentation and tracking method. The coronary artery trees from multiple phases are then aligned by a global registration using an affine transformation with quadratic terms and nonlinear simplex optimization, followed by a local registration using a cubic B-spline method with fast localized optimization. The corresponding coronary arteries among the available phases are identified using a recursive coronary segment matching method. Each of the identified vessel segments is transformed by the curved planar reformation (CPR) method. Four features are extracted from each corresponding segment as quality indicators in the original computed tomography volume and the straightened CPR volume, and each quality indicator is used as a voting classifier for the arterial segment. A weighted voting ensemble (WVE) classifier is designed to combine the votes of the four voting classifiers for each corresponding segment. The segment with the highest WVE vote is then selected as the best-quality segment. In this study, the training and test sets consisted of 6 and 20 cCTA cases, respectively, each with 6 phases, containing a total of 156 cCTA volumes and 312 coronary artery trees. An observer preference study was also conducted with one expert cardiothoracic radiologist and four nonradiologist readers to visually rank vessel segment

  11. Coronary artery analysis: Computer-assisted selection of best-quality segments in multiple-phase coronary CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiyski, Lubomir M.; Chughtai, Aamer; Wei, Jun; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors are developing an automated method to identify the best-quality coronary arterial segment from multiple-phase coronary CT angiography (cCTA) acquisitions, which may be used by either interpreting physicians or computer-aided detection systems to optimally and efficiently utilize the diagnostic information available in multiple-phase cCTA for the detection of coronary artery disease. Methods: After initialization with a manually identified seed point, each coronary artery tree is automatically extracted from multiple cCTA phases using our multiscale coronary artery response enhancement and 3D rolling balloon region growing vessel segmentation and tracking method. The coronary artery trees from multiple phases are then aligned by a global registration using an affine transformation with quadratic terms and nonlinear simplex optimization, followed by a local registration using a cubic B-spline method with fast localized optimization. The corresponding coronary arteries among the available phases are identified using a recursive coronary segment matching method. Each of the identified vessel segments is transformed by the curved planar reformation (CPR) method. Four features are extracted from each corresponding segment as quality indicators in the original computed tomography volume and the straightened CPR volume, and each quality indicator is used as a voting classifier for the arterial segment. A weighted voting ensemble (WVE) classifier is designed to combine the votes of the four voting classifiers for each corresponding segment. The segment with the highest WVE vote is then selected as the best-quality segment. In this study, the training and test sets consisted of 6 and 20 cCTA cases, respectively, each with 6 phases, containing a total of 156 cCTA volumes and 312 coronary artery trees. An observer preference study was also conducted with one expert cardiothoracic radiologist and four nonradiologist readers to visually rank vessel segment

  12. Segmentation of Natural Gas Customers in Industrial Sector Using Self-Organizing Map (SOM) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbar Rus, A. M.; Pramudita, R.; Surjandari, I.

    2018-03-01

    The usage of the natural gas which is non-renewable energy, needs to be more efficient. Therefore, customer segmentation becomes necessary to set up a marketing strategy to be right on target or to determine an appropriate fee. This research was conducted at PT PGN using one of data mining method, i.e. Self-Organizing Map (SOM). The clustering process is based on the characteristic of its customers as a reference to create the customer segmentation of natural gas customers. The input variables of this research are variable of area, type of customer, the industrial sector, the average usage, standard deviation of the usage, and the total deviation. As a result, 37 cluster and 9 segment from 838 customer data are formed. These 9 segments then employed to illustrate the general characteristic of the natural gas customer of PT PGN.

  13. Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Axel; Balcer, Laura J; Calabresi, Peter A; Costello, Fiona; Frohman, Teresa C; Frohman, Elliot M; Martinez-Lapiscina, Elena H; Green, Ari J; Kardon, Randy; Outteryck, Olivier; Paul, Friedemann; Schippling, Sven; Vermersch, Patrik; Villoslada, Pablo; Balk, Lisanne J

    2017-10-01

    Structural retinal imaging biomarkers are important for early recognition and monitoring of inflammation and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis. With the introduction of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), supervised automated segmentation of individual retinal layers is possible. We aimed to investigate which retinal layers show atrophy associated with neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis when measured with SD-OCT. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched for studies in which SD-OCT was used to look at the retina in people with multiple sclerosis with or without optic neuritis in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar between Nov 22, 1991, and April 19, 2016. Data were taken from cross-sectional cohorts and from one timepoint from longitudinal studies (at least 3 months after onset in studies of optic neuritis). We classified data on eyes into healthy controls, multiple-sclerosis-associated optic neuritis (MSON), and multiple sclerosis without optic neuritis (MSNON). We assessed thickness of the retinal layers and we rated individual layer segmentation performance by random effects meta-analysis for MSON eyes versus control eyes, MSNON eyes versus control eyes, and MSNON eyes versus MSON eyes. We excluded relevant sources of bias by funnel plots. Of 25 497 records identified, 110 articles were eligible and 40 reported data (in total 5776 eyes from patients with multiple sclerosis [1667 MSON eyes and 4109 MSNON eyes] and 1697 eyes from healthy controls) that met published OCT quality control criteria and were suitable for meta-analysis. Compared with control eyes, the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) showed thinning in MSON eyes (mean difference -20·10 μm, 95% CI -22·76 to -17·44; pmultiple sclerosis and control eyes were found in the peripapillary RNFL and macular GCIPL. Inflammatory disease activity might be captured by the INL. Because of the consistency, robustness, and large effect size, we

  14. Formation Features of the Customer Segments for the Network Organizations in the Smart Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Yaroshenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern network society is based on the advances of information era of Smart, connecting information and communication technologies, intellectual resources and new forms of managing in the global electronic space. It leads to domination of network forms of the organization of economic activity. Many experts prove the importance of segmentation process of consumers when developing competitive strategy of the organization. Every company needs a competent segmentation of the customer base, allowing to concentrate the attention on satisfaction of requirements of the most perspective client segments. The network organizations have specific characteristics; therefore, it is important to understand how they can influence on the formation of client profiles. It causes the necessity of the network organizations’ research in terms of management of high-profitable client segments.The aim of this study is to determine the characteristics of the market segmentation and to choose the key customers for the network organizations. This purpose has defined the statement and the solution of the following tasks: to explore characteristic features of the network forms of the organization of economic activity of the companies, their prospects, Smart technologies’ influence on them; to reveal the work importance with different client profiles; to explore the existing methods and tools of formation of key customer segments; to define criteria for selection of key groups; to reveal the characteristics of customer segments’ formation for the network organizations.In the research process, methods of the system analysis, a method of analogies, methods of generalizations, a method of the expert evaluations, methods of classification and clustering were applied.This paper explores the characteristics and principles of functioning of network organizations, the appearance of which is directly linked with the development of Smart society. It shows the influence on the

  15. Evaluating the effect of multiple sclerosis lesions on automatic brain structure segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra González-Villà

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many automatic brain structure segmentation methods have been proposed. However, these methods are commonly tested with non-lesioned brains and the effect of lesions on their performance has not been evaluated. Here, we analyze the effect of multiple sclerosis (MS lesions on three well-known automatic brain structure segmentation methods, namely, FreeSurfer, FIRST and multi-atlas fused by majority voting, which use learning-based, deformable and atlas-based strategies, respectively. To perform a quantitative analysis, 100 synthetic images of MS patients with a total of 2174 lesions are simulated on two public databases with available brain structure ground truth information (IBSR18 and MICCAI’12. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC differences and the volume differences between the healthy and the simulated images are calculated for the subcortical structures and the brainstem. We observe that the three strategies are affected when lesions are present. However, the effects of the lesions do not follow the same pattern; the lesions either make the segmentation method underperform or surprisingly augment the segmentation accuracy. The obtained results show that FreeSurfer is the method most affected by the presence of lesions, with DSC differences (generated − healthy ranging from −0.11 ± 0.54 to 9.65 ± 9.87, whereas FIRST tends to be the most robust method when lesions are present (−2.40 ± 5.54 to 0.44 ± 0.94. Lesion location is not important for global strategies such as FreeSurfer or majority voting, where structure segmentation is affected wherever the lesions exist. On the other hand, FIRST is more affected when the lesions are overlaid or close to the structure of analysis. The most affected structure by the presence of lesions is the nucleus accumbens (from −1.12 ± 2.53 to 1.32 ± 4.00 for the left hemisphere and from −2.40 ± 5.54 to 9.65 ± 9.87 for the right hemisphere, whereas the

  16. Segmentation algorithm on smartphone dual camera: application to plant organs in the wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Sarah; Cerutti, Guillaume; Tougne, Laure

    2018-04-01

    In order to identify the species of a tree, the different organs that are the leaves, the bark, the flowers and the fruits, are inspected by botanists. So as to develop an algorithm that identifies automatically the species, we need to extract these objects of interest from their complex natural environment. In this article, we focus on the segmentation of flowers and fruits and we present a new method of segmentation based on an active contour algorithm using two probability maps. The first map is constructed via the dual camera that we can find on the back of the latest smartphones. The second map is made with the help of a multilayer perceptron (MLP). The combination of these two maps to drive the evolution of the object contour allows an efficient segmentation of the organ from a natural background.

  17. A whole body atlas for segmentation and delineation of organs for radiation therapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qatarneh, S.M.; Crafoord, J.; Kramer, E.L.; Maguire, G.Q.; Brahme, A.; Noz, M.E.; Hyoedynmaa, S.

    2001-01-01

    A semi-automatic procedure for delineation of organs to be used as the basis of a whole body atlas database for radiation therapy planning was developed. The Visible Human Male Computed Tomography (CT)-data set was used as a 'standard man' reference. The organ of interest was outlined manually and then transformed by a polynomial warping algorithm onto a clinical patient CT. This provided an initial contour, which was then adjusted and refined by the semi-automatic active contour model to find the final organ outline. The liver was used as a test organ for evaluating the performance of the procedure. Liver outlines obtained by the segmentation algorithm on six patients were compared to those manually drawn by a radiologist. The combination of warping and semi-automatic active contour model generally provided satisfactory segmentation results, but the procedure has to be extended to three dimensions

  18. User Interaction in Semi-Automatic Segmentation of Organs at Risk: a Case Study in Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Anjana; Dolz, Jose; Kirisli, Hortense A; Adebahr, Sonja; Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Nestle, Ursula; Massoptier, Laurent; Varga, Edit; Stappers, Pieter Jan; Niessen, Wiro J; Song, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Accurate segmentation of organs at risk is an important step in radiotherapy planning. Manual segmentation being a tedious procedure and prone to inter- and intra-observer variability, there is a growing interest in automated segmentation methods. However, automatic methods frequently fail to provide satisfactory result, and post-processing corrections are often needed. Semi-automatic segmentation methods are designed to overcome these problems by combining physicians' expertise and computers' potential. This study evaluates two semi-automatic segmentation methods with different types of user interactions, named the "strokes" and the "contour", to provide insights into the role and impact of human-computer interaction. Two physicians participated in the experiment. In total, 42 case studies were carried out on five different types of organs at risk. For each case study, both the human-computer interaction process and quality of the segmentation results were measured subjectively and objectively. Furthermore, different measures of the process and the results were correlated. A total of 36 quantifiable and ten non-quantifiable correlations were identified for each type of interaction. Among those pairs of measures, 20 of the contour method and 22 of the strokes method were strongly or moderately correlated, either directly or inversely. Based on those correlated measures, it is concluded that: (1) in the design of semi-automatic segmentation methods, user interactions need to be less cognitively challenging; (2) based on the observed workflows and preferences of physicians, there is a need for flexibility in the interface design; (3) the correlated measures provide insights that can be used in improving user interaction design.

  19. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Bo Zhai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report one case of a three-year-old boy infected with Mycoplasma pneumonia (MP and presenting concomitant multiple organ damage of the heart, kidney, lung and liver, among others, together with a brief review for the diagnosis and treatment of MP infection with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS.

  20. Regeneration of Surgically Excised Segments of Dog Esophagus using Biodegradable PLA Hollow Organ Grafts,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    7 AG 396 ARMY INST OF DENTAL RESEARCH WASHINGTON DC FIG 6/5 REGENERATION OF SURGICALLY EXCISED SEGMENTS OF DOG ESOPHAGUS US-ETC(W) U15 G’OE UN8 N F...the graft; infection; inadequate blood supply; difficulties in suture retention; leakage at the anastomatic sites; stenosis of the anasto- mosis...excised segment of the dog esophagus. On a conceptual L- J basis, the use of a biodegradable polymer to fabricate a successful J hollow organ graft holds

  1. Differences in axial segment reorientation during standing turns predict multiple falls in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rachel L; Peters, Derek M; Robinson, Paul D; Sitch, Alice J; Watt, Thomas N; Hollands, Mark A

    2012-07-01

    The assessment of standing turning performance is proposed to predict fall risk in older adults. This study investigated differences in segmental coordination during a 360° standing turn task between older community-dwelling fallers and non-fallers. Thirty-five older adults age mean (SD) of 71 (5.4) years performed 360° standing turns. Head, trunk and pelvis position relative to the laboratory and each other were recorded using a Vicon motion analysis system. Fall incidence was monitored by monthly questionnaire over the following 12 months and used to identify non-faller, single faller and multiple faller groups. Multiple fallers were found to have significantly different values, when compared to non-fallers, for pelvis onset (p=0.002); mean angular separation in the transverse plane between the head and trunk (p=0.018); peak angular separation in the transverse plane between the trunk and pelvis (p=0.013); and mean angular separation between the trunk and pelvis (pfalls show a simplified turning pattern to assist in balance control. This may be a predictor for those at increased risk of falling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multi-organ segmentation from multi-phase abdominal CT via 4D graphs using enhancement, shape and location optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguraru, Marius George; Pura, John A; Chowdhury, Ananda S; Summers, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation of medical images benefits from anatomical and physiological priors to optimize computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) applications. Diagnosis also relies on the comprehensive analysis of multiple organs and quantitative measures of soft tissue. An automated method optimized for medical image data is presented for the simultaneous segmentation of four abdominal organs from 4D CT data using graph cuts. Contrast-enhanced CT scans were obtained at two phases: non-contrast and portal venous. Intra-patient data were spatially normalized by non-linear registration. Then 4D erosion using population historic information of contrast-enhanced liver, spleen, and kidneys was applied to multi-phase data to initialize the 4D graph and adapt to patient specific data. CT enhancement information and constraints on shape, from Parzen windows, and location, from a probabilistic atlas, were input into a new formulation of a 4D graph. Comparative results demonstrate the effects of appearance and enhancement, and shape and location on organ segmentation.

  3. Mielodisplasia segmentar múltipla em gato Multiple segmental myelodysplasia in cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alberto Tudury

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de uma gata Siamês de seis meses de idade que desde o nascimento apresentava paraplegia espástica associada à incontinência fecal e urinária. No exame neurológico, exibia paralisia, analgesia, hiperreflexia e perda das reações posturais nos membros posteriores. Radiografias simples e contrastadas (mielografia da coluna vertebral toracolombar evidenciaram estreitamentos do canal vertebral na região lombar e da medula espinhal, vértebras torácicas e lombares. Na necropsia e exame histopatológico, verificou-se hipoplasia segmentar caracterizada pelo afinamento localizado da medula espinhal em T4-T6 e L2-L3, depleção neuronal na substância cinzenta e filetes nervosos interligando as partes craniais e caudais, todos recobertos por dura mater íntegra e espessada. Essas alterações permitiram concluir o diagnóstico de mielodisplasia segmentar múltipla.A 6 month old female siamese cat presented since birth spastic paraplegy associated to urinary and fecal incontinence. The neurological examination showed paralysis, analgesia, increased reflexes and damage of the postural reaction in pelvic limbs. Simple and contrasted (myelography radiography of the thoracolumbar vertebral column showed a lumbar vertebral canal stenosis and narrowing of the spinal cord on thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. On necropsy and histopathology examination it was observed a segmental hypoplasia characterized for narrowing of the spinal cord in T4-T6 and L2-L3, neuronal depletion in gray substance, and nervous filaments connecting the cranial and caudal parts that was covered for entire and dense dura mater. This alteration characteristic a multiple segmental myelodysplasia.

  4. Automated torso organ segmentation from 3D CT images using structured perceptron and dual decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimura, Yukitaka; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a method for torso organ segmentation from abdominal CT images using structured perceptron and dual decomposition. A lot of methods have been proposed to enable automated extraction of organ regions from volumetric medical images. However, it is necessary to adjust empirical parameters of them to obtain precise organ regions. This paper proposes an organ segmentation method using structured output learning. Our method utilizes a graphical model and binary features which represent the relationship between voxel intensities and organ labels. Also we optimize the weights of the graphical model by structured perceptron and estimate the best organ label for a given image by dynamic programming and dual decomposition. The experimental result revealed that the proposed method can extract organ regions automatically using structured output learning. The error of organ label estimation was 4.4%. The DICE coefficients of left lung, right lung, heart, liver, spleen, pancreas, left kidney, right kidney, and gallbladder were 0.91, 0.95, 0.77, 0.81, 0.74, 0.08, 0.83, 0.84, and 0.03, respectively.

  5. Effects of Armature Winding Segmentation with Multiple Converters on the Short Circuit Torque of 10-MW Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting synchronous generators (SCSGs) are drawing more attention in large direct-drive wind turbine applications. Despite low weight and compactness, the short circuit torque of an SCSG may be too high for wind turbine constructions due to a large magnetic air gap of an SCSG. This paper...... aims at assessing the effects of armature winding segmentation on reducing the short circuit torque of 10-MW SCSGs. A concept of armature winding segmentation with multiple power electronic converters is presented. Four SCSG designs using different topologies are examined. Results show that armature...... winding segmentation effectively reduce the short circuit torque in all the four SCSG designs when one segment is shorted at the terminal....

  6. Multiple Perspectives on Organizing: projects between tyranny and perforation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bendixen, Mads

    2005-01-01

    engineering organizations are the need for multiple organizing principles and management to bridge contradictory and competing concerns for skill development, resource alignment and innovation efforts; and a strong need to focus on soft management practices such as mediation, brokering and coaching....... its projects and the spatial/community dimension. This enables an understanding of the multiple, often contrasting, organizing dynamics in the organization as well as diverse interests and groups found within this type of organization. It finds that it is not only the clients of the company who rule...

  7. TMVOC, simulator for multiple volatile organic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, Karsten; Battistelli, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    TMVOC is a numerical simulator for three-phase non-isothermal flow of water, soil gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. It is an extension of the TOUGH2 general-purpose simulation program developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. TMVOC is designed for applications to contamination problems that involve hydrocarbon fuel or organic solvent spills in saturated and unsaturated zones. It can model contaminant behavior under ''natural'' environmental conditions, as well as for engineered systems, such as soil vapor extraction, groundwater pumping, or steam-assisted source remediation. TMVOC is upwards compatible with T2VOC (Falta et al., 1995) and can be initialized from T2VOC-style initial conditions. The main enhancements in TMVOC relative to T2VOC are as follows: a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals can be modeled; any and all combinations of the three phases water-oil-gas are treated; several non-condensible gases may be present; diffusion is treated in all phases in a manner that is fully coupled with phase partitioning. This paper gives a brief summary of the methodology used in TMVOC as well as highlighting some implementation issues. Simulation of a NAPL spill and subsequent remediation is discussed for a 2-D vertical section of a saturated-unsaturated flow problem

  8. Semiautomatic bladder segmentation on CBCT using a population-based model for multiple-plan ART of bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a novel semiautomatic bladder segmentation approach for selecting the appropriate plan from the library of plans for a multiple-plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) procedure. A population-based statistical bladder model was first built from a training data set (95

  9. SU-F-J-113: Multi-Atlas Based Automatic Organ Segmentation for Lung Radiotherapy Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J; Han, J; Ailawadi, S; Baker, J; Hsia, A; Xu, Z; Ryu, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Normal organ segmentation is one time-consuming and labor-intensive step for lung radiotherapy treatment planning. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of a multi-atlas based segmentation approach for automatic organs at risk (OAR) delineation. Methods: Fifteen Lung stereotactic body radiation therapy patients were randomly selected. Planning CT images and OAR contours of the heart - HT, aorta - AO, vena cava - VC, pulmonary trunk - PT, and esophagus – ES were exported and used as reference and atlas sets. For automatic organ delineation for a given target CT, 1) all atlas sets were deformably warped to the target CT, 2) the deformed sets were accumulated and normalized to produce organ probability density (OPD) maps, and 3) the OPD maps were converted to contours via image thresholding. Optimal threshold for each organ was empirically determined by comparing the auto-segmented contours against their respective reference contours. The delineated results were evaluated by measuring contour similarity metrics: DICE, mean distance (MD), and true detection rate (TD), where DICE=(intersection volume/sum of two volumes) and TD = {1.0 - (false positive + false negative)/2.0}. Diffeomorphic Demons algorithm was employed for CT-CT deformable image registrations. Results: Optimal thresholds were determined to be 0.53 for HT, 0.38 for AO, 0.28 for PT, 0.43 for VC, and 0.31 for ES. The mean similarity metrics (DICE[%], MD[mm], TD[%]) were (88, 3.2, 89) for HT, (79, 3.2, 82) for AO, (75, 2.7, 77) for PT, (68, 3.4, 73) for VC, and (51,2.7, 60) for ES. Conclusion: The investigated multi-atlas based approach produced reliable segmentations for the organs with large and relatively clear boundaries (HT and AO). However, the detection of small and narrow organs with diffused boundaries (ES) were challenging. Sophisticated atlas selection and multi-atlas fusion algorithms may further improve the quality of segmentations.

  10. SU-F-J-113: Multi-Atlas Based Automatic Organ Segmentation for Lung Radiotherapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J; Han, J; Ailawadi, S; Baker, J; Hsia, A; Xu, Z; Ryu, S [Stony Brook University Hospital, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Normal organ segmentation is one time-consuming and labor-intensive step for lung radiotherapy treatment planning. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of a multi-atlas based segmentation approach for automatic organs at risk (OAR) delineation. Methods: Fifteen Lung stereotactic body radiation therapy patients were randomly selected. Planning CT images and OAR contours of the heart - HT, aorta - AO, vena cava - VC, pulmonary trunk - PT, and esophagus – ES were exported and used as reference and atlas sets. For automatic organ delineation for a given target CT, 1) all atlas sets were deformably warped to the target CT, 2) the deformed sets were accumulated and normalized to produce organ probability density (OPD) maps, and 3) the OPD maps were converted to contours via image thresholding. Optimal threshold for each organ was empirically determined by comparing the auto-segmented contours against their respective reference contours. The delineated results were evaluated by measuring contour similarity metrics: DICE, mean distance (MD), and true detection rate (TD), where DICE=(intersection volume/sum of two volumes) and TD = {1.0 - (false positive + false negative)/2.0}. Diffeomorphic Demons algorithm was employed for CT-CT deformable image registrations. Results: Optimal thresholds were determined to be 0.53 for HT, 0.38 for AO, 0.28 for PT, 0.43 for VC, and 0.31 for ES. The mean similarity metrics (DICE[%], MD[mm], TD[%]) were (88, 3.2, 89) for HT, (79, 3.2, 82) for AO, (75, 2.7, 77) for PT, (68, 3.4, 73) for VC, and (51,2.7, 60) for ES. Conclusion: The investigated multi-atlas based approach produced reliable segmentations for the organs with large and relatively clear boundaries (HT and AO). However, the detection of small and narrow organs with diffused boundaries (ES) were challenging. Sophisticated atlas selection and multi-atlas fusion algorithms may further improve the quality of segmentations.

  11. Colour segmentation of multi variants tuberculosis sputum images using self organizing map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulaningtyas, Riries; Suksmono, Andriyan B.; Mengko, Tati L. R.; Saptawati, Putri

    2017-05-01

    Lung tuberculosis detection is still identified from Ziehl-Neelsen sputum smear images in low and middle countries. The clinicians decide the grade of this disease by counting manually the amount of tuberculosis bacilli. It is very tedious for clinicians with a lot number of patient and without standardization for sputum staining. The tuberculosis sputum images have multi variant characterizations in colour, because of no standardization in staining. The sputum has more variants colour and they are difficult to be identified. For helping the clinicians, this research examined the Self Organizing Map method for colouring image segmentation in sputum images based on colour clustering. This method has better performance than k-means clustering which also tried in this research. The Self Organizing Map could segment the sputum images with y good result and cluster the colours adaptively.

  12. Deep 3D Convolutional Encoder Networks With Shortcuts for Multiscale Feature Integration Applied to Multiple Sclerosis Lesion Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Tom; Tang, Lisa Y W; Youngjin Yoo; Li, David K B; Traboulsee, Anthony; Tam, Roger

    2016-05-01

    We propose a novel segmentation approach based on deep 3D convolutional encoder networks with shortcut connections and apply it to the segmentation of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in magnetic resonance images. Our model is a neural network that consists of two interconnected pathways, a convolutional pathway, which learns increasingly more abstract and higher-level image features, and a deconvolutional pathway, which predicts the final segmentation at the voxel level. The joint training of the feature extraction and prediction pathways allows for the automatic learning of features at different scales that are optimized for accuracy for any given combination of image types and segmentation task. In addition, shortcut connections between the two pathways allow high- and low-level features to be integrated, which enables the segmentation of lesions across a wide range of sizes. We have evaluated our method on two publicly available data sets (MICCAI 2008 and ISBI 2015 challenges) with the results showing that our method performs comparably to the top-ranked state-of-the-art methods, even when only relatively small data sets are available for training. In addition, we have compared our method with five freely available and widely used MS lesion segmentation methods (EMS, LST-LPA, LST-LGA, Lesion-TOADS, and SLS) on a large data set from an MS clinical trial. The results show that our method consistently outperforms these other methods across a wide range of lesion sizes.

  13. Segmentation of color images by chromaticity features using self-organizing maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid García-Lamont

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the segmentation of color images is performed using cluster-based methods and the RGB space to represent the colors. The drawback with these methods is the a priori knowledge of the number of groups, or colors, in the image; besides, the RGB space issensitive to the intensity of the colors. Humans can identify different sections within a scene by the chromaticity of its colors of, as this is the feature humans employ to tell them apart. In this paper, we propose to emulate the human perception of color by training a self-organizing map (SOM with samples of chromaticity of different colors. The image to process is mapped to the HSV space because in this space the chromaticity is decoupled from the intensity, while in the RGB space this is not possible. Our proposal does not require knowing a priori the number of colors within a scene, and non-uniform illumination does not significantly affect the image segmentation. We present experimental results using some images from the Berkeley segmentation database by employing SOMs with different sizes, which are segmented successfully using only chromaticity features.

  14. Discourse segmentation and the management of multiple tasks in single episodes of air traffic controller-pilot spoken radio communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Falzon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Episodes of VHF radio-mediated pilot-controller spoken communication in which multiple tasks are conducted are engendered in and through the skilful deployment and combination, by the parties to the talk, of multiple orders of discourse segmentation. These orders of segmentation are manifest at the levels of transmission design and sequential organisation. Both of these features are analysed from a Conversation Analytic standpoint in order to track their segment by segment genesis, development and completion. From the analysis it emerges that in addition to the serial type of sequential organisations described by Schegloff (1986, there exists an alternative form of organisation that enables tasks to be managed in a quasi-parallel manner, and which affords controllers and pilots a number of practical advantages in the conduct of their radio-mediated service encounters.Cet article présente des extraits d’échanges oraux entre pilots et contrôleurs du ciel via la radio VHF. On peut y voir comment le déploiement et la combinaison habile de plusieurs ordres de segmentation discursive, engageant les deux coénonciateurs de la conversation, leur permet d’accomplir des tâches multiples. Ces ordres de segmentation se manifestent aux niveaux du plan de la transmission et de l’organisation séquentielle. Ces deux niveaux sont envisagées du point de vue de l’analyse conversationnelle dans le but d’examiner, segment après segment, comment ils se mettent en place, se développent puis prennent fin. Notre étude montre que, outre le type sériel d’organisations séquentielles décrit par Schegloff (1986, il existe une forme alternative d’organisation qui permet de gérer les tâches de manière quasi parallèle, et qui fournit aux contrôleurs aériens ainsi qu’aux pilotes de nombreux avantages pratiques dans la conduite de leurs radio.

  15. Impact of consensus contours from multiple PET segmentation methods on the accuracy of functional volume delineation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A. [Saarland University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany); Vermandel, M. [U1189 - ONCO-THAI - Image Assisted Laser Therapy for Oncology, University of Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille (France); CHU Lille, Nuclear Medicine Department, Lille (France); Baillet, C. [CHU Lille, Nuclear Medicine Department, Lille (France); Dewalle-Vignion, A.S. [U1189 - ONCO-THAI - Image Assisted Laser Therapy for Oncology, University of Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille (France); Modzelewski, R.; Vera, P.; Gardin, I. [Centre Henri-Becquerel and LITIS EA4108, Rouen (France); Massoptier, L.; Parcq, C.; Gibon, D. [AQUILAB, Research and Innovation Department, Loos Les Lille (France); Fechter, T.; Nestle, U. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department for Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) Freiburg and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Nemer, U. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of consensus algorithms on segmentation results when applied to clinical PET images. In particular, whether the use of the majority vote or STAPLE algorithm could improve the accuracy and reproducibility of the segmentation provided by the combination of three semiautomatic segmentation algorithms was investigated. Three published segmentation methods (contrast-oriented, possibility theory and adaptive thresholding) and two consensus algorithms (majority vote and STAPLE) were implemented in a single software platform (Artiview registered). Four clinical datasets including different locations (thorax, breast, abdomen) or pathologies (primary NSCLC tumours, metastasis, lymphoma) were used to evaluate accuracy and reproducibility of the consensus approach in comparison with pathology as the ground truth or CT as a ground truth surrogate. Variability in the performance of the individual segmentation algorithms for lesions of different tumour entities reflected the variability in PET images in terms of resolution, contrast and noise. Independent of location and pathology of the lesion, however, the consensus method resulted in improved accuracy in volume segmentation compared with the worst-performing individual method in the majority of cases and was close to the best-performing method in many cases. In addition, the implementation revealed high reproducibility in the segmentation results with small changes in the respective starting conditions. There were no significant differences in the results with the STAPLE algorithm and the majority vote algorithm. This study showed that combining different PET segmentation methods by the use of a consensus algorithm offers robustness against the variable performance of individual segmentation methods and this approach would therefore be useful in radiation oncology. It might also be relevant for other scenarios such as the merging of expert recommendations in clinical routine and

  16. Multiple meanings of "gift" and its value for organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rhonda M; Webb, Robert

    2015-05-01

    The "gift of life" metaphor is used to promote organ donation where commercialization is prohibited. In this article, we explore how multiple parties involved in organ transfer procedures think of gift terminology by drawing on interview data with transplantation specialists, organ transplant recipients, living directed donors and living nondirected donors. The interviews took place across New Zealand between October 2008 and May 2012, in participants' homes and hospital workplaces. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded manually, and thematically analyzed. Although gift language is often viewed as clear-cut, the gift trope has multiple meanings for different constituent and cultural groups, ranging from positive descriptors to obscuring and romanticizing the complexities of transplantation processes. To account for these multiple perspectives, we suggest new ethical models to capture the nuanced phenomenon of organ transfer in ways that recognize the full range of donation and reception experiences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Segmentation of radiologic images with self-organizing maps: the segmentation problem transformed into a classification task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelikan, Erich; Vogelsang, Frank; Tolxdorff, Thomas

    1996-04-01

    The texture-based segmentation of x-ray images of focal bone lesions using topological maps is introduced. Texture characteristics are described by image-point correlation of feature images to feature vectors. For the segmentation, the topological map is labeled using an improved labeling strategy. Results of the technique are demonstrated on original and synthetic x-ray images and quantified with the aid of quality measures. In addition, a classifier-specific contribution analysis is applied for assessing the feature space.

  18. Single Versus Multiple Solid Organ Injuries Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Abdelrahman, Husham; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Peralta, Ruben; AbdelAziz, Hiba; Latifi, Rifat; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2017-11-01

    We aimed to describe the pattern of solid organ injuries (SOIs) and analyze the characteristics, management and outcomes based on the multiplicity of SOIs. A retrospective study in a Level 1 trauma center was conducted and included patients admitted with blunt abdominal trauma between 2011 and 2014. Data were analyzed and compared for patients with single versus multiple SOIs. A total of 504 patients with SOIs were identified with a mean age of 28 ± 13 years. The most frequently injured organ was liver (45%) followed by spleen (30%) and kidney (18%). One-fifth of patients had multiple SOIs, of that 87% had two injured organs. Patients with multiple SOIs had higher frequency of head injury and injury severity scores (p hepatic injuries (13%) than the other SOIs. SOIs represent one-tenth of trauma admissions in Qatar. Although liver was the most frequently injured organ, the rate of mortality was higher in pancreatic injury. Patients with multiple SOIs had higher morbidity which required frequent operative management. Further prospective studies are needed to develop management algorithm based on the multiplicity of SOIs.

  19. A variational approach to liver segmentation using statistics from multiple sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shenhai; Fang, Bin; Li, Laquan; Gao, Mingqi; Wang, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Medical image segmentation plays an important role in digital medical research, and therapy planning and delivery. However, the presence of noise and low contrast renders automatic liver segmentation an extremely challenging task. In this study, we focus on a variational approach to liver segmentation in computed tomography scan volumes in a semiautomatic and slice-by-slice manner. In this method, one slice is selected and its connected component liver region is determined manually to initialize the subsequent automatic segmentation process. From this guiding slice, we execute the proposed method downward to the last one and upward to the first one, respectively. A segmentation energy function is proposed by combining the statistical shape prior, global Gaussian intensity analysis, and enforced local statistical feature under the level set framework. During segmentation, the shape of the liver shape is estimated by minimization of this function. The improved Chan-Vese model is used to refine the shape to capture the long and narrow regions of the liver. The proposed method was verified on two independent public databases, the 3D-IRCADb and the SLIVER07. Among all the tested methods, our method yielded the best volumetric overlap error (VOE) of 6.5 +/- 2.8 % , the best root mean square symmetric surface distance (RMSD) of 2.1 +/- 0.8 mm, the best maximum symmetric surface distance (MSD) of 18.9 +/- 8.3 mm in 3D-IRCADb dataset, and the best average symmetric surface distance (ASD) of 0.8 +/- 0.5 mm, the best RMSD of 1.5 +/- 1.1 mm in SLIVER07 dataset, respectively. The results of the quantitative comparison show that the proposed liver segmentation method achieves competitive segmentation performance with state-of-the-art techniques.

  20. Lifestyle segmentation of US food shoppers to examine organic and local food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Cong; Zepeda, Lydia

    2011-08-01

    The food related lifestyle (FRL) model, widely used on European data, is applied to US data using a modified survey instrument to examine organic and local food consumption. Since empirical studies indicate these shoppers are motivated by environmental and health concerns and limited by access, the conceptual framework employs an environmental behavior model, Attitude Behavior Context (ABC), which is consistent with means-end chain theory, the Health Belief (HB) model, and the FRL model. ABC theory incorporates contextual factors that may limit consumers' ability to act on their intentions. US food shopper data was collected in 2003 (n=956) utilizing an instrument with variables adapted from the FRL, ABC, and HB models. Cluster analysis segmented food shoppers into four FRL groups: rational, adventurous, careless, and a fourth segment that had some characteristics of both conservative and uninvolved consumers. The segments exhibited significant differences in organic and local food consumption. These were correlated with consumers' environmental concerns, knowledge and practices, health concerns and practices, as well as some demographic characteristics (race, gender, age, education), income, and variables that measured access to these foods. Implications for marketing and public policy strategies to promote organic and local foods include: emphasizing taste, nutrition, value, children, and enjoyment of cooking for rational consumers; and emphasizing health, fitness, and freshness, and providing ethnic foods for adventurous consumers. While both careless and conservative/uninvolved consumers valued convenience, the former tended to be in the highest income group, while the latter were in the lowest, were more likely to be either in the youngest or oldest age groups, and were very concerned about food safety and health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Real-time segmentation of multiple implanted cylindrical liver markers in kilovoltage and megavoltage x-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fledelius, W; Worm, E; Høyer, M; Grau, C; Poulsen, P R

    2014-01-01

    Gold markers implanted in or near a tumor can be used as x-ray visible landmarks for image based tumor localization. The aim of this study was to develop and demonstrate fast and reliable real-time segmentation of multiple liver tumor markers in intra-treatment kV and MV images and in cone-beam CT (CBCT) projections, for real-time motion management. Thirteen patients treated with conformal stereotactic body radiation therapy in three fractions had 2–3 cylindrical gold markers implanted in the liver prior to treatment. At each fraction, the projection images of a pre-treatment CBCT scan were used for automatic generation of a 3D marker model that consisted of the size, orientation, and estimated 3D trajectory of each marker during the CBCT scan. The 3D marker model was used for real-time template based segmentation in subsequent x-ray images by projecting each marker's 3D shape and likely 3D motion range onto the imager plane. The segmentation was performed in intra-treatment kV images (526 marker traces, 92 097 marker projections) and MV images (88 marker traces, 22 382 marker projections), and in post-treatment CBCT projections (42 CBCT scans, 71 381 marker projections). 227 kV marker traces with low mean contrast-to-noise ratio were excluded as markers were not visible due to MV scatter. Online segmentation times measured for a limited dataset were used for estimating real-time segmentation times for all images. The percentage of detected markers was 94.8% (kV), 96.1% (MV), and 98.6% (CBCT). For the detected markers, the real-time segmentation was erroneous in 0.2–0.31% of the cases. The mean segmentation time per marker was 5.6 ms [2.1–12 ms] (kV), 5.5 ms [1.6–13 ms] (MV), and 6.5 ms [1.8–15 ms] (CBCT). Fast and reliable real-time segmentation of multiple liver tumor markers in intra-treatment kV and MV images and in CBCT projections was demonstrated for a large dataset. (paper)

  2. TU-CD-BRA-12: Coupling PET Image Restoration and Segmentation Using Variational Method with Multiple Regularizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L; Tan, S [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Lu, W [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a new variational method which couples image restoration with tumor segmentation for PET images using multiple regularizations. Methods: Partial volume effect (PVE) is a major degrading factor impacting tumor segmentation accuracy in PET imaging. The existing segmentation methods usually need to take prior calibrations to compensate PVE and they are highly system-dependent. Taking into account that image restoration and segmentation can promote each other and they are tightly coupled, we proposed a variational method to solve the two problems together. Our method integrated total variation (TV) semi-blind deconvolution and Mumford-Shah (MS) segmentation. The TV norm was used on edges to protect the edge information, and the L{sub 2} norm was used to avoid staircase effect in the no-edge area. The blur kernel was constrained to the Gaussian model parameterized by its variance and we assumed that the variances in the X-Y and Z directions are different. The energy functional was iteratively optimized by an alternate minimization algorithm. Segmentation performance was tested on eleven patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and evaluated by Dice similarity index (DSI) and classification error (CE). For comparison, seven other widely used methods were also tested and evaluated. Results: The combination of TV and L{sub 2} regularizations effectively improved the segmentation accuracy. The average DSI increased by around 0.1 than using either the TV or the L{sub 2} norm. The proposed method was obviously superior to other tested methods. It has an average DSI and CE of 0.80 and 0.41, while the FCM method — the second best one — has only an average DSI and CE of 0.66 and 0.64. Conclusion: Coupling image restoration and segmentation can handle PVE and thus improves tumor segmentation accuracy in PET. Alternate use of TV and L2 regularizations can further improve the performance of the algorithm. This work was supported in part by National Natural

  3. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiangfei, Chai; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-21

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation

  4. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiangfei; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan; Van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja

    2012-01-01

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation

  5. Local Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Segmental Transarterial Chemoembolization: Risk Estimates Based on Multiple Prognostic Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Hyun; Cho, Yun Ku; Ahn, Yong Sik; Park, Yoon Ok; Kim, Jae Kyun; Chung, Jin Wook

    2007-01-01

    To determine the prognostic factors for local recurrence of nodular hepatocellular carcinoma after segmental transarterial chemoembolization. Seventy-four nodular hepatocellular carcinoma tumors ≤5 cm were retrospectively analyzed for local recurrence after segmental transarterial chemoembolization using follow-up CT images (median follow-up of 17 months, 4 77 months in range). The tumors were divided into four groups (IA, IB, IIA, and IIB) according to whether the one-month follow-up CT imaging, after segmental transarterial chemoembolization, showed homogeneous (Group I) or inhomogeneous (Group II) iodized oil accumulation, or whether the tumors were located within the liver segment (Group A) or in a segmental border zone (Group B). Comparison of tumor characteristics between Group IA and the other three groups was performed using the chi-square test. Local recurrence rates were compared among the groups using the Kaplan-Meier estimation and log rank test. Local tumor recurrence occurred in 19 hepatocellular carcinoma tumors (25.7%). There were: 28, 18, 17, and 11 tumors in Group IA, IB, IIA, and IIB, respectively. One of 28 (3.6%) tumors in Group IA, and 18 of 46 (39.1%) tumors in the other three groups showed local recurrence. Comparisons between Group IA and the other three groups showed that the tumor characteristics were similar. One-, two-, and three-year estimated local recurrence rates in Group IA were 0%, 11.1%, and 11.1%, respectively. The difference between Group IA and the other three groups was statistically significant (p 0.000). An acceptably low rate of local recurrence was observed for small or intermediate nodular tumors located within the liver segment with homogeneous iodized oil accumulation

  6. Generalized framework for the parallel semantic segmentation of multiple objects and posterior manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llopart, Adrian; Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2017-01-01

    The end-to-end approach presented in this paper deals with the recognition, detection, segmentation and grasping of objects, assuming no prior knowledge of the environment nor objects. The proposed pipeline is as follows: 1) Usage of a trained Convolutional Neural Net (CNN) that recognizes up to 80...... different classes of objects in real time and generates bounding boxes around them. 2) An algorithm to derive in parallel the pointclouds of said regions of interest (ROI). 3) Eight different segmentation methods to remove background data and noise from the pointclouds and obtain a precise result...

  7. Segmentation of multiple heart cavities in 3-D transesophageal ultrasound images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, A.; Vegas-Sanchez-Ferrero, G.; Mulder, H.W.; Ren, B.; Kirisli, H.A.; Metz, C.; van Burken, G.; van Stralen, M.; Pluim, J.P.W.; Steen, van der A.F.W.; Walsum, van T.; Bosch, J.G.

    Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is an excellent modality for real-time visualization of the heart and monitoring of interventions. To improve the usability of 3-D TEE for intervention monitoring and catheter guidance, automated segmentation is desired. However, 3-D TEE

  8. Multiple organ dysfunction caused by parathyroid adenoma‑induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a 27‑year‑old male with multiple organ dysfunction caused by parathyroid adenoma‑induced primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Initially, the patient experienced a sudden onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, polyuria, polydipsia, bone pain, renal dysfunction, nephrolithiasis, and acute pancreatitis, symptoms ...

  9. Sudden multiple fractures in a patient with sarcoidosis in multiple organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Mitsuru; Saraya, Takeshi; Ishii, Haruyuki; Goto, Hajime

    2014-04-07

    A 30-year-old man who incidentally fractured his right olecranon and other multiple phalanges was admitted to our hospital. He had a 2-year history of uveitis and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy (BHL), and pulmonary sarcoidosis was diagnosed from transbronchial lung biopsy. Right elbow arthrodesis was performed, and biopsied specimens showed non-caseating epithelioid cell granuloma, suggesting osseous sarcoidosis. He was discharged uneventfully without further treatment, but BHL had progressed with the appearance of lung parenchymal lesions 3 months later. At that time, involvement of other organs was also noted on Gallium-67 scintigraphy, showing accumulations in BHL, axillary and inguinal lymph nodes, enlarged liver and spleen and subcutaneous areas. After initiation of steroid therapy, multiple organ involvement improved, and no further bone involvement has been recognised to date. Osseous sarcoidosis complicated by bone fracture is an extremely rare presentation, but should be considered in patients with sarcoidosis, especially when multiple organs are involved.

  10. ACM-based automatic liver segmentation from 3-D CT images by combining multiple atlases and improved mean-shift techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongwei; He, Jiangping; Yang, Xin; Deklerck, Rudi; Cornelis, Jan

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present an autocontext model(ACM)-based automatic liver segmentation algorithm, which combines ACM, multiatlases, and mean-shift techniques to segment liver from 3-D CT images. Our algorithm is a learning-based method and can be divided into two stages. At the first stage, i.e., the training stage, ACM is performed to learn a sequence of classifiers in each atlas space (based on each atlas and other aligned atlases). With the use of multiple atlases, multiple sequences of ACM-based classifiers are obtained. At the second stage, i.e., the segmentation stage, the test image will be segmented in each atlas space by applying each sequence of ACM-based classifiers. The final segmentation result will be obtained by fusing segmentation results from all atlas spaces via a multiclassifier fusion technique. Specially, in order to speed up segmentation, given a test image, we first use an improved mean-shift algorithm to perform over-segmentation and then implement the region-based image labeling instead of the original inefficient pixel-based image labeling. The proposed method is evaluated on the datasets of MICCAI 2007 liver segmentation challenge. The experimental results show that the average volume overlap error and the average surface distance achieved by our method are 8.3% and 1.5 m, respectively, which are comparable to the results reported in the existing state-of-the-art work on liver segmentation.

  11. The optimal hormonal replacement modality selection for multiple organ procurement from brain-dead organ donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Z

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Zhibao Mi,1 Dimitri Novitzky,2 Joseph F Collins,1 David KC Cooper3 1Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center, VA Maryland Health Care Systems, Perry Point, MD, USA; 2Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Thomas E Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: The management of brain-dead organ donors is complex. The use of inotropic agents and replacement of depleted hormones (hormonal replacement therapy is crucial for successful multiple organ procurement, yet the optimal hormonal replacement has not been identified, and the statistical adjustment to determine the best selection is not trivial. Traditional pair-wise comparisons between every pair of treatments, and multiple comparisons to all (MCA, are statistically conservative. Hsu’s multiple comparisons with the best (MCB – adapted from the Dunnett’s multiple comparisons with control (MCC – has been used for selecting the best treatment based on continuous variables. We selected the best hormonal replacement modality for successful multiple organ procurement using a two-step approach. First, we estimated the predicted margins by constructing generalized linear models (GLM or generalized linear mixed models (GLMM, and then we applied the multiple comparison methods to identify the best hormonal replacement modality given that the testing of hormonal replacement modalities is independent. Based on 10-year data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS, among 16 hormonal replacement modalities, and using the 95% simultaneous confidence intervals, we found that the combination of thyroid hormone, a corticosteroid, antidiuretic hormone, and insulin was the best modality for multiple organ procurement for transplantation. Keywords: best treatment selection, brain-dead organ donors, hormonal replacement, multiple binary endpoints, organ procurement, multiple comparisons

  12. The optimal hormonal replacement modality selection for multiple organ procurement from brain-dead organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Zhibao; Novitzky, Dimitri; Collins, Joseph F; Cooper, David Kc

    2015-01-01

    The management of brain-dead organ donors is complex. The use of inotropic agents and replacement of depleted hormones (hormonal replacement therapy) is crucial for successful multiple organ procurement, yet the optimal hormonal replacement has not been identified, and the statistical adjustment to determine the best selection is not trivial. Traditional pair-wise comparisons between every pair of treatments, and multiple comparisons to all (MCA), are statistically conservative. Hsu's multiple comparisons with the best (MCB) - adapted from the Dunnett's multiple comparisons with control (MCC) - has been used for selecting the best treatment based on continuous variables. We selected the best hormonal replacement modality for successful multiple organ procurement using a two-step approach. First, we estimated the predicted margins by constructing generalized linear models (GLM) or generalized linear mixed models (GLMM), and then we applied the multiple comparison methods to identify the best hormonal replacement modality given that the testing of hormonal replacement modalities is independent. Based on 10-year data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), among 16 hormonal replacement modalities, and using the 95% simultaneous confidence intervals, we found that the combination of thyroid hormone, a corticosteroid, antidiuretic hormone, and insulin was the best modality for multiple organ procurement for transplantation.

  13. Evaluation of an automatic segmentation algorithm for definition of head and neck organs at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, David; Boylan, Chris; Liptrot, Tom; Aitkenhead, Adam; Lee, Lip; Yap, Beng; Sykes, Andrew; Rowbottom, Carl; Slevin, Nicholas

    2014-08-03

    The accurate definition of organs at risk (OARs) is required to fully exploit the benefits of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer. However, manual delineation is time-consuming and there is considerable inter-observer variability. This is pertinent as function-sparing and adaptive IMRT have increased the number and frequency of delineation of OARs. We evaluated accuracy and potential time-saving of Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE) automatic segmentation to define OARs for salivary-, swallowing- and cochlea-sparing IMRT. Five clinicians recorded the time to delineate five organs at risk (parotid glands, submandibular glands, larynx, pharyngeal constrictor muscles and cochleae) for each of 10 CT scans. SPICE was then used to define these structures. The acceptability of SPICE contours was initially determined by visual inspection and the total time to modify them recorded per scan. The Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE) algorithm created a reference standard from all clinician contours. Clinician, SPICE and modified contours were compared against STAPLE by the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and mean/maximum distance to agreement (DTA). For all investigated structures, SPICE contours were less accurate than manual contours. However, for parotid/submandibular glands they were acceptable (median DSC: 0.79/0.80; mean, maximum DTA: 1.5 mm, 14.8 mm/0.6 mm, 5.7 mm). Modified SPICE contours were also less accurate than manual contours. The utilisation of SPICE did not result in time-saving/improve efficiency. Improvements in accuracy of automatic segmentation for head and neck OARs would be worthwhile and are required before its routine clinical implementation.

  14. Automatic segmentation of the clinical target volume and organs at risk in the planning CT for rectal cancer using deep dilated convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Kuo; Dai, Jianrong; Li, Yexiong

    2017-12-01

    Delineation of the clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) is very important for radiotherapy but is time-consuming and prone to inter-observer variation. Here, we proposed a novel deep dilated convolutional neural network (DDCNN)-based method for fast and consistent auto-segmentation of these structures. Our DDCNN method was an end-to-end architecture enabling fast training and testing. Specifically, it employed a novel multiple-scale convolutional architecture to extract multiple-scale context features in the early layers, which contain the original information on fine texture and boundaries and which are very useful for accurate auto-segmentation. In addition, it enlarged the receptive fields of dilated convolutions at the end of networks to capture complementary context features. Then, it replaced the fully connected layers with fully convolutional layers to achieve pixel-wise segmentation. We used data from 278 patients with rectal cancer for evaluation. The CTV and OARs were delineated and validated by senior radiation oncologists in the planning computed tomography (CT) images. A total of 218 patients chosen randomly were used for training, and the remaining 60 for validation. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was used to measure segmentation accuracy. Performance was evaluated on segmentation of the CTV and OARs. In addition, the performance of DDCNN was compared with that of U-Net. The proposed DDCNN method outperformed the U-Net for all segmentations, and the average DSC value of DDCNN was 3.8% higher than that of U-Net. Mean DSC values of DDCNN were 87.7% for the CTV, 93.4% for the bladder, 92.1% for the left femoral head, 92.3% for the right femoral head, 65.3% for the intestine, and 61.8% for the colon. The test time was 45 s per patient for segmentation of all the CTV, bladder, left and right femoral heads, colon, and intestine. We also assessed our approaches and results with those in the literature: our system showed superior

  15. Multiple beam envelope equations for electron injectors using a bunch segmentation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mizuno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new semianalytical method of investigating the beam dynamics for electron injectors was developed. In this method, a short bunched electron beam is assumed to be an ensemble of several segmentation pieces in both the longitudinal and the transverse directions. The trajectory of each electron in the segmentation pieces is solved by the beam envelope equations while taking into account the space charge fields produced by all the pieces, the electromagnetic fields of an rf cavity, and the image charge fields at a cathode surface. The shape of the entire bunch is consequently calculated, and thus the emittances can be obtained from weighted mean values of the solutions for the obtained electron trajectories. The advantage of this method is its unique assumption for the beam parameters. We assume that each segmentation slice is not warped in the calculations. Although if the beam energy is low and the charge density is large, this condition is not satisfied, in practice, this condition is usually satisfied. We have performed beam dynamics calculations to obtain traces in free space and in the BNL-type rf gun cavity by comparing the analytical solutions with those obtained by simulation. In most cases, the emittances obtained by the simulation become closer to those obtained analytically with increasing the number of particles used in the simulation. Therefore, the analytically obtained emittances are expected to coincide with converged values obtained by the simulation. The applicable range of the analytical method for the BNL-type rf gun cavity is under 0.5 nC per bunch. This range is often used in recently built x-ray free electron laser facilities.

  16. Automated identification of best-quality coronary artery segments from multiple-phase coronary CT angiography (cCTA) for vessel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chughtai, Aamer; Wei, Jun; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2016-03-01

    We are developing an automated method to identify the best quality segment among the corresponding segments in multiple-phase cCTA. The coronary artery trees are automatically extracted from different cCTA phases using our multi-scale vessel segmentation and tracking method. An automated registration method is then used to align the multiple-phase artery trees. The corresponding coronary artery segments are identified in the registered vessel trees and are straightened by curved planar reformation (CPR). Four features are extracted from each segment in each phase as quality indicators in the original CT volume and the straightened CPR volume. Each quality indicator is used as a voting classifier to vote the corresponding segments. A newly designed weighted voting ensemble (WVE) classifier is finally used to determine the best-quality coronary segment. An observer preference study is conducted with three readers to visually rate the quality of the vessels in 1 to 6 rankings. Six and 10 cCTA cases are used as training and test set in this preliminary study. For the 10 test cases, the agreement between automatically identified best-quality (AI-BQ) segments and radiologist's top 2 rankings is 79.7%, and between AI-BQ and the other two readers are 74.8% and 83.7%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the performance of our automated method was comparable to those of experienced readers for identification of the best-quality coronary segments.

  17. Differences in axial segment reorientation during standing turns predict multiple falls in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Rachel L.; Peters, Derek M.; Robinson, Paul D.; Sitch, Alice J.; Watt, Thomas N.; Hollands, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Author's version of an article in the journal: Gait and Posture. Also available from the publisher at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.05.013 Background: The assessment of standing turning performance is proposed to predict fall risk in older adults. This study investigated differences in segmental coordination during a 360° standing turn task between older community-dwelling fallers and non-fallers. Methods: Thirty-five older adults age mean (SD) of 71 (5.4) years performed 360°...

  18. Building an organic computing device with multiple interconnected brains

    OpenAIRE

    Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Chiuffa, Gabriela; Lebedev, Mikhail; Yadav, Amol; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we proposed that Brainets, i.e. networks formed by multiple animal brains, cooperating and exchanging information in real time through direct brain-to-brain interfaces, could provide the core of a new type of computing device: an organic computer. Here, we describe the first experimental demonstration of such a Brainet, built by interconnecting four adult rat brains. Brainets worked by concurrently recording the extracellular electrical activity generated by populations of cortical ...

  19. Computer-aided liver volumetry: performance of a fully-automated, prototype post-processing solution for whole-organ and lobar segmentation based on MDCT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fananapazir, Ghaneh; Bashir, Mustafa R; Marin, Daniele; Boll, Daniel T

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the performance of a prototype, fully-automated post-processing solution for whole-liver and lobar segmentation based on MDCT datasets. A polymer liver phantom was used to assess accuracy of post-processing applications comparing phantom volumes determined via Archimedes' principle with MDCT segmented datasets. For the IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, 25 patients were enrolled. Volumetry performance compared the manual approach with the automated prototype, assessing intraobserver variability, and interclass correlation for whole-organ and lobar segmentation using ANOVA comparison. Fidelity of segmentation was evaluated qualitatively. Phantom volume was 1581.0 ± 44.7 mL, manually segmented datasets estimated 1628.0 ± 47.8 mL, representing a mean overestimation of 3.0%, automatically segmented datasets estimated 1601.9 ± 0 mL, representing a mean overestimation of 1.3%. Whole-liver and segmental volumetry demonstrated no significant intraobserver variability for neither manual nor automated measurements. For whole-liver volumetry, automated measurement repetitions resulted in identical values; reproducible whole-organ volumetry was also achieved with manual segmentation, p(ANOVA) 0.98. For lobar volumetry, automated segmentation improved reproducibility over manual approach, without significant measurement differences for either methodology, p(ANOVA) 0.95-0.99. Whole-organ and lobar segmentation results from manual and automated segmentation showed no significant differences, p(ANOVA) 0.96-1.00. Assessment of segmentation fidelity found that segments I-IV/VI showed greater segmentation inaccuracies compared to the remaining right hepatic lobe segments. Automated whole-liver segmentation showed non-inferiority of fully-automated whole-liver segmentation compared to manual approaches with improved reproducibility and post-processing duration; automated dual-seed lobar segmentation showed slight tendencies for underestimating the right hepatic lobe

  20. Atlas-based automatic segmentation of head and neck organs at risk and nodal target volumes: a clinical validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daisne, Jean-François; Blumhofer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer necessitates accurate definition of organs at risk (OAR) and clinical target volumes (CTV). This crucial step is time consuming and prone to inter- and intra-observer variations. Automatic segmentation by atlas deformable registration may help to reduce time and variations. We aim to test a new commercial atlas algorithm for automatic segmentation of OAR and CTV in both ideal and clinical conditions. The updated Brainlab automatic head and neck atlas segmentation was tested on 20 patients: 10 cN0-stages (ideal population) and 10 unselected N-stages (clinical population). Following manual delineation of OAR and CTV, automatic segmentation of the same set of structures was performed and afterwards manually corrected. Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), Average Surface Distance (ASD) and Maximal Surface Distance (MSD) were calculated for “manual to automatic” and “manual to corrected” volumes comparisons. In both groups, automatic segmentation saved about 40% of the corresponding manual segmentation time. This effect was more pronounced for OAR than for CTV. The edition of the automatically obtained contours significantly improved DSC, ASD and MSD. Large distortions of normal anatomy or lack of iodine contrast were the limiting factors. The updated Brainlab atlas-based automatic segmentation tool for head and neck Cancer patients is timesaving but still necessitates review and corrections by an expert

  1. Atlas-based automatic segmentation of head and neck organs at risk and nodal target volumes: a clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daisne, Jean-François; Blumhofer, Andreas

    2013-06-26

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer necessitates accurate definition of organs at risk (OAR) and clinical target volumes (CTV). This crucial step is time consuming and prone to inter- and intra-observer variations. Automatic segmentation by atlas deformable registration may help to reduce time and variations. We aim to test a new commercial atlas algorithm for automatic segmentation of OAR and CTV in both ideal and clinical conditions. The updated Brainlab automatic head and neck atlas segmentation was tested on 20 patients: 10 cN0-stages (ideal population) and 10 unselected N-stages (clinical population). Following manual delineation of OAR and CTV, automatic segmentation of the same set of structures was performed and afterwards manually corrected. Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), Average Surface Distance (ASD) and Maximal Surface Distance (MSD) were calculated for "manual to automatic" and "manual to corrected" volumes comparisons. In both groups, automatic segmentation saved about 40% of the corresponding manual segmentation time. This effect was more pronounced for OAR than for CTV. The edition of the automatically obtained contours significantly improved DSC, ASD and MSD. Large distortions of normal anatomy or lack of iodine contrast were the limiting factors. The updated Brainlab atlas-based automatic segmentation tool for head and neck Cancer patients is timesaving but still necessitates review and corrections by an expert.

  2. Automatic segmentation of male pelvic anatomy on computed tomography images: a comparison with multiple observers in the context of a multicentre clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, John P; Grogan, Garry; Ebert, Martin A

    2013-04-30

    This study investigates the variation in segmentation of several pelvic anatomical structures on computed tomography (CT) between multiple observers and a commercial automatic segmentation method, in the context of quality assurance and evaluation during a multicentre clinical trial. CT scans of two prostate cancer patients ('benchmarking cases'), one high risk (HR) and one intermediate risk (IR), were sent to multiple radiotherapy centres for segmentation of prostate, rectum and bladder structures according to the TROG 03.04 "RADAR" trial protocol definitions. The same structures were automatically segmented using iPlan software for the same two patients, allowing structures defined by automatic segmentation to be quantitatively compared with those defined by multiple observers. A sample of twenty trial patient datasets were also used to automatically generate anatomical structures for quantitative comparison with structures defined by individual observers for the same datasets. There was considerable agreement amongst all observers and automatic segmentation of the benchmarking cases for bladder (mean spatial variations segmenting a prostate with considerably more volume (mean +113.3%) than that automatically segmented. Similar results were seen across the twenty sample datasets, with disagreement between iPlan and observers dominant at the prostatic apex and superior part of the rectum, which is consistent with observations made during quality assurance reviews during the trial. This study has demonstrated quantitative analysis for comparison of multi-observer segmentation studies. For automatic segmentation algorithms based on image-registration as in iPlan, it is apparent that agreement between observer and automatic segmentation will be a function of patient-specific image characteristics, particularly for anatomy with poor contrast definition. For this reason, it is suggested that automatic registration based on transformation of a single reference dataset

  3. Advances in Biodegradation of Multiple Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Bioremediation of soil and groundwater containing multiple contaminants remains a challenge in environmental science and engineering because complete biodegradation of all components is necessary but very difficult to accomplish in practice. This presentation provides a brief overview on advances in biodegradation of multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including chlorinated ethylenes, benzene, toluene and dichloromethane (DCM). Case studies on aerobic biodegradation of benzene, toluene and DCM, and integrated anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation of 7 contaminants, specifically, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), DCM, benzene and toluene will be provided. Recent findings based on systematic laboratory experiments indicated that aerobic toluene degradation can be enhanced by co-existence of benzene. Propioniferax, not a known benzene, toluene and DCM degrader can be a key microorganism that involves in biodegradation when the three contaminants co-exist. Integrated anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation is capable of completely degrading the seven VOCs with initial concentrations less than 30 mg/L. Dehalococcoides sp., generally considered sensitive to oxygen, can survive aerobic conditions for at least 28 days, and can be activated during the subsequent anaerobic biodegradation. This presentation may provide a systematic information about biodegradation of multiple VOCs, and a scientific basis for the complete bioremediation of multiple contaminants in situ.

  4. Performance effect of multiple control forms in a Lean organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades Lean has developed into a prominent management philosophy reaching beyond shop floor tools. However, substantial support of performance effects from Lean is still scarce and at best with mixed results. Recently, research has turned its focus towards perceiving Lean...... as a control package. In this paper we present statistical support for enhanced performance coming from Lean. Furthermore, our results strongly support the perception of Lean as a set of multiple control forms (output, behavioral, and social controls) that complement each other. Therefore, performance...... is increased if the average level of control forms is increased, and performance is further increased if the control forms are balanced at the same level representing a complementary effect between them. Our data are archival data spanning multiple years in a strong Lean organization. The dependent performance...

  5. Doses to organs at cerebral risks: optimization by robotized stereotaxic radiotherapy and automatic segmentation atlas versus three dimensional conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondiau, P.Y.; Thariat, J.; Benezery, K.; Herault, J.; Dalmasso, C.; Marcie, S.; Malandain, G.

    2007-01-01

    The stereotaxic radiotherapy robotized by 'Cyberknife fourth generation' allows a dosimetric optimization with a high conformity index on the tumor and radiation doses limited on organs at risk. A cerebral automatic anatomic segmentation atlas of organs at risk are used in routine in three dimensions. This study evaluated the superiority of the stereotaxic radiotherapy in comparison with the three dimensional conformal radiotherapy on the preservation of organs at risk in regard of the delivered dose to tumors justifying an accelerated hypo fractionation and a dose escalation. This automatic segmentation atlas should allow to establish correlations between anatomy and cerebral dosimetry; This atlas allows to underline the dosimetry optimization by stereotaxic radiotherapy robotized for organs at risk. (N.C.)

  6. Multiple Institutional Logics in Inter-Institutional Temporary Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Söderlund, Jonas

    for the planning and construction of a new super hospital in the capital of Sweden. Our empirical data demonstrates the important role institutional logics contribute with in understanding logics behind actions as well as emerging conflicts in practice throughout the project process. The paper identifies four......The idea of multiple institutional logics currently draws more and more attention as many organizational actors are forced to operate in ever more complex, temporary and vivid collaborations. We draw on findings from a unique case study of a temporary organization that carried the responsibility...

  7. Development of sorbent therapy for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Pan Jilun; Yu Yaoting

    2007-01-01

    As a syndrome, multiple organ dysfunction (MODS) is defined as an altered organ function in the setting of sepsis, septic shock or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and is the most common cause of death in intensive care units. Endotoxin, a constituent of cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria, plays an important role in the initiation and development of MODS. The cytokines, especially tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), are early regulators of the immune response and can induce the release of secondary cytokines. To remove endotoxin and TNF-alpha from patients with MODS, the adsorption method has proven to be most effective. In this review, we provide various methods of removal of endotoxins and TNF-alpha using different adsorbents. (topical review)

  8. Multi-criteria media mix decision model for advertising multiple product with segment specific and mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugandha Aggarwal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Judicious media planning decisions are crucial for successful advertising of products. Media planners extensively use mathematical models supplemented with market research and expert opinion to devise the media plans. Media planning models discussed in the literature largely focus on single products with limited studies related to the multi-product media planning. In this paper we propose a media planning model to allocate limited advertising budget among multiple products advertised in a segmented market and determine the number of advertisements to be given in different media. The proposed model is formulated considering both segment specific and mass media vehicles to maximize the total advertising reach for each product. The model also incorporates the cross product effect of advertising of one product on the other. The proposed formulation is a multi-objective linear integer programming model and interactive linear integer goal programming is discussed to solve the model. A real life case study is presented to illustrate the application of the proposed model.

  9. Multiple linear regression to develop strength scaled equations for knee and elbow joints based on age, gender and segment mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Souza, Sonia; Rasmussen, John; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2012-01-01

    and valuable ergonomic tool. Objective: To investigate age and gender effects on the torque-producing ability in the knee and elbow in older adults. To create strength scaled equations based on age, gender, upper/lower limb lengths and masses using multiple linear regression. To reduce the number of dependent...... flexors. Results: Males were signifantly stronger than females across all age groups. Elbow peak torque (EPT) was better preserved from 60s to 70s whereas knee peak torque (KPT) reduced significantly (PGender, thigh mass and age best...... predicted KPT (R2=0.60). Gender, forearm mass and age best predicted EPT (R2=0.75). Good crossvalidation was established for both elbow and knee models. Conclusion: This cross-sectional study of muscle strength created and validated strength scaled equations of EPT and KPT using only gender, segment mass...

  10. Efficient cascade multiple heterojunction organic solar cells with inverted structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tingting; Li, Mingtao; Qiao, Zhenfang; Yu, Leiming; Zhao, Jianhong; Feng, Nianjun; Shi, Peiguang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Pu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Hai

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an efficient cascade multiple heterojunction organic solar cell with inverted structure. By using two donor materials, poly(3-hexylthiosphene) (P3HT) and titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc), as well as two acceptor materials, [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and C60, the cascade multiple heterojunctions of P3HT:PCBM/TiOPc:C60/C60 have been constructed. Applying the optimized inverted configuration of FTO/Zinc Tin Oxide (ZTO)/C60 (30 nm)/TiOPc:C60 (1:1.5, 25 nm)/P3HT:PCBM (1:0.8, 100 nm)/MoO3 (4 nm)/Ag, the considerably enhanced open circuit voltage (VOC) and short circuit current (JSC) can be harvested together, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is three times higher than that of the control cell with conventional structure. The significant improvements of the inverted cell are mostly due to the broadened spectral absorption and high efficient multi-interface exciton dissociation in the cascade multiple heterojunctions, indicating that the optimized cascade heterojunctions match the inverted structure well.

  11. Image Segmentation Parameter Optimization Considering Within- and Between-Segment Heterogeneity at Multiple Scale Levels: Test Case for Mapping Residential Areas Using Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-scale/multi-level geographic object-based image analysis (MS-GEOBIA methods are becoming widely-used in remote sensing because single-scale/single-level (SS-GEOBIA methods are often unable to obtain an accurate segmentation and classification of all land use/land cover (LULC types in an image. However, there have been few comparisons between SS-GEOBIA and MS-GEOBIA approaches for the purpose of mapping a specific LULC type, so it is not well understood which is more appropriate for this task. In addition, there are few methods for automating the selection of segmentation parameters for MS-GEOBIA, while manual selection (i.e., trial-and-error approach of parameters can be quite challenging and time-consuming. In this study, we examined SS-GEOBIA and MS-GEOBIA approaches for extracting residential areas in Landsat 8 imagery, and compared naïve and parameter-optimized segmentation approaches to assess whether unsupervised segmentation parameter optimization (USPO could improve the extraction of residential areas. Our main findings were: (i the MS-GEOBIA approaches achieved higher classification accuracies than the SS-GEOBIA approach, and (ii USPO resulted in more accurate MS-GEOBIA classification results while reducing the number of segmentation levels and classification variables considerably.

  12. Improved assessment of multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation agreement via detection and outline error estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wack David S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presented is the method “Detection and Outline Error Estimates” (DOEE for assessing rater agreement in the delineation of multiple sclerosis (MS lesions. The DOEE method divides operator or rater assessment into two parts: 1 Detection Error (DE -- rater agreement in detecting the same regions to mark, and 2 Outline Error (OE -- agreement of the raters in outlining of the same lesion. Methods DE, OE and Similarity Index (SI values were calculated for two raters tested on a set of 17 fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR images of patients with MS. DE, OE, and SI values were tested for dependence with mean total area (MTA of the raters' Region of Interests (ROIs. Results When correlated with MTA, neither DE (ρ = .056, p=.83 nor the ratio of OE to MTA (ρ = .23, p=.37, referred to as Outline Error Rate (OER, exhibited significant correlation. In contrast, SI is found to be strongly correlated with MTA (ρ = .75, p  Conclusions The DE and OER indices are proposed as a better method than SI for comparing rater agreement of ROIs, which also provide specific information for raters to improve their agreement.

  13. Combining Multiple Data Acquisition Systems to Study Corticospinal Output and Multi-segment Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmussen, Michael J; Bailey, Aaron Z; Keir, Peter J; Potvin, Jim; Bergel, Tim; Nelson, Aimee J

    2016-01-09

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation techniques allow for an in-depth investigation into the neural mechanisms that underpin human behavior. To date, the use of TMS to study human movement, has been limited by the challenges related to precisely timing the delivery of TMS to features of the unfolding movement and, also, by accurately characterizing kinematics and kinetics. To overcome these technical challenges, TMS delivery and acquisition systems should be integrated with an online motion tracking system. The present manuscript details technical innovations that integrate multiple acquisition systems to facilitate and advance the use of TMS to study human movement. Using commercially available software and hardware systems, a step-by-step approach to both the hardware assembly and the software scripts necessary to perform TMS studies triggered by specific features of a movement is provided. The approach is focused on the study of upper limb, planar, multi-joint reaching movements. However, the same integrative system is amenable to a multitude of sophisticated studies of human motor control.

  14. Performance evaluation for volumetric segmentation of multiple sclerosis lesions using MATLAB and computing engine in the graphical processing unit (GPU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh H.; Park, Young W.; Ma, Kevin; Jacobs, Colin; Liu, Brent J.

    2010-03-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurological disease affecting myelin pathways in the brain. Multiple lesions in the white matter can cause paralysis and severe motor disabilities of the affected patient. To solve the issue of inconsistency and user-dependency in manual lesion measurement of MRI, we have proposed a 3-D automated lesion quantification algorithm to enable objective and efficient lesion volume tracking. The computer-aided detection (CAD) of MS, written in MATLAB, utilizes K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) method to compute the probability of lesions on a per-voxel basis. Despite the highly optimized algorithm of imaging processing that is used in CAD development, MS CAD integration and evaluation in clinical workflow is technically challenging due to the requirement of high computation rates and memory bandwidth in the recursive nature of the algorithm. In this paper, we present the development and evaluation of using a computing engine in the graphical processing unit (GPU) with MATLAB for segmentation of MS lesions. The paper investigates the utilization of a high-end GPU for parallel computing of KNN in the MATLAB environment to improve algorithm performance. The integration is accomplished using NVIDIA's CUDA developmental toolkit for MATLAB. The results of this study will validate the practicality and effectiveness of the prototype MS CAD in a clinical setting. The GPU method may allow MS CAD to rapidly integrate in an electronic patient record or any disease-centric health care system.

  15. On grouping individual wire segments into equivalent wires or chains, and introduction of multiple domain basis functions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a method to cover several wire segments with a single basis function, describes related practical algorithms, and gives some results. The process involves three steps: identifying chains of wire segments, splitting the chains...

  16. Automatic segmentation of male pelvic anatomy on computed tomography images: a comparison with multiple observers in the context of a multicentre clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraghty, John P; Grogan, Garry; Ebert, Martin A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the variation in segmentation of several pelvic anatomical structures on computed tomography (CT) between multiple observers and a commercial automatic segmentation method, in the context of quality assurance and evaluation during a multicentre clinical trial. CT scans of two prostate cancer patients (‘benchmarking cases’), one high risk (HR) and one intermediate risk (IR), were sent to multiple radiotherapy centres for segmentation of prostate, rectum and bladder structures according to the TROG 03.04 “RADAR” trial protocol definitions. The same structures were automatically segmented using iPlan software for the same two patients, allowing structures defined by automatic segmentation to be quantitatively compared with those defined by multiple observers. A sample of twenty trial patient datasets were also used to automatically generate anatomical structures for quantitative comparison with structures defined by individual observers for the same datasets. There was considerable agreement amongst all observers and automatic segmentation of the benchmarking cases for bladder (mean spatial variations < 0.4 cm across the majority of image slices). Although there was some variation in interpretation of the superior-inferior (cranio-caudal) extent of rectum, human-observer contours were typically within a mean 0.6 cm of automatically-defined contours. Prostate structures were more consistent for the HR case than the IR case with all human observers segmenting a prostate with considerably more volume (mean +113.3%) than that automatically segmented. Similar results were seen across the twenty sample datasets, with disagreement between iPlan and observers dominant at the prostatic apex and superior part of the rectum, which is consistent with observations made during quality assurance reviews during the trial. This study has demonstrated quantitative analysis for comparison of multi-observer segmentation studies. For automatic segmentation

  17. Contemporary Patterns of Multiple Organ Dysfunction in Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Joanna M; Cole, Elaine; Brohi, Karim

    2017-04-01

    Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is associated with poor outcomes for trauma patients. Different forms of MODS may exist and have different consequences. The ability to distinguish them clinically may have implications for prognosis and treatment. We wished to study whether prolonged MODS (PRMODS) could be observed as a distinct clinical entity to early resolving MODS (ERMODS) in critically injured patients. Adult major trauma patients recruited to a prospective observational study at a single major trauma center were eligible for inclusion. MODS was defined as Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score >5; and PRMODS as lasting >7 days. Time to recovery (TTR) was calculated as the number of days before the SOFA fell below the MODS threshold (≤5). Five hundred ninety-five patients were enrolled of whom 285 developed ERMODS (48%) and 184 (31%) PRMODS. Organ dysfunction was more severe and protracted in PRMODS, especially in patients without brain injury (mean SOFA 11 vs. 6, Day 2, P < 0.001; TTR 17 vs. 3 days, P < 0.001). PRMODS exhibited higher rates of hepatic and renal dysfunction (84% vs. 56%; and 78% vs. 47%, P≤0.001). Patterns of recovery were distinct in hepatic, renal, and neurological systems (TTR 15 vs. 4; 20 vs. 3; and 28 vs. 7 days, P < 0.01). PRMODS was associated with higher infection and mortality rates (91% vs. 41%; and 22% vs. 7%, P < 0.001). PRMODS appears common, a distinct clinical entity, and associated with worse patient outcomes. PRMODS may represent an important endpoint for studies evaluating outcomes following trauma.

  18. SU-E-J-208: Fast and Accurate Auto-Segmentation of Abdominal Organs at Risk for Online Adaptive Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, V; Wang, Y; Romero, A; Heijmen, B; Hoogeman, M [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Myronenko, A; Jordan, P [Accuray Incorporated, Sunnyvale, United States. (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Various studies have demonstrated that online adaptive radiotherapy by real-time re-optimization of the treatment plan can improve organs-at-risk (OARs) sparing in the abdominal region. Its clinical implementation, however, requires fast and accurate auto-segmentation of OARs in CT scans acquired just before each treatment fraction. Autosegmentation is particularly challenging in the abdominal region due to the frequently observed large deformations. We present a clinical validation of a new auto-segmentation method that uses fully automated non-rigid registration for propagating abdominal OAR contours from planning to daily treatment CT scans. Methods: OARs were manually contoured by an expert panel to obtain ground truth contours for repeat CT scans (3 per patient) of 10 patients. For the non-rigid alignment, we used a new non-rigid registration method that estimates the deformation field by optimizing local normalized correlation coefficient with smoothness regularization. This field was used to propagate planning contours to repeat CTs. To quantify the performance of the auto-segmentation, we compared the propagated and ground truth contours using two widely used metrics- Dice coefficient (Dc) and Hausdorff distance (Hd). The proposed method was benchmarked against translation and rigid alignment based auto-segmentation. Results: For all organs, the auto-segmentation performed better than the baseline (translation) with an average processing time of 15 s per fraction CT. The overall improvements ranged from 2% (heart) to 32% (pancreas) in Dc, and 27% (heart) to 62% (spinal cord) in Hd. For liver, kidneys, gall bladder, stomach, spinal cord and heart, Dc above 0.85 was achieved. Duodenum and pancreas were the most challenging organs with both showing relatively larger spreads and medians of 0.79 and 2.1 mm for Dc and Hd, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the achieved accuracy and computational time we conclude that the investigated auto-segmentation

  19. SU-E-J-208: Fast and Accurate Auto-Segmentation of Abdominal Organs at Risk for Online Adaptive Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V; Wang, Y; Romero, A; Heijmen, B; Hoogeman, M; Myronenko, A; Jordan, P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Various studies have demonstrated that online adaptive radiotherapy by real-time re-optimization of the treatment plan can improve organs-at-risk (OARs) sparing in the abdominal region. Its clinical implementation, however, requires fast and accurate auto-segmentation of OARs in CT scans acquired just before each treatment fraction. Autosegmentation is particularly challenging in the abdominal region due to the frequently observed large deformations. We present a clinical validation of a new auto-segmentation method that uses fully automated non-rigid registration for propagating abdominal OAR contours from planning to daily treatment CT scans. Methods: OARs were manually contoured by an expert panel to obtain ground truth contours for repeat CT scans (3 per patient) of 10 patients. For the non-rigid alignment, we used a new non-rigid registration method that estimates the deformation field by optimizing local normalized correlation coefficient with smoothness regularization. This field was used to propagate planning contours to repeat CTs. To quantify the performance of the auto-segmentation, we compared the propagated and ground truth contours using two widely used metrics- Dice coefficient (Dc) and Hausdorff distance (Hd). The proposed method was benchmarked against translation and rigid alignment based auto-segmentation. Results: For all organs, the auto-segmentation performed better than the baseline (translation) with an average processing time of 15 s per fraction CT. The overall improvements ranged from 2% (heart) to 32% (pancreas) in Dc, and 27% (heart) to 62% (spinal cord) in Hd. For liver, kidneys, gall bladder, stomach, spinal cord and heart, Dc above 0.85 was achieved. Duodenum and pancreas were the most challenging organs with both showing relatively larger spreads and medians of 0.79 and 2.1 mm for Dc and Hd, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the achieved accuracy and computational time we conclude that the investigated auto-segmentation

  20. Improvisation and the self-organization of multiple musical bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eWalton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding everyday behavior relies heavily upon understanding our ability to improvise, how we are able to continuously anticipate and adapt in order to coordinate with our environment and others. Here we consider the ability of musicians to improvise, where they must spontaneously coordinate their actions with co-performers in order to produce novel musical expressions. Investigations of this behavior have traditionally focused on describing the organization of cognitive structures. The focus, here, however, is on the ability of the time-evolving patterns of inter-musician movement coordination as revealed by the mathematical tools of complex dynamical systems to provide a new understanding of what potentiates the novelty of spontaneous musical action. We demonstrate this approach through the application of cross wavelet spectral analysis, which isolates the strength and patterning of the behavioral coordination that occurs between improvising musicians across a range of nested time-scales. Revealing the sophistication of the previously unexplored dynamics of movement coordination between improvising musicians is an important step towards understanding how creative musical expressions emerge from the spontaneous coordination of multiple musical bodies.

  1. Improvisation and the self-organization of multiple musical bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ashley E; Richardson, Michael J; Langland-Hassan, Peter; Chemero, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Understanding everyday behavior relies heavily upon understanding our ability to improvise, how we are able to continuously anticipate and adapt in order to coordinate with our environment and others. Here we consider the ability of musicians to improvise, where they must spontaneously coordinate their actions with co-performers in order to produce novel musical expressions. Investigations of this behavior have traditionally focused on describing the organization of cognitive structures. The focus, here, however, is on the ability of the time-evolving patterns of inter-musician movement coordination as revealed by the mathematical tools of complex dynamical systems to provide a new understanding of what potentiates the novelty of spontaneous musical action. We demonstrate this approach through the application of cross wavelet spectral analysis, which isolates the strength and patterning of the behavioral coordination that occurs between improvising musicians across a range of nested time-scales. Revealing the sophistication of the previously unexplored dynamics of movement coordination between improvising musicians is an important step toward understanding how creative musical expressions emerge from the spontaneous coordination of multiple musical bodies.

  2. A multiple index integrating different levels of organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Rui; Hughes, Samantha; Coimbra, Ana; Monteiro, Sandra; Pereira, Vítor; Lopes, Marisa; Pereira, Sandra; Pinto, Ana; Sampaio, Ana; Santos, Cátia; Carrola, João; de Jesus, Joaquim; Varandas, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Many methods in freshwater biomonitoring tend to be restricted to a few levels of biological organization, limiting the potential spectrum of measurable of cause-effect responses to different anthropogenic impacts. We combined distinct organisational levels, covering biological biomarkers (histopathological and biochemical reactions in liver and fish gills), community based bioindicators (fish guilds, invertebrate metrics/traits and chironomid pupal exuviae) and ecosystem functional indicators (decomposition rates) to assess ecological status at designated Water Framework Directive monitoring sites, covering a gradient of human impact across several rivers in northern Portugal. We used Random Forest to rank the variables that contributed more significantly to successfully predict the different classes of ecological status and also to provide specific cut levels to discriminate each WFD class based on reference condition. A total of 59 Biological Quality Elements and functional indicators were determined using this procedure and subsequently applied to develop the integrated Multiple Ecological Level Index (MELI Index), a potentially powerful bioassessment tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. E-SCM AND INVENTORY MANAGEMENT: A STUDY OF MULTIPLE CASES IN A SEGMENT OF THE DEPARTMENT STORE CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Chiaretti Novi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Inventory management through the supply chains is a theme that has always enticed managers throughout the world. Due to the increase in market competitiveness and complexity, the traditional statistical models of forecasting demand, based on time series, no longer met the needs imposed on businesses to maintain adequate levels of their inventory and supply interruptions. With the intent to meet these market demands, ERP systems appeared in the 1990’s. Nevertheless, even if allowing for a more adequate level of inventory and supply interruptions achieved mainly by the optimization of internal processes and the reduction in lead time, ERP systems did not contribute to reach the SCM’s desired levels of inventory that were aimed at by the more competitive businesses. This is because ERP limits itself to an internal analysis of the business. By contrast, inventory management depends on the consumption information (which is external to the business. Aiming to improve even further the level of services delivered to the end consumer, new solutions have been developed, among them the e- SCM, which, since it makes consumption information available in real time, ends up being more dynamic and efficient than the traditional demand forecasting models, Therefore, the present study aims to analyze how the e-SCM can collaborate in maintaining adequate levels of inventory and interruptions in the supply chains. The hypothesis made is that the traditional statistical forecasting models, based on time series and isolatedly, are no longer adequate to adjust the demand, as the tools based on these models do not update the demand in real time and this is fundamental in the current business dynamics. The research method used was the study of multiple cases in a segment of a chain involving a large retailer, its Distribution Center and a supplier of home appliances. For the analysis of the data, the content analysis technique was used. As main results, it was

  4. CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS FROM MULTIPLE OSCILLATORS: LESSONS FROM DIVERSE ORGANISMS

    OpenAIRE

    Bell-Pedersen, Deborah; Cassone, Vincent M.; Earnest, David J.; Golden, Susan S.; Hardin, Paul E.; Thomas, Terry L.; Zoran, Mark J.

    2005-01-01

    The organization of biological activities into daily cycles is universal in organisms as diverse as cyanobacteria, fungi, algae, plants, flies, birds and man. Comparisons of circadian clocks in unicellular and multicellular organisms using molecular genetics and genomics have provided new insights into the mechanisms and complexity of clock systems. Whereas unicellular organisms require stand-alone clocks that can generate 24-hour rhythms for diverse processes, organisms with differentiated t...

  5. Change in donor profile influenced the percentage of organs transplanted from multiple organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, C; Van Raemdonck, D; Van Gelder, F; Van Hees, D; Desschans, B; De Roey, J; Vanhaecke, J; Pirenne, J

    2009-03-01

    We hypothesized that the change in donor profile over the years influenced the percentage of transplantations. We reviewed medical records for all multiple-organ donors (MODs) within our network. The percentage of transplanted organs was compared between 1991-1992 (A) and 2006-2007 (B). In period A, 156 potential MODs were identified compared with 278 in period B. Fifteen potential donors (10%) in period A and 114 (41%) in period B were rejected because they were medically not suitable (40% vs 75%) or there was no family consent (60% vs 25%). Of the remaining effective MODs (141 in period A and 164 in period B), mean (standard deviation = SD) age was 34 (5) years vs 49 (17) years (P organs transplanted in periods A vs B was kidneys, 97% vs 79%; livers, 64% vs 85%; hearts, 60% vs 26%; lungs, 7% vs 35%; and pancreas, 6% vs 13% (P organs (17%), mainly because of medical contraindications. The MOD profile changed to older age, fewer traumatic brain deaths, and longer ventilation time. We transplanted more livers, lungs, and pancreases but fewer kidneys and hearts.

  6. Sustained multiple organ ischaemia after transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Woon; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Nam, Soon Woo; Jang, Jeong Won; Jung, Hyun Suk; Shin, Yu Ri; Park, Eun Su; Shim, Dong Jae

    2018-02-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with drug-eluting beads (DC beads) may enhance drug delivery to tumours and reduce systemic toxicity. TACE with DC beads leads to significantly fewer serious side-effects compared with conventional TACE. A 66-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) complained of continuous abdominal pain 1 month after TACE with DC beads. At the time of TACE, angiography revealed severe stenosis of both hepatic arteries. The diagnostic work up on admission suggested severe bile duct injury with regional bile duct dilatation, segmental liver and spleen infarction, necrotizing pancreatitis, as well as gastric and duodenal ulcers. The pathology specimens of the duodenum contained DC beads that had passed through small vessels in the connective tissue. The patient's condition appeared to improve after 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment and supportive care, but new multifocal liver and spleen infarction subsequently developed. After 2 months, he was well enough to be discharged. His HCC partially responded to the TACE with DC beads but eventually progressed and he died after 11 months. The present case report highlights unexpected ongoing multiple organ ischaemia in a 66-year-old man treated for HCC using TACE with DC beads. The use of TACE with DC beads should be carefully considered in patients with vascular strictures or aberrant blood supply.

  7. Gamma-ray multiplicity measurement of the spontaneous fission decay of 252Cf in a segmented HPGe/BGO detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A; Burke, J T; Gibelin, J; Heffner, M D; Mintz, J; Norman, E B; Phair, L; Scielzo, N D; Sheets, S A; Snyderman, N J; Stoyer, M A; Wiedeking, M

    2008-04-23

    Coincident {gamma} rays from a {sup 252}Cf source were measured using an array of six segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) Clover detectors each enclosed by 16 bismuth-germanate (BGO) detectors. The detectors were arranged in a cubic pattern around a 1 {micro}Ci {sup 252}Cf source to cover a large solid angle for {gamma}-ray measurement with a reasonable reconstruction of the multiplicity. Neutron multiplicity was determined in certain cases by identifying the prompt {gamma} rays from individual fission fragment pairs. Multiplicity distributions from previous experiments and theoretical models were convolved with the response function of the array and compared to the present results. These results suggest a {gamma}-ray multiplicity spectrum broader than previous measurements and models, and provide no evidence of correlation with neutron multiplicity.

  8. Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases in the murine zymosan-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volman, T.J.H.; Goris, R.J.A.; Lomme, R.M.L.M.; Groot, J. de; Verhofstad, A.A.J.; Hendriks, T.

    2004-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated as mediators of tissue damage in several inflammatory diseases. Since the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is thought to result from systemic inflammation, overactivation of MMPs could contribute to the organ damage observed. The

  9. Gendered Managerial Discourses in Sport Organizations: Multiplicity and Complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoppers, Annelies; Anthonissen, A.

    2007-01-01

    The lack of women in senior management functions in sport may in part be attributed to dominant discursive managerial practices in sport organizations. The purpose of this study is to explore ways in which the discourses and their subtexts used by directors of Dutch national sport organizations

  10. 75 FR 62487 - Compassionate Allowances for Cardiovascular Disease and Multiple Organ Transplants, Office of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ...] Compassionate Allowances for Cardiovascular Disease and Multiple Organ Transplants, Office of the Commissioner... cardiovascular disease and multiple organ transplants, as well as topics covered at the hearing by: (1) e-mail... considering ways to quickly identify diseases and other serious medical conditions that obviously meet the...

  11. Quantifying the Stock of Soil Organic Carbon using Multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stepwise multiple regression model was employed to identify ecological variables that explained significant variation of carbon in fallow soils. Using fallow genealogical cycles of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th generations, soil and vegetation variables from 30 sampling plots were collected and subjected to linear regression ...

  12. Workflow Management for Multiple Sclerosis Patients: IT and Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel-Verkerke, Margreet B.; Michel-Verkerke, M.B.; Schuring, R.W.; Spil, Antonius A.M.; Sprague, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) visit various healthcare providers during the course of their disease. It was suggested that IT might help to orchestrate their care provision. We have applied the USE IT-tool to get insight in the relevant problems, solutions and constraints of the MS-care and

  13. Multiple Whole Genome Alignments Without a Reference Organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexander; Kislyuk, Andrey; Brudno, Michael

    2009-01-16

    Multiple sequence alignments have become one of the most commonly used resources in genomics research. Most algorithms for multiple alignment of whole genomes rely either on a reference genome, against which all of the other sequences are laid out, or require a one-to-one mapping between the nucleotides of the genomes, preventing the alignment of recently duplicated regions. Both approaches have drawbacks for whole-genome comparisons. In this paper we present a novel symmetric alignment algorithm. The resulting alignments not only represent all of the genomes equally well, but also include all relevant duplications that occurred since the divergence from the last common ancestor. Our algorithm, implemented as a part of the VISTA Genome Pipeline (VGP), was used to align seven vertebrate and sixDrosophila genomes. The resulting whole-genome alignments demonstrate a higher sensitivity and specificity than the pairwise alignments previously available through the VGP and have higher exon alignment accuracy than comparable public whole-genome alignments. Of the multiple alignment methods tested, ours performed the best at aligning genes from multigene families?perhaps the most challenging test for whole-genome alignments. Our whole-genome multiple alignments are available through the VISTA Browser at http://genome.lbl.gov/vista/index.shtml.

  14. Aspects of Private Labels Development in the Segment of Organic Food in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kutnohorska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with various aspects of the private labels building. It primarily focuses on organic food market in the Czech Republic, but on this market it illustrates the general trends, both in brand building, as well as in the importance of a brand in purchasing decisions. Organic food market is specific as there is high importance of product attributes, which are based on customer's confidence. Many of the important criteria for the decision to purchase (the way of cultivation and processing of food, freshness, taste, etc. are not possible to be objectively assessed before buying. A brand name plays a large role in the confidence based attributes. Consumers perceive it as a certain guarantee of the expected quality. In the field of organic food there are still not strong brands but there is the space and the need to differentiate organic from conventional foods, in particular. A suitable option could be the retail chain private labels, which are already partially developed as far as for consumers subconscious expectations are concerned. The final part of the article provides an overview of the current offer of organic food private labels in the Czech Republic.  

  15. Unexpected Multiple Organ Infarctions in a Poisoned Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Wook Park

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Predisposing factors for venous thrombosis can be identified in the majority of patients with established venous thromboembolism (VTE. However, an obvious precipitant may not be identified during the initial evaluation of such patients. In the present case, a 47-year-old female presented to the emergency department of our hospital after ingesting multiple drugs. She had no VTE-related risk factors or previous episodes, nor any family history of VTE. After admission to the intensive care unit sudden hypoxemia developed, and during the evaluation cerebral, renal, and splenic infarctions with pulmonary embolisms were diagnosed. However, the sources of the emboli could not be identified by transthoracic echocardiography or computed tomography angiography. Protein C deficiency was identified several days later. We recommend that hypercoagulable states be taken into consideration, especially when unexplained thromboembolic events develop in multiple or unusual venous sites.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging correlates of bee sting induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sushant K; Zeng, Li-Chuan; Li, Bing; Niu, Xiang-Ke; Wang, Jing-Liang; Bhetuwal, Anup; Yang, Han-Feng

    2014-09-28

    Occasionally systemic complications with high risk of death, such as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), can occur following multiple bee stings. This case study reports a patient who presented with MODS, i.e., acute kidney injury, hepatic and cardiac dysfunction, after multiple bee stings. The standard clinical findings were then correlated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, which demonstrates that MRI may be utilized as a simpler tool to use than other multiple diagnostics.

  17. Fusing Multiple Satellite Datasets Toward Defining and Understanding Organized Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaesser, G.; Del Genio, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    How do we differentiate unorganized from organized convection? We might think of organized convection as being long lasting (at least longer than the lifetime of any individual cumulus cell), clustered at larger spatial scales (>100 km), and responsible for substantial rainfall accumulation. Organized convection is sustained on such scales due to the arrangement of moist/dry and buoyant/non-buoyant mesoscale circulations. The nature of these circulations is tied to system diabatic heating profiles; in particular, the 2nd baroclinic (top-heavy), stratiform heating mode is thought to be important for organized convection maintenance/propagation. We investigate the extent to which these characteristics are jointly found in propagating convective systems. Lifecycle information comes from hi-res IR data. Diabatic heating profiles, convective fractions and rainfall are provided by GPM retrievals mapped to convective system tracks. Moisture is provided by AIRS/AMSU and passive microwave retrievals. Instead of compositing heating profile information along a system track, where information is smoothed out, we sort system heating profile structures according to their "top heaviness" and then analyze PDFs of system rainfall, system sizes, durations, convective/stratiform ratios, etc. as a function of diabatic heating structure. Perhaps contrary to expectation, we find only small differences in PDFs of rainfall rates, system sizes, and system duration for different heating profile structures. If organization is defined according to heating structures, then one possible interpretation of these results is that organization is independent of system size, duration, and many times, even lifecycle stage. Is it possible that most systems "hobble" along and exhibit varying degrees of organization, dependent on local environment moisture/buoyancy variations, unlike the archetypical MCS paradigm? This presentation will also discuss the questions posed above within the context of

  18. Segmenting Consumers According to Their Purchase of Products with Organic, Fair-Trade, and Health Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; van Doorn, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Using actual purchase data of food products with different labels, we examine Dutch consumers' purchases of organic, fair-trade, and health labels. Empirically, consumers' purchase behavior of labeled products can be categorized into two dimensions: a health-related and a sustainable dimension

  19. Leiomyosarcoma: A rare soft tissue cancer arising from multiple organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorawar Singh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma (LMS, a smooth muscle connective tissue tumor, is a rare form of cancer which accounts for 5–10% of soft tissue sarcomas. This type of cancer is highly unpredictable. LMS is a resistant type of cancer and can remain in the dormant state for long time. It can recur in the later stages of life. LMS has been reported in different animals including humans. A wide literature search was done. The PubMed database was used to search for journal articles on the occurrence of LMS in different organs from 1950 to 2016. LMS has been reported to be associated with different organs, including esophagus, stomach, intestine, anus and uterus. In this article, an attempt has been made to review the studies based on occurrence of LMS with respect to the organs affected and frequency of publications. Finding the organ-associated occurrence of LMS may be useful in assessing the overall risk and formulating future cancer preventive strategies.

  20. Autodigestion: Proteolytic Degradation and Multiple Organ Failure in Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Angelina E.; Kistler, Erik B.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2015-01-01

    There is currently no effective treatment for multiorgan failure following shock other than alleviation supportive care. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of these sequelae to shock is required. The intestine plays a central role in multiorgan failure. It was previously suggested that bacteria and their toxins are responsible for the organ failure seen in circulatory shock, but clinical trials in septic patients have not confirmed this hypothesis. Instead, we review here evidence that the digestive enzymes, synthesized in the pancreas and discharged into the small intestine as requirement for normal digestion, may play a role in multi-organ failure. These powerful enzymes are non-specific, highly concentrated and fully activated in the lumen of the intestine. During normal digestion they are compartmentalized in the lumen of the intestine by the mucosal epithelial barrier. However, if this barrier becomes permeable, e.g. in an ischemic state, the digestive enzymes escape into the wall of the intestine. They digest tissues in the mucosa and generate small molecular weight cytotoxic fragments such as unbound free fatty acids. Digestive enzymes may also escape into the systemic circulation and activate other degrading proteases. These proteases have the ability to clip the ectodomain of surface receptors and compromise their function; for example cleaving the insulin receptor causing insulin resistance. The combination of digestive enzymes and cytotoxic fragments leaking into the central circulation causes cell and organ dysfunction, and ultimately may lead to complete organ failure and death. We summarize current evidence suggesting that enteral blockade of digestive enzymes inside the lumen of the intestine may serve to reduce acute cell and organ damage and improve survival in experimental shock. PMID:26717111

  1. Application and analysis of retroperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy with sequential segmental renal artery clamping for patients with multiple renal tumor: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jundong; Jiang, Fan; Li, Pu; Shao, Pengfei; Liang, Chao; Xu, Aiming; Miao, Chenkui; Qin, Chao; Wang, Zengjun; Yin, Changjun

    2017-09-11

    To explore the feasibility and safety of retroperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy with sequential segmental renal artery clamping for the patients with multiple renal tumor of who have solitary kidney or contralateral kidney insufficiency. Nine patients who have undergone retroperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy with sequential segmental renal artery clamping between October 2010 and January 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical materials and parameters during and after the operation were summarized. Nineteen tumors were resected in nine patients and the operations were all successful. The operation time ranged from 100 to 180 min (125 min); clamping time of segmental renal artery was 10 ~ 30 min (23 min); the amount of blood loss during the operation was 120 ~ 330 ml (190 ml); hospital stay after the operation is 3 ~ 6d (5d). There was no complication during the perioperative period, and the pathology diagnosis after the surgery showed that there were 13 renal clear cell carcinomas, two papillary carcinoma and four perivascular epithelioid cell tumors with negative margins from the 19 tumors. All patients were followed up for 3 ~ 60 months, and no local recurrence or metastasis was detected. At 3-month post-operation follow-up, the mean serum creatinine was 148.6 ± 28.1 μmol/L (p = 0.107), an increase of 3.0 μmol/L from preoperative baseline. For the patients with multiple renal tumors and solitary kidney or contralateral kidney insufficiency, retroperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy with sequential segmental renal artery clamping was feasible and safe, which minimized the warm ischemia injury to the kidney and preserved the renal function effectively.

  2. Automatic segmentation of thoracic and pelvic CT images for radiotherapy planning using implicit anatomic knowledge and organ-specific segmentation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, B; Coradi, T; Scholz, M; Kunz, P; Huber, M; Oppitz, U; Andre, L; Lengkeek, V; Huyskens, D; Esch, A van; Reddick, R

    2008-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in medical images is a valuable tool for efficient computer-aided radiotherapy and surgery planning and an enabling technology for dynamic adaptive radiotherapy. This paper presents the design, algorithms and validation of new software for the automatic segmentation of CT images used for radiotherapy treatment planning. A coarse to fine approach is followed that consists of presegmentation, anatomic orientation and structure segmentation. No user input or a priori information about the image content is required. In presegmentation, the body outline, the bones and lung equivalent tissue are detected. Anatomic orientation recognizes the patient's position, orientation and gender and creates an elastic mapping of the slice positions to a reference scale. Structure segmentation is divided into localization, outlining and refinement, performed by procedures with implicit anatomic knowledge using standard image processing operations. The presented version of algorithms automatically segments the body outline and bones in any gender and patient position, the prostate, bladder and femoral heads for male pelvis in supine position, and the spinal canal, lungs, heart and trachea in supine position. The software was developed and tested on a collection of over 600 clinical radiotherapy planning CT stacks. In a qualitative validation on this test collection, anatomic orientation correctly detected gender, patient position and body region in 98% of the cases, a correct mapping was produced for 89% of thorax and 94% of pelvis cases. The average processing time for the entire segmentation of a CT stack was less than 1 min on a standard personal computer. Two independent retrospective studies were carried out for clinical validation. Study I was performed on 66 cases (30 pelvis, 36 thorax) with dosimetrists, study II on 52 cases (39 pelvis, 13 thorax) with radio-oncologists as experts. The experts rated the automatically produced

  3. Experimental investigation of multiple self-organized structures in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan, L. M.; Gaman, C.; Aflori, M.; Mihai-Plugaru, M.; Dimitriu, D.G.; Lozneanu, E.; Sanduloviciu, M.

    2005-01-01

    Complex space charge configuration emerges by self-organization in front of an electrode immersed in plasma when its potential is increased at a certain critical value. Consisting from a nucleus protected from the surrounding plasma by an electrical double layer, the complexity reveals an internal structure and behaviour which remind us primitive organisms. Thus the complexity is not static but stationary open system in which continuous decay is constantly compensated by substance and energy from the surrounding plasma. Endowed with a special kind of memory the complexity can work as an intelligent multifunctional system and consequently it is also able to perform innovations after selective interaction with an environment in evolution. Additionally, the complexity is able to replicate by division. (authors)

  4. Real-time segmentation of multiple implanted cylindrical liver markers in kilovoltage and megavoltage x-ray images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Walther; Worm, Esben Schjødt; Høyer, Morten

    2014-01-01

    (CBCT) projections, for real-time motion management. Thirteen patients treated with conformal stereotactic body radiation therapy in three fractions had 2-3 cylindrical gold markers implanted in the liver prior to treatment. At each fraction, the projection images of a pre-treatment CBCT scan were used...... for automatic generation of a 3D marker model that consisted of the size, orientation, and estimated 3D trajectory of each marker during the CBCT scan. The 3D marker model was used for real-time template based segmentation in subsequent x-ray images by projecting each marker's 3D shape and likely 3D motion...... range onto the imager plane. The segmentation was performed in intra-treatment kV images (526 marker traces, 92 097 marker projections) and MV images (88 marker traces, 22 382 marker projections), and in post-treatment CBCT projections (42 CBCT scans, 71 381 marker projections). 227 kV marker traces...

  5. Probabilistic atlas-guided eigen-organ method for simultaneous bounding box estimation of multiple organs in volumetric CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Cong; Wada, Takashige; Shimizu, Akinobu; Kobatake, Hidefumi; Nawano, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    We propose an approach for the simultaneous bounding box estimation of multiple organs in volumetric CT images. Local eigen-organ spaces are constructed for different types of training organs, and a global eigen-space, which describes the spatial relationships between the organs, is also constructed. Each volume of interest in the abdominal CT image is projected into the local eigen-organ spaces, and several candidate locations are determined. The final selection of the organ locations is made by projecting the set of candidate locations into the global eigen-space. A probabilistic atlas of organs is used to eliminate locations with low probability and to guide the selection of candidate locations. Evaluation by the leave-one-out method using 10 volumetric abdominal CT images showed that the proposed method provided an average accuracy of 80.38% for 11 different organ types. (author)

  6. Activator Gcn4 employs multiple segments of Med15/Gal11, including the KIX domain, to recruit mediator to target genes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedidi, Iness; Zhang, Fan; Qiu, Hongfang; Stahl, Stephen J; Palmer, Ira; Kaufman, Joshua D; Nadaud, Philippe S; Mukherjee, Sujoy; Wingfield, Paul T; Jaroniec, Christopher P; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2010-01-22

    Mediator is a multisubunit coactivator required for initiation by RNA polymerase II. The Mediator tail subdomain, containing Med15/Gal11, is a target of the activator Gcn4 in vivo, critical for recruitment of native Mediator or the Mediator tail subdomain present in sin4Delta cells. Although several Gal11 segments were previously shown to bind Gcn4 in vitro, the importance of these interactions for recruitment of Mediator and transcriptional activation by Gcn4 in cells was unknown. We show that interaction of Gcn4 with the Mediator tail in vitro and recruitment of this subcomplex and intact Mediator to the ARG1 promoter in vivo involve additive contributions from three different segments in the N terminus of Gal11. These include the KIX domain, which is a critical target of other activators, and a region that shares a conserved motif (B-box) with mammalian coactivator SRC-1, and we establish that B-box is a critical determinant of Mediator recruitment by Gcn4. We further demonstrate that Gcn4 binds to the Gal11 KIX domain directly and, by NMR chemical shift analysis combined with mutational studies, we identify the likely binding site for Gcn4 on the KIX surface. Gcn4 is distinctive in relying on comparable contributions from multiple segments of Gal11 for efficient recruitment of Mediator in vivo.

  7. CUSTOMER SEGMENTATION DENGAN METODE SELF ORGANIZING MAP (STUDI KASUS: UD. FENNY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gde Bagus Ariana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini persaingan bisnis pada perusahaan retail tidak hanya dengan menggunakan perangkat sistem informasi namun sudah dilengkapi dengan sistem pendukung keputusan. Salah satu metode sistem pendukung keputusan yang digunakan adalah data mining. Data mining digunakan untuk menemukan pola-pola yang tersembunyi pada database. UD. Fenny sebagai perusahaan retail ingin menemukan pola segmentasi pelanggan dengan menggunakan model RFM (Recency, Frequency, Monetary. Metode data mining untuk melakukan proses segmentasi adalah metode clustering. Clustering merupakan proses penggugusan data menjadi kelompok-kelompok yang memiliki kemiripan secara tidak terawasi (unsupervised. Sebelum melakukan proses clustering, dilakukan proses persiapan data dengan membuat datawarehouse menggunakan skema bintang (star scema. Selanjutnya dilakukan proses clustering dengan menggunakan metode Self Organizing Map (SOM/Kohonen. Metode ini merupakan salah satu model jaringan saraf tiruan yang menggunakan metode unsupervised. Dari hasil percobaan metode SOM melakukan proses clustering dan menggambarkan hasil clustering pada SOM plot. Dengan melakukan proses clustering, pihak pengambil keputusan dapat memahami segmentasi customer dan melakukan upaya peningkatan pelayanan customer.

  8. Automatic segmentation of abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments in water-fat MRI: Application to weight-loss in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Ott, Beate; Skurk, Thomas; Kooijman, Hendrik; Rummeny, Ernst J; Hauner, Hans; Menze, Bjoern H; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2016-09-01

    To develop a fully automatic algorithm for abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments segmentation and to assess organ and adipose tissue volume changes in longitudinal water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Axial two-point Dixon images were acquired in 20 obese women (age range 24-65, BMI 34.9±3.8kg/m(2)) before and after a four-week calorie restriction. Abdominal organs, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments (abdominal, anterior, posterior), SAT regions along the feet-head direction and regional visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were assessed by a fully automatic algorithm using morphological operations and a multi-atlas-based segmentation method. The accuracy of organ segmentation represented by Dice coefficients ranged from 0.672±0.155 for the pancreas to 0.943±0.023 for the liver. Abdominal SAT changes were significantly greater in the posterior than the anterior SAT compartment (-11.4%±5.1% versus -9.5%±6.3%, pabdominal adipose tissue and organ segmentation, and allowed the detection of SAT and VAT subcompartments changes during weight loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fragmentation of organic ions bearing fixed multiple charges observed in MALDI MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, X.; Li, B.; de Waal, B.F.M.; Schill, J.; Baker, M.B.; Bovee, R.A.A.; van Dongen, J.L.J.; Milroy, L.G.; Meijer, E.W.

    2018-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) was used to analyze a series of synthetic organic ions bearing fixed multiple charges. Despite the multiple intrinsic charges, only singly charged ions were recorded in each case. In addition to the

  10. TH-CD-206-05: Machine-Learning Based Segmentation of Organs at Risks for Head and Neck Radiotherapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibragimov, B [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Pernus, F [University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Strojan, P; Xing, L [Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Accurate and efficient delineation of tumor target and organs-at-risks is essential for the success of radiotherapy. In reality, despite of decades of intense research efforts, auto-segmentation has not yet become clinical practice. In this study, we present, for the first time, a deep learning-based classification algorithm for autonomous segmentation in head and neck (HaN) treatment planning. Methods: Fifteen HN datasets of CT, MR and PET images with manual annotation of organs-at-risk (OARs) including spinal cord, brainstem, optic nerves, chiasm, eyes, mandible, tongue, parotid glands were collected and saved in a library of plans. We also have ten super-resolution MR images of the tongue area, where the genioglossus and inferior longitudinalis tongue muscles are defined as organs of interest. We applied the concepts of random forest- and deep learning-based object classification for automated image annotation with the aim of using machine learning to facilitate head and neck radiotherapy planning process. In this new paradigm of segmentation, random forests were used for landmark-assisted segmentation of super-resolution MR images. Alternatively to auto-segmentation with random forest-based landmark detection, deep convolutional neural networks were developed for voxel-wise segmentation of OARs in single and multi-modal images. The network consisted of three pairs of convolution and pooing layer, one RuLU layer and a softmax layer. Results: We present a comprehensive study on using machine learning concepts for auto-segmentation of OARs and tongue muscles for the HaN radiotherapy planning. An accuracy of 81.8% in terms of Dice coefficient was achieved for segmentation of genioglossus and inferior longitudinalis tongue muscles. Preliminary results of OARs regimentation also indicate that deep-learning afforded an unprecedented opportunities to improve the accuracy and robustness of radiotherapy planning. Conclusion: A novel machine learning framework

  11. TH-CD-206-05: Machine-Learning Based Segmentation of Organs at Risks for Head and Neck Radiotherapy Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimov, B; Pernus, F; Strojan, P; Xing, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate and efficient delineation of tumor target and organs-at-risks is essential for the success of radiotherapy. In reality, despite of decades of intense research efforts, auto-segmentation has not yet become clinical practice. In this study, we present, for the first time, a deep learning-based classification algorithm for autonomous segmentation in head and neck (HaN) treatment planning. Methods: Fifteen HN datasets of CT, MR and PET images with manual annotation of organs-at-risk (OARs) including spinal cord, brainstem, optic nerves, chiasm, eyes, mandible, tongue, parotid glands were collected and saved in a library of plans. We also have ten super-resolution MR images of the tongue area, where the genioglossus and inferior longitudinalis tongue muscles are defined as organs of interest. We applied the concepts of random forest- and deep learning-based object classification for automated image annotation with the aim of using machine learning to facilitate head and neck radiotherapy planning process. In this new paradigm of segmentation, random forests were used for landmark-assisted segmentation of super-resolution MR images. Alternatively to auto-segmentation with random forest-based landmark detection, deep convolutional neural networks were developed for voxel-wise segmentation of OARs in single and multi-modal images. The network consisted of three pairs of convolution and pooing layer, one RuLU layer and a softmax layer. Results: We present a comprehensive study on using machine learning concepts for auto-segmentation of OARs and tongue muscles for the HaN radiotherapy planning. An accuracy of 81.8% in terms of Dice coefficient was achieved for segmentation of genioglossus and inferior longitudinalis tongue muscles. Preliminary results of OARs regimentation also indicate that deep-learning afforded an unprecedented opportunities to improve the accuracy and robustness of radiotherapy planning. Conclusion: A novel machine learning framework

  12. SU-F-J-171: Robust Atlas Based Segmentation of the Prostate and Peripheral Zone Regions On MRI Utilizing Multiple MRI System Vendors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padgett, K; Pollack, A; Stoyanova, R; Swallen, A; Nelson, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Automatically generated prostate MRI contours can be used to aid in image registration with CT or ultrasound and to reduce the burden of contouring for radiation treatment planning. In addition, prostate and zonal contours can assist to automate quantitative imaging features extraction and the analyses of longitudinal MRI studies. These potential gains are limited if the solutions are not compatible across different MRI vendors. The goal of this study is to characterize an atlas based automatic segmentation procedure of the prostate collected on MRI systems from multiple vendors. Methods: The prostate and peripheral zone (PZ) were manually contoured by an expert radiation oncologist on T2-weighted scans acquired on both GE (n=31) and Siemens (n=33) 3T MRI systems. A leave-one-out approach was utilized where the target subject is removed from the atlas before the segmentation algorithm is initiated. The atlas-segmentation method finds the best nine matched atlas subjects and then performs a normalized intensity-based free-form deformable registration of these subjects to the target subject. These nine contours are then merged into a single contour using Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE). Contour comparisons were made using Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) and Hausdorff distances. Results: Using the T2 FatSat (FS) GE datasets the atlas generated contours resulted in an average DSC of 0.83±0.06 for prostate, 0.57±0.12 for PZ and 0.75±0.09 for CG. Similar results were found when using the Siemens data with a DSC of 0.79±0.14 for prostate, 0.54±0.16 and 0.70±0.9. Contrast between prostate and surrounding anatomy and between the PZ and CG contours for both vendors demonstrated superior contrast separation; significance was found for all comparisons p-value < 0.0001. Conclusion: Atlas-based segmentation yielded promising results for all contours compared to expertly defined contours in both Siemens and GE 3T systems providing

  13. SU-F-J-171: Robust Atlas Based Segmentation of the Prostate and Peripheral Zone Regions On MRI Utilizing Multiple MRI System Vendors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padgett, K; Pollack, A; Stoyanova, R [University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Swallen, A; Nelson, A [MIM Software Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Automatically generated prostate MRI contours can be used to aid in image registration with CT or ultrasound and to reduce the burden of contouring for radiation treatment planning. In addition, prostate and zonal contours can assist to automate quantitative imaging features extraction and the analyses of longitudinal MRI studies. These potential gains are limited if the solutions are not compatible across different MRI vendors. The goal of this study is to characterize an atlas based automatic segmentation procedure of the prostate collected on MRI systems from multiple vendors. Methods: The prostate and peripheral zone (PZ) were manually contoured by an expert radiation oncologist on T2-weighted scans acquired on both GE (n=31) and Siemens (n=33) 3T MRI systems. A leave-one-out approach was utilized where the target subject is removed from the atlas before the segmentation algorithm is initiated. The atlas-segmentation method finds the best nine matched atlas subjects and then performs a normalized intensity-based free-form deformable registration of these subjects to the target subject. These nine contours are then merged into a single contour using Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE). Contour comparisons were made using Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) and Hausdorff distances. Results: Using the T2 FatSat (FS) GE datasets the atlas generated contours resulted in an average DSC of 0.83±0.06 for prostate, 0.57±0.12 for PZ and 0.75±0.09 for CG. Similar results were found when using the Siemens data with a DSC of 0.79±0.14 for prostate, 0.54±0.16 and 0.70±0.9. Contrast between prostate and surrounding anatomy and between the PZ and CG contours for both vendors demonstrated superior contrast separation; significance was found for all comparisons p-value < 0.0001. Conclusion: Atlas-based segmentation yielded promising results for all contours compared to expertly defined contours in both Siemens and GE 3T systems providing

  14. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is

  15. A multiple kernel classification approach based on a Quadratic Successive Geometric Segmentation methodology with a fault diagnosis case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honório, Leonardo M; Barbosa, Daniele A; Oliveira, Edimar J; Garcia, Paulo A Nepomuceno; Santos, Murillo F

    2018-03-01

    This work presents a new approach for solving classification and learning problems. The Successive Geometric Segmentation technique is applied to encapsulate large datasets by using a series of Oriented Bounding Hyper Box (OBHBs). Each OBHB is obtained through linear separation analysis and each one represents a specific region in a pattern's solution space. Also, each OBHB can be seen as a data abstraction layer and be considered as an individual Kernel. Thus, it is possible by applying a quadratic discriminant function, to assemble a set of nonlinear surfaces separating each desirable pattern. This approach allows working with large datasets using high speed linear analysis tools and yet providing a very accurate non-linear classifier as final result. The methodology was tested using the UCI Machine Learning repository and a Power Transformer Fault Diagnosis real scenario problem. The results were compared with different approaches provided by literature and, finally, the potential and further applications of the methodology were also discussed. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Circulating Extracellular Histones Are Clinically Relevant Mediators of Multiple Organ Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Chihiro; Kotani, Hirokazu; Miyao, Masashi; Ishida, Tokiko; Jemail, Leila; Abiru, Hitoshi; Tamaki, Keiji

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular histones are a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. The mechanisms of histone-mediated injury in certain organs have been extensively studied, but an understanding of the pathophysiological role of histone-mediated injury in multiple organ injury remains elusive. To elucidate this role, we systemically subjected C57BL/6 mice to various doses of histones and performed a chronological evaluation of the morphological and functional changes in the lungs, liver, and kidneys. Notably, histone administration ultimately led to death after a dose-dependent aggravation of multiple organ injury. In chronological studies, pulmonary and hepatic injuries occurred within 15 minutes, whereas renal injuries presented at a later phase, suggesting that susceptibility to extracellular histones varies among organs. Histones bound to pulmonary and hepatic endothelial cells immediately after administration, leading to endothelial damage, which could be ameliorated by pretreatment with heparin. Furthermore, release of another DAMP, high-mobility group protein box 1, followed the histone-induced tissue damage, and an antibody against the molecule ameliorated hepatic and renal failure in a late phase. These findings indicate that extracellular histones induce multiple organ injury in two progressive stages-direct injury to endothelial cells and the subsequent release of other DAMPs-and that combination therapies against extracellular histones and high-mobility group protein box 1 may be a promising strategy for treating multiple organ injury. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Validation of clinical acceptability of an atlas-based segmentation algorithm for the delineation of organs at risk in head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang Duc, Albert K., E-mail: albert.hoangduc.ucl@gmail.com; McClelland, Jamie; Modat, Marc; Cardoso, M. Jorge; Mendelson, Alex F. [Center for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Eminowicz, Gemma; Mendes, Ruheena; Wong, Swee-Ling; D’Souza, Derek [Radiotherapy Department, University College London Hospitals, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Veiga, Catarina [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Kadir, Timor [Mirada Medical UK, Oxford Center for Innovation, New Road, Oxford OX1 1BY (United Kingdom); Ourselin, Sebastien [Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess whether clinically acceptable segmentations of organs at risk (OARs) in head and neck cancer can be obtained automatically and efficiently using the novel “similarity and truth estimation for propagated segmentations” (STEPS) compared to the traditional “simultaneous truth and performance level estimation” (STAPLE) algorithm. Methods: First, 6 OARs were contoured by 2 radiation oncologists in a dataset of 100 patients with head and neck cancer on planning computed tomography images. Each image in the dataset was then automatically segmented with STAPLE and STEPS using those manual contours. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was then used to compare the accuracy of these automatic methods. Second, in a blind experiment, three separate and distinct trained physicians graded manual and automatic segmentations into one of the following three grades: clinically acceptable as determined by universal delineation guidelines (grade A), reasonably acceptable for clinical practice upon manual editing (grade B), and not acceptable (grade C). Finally, STEPS segmentations graded B were selected and one of the physicians manually edited them to grade A. Editing time was recorded. Results: Significant improvements in DSC can be seen when using the STEPS algorithm on large structures such as the brainstem, spinal canal, and left/right parotid compared to the STAPLE algorithm (all p < 0.001). In addition, across all three trained physicians, manual and STEPS segmentation grades were not significantly different for the brainstem, spinal canal, parotid (right/left), and optic chiasm (all p > 0.100). In contrast, STEPS segmentation grades were lower for the eyes (p < 0.001). Across all OARs and all physicians, STEPS produced segmentations graded as well as manual contouring at a rate of 83%, giving a lower bound on this rate of 80% with 95% confidence. Reduction in manual interaction time was on average 61% and 93% when automatic

  18. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N; Heslop-Harrison, Js Pat; Ahmad, H; Graybosch, R A; Hein, G L; Schwarzacher, T

    2016-08-01

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chromatin in four genetically diverse populations of wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines incorporating chromosome segments from Thinopyrum intermedium and Secale cereale (rye). Out of 20 experimental lines, 10 carried Th. intermedium chromatin as T4DL*4Ai#2S translocations, while, unexpectedly, 7 lines were positive for alien chromatin (Th. intermedium or rye) on chromosome 1B. The newly described rye 1RS chromatin, transmitted from early in the pedigree, was associated with enhanced WSMV resistance. Under field conditions, the 1RS chromatin alone showed some resistance, while together with the Th. intermedium 4Ai#2S offered superior resistance to that demonstrated by the known resistant cultivar Mace. Most alien wheat lines carry whole chromosome arms, and it is notable that these lines showed intra-arm recombination within the 1BS arm. The translocation breakpoints between 1BS and alien chromatin fell in three categories: (i) at or near to the centromere, (ii) intercalary between markers UL-Thin5 and Xgwm1130 and (iii) towards the telomere between Xgwm0911 and Xbarc194. Labelled genomic Th. intermedium DNA hybridised to the rye 1RS chromatin under high stringency conditions, indicating the presence of shared tandem repeats among the cereals. The novel small alien fragments may explain the difficulty in developing well-adapted lines carrying Wsm1 despite improved tolerance to the virus. The results will facilitate directed chromosome engineering producing agronomically desirable WSMV-resistant germplasm.

  19. Induction of multiple shoots from leaf segments, in vitro-flowering and fruiting of a dwarf tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kokkirala Venugopal; Kiranmayee, Kasula; Pavan, Umate; Sree, Telakalapalli Jaya; Rao, Alleni V; Sadanandam, Abbagani

    2005-08-01

    Multiple shoots were induced from leaf explants of Lycopersicon esculentum cultivar MicroTom, within 20-25d, on MS medium supplemented with 8.9 microM benzylaminopurine (BAP)+1.14 microM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). For rooting, elongated microshoots were excised and transferred onto MS medium supplemented with 4.9 microM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Well-developed roots and flower raceme were obtained on d 7 and 13, respectively, upon transfer of the microshoots onto rooting medium. The flowers self-fertilized in vitro and produced mature fruits in additional 15-17d of culture.

  20. Multirate delivery of multiple therapeutic agents from metal-organic frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair C. McKinlay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The highly porous nature of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs offers great potential for the delivery of therapeutic agents. Here, we show that highly porous metal-organic frameworks can be used to deliver multiple therapeutic agents—a biologically active gas, an antibiotic drug molecule, and an active metal ion—simultaneously but at different rates. The possibilities offered by delivery of multiple agents with different mechanisms of action and, in particular, variable timescales may allow new therapy approaches. Here, we show that the loaded MOFs are highly active against various strains of bacteria.

  1. Molecular evolution of avian reovirus: evidence for genetic diversity and reassortment of the S-class genome segments and multiple cocirculating lineages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hung J.; Lee, Long H.; Hsu, Hsiao W.; Kuo, Liam C.; Liao, Ming H.

    2003-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences of the S-class genome segments of 17 field-isolates and vaccine strains of avian reovirus (ARV) isolated over a 23-year period from different hosts, pathotypes, and geographic locations were examined and analyzed to define phylogenetic profiles and evolutionary mechanism. The S1 genome segment showed noticeably higher divergence than the other S-class genes. The σC-encoding gene has evolved into six distinct lineages. In contrast, the other S-class genes showed less divergence than that of the σC-encoding gene and have evolved into two to three major distinct lineages, respectively. Comparative sequence analysis provided evidence indicating extensive sequence divergence between ARV and other orthoreoviruses. The evolutionary trees of each gene were distinct, suggesting that these genes evolve in an independent manner. Furthermore, variable topologies were the result of frequent genetic reassortment among multiple cocirculating lineages. Results showed genetic diversity correlated more closely with date of isolation and geographic sites than with host species and pathotypes. This is the first evidence demonstrating genetic variability among circulating ARVs through a combination of evolutionary mechanisms involving multiple cocirculating lineages and genetic reassortment. The evolutionary rates and patterns of base substitutions were examined. The evolutionary rate for the σC-encoding gene and σC protein was higher than for the other S-class genes and other family of viruses. With the exception of the σC-encoding gene, which nonsynonymous substitutions predominate over synonymous, the evolutionary process of the other S-class genes can be explained by the neutral theory of molecular evolution. Results revealed that synonymous substitutions predominate over nonsynonymous in the S-class genes, even though genetic diversity and substitution rates vary among the viruses

  2. Multiple organ histopathological changes in broiler chickens fed on genetically modified organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cîrnatu, Daniela; Jompan, A; Sin, Anca Ileana; Zugravu, Cornelia Aurelia

    2011-01-01

    Diet can influence the structural characteristics of internal organs. An experiment involving 130 meat broilers was conducted during 42 days (life term for a meat broiler) to study the effect of feed with protein from genetically modified soy. The 1-day-old birds were randomly allocated to five study groups, fed with soy, sunflower, wheat, fish flour, PC starter. In the diet of each group, an amount of protein from soy was replaced with genetically modified soy (I - 0%, II - 25%, III - 50%, IV - 75%, V - 100% protein from genetically modified soy). The level of protein in soy, either modified, or non-modified, was the same. Organs and carcass weights were measured at about 42 days of age of the birds and histopathology exams were performed during May-June 2009. No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality, growth performance variables or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with genetically modified soybean fractions and those consuming diets produced with near-isoline control soybean fractions. Inflammatory and degenerative liver lesions, muscle hypertrophy, hemorrhagic necrosis of bursa, kidney focal tubular necrosis, necrosis and superficial ulceration of bowel and pancreatic dystrophies were found in tissues from broilers fed on protein from genetically modified soy. Different types of lesions found in our study might be due to other causes (parasites, viral) superimposed but their presence exclusively in groups fed with modified soy raises some serious questions about the consequences of use of this type of feed.

  3. Sipunculans and segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora

    2009-01-01

    mechanisms may act on the level of gene expression, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation and organ system formation in individual segments. Accordingly, in some polychaete annelids the first three pairs of segmental peripheral neurons arise synchronously, while the metameric commissures of the ventral...

  4. Fragmentation of organic ions bearing fixed multiple charges observed in MALDI MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xianwen; Li, Bao; de Waal, Bas F M; Schill, Jurgen; Baker, Matthew B; Bovee, Ralf A A; van Dongen, Joost L J; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; Meijer, E W

    2018-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) was used to analyze a series of synthetic organic ions bearing fixed multiple charges. Despite the multiple intrinsic charges, only singly charged ions were recorded in each case. In addition to the pseudo-molecular ions formed by counterion adduction, deprotonation and electron capture, a number of fragment ions were also observed. Charge splitting by fragmentation was found to be a viable route for charge reduction leading to the formation of the observed singly charged fragment ions. Unlike multivalent metal ions, organic ions can rearrange and/or fragment during charge reduction. This fragmentation process will evidently complicate the interpretation of the MALDI MS spectrum. Because MALDI MS is usually considered as a soft ionization technique, the fragment ion peaks can easily be erroneously interpreted as impurities. Therefore, the awareness and understanding of the underlying MALDI-induced fragmentation pathways is essential for a proper interpretation of the corresponding mass spectra. Due to the fragment ions generated during charge reduction, special care should be taken in the MALDI MS analysis of multiply charged ions. In this work, the possible mechanisms by which the organic ions bearing fixed multiple charges fragment are investigated. With an improved understanding of the fragmentation mechanisms, MALDI TOF MS should still be a useful technique for the characterization of organic ions with fixed multiple charges. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Native-View Paradigms: Multiple Cultures and Culture Conflicts in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Kathleen L.

    1983-01-01

    After reviewing organizational culture studies done in industrial settings, this paper proposes a native-view paradigm from anthropology for exploring the multiple perspectives of participants in large organizations and describes a study--of Silicon Valley technical professionals' native views--that applies the methods of ethnoscience ethnography.…

  6. Legitimating New Forms of Organizing and New International Activities in the Eyes of Multiple Stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    The research on new venture legitimation strategies is emerging; although, it is yet to form a central line of enquiry in entrepreneurship research. To contribute to this development, this paper explores the process of legitimation in a non-for-profit venture (hereafter as NGO, non-governmental...... organization). The paper explores (1) how this NGO acquired cognitive legitimacy, defined as knowledge about the new form of organizing and new activity and what is needed to succeed in respective sector, and socio-political legitimacy, defined as the value placed on the new form of organizing and new activity...... by its multiple stakeholders; and (2) what legitimation strategies it developed and adopted to legitimate itself in the eyes of its multiple stakeholders. Theoretically, the paper is grounded within legitimation theory. The empirical context is defined by a new, international NGO entering an established...

  7. Controlled multiple neutral planes by low elastic modulus adhesive for flexible organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wansun; Lee, Inhwa; Yoon Kim, Dong; Yu, Youn-Yeol; Jung, Hae-Yoon; Kwon, Seyeoul; Seo Park, Weon; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2017-05-12

    To protect brittle layers in organic photovoltaic devices, the mechanical neutral plane strategy can be adopted through placing the brittle functional materials close to the neutral plane where stress and strain are zero during bending. However, previous research has been significantly limited in the location and number of materials to protect through using a single neutral plane. In this study, multiple neutral planes are generated using low elastic modulus adhesives and are controlled through quantitative analyses in order to protect the multiple brittle materials at various locations. Moreover, the protection of multiple brittle layers at various locations under both concave and convex bending directions is demonstrated. Multilayer structures that have soft adhesives are further analyzed using the finite element method analysis in order to propose guidelines for structural design when employing multiple neutral planes.

  8. Examination of segmental average mass spectra from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) data enables screening of multiple types of protein modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nai-Yu; Lee, Hsiao-Hui; Chang, Zee-Fen; Tsay, Yeou-Guang

    2015-09-10

    It has been observed that a modified peptide and its non-modified counterpart, when analyzed with reverse phase liquid chromatography, usually share a very similar elution property [1-3]. Inasmuch as this property is common to many different types of protein modifications, we propose an informatics-based approach, featuring the generation of segmental average mass spectra ((sa)MS), that is capable of locating different types of modified peptides in two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LC-MS) data collected for regular protease digests from proteins in gels or solutions. To enable the localization of these peptides in the LC-MS map, we have implemented a set of computer programs, or the (sa)MS package, that perform the needed functions, including generating a complete set of segmental average mass spectra, compiling the peptide inventory from the Sequest/TurboSequest results, searching modified peptide candidates and annotating a tandem mass spectrum for final verification. Using ROCK2 as an example, our programs were applied to identify multiple types of modified peptides, such as phosphorylated and hexosylated ones, which particularly include those peptides that could have been ignored due to their peculiar fragmentation patterns and consequent low search scores. Hence, we demonstrate that, when complemented with peptide search algorithms, our approach and the entailed computer programs can add the sequence information needed for bolstering the confidence of data interpretation by the present analytical platforms and facilitate the mining of protein modification information out of complicated LC-MS/MS data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A generative model for segmentation of tumor and organs-at-risk for radiation therapy planning of glioblastoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agn, Mikael; Law, Ian; Munck Af Rosenschöld, Per

    2016-01-01

    to model tumor shape. The method is not tuned to any specific imaging protocol and can simultaneously segment the gross tumor volume, peritumoral edema and healthy tissue structures relevant for radiotherapy planning. We validate the method on a manually delineated clinical data set of glioblastoma...

  10. Evaluation of an atlas-based automatic segmentation software for the delineation of brain organs at risk in a radiation therapy clinical context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isambert, Aurelie; Dhermain, Frederic; Bidault, Francois; Commowick, Olivier; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Malandain, Gregoire; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Conformal radiation therapy techniques require the delineation of volumes of interest, a time-consuming and operator-dependent task. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the potential interest of an atlas-based automatic segmentation software (ABAS) of brain organs at risk (OAR), when used under our clinical conditions. Materials and methods: Automatic and manual segmentations of the eyes, optic nerves, optic chiasm, pituitary gland, brain stem and cerebellum of 11 patients on T1-weighted magnetic resonance, 3-mm thick slice images were compared using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). The sensitivity and specificity of the ABAS were also computed and analysed from a radiotherapy point of view by splitting the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) space into four sub-regions. Results: Automatic segmentation of OAR was achieved in 7-8 min. Excellent agreement was obtained between automatic and manual delineations for organs exceeding 7 cm 3 : the DSC was greater than 0.8. For smaller structures, the DSC was lower than 0.41. Conclusions: These tests demonstrated that this ABAS is a robust and reliable tool for automatic delineation of large structures under clinical conditions in our daily practice, even though the small structures must continue to be delineated manually by an expert

  11. A search engine to identify pathway genes from expression data on multiple organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambon Alexander C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completion of several genome projects showed that most genes have not yet been characterized, especially in multicellular organisms. Although most genes have unknown functions, a large collection of data is available describing their transcriptional activities under many different experimental conditions. In many cases, the coregulatation of a set of genes across a set of conditions can be used to infer roles for genes of unknown function. Results We developed a search engine, the Multiple-Species Gene Recommender (MSGR, which scans gene expression datasets from multiple organisms to identify genes that participate in a genetic pathway. The MSGR takes a query consisting of a list of genes that function together in a genetic pathway from one of six organisms: Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Helicobacter pylori. Using a probabilistic method to merge searches, the MSGR identifies genes that are significantly coregulated with the query genes in one or more of those organisms. The MSGR achieves its highest accuracy for many human pathways when searches are combined across species. We describe specific examples in which new genes were identified to be involved in a neuromuscular signaling pathway and a cell-adhesion pathway. Conclusion The search engine can scan large collections of gene expression data for new genes that are significantly coregulated with a pathway of interest. By integrating searches across organisms, the MSGR can identify pathway members whose coregulation is either ancient or newly evolved.

  12. Interactions between organic anions on multiple transporters in Caco-2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandvuinet, Anne Sophie; Steffansen, Bente

    2011-01-01

    Caco-2 cell line may be used as an overall model to predict interactions on multiple membrane transporters in the intestine. Taurocholic acid (TCA) and estrone-3-sulfate (E1S) were used as model substrates. Possible inhibitors studied were TCA, E1S, taurolithocholic acid, fluvastatin, and glipizide......-dependent bile acid transporter and the organic solute transporter α/β, and to less extent by the organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1. However, interactions on efflux transporters were not detected, although they were expected from the literature on the investigated compounds. Biosimulation methods may...

  13. Responding to Multiple Institutional Logics in Inter-institutional Temporary Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderlund, Jonas; Pemsel, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on findings from a unique case study of a temporary organization that carried the responsibility for the planning and construction of a new super hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. Our empirical study explores how this temporary organization responded to requirements from different...... and sometimes conflicting institutional logics. The paper identifies four distinct response strategies that project actors relied upon to deal with the multiplicity of logics: total integration, partial decoupling, avoidance, and surfing. We discuss how these response strategies were used in the studied case...

  14. A case of disseminated hydatid disease by surgery involving multiple organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Tanrivermis Sayit

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is the most common parasitic infection in the world, and is caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. The most common site of this disease is the liver (75%, followed by the lungs, kidney, bones, and brain. Multiple abdominal organ and peritoneal involvement can also be seen in some cases. The dissemination of hydatid cyst disease can develop spontaneously or secondary to trauma or surgery. Here, we present the case of a 69-year-old man with multiple cyst hydatidosis, who underwent surgery for acute appendicitis approximately 20 years previously. Computed tomography of the abdomen shows the multiple active and inactive cystic lesions in the liver, spleen, right kidney, and mesentery. This patient required surgery several times, as well as medical treatment, after the rupture of a mesenteric hydatid cyst during the appendectomy. Combined anthelmintic treatment was recommended to the patient who refused further surgical treatment.

  15. Market Segmentation for Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and limitations of market segmentation as strategy for the marketing of information services made available by nonprofit organizations, particularly libraries. Market segmentation is defined, a market grid for libraries is described, and the segmentation of information services is outlined. A 16-item reference list is…

  16. Growing Region Segmentation Software (GRES) for quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of multiple sclerosis: intra- and inter-observer agreement variability: a comparison with manual contouring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parodi, Roberto C.; Sardanelli, Francesco; Renzetti, Paolo; Rosso, Elisabetta; Losacco, Caterina; Ferrari, Alessandra; Levrero, Fabrizio; Pilot, Alberto; Inglese, Matilde; Mancardi, Giovanni L.

    2002-01-01

    Lesion area measurement in multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the key points in evaluating the natural history and in monitoring the efficacy of treatments. This study was performed to check the intra- and inter-observer agreement variability of a locally developed Growing Region Segmentation Software (GRES), comparing them to those obtained using manual contouring (MC). From routine 1.5-T MRI study of clinically definite multiple sclerosis patients, 36 lesions seen on proton-density-weighted images (PDWI) and 36 enhancing lesion on Gd-DTPA-BMA-enhanced T1-weighted images (Gd-T1WI) were randomly chosen and were evaluated by three observers. The mean range of lesion size was 9.9-536.0 mm 2 on PDWI and 3.6-57.2 mm 2 on Gd-T1WI. The median intra- and inter-observer agreement were, respectively, 97.1 and 90.0% using GRES on PDWI, 81.0 and 70.0% using MC on PDWI, 88.8 and 80.0% using GRES on Gd-T1WI, and 85.8 and 70.0% using MC on Gd-T1WI. The intra- and inter-observer agreements were significantly greater for GRES compared with MC (P<0.0001 and P=0.0023, respectively) for PDWI, while no difference was found between GRES an MC for Gd-T1WI. The intra-observer variability for GRES was significantly lower on both PDWI (P=0.0001) and Gd-T1WI (P=0.0067), whereas for MC the same result was found only for PDWI (P=0.0147). These data indicate that GRES reduces both the intra- and the inter-observer variability in assessing the area of MS lesions on PDWI and may prove useful in multicentre studies. (orig.)

  17. Adjunctive Therapies During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation to Enhance Multiple Organ Support in Critically Ill Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Orsi Canter

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO over 40 years ago, there has been increasing interest in the use of the extracorporeal circuit as a platform for providing multiple organ support. In this review, we will examine the evidence for the use of continuous renal replacement therapy, therapeutic plasma exchange, leukopheresis, adsorptive therapies, and extracorporeal liver support in conjunction with ECMO.

  18. Male infertility is significantly associated with multiple deletions in an 8.7-kb segment of sperm mtDNA in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Irfan Afzal; Irfan, Asma; Jahan, Sarwat; Hameed, Abdul

    2017-06-12

    This study aimed to find a link between sperm mitochondrial DNA mutations and male infertility in Pakistan. DNA from semen samples was extracted and amplified by PCR using 7.8-kb deletion-specific primers. The PCR products were separated on agarose gel, visualized under UV-illumination, and then photographed. The results were genotyped and the data were analyzed using SPSS. Deletion analysis of the 8.7-kb fragment by long PCR revealed multiple deletions. The frequency of deletion was much higher in infertile groups as compared to the control group. Further, on comparison between different subtypes of infertile groups, the deletions were highest in the oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) group. The statistical analysis of case and control groups showed a significant association of the 8.7-kb deletion with human male infertile groups (P = 0.031), and particularly a very significant association with the OAT subgroup (P = 0.019). A significant association has been found between human male infertility and mtDNA deletions in an 8.7-kb segment of sperm mtDNA in a Pakistani population.

  19. Ultra Innovative Approach to Integrate Cellphone Customer Market Segmentation Model Using Self Organizing Maps and K-Means Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad reza karimi alavijeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of 3G and 4G is rapidly increasing and also cellphone users are briskly changing their consumption behavior, using preferences and shopping manner. Accordingly, cellphone manufacturers should create an accurate insight of their target market and provide a “special offer” to their target consumers. In order to reach a correct understanding of the target market, consumption behavior and lifestyle of the submarkets we found the appropriate number of community clusters after criticizing the traditional methods and introducing market segmentation techniques which were based on neural networks. By utilizing the fuzzy Delphi technique, variables of target market segmentation were found. Finally, the obtained clusters and segmentations of the market were refined by using the techniques of K-means and aggregation (Agglomerative. The population of this research included the consumers of mobile in Tehran with a sample of 130 specimens after collecting data through questionnaires, results demonstrated that the Tehran cellphone market was comprised of 5 Clusters, each one are capable of implementing marketing strategy and marketing mix separately with taking into account the competitive advantages of ICT companies to maximize their demand and margin.

  20. Segmentation and profiling consumers in a multi-channel environment using a combination of self-organizing maps (SOM method, and logistic regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Akbar Afjeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation plays essential role on understanding the behavior of people’s interests in purchasing various products and services through various channels. This paper presents an empirical investigation to shed light on consumer’s purchasing attitude as well as gathering information in multi-channel environment. The proposed study of this paper designed a questionnaire and distributed it among 800 people who were at least 18 years of age and had some experiences on purchasing goods and services on internet, catalog or regular shopping centers. Self-organizing map, SOM, clustering technique was performed based on consumer’s interest in gathering information as well as purchasing products through internet, catalog and shopping centers and determined four segments. There were two types of questions for the proposed study of this paper. The first group considered participants’ personal characteristics such as age, gender, income, etc. The second group of questions was associated with participants’ psychographic characteristics including price consciousness, quality consciousness, time pressure, etc. Using multinominal logistic regression technique, the study determines consumers’ behaviors in each four segments.

  1. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  2. Adsorption of histones on natural polysaccharides: The potential as agent for multiple organ failure in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Takashi; Kofuji, Kyoko; Okada, Kenji; Fujimori, Junya; Murata, Mikio; Shigeyama, Masato; Hanioka, Nobumitsu; Murata, Yoshifumi

    2016-03-01

    Histones are intracellular proteins that are structural elements of nuclear chromatin and regulate gene transcription. However, the extracellular histones released in response to bacterial challenges have been identified as mediators contributing to endothelial dysfunction, organ failure, and death during sepsis. In the present study, the adsorption of histones as well as plasma proteins (α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), albumin, and γ-globulin) on alginic acid, pectin, dextran, and chitosan was examined in order to evaluate the potential of natural polysaccharides as therapeutic agents for multiple organ failure in sepsis. Alginic acid and pectin strongly adsorbed histones, whereas the adsorption abilities of dextran and chitosan toward histones were very low or negligible. Among the natural polysaccharides examined, only alginic acid did not adsorb any of the plasma proteins. These results demonstrated that alginic acid strongly adsorbed histones, but not plasma proteins; therefore, it has potential as a candidate drug for the treatment of multiple organ failure in sepsis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple organ failure in the newborn: the point of view of the pathologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Gerosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most severe events occurring in critically ill patients admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU center is represented by the multiple organ failure (MOF, a systemic inflammatory response leading to a progressive organ dysfunction and mortality in newborns. MOF may occur in newborns primarily affected by multiple single organ diseases, including respiratory distress syndrome neonatal sepsis with acute kidney injury, post-asphyxial hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and pandemic influenza A (H1N1 infection. In a previous article from our group, based on the histological examination of all organs at autopsy of newborns affected by MOF, all organs studied did not escape to be damaged, including thymus and pancreas normally not mentioned in the literature of MOF. The aim of this article is to review the most important pathological changes pathologists should look for in every case of MOF occurring in the perinatal period, with particular attention to systemic endothelial changes occurring in blood vessels in all organs and sytems. On the basis of our experience, matching data during the last phases of the clinicopathological diagnosis represents a useful method, much more productive as compared to the method based on giving pathological answers to the clinical questions prospected before autopsy. As for the pathological features observed in neonatal MOF, one of them deserves a particular attention: the vascular lesions, and in particular the multiple changes occurring during MOF development in endothelial cells, ending with the loss of the endothelial barrier, probably the most relevant histological lesion followed by the insurgence of interstitial edema and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Small vessels should be observed at high power, with particular attention to the size and shape of endothelial nuclei, in order to evidence endothelial swelling, probably the initial modification of the endothelial cells leading to their

  4. Unusual fatal multiple-organ dysfunction and pancreatitis induced by a single wasp sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Azad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute onset of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS is a well-known complication following multiple wasp stings. However, MODS after a single wasp sting has been rarely reported in children and acute pancreatitis have probably never been observed before. Herein we describe the case of a 12-year-old boy who had urticaria and abdominal pain after a single wasp sting. The child gradually developed MODS while his abdominal complaints were worsening. Despite aggressive supportive management, the child did not survive. Afterward, the cause of the acute abdomen was finally diagnosed as acute pancreatitis. Both MODS and pancreatitis following a single wasp sting are very unusual. Thus, although pancreatitis is rarely manifested, it should be suspected after a wasp sting if there are predominant abdominal symptoms.

  5. Sequence analysis of the PIP5K locus in Eimeria maxima provides further evidence for eimerian genome plasticity and segmental organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, B K; Pan, M Z; Lau, Y L; Wan, K L

    2014-07-29

    Commercial flocks infected by Eimeria species parasites, including Eimeria maxima, have an increased risk of developing clinical or subclinical coccidiosis; an intestinal enteritis associated with increased mortality rates in poultry. Currently, infection control is largely based on chemotherapy or live vaccines; however, drug resistance is common and vaccines are relatively expensive. The development of new cost-effective intervention measures will benefit from unraveling the complex genetic mechanisms that underlie host-parasite interactions, including the identification and characterization of genes encoding proteins such as phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K). We previously identified a PIP5K coding sequence within the E. maxima genome. In this study, we analyzed two bacterial artificial chromosome clones presenting a ~145-kb E. maxima (Weybridge strain) genomic region spanning the PIP5K gene locus. Sequence analysis revealed that ~95% of the simple sequence repeats detected were located within regions comparable to the previously described feature-rich segments of the Eimeria tenella genome. Comparative sequence analysis with the orthologous E. maxima (Houghton strain) region revealed a moderate level of conserved synteny. Unique segmental organizations and telomere-like repeats were also observed in both genomes. A number of incomplete transposable elements were detected and further scrutiny of these elements in both orthologous segments revealed interesting nesting events, which may play a role in facilitating genome plasticity in E. maxima. The current analysis provides more detailed information about the genome organization of E. maxima and may help to reveal genotypic differences that are important for expression of traits related to pathogenicity and virulence.

  6. Severe Leptospirosis with Multiple Organ Failure Successfully Treated by Plasma Exchange and High-Volume Hemofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Bourquin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leptospirosis is a spirochetal zoonosis with complex clinical features including renal and liver failure. Case report. We report the case of a Swiss fisherman presenting with leptospirosis. After initial improvement, refractory septic shock and severe liver and kidney failure developed. The expected mortality was estimated at 90% with clinical scores. The patient underwent plasma exchanges and high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF with complete recovery of hepatic and kidney functions. Discussion. Plasma exchanges and HVHF may confer survival benefit on patients with severe leptospirosis, refractory septic shock, and multiple-organ failure.

  7. Clustering Multiple Sclerosis Subgroups with Multifractal Methods and Self-Organizing Map Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Yeliz; Cattani, Carlo

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive method to detect chronic nervous system diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In this paper, Brownian motion Hölder regularity functions (polynomial, periodic (sine), exponential) for 2D image, such as multifractal methods were applied to MR brain images, aiming to easily identify distressed regions, in MS patients. With these regions, we have proposed an MS classification based on the multifractal method by using the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) algorithm. Thus, we obtained a cluster analysis by identifying pixels from distressed regions in MR images through multifractal methods and by diagnosing subgroups of MS patients through artificial neural networks.

  8. Prognostic value of natriuretic peptides in severe trauma patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    LI, NAN; SONG, ZHI; WANG, JING; TENG, YUE; CUI, YAN; JIN, HONGXU; GAO, YAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic values of the N-terminal peptide of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP) and the N-terminal fragment of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in severe trauma patients developing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Out of the 126 severe trauma patients that were admitted to the Emergency Intensive Care Unit of the General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region between January 2009 and December 2011, 26 patients with mult...

  9. Active Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ajay; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2009-01-01

    The human visual system observes and understands a scene/image by making a series of fixations. Every fixation point lies inside a particular region of arbitrary shape and size in the scene which can either be an object or just a part of it. We define as a basic segmentation problem the task of segmenting that region containing the fixation point. Segmenting the region containing the fixation is equivalent to finding the enclosing contour- a connected set of boundary edge fragments in the edge map of the scene - around the fixation. This enclosing contour should be a depth boundary.We present here a novel algorithm that finds this bounding contour and achieves the segmentation of one object, given the fixation. The proposed segmentation framework combines monocular cues (color/intensity/texture) with stereo and/or motion, in a cue independent manner. The semantic robots of the immediate future will be able to use this algorithm to automatically find objects in any environment. The capability of automatically segmenting objects in their visual field can bring the visual processing to the next level. Our approach is different from current approaches. While existing work attempts to segment the whole scene at once into many areas, we segment only one image region, specifically the one containing the fixation point. Experiments with real imagery collected by our active robot and from the known databases 1 demonstrate the promise of the approach.

  10. The Importance of Marketing Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    The rationale behind marketing segmentation is to allow businesses to focus on their consumers' behaviors and purchasing patterns. If done effectively, marketing segmentation allows an organization to achieve its highest return on investment (ROI) in turn for its marketing and sales expenses. If an organization markets its products or services to…

  11. A semi-automated measuring system of brain diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in patients with multiple sclerosis based on the integration of coregistration and tissue segmentation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revenaz, Alfredo; Ruggeri, Massimiliano; Laganà, Marcella; Bergsland, Niels; Groppo, Elisabetta; Rovaris, Marco; Fainardi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) abnormalities in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are currently measured by a complex combination of separate procedures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide a reliable method for reducing analysis complexity and obtaining reproducible results. We implemented a semi-automated measuring system in which different well-known software components for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis are integrated to obtain reliable measurements of DWI and PWI disturbances in MS. We generated the Diffusion/Perfusion Project (DPP) Suite, in which a series of external software programs are managed and harmonically and hierarchically incorporated by in-house developed Matlab software to perform the following processes: 1) image pre-processing, including imaging data anonymization and conversion from DICOM to Nifti format; 2) co-registration of 2D and 3D non-enhanced and Gd-enhanced T1-weighted images in fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) space; 3) lesion segmentation and classification, in which FLAIR lesions are at first segmented and then categorized according to their presumed evolution; 4) co-registration of segmented FLAIR lesion in T1 space to obtain the FLAIR lesion mask in the T1 space; 5) normal appearing tissue segmentation, in which T1 lesion mask is used to segment basal ganglia/thalami, normal appearing grey matter (NAGM) and normal appearing white matter (NAWM); 6) DWI and PWI map generation; 7) co-registration of basal ganglia/thalami, NAGM, NAWM, DWI and PWI maps in previously segmented FLAIR space; 8) data analysis. All these steps are automatic, except for lesion segmentation and classification. We developed a promising method to limit misclassifications and user errors, providing clinical researchers with a practical and reproducible tool to measure DWI and PWI changes in MS

  12. Automatic lithofacies segmentation from well-logs data. A comparative study between the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) and Walsh transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliouane, Leila; Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali; Rabhi, Abdessalem; Rouina, Fouzi; Benaissa, Zahia; Boudella, Amar

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to realize a comparison between two lithofacies segmentation techniques of reservoir interval. The first one is based on the Kohonen's Self-Organizing Map neural network machine. The second technique is based on the Walsh transform decomposition. Application to real well-logs data of two boreholes located in the Algerian Sahara shows that the Self-organizing map is able to provide more lithological details that the obtained lithofacies model given by the Walsh decomposition. Keywords: Comparison, Lithofacies, SOM, Walsh References: 1)Aliouane, L., Ouadfeul, S., Boudella, A., 2011, Fractal analysis based on the continuous wavelet transform and lithofacies classification from well-logs data using the self-organizing map neural network, Arabian Journal of geosciences, doi: 10.1007/s12517-011-0459-4 2) Aliouane, L., Ouadfeul, S., Djarfour, N., Boudella, A., 2012, Petrophysical Parameters Estimation from Well-Logs Data Using Multilayer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function Neural Networks, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 7667, 2012, pp 730-736, doi : 10.1007/978-3-642-34500-5_86 3)Ouadfeul, S. and Aliouane., L., 2011, Multifractal analysis revisited by the continuous wavelet transform applied in lithofacies segmentation from well-logs data, International journal of applied physics and mathematics, Vol01 N01. 4) Ouadfeul, S., Aliouane, L., 2012, Lithofacies Classification Using the Multilayer Perceptron and the Self-organizing Neural Networks, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 7667, 2012, pp 737-744, doi : 10.1007/978-3-642-34500-5_87 5) Weisstein, Eric W. "Fast Walsh Transform." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/FastWalshTransform.html

  13. Scavenging Circulating Mitochondrial DNA as a Potential Therapeutic Option for Multiple Organ Dysfunction in Trauma Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswani, Andrew; Manson, Joanna; Itagaki, Kiyoshi; Chiazza, Fausto; Collino, Massimo; Wupeng, Winston Liao; Chan, Tze Khee; Wong, W S Fred; Hauser, Carl J; Thiemermann, Chris; Brohi, Karim

    2018-01-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of death worldwide with 5.8 million deaths occurring yearly. Almost 40% of trauma deaths are due to bleeding and occur in the first few hours after injury. Of the remaining severely injured patients up to 25% develop a dysregulated immune response leading to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Despite improvements in trauma care, the morbidity and mortality of this condition remains very high. Massive traumatic injury can overwhelm endogenous homeostatic mechanisms even with prompt treatment. The underlying mechanisms driving MODS are also not fully elucidated. As a result, successful therapies for trauma-related MODS are lacking. Trauma causes tissue damage that releases a large number of endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Mitochondrial DAMPs released in trauma, such as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), could help to explain part of the immune response in trauma given the structural similarities between mitochondria and bacteria. MtDNA, like bacterial DNA, contains an abundance of highly stimulatory unmethylated CpG DNA motifs that signal through toll-like receptor-9 to produce inflammation. MtDNA has been shown to be highly damaging when injected into healthy animals causing acute organ injury to develop. Elevated circulating levels of mtDNA have been reported in trauma patients but an association with clinically meaningful outcomes has not been established in a large cohort. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA released after clinical trauma hemorrhage is sufficient for the development of MODS. Secondly, we aimed to determine the extent of mtDNA release with varying degrees of tissue injury and hemorrhagic shock in a clinically relevant rodent model. Our final aim was to determine whether neutralizing mtDNA with the nucleic acid scavenging polymer, hexadimethrine bromide (HDMBr), at a clinically relevant time point in vivo would reduce the severity of organ injury in this model. We have shown that the release of mt

  14. Scavenging Circulating Mitochondrial DNA as a Potential Therapeutic Option for Multiple Organ Dysfunction in Trauma Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Aswani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Trauma is a leading cause of death worldwide with 5.8 million deaths occurring yearly. Almost 40% of trauma deaths are due to bleeding and occur in the first few hours after injury. Of the remaining severely injured patients up to 25% develop a dysregulated immune response leading to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS. Despite improvements in trauma care, the morbidity and mortality of this condition remains very high. Massive traumatic injury can overwhelm endogenous homeostatic mechanisms even with prompt treatment. The underlying mechanisms driving MODS are also not fully elucidated. As a result, successful therapies for trauma-related MODS are lacking. Trauma causes tissue damage that releases a large number of endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs. Mitochondrial DAMPs released in trauma, such as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, could help to explain part of the immune response in trauma given the structural similarities between mitochondria and bacteria. MtDNA, like bacterial DNA, contains an abundance of highly stimulatory unmethylated CpG DNA motifs that signal through toll-like receptor-9 to produce inflammation. MtDNA has been shown to be highly damaging when injected into healthy animals causing acute organ injury to develop. Elevated circulating levels of mtDNA have been reported in trauma patients but an association with clinically meaningful outcomes has not been established in a large cohort. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA released after clinical trauma hemorrhage is sufficient for the development of MODS. Secondly, we aimed to determine the extent of mtDNA release with varying degrees of tissue injury and hemorrhagic shock in a clinically relevant rodent model. Our final aim was to determine whether neutralizing mtDNA with the nucleic acid scavenging polymer, hexadimethrine bromide (HDMBr, at a clinically relevant time point in vivo would reduce the severity of organ injury in this model. Conclusions: We have

  15. Sleep loss and acute drug abuse can induce DNA damage in multiple organs of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, T A; Ribeiro, D A; Araujo, P; Hirotsu, C; Mazaro-Costa, R; Costa, J L; Battisti, M C; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the genetic damage induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) in combination with cocaine or ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA) in multiple organs of male mice using the single cell gel (comet) assay. C57BL/6J mice were submitted to PSD by the platform technique for 72 hours, followed by drug administration and evaluation of DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver and brain tissues. Cocaine was able to induce genetic damage in the blood, brain and liver cells of sleep-deprived mice at the majority of the doses evaluated. Ecstasy also induced increased DNA migration in peripheral blood cells for all concentrations tested. Analysis of damaged cells by the tail moment data suggests that ecstasy is a genotoxic chemical at the highest concentrations tested, inducing damage in liver or brain cells after sleep deprivation in mice. Taken together, our results suggest that cocaine and ecstasy/MDMA act as potent genotoxins in multiple organs of mice when associated with sleep loss.

  16. A case of multiple cancers in the pelvic organs after radiation for uterine cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yasuhiro; Kurokawa, Eiji; Iijima, Shohei; Handa, Rio; Kato, Takeshi; Kikkawa, Nobuteru

    2005-01-01

    Patients who have undergone pelvic irradiation are reported to be at an increased risk of subsequently developing malignancies of the pelvic organs. We report a case of multiple cancers in the pelvic organs after radiation therapy for uterine cancer. The patient was a 76-year-old woman who had undergone a hysterectomy with radiation therapy for uterine cancer in 1960. Thereafter, she had undergone a total cystectomy for bladder cancer in 1989; an abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer with radiation proctitis in February 1991; and a right hemicolectomy for cecum cancer in 1995. Then, in 2005, she was found to have early cancer of the sigmoid colon at the stoma, so that the colon was dissected from the periphery of the stoma, the sigmoid colon was removed, and an artificial anus was reconstructed again. The histopathological diagnosis was early well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. She had undergone three operations for multiple cancers of the large intestine in the pelvis at different times during 16 years since 1989 when the bladder cancer was detected and surgically treated. And she has been alive and well. Long-term follow-up would be mandatory for such patients undergone pelvic irradiation who might be able to survive for a long time with appropriate therapies like this patient. (author)

  17. Testosterone Depletion by Castration May Protect Mice from Heat-Induced Multiple Organ Damage and Lethality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruei-Tang Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When the vehicle-treated, sham-operated mice underwent heat stress, the fraction survival and core temperature at +4 h of body heating were found to be 5 of 15 and 34.4∘C±0.3∘C, respectively. Castration 2 weeks before the start of heat stress decreased the plasma levels of testosterone almost to zero, protected the mice from heat-induced death (fraction survival, 13/15 and reduced the hypothermia (core temperature, 37.3∘C. The beneficial effects of castration in ameliorating lethality and hypothermia can be significantly reduced by testosterone replacement. Heat-induced apoptosis, as indicated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl- transferase- mediatedαUDP-biotin nick end-labeling staining, were significantly prevented by castration. In addition, heat-induced neuronal damage, as indicated by cell shrinkage and pyknosis of nucleus, to the hypothalamus was also castration-prevented. Again, the beneficial effects of castration in reducing neuronal damage to the hypothalamus as well as apoptosis in multiple organs during heatstroke, were significantly reversed by testosterone replacement. The data indicate that testosterone depletion by castration may protect mice from heatstroke-induced multiple organ damage and lethality.

  18. WE-AB-BRA-05: Fully Automatic Segmentation of Male Pelvic Organs On CT Without Manual Intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y; Lian, J; Chen, R; Wang, A; Shen, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We aim to develop a fully automatic tool for accurate contouring of major male pelvic organs in CT images for radiotherapy without any manual initialization, yet still achieving superior performance than the existing tools. Methods: A learning-based 3D deformable shape model was developed for automatic contouring. Specifically, we utilized a recent machine learning method, random forest, to jointly learn both image regressor and classifier for each organ. In particular, the image regressor is trained to predict the 3D displacement from each vertex of the 3D shape model towards the organ boundary based on the local image appearance around the location of this vertex. The predicted 3D displacements are then used to drive the 3D shape model towards the target organ. Once the shape model is deformed close to the target organ, it is further refined by an organ likelihood map estimated by the learned classifier. As the organ likelihood map provides good guideline for the organ boundary, the precise contouring Result could be achieved, by deforming the 3D shape model locally to fit boundaries in the organ likelihood map. Results: We applied our method to 29 previously-treated prostate cancer patients, each with one planning CT scan. Compared with manually delineated pelvic organs, our method obtains overlap ratios of 85.2%±3.74% for the prostate, 94.9%±1.62% for the bladder, and 84.7%±1.97% for the rectum, respectively. Conclusion: This work demonstrated feasibility of a novel machine-learning based approach for accurate and automatic contouring of major male pelvic organs. It shows the potential to replace the time-consuming and inconsistent manual contouring in the clinic. Also, compared with the existing works, our method is more accurate and also efficient since it does not require any manual intervention, such as manual landmark placement. Moreover, our method obtained very similar contouring results as the clinical experts. Project is partially support

  19. WE-AB-BRA-05: Fully Automatic Segmentation of Male Pelvic Organs On CT Without Manual Intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Y; Lian, J; Chen, R; Wang, A; Shen, D [Univ North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We aim to develop a fully automatic tool for accurate contouring of major male pelvic organs in CT images for radiotherapy without any manual initialization, yet still achieving superior performance than the existing tools. Methods: A learning-based 3D deformable shape model was developed for automatic contouring. Specifically, we utilized a recent machine learning method, random forest, to jointly learn both image regressor and classifier for each organ. In particular, the image regressor is trained to predict the 3D displacement from each vertex of the 3D shape model towards the organ boundary based on the local image appearance around the location of this vertex. The predicted 3D displacements are then used to drive the 3D shape model towards the target organ. Once the shape model is deformed close to the target organ, it is further refined by an organ likelihood map estimated by the learned classifier. As the organ likelihood map provides good guideline for the organ boundary, the precise contouring Result could be achieved, by deforming the 3D shape model locally to fit boundaries in the organ likelihood map. Results: We applied our method to 29 previously-treated prostate cancer patients, each with one planning CT scan. Compared with manually delineated pelvic organs, our method obtains overlap ratios of 85.2%±3.74% for the prostate, 94.9%±1.62% for the bladder, and 84.7%±1.97% for the rectum, respectively. Conclusion: This work demonstrated feasibility of a novel machine-learning based approach for accurate and automatic contouring of major male pelvic organs. It shows the potential to replace the time-consuming and inconsistent manual contouring in the clinic. Also, compared with the existing works, our method is more accurate and also efficient since it does not require any manual intervention, such as manual landmark placement. Moreover, our method obtained very similar contouring results as the clinical experts. Project is partially support

  20. Tackling Energy Loss for High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells with Integrated Multiple Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lijian; Shi, Xueliang; Jo, Sae Byeok; Liu, Yun; Lin, Fracis; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2018-04-01

    Limited by the various inherent energy losses from multiple channels, organic solar cells show inferior device performance compared to traditional inorganic photovoltaic techniques, such as silicon and CuInGaSe. To alleviate these fundamental limitations, an integrated multiple strategy is implemented including molecular design, interfacial engineering, optical manipulation, and tandem device construction into one cell. Considering the close correlation among these loss channels, a sophisticated quantification of energy-loss reduction is tracked along with each strategy in a perspective to reach rational overall optimum. A novel nonfullerene acceptor, 6TBA, is synthesized to resolve the thermalization and V OC loss, and another small bandgap nonfullerene acceptor, 4TIC, is used in the back sub-cell to alleviate transmission loss. Tandem architecture design significantly reduces the light absorption loss, and compensates carrier dynamics and thermalization loss. Interfacial engineering further reduces energy loss from carrier dynamics in the tandem architecture. As a result of this concerted effort, a very high power conversion efficiency (13.20%) is obtained. A detailed quantitative analysis on the energy losses confirms that the improved device performance stems from these multiple strategies. The results provide a rational way to explore the ultimate device performance through molecular design and device engineering. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Segmentation: Identification of consumer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... origin in other sciences as for example biology, anthropology etc. From an economic point of view, it is called segmentation when specific scientific techniques are used to classify consumers to different characteristic groupings. What is the purpose of segmentation? For example, to be able to obtain...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products...

  2. Segmental Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Nanja; Speeckaert, Reinhart

    2017-04-01

    Segmental vitiligo is characterized by its early onset, rapid stabilization, and unilateral distribution. Recent evidence suggests that segmental and nonsegmental vitiligo could represent variants of the same disease spectrum. Observational studies with respect to its distribution pattern point to a possible role of cutaneous mosaicism, whereas the original stated dermatomal distribution seems to be a misnomer. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism behind the melanocyte destruction is still unknown, increasing evidence has been published on the autoimmune/inflammatory theory of segmental vitiligo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. International EUREKA: Initialization Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The Initialization Segment creates the starting description of the uranium market. The starting description includes the international boundaries of trade, the geologic provinces, resources, reserves, production, uranium demand forecasts, and existing market transactions. The Initialization Segment is designed to accept information of various degrees of detail, depending on what is known about each region. It must transform this information into a specific data structure required by the Market Segment of the model, filling in gaps in the information through a predetermined sequence of defaults and built in assumptions. A principal function of the Initialization Segment is to create diagnostic messages indicating any inconsistencies in data and explaining which assumptions were used to organize the data base. This permits the user to manipulate the data base until such time the user is satisfied that all the assumptions used are reasonable and that any inconsistencies are resolved in a satisfactory manner

  4. Long-term in vivo imaging of multiple organs at the single cell level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny J Chen

    Full Text Available Two-photon microscopy has enabled the study of individual cell behavior in live animals. Many organs and tissues cannot be studied, especially longitudinally, because they are located too deep, behind bony structures or too close to the lung and heart. Here we report a novel mouse model that allows long-term single cell imaging of many organs. A wide variety of live tissues were successfully engrafted in the pinna of the mouse ear. Many of these engrafted tissues maintained the normal tissue histology. Using the heart and thymus as models, we further demonstrated that the engrafted tissues functioned as would be expected. Combining two-photon microscopy with fluorescent tracers, we successfully visualized the engrafted tissues at the single cell level in live mice over several months. Four dimensional (three-dimensional (3D plus time information of individual cells was obtained from this imaging. This model makes long-term high resolution 4D imaging of multiple organs possible.

  5. The Gut as the Motor of Multiple Organ Dysfunction in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingensmith, Nathan J; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2016-04-01

    All elements of the gut - the epithelium, the immune system, and the microbiome - are impacted by critical illness and can, in turn, propagate a pathologic host response leading to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that this can occur by release of toxic gut-derived substances into the mesenteric lymph where they can cause distant damage. Further, intestinal integrity is compromised in critical illness with increases in apoptosis and permeability. There is also increasing recognition that microbes alter their behavior and can become virulent based upon host environmental cues. Gut failure is common in critically ill patients; however, therapeutics targeting the gut have proven to be challenging to implement at the bedside. Numerous strategies to manipulate the microbiome have recently been used with varying success in the ICU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A rare complication of ESWL: Focal metastatic multiple organ abscesses in a horseshoe kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Kuyumcuoglu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL is an effective treatment modality in the minimal invasive management of urinary system stone disease. Although the majority of the complications occuring after ESWL are minor (most common ones are gross haematuria, pain, perinephritic hematoma; bacteriuria may also occur in some cases which sometimes can lead to sepsis and even metastatic abscess formation in a very rare part of the cases treated. In this rare situation infection agent spreads quickly via hematogenous route and causes abscess formation in different parts of the body. Majority of such cases usually have an underlying systemic disease like diabetes mellitus (DM, malignancy, HIV or steroid use which lead to disruption of immune system functions. Abscess formation following ESWL is extremely rare and usually limited with some case reports published in the literature. Herein, we present a diabetic case with formation of multiple abscess foci in kidney, as well as in lungs and liver following ESWL. The patient was first admitted to our emergency department with high fever and respiratory distress and misdiagnosed as metastatic tumor foci based on radiologic findings. To the best of our knowledge, our case is the first one in the literature in whom simultanous abscess formation in multiple organ systems has been documented following an otherwise uneventful ESWL.

  7. The role of NIGMS P50 sponsored team science in our understanding of multiple organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Frederick A; Moore, Ernest E; Billiar, Timothy R; Vodovotz, Yoram; Banerjee, Anirban; Moldawer, Lyle L

    2017-09-01

    The history of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) Research Centers in Peri-operative Sciences (RCIPS) is the history of clinical, translational, and basic science research into the etiology and treatment of posttraumatic multiple organ failure (MOF). Born out of the activism of trauma and burn surgeons after the Viet Nam War, the P50 trauma research centers have been a nidus of research advances in the field and the training of future academic physician-scientists in the fields of trauma, burns, sepsis, and critical illness. For over 40 years, research conducted under the aegis of this funding program has led to numerous contributions at both the bedside and at the bench. In fact, it has been this requirement for team science with a clinician-scientist working closely with basic scientists from multiple disciplines that has led the RCIPS to its unrivaled success in the field. This review will briefly highlight some of the major accomplishments of the RCIPS program since its inception, how they have both led and evolved as the field moved steadily forward, and how they are responsible for much of our current understanding of the etiology and pathology of MOF. This review is not intended to be all encompassing nor a historical reference. Rather, it serves as recognition to the foresight and support of many past and present individuals at the NIGMS and at academic institutions who have understood the cost of critical illness and MOF to the individual and to society.

  8. A rare complication of ESWL: focal metastatic multiple organ abscesses in a horseshoe kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyumcuoglu, Ugur; Eryildirim, Bilal; Tuncer, Murat; Faydaci, Gokhan; Aktoz, Tevfik; Akdere, Hakan; Sarıca, Kemal

    2014-06-30

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is an effective treatment modality in the minimal invasive management of urinary system stone disease. Although the majority of the complications occuring after ESWL are minor (most common ones are gross haematuria, pain, perinephritic hematoma); bacteriuria may also occur in some cases which sometimes can lead to sepsis and even metastatic abscess formation in a very rare part of the cases treated. In this rare situation infection agent spreads quickly via hematogenous route and causes abscess formation in different parts of the body. Majority of such cases usually have an underlying systemic disease like diabetes mellitus (DM), malignancy, HIV or steroid use which lead to disruption of immune system functions. Abscess formation following ESWL is extremely rare and usually limited with some case reports published in the literature. Herein, we present a diabetic case with formation of multiple abscess foci in kidney, as well as in lungs and liver following ESWL. The patient was first admitted to our emergency department with high fever and respiratory distress and misdiagnosed as metastatic tumor foci based on radiologic findings. To the best of our knowledge, our case is the first one in the literature in whom simultanous abscess formation in multiple organ systems has been documented following an otherwise uneventful ESWL.

  9. Joint shape segmentation with linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Qixing

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to segmenting shapes in a heterogenous shape database. Our approach segments the shapes jointly, utilizing features from multiple shapes to improve the segmentation of each. The approach is entirely unsupervised and is based on an integer quadratic programming formulation of the joint segmentation problem. The program optimizes over possible segmentations of individual shapes as well as over possible correspondences between segments from multiple shapes. The integer quadratic program is solved via a linear programming relaxation, using a block coordinate descent procedure that makes the optimization feasible for large databases. We evaluate the presented approach on the Princeton segmentation benchmark and show that joint shape segmentation significantly outperforms single-shape segmentation techniques. © 2011 ACM.

  10. Clinical Predictors of Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndromes in Pediatric patients with Scrub Typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongying; Zhang, Yongjun; Yin, Zhaoqing; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Defeng; Zhou, Qun

    2017-06-01

    Scrub typhus can produce multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Early recognition of the patients at risk of MODS would be helpful in providing timely management and reducing the mortality. In all, 449 children with scrub typhus were enrolled at three hospitals in Yunnan, China from January 2010 to January 2015. The patients' clinical status of organ system dysfunction was evaluated on the day of discharge from hospital by using standard criteria. The patients were classified into MODS present (64 cases, 14.3%) or MODS absent (385 cases, 85.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the prognostic factors for MODS included skin rash (odds ratio, OR = 3.3, p = 0.037), time interval form treatment to defervescence (OR = 1.2, p = 0.035), hemoglobin (OR = 0.54, p = 0.041), platelet counts (OR = 0.06, p scrub typhus, our study provides clinicians with important information to improve the clinical monitoring and prognostication of MODS. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. FODA: a novel efficient multiple access protocol for highly dynamic self-organizing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hantao; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jun

    2005-11-01

    Based on the concept of contention reservation for polling transmission and collision prevention strategy for collision resolution, a fair on-demand access (FODA) protocol for supporting node mobility and multihop architecture in highly dynamic self-organizing networks is proposed. In the protocol, a distributed clustering network architecture formed by self-organizing algorithm and a main idea of reserving channel resources to get polling service are adopted, so that the hidden terminal (HT) and exposed terminal (ET) problems existed in traffic transmission due to multihop architecture and wireless transmission can be eliminated completely. In addition, an improved collision prevention scheme based on binary countdown algorithm (BCA), called fair collision prevention (FCP) algorithm, is proposed to greatly eliminate unfair phenomena existed in contention access of newly active ordinary nodes and completely resolve access collisions. Finally, the performance comparison of the FODA protocol with carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) and polling protocols by OPNET simulation are presented. Simulation results show that the FODA protocol can overcome the disadvantages of CSMA/CA and polling protocols, and achieve higher throughput, lower average message delay and less average message dropping rate.

  12. Detecting Renibacterium salmoninarum in wild brown trout by use of multiple organ samples and diagnostic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guomundsdottir, S.; Applegate, Lynn M.; Arnason, I.O.; Kristmundsson, A.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2017-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease (BKD), is endemic in many wild trout species in northerly regions. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal R. salmoninarum sampling/testing strategy for wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations in Iceland. Fish were netted in a lake and multiple organs—kidney, spleen, gills, oesophagus and mid-gut—were sampled and subjected to five detection tests i.e. culture, polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pELISA) and three different PCR tests. The results showed that each fish had encountered R. salmoninarum but there were marked differences between results obtained depending on organ and test. The bacterium was not cultured from any kidney sample while all kidney samples were positive by pELISA. At least one organ from 92.9% of the fish tested positive by PCR. The results demonstrated that the choice of tissue and diagnostic method can dramatically influence the outcome of R. salmoninarum surveys.

  13. POSSIBILITIES OF ORGAN-PRESERVING TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE RENAL TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ya. Alekseev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC occupies one of the leading places in the world for morbidity among malignant neoplasms of the genitourinary system. The frequency of occurrence of bilateral RCC according to different authors is 2–6% of the total population of patients with RCC. Currently, the only effective method of treatment of bilateral RCC is surgical treatment. Patients with bilateral RCC are at high risk of dev eloping of local recurrence or progression of the disease after organ-preserving surgeries, which is why the surgeon is faced with a choice between a high risk of developing renal failure or relapse and/or progression of the disease, depending on the extent of the surgical intervention. According to the literature, in patients with bilateral RCC there was an increase in the incidence of papillary variant of RCC up to 19% and the presence of multifocal lesion. Surgical treatment of bilateral RCC is the only effective method to achieve satisfactory oncological results at a low incidence of complications. The m ost justified option for the treatment of bilateral RCC is the implementation of bilateral organ-preserving treatment, which allows achieving the optimal functional results. This article presents a clinical case of successful surgical treatment of a patient with bilateral RCC with multiple tumors.

  14. UK guidance on the management of personal dosimetry systems for healthcare staff working at multiple organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Andy; Chapple, Claire-Louise; Murray, Maria; Platton, David; Saunderson, John

    2017-11-01

    There has been concern expressed by the UK regulator, the Health & Safety Executive, regarding the management of occupation dose for healthcare radiation workers who work across multiple organizations. In response to this concern, the British Institute of Radiology led a working group of relevant professional bodies to develop guidance in this area. The guidance addresses issues of general system management that would apply to all personal dosimetry systems, regardless of whether or not the workers within that system work across organizational boundaries, along with exploring efficient strategies to comply with legislation where those workers do indeed work across organizational boundaries. For those specific instances, the guidance discusses both system requirements to enable organizations to co-operate (Ionising Radiation Regulations 1999 Regulation 15), as well as specific instances of staff exposure. This is broken down into three categories-low, medium and high risk. A suggested approach to each is given to guide employers and their radiation advisers in adopting sensible strategies for the monitoring of their staff and the subsequent sharing of dosimetry data to ensure overall compliance with both dose limits and optimization requirements.

  15. Multiple Calcium Export Exchangers and Pumps Are a Prominent Feature of Enamel Organ Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sarah Y. T.; Wen, Xin; Yin, Kaifeng; Chen, Junjun; Smith, Charles E.; Paine, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Calcium export is a key function for the enamel organ during all stages of amelogenesis. Expression of a number of ATPase calcium transporting, plasma membrane genes (ATP2B1-4/PMCA1-4), solute carrier SLC8A genes (sodium/calcium exchanger or NCX1-3), and SLC24A gene family members (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger or NCKX1-6) have been investigated in the developing enamel organ in earlier studies. This paper reviews the calcium export pathways that have been described and adds novel insights to the spatiotemporal expression patterns of PMCA1, PMCA4, and NCKX3 during amelogenesis. New data are presented to show the mRNA expression profiles for the four Atp2b1-4 gene family members (PMCA1-4) in secretory-stage and maturation-stage rat enamel organs. These data are compared to expression profiles for all Slc8a and Slc24a gene family members. PMCA1, PMCA4, and NCKX3 immunolocalization data is also presented. Gene expression profiles quantitated by real time PCR show that: (1) PMCA1, 3, and 4, and NCKX3 are most highly expressed during secretory-stage amelogenesis; (2) NCX1 and 3, and NCKX6 are expressed during secretory and maturation stages; (3) NCKX4 is most highly expressed during maturation-stage amelogenesis; and (4) expression levels of PMCA2, NCX2, NCKX1, NCKX2, and NCKX5 are negligible throughout amelogenesis. In the enamel organ PMCA1 localizes to the basolateral membrane of both secretory and maturation ameloblasts; PMCA4 expression is seen in the basolateral membrane of secretory and maturation ameloblasts, and also cells of the stratum intermedium and papillary layer; while NCKX3 expression is limited to Tomes' processes, and the apical membrane of maturation-stage ameloblasts. These new findings are discussed in the perspective of data already present in the literature, and highlight the multiplicity of calcium export systems in the enamel organ needed to regulate biomineralization. PMID:28588505

  16. Multiple Calcium Export Exchangers and Pumps Are a Prominent Feature of Enamel Organ Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Y. T. Robertson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Calcium export is a key function for the enamel organ during all stages of amelogenesis. Expression of a number of ATPase calcium transporting, plasma membrane genes (ATP2B1-4/PMCA1-4, solute carrier SLC8A genes (sodium/calcium exchanger or NCX1-3, and SLC24A gene family members (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger or NCKX1-6 have been investigated in the developing enamel organ in earlier studies. This paper reviews the calcium export pathways that have been described and adds novel insights to the spatiotemporal expression patterns of PMCA1, PMCA4, and NCKX3 during amelogenesis. New data are presented to show the mRNA expression profiles for the four Atp2b1-4 gene family members (PMCA1-4 in secretory-stage and maturation-stage rat enamel organs. These data are compared to expression profiles for all Slc8a and Slc24a gene family members. PMCA1, PMCA4, and NCKX3 immunolocalization data is also presented. Gene expression profiles quantitated by real time PCR show that: (1 PMCA1, 3, and 4, and NCKX3 are most highly expressed during secretory-stage amelogenesis; (2 NCX1 and 3, and NCKX6 are expressed during secretory and maturation stages; (3 NCKX4 is most highly expressed during maturation-stage amelogenesis; and (4 expression levels of PMCA2, NCX2, NCKX1, NCKX2, and NCKX5 are negligible throughout amelogenesis. In the enamel organ PMCA1 localizes to the basolateral membrane of both secretory and maturation ameloblasts; PMCA4 expression is seen in the basolateral membrane of secretory and maturation ameloblasts, and also cells of the stratum intermedium and papillary layer; while NCKX3 expression is limited to Tomes' processes, and the apical membrane of maturation-stage ameloblasts. These new findings are discussed in the perspective of data already present in the literature, and highlight the multiplicity of calcium export systems in the enamel organ needed to regulate biomineralization.

  17. Efficient Algorithms for Analyzing Segmental Duplications, Deletions, and Inversions in Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Crystal L.; Mozes, Shay; Raphael, Benjamin J.

    Segmental duplications, or low-copy repeats, are common in mammalian genomes. In the human genome, most segmental duplications are mosaics consisting of pieces of multiple other segmental duplications. This complex genomic organization complicates analysis of the evolutionary history of these sequences. Earlier, we introduced a genomic distance, called duplication distance, that computes the most parsimonious way to build a target string by repeatedly copying substrings of a source string. We also showed how to use this distance to describe the formation of segmental duplications according to a two-step model that has been proposed to explain human segmental duplications. Here we describe polynomial-time exact algorithms for several extensions of duplication distance including models that allow certain types of substring deletions and inversions. These extensions will permit more biologically realistic analyses of segmental duplications in genomes.

  18. Hemiptera Mitochondrial Control Region: New Sights into the Structural Organization, Phylogenetic Utility, and Roles of Tandem Repetitions of the Noncoding Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As a major noncoding fragment, the control region (CR of mtDNA is responsible for the initiation of mitogenome transcription and replication. Several structural features of CR sequences have been reported in many insects. However, comprehensive analyses on the structural organization and phylogenetic utility, as well as the role of tandem replications (TRs on length variation, high A+T content, and shift of base skew of CR sequences are poorly investigated in hemipteran insects. In this study, we conducted a series of comparative analyses, using 116 samples covering all 11 infraorders of the five currently recognized monophyletic groups in the Hemiptera. Several structural elements (mononucleotide stretches containing conserved sequence blocks (CSBs, TRs, and GA-rich region were identified in the mitochondrial control region in hemipteran insects, without showing a consistent location. The presence and absence of certain specific structural elements in CR sequences show the various structural organizations of that segment among the five monophyletic groups, which indicates the diversification of the control region’s structural organization in Hemiptera. Among the many groups within Hemiptera, eight monophyletic groups and three consistent phylogenetic trees were recovered, using CSBs datasets by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, which suggests the possible utility of CR sequences for phylogenetic reconstruction in certain groups of Hemiptera. Statistical analyses showed that TRs may contribute to the length variation, high AT content, and the shift of base skewing of CR sequences toward high AT content in the Hemiptera. Our findings enrich the knowledge of structural organization, phylogenetic utility, and roles of tandem replication of hemipteran CR, and provide a possible framework for mitochondrial control region analyses in hemimetabolous insects.

  19. Clinical Validation of Atlas-Based Auto-Segmentation of Multiple Target Volumes and Normal Tissue (Swallowing/Mastication) Structures in the Head and Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teguh, David N.; Levendag, Peter C.; Voet, Peter W.J.; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Han Xiao; Wolf, Theresa K.; Hibbard, Lyndon S.; Nowak, Peter; Akhiat, Hafid; Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To validate and clinically evaluate autocontouring using atlas-based autosegmentation (ABAS) of computed tomography images. Methods and Materials: The data from 10 head-and-neck patients were selected as input for ABAS, and neck levels I-V and 20 organs at risk were manually contoured according to published guidelines. The total contouring times were recorded. Two different ABAS strategies, multiple and single subject, were evaluated, and the similarity of the autocontours with the atlas contours was assessed using Dice coefficients and the mean distances, using the leave-one-out method. For 12 clinically treated patients, 5 experienced observers edited the autosegmented contours. The editing times were recorded. The Dice coefficients and mean distances were calculated among the clinically used contours, autocontours, and edited autocontours. Finally, an expert panel scored all autocontours and the edited autocontours regarding their adequacy relative to the published atlas. Results: The time to autosegment all the structures using ABAS was 7 min/patient. No significant differences were observed in the autosegmentation accuracy for stage N0 and N+ patients. The multisubject atlas performed best, with a Dice coefficient and mean distance of 0.74 and 2 mm, 0.67 and 3 mm, 0.71 and 2 mm, 0.50 and 2 mm, and 0.78 and 2 mm for the salivary glands, neck levels, chewing muscles, swallowing muscles, and spinal cord-brainstem, respectively. The mean Dice coefficient and mean distance of the autocontours vs. the clinical contours was 0.8 and 2.4 mm for the neck levels and salivary glands, respectively. For the autocontours vs. the edited autocontours, the mean Dice coefficient and mean distance was 0.9 and 1.6 mm, respectively. The expert panel scored 100% of the autocontours as a “minor deviation, editable” or better. The expert panel scored 88% of the edited contours as good compared with 83% of the clinical contours. The total editing time was 66 min

  20. Clinical Validation of Atlas-Based Auto-Segmentation of Multiple Target Volumes and Normal Tissue (Swallowing/Mastication) Structures in the Head and Neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teguh, David N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Levendag, Peter C., E-mail: p.levendag@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Voet, Peter W.J.; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Han Xiao; Wolf, Theresa K.; Hibbard, Lyndon S. [Elekta-CMS Software, Maryland Heights, MO 63043 (United States); Nowak, Peter; Akhiat, Hafid; Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To validate and clinically evaluate autocontouring using atlas-based autosegmentation (ABAS) of computed tomography images. Methods and Materials: The data from 10 head-and-neck patients were selected as input for ABAS, and neck levels I-V and 20 organs at risk were manually contoured according to published guidelines. The total contouring times were recorded. Two different ABAS strategies, multiple and single subject, were evaluated, and the similarity of the autocontours with the atlas contours was assessed using Dice coefficients and the mean distances, using the leave-one-out method. For 12 clinically treated patients, 5 experienced observers edited the autosegmented contours. The editing times were recorded. The Dice coefficients and mean distances were calculated among the clinically used contours, autocontours, and edited autocontours. Finally, an expert panel scored all autocontours and the edited autocontours regarding their adequacy relative to the published atlas. Results: The time to autosegment all the structures using ABAS was 7 min/patient. No significant differences were observed in the autosegmentation accuracy for stage N0 and N+ patients. The multisubject atlas performed best, with a Dice coefficient and mean distance of 0.74 and 2 mm, 0.67 and 3 mm, 0.71 and 2 mm, 0.50 and 2 mm, and 0.78 and 2 mm for the salivary glands, neck levels, chewing muscles, swallowing muscles, and spinal cord-brainstem, respectively. The mean Dice coefficient and mean distance of the autocontours vs. the clinical contours was 0.8 and 2.4 mm for the neck levels and salivary glands, respectively. For the autocontours vs. the edited autocontours, the mean Dice coefficient and mean distance was 0.9 and 1.6 mm, respectively. The expert panel scored 100% of the autocontours as a 'minor deviation, editable' or better. The expert panel scored 88% of the edited contours as good compared with 83% of the clinical contours. The total editing time was 66 min

  1. Structure and strength at the bonding interface of a titanium-segmented polyurethane composite through 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate for artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Harumi; Doi, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Equo; Yoneyama, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Hanawa, Takao

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the structure and strength at the bonding interface of a titanium (Ti)-segmented polyurethane (SPU) composite through (3-trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (gamma-MPS) for artificial organs. The effects of the thickness of the gamma-MPS layer on the shear bonding strength between Ti and SPU were investigated. Ti disks were immersed in various concentrations of gamma-MPS solutions for several immersion times. The depth profiles of elements and the thickness of the gamma-MPS layer were determined by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and ellipsometry, respectively. The bonding stress at the Ti/gamma-MPS/SPU interface was evaluated with a shear bonding test. Furthermore, the fractured surface of a Ti-SPU composite was observed by optical microscopy and characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Consequently, the thickness of the gamma-MPS layer was controlled by the concentration of the gamma-MPS solution and immersion time. The shear bonding stress at the interface increased with the increase of the thickness of the gamma-MPS layer. Therefore, the control of the thickness of the gamma-MPS layer is significant to increase the shear bonding stress at the Ti/gamma-MPS/SPU interface. These results are significant to create composites for artificial organs consisting of other metals and polymers. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The occurrence of single and multiple organ dysfunction in pediatric electrical versus other thermal burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundeshagen, Gabriel; Wurzer, Paul; Forbes, Abigail A; Voigt, Charles D; Collins, Vanessa N; Cambiaso-Daniel, Janos; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Branski, Ludwik K

    2017-05-01

    Multiple organ failure (MOF) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in burned children. While various complications induced by electrical injuries have been described, the incidence and severity of single organ failure (SOF) and MOF associated with this type of injury are unknown. The study was undertaken to compare the incidence and severity of SOF and MOF as well as other complications between electrically and thermally burned children. Between 2001 and 2016, 288 pediatric patients with electrical burns (EB; n = 96) or thermal burns (CTR; n = 192) were analyzed in this study. Demographic data; length of hospitalization; and number and type of operations, amputations, and complications were statistically analyzed. Incidence of SOF and MOF was assessed using the DENVER2 classification in an additive mixed model over time. Compound scores and organ-specific scores for lung, heart, kidney, and liver were analyzed. Serum cytokine expression profiles of both groups were also compared over time. Significance was accepted at p in age (CTR, 11 ± 5 years, vs EB, 11 ± 5 years), percent total body surface area burned (CTR, 33% ± 25%, vs EB, 32 ± 25%), and length of hospitalization (CTR, 18 ± 26 days, vs EB, 18 ± 21 days). The percentage of high-voltage injury in the EB group was 64%. The incidence of MOF was lower in the EB group (2 of 96 [2.1%]) than the CTR group (20 of 192 [10.4%]; p The incidence of single organ failure was comparable between groups. Incidence of pulmonary failure was comparable in both groups, but incidence of inhalation injury was significantly higher in the CTR group (p in the EB group had more amputations (p the groups. Serum cytokine expression profiles were also comparable between the groups. In pediatric patients, electrical injury is associated with a lower incidence of MOF than other thermal burns. Early and radical debridement of nonviable tissue is crucial to improve outcomes in the electrical burn patient population

  3. CO2 and nutrient-driven changes across multiple levels of organization in Zostera noltii ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Crego, B.; Olivé, I.; Santos, R.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing evidence emphasizes that the effects of human impacts on ecosystems must be investigated using designs that incorporate the responses across levels of biological organization as well as the effects of multiple stressors. Here we implemented a mesocosm experiment to investigate how the individual and interactive effects of CO2 enrichment and eutrophication scale-up from changes in primary producers at the individual (biochemistry) or population level (production, reproduction, and/or abundance) to higher levels of community (macroalgae abundance, herbivory, and global metabolism), and ecosystem organization (detritus release and carbon sink capacity). The responses of Zostera noltii seagrass meadows growing in low- and high-nutrient field conditions were compared. In both meadows, the expected CO2 benefits on Z. noltii leaf production were suppressed by epiphyte overgrowth, with no direct CO2 effect on plant biochemistry or population-level traits. Multi-level meadow response to nutrients was faster and stronger than to CO2. Nutrient enrichment promoted the nutritional quality of Z. noltii (high N, low C : N and phenolics), the growth of epiphytic pennate diatoms and purple bacteria, and shoot mortality. In the low-nutrient meadow, individual effects of CO2 and nutrients separately resulted in reduced carbon storage in the sediment, probably due to enhanced microbial degradation of more labile organic matter. These changes, however, had no effect on herbivory or on community metabolism. Interestingly, individual effects of CO2 or nutrient addition on epiphytes, shoot mortality, and carbon storage were attenuated when nutrients and CO2 acted simultaneously. This suggests CO2-induced benefits on eutrophic meadows. In the high-nutrient meadow, a striking shoot decline caused by amphipod overgrazing masked the response to CO2 and nutrient additions. Our results reveal that under future scenarios of CO2, the responses of seagrass ecosystems will be complex and

  4. Mixed segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Grutt; Bonde, Anders; Aagaard, Morten

    content analysis and audience segmentation in a single-source perspective. The aim is to explain and understand target groups in relation to, on the one hand, emotional response to commercials or other forms of audio-visual communication and, on the other hand, living preferences and personality traits...

  5. The Effects of Urban Sprawl on Birds at Multiple Levels of Biological Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Blair

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban sprawl affects the environment in myriad ways and at multiple levels of biological organization. In this paper I explore the effects of sprawl on native bird communities by comparing the occurrence of birds along gradients of urban land use in southwestern Ohio and northern California and by examining patterns at the individual, species, community, landscape, and continental levels. I do this by assessing the distribution and abundance of all bird species occupying sites of differing land-use intensity in Ohio and California. Additionally, I conducted predation experiments using artificial nests, tracked the nest fate of American Robins and Northern Cardinals, and assessed land cover in these sites. At the individual level, predation on artificial nests decreased with urbanization; however, this trend was not reflected in the nesting success of robins and cardinals, which did not increase with urbanization. At the species level, sprawl affected local patterns of extinction and invasion; the density of different species peaked at different levels of urbanization. At the community level, species richness and diversity peaked at moderate levels of urbanization, and the number of low-nesting species and of species with multiple broods increased with urbanization. The community-level results may reflect both the species-level patterns of local extinction and invasion as well as broader landscape-level patterns. At the landscape level, a linear combination of spatial heterogeneity and density of woody patches accurately predicted both species richness and Shannon Diversity. At the continental level, local extinction of endemic species, followed by the invasion of ubiquitous weedy species, leads to faunal homogenization between ecoregions.

  6. Defective pairing and synaptonemal complex formation in a Sordaria mutant (spo44) with a translocated segment of the nucleolar organizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickler, D; de Lares, L; Moreau, P J; Leblon, G

    1985-01-01

    The recessive meiotic mutant spo44 of Sordaria macrospora, with 90% ascospore abortion, exhibits striking effects on recombination (67% decrease), irregular segregation of the almost unpaired homologues, and a decrease in chiasma frequency in the few cases where bivalents are formed. Three-dimensional reconstructions of ten prophase nuclei indicate that pairing, as judged by the absence of fully formed synaptonemal complexes (SC), is not achieved although lateral elements (LE) assemble. The pairing failure is attributable to defects in the alignment of homologous chromosomes. The leptotene alignment seen in the wild type before SC formation was not observed in the spo44 nuclei. Dense material, considered to be precursor of SC central elements, was found scattered among the LE in two nuclei. The behaviour of spo44 substantiates the hypothesis that chromosome matching and SC formation are separable events. - The total length of the LE in the mutant is the same as in the wild type, but due to variable numbers and length of the individual LE, homologues cannot be lined up. Light microscopic observations indicate that the irregular length and number of LE is due to extensive chromosome breakage. The wild-type function corresponding to spo44 is required for both LE integrity and chromosome matching. Reconstructions of heterozygous nuclei reveal the presence of a supernumerary nucleolar organizer in one arm of chromosome 7. It is suggested that rDNA has been inserted into a gene whose function is involved in pairing or into a controlling sequence that interacts with the pairing process.

  7. Application of multiple geochemical markers to investigate organic pollution in a dynamic coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Wong, Charles S; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2013-02-01

    Multiple geochemical markers, including aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were employed to relate sediment organic chemical pollution in the coastal zone off South China to socioeconomic development there. Concentrations of Σn-C(15-35) (n-alkanes with 15-35 carbon atoms), ΣLAB (sum of C(10) to C(13) LABs), and Σ(26) PAH (sum of 26 PAH compounds) ranged from 110 to 3,160, 11 to 160, and 26 to 600 ng/g, with medians of 730, 40, and 230 ng/g, respectively. Natural hydrocarbons were mainly derived from terrestrial higher plant waxes, and in minor amounts from aquatic plankton and bacteria. Compositions of LABs indicated that considerable amounts of poorly treated wastewater had been directly discharged or transported to the eastern and western coastal areas of Guangdong Province. In addition, anthropogenic hydrocarbons were derived largely from vehicular emissions and combustion of domestic coal and biomass and to a lesser extent from oil spills. Eastern and western coastal sediments contained higher levels of LABs but lower levels of PAHs than those of the Pearl River Estuary, a coastal area of the Pearl River Delta. This spatial pattern of organic pollution was consistent with chemical use patterns. The eastern and western regions of Guangdong Province are economically less developed than the Pearl River Delta region, where more domestic wastewater treatment plants have been built. However, greater amounts of energy are consumed in the latter region to produce more combustion-derived PAH contamination. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  8. [Ulysses network: an approach to integral post-ICU treatment of patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolla-Salas, M; Monmany-Roca, J; Vázquez-Mata, G

    2007-01-01

    The concept of continuity of care by intensivists as an element of quality control in the medical care of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients surviving multiple organ dysfunction syndrome has led to a rethinking of the ICU model in recent years. We discuss the rationale to design and implement a hospital-based, prospective, randomized, multicenter Intervention/Control study in order to estimate the impact of an interdisciplinary intervention during the post-ICU recovery phase on medium-term medical outcomes in ICU patients with multiple organ dysfunction.

  9. Gene prediction using the Self-Organizing Map: automatic generation of multiple gene models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Shaun; McInerney, James O; Smith, Terry J; Golden, Aaron

    2004-03-05

    Many current gene prediction methods use only one model to represent protein-coding regions in a genome, and so are less likely to predict the location of genes that have an atypical sequence composition. It is likely that future improvements in gene finding will involve the development of methods that can adequately deal with intra-genomic compositional variation. This work explores a new approach to gene-prediction, based on the Self-Organizing Map, which has the ability to automatically identify multiple gene models within a genome. The current implementation, named RescueNet, uses relative synonymous codon usage as the indicator of protein-coding potential. While its raw accuracy rate can be less than other methods, RescueNet consistently identifies some genes that other methods do not, and should therefore be of interest to gene-prediction software developers and genome annotation teams alike. RescueNet is recommended for use in conjunction with, or as a complement to, other gene prediction methods.

  10. Understanding the free energy barrier and multiple timescale dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaming; Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2018-02-28

    By employing several lattice model systems, we investigate the free energy barrier and real-time dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. It is found that the combined effects of the external electric field, entropy, and charge delocalization reduce the free energy barrier significantly. The dynamic disorder reduces charge carrier delocalization and results in the increased charge separation barrier, while the effect of static disorder is more complicated. Simulation of the real-time dynamics indicates that the free charge generation process involves multiple time scales, including an ultrafast component within hundreds of femtoseconds, an intermediate component related to the relaxation of the hot charge transfer (CT) state, and a slow component on the time scale of tens of picoseconds from the thermally equilibrated CT state. Effects of hot exciton dissociation as well as its dependence on the energy offset between the Frenkel exciton and the CT state are also analyzed. The current results indicate that only a small energy offset between the band gap and the lowest energy CT state is needed to achieve efficient free charge generation in OPV devices, which agrees with recent experimental findings.

  11. Understanding the free energy barrier and multiple timescale dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaming; Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    By employing several lattice model systems, we investigate the free energy barrier and real-time dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. It is found that the combined effects of the external electric field, entropy, and charge delocalization reduce the free energy barrier significantly. The dynamic disorder reduces charge carrier delocalization and results in the increased charge separation barrier, while the effect of static disorder is more complicated. Simulation of the real-time dynamics indicates that the free charge generation process involves multiple time scales, including an ultrafast component within hundreds of femtoseconds, an intermediate component related to the relaxation of the hot charge transfer (CT) state, and a slow component on the time scale of tens of picoseconds from the thermally equilibrated CT state. Effects of hot exciton dissociation as well as its dependence on the energy offset between the Frenkel exciton and the CT state are also analyzed. The current results indicate that only a small energy offset between the band gap and the lowest energy CT state is needed to achieve efficient free charge generation in OPV devices, which agrees with recent experimental findings.

  12. Glyphosate ingestion causing multiple organ failure: a near-fatal case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picetti, Edoardo; Generali, Michela; Mensi, Francesca; Neri, Giampaolo; Damia, Roberta; Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2018-01-16

    A 55 years old man self-presented to our Emergency Department (ED) reporting an attempted suicide by cutting the left forearm veins and ingesting approximately 200 mL of an herbicide (Myrtos®, containing 36% of glyphosate as isopropylamine salt). Laboratory tests showed metabolic acidosis. Hydration with normal saline and alkalinization with sodium bicarbonate was started according to suggestion of the poison control center, since an antidote was unavailable. Cardiorespiratory condition gradually worsened, so that non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) was applied and infusion of fluids was established. Nevertheless, the patient deteriorated and he needed to be transferred to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), where he underwent orotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation. Noradrenaline and adrenaline were infused and fluid resuscitation with crystalloids was incremented. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) showed diffuse mucosal erosions of upper digestive tract. No signs of visceral perforation were found during ICU stay. In the following days, the clinical conditions improved and a new EGD showed marked improvement of erosive lesions. After 12 days of ICU stay, the patient was extubated and then transferred to the Psychiatric Unit, in good clinical conditions. Gliphosate ingestion is associated with rapid development of multiple organ failure (MOF). Since an effective antidote is unavailable, major attention should be placed to aggressive life-support care and careful monitoring of complications.

  13. Kynurenine–3–monooxygenase inhibition prevents multiple organ failure in rodent models of acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, Damian J; Webster, Scott P; Uings, Iain; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Binnie, Margaret; Wilson, Kris; Hutchinson, Jonathan P; Mirguet, Olivier; Walker, Ann; Beaufils, Benjamin; Ancellin, Nicolas; Trottet, Lionel; Bénéton, Véronique; Mowat, Christopher G; Wilkinson, Martin; Rowland, Paul; Haslam, Carl; McBride, Andrew; Homer, Natalie ZM; Baily, James E; Sharp, Matthew GF; Garden, O James; Hughes, Jeremy; Howie, Sarah EM; Holmes, Duncan S; Liddle, John; Iredale, John P

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common and devastating inflammatory condition of the pancreas that is considered to be a paradigm of sterile inflammation leading to systemic multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death1,2 Acute mortality from AP-MODS exceeds 20%3 and for those who survive the initial episode, their lifespan is typically shorter than the general population4. There are no specific therapies available that protect individuals against AP-MODS. Here, we show that kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO), a key enzyme of tryptophan metabolism5, is central to the pathogenesis of AP-MODS. We created a mouse strain deficient for Kmo with a robust biochemical phenotype that protected against extrapancreatic tissue injury to lung, kidney and liver in experimental AP-MODS. A medicinal chemistry strategy based on modifications of the kynurenine substrate led to the discovery of GSK180 as a potent and specific inhibitor of KMO. The binding mode of the inhibitor in the active site was confirmed by X-ray co-crystallography at 3.2 Å resolution. Treatment with GSK180 resulted in rapid changes in levels of kynurenine pathway metabolites in vivo and afforded therapeutic protection against AP-MODS in a rat model of AP. Our findings establish KMO inhibition as a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of AP-MODS and open up a new area for drug discovery in critical illness. PMID:26752518

  14. Kynurenine-3-monooxygenase inhibition prevents multiple organ failure in rodent models of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, Damian J; Webster, Scott P; Uings, Iain; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Binnie, Margaret; Wilson, Kris; Hutchinson, Jonathan P; Mirguet, Olivier; Walker, Ann; Beaufils, Benjamin; Ancellin, Nicolas; Trottet, Lionel; Bénéton, Véronique; Mowat, Christopher G; Wilkinson, Martin; Rowland, Paul; Haslam, Carl; McBride, Andrew; Homer, Natalie Z M; Baily, James E; Sharp, Matthew G F; Garden, O James; Hughes, Jeremy; Howie, Sarah E M; Holmes, Duncan S; Liddle, John; Iredale, John P

    2016-02-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common and devastating inflammatory condition of the pancreas that is considered to be a paradigm of sterile inflammation leading to systemic multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death. Acute mortality from AP-MODS exceeds 20% (ref. 3), and the lifespans of those who survive the initial episode are typically shorter than those of the general population. There are no specific therapies available to protect individuals from AP-MODS. Here we show that kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO), a key enzyme of tryptophan metabolism, is central to the pathogenesis of AP-MODS. We created a mouse strain that is deficient for Kmo (encoding KMO) and that has a robust biochemical phenotype that protects against extrapancreatic tissue injury to the lung, kidney and liver in experimental AP-MODS. A medicinal chemistry strategy based on modifications of the kynurenine substrate led to the discovery of the oxazolidinone GSK180 as a potent and specific inhibitor of KMO. The binding mode of the inhibitor in the active site was confirmed by X-ray co-crystallography at 3.2 Å resolution. Treatment with GSK180 resulted in rapid changes in the levels of kynurenine pathway metabolites in vivo, and it afforded therapeutic protection against MODS in a rat model of AP. Our findings establish KMO inhibition as a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of AP-MODS, and they open up a new area for drug discovery in critical illness.

  15. Multiple organ gigantism caused by mutation in VmPPD gene in blackgram (Vigna mungo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Ken; Takahashi, Yu; Chaitieng, Bubpa; Hirano, Kumi; Kaga, Akito; Takagi, Kyoko; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Thavarasook, Charaspon; Ishimoto, Masao; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2017-03-01

    Seed size is one of the most important traits in leguminous crops. We obtained a recessive mutant of blackgram that had greatly enlarged leaves, stems and seeds. The mutant produced 100% bigger leaves, 50% more biomass and 70% larger seeds though it produced 40% less number of seeds. We designated the mutant as multiple-organ-gigantism ( mog ) and found the mog phenotype was due to increase in cell numbers but not in cell size. We also found the mog mutant showed a rippled leaf ( rl ) phenotype, which was probably caused by a pleiotropic effect of the mutation. We performed a map-based cloning and successfully identified an 8 bp deletion in the coding sequence of VmPPD gene, an orthologue of Arabidopsis PEAPOD ( PPD ) that regulates arrest of cell divisions in meristematic cells . We found no other mutations in the neighboring genes between the mutant and the wild type. We also knocked down GmPPD genes and reproduced both the mog and rl phenotypes in soybean. Controlling PPD genes to produce the mog phenotype is highly valuable for breeding since larger seed size could directly increase the commercial values of grain legumes.

  16. Visual detection of multiple genetically modified organisms in a capillary array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ning; Chen, Jianwei; Hu, Jiaying; Li, Rong; Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Shujuan; Hui, Junhou; Liu, Peng; Yang, Litao; Tao, Sheng-Ce

    2017-01-31

    There is an urgent need for rapid, low-cost multiplex methodologies for the monitoring of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Here, we report a C[combining low line]apillary A[combining low line]rray-based L[combining low line]oop-mediated isothermal amplification for M[combining low line]ultiplex visual detection of nucleic acids (CALM) platform for the simple and rapid monitoring of GMOs. In CALM, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primer sets are pre-fixed to the inner surface of capillaries. The surface of the capillary array is hydrophobic while the capillaries are hydrophilic, enabling the simultaneous loading and separation of the LAMP reaction mixtures into each capillary by capillary forces. LAMP reactions in the capillaries are then performed in parallel, and the results are visually detected by illumination with a hand-held UV device. Using CALM, we successfully detected seven frequently used transgenic genes/elements and five plant endogenous reference genes with high specificity and sensitivity. Moreover, we found that measurements of real-world blind samples by CALM are consistent with results obtained by independent real-time PCRs. Thus, with an ability to detect multiple nucleic acids in a single easy-to-operate test, we believe that CALM will become a widely applied technology in GMO monitoring.

  17. Integrated multi-choice goal programming and multi-segment goal programming for supplier selection considering imperfect-quality and price-quantity discounts in a multiple sourcing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Ter; Chen, Huang-Mu; Zhuang, Zheng-Yun

    2014-05-01

    Supplier selection (SS) is a multi-criteria and multi-objective problem, in which multi-segment (e.g. imperfect-quality discount (IQD) and price-quantity discount (PQD)) and multi-aspiration level problems may be significantly important; however, little attention had been given to dealing with both of them simultaneously in the past. This study proposes a model for integrating multi-choice goal programming and multi-segment goal programming to solve the above-mentioned problems by providing the following main contributions: (1) it allows decision-makers to set multiple aspiration levels on the right-hand side of each goal to suit real-world situations, (2) the PQD and IQD conditions are considered in the proposed model simultaneously and (3) the proposed model can solve a SS problem with n suppliers where each supplier offers m IQD with r PQD intervals, where only ? extra binary variables are required. The usefulness of the proposed model is explained using a real case. The results indicate that the proposed model not only can deal with a SS problem with multi-segment and multi-aspiration levels, but also can help the decision-maker to find the appropriate order quantities for each supplier by considering cost, quality and delivery.

  18. Modeling the Sedimentary Infill of Lakes in the East African Rift: A Case Study of Multiple versus Single Rift Basin Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Scholz, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The sedimentary basins in the East African Rift are considered excellent modern examples for investigating sedimentary infilling and evolution of extensional systems. Some lakes in the western branch of the rift have formed within single-segment systems, and include Lake Albert and Lake Edward. The largest and oldest lakes developed within multi-segment systems, and these include Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi. This research aims to explore processes of erosion and sedimentary infilling of the catchment area in single-segment rift (SSR) and multi-segment rift (MSR) systems. We consider different conditions of regional precipitation and evaporation, and assess the resulting facies architecture through forward modeling, using state-of-the-art commercial basin modeling software. Dionisos is a three-dimensional numerical stratigraphic forward modeling software program, which simulates basin-scale sediment transport based on empirical water- and gravity-driven diffusion equations. It was classically used to quantify the sedimentary architecture and basin infilling of both marine siliciclastic and carbonate environments. However, we apply this approach to continental rift basin environments. In this research, two scenarios are developed, one for a MSR and the other for a SSR. The modeled systems simulate the ratio of drainage area and lake surface area observed in modern Lake Tanganyika and Lake Albert, which are examples of MSRs and SSRs, respectively. The main parameters, such as maximum subsidence rate, water- and gravity-driven diffusion coefficients, rainfall, and evaporation, are approximated using these real-world examples. The results of 5 million year model runs with 50,000 year time steps show that MSRs are characterized by a deep water lake with relatively modest sediment accumulation, while the SSRs are characterized by a nearly overfilled lake with shallow water depths and thick sediment accumulation. The preliminary modeling results conform to the features

  19. Activator Gcn4 Employs Multiple Segments of Med15/Gal11, Including the KIX Domain, to Recruit Mediator to Target Genes in Vivo*♦

    OpenAIRE

    Jedidi, Iness; Zhang, Fan; Qiu, Hongfang; Stahl, Stephen J.; Palmer, Ira; Kaufman, Joshua D.; Nadaud, Philippe S.; Mukherjee, Sujoy; Wingfield, Paul T.; Jaroniec, Christopher P.; Hinnebusch, Alan G.

    2009-01-01

    Mediator is a multisubunit coactivator required for initiation by RNA polymerase II. The Mediator tail subdomain, containing Med15/Gal11, is a target of the activator Gcn4 in vivo, critical for recruitment of native Mediator or the Mediator tail subdomain present in sin4Δ cells. Although several Gal11 segments were previously shown to bind Gcn4 in vitro, the importance of these interactions for recruitment of Mediator and transcriptional activation by Gcn4 in cells was unknown. We show that i...

  20. The Development of Multiple Intelligence Capabilities for Early Childhood Development Center, Local Administration Organization in Chaiyaphum Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siphai, Sunan; Supandee, Terdsak; Raksapuk, Chunpit; Poopayang, Piangkhae; Kratoorerk, Sangsan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to promote multiple intelligence capabilities for Early Childhood Care Center of a Sub-district Administration Organization in Chaiyaphum Province. The sample applied were 61 children aging between 3 and 5 years old at Child Development Center, Tambon Ban Kok, Amphoe Chaturus, Chaiyaphum Province, who were selected…

  1. The impact of conservation management on the community composition of multiple organism groups in eutrophic interconnected man-made ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, P.; Mergeay, J.; Van Wichelen, J.; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, S.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ponds throughout the world are subjected to a variety of management measures for purposes of biodiversity conservation. Current conservation efforts typically comprise a combination of multiple measures that directly and indirectly impact a wide range of organism groups. Knowledge of the relative

  2. HMGB1 and Histones Play a Significant Role in Inducing Systemic Inflammation and Multiple Organ Dysfunctions in Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runkuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP starts as a local inflammation of pancreatic tissue that induces the development of multiple extrapancreatic organs dysfunction; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Ischemia-reperfusion, circulating inflammatory cytokines, and possible bile cytokines significantly contribute to gut mucosal injury and intestinal bacterial translocation (BT during SAP. Circulating HMGB1 level is significantly increased in SAP patients and HMGB1 is an important factor that mediates (at least partly gut BT during SAP. Gut BT plays a critical role in triggering/inducing systemic inflammation/sepsis in critical illness, and profound systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS during SAP, and systemic inflammation with multiorgan dysfunction is the cause of death in experimental SAP. Therefore, HMGB1 is an important factor that links gut BT and systemic inflammation. Furthermore, HMGB1 significantly contributes to multiple organ injuries. The SAP patients also have significantly increased circulating histones and cell-free DNAs levels, which can reflect the disease severity and contribute to multiple organ injuries in SAP. Hepatic Kupffer cells (KCs are the predominant source of circulating inflammatory cytokines in SAP, and new evidence indicates that hepatocyte is another important source of circulating HMGB1 in SAP; therefore, treating the liver injury is important in SAP.

  3. Impact of a comprehensive supportive care team on management of hopelessly ill patients with multiple organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, B E; Devich, L E; Carlson, R W

    1989-08-01

    We developed a supportive care team for hopelessly ill patients in an urban emergency/trauma hospital. The team includes a clinical nurse specialist and a faculty physician as well as a chaplain and social worker. The supportive care team provides an alternative to intensive care or conventional ward management of hopelessly ill patients and concentrates on the physical and psychosocial comfort needs of patients and their families. We describe our experience with 20 hopelessly ill patients with multiple organ failure vs a similar group treated before the development of the supportive care team. Although there was no difference in mortality (100 percent), the length of stay in the medical ICU for patients with multiple organ failure decreased by 12 days to 6 days. Additionally, there were 50 percent fewer therapeutic interventions provided by the supportive care team vs intensive care or conventional ward treatment of multiple organ failure patients. We describe the methods that the supportive care team uses in an attempt to meet the physical and psychosocial comfort needs of hopelessly ill multiple organ failure patients and their families. This multidisciplinary approach to the care of the hopelessly ill may have applications in other institutions facing the ethical, medical, and administrative challenges raised by these patients.

  4. An unusual presentation of brucellosis, involving multiple organ systems, with low agglutinating titers: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorvash Farzin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a multi-system disease that may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. While hepatic involvement in brucellosis is not rare, it may rarely involve the kidney or display with cardiac manifestations. Central nervous system involvement in brucellosis sometimes can cause demyelinating syndromes. Here we present a case of brucella hepatitis, myocarditis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and renal failure. Case presentation A 26-year-old man presented with fever, ataxia, and dysarthria. He was a shepherd and gave a history of low grade fever, chilly sensation, cold sweating, loss of appetite, arthralgia and 10 Kg weight loss during the previous 3 months. He had a body temperature of 39°C at the time of admission. On laboratory tests he had elevated level of liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen, Creatinine, Creatine phosphokinase (MB, and moderate proteinuria. He also had abnormal echocardiography and brain MRI. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgG and IgM was negative. Standard tube agglutination test (STAT and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME titers were 1:80 and 1:40 respectively. Finally he was diagnosed with brucellosis by positive blood culture and the polymerase chain reaction for Brucella mellitensis. Conclusion In endemic areas clinicians should consider brucellosis in any unusual presentation involving multiple organ systems, even if serology is inconclusive. In endemic areas low STAT and 2-ME titers should be considered as an indication of brucellosis and in these cases additional testing is recommended to rule out brucellosis.

  5. Using National Drug Codes and drug knowledge bases to organize prescription records from multiple sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonaitis, Linas; McDonald, Clement J

    2009-10-01

    The utility of National Drug Codes (NDCs) and drug knowledge bases (DKBs) in the organization of prescription records from multiple sources was studied. The master files of most pharmacy systems include NDCs and local codes to identify the products they dispense. We obtained a large sample of prescription records from seven different sources. These records carried a national product code or a local code that could be translated into a national product code via their formulary master. We obtained mapping tables from five DKBs. We measured the degree to which the DKB mapping tables covered the national product codes carried in or associated with the sample of prescription records. Considering the total prescription volume, DKBs covered 93.0-99.8% of the product codes from three outpatient sources and 77.4-97.0% of the product codes from four inpatient sources. Among the in-patient sources, invented codes explained 36-94% of the noncoverage. Outpatient pharmacy sources rarely invented codes, which comprised only 0.11-0.21% of their total prescription volume, compared with inpatient pharmacy sources for which invented codes comprised 1.7-7.4% of their prescription volume. The distribution of prescribed products was highly skewed, with 1.4-4.4% of codes accounting for 50% of the message volume and 10.7-34.5% accounting for 90% of the message volume. DKBs cover the product codes used by outpatient sources sufficiently well to permit automatic mapping. Changes in policies and standards could increase coverage of product codes used by inpatient sources.

  6. Genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of carotenoids extracted from ionic liquid in multiples organs of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larangeira, Paula Martins; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera; da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; de Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2016-11-01

    The ionic liquid or melted salt 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium is an alternative process to extract natural pigments, such as carotenoids. Lycopene represents 80-90% of total of carotenoids presents in tomatoes and it has been widely studied due its potent antioxidant action. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of carotenoids extracted from ionic liquid using experimental model in vivo. For this purpose, a total of 20 male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups (n=5), as follows: control group; received a corresponding amount of corn oil for 7days by intragastric gavage (i.g.), ionic liquid group, received 10mgkg -1 body weight for 7days by gavage; 10mg carotenoids group, received 10mgkg -1 bw dissolved in corn oil for 7days by gavage and 500mg carotenoids group, received 500mgkg -1 bw dissolved in corn oil for 7days by gavage. Rat liver treated with ionic liquid exhibited moderate histopathological changes randomly distributed in the parenchyma, such as cytoplasmic eosinophilia, apoptotic bodies, inflammatory infiltrate and focal necrosis. DNA damage was found in peripheral blood and liver cells of rats treated with ionic liquid or carotenoids at 500mg. An increase of micronucleated cells and 8-OhDG immunopositive cells were also detected in rats treated with carotenoids at 500mg. In summary, our results demonstrate that recommended dose for human daily intake of carotenoids extracted by ionic liquid did not induce genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity in multiple organs of rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Brookhaven segment interconnect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, W.M.; Benenson, G.; Leipuner, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    We have performed a high energy physics experiment using a multisegment Brookhaven FASTBUS system. The system was composed of three crate segments and two cable segments. We discuss the segment interconnect module which permits communication between the various segments

  8. Volumetric multimodality neural network for brain tumor segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvana Castillo, Laura; Alexandra Daza, Laura; Carlos Rivera, Luis; Arbeláez, Pablo

    2017-11-01

    Brain lesion segmentation is one of the hardest tasks to be solved in computer vision with an emphasis on the medical field. We present a convolutional neural network that produces a semantic segmentation of brain tumors, capable of processing volumetric data along with information from multiple MRI modalities at the same time. This results in the ability to learn from small training datasets and highly imbalanced data. Our method is based on DeepMedic, the state of the art in brain lesion segmentation. We develop a new architecture with more convolutional layers, organized in three parallel pathways with different input resolution, and additional fully connected layers. We tested our method over the 2015 BraTS Challenge dataset, reaching an average dice coefficient of 84%, while the standard DeepMedic implementation reached 74%.

  9. Multi-subject atlas-based auto-segmentation reduces interobserver variation and improves dosimetric parameter consistency for organs at risk in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A multi-institution clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Chang-Juan; Yi, Jun-Lin; Chen, Nian-Yong; Ren, Wei; Cheng, Jason; Tung, Stewart; Kong, Lin; Lin, Shao-Jun; Pan, Jian-Ji; Zhang, Guang-Shun; Hu, Jiang; Qi, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Jun; Lu, Jia-De; Yan, Di; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess whether consensus guideline-based atlas-based auto-segmentation (ABAS) reduces interobserver variation and improves dosimetric parameter consistency for organs at risk (OARs) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Materials and methods: Eight radiation oncologists from 8 institutes contoured 20 OARs on planning CT images of 16 patients via manual contouring and manually-edited ABAS contouring. Interobserver variation [volume coefficient of variation (CV), Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), three-dimensional isocenter difference (3D-ICD)] and dosimetric parameters were compared between the two methods of contouring for each OAR. Results: Interobserver variation was significant for all OARs in manual contouring, resulting in significant dosimetric parameter variation (P < 0.05). Edited ABAS significantly improved multiple metrics and reduced dosimetric parameter variation for most OARs; brainstem, spinal cord, cochleae, temporomandibular joint (TMJ), larynx and pharyngeal constrictor muscle (PCM) obtained most benefit (range of mean DSC, volume CV and main ICD values was 0.36–0.83, 12.1–84.3%, 2.2–5.0 mm for manual contouring and 0.42–0.86, 7.2–70.6%, 1.2–3.5 mm for edited ABAS contouring, respectively; range of dose CV reduction: 1.0–3.0%). Conclusion: Substantial objective interobserver differences occur during manual contouring, resulting in significant dosimetric parameter variation. Edited ABAS reduced interobserver variation and improved dosimetric parameter consistency, particularly for brainstem, spinal cord, cochleae, TMJ, larynx and PCM

  10. A common rejection module (CRM) for acute rejection across multiple organs identifies novel therapeutics for organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Purvesh; Roedder, Silke; Kimura, Naoyuki; De Vusser, Katrien; Morgan, Alexander A; Gong, Yongquan; Fischbein, Michael P; Robbins, Robert C; Naesens, Maarten; Butte, Atul J; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2013-10-21

    Using meta-analysis of eight independent transplant datasets (236 graft biopsy samples) from four organs, we identified a common rejection module (CRM) consisting of 11 genes that were significantly overexpressed in acute rejection (AR) across all transplanted organs. The CRM genes could diagnose AR with high specificity and sensitivity in three additional independent cohorts (794 samples). In another two independent cohorts (151 renal transplant biopsies), the CRM genes correlated with the extent of graft injury and predicted future injury to a graft using protocol biopsies. Inferred drug mechanisms from the literature suggested that two FDA-approved drugs (atorvastatin and dasatinib), approved for nontransplant indications, could regulate specific CRM genes and reduce the number of graft-infiltrating cells during AR. We treated mice with HLA-mismatched mouse cardiac transplant with atorvastatin and dasatinib and showed reduction of the CRM genes, significant reduction of graft-infiltrating cells, and extended graft survival. We further validated the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on graft survival by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a single-center cohort of 2,515 renal transplant patients followed for up to 22 yr. In conclusion, we identified a CRM in transplantation that provides new opportunities for diagnosis, drug repositioning, and rational drug design.

  11. HMGB1 and Extracellular Histones Significantly Contribute to Systemic Inflammation and Multiple Organ Failure in Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runkuan; Zou, Xiaoping; Tenhunen, Jyrki; Tønnessen, Tor Inge

    2017-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is the culmination of severe liver cell injury from a variety of causes. ALF occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death exceeds the hepatic regenerative capacity. ALF has a high mortality that is associated with multiple organ failure (MOF) and sepsis; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Emerging evidence shows that ALF patients/animals have high concentrations of circulating HMGB1, which can contribute to multiple organ injuries and mediate gut bacterial translocation (BT). BT triggers/induces systemic inflammatory responses syndrome (SIRS), which can lead to MOF in ALF. Blockade of HMGB1 significantly decreases BT and improves hepatocyte regeneration in experimental acute fatal liver injury. Therefore, HMGB1 seems to be an important factor that links BT and systemic inflammation in ALF. ALF patients/animals also have high levels of circulating histones, which might be the major mediators of systemic inflammation in patients with ALF. Extracellular histones kill endothelial cells and elicit immunostimulatory effect to induce multiple organ injuries. Neutralization of histones can attenuate acute liver, lung, and brain injuries. In conclusion, HMGB1 and histones play a significant role in inducing systemic inflammation and MOF in ALF.

  12. HMGB1 and Extracellular Histones Significantly Contribute to Systemic Inflammation and Multiple Organ Failure in Acute Liver Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runkuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute liver failure (ALF is the culmination of severe liver cell injury from a variety of causes. ALF occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death exceeds the hepatic regenerative capacity. ALF has a high mortality that is associated with multiple organ failure (MOF and sepsis; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Emerging evidence shows that ALF patients/animals have high concentrations of circulating HMGB1, which can contribute to multiple organ injuries and mediate gut bacterial translocation (BT. BT triggers/induces systemic inflammatory responses syndrome (SIRS, which can lead to MOF in ALF. Blockade of HMGB1 significantly decreases BT and improves hepatocyte regeneration in experimental acute fatal liver injury. Therefore, HMGB1 seems to be an important factor that links BT and systemic inflammation in ALF. ALF patients/animals also have high levels of circulating histones, which might be the major mediators of systemic inflammation in patients with ALF. Extracellular histones kill endothelial cells and elicit immunostimulatory effect to induce multiple organ injuries. Neutralization of histones can attenuate acute liver, lung, and brain injuries. In conclusion, HMGB1 and histones play a significant role in inducing systemic inflammation and MOF in ALF.

  13. Current status of multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems: Application of organic and inorganic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taguchi Hiroaki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many studies are currently investigating the development of safe and effective vaccines to prevent various infectious diseases. Multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems have been developed to avoid the adverse effects associated with conventional vaccines (i.e., live-attenuated, killed or inactivated pathogens, carrier proteins and cytotoxic adjuvants. Recently, two main approaches have been used to develop multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems: (1 the addition of functional components, e.g., T-cell epitopes, cell-penetrating peptides, and lipophilic moieties; and (2 synthetic approaches using size-defined nanomaterials, e.g., self-assembling peptides, non-peptidic dendrimers, and gold nanoparticles, as antigen-displaying platforms. This review summarizes the recent experimental studies directed to the development of multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems.

  14. Ambidextrous Organizations: A Multiple-Level Study of Absorptive Capacity, Exploratory and Exploitative Innovation and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.P. Jansen (Justin)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBalancing and synchronizing exploration and exploitation is fundamental to the competitive success of firms in dynamic environments. Despite the importance of reconciling exploration and exploitation within organizations, however, relatively little empirical research has examined this

  15. New methods of arene iodination and functional transformation of multiple bonds in organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filimonov, V.D.; Chajkovskij, V.K.; Krasnokutskaya, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The review summarizes the latest results of organic chemistry and technology of organic synthesis department of Tomsk polytechnical university concerning iodination of arenes and chemical transformations of unsaturated compounds. Preparative possibilities of the new reactions and reagents for iodination, oxidation of alkenes and alkynes to 1,2- and bis-1,2-dicarbonyl compounds, iodonitration of alkynes, and reaction of oxidative dimerization of the terminal alkynes to unsaturated δ-sultones are discussed [ru

  16. Tuberous sclerosis: Ultrasound, CT and MRI features of two cases with multiple organ involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, A.; Ciftci, E.; Cetin, A.; Selcuk, H.; Demirci, A.

    1998-01-01

    The cases of two patients with tuberous sclerosis with multiple sites of involvement are presented. Both patients had characteristic cerebral lesions of tuberous sclerosis associated with bilateral renal angiomyolipomas and hepatic hamartomas. Additionally there were diffuse pulmonary cystic changes in one patient and cardiac rhabdomyoma in the other. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Multiple organ definition in CT using a Bayesian approach for 3D model fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Jennifer L.; Weymouth, Terry E.; Meyer, Charles R.

    1995-08-01

    Organ definition in computed tomography (CT) is of interest for treatment planning and response monitoring. We present a method for organ definition using a priori information about shape encoded in a set of biometric organ models--specifically for the liver and kidney-- that accurately represents patient population shape information. Each model is generated by averaging surfaces from a learning set of organ shapes previously registered into a standard space defined by a small set of landmarks. The model is placed in a specific patient's data set by identifying these landmarks and using them as the basis for model deformation; this preliminary representation is then iteratively fit to the patient's data based on a Bayesian formulation of the model's priors and CT edge information, yielding a complete organ surface. We demonstrate this technique using a set of fifteen abdominal CT data sets for liver surface definition both before and after the addition of a kidney model to the fitting; we demonstrate the effectiveness of this tool for organ surface definition in this low-contrast domain.

  18. Perception of space by multiple intrinsic frames of reference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlong Sun

    Full Text Available It has been documented that when memorizing a physical space, the person's mental representation of that space is biased with distortion and segmentation. Two experiments reported here suggest that distortion and segmentation arise due to a hierarchical organization of the spatial representation. The spatial relations associated with salient landmarks are more strongly encoded and easier to recall than those associated with non-salient landmarks. In the presence of multiple salient landmarks, multiple intrinsic frames of reference are formed and spatial relations are anchored to each individual frame of reference. Multiple such representations may co-exist and interactively determine a person's spatial performance.

  19. Magnetoresistance in hybrid organic spin valves at the onset of multiple-step tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonus, J J H M; Lumens, P G E; Wagemans, W; Kohlhepp, J T; Bobbert, P A; Swagten, H J M; Koopmans, B

    2009-10-02

    By combining experiments with simple model calculations, we obtain new insight in spin transport through hybrid, CoFeB/Al2O3(1.5 nm)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq3)/Co spin valves. We have measured the characteristic changes in the I-V behavior as well as the intrinsic loss of magnetoresistance at the onset of multiple-step tunneling. In the regime of multiple-step tunneling, under the condition of low hopping rates, spin precession in the presence of hyperfine coupling is conjectured to be the relevant source of spin relaxation. A quantitative analysis leads to the prediction of a symmetric magnetoresistance around zero magnetic field in addition to the hysteretic magnetoresistance curves, which are indeed observed in our experiments.

  20. Thymoma (World Health Organization type B3) with neuroendocrine differentiation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita, Masaki; Ichiki, Nobuhiko; Ayabe, Takanori; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Kunihide

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Thymic epithelial tumors occur in 1?5% of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). Majority of these thymic epithelial tumors are thymic carcinoids and patients with thymoma in MEN 1 is rare. Furthermore, thymoma with neuroendocrine differentiation was also rarely reported. Herein, we report a 68-year-old man having type B3 thymoma with neuroendocrine differentiation in MEN 1 and to the best of our knowledge this is the first such case ever reported.

  1. Cinteny: flexible analysis and visualization of synteny and genome rearrangements in multiple organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meller Jaroslaw

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying syntenic regions, i.e., blocks of genes or other markers with evolutionary conserved order, and quantifying evolutionary relatedness between genomes in terms of chromosomal rearrangements is one of the central goals in comparative genomics. However, the analysis of synteny and the resulting assessment of genome rearrangements are sensitive to the choice of a number of arbitrary parameters that affect the detection of synteny blocks. In particular, the choice of a set of markers and the effect of different aggregation strategies, which enable coarse graining of synteny blocks and exclusion of micro-rearrangements, need to be assessed. Therefore, existing tools and resources that facilitate identification, visualization and analysis of synteny need to be further improved to provide a flexible platform for such analysis, especially in the context of multiple genomes. Results We present a new tool, Cinteny, for fast identification and analysis of synteny with different sets of markers and various levels of coarse graining of syntenic blocks. Using Hannenhalli-Pevzner approach and its extensions, Cinteny also enables interactive determination of evolutionary relationships between genomes in terms of the number of rearrangements (the reversal distance. In particular, Cinteny provides: i integration of synteny browsing with assessment of evolutionary distances for multiple genomes; ii flexibility to adjust the parameters and re-compute the results on-the-fly; iii ability to work with user provided data, such as orthologous genes, sequence tags or other conserved markers. In addition, Cinteny provides many annotated mammalian, invertebrate and fungal genomes that are pre-loaded and available for analysis at http://cinteny.cchmc.org. Conclusion Cinteny allows one to automatically compare multiple genomes and perform sensitivity analysis for synteny block detection and for the subsequent computation of reversal distances

  2. Expression of Nek1 during kidney development and cyst formation in multiple nephron segments in the Nek1-deficient kat2J mouse model of polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yumay; Chiang, Huai-Chin; Litchfield, Patricia; Pena, Michelle; Juang, Charity; Riley, Daniel J

    2014-07-17

    Neks, mammalian orthologs of the fungal protein kinase never-in-mitosis A, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of polycystic kidney disease. Among them, Nek1 is the primary protein inactivated in kat2J mouse models of PKD. We report the expression pattern of Nek1 and characterize the renal cysts that develop in kat2J mice. Nek1 is detectable in all murine tissues but its expression in wild type and kat2J heterozygous kidneys decrease as the kidneys mature, especially in tubular epithelial cells. In the embryonic kidney, Nek1 expression is most prominent in cells that will become podocytes and proximal tubules. Kidney development in kat2J homozygous mice is aberrant early, before the appearance of gross cysts: developing cortical zones are thin, populated by immature glomeruli, and characterized by excessive apoptosis of several cell types. Cysts in kat2J homozygous mice form postnatally in Bowman's space as well as different tubular subtypes. Late in life, kat2J heterozygous mice form renal cysts and the cells lining these cysts lack staining for Nek1. The primary cilia of cells lining cysts in kat2J homozygous mice are morphologically diverse: in some cells they are unusually long and in others there are multiple cilia of varying lengths. Our studies indicate that Nek1 deficiency leads to disordered kidney maturation, and cysts throughout the nephron.

  3. Multiple regression models for the prediction of the maximum obtainable thermal efficiency of organic Rankine cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Pierobon, Leonardo; Wronski, Jorrit

    2014-01-01

    Much attention is focused on increasing the energy efficiency to decrease fuel costs and CO2 emissions throughout industrial sectors. The ORC (organic Rankine cycle) is a relatively simple but efficient process that can be used for this purpose by converting low and medium temperature waste heat ...

  4. Interactions between multiple organizations responding to a reactor accident in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggenstos, M.; Isaak, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    The poster deals with the problems that emerge from the distribution of responsibilities in the case of a nuclear accident. It is demonstrated how clear and simple procedures and good co-ordination between the onsite and offsite emergency organizations are necessary for the smooth handling of such a situation. A good communications network is particularly essential. The special problem of co-ordination between different organizations performing measurements of the contaminated air, ground and food is also discussed. From the experience gained during the Chernobyl accident, it has been established that only those organizations, which are correctly trained and have a perspective over the complete accident situation, can perform valuable work. At the beginning of the accident for example, there was no organization responsible for taking samples covering the whole of Switzerland. A first quick assessment of the radiological situation could therefore only be made on the basis of measurements performed in the direct vicinity of the laboratories or from single samples which had to be transported over large distances

  5. Intuitive Judgments Govern Students' Answering Patterns in Multiple-Choice Exercises in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graulich, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Research in chemistry education has revealed that students going through their undergraduate and graduate studies in organic chemistry have a fragmented conceptual knowledge of the subject. Rote memorization, rule-based reasoning, and heuristic strategies seem to strongly influence students' performances. There appears to be a gap between what we…

  6. Multiatlas segmentation of thoracic and abdominal anatomy with level set-based local search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreibmann, Eduard; Marcus, David M; Fox, Tim

    2014-07-08

    Segmentation of organs at risk (OARs) remains one of the most time-consuming tasks in radiotherapy treatment planning. Atlas-based segmentation methods using single templates have emerged as a practical approach to automate the process for brain or head and neck anatomy, but pose significant challenges in regions where large interpatient variations are present. We show that significant changes are needed to autosegment thoracic and abdominal datasets by combining multi-atlas deformable registration with a level set-based local search. Segmentation is hierarchical, with a first stage detecting bulk organ location, and a second step adapting the segmentation to fine details present in the patient scan. The first stage is based on warping multiple presegmented templates to the new patient anatomy using a multimodality deformable registration algorithm able to cope with changes in scanning conditions and artifacts. These segmentations are compacted in a probabilistic map of organ shape using the STAPLE algorithm. Final segmentation is obtained by adjusting the probability map for each organ type, using customized combinations of delineation filters exploiting prior knowledge of organ characteristics. Validation is performed by comparing automated and manual segmentation using the Dice coefficient, measured at an average of 0.971 for the aorta, 0.869 for the trachea, 0.958 for the lungs, 0.788 for the heart, 0.912 for the liver, 0.884 for the kidneys, 0.888 for the vertebrae, 0.863 for the spleen, and 0.740 for the spinal cord. Accurate atlas segmentation for abdominal and thoracic regions can be achieved with the usage of a multi-atlas and perstructure refinement strategy. To improve clinical workflow and efficiency, the algorithm was embedded in a software service, applying the algorithm automatically on acquired scans without any user interaction.

  7. Osteotomias segmentares múltiplas para a correção da cifose Multiple segmental osteotomies to the kyphosis correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando Pereira da Silva Herrero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o resultado do tratamento cirúrgico da hipercifose dorsal da coluna vertebral por meio da técnica de Ponte (osteotomias múltiplas posteriores. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 10 pacientes (oito com sequela de doença de Scheuermann e dois com sequela de laminectomia submetidos a cirurgia para correção de hipercifose acima de 70°. A idade variou de 12 anos a 20 anos (média de 16,8 anos ± 2,89. Os parâmetros radiográficos estudados foram a mensuração da cifose, lordose e, quando presente, da escoliose. Também foram avaliadas a presença de cifose juncional proximal e distal, a perda da correção e complicações como soltura e quebra dos implantes. Os parâmetros radiográficos foram avaliados no período pré-operatório, pós-operatório imediato e avaliação tardia. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes foram seguidos por um período que variou de 24 a 144 meses (média de 65,8 meses ± 39,92. O valor médio da hipercifose pré-operatória foi de 78,8º ± 7,59º (Cobb e de 47,5º ± 12,54º no seguimento, com a média de correção de 33,9º ± 9,53º e perda média de correção de 2,2º. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico da hipercifose torácica por meio de osteotomias múltiplas posteriores apresentou boa correção da deformidade e perda mínima de correção ao longo do seguimento.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of the surgical treatment of the spinal Kyphosis using the Ponte's technique (multiple posterior osteotomies. METHODS: Ten patients (8 with Scheuermann´s kyphosis and 2 with kyphosis after laminectomy submitted to surgical correction of kyphotic deformity greater than 70º were retrospectively assessed. The age at the surgical time ranged from 12 to 20 years old (mean age16.8 years ± 2.89. The radiographic parameters evaluated were the kyphosis, the lordosis and the scoliosis - whenever present. The presence of proximal and distal junctional kyphosis, loss of correction, and complications as implants

  8. Whole-organ and segmental stiffness measured with liver magnetic resonance elastography in healthy adults: significance of the region of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusak, Grażyna; Zawada, Elżbieta; Lemanowicz, Adam; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    MR elastography (MRE) is a recent non-invasive technique that provides in vivo data on the viscoelasticity of the liver. Since the method is not well established, several different protocols were proposed that differ in results. The aim of the study was to analyze the variability of stiffness measurements in different regions of the liver. Twenty healthy adults aged 24-45 years were recruited. The examination was performed using a mechanical excitation of 64 Hz. MRE images were fused with axial T2WI breath-hold images (thickness 10 mm, spacing 10 mm). Stiffness was measured as a mean value of each cross section of the whole liver, on a single largest cross section, in the right lobe, and in ROIs (50 pix.) placed in the center of the left lobe, segments 5/6, 7, 8, and the parahilar region. Whole-liver stiffness ranged from 1.56 to 2.75 kPa. Mean segmental stiffness differed significantly between the tested regions (range from 1.55 ± 0.28 to 2.37 ± 0.32 kPa; P < 0.0001, ANOVA). Within-method variability of measurements ranged from 14 % for whole liver and segment 8-26 % for segment 7. Within-subject variability ranged from 13 to 31 %. Results of measurement within segment 8 were closest to the whole-liver method (ICC, 0.84). Stiffness of the liver presented significant variability depending on the region of measurement. The most reproducible method is averaging of cross sections of the whole liver. There was significant variability between stiffness in subjects considered healthy, which requires further investigation.

  9. Ocean acidification in the coastal zone from an organism's perspective: multiple system parameters, frequency domains, and habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbusser, George G; Salisbury, Joseph E

    2014-01-01

    Multiple natural and anthropogenic processes alter the carbonate chemistry of the coastal zone in ways that either exacerbate or mitigate ocean acidification effects. Freshwater inputs and multiple acid-base reactions change carbonate chemistry conditions, sometimes synergistically. The shallow nature of these systems results in strong benthic-pelagic coupling, and marine invertebrates at different life history stages rely on both benthic and pelagic habitats. Carbonate chemistry in coastal systems can be highly variable, responding to processes with temporal modes ranging from seconds to centuries. Identifying scales of variability relevant to levels of biological organization requires a fuller characterization of both the frequency and magnitude domains of processes contributing to or reducing acidification in pelagic and benthic habitats. We review the processes that contribute to coastal acidification with attention to timescales of variability and habitats relevant to marine bivalves.

  10. Supplementation of Nigella sativa fixed and essential oil mediates potassium bromate induced oxidative stress and multiple organ toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Ahmad, Rabia Shabeer; Pasha, Imran; Ahmad, Atif Nisar; Qayyum, Mir Muhammad Nasir

    2012-01-01

    The plants and their functional ingredients hold potential to cure various maladies and number of plants hold therapeutic potential. The present research was designed study the health promoting potential of black cumin (Nigella sativa) fixed oil (BCFO) and essential oil (BCEO) against oxidative stress with special reference to multiple organ toxicity. For the purpose, thirty rats (Strain: Sprague Dawley) were procured and divided into three groups (10 rats/group). The groups were fed on their respective diets i.e. D1 (control), D2 (BCFO @ 4.0%) and D3 (BCEO @ 0.30%) for a period of 56 days. Mild oxidative stress was induced with the help of potassium bromate injection @ 45 mg/Kg body weight. Furthermore, the levels of cardiac and liver enzymes were assayed. The results indicated that oxidative stress increased the activities of cardiac and liver enzymes. However, supplementation of BCFO and BCEO was effective in reducing the abnormal values of enzymes. Elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), CPK and CPK-MB were reduced from 456 to 231, 176 to 122 and 45 to 36mg/dL, respectively. Similarly, liver enzymes were also reduced. However, the results revealed that BCEO supplementation @ 0.30% is more effectual in ameliorating the multiple organ toxicity in oxidative stressed animal modelling. In the nutshell, it can be assumed that black cumin essential oil is more effective in reducing the extent of potassium bromate induced multiple organ toxicity (cardiac and liver enzymes imbalance) that will ultimately helpful in reducing the extent of myocardial and liver necrosis.

  11. Stacking multiple connecting functional materials in tandem organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Deng-Ke; Jiang, Nan; Lu, Zheng-Hong

    2017-02-01

    Tandem device is an important architecture in fabricating high performance organic light-emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. The key element in making a high performance tandem device is the connecting materials stack, which plays an important role in electric field distribution, charge generation and charge injection. For a tandem organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a simple Liq/Al/MoO3 stack, we discovered that there is a significant current lateral spreading causing light emission over an extremely large area outside the OLED pixel when the Al thickness exceeds 2 nm. This spread light emission, caused by an inductive electric field over one of the device unit, limits one’s ability to fabricate high performance tandem devices. To resolve this issue, a new connecting materials stack with a C60 fullerene buffer layer is reported. This new structure permits optimization of the Al metal layer in the connecting stack and thus enables us to fabricate an efficient tandem OLED having a high 155.6 cd/A current efficiency and a low roll-off (or droop) in current efficiency.

  12. Thyroid storm with multiple organ failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and stroke with a normal serum FT3 level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Yuko; Akiyama, Hisanao; Yoshimoto, Tatsuji; Urao, Yasuko; Ryuzaki, Munekazu; Handa, Michiko

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare disorder with a sudden onset, rapid progression and high mortality. We experienced a case of thyroid storm which had a devastating course, including multiple organ failure (MOF), severe hypoglycemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and stroke. It was difficult to make a diagnosis of thyroid storm in the present patient, because she did not have a history of thyroid disease and her serum FT3 level was normal. Clinicians should be aware that thyroid storm can occur even when there is an almost normal level of thyroid hormones, and that intensive anticoagulation is required for patients with atrial fibrillation to prevent stroke after thyroid storm.

  13. Deep learning of the sectional appearances of 3D CT images for anatomical structure segmentation based on an FCN voting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangrong; Takayama, Ryosuke; Wang, Song; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    We propose a single network trained by pixel-to-label deep learning to address the general issue of automatic multiple organ segmentation in three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images. Our method can be described as a voxel-wise multiple-class classification scheme for automatically assigning labels to each pixel/voxel in a 2D/3D CT image. We simplify the segmentation algorithms of anatomical structures (including multiple organs) in a CT image (generally in 3D) to a majority voting scheme over the semantic segmentation of multiple 2D slices drawn from different viewpoints with redundancy. The proposed method inherits the spirit of fully convolutional networks (FCNs) that consist of "convolution" and "deconvolution" layers for 2D semantic image segmentation, and expands the core structure with 3D-2D-3D transformations to adapt to 3D CT image segmentation. All parameters in the proposed network are trained pixel-to-label from a small number of CT cases with human annotations as the ground truth. The proposed network naturally fulfills the requirements of multiple organ segmentations in CT cases of different sizes that cover arbitrary scan regions without any adjustment. The proposed network was trained and validated using the simultaneous segmentation of 19 anatomical structures in the human torso, including 17 major organs and two special regions (lumen and content inside of stomach). Some of these structures have never been reported in previous research on CT segmentation. A database consisting of 240 (95% for training and 5% for testing) 3D CT scans, together with their manually annotated ground-truth segmentations, was used in our experiments. The results show that the 19 structures of interest were segmented with acceptable accuracy (88.1% and 87.9% voxels in the training and testing datasets, respectively, were labeled correctly) against the ground truth. We propose a single network based on pixel-to-label deep learning to address the challenging

  14. Estimation of nutrients and organic matter in Korean swine slurry using multiple regression analysis of physical and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Arumuganainar; Choi, Hong Lim

    2011-10-01

    Swine waste land application has increased due to organic fertilization, but excess application in an arable system can cause environmental risk. Therefore, in situ characterizations of such resources are important prior to application. To explore this, 41 swine slurry samples were collected from Korea, and wide differences were observed in the physico-biochemical properties. However, significant (Phydrometer, EC meter, drying oven and pH meter were found useful to estimate Mn, Fe, Ca, K, Al, Na, N and 5-day biochemical oxygen demands (BOD₅) at improved R² values of 0.83, 0.82, 0.77, 0.75, 0.67, 0.47, 0.88 and 0.70, respectively. The results from this study suggest that multiple property regressions can facilitate the prediction of micronutrients and organic matter much better than a single property regression for livestock waste. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of combining plasma exchange with continuous hemodiafiltration on acute Fatty liver of pregnancy complicated by multiple organ dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yu-Feng; Meng, Mei; Zeng, Juan; Zhou, Hai-Yan; Jiang, Jin-Jiao; Ren, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Ji-Cheng; Zhu, Wen-Ying; Wang, Chun-Ting

    2012-06-01

    Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is a rare disease of progressive hepatic insufficiency and secondary systemic complications that induce significant maternal risk. The application of combining plasma exchange (PE) and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) is a novel concept for patients with AFLP. Since 2002, we have utilized the combination of PE with CHDF as adjunctive medical therapy for 11 AFLP patients with multiple organ dysfunction. Before PE and CHDF initiation, four patients had signs and symptoms of encephalopathy, four required ventilatory support, and all 11 were developing liver failure, significant renal compromise, and coagulopathy. PE combined with CHDF for patients was initiated a mean of 2 days postpartum (range, days 0-3). Daily or every other day PE combined with CHDF was undertaken on two to eight occasions for each of the 11 patients. Ten patients responded with composite clinical and laboratory improvement and were discharged to the ward, then cured and discharged from hospital; one patient died of septic shock. Average duration of hospitalization was 17 days (range, days 9-38) from time of admission to discharge; the average duration of intensive care unit was 10 days (range, days 4-23). No significant PE- and CHDF-related complications occurred. These results indicate that combing PE and CHDF in a series-parallel circuit is an effective and safe treatment for patients with severe AFLP. This finding may have important implications for the development of an effective treatment for patients with AFLP suffering multiple organ dysfunction. © 2012, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2012, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Multiple emissions in organic electroluminescent device using a mixed layer as an emitter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-qing; Wu, You-zhi; Zheng, Xin-you; Jiang, Xue-yin; Zhang, Zhi-lin; Sun, Run-guang; Xu, Shao-hong

    2005-04-01

    A organic electroluminescent device has been fabricated by using a mixed layer as an emitter. The configuration of the device is ITO/TPD/TPD: PBD(equimole)/PBD/A1, in which TPD (N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine) and PBD (2-(4'-biphenyl)-5-(4''-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole) are used as hole transport material and electron transport material, respectively. Broad and red-shifted electroluminescent spectra related to the fluorescence of constituent materials were observed. It is suggested that the monomer, exciplex and electroplex emissions are simultaneously involved in EL spectra by comparison of the EL with the PL spectra and decomposition of the EL spectrum. The type of exciplex is the interaction between the excited state TPD (TPD*) and PBD in the ground state, and the type of electroplex is a (D+-A-)* complex by cross-recombination of hole on the charged hole transport molecule (D+) and electron on the charged electron transport molecule (A-). All types of excited states show different formation mechanisms and recombination processes under electric field. The change of emission strengths from monomer and excited complexes lead to a blue-shift of the emissive spectra with an increasing electric field. The maximum luminance and external quantum efficiency of this device are 240 cd x (cm2)(-1) and 0.49%, respectively. The emissions from exciplex or electroplex formation at the organic solid interface generally present a broad and red-shifted emissive band, providing an effective method for tuning of emission color in organic electroluminescent devices.

  17. Opposition multiple objective symbiotic organisms search (OMOSOS for time, cost, quality and work continuity tradeoff in repetitive projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc-Hoc Tran

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Construction managers often face with projects containing multiple units wherein activities repeat from unit to unit. Therefore effective resource management is crucial in terms of project duration, cost and quality. Accordingly, researchers have developed several models to aid planners in developing practical and near-optimal schedules for repetitive projects. Despite their undeniable benefits, such models lack the ability of pure simultaneous optimization because existing methodologies optimize the schedule with respect to a single factor, to achieve minimum duration, total cost, resource work breaks or various combinations, respectively. This study introduces a novel approach called “opposition multiple objective symbiotic organisms search” (OMOSOS for scheduling repetitive projects. The proposed algorithm used an opposition-based learning technique for population initialization and for generation jumping. Further, this study integrated a scheduling module (M1 to determine all project objectives including time, cost, quality and interruption. The proposed algorithm was implemented on two application examples in order to demonstrate its capabilities in optimizing the scheduling of repetitive construction projects. The results indicate that the OMOSOS approach is a powerful optimization technique and can assist project managers in selecting appropriate plan for project. Keywords: Symbiotic organisms search, Multi-objective analysis, Resource tradeoff, Schedules, Repetitive

  18. Multiple sources driving the organic matter dynamics in two contrasting tropical mangroves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, R.; Shahraki, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have selected two different mangroves based on their geological, hydrological and climatological variations to investigate the origin (terrestrial, phytobenthos derived, and phytoplankton derived) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) in the water column and the sedimentary OC using elemental ratios and stable isotopes. Qeshm Island, representing the Iranian mangroves received no attention before this study in terms of DOC, POC biogeochemistry and their sources unlike the Sundarbans (Indian side), the world's largest mangrove system. Slightly higher DOC concentrations in the Iranian mangroves were recorded in our field campaigns between 2011 and 2014, compared to the Sundarbans (315 ± 25 μM vs. 278 ± 42 μM), owing to the longer water residence times, while 9–10 times greater POC concentration (303 ± 37 μM, n = 82) was linked to both suspended load (345 ± 104 mg L"− "1) and high algal production. Yearlong phytoplankton bloom in the mangrove-lined Persian Gulf was reported to be the perennial source of both POC and DOC contributing 80–86% to the DOC and 90–98% to the POC pool. Whereas in the Sundarbans, riverine input contributed 50–58% to the DOC pool and POC composition was regulated by the seasonal litter fall, river discharge and phytoplankton production. Algal derived organic matter (microphytobenthos) represented the maximum contribution (70–76%) to the sedimentary OC at Qeshm Island, while mangrove leaf litters dominated the OC pool in the Indian Sundarbans. Finally, hydrographical settings (i.e. riverine transport) appeared to be the determinant factor in differentiating OM sources in the water column between the dry and wet mangroves. - Highlights: • Sources of OC have been identified and compared between two contrasting mangroves. • Phytoplankton dominated the DOC and POC pool in the Iranian mangroves. • River input contributed half of the total DOC and part of POC in the Indian

  19. Multiple sources driving the organic matter dynamics in two contrasting tropical mangroves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, R., E-mail: raghab.ray@gmail.com [Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, UBO, UMR 6539 LEMAR, rue Dumont dUrville, 29280 Plouzane (France); Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology, Fahrenheitstr. 6, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Shahraki, M. [Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology, Fahrenheitstr. 6, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    In this study, we have selected two different mangroves based on their geological, hydrological and climatological variations to investigate the origin (terrestrial, phytobenthos derived, and phytoplankton derived) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) in the water column and the sedimentary OC using elemental ratios and stable isotopes. Qeshm Island, representing the Iranian mangroves received no attention before this study in terms of DOC, POC biogeochemistry and their sources unlike the Sundarbans (Indian side), the world's largest mangrove system. Slightly higher DOC concentrations in the Iranian mangroves were recorded in our field campaigns between 2011 and 2014, compared to the Sundarbans (315 ± 25 μM vs. 278 ± 42 μM), owing to the longer water residence times, while 9–10 times greater POC concentration (303 ± 37 μM, n = 82) was linked to both suspended load (345 ± 104 mg L{sup −} {sup 1}) and high algal production. Yearlong phytoplankton bloom in the mangrove-lined Persian Gulf was reported to be the perennial source of both POC and DOC contributing 80–86% to the DOC and 90–98% to the POC pool. Whereas in the Sundarbans, riverine input contributed 50–58% to the DOC pool and POC composition was regulated by the seasonal litter fall, river discharge and phytoplankton production. Algal derived organic matter (microphytobenthos) represented the maximum contribution (70–76%) to the sedimentary OC at Qeshm Island, while mangrove leaf litters dominated the OC pool in the Indian Sundarbans. Finally, hydrographical settings (i.e. riverine transport) appeared to be the determinant factor in differentiating OM sources in the water column between the dry and wet mangroves. - Highlights: • Sources of OC have been identified and compared between two contrasting mangroves. • Phytoplankton dominated the DOC and POC pool in the Iranian mangroves. • River input contributed half of the total DOC and part of POC in

  20. Anomalous temperature dependent magneto-conductance in organic light-emitting diodes with multiple emissive states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen-xiao; Jia, Wei-yao; Huang, Ke-Xun; Zhang, Qiao-ming; Yang, Xiao-hui; Xiong, Zu-hong

    2015-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the magneto-conductance (MC) in organic electron donor-acceptor hybrid and layer heterojunction diodes was studied. The MC value increased with temperature in layer heterojunction and in 10 wt. % hybrid devices. An anomalous decrease of the MC with temperature was observed in 25 wt. %-50 wt. % hybrid devices. Further increasing donor concentration to 75 wt. %, the MC again increased with temperature. The endothermic exciplex-exciton energy transfer and the change in electroplex/exciton ratio caused by change in charge transport with temperature may account for these phenomena. Comparative studies of the temperature evolutions of the IV curves and the electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra back our hypothesis.

  1. Anomalous temperature dependent magneto-conductance in organic light-emitting diodes with multiple emissive states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Chen-xiao; Jia, Wei-yao; Huang, Ke-Xun; Zhang, Qiao-ming; Yang, Xiao-hui; Xiong, Zu-hong

    2015-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the magneto-conductance (MC) in organic electron donor-acceptor hybrid and layer heterojunction diodes was studied. The MC value increased with temperature in layer heterojunction and in 10 wt. % hybrid devices. An anomalous decrease of the MC with temperature was observed in 25 wt. %–50 wt. % hybrid devices. Further increasing donor concentration to 75 wt. %, the MC again increased with temperature. The endothermic exciplex-exciton energy transfer and the change in electroplex/exciton ratio caused by change in charge transport with temperature may account for these phenomena. Comparative studies of the temperature evolutions of the IV curves and the electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra back our hypothesis

  2. Anomalous temperature dependent magneto-conductance in organic light-emitting diodes with multiple emissive states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chen-xiao; Jia, Wei-yao; Huang, Ke-Xun; Zhang, Qiao-ming; Yang, Xiao-hui; Xiong, Zu-hong, E-mail: zhxiong@swu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, MOE Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2015-07-13

    The temperature dependence of the magneto-conductance (MC) in organic electron donor-acceptor hybrid and layer heterojunction diodes was studied. The MC value increased with temperature in layer heterojunction and in 10 wt. % hybrid devices. An anomalous decrease of the MC with temperature was observed in 25 wt. %–50 wt. % hybrid devices. Further increasing donor concentration to 75 wt. %, the MC again increased with temperature. The endothermic exciplex-exciton energy transfer and the change in electroplex/exciton ratio caused by change in charge transport with temperature may account for these phenomena. Comparative studies of the temperature evolutions of the IV curves and the electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra back our hypothesis.

  3. How organic carbon derived from multiple sources contributes to carbon sequestration processes in a shallow coastal system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Kuwae, Tomohiro

    2015-04-16

    Carbon captured by marine organisms helps sequester atmospheric CO 2 , especially in shallow coastal ecosystems, where rates of primary production and burial of organic carbon (OC) from multiple sources are high. However, linkages between the dynamics of OC derived from multiple sources and carbon sequestration are poorly understood. We investigated the origin (terrestrial, phytobenthos derived, and phytoplankton derived) of particulate OC (POC) and dissolved OC (DOC) in the water column and sedimentary OC using elemental, isotopic, and optical signatures in Furen Lagoon, Japan. Based on these data analysis, we explored how OC from multiple sources contributes to sequestration via storage in sediments, water column sequestration, and air-sea CO 2 exchanges, and analyzed how the contributions vary with salinity in a shallow seagrass meadow as well. The relative contribution of terrestrial POC in the water column decreased with increasing salinity, whereas autochthonous POC increased in the salinity range 10-30. Phytoplankton-derived POC dominated the water column POC (65-95%) within this salinity range; however, it was minor in the sediments (3-29%). In contrast, terrestrial and phytobenthos-derived POC were relatively minor contributors in the water column but were major contributors in the sediments (49-78% and 19-36%, respectively), indicating that terrestrial and phytobenthos-derived POC were selectively stored in the sediments. Autochthonous DOC, part of which can contribute to long-term carbon sequestration in the water column, accounted for >25% of the total water column DOC pool in the salinity range 15-30. Autochthonous OC production decreased the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon in the water column and thereby contributed to atmospheric CO 2 uptake, except in the low-salinity zone. Our results indicate that shallow coastal ecosystems function not only as transition zones between land and ocean but also as carbon sequestration filters. They

  4. Combined Hydration and Antibiotics with Lisinopril to Mitigate Acute and Delayed High-dose Radiation Injuries to Multiple Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Brian L; Gao, Feng; Narayanan, Jayashree; Bergom, Carmen; Jacobs, Elizabeth R; Cohen, Eric P; Moulder, John E; Orschell, Christie M; Medhora, Meetha

    2016-11-01

    The NIAID Radiation and Nuclear Countermeasures Program is developing medical agents to mitigate the acute and delayed effects of radiation that may occur from a radionuclear attack or accident. To date, most such medical countermeasures have been developed for single organ injuries. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been used to mitigate radiation-induced lung, skin, brain, and renal injuries in rats. ACE inhibitors have also been reported to decrease normal tissue complication in radiation oncology patients. In the current study, the authors have developed a rat partial-body irradiation (leg-out PBI) model with minimal bone marrow sparing (one leg shielded) that results in acute and late injuries to multiple organs. In this model, the ACE inhibitor lisinopril (at ~24 mg m d started orally in the drinking water at 7 d after irradiation and continued to ≥150 d) mitigated late effects in the lungs and kidneys after 12.5-Gy leg-out PBI. Also in this model, a short course of saline hydration and antibiotics mitigated acute radiation syndrome following doses as high as 13 Gy. Combining this supportive care with the lisinopril regimen mitigated overall morbidity for up to 150 d after 13-Gy leg-out PBI. Furthermore, lisinopril was an effective mitigator in the presence of the growth factor G-CSF (100 μg kg d from days 1-14), which is FDA-approved for use in a radionuclear event. In summary, by combining lisinopril (FDA-approved for other indications) with hydration and antibiotics, acute and delayed radiation injuries in multiple organs were mitigated.

  5. Dissolved organic matter cycling in eastern Mediterranean rivers experiencing multiple pressures. The case of the trans-boundary Evros River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PITTA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to provide a comprehensive evaluation on C, N, P cycling in medium sized Mediterranean rivers, such as the Evros, experiencing multiple pressures (intensive agriculture, industrial activities, population density. Our work aims also to contribute to the development of integrated management policies. Dissolved organic matter (DOM cycling were investigated, during a one-year study. It was shown that the organic component of N and P was comparable to those of large Mediterranean rivers (Rhone, Po. In the lower parts of the river where all point and non-point inputs converge, the high inorganic N input favour elevated assimilation rates by phytoplankton and result in increased chl-a concentrations and autochthonous dissolved organic matter (DOM production during the dry season with limited water flow. Moreover, carbohydrate distribution revealed that there is a constant background of soil derived mono-saccharides on top of which are superimposed impulses of poly-saccharides during blooms. During the dry season, inorganic nutrients and DOM are trapped in the lower parts of the river, whereas during high flow conditions DOM is flushed towards the sea and organic nitrogen forms can become an important TDN constituent (at least 40% transported to shelf waters. The co-existence of terrigenous material with autochthonous and some anthropogenic is supported by the relatively low DOC:DON and DOC:DOP ratios, the positive correlation of DOC vs chl-a and the decoupling between DOC and DON. Overall, this study showed that in medium size Mediterranean rivers, such as the Evros, intensive agriculture and pollution sources in combination with water management practices and climatic variability are important factors determining C, N, P dynamics and export to coastal seas. Also, it highlights the importance of the organic fraction of N and P when considering management practices.

  6. Theoretical estimation of absorbed dose to organs in radioimmunotherapy using radionuclides with multiple unstable daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamacher, K.A.; Sgouros, G.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity and clinical utility of long-lived alpha emitters such as Ac-225 and Ra-223 will depend upon the fate of alpha-particle emitting unstable intermediates generated after decay of the conjugated parent. For example, decay of Ac-225 to a stable element yields four alpha particles and seven radionuclides. Each of these progeny has its own free-state biodistribution and characteristic half-life. Therefore, their inclusion for a more accurate prediction of absorbed dose and potential toxicity requires a formalism that takes these factors into consideration as well. To facilitate the incorporation of such intermediates into the dose calculation, a previously developed methodology (model 1) has been extended. Two new models (models 2 and 3) for allocation of daughter products are introduced and are compared with the previously developed model. Model 1 restricts the transport to a function that yields either the place of origin or the place(s) of biodistribution depending on the half-life of the parent radionuclide. Model 2 includes the transient time within the bloodstream and model 3 incorporates additional binding at or within the tumor. This means that model 2 also allows for radionuclide decay and further daughter production while moving from one location to the next and that model 3 relaxes the constraint that the residence time within the tumor is solely based on the half-life of the parent. The models are used to estimate normal organ absorbed doses for the following parent radionuclides: Ac-225, Pb-212, At-211, Ra-223, and Bi-213. Model simulations are for a 0.1 g rapidly accessible tumor and a 10 g solid tumor. Additionally, the effects of varying radiolabled carrier molecule purity and amount of carrier molecules, as well as tumor cell antigen saturation are examined. The results indicate that there is a distinct advantage in using parent radionuclides such as Ac-225 or Ra-223, each having a half-life of more than 10 days and yielding four alpha

  7. ZIP8 zinc transporter: indispensable role for both multiple-organ organogenesis and hematopoiesis in utero.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gálvez-Peralta

    Full Text Available Previously this laboratory characterized Slc39a8-encoded ZIP8 as a Zn(2+/(HCO(3(-(2 symporter; yet, the overall physiological importance of ZIP8 at the whole-organism level remains unclear. Herein we describe the phenotype of the hypomorphic Slc39a8(neo/neo mouse which has retained the neomycin-resistance gene in intron 3, hence causing significantly decreased ZIP8 mRNA and protein levels in embryo, fetus, placenta, yolk sac, and several tissues of neonates. The Slc39a8(neo allele is associated with diminished zinc and iron uptake in mouse fetal fibroblast and liver-derived cultures; consequently, Slc39a8(neo/neo newborns exhibit diminished zinc and iron levels in several tissues. Slc39a8(neo/neo homozygotes from gestational day(GD-11.5 onward are pale, growth-stunted, and die between GD18.5 and 48 h postnatally. Defects include: severely hypoplastic spleen; hypoplasia of liver, kidney, lung, and lower limbs. Histologically, Slc39a8(neo/neo neonates show decreased numbers of hematopoietic islands in yolk sac and liver. Low hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, serum iron, and total iron-binding capacity confirmed severe anemia. Flow cytometry of fetal liver cells revealed the erythroid series strikingly affected in the hypomorph. Zinc-dependent 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, required for heme synthesis, was not different between Slc39a8(+/+ and Slc39a8(neo/neo offspring. To demonstrate further that the mouse phenotype is due to ZIP8 deficiency, we bred Slc39a8(+/neo with BAC-transgenic BTZIP8-3 line (carrying three extra copies of the Slc39a8 allele; this cross generated viable Slc39a8(neo/neo_BTZIP8-3(+/+ pups showing none of the above-mentioned congenital defects-proving Slc39a8(neo/neo causes the described phenotype. Our study demonstrates that ZIP8-mediated zinc transport plays an unappreciated critical role during in utero and neonatal growth, organ morphogenesis, and hematopoiesis.

  8. A new human (psycho)pharmacology tool: the multiple organs coincidences counter (MOCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malizia, A; Forse, G; Haida, A; Gunn, R; Melichar, J; Poole, K; Bateman, D; Fahy, D; Schnorr, L; Brown, D; Rhodes, C; Nutt, D J; Jones, T

    1995-01-01

    We describe a novel instrument which is capable of measuring the uptake of radioligand in human organs in vivo with the administration of very small doses of positron-emitting radioligands. This technique readily detects the displacement or reduced uptake of radioligand when a competitive agonist or antagonist is administered. This system provides no tomographic information, but the small radioactive doses involved mean that investigations can be repeated at regular intervals and that female volunteers can also participate. We administered [(11) C]flumazenil, [(11)C]diprenorphine, [(11)C]meta -hydroxyephedrine (MHED) and [(11)C]RTI 55 to healthy male volunteers and performed control, pre-loading and displacement experiments. These demonstrate the feasibility of using this technique to investigate benzodiazepine and opiate receptor occupancy, as well as occupancy at dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin (5-HT) re-uptake sites. This method is likely to be useful in pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic experiments, in drug development and discovery and in the development of novel imaging radioligands.

  9. Benefit segmentation of the fitness market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J D

    1992-01-01

    While considerate attention is being paid to the fitness and wellness needs of people by healthcare and related marketing organizations, little research attention has been directed to identifying the market segments for fitness based upon consumers' perceived benefits of fitness. This article describes three distinct segments of fitness consumers comprising an estimated 50 percent of households. Implications for marketing strategies are also presented.

  10. Cumulative effective and individual organ dose levels in paediatric patients undergoing multiple catheterizations for congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.P.; Brennan, P.C.; Ryan, E.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the cumulative radiation dose levels received by a group of children who underwent multiple cardiac catheterisation procedures during the investigation and management of congenital heart disease (CHD). The purpose is to calculate cumulative doses, identify higher dose individuals, outline the inconsistencies with risk assessment and encourage the establishment of dose databases in order to facilitate the longitudinal research necessary to better understand health risks. A retrospective review of patient records for 117 paediatric patients who have undergone two or more cardiac catheterizations for the investigation of CHD was undertaken. This cohort consisted of patients who were catheterised over a period from September 2002 to August 2014. The age distribution was from newborn to 17 y. Archived kerma-area product (P KA ) and fluoroscopy time (T) readings were retrieved and analysed. Cumulative effective and individual organ doses were determined. The cumulative P KA levels ranged from 1.8 to 651.2 Gycm 2 , whilst cumulative effective dose levels varied from 2 to 259 mSv. The cumulative fluoroscopy time was shown to vary from 8.1 to 193.5 min. Median cumulative organ doses ranged from 3 to 94 mGy. Cumulative effective dose levels are highly variable but may exceed 250 mSv. Individual organ and effective dose measurements remain useful for comparison purposes between institutions although current methodologies used for determining lifetime risks are inadequate. (authors)

  11. Segmenting hospitals for improved management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, N K

    1989-09-01

    The author presents a conceptual framework for the a priori and clustering-based approaches to segmentation and evaluates them in the context of segmenting institutional health care markets. An empirical study is reported in which the hospital market is segmented on three state-of-being variables. The segmentation approach also takes into account important organizational decision-making variables. The sophisticated Thurstone Case V procedure is employed. Several marketing implications for hospitals, other health care organizations, hospital suppliers, and donor publics are identified.

  12. Gaia eclipsing binary and multiple systems. Supervised classification and self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süveges, M.; Barblan, F.; Lecoeur-Taïbi, I.; Prša, A.; Holl, B.; Eyer, L.; Kochoska, A.; Mowlavi, N.; Rimoldini, L.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Large surveys producing tera- and petabyte-scale databases require machine-learning and knowledge discovery methods to deal with the overwhelming quantity of data and the difficulties of extracting concise, meaningful information with reliable assessment of its uncertainty. This study investigates the potential of a few machine-learning methods for the automated analysis of eclipsing binaries in the data of such surveys. Aims: We aim to aid the extraction of samples of eclipsing binaries from such databases and to provide basic information about the objects. We intend to estimate class labels according to two different, well-known classification systems, one based on the light curve morphology (EA/EB/EW classes) and the other based on the physical characteristics of the binary system (system morphology classes; detached through overcontact systems). Furthermore, we explore low-dimensional surfaces along which the light curves of eclipsing binaries are concentrated, and consider their use in the characterization of the binary systems and in the exploration of biases of the full unknown Gaia data with respect to the training sets. Methods: We have explored the performance of principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), Random Forest classification and self-organizing maps (SOM) for the above aims. We pre-processed the photometric time series by combining a double Gaussian profile fit and a constrained smoothing spline, in order to de-noise and interpolate the observed light curves. We achieved further denoising, and selected the most important variability elements from the light curves using PCA. Supervised classification was performed using Random Forest and LDA based on the PC decomposition, while SOM gives a continuous 2-dimensional manifold of the light curves arranged by a few important features. We estimated the uncertainty of the supervised methods due to the specific finite training set using ensembles of models constructed

  13. Simultaneous heat integration and techno-economic optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for multiple waste heat stream recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Haoshui; Eason, John; Biegler, Lorenz T.; Feng, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has become a promising technology for low and medium temperature energy utilization. In refineries, there are usually multiple waste heat streams to be recovered. From a safety and controllability perspective, using an intermedium (hot water) to recover waste heat before releasing heat to the ORC system is more favorable than direct integration. The mass flowrate of the intermediate hot water stream determines the amount of waste heat recovered and the final hot water temperature affects the thermal efficiency of ORC. Both, in turn, exert great influence on the power output. Therefore, the hot water mass flowrate is a critical decision variable for the optimal design of the system. This study develops a model for techno-economic optimization of an ORC with simultaneous heat recovery and capital cost optimization. The ORC is modeled using rigorous thermodynamics with the concept of state points. The task of waste heat recovery using the hot water intermedium is modeled using the Duran-Grossmann model for simultaneous heat integration and process optimization. The combined model determines the optimal design of an ORC that recovers multiple waste heat streams in a large scale background process using an intermediate heat transfer stream. In particular, the model determines the optimal heat recovery approach temperature (HRAT), the utility load of the background process, and the optimal operating conditions of the ORC simultaneously. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated with a case study that uses a refinery as the background process. Sensitivity of the optimal solution to the parameters (electricity price, utility cost) is quantified in this paper. - Highlights: • A new model for Organic Rankine cycle design optimization is presented. • Process heat integration and ORC are considered simultaneously. • Rigorous equation oriented models of the ORC are used for accurate results. • Impact of working

  14. [Chaotic dynamic process of multiple organs dysfunction syndrome and the regulatory function of shenqin liquid on it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun-Xiong; Weng, Shu-He; Chen, Jing-He

    2008-07-01

    To explore the chaotic dynamic process of multiple organs dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and the regulatory effect of Shenqin Liquid (SQL), a Chinese herbal liquid preparation with the action of purging and qi-tonifying. Eighty SD rats were divided into 4 groups, and were given suspension of zymosan A and paraffine (1 mL/kg) by peritoneal injection except for those in the blank control group to set up the multiple organs dysfunction syndrome (MODS) model. Low and high doses SQL were administered twice at the doses of 30 and 60 g/kg of SQL respectively at an interval of 8 h per day before modeling. Serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitric oxide (NO) in MODS model animals were tested diachronically, eg. 12, 6 h before modeling, during modeling, 6 and 12 h after modeling, and then the mathematic models were built up with compartment analysis. Lyapunov exponents (LE) of the mathematic models were calculated to evaluate their chaotic characteristics of movement and the degree of chaos was ascertained with the correlation dimension (CD). The serum levels of TNF-alpha and NO were significantly higher than those in the bland control group at modeling, 6, and 12 h after modeling (P SQL were significantly lower than the model group (P SQL was significantly lower than that in the low dose group (P 0 respectively; in the low dose and high dose SQL treated groups, CD was 0.517 and 0.653 respectively and LE >0. CD of NO movement in the blank control group was 0.670 and with LE 0; in the low dose SQL group, 0.574 and in the high dose SQL group 0.850, and LE SQL can intervene the movement of TNF-alpha and NO, decrease the complexity of their chaotic movement, and make them return back to a stable state.

  15. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.

    2014-01-01

    targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT...... Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution...... we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  16. Association between resting-state brain network topological organization and creative ability: Evidence from a multiple linear regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Bingqing; Zhang, Delong; Liang, Aiying; Liang, Bishan; Wang, Zengjian; Li, Junchao; Cai, Yuxuan; Gao, Mengxia; Gao, Zhenni; Chang, Song; Huang, Ruiwang; Liu, Ming

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated a tight linkage between resting-state functional connectivity of the human brain and creative ability. This study aimed to further investigate the association between the topological organization of resting-state brain networks and creativity. Therefore, we acquired resting-state fMRI data from 22 high-creativity participants and 22 low-creativity participants (as determined by their Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking scores). We then constructed functional brain networks for each participant and assessed group differences in network topological properties before exploring the relationships between respective network topological properties and creative ability. We identified an optimized organization of intrinsic brain networks in both groups. However, compared with low-creativity participants, high-creativity participants exhibited increased global efficiency and substantially decreased path length, suggesting increased efficiency of information transmission across brain networks in creative individuals. Using a multiple linear regression model, we further demonstrated that regional functional integration properties (i.e., the betweenness centrality and global efficiency) of brain networks, particularly the default mode network (DMN) and sensorimotor network (SMN), significantly predicted the individual differences in creative ability. Furthermore, the associations between network regional properties and creative performance were creativity-level dependent, where the difference in the resource control component may be important in explaining individual difference in creative performance. These findings provide novel insights into the neural substrate of creativity and may facilitate objective identification of creative ability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple approaches for enhancing all-organic electronics photoluminescent sensors: simultaneous oxygen and pH monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Teng; Cui, Weipan; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2013-05-17

    Key issues in using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation sources in structurally integrated photoluminescence (PL)-based sensors are the low forward light outcoupling, the OLEDs' broad electroluminescence (EL) bands, and the long-lived remnant EL that follows an EL pulse. The outcoupling issue limits the detection sensitivity (S) as only ~20% of the light generated within standard OLEDs can be forward outcoupled and used for sensor probe excitation. The EL broad band interferes with the analyte-sensitive PL, leading to a background that reduces S and dynamic range. In particular, these issues hinder designing compact sensors, potentially miniaturizable, that are devoid of optical filters and couplers. We address these shortcomings by introducing easy-to-employ multiple approaches for outcoupling improvement, PL enhancement, and background EL reduction leading to novel, compact all-organic device architectures demonstrated for simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and pH. The sensor comprises simply-fabricated, directionally-emitting, narrower-band, multicolor microcavity OLED excitation and small molecule- and polymer-based organic photodetectors (OPDs) with a more selective spectral response. Additionally, S and PL intensity for oxygen are enhanced by using polystyrene (PS):polyethylene glycol (PEG) blends as the sensing film matrix. By utilizing higher molecular weight PS, the ratio τ0/τ100 (PL decay time τ at 0% O2/τ at 100% O2) that is often used to express S increases ×1.9 to 20.7 relative to the lower molecular weight PS, where this ratio is 11.0. This increase reduces to ×1.7 when the PEG is added (τ0/τ100=18.2), but the latter results in an increase ×2.7 in the PL intensity. The sensor's response time is <10s in all cases. The microporous structure of these blended films, with PEG decorating PS pores, serves a dual purpose. It results in light scattering that reduces the EL that is waveguided in the substrate of the OLEDs and

  18. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  19. Pavement management segment consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Dividing roads into "homogeneous" segments has been a major problem for all areas of highway engineering. SDDOT uses Deighton Associates Limited software, dTIMS, to analyze life-cycle costs for various rehabilitation strategies on each segment of roa...

  20. Speaker segmentation and clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Kotti, M; Moschou, V; Kotropoulos, C

    2008-01-01

    07.08.13 KB. Ok to add the accepted version to Spiral, Elsevier says ok whlile mandate not enforced. This survey focuses on two challenging speech processing topics, namely: speaker segmentation and speaker clustering. Speaker segmentation aims at finding speaker change points in an audio stream, whereas speaker clustering aims at grouping speech segments based on speaker characteristics. Model-based, metric-based, and hybrid speaker segmentation algorithms are reviewed. Concerning speaker...

  1. Spinal segmental dysgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mahomed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a rare congenital spinal abnormality , seen in neonates and infants in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop normally . The condition is segmental with normal vertebrae above and below the malformation. This condition is commonly associated with various abnormalities that affect the heart, genitourinary, gastrointestinal tract and skeletal system. We report two cases of spinal segmental dysgenesis and the associated abnormalities.

  2. Automatic Melody Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation investigates music segmentation. In the field of Musicology, segmentation refers to a score analysis technique, whereby notated pieces or passages of these pieces are divided into “units” referred to as sections, periods, phrases, and so on. Segmentation

  3. A Hybrid Technique for Medical Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamgir Nyma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical image segmentation is an essential and challenging aspect in computer-aided diagnosis and also in pattern recognition research. This paper proposes a hybrid method for magnetic resonance (MR image segmentation. We first remove impulsive noise inherent in MR images by utilizing a vector median filter. Subsequently, Otsu thresholding is used as an initial coarse segmentation method that finds the homogeneous regions of the input image. Finally, an enhanced suppressed fuzzy c-means is used to partition brain MR images into multiple segments, which employs an optimal suppression factor for the perfect clustering in the given data set. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed approach in noisy environment, we add different types of noise and different amount of noise to T1-weighted brain MR images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other FCM based algorithms in terms of segmentation accuracy for both noise-free and noise-inserted MR images.

  4. Monitoring fish distributions along electrofishing segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Electrofishing is widely used to monitor fish species composition and relative abundance in streams and lakes. According to standard protocols, multiple segments are selected in a body of water to monitor population relative abundance as the ratio of total catch to total sampling effort. The standard protocol provides an assessment of fish distribution at a macrohabitat scale among segments, but not within segments. An ancillary protocol was developed for assessing fish distribution at a finer scale within electrofishing segments. The ancillary protocol was used to estimate spacing, dispersion, and association of two species along shore segments in two local reservoirs. The added information provided by the ancillary protocol may be useful for assessing fish distribution relative to fish of the same species, to fish of different species, and to environmental or habitat characteristics.

  5. Multiple approaches for enhancing all-organic electronics photoluminescent sensors: Simultaneous oxygen and pH monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Teng; Cui, Weipan; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Novel simply-fabricated all-organic electronics pH and oxygen optical monitor. •Excitation sources: directionally emitting, narrowed multicolor microcavity OLEDs. •Photodetectors: small molecule- or polymer-based with selective spectral responses. •Sensor film: structured high molecular weight polystyrene:polyethylene glycol blend. •×1.9 sensitivity enhancement and ×2.7 increase in the photoluminescence for oxygen. -- Abstract: Key issues in using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation sources in structurally integrated photoluminescence (PL)-based sensors are the low forward light outcoupling, the OLEDs’ broad electroluminescence (EL) bands, and the long-lived remnant EL that follows an EL pulse. The outcoupling issue limits the detection sensitivity (S) as only ∼20% of the light generated within standard OLEDs can be forward outcoupled and used for sensor probe excitation. The EL broad band interferes with the analyte-sensitive PL, leading to a background that reduces S and dynamic range. In particular, these issues hinder designing compact sensors, potentially miniaturizable, that are devoid of optical filters and couplers. We address these shortcomings by introducing easy-to-employ multiple approaches for outcoupling improvement, PL enhancement, and background EL reduction leading to novel, compact all-organic device architectures demonstrated for simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and pH. The sensor comprises simply-fabricated, directionally-emitting, narrower-band, multicolor microcavity OLED excitation and small molecule- and polymer-based organic photodetectors (OPDs) with a more selective spectral response. Additionally, S and PL intensity for oxygen are enhanced by using polystyrene (PS):polyethylene glycol (PEG) blends as the sensing film matrix. By utilizing higher molecular weight PS, the ratio τ 0 /τ 100 (PL decay time τ at 0% O 2 /τ at 100% O 2 ) that is often used to express S

  6. A higher-order generalized singular value decomposition for comparison of global mRNA expression from multiple organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Priya Ponnapalli

    Full Text Available The number of high-dimensional datasets recording multiple aspects of a single phenomenon is increasing in many areas of science, accompanied by a need for mathematical frameworks that can compare multiple large-scale matrices with different row dimensions. The only such framework to date, the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD, is limited to two matrices. We mathematically define a higher-order GSVD (HO GSVD for N≥2 matrices D(i∈R(m(i × n, each with full column rank. Each matrix is exactly factored as D(i=U(iΣ(iV(T, where V, identical in all factorizations, is obtained from the eigensystem SV=VΛ of the arithmetic mean S of all pairwise quotients A(iA(j(-1 of the matrices A(i=D(i(TD(i, i≠j. We prove that this decomposition extends to higher orders almost all of the mathematical properties of the GSVD. The matrix S is nondefective with V and Λ real. Its eigenvalues satisfy λ(k≥1. Equality holds if and only if the corresponding eigenvector v(k is a right basis vector of equal significance in all matrices D(i and D(j, that is σ(i,k/σ(j,k=1 for all i and j, and the corresponding left basis vector u(i,k is orthogonal to all other vectors in U(i for all i. The eigenvalues λ(k=1, therefore, define the "common HO GSVD subspace." We illustrate the HO GSVD with a comparison of genome-scale cell-cycle mRNA expression from S. pombe, S. cerevisiae and human. Unlike existing algorithms, a mapping among the genes of these disparate organisms is not required. We find that the approximately common HO GSVD subspace represents the cell-cycle mRNA expression oscillations, which are similar among the datasets. Simultaneous reconstruction in the common subspace, therefore, removes the experimental artifacts, which are dissimilar, from the datasets. In the simultaneous sequence-independent classification of the genes of the three organisms in this common subspace, genes of highly conserved sequences but significantly different cell

  7. Multiple approaches for enhancing all-organic electronics photoluminescent sensors: Simultaneous oxygen and pH monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Teng; Cui, Weipan [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Shinar, Joseph, E-mail: jshinar@iastate.edu [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Shinar, Ruth, E-mail: rshinar@iastate.edu [Microelectronics Research Center and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2013-05-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Novel simply-fabricated all-organic electronics pH and oxygen optical monitor. •Excitation sources: directionally emitting, narrowed multicolor microcavity OLEDs. •Photodetectors: small molecule- or polymer-based with selective spectral responses. •Sensor film: structured high molecular weight polystyrene:polyethylene glycol blend. •×1.9 sensitivity enhancement and ×2.7 increase in the photoluminescence for oxygen. -- Abstract: Key issues in using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation sources in structurally integrated photoluminescence (PL)-based sensors are the low forward light outcoupling, the OLEDs’ broad electroluminescence (EL) bands, and the long-lived remnant EL that follows an EL pulse. The outcoupling issue limits the detection sensitivity (S) as only ∼20% of the light generated within standard OLEDs can be forward outcoupled and used for sensor probe excitation. The EL broad band interferes with the analyte-sensitive PL, leading to a background that reduces S and dynamic range. In particular, these issues hinder designing compact sensors, potentially miniaturizable, that are devoid of optical filters and couplers. We address these shortcomings by introducing easy-to-employ multiple approaches for outcoupling improvement, PL enhancement, and background EL reduction leading to novel, compact all-organic device architectures demonstrated for simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and pH. The sensor comprises simply-fabricated, directionally-emitting, narrower-band, multicolor microcavity OLED excitation and small molecule- and polymer-based organic photodetectors (OPDs) with a more selective spectral response. Additionally, S and PL intensity for oxygen are enhanced by using polystyrene (PS):polyethylene glycol (PEG) blends as the sensing film matrix. By utilizing higher molecular weight PS, the ratio τ{sub 0}/τ{sub 100} (PL decay time τ at 0% O{sub 2}/τ at 100% O{sub 2}) that is often used

  8. One-pot engineering TiO2/graphene interface for enhanced adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of multiple organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianhua; Ling, Yun; Xie, Yu; Liu, Lianjun; Zhu, Huihua

    2018-06-13

    It is challenging to design a multifunctional structure or composite for simultaneously adsorb and photocatalytic degrade organic pollutants in water. Towards this goal, this work innovatively engineered interfacial sites between TiO2 particles and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets by employing in situ one-pot one-step solvothermal method. The interface was associated with the content of RGO, solvothermal time and solvent ratio of n-pentanol to n-hexane. It was found that when at a moderate amount of RGO (25%), TiO2 nanoparticles were well dispersed on the surface of RGO or wrapped by RGO, thus leading to a fully contact and strong interaction to form Ti - O - C interfacial structure. But when at a low content of RGO (6%), TiO2 aggregates were mixture of nanosheets, nanoparticles and nanorods. 25%RGO/TiO2 also had 175% higher surface area (146m2/g), 95% larger volume (0.339 cm3/g) and smaller band gap than 6%RGO/TiO2. More importantly, 25%RGO/TiO2 demonstrated higher adsorption efficiency (25%) and 4 times faster degradation rate than TiO2 (0%). It also exhibited good capability to eliminate multiple organics and stable long-term cycle performance (up to 93% retention after 30 cycles). Its superiority was attributed to the large surface area and unique interface between TiO2 and RGO, which not only provided more active sites to capture pollutants but also enhanced charge transfer (3 µA/cm2, 5 times higher than TiO2). This work offered a promising way to purify water through engineering new materials structure and integrating adsorption and photodegradation technologies. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Self-organized criticality: An interplay between stable and turbulent regimes of multiple anodic double layers in glow discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Prince; Carreras, Benjamin Andres; Arumugam, Saravanan; Sinha, Suraj Kumar

    2018-05-01

    The role of self-organized criticality (SOC) in the transformation of multiple anodic double layers (MADLs) from the stable to turbulent regime has been investigated experimentally as the system approaches towards critical behavior. The experiment was performed in a modified glow discharge plasma setup, and the initial stable state of MADL comprising three concentric perceptible layers was produced when the drift velocity of electrons towards the anode exceeds the electron thermal velocity (νd ≥ 1.3νte). The macroscopic arrangement of both positive and negative charges in opposite layers of MADL is attributed to the self-organization scenario. Beyond νd ≥ 3νte, MADL begins to collapse and approaches critical and supercritical states through layer reduction which continue till the last remaining layer of the double layer is transformed into a highly unstable radiant anode glow. The avalanche resulting from the collapse of MADL leads to the rise of turbulence in the system. Long-range correlations, a key signature of SOC, have been explored in the turbulent floating potential fluctuations using the rescaled-range analysis technique. The result shows that the existence of the self-similarity regime with self-similarity parameter H varies between 0.55 and 0.91 for time lags longer than the decorrelation time. The power law tail in the rank function, slowly decaying tail of the autocorrelation function, and 1/f behavior of the power spectra of the fluctuations are consistent with the fact that SOC plays a conclusive role in the transformation of MADL from the stable to turbulent regime. Since the existence of SOC gives a measure of complexity in the system, the result provides the condition under which complexity arises in cold plasma.

  10. Multiple linear regression models for predicting chronic aluminum toxicity to freshwater aquatic organisms and developing water quality guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, David K; Brix, Kevin V; Tear, Lucinda M; Adams, William J

    2018-01-01

    The bioavailability of aluminum (Al) to freshwater aquatic organisms varies as a function of several water chemistry parameters, including pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and water hardness. We evaluated the ability of multiple linear regression (MLR) models to predict chronic Al toxicity to a green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia), and a fish (Pimephales promelas) as a function of varying DOC, pH, and hardness conditions. The MLR models predicted toxicity values that were within a factor of 2 of observed values in 100% of the cases for P. subcapitata (10 and 20% effective concentrations [EC10s and EC20s]), 91% of the cases for C. dubia (EC10s and EC20s), and 95% (EC10s) and 91% (EC20s) of the cases for P. promelas. The MLR models were then applied to all species with Al toxicity data to derive species and genus sensitivity distributions that could be adjusted as a function of varying DOC, pH, and hardness conditions (the P. subcapitata model was applied to algae and macrophytes, the C. dubia model was applied to invertebrates, and the P. promelas model was applied to fish). Hazardous concentrations to 5% of the species or genera were then derived in 2 ways: 1) fitting a log-normal distribution to species-mean EC10s for all species (following the European Union methodology), and 2) fitting a triangular distribution to genus-mean EC20s for animals only (following the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology). Overall, MLR-based models provide a viable approach for deriving Al water quality guidelines that vary as a function of DOC, pH, and hardness conditions and are a significant improvement over bioavailability corrections based on single parameters. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:80-90. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  11. Immunotherapeutical role of Flt3 ligand amplification of pulmonary dendritic cells in murine multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-wei WANG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the therapeutic effect of Flt3 ligand (Flt3L on multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS model via amplification of lung dendritic cells. Methods Animal model of MODS was replicated by injecting zymosan into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice, and then the mice were randomly divided into Flt3L treatment group, MODS group, Flt3L group and control group. Mortality rate was observed. After 12 days, lung mononuclear cells were isolated by density gradient centrifugation and analyzed with flow cytometry. Blood AST, ALT, creatinine, lipase, amylase and glucose were determined by automatic biochemical analyzer. Pathological changes in lung tissue were observed under light microscope. Results Mortality in Flt3L treatment group decreased dramatically compared with MODS group. The proportions of myeloid, plasmacytoid and I-Ad+ DCs in Flt3L group were remarkably increased compared with control group, and the proportion of the three DC subsets in MODS group was much lower than that in control group. Howerver, Flt3L treatment dramatically increased the proportion of them in MODS group. In MODS group, the level of ALT, AST, lipase, amylase and creatinine remarkably increased and blood glucose decreased compared with that of Flt3L and control groups; but in Flt3L treatment group, the level of ALT, AST, lipase, amylase and creatinine decreased and blood glucose increased dramatically, and lung injury mitigated obviously compared with MODS group. Conclusion Flt3L could attenuate lung tissue injury in MODS model, improve organ function, and lower the mortality of experimental animals, thus exerting its immunotherapeutic effects by in vivo amplification of lung dendritic cells.

  12. Effect of continuous blood purification in treatment of patients with severe acute pancreatitis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo observe the effect of continuous blood purification (CBP on serum inflammatory mediators in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS. MethodsSixty-five SAP patients with MODS who were treated in General Hospital of Chengdu Command Area of Chinese PLA from April 2008 to December 2013 were enrolled and divided into two groups. The 33 patients in the control group received comprehensive internal medicine treatment, and the 32 patients in the treatment group received comprehensive internal medicine treatment and CBP. Changes in APACHE II score, MODS score, and the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin 6 (IL-6, IL-18, platelet-activating factor (PAF, and nitric oxide (NO after treatment were observed. Independent-samples t test was applied for comparison of continuous data between the two groups, and paired t test was applied for before-after comparison within the same group; chi-squared test was applied for comparison of categorical data between the two groups. ResultsIn both groups, APACHE II score, MODS score, and the serum levels of TNFα, CRP, IL-6, IL-18, PAF, and NO decreased significantly after treatment (all P<0.05, and the treatment group had significantly greater decreases in these values than the control group (all P<0.001; the survival rates in the treatment group and the control group were 90.6% (29/32 and 78.8% (26/33, respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (χ2=1.749, P=0.186. ConclusionIn SAP patients with MODS, CBP can effectively clear the serum inflammatory mediators to block systemic inflammatory response and improve organ function, and, therefore, it is an effective method to treat SAP.

  13. Cluster Ensemble-Based Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoru Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is the foundation of computer vision applications. In this paper, we propose a new cluster ensemble-based image segmentation algorithm, which overcomes several problems of traditional methods. We make two main contributions in this paper. First, we introduce the cluster ensemble concept to fuse the segmentation results from different types of visual features effectively, which can deliver a better final result and achieve a much more stable performance for broad categories of images. Second, we exploit the PageRank idea from Internet applications and apply it to the image segmentation task. This can improve the final segmentation results by combining the spatial information of the image and the semantic similarity of regions. Our experiments on four public image databases validate the superiority of our algorithm over conventional single type of feature or multiple types of features-based algorithms, since our algorithm can fuse multiple types of features effectively for better segmentation results. Moreover, our method is also proved to be very competitive in comparison with other state-of-the-art segmentation algorithms.

  14. Determinants of oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an experimental model of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Marcelo; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Maciel, Alexandre Toledo; Silva, Débora Prudêncio E; Friedrich, Natalia; Barbosa, Edzangela Vasconcelos Santos; Hirota, Adriana Sayuri; Schettino, Guilherme; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes

    2013-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has gained renewed interest in the treatment of respiratory failure since the advent of the modern polymethylpentene membranes. Limited information exists, however, on the performance of these membranes in terms of gas transfers during multiple organ failure (MOF). We investigated determinants of oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer as well as biochemical alterations after the circulation of blood through the circuit in a pig model under ECMO support before and after induction of MOF. A predefined sequence of blood and sweep flows was tested before and after the induction of MOF with fecal peritonitis and saline lavage lung injury. In the multivariate analysis, oxygen transfer had a positive association with blood flow (slope = 66, Pmembrane PaCO(2) (slope = -0.96, P = 0.001) and SatO(2) (slope = -1.7, Ptransfer had a positive association with blood flow (slope = 17, Pmembrane PaCO(2) (slope = 1.2, Ptransfers were significantly determined by blood flow. Oxygen transfer was modulated by the pre-membrane SatO(2) and CO(2), while carbon dioxide transfer was affected by the gas flow, pre-membrane CO(2) and hemoglobin.

  15. Cumulative organic anion transporter-mediated drug-drug interaction potential of multiple components in salvia miltiorrhiza (danshen) preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Venitz, Jürgen; Sweet, Douglas H

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate organic anion transporter-mediated drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential for individual active components of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) vs. combinations using in vitro and in silico approaches. Inhibition profiles for single Danshen components and combinations were generated in stably-expressing human (h)OAT1 and hOAT3 cells. Plasma concentration-time profiles for compounds were estimated from in vivo human data using an i.v. two-compartment model (with first-order elimination). The cumulative DDI index was proposed as an indicator of DDI potential for combination products. This index was used to evaluate the DDI potential for Danshen injectables from 16 different manufacturers and 14 different lots from a single manufacturer. The cumulative DDI index predicted in vivo inhibition potentials, 82% (hOAT1) and 74% (hOAT3), comparable with those observed in vitro, 72 ± 7% (hOAT1) and 81 ± 10% (hOAT3), for Danshen component combinations. Using simulated unbound Cmax values, a wide range in cumulative DDI index between manufacturers, and between lots, was predicted. Many products exhibited a cumulative DDI index > 1 (50% inhibition). Danshen injectables will likely exhibit strong potential to inhibit hOAT1 and hOAT3 function in vivo. The proposed cumulative DDI index might improve prediction of DDI potential of herbal medicines or pharmaceutical preparations containing multiple components.

  16. Soil organic carbon distribution in Mediterranean areas under a climate change scenario via multiple linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Obregón-Romero, Rafael

    2017-08-15

    Over time, the interest on soil studies has increased due to its role in carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems, which could contribute to decreasing atmospheric CO 2 rates. In many studies, independent variables were related to soil organic carbon (SOC) alone, however, the contribution degree of each variable with the experimentally determined SOC content were not considered. In this study, samples from 612 soil profiles were obtained in a natural protected (Red Natura 2000) of Sierra Morena (Mediterranean area, South Spain), considering only the topsoil 0-25cm, for better comparison between results. 24 independent variables were used to define it relationship with SOC content. Subsequently, using a multiple linear regression analysis, the effects of these variables on the SOC correlation was considered. Finally, the best parameters determined with the regression analysis were used in a climatic change scenario. The model indicated that SOC in a future scenario of climate change depends on average temperature of coldest quarter (41.9%), average temperature of warmest quarter (34.5%), annual precipitation (22.2%) and annual average temperature (1.3%). When the current and future situations were compared, the SOC content in the study area was reduced a 35.4%, and a trend towards migration to higher latitude and altitude was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple-Stage Structure Transformation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Liu, Henan; Kim, Hui-Seon; Liu, Yucheng; Yang, Mengjin; Yue, Naili; Ren, Gang; Zhu, Kai; Liu, Shengzhong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Zhang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    By performing spatially resolved Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy with varying excitation wavelength, density, and data acquisition parameters, we achieve a unified understanding towards the spectroscopy signatures of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, transforming from the pristine state (CH3NH3PbI3 ) to the fully degraded state (i.e., PbI2 ) for samples with varying crystalline domain size from mesoscopic scale (approximately 100 nm) to macroscopic size (centimeters), synthesized by three different techniques. We show that the hybrid perovskite exhibits multiple stages of structure transformation occurring either spontaneously or under light illumination, with exceptionally high sensitivity to the illumination conditions (e.g., power, illumination time, and interruption pattern). We highlight four transformation stages (stages I-IV, with stage I being the pristine state) along either the spontaneous or photoinduced degradation path exhibiting distinctly different Raman spectroscopy features at each stage, and point out that previously reported Raman spectra in the literature reflect highly degraded structures of either stage III or stage IV. Additional characteristic optical features of partially degraded materials under the joint action of spontaneous and photodegradation are also given. This study offers reliable benchmark results for understanding the intrinsic material properties and structure transformation of this unique category of hybrid materials, and the findings are pertinently important to a wide range of potential applications where the hybrid material is expected to function in greatly different environment and light-matter interaction conditions.

  18. The adipose organ and multiple myeloma: Impact of adipokines on tumor growth and potential sites for therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Alessandro; Innao, Vanessa; Gerace, Demetrio; Allegra, Andrea Gaetano; Vaddinelli, Doriana; Bianco, Oriana; Musolino, Caterina

    2018-07-01

    In addition to its capacity to store lipids the adipose tissue is now identified as a real organ with both endocrine and metabolic roles. Preclinical results indicate that modifying adipose tissue and bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) could be a successful multiple myeloma (MM) therapy. BMAT interrelates with bone marrow cells and other immune cells, and may influence MM disease progression. The BM adipocytes may have a role in MM progression, bone homing, chemoresistance, and relapse, due to local endocrine, paracrine, or metabolic factors. BM adipocytes isolated from MM subjects have been shown to increase myeloma growth in vitro and may preserve cells from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. By producing free fatty acids and emitting signaling molecules such as growth factors and adipokines, BM adipocytes are both an energy font and an endocrine signaling factory. This review should suggest future research approaches toward developing novel treatments to target MM by targeting BMAT and its products. Copyright © 2018 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The metal-organic framework MIL-53(Al) constructed from multiple metal sources: alumina, aluminum hydroxide, and boehmite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zehua; Wu, Yi-nan; Li, Jie; Zhang, Yiming; Zou, Xin; Li, Fengting

    2015-04-27

    Three aluminum compounds, namely alumina, aluminum hydroxide, and boehmite, are probed as the metal sources for the hydrothermal synthesis of a typical metal-organic framework MIL-53(Al). The process exhibits enhanced synthetic efficiency without the generation of strongly acidic byproducts. The time-course monitoring of conversion from different aluminum sources into MIL-53(Al) is achieved by multiple characterization that reveals a similar but differentiated crystallinity, porosity, and morphology relative to typical MIL-53(Al) prepared from water-soluble aluminum salts. Moreover, the prepared MIL-53(Al) constructed with the three insoluble aluminum sources exhibit an improved thermal stability of up to nearly 600 °C and enhanced yields. Alumina and boehmite are more preferable than aluminum hydroxide in terms of product porosity, yield, and reaction time. The adsorption performances of a typical environmental endocrine disruptor, dimethyl phthalate, on the prepared MIL-53(Al) samples are also investigated. The improved structural stability of MIL-53(Al) prepared from these alternative aluminum sources enables double-enhanced adsorption performance (up to 206 mg g(-1)) relative to the conventionally obtained MIL-53(Al). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Segmental osteotomies of the maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, H M

    1989-10-01

    Multiple segment Le Fort I osteotomies provide the maxillofacial surgeon with the capabilities to treat complex dentofacial deformities existing in all three planes of space. Sagittal, vertical, and transverse maxillomandibular discrepancies as well as three-dimensional abnormalities within the maxillary arch can be corrected simultaneously. Accordingly, optimal aesthetic enhancement of the facial skeleton and a functional, healthy occlusion can be realized. What may be perceived as elaborate treatment plans are in reality conservative in terms of osseous stability and treatment time required. The close cooperation of an orthodontist well-versed in segmental orthodontics and orthognathic surgery is critical to the success of such surgery. With close attention to surgical detail, the complication rate inherent in such surgery can be minimized and the treatment goals achieved in a timely and predictable fashion.

  1. Crosstalk properties of 36-fold segmented symmetric hexagonal HPGe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyneel, Bart; Reiter, Peter; Wiens, Andreas; Eberth, Juergen; Hess, Herbert; Pascovici, Gheorghe; Warr, Nigel; Weisshaar, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Crosstalk properties of three 36-fold segmented, symmetric, large volume, HPGe detectors from the AGATA Collaboration were deduced from coincidence measurements performed with digitized segment and core signals after interaction of γ rays with energies of 1.33 MeV. The mean energy values measured by the core signal fluctuate for γ-ray interactions with energy deposited in two segments. A regular pattern is observed depending on the hit segment combinations. The core energy shifts deviate 0.03-0.06% from the average energy calibration. The segment-sum energy is reduced with respect to the core energy as a function of the decoupling capacitance and the segment multiplicity. The deviation of the segment-sum energies from multiplicity two events fluctuates within an interval of less than 0.1% depending on the different segment combinations. The energy shifts caused by crosstalk for the core and segment signals are comparable for all three detectors. A linear electronic model of the detector and preamplifier assembly was developed to evaluate the results. The fold-dependent energy shifts of the segment-sum energies are reproduced. The model yields a constant shift in all segments, proportional to the core signal. The measured crosstalk pattern and its intensity variation in the segments agree well with the calculated values. The regular variation observed in the core energies cannot be directly related to crosstalk and may be caused by other effects like electron trapping.

  2. Early changes within the lymphocyte population are associated with the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joanna; Cole, Elaine; De'Ath, Henry D; Vulliamy, Paul; Meier, Ute; Pennington, Dan; Brohi, Karim

    2016-06-07

    Early survival following severe injury has been improved with refined resuscitation strategies. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is common among this fragile group of patients leading to prolonged hospital stay and late mortality. MODS after trauma is widely attributed to dysregulated inflammation but the precise mechanics of this response and its influence on organ injury are incompletely understood. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between early lymphocyte responses and the development of MODS during admission. During a 24-month period, trauma patients were recruited from an urban major trauma centre to an ongoing, observational cohort study. Admission blood samples were obtained within 2 h of injury and before in-hospital intervention, including blood transfusion. The study population was predominantly male with a blunt mechanism of injury. Lymphocyte subset populations including T helper, cytotoxic T cells, NK cells and γδ T cells were identified using flow cytometry. Early cytokine release and lymphocyte count during the first 7 days of admission were also examined. This study demonstrated that trauma patients who developed MODS had an increased population of NK dim cells (MODS vs no MODS: 22 % vs 13 %, p < 0.01) and reduced γδ-low T cells (MODS vs no MODS: 0.02 (0.01-0.03) vs 0.09 (0.06-0.12) × 10^9/L, p < 0.01) at admission. Critically injured patients who developed MODS (n = 27) had higher interferon gamma (IFN-γ) concentrations at admission, compared with patients of matched injury severity and shock (n = 60) who did not develop MODS (MODS vs no MODS: 4.1 (1.8-9.0) vs 1.0 (0.6-1.8) pg/ml, p = 0.01). Lymphopenia was observed within 24 h of injury and was persistent in those who developed MODS. Patients with a lymphocyte count of 0.5 × 10(9)/L or less at 48 h, had a 45 % mortality rate. This study provides evidence of lymphocyte activation within 2 h of injury, as demonstrated by

  3. Work of multiple organizations to improve seed potato health in U.S.A. and an example of change to reduce Potato virus Y in seed potato lots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work of multiple organizations to improve seed potato health in U.S.A. and an example of change to reduce Potato virus Y in seed lots. In the United States, seed potato improvement starts with the individual seed potato grower. The seed grower also has resources that are available from university e...

  4. Roles of calcium and IP3 in impaired colon contractility of rats following multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zheyu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to explore changes in rat colon motility, and determine the roles of calcium and inositol (1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3 in colon dysmotility induced by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS caused by bacteria peritonitis. The number of stools, the contractility of the muscle strips and the length of smooth muscle cells (SMC in the colon, the concentration of calcium and IP3 in SMC, and serum nitric oxide were measured. Number of stools, fecal weight, IP3 concentration in SMC and serum nitric oxide concentration were 0.77 ± 0.52 pellets, 2.51 ± 0.39 g, 4.14 ± 2.07 pmol/tube, and 113.95 ± 37.89 µmol/L, respectively, for the MODS group (N = 11 vs 1.54 ± 0.64 pellets, 4.32 ± 0.57 g, 8.19 ± 3.11 pmol/tube, and 37.42 ± 19.56 µmol/L for the control group (N = 20; P < 0.05. After treatment with 0.1 mM acetylcholine and 0.1 M potassium chloride, the maximum contraction stress of smooth muscle strips, the length of SMC and the changes of calcium concentration were 593 ± 81 and 458 ± 69 g/cm³, 48.1 ± 11.8 and 69.2 ± 15.7 µM, 250 ± 70 and 167 ± 48%, respectively, for the control group vs 321 ± 53 and 284 ± 56 g/cm³, 65.1 ± 18.5 and 87.2 ± 23.7 µM, 127 ± 35 and 112 ± 35% for the MODS group (P < 0.05. Thus, colon contractility was decreased in MODS, a result possibly related to reduced calcium concentration and IP3 in SMC.

  5. Effect of bicarbonate and lactate buffer on glucose and lactate metabolism during hemodiafiltration in patients with multiple organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Marc-Daniel; Revelly, Jean-Pierre; Tappy, Luc; Berger, Mette M; Schaller, Marie-Denise; Cayeux, Marie-Christine; Martinez, Alexandre; Chioléro, René-Louis

    2004-06-01

    To compare the effects of sodium bicarbonate and lactate for continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) in critically ill patients. Prospective crossed-over controlled trial in the surgical and medical ICUs of a university hospital. Eight patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) requiring CVVHDF. Each patient received the two buffers in a randomized sequence over two consecutive days. The following variables were determined: acid-base parameters, lactate production and utilization ((13)C lactate infusion), glucose turnover (6,6(2)H(2)-glucose), gas exchange (indirect calorimetry). No side effect was observed during lactate administration. Baseline arterial acid-base variables were equal with the two buffers. Arterial lactate (2.9 versus 1.5 mmol/l), glycemia (+18%) and glucose turnover (+23%) were higher in the lactate period. Bicarbonate and glucose losses in CVVHDF were substantial, but not lactate elimination. Infusing (13)C lactate increased plasma lactate levels equally with the two buffers. Lactate clearance (7.8+/-0.8 vs 7.5+/-0.8 ml/kg per min in the bicarbonate and lactate periods) and endogenous production rates (14.0+/-2.6 vs 13.6+/-2.6 mmol/kg per min) were similar. (13)C lactate was used as a metabolic substrate, as shown by (13)CO(2) excretion. Glycemia and metabolic rate increased significantly and similarly during the two periods during lactate infusion. Lactate was rapidly cleared from the blood of critically ill patients without acute liver failure requiring CVVHDF, being transformed into glucose or oxidized. Lactate did not exert undesirable effects, except moderate hyperglycemia, and achieved comparable effects on acid-base balance to bicarbonate.

  6. Unfolding Implementation in Industrial Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjgaard, John; Ellegaard, Chris

    2011-01-01

    to pave the way towards closing this gap. The extent of implementation coverage is assessed and various notions of implementation are identified. Implementation as the task of converting segmentation plans into action (referred to as execution) is identified as a particularly beneficial focus area...... for marketing management. Three key elements and challenges connected to execution of market segmentation are identified — organization, motivation, and adaptation....

  7. Segmentation, advertising and prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galeotti, Andrea; Moraga González, José

    This paper explores the implications of market segmentation on firm competitiveness. In contrast to earlier work, here market segmentation is minimal in the sense that it is based on consumer attributes that are completely unrelated to tastes. We show that when the market is comprised by two

  8. Deformable segmentation via sparse shape representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoting; Zhan, Yiqiang; Dewan, Maneesh; Huang, Junzhou; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Zhou, Xiang Sean

    2011-01-01

    Appearance and shape are two key elements exploited in medical image segmentation. However, in some medical image analysis tasks, appearance cues are weak/misleading due to disease/artifacts and often lead to erroneous segmentation. In this paper, a novel deformable model is proposed for robust segmentation in the presence of weak/misleading appearance cues. Owing to the less trustable appearance information, this method focuses on the effective shape modeling with two contributions. First, a shape composition method is designed to incorporate shape prior on-the-fly. Based on two sparsity observations, this method is robust to false appearance information and adaptive to statistically insignificant shape modes. Second, shape priors are modeled and used in a hierarchical fashion. More specifically, by using affinity propagation method, our deformable surface is divided into multiple partitions, on which local shape models are built independently. This scheme facilitates a more compact shape prior modeling and hence a more robust and efficient segmentation. Our deformable model is applied on two very diverse segmentation problems, liver segmentation in PET-CT images and rodent brain segmentation in MR images. Compared to state-of-art methods, our method achieves better performance in both studies.

  9. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  11. A organização e a dinâmica participativa dos segmentos sociais nas Conferências Municipais de Saúde (Organization and active participation of social segments in Municipal Health Conferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina Krüger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este texto descreve e analisa o processo organizativo e a dinâmica participativa dos diferentes segmentos que integraram as Conferências Municipais de Saúde, realizadas nos anos de 2003 e 2007 em nove municípios de Santa Catarina. Para a pesquisa de campo, trabalhou-se com materiais próprios da organização das plenárias, Relatórios Finais das Conferências e a realização de entrevistas gravadas. Considerou-se como processo organizativo a iniciativa de convocar a Conferência, todo o processo de divulgação, a organização da realização da plenária, a elaboração do Relatório Final e a sua divulgação. A dinâmica participativa entre os segmentos foi explorada, sobretudo, a partir das entrevistas, que destacaram a pouca participação dos usuários ou uma participação que revela desconhecimento da política e as interfaces burocráticas. Abstract: This text describes and analyzes the organizational process and the active participation of the different segments that integrated the Municipal Health Conferences that took place in 2003 and 2007 in nine cities in the state of Santa Catarina. The field research included the study of the material used for the organization of the plenary sessions, conferences final reports and recorded interviews. The following activities were considered part of the organizational process: the initiative of calling the conference, the advertisement process, the organization of the plenary event, the elaboration of the final report and its publication. The active participation and the dynamics of the segments were explored, especially the interviews that pointed out the little participation of the users and also the form of participation that reveals a lack of knowledge concerning health politics and its bureaucratic constraints.

  12. Segmentation of consumer's markets and evaluation of market's segments

    OpenAIRE

    ŠVECOVÁ, Iveta

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this bachelor thesis was to explain a possibly segmentation of consumer´s markets for a chosen company, and to present a suitable goods offer, so it would be suitable to the needs of selected segments. The work is divided into theoretical and practical part. First part describes marketing, segmentation, segmentation of consumer's markets, consumer's market, market's segments a other terms. Second part describes an evaluation of questionnaire survey, discovering of market's segment...

  13. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  14. Medical image segmentation using genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, Ujjwal

    2009-03-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been found to be effective in the domain of medical image segmentation, since the problem can often be mapped to one of search in a complex and multimodal landscape. The challenges in medical image segmentation arise due to poor image contrast and artifacts that result in missing or diffuse organ/tissue boundaries. The resulting search space is therefore often noisy with a multitude of local optima. Not only does the genetic algorithmic framework prove to be effective in coming out of local optima, it also brings considerable flexibility into the segmentation procedure. In this paper, an attempt has been made to review the major applications of GAs to the domain of medical image segmentation.

  15. Buildings and Terrain of Urban Area Point Cloud Segmentation based on PCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ying; Zhong, Ruofei

    2014-01-01

    One current problem with laser radar point data classification is building and urban terrain segmentation, this paper proposes a point cloud segmentation method base on PCL libraries. PCL is a large cross-platform open source C++ programming library, which implements a large number of point cloud related efficient data structures and generic algorithms involving point cloud retrieval, filtering, segmentation, registration, feature extraction and curved surface reconstruction, visualization, etc. Due to laser radar point cloud characteristics with large amount of data, unsymmetrical distribution, this paper proposes using the data structure of kd-tree to organize data; then using Voxel Grid filter for point cloud resampling, namely to reduce the amount of point cloud data, and at the same time keep the point cloud shape characteristic; use PCL Segmentation Module, we use a Euclidean Cluster Extraction class with Europe clustering for buildings and ground three-dimensional point cloud segmentation. The experimental results show that this method avoids the multiple copy system existing data needs, saves the program storage space through the call of PCL library method and class, shortens the program compiled time and improves the running speed of the program

  16. [Multiple organ failure presumably due to alkylating agents used as preconditioning drugs for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in an acute promyelocytic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Tori; Hashimoto, Shigeo; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Ebe, Yusuke; Yano, Toshio; Sato, Naoko; Koike, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old male was diagnosed as having acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in 2006. He received induction chemotherapy including all-trans retinoic acid and initially achieved a complete remission (CR). After several courses of consolidation therapy combining anthracyclines and cytarabine, he maintained CR. In 2009, an APL relapse was diagnosed, and he was treated with arsenic trioxide. Since he achieved a second CR, he underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT) with a conditioning regimen consisting of busulfan and melphalan. At four months after auto-PBSCT, he developed a pneumothorax and acute respiratory failure. He died despite intensive therapy. Autopsy findings included various atypical and apoptotic cells in his pulmonary tissue. These changes were confirmed in multiple organs throughout the body, suggesting them to be drug-induced. The findings in this case suggested multiple organ failure due to alkylating agents.

  17. Successful treatment of severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome despite multiple organ failure with defibrotide after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behre Gerhard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report a case of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, a typical and life-threatening complication after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, successfully treated with defibrotide despite massive multiple organ failure. Case presentation A 64-year-old Caucasian woman underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation from her human leukocyte antigen-identical sister against aggressive lymphoplasmocytoid immunocytoma. Seven days later, the patient developed severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome according to the modified Seattle criteria. We initiated treatment with defibrotide. Despite early treatment, multiple organ failure with kidney failure requiring dialysis and ventilator-dependent lung failure aggravated the clinical course. Furthermore, central nervous dysfunction occurred as well as transfusion refractory thrombocytopenia. Conclusion As highlighted in our report, defibrotide is the most promising drug in the treatment of the formerly, almost lethal, severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome to date. This is demonstrated very clearly in our patient. She improved completely, even after renal, cerebral and respiratory failure.

  18. Successful treatment of severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome despite multiple organ failure with defibrotide after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behre, Gerhard; Theurich, Sebastian; Christopeit, Maximilian; Weber, Thomas

    2009-03-10

    We report a case of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, a typical and life-threatening complication after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, successfully treated with defibrotide despite massive multiple organ failure. A 64-year-old Caucasian woman underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation from her human leukocyte antigen-identical sister against aggressive lymphoplasmocytoid immunocytoma. Seven days later, the patient developed severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome according to the modified Seattle criteria. We initiated treatment with defibrotide. Despite early treatment, multiple organ failure with kidney failure requiring dialysis and ventilator-dependent lung failure aggravated the clinical course. Furthermore, central nervous dysfunction occurred as well as transfusion refractory thrombocytopenia. As highlighted in our report, defibrotide is the most promising drug in the treatment of the formerly, almost lethal, severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome to date. This is demonstrated very clearly in our patient. She improved completely, even after renal, cerebral and respiratory failure.

  19. Crosstalk corrections for improved energy resolution with highly segmented HPGe-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyneel, Bart; Reiter, Peter; Wiens, Andreas; Eberth, Juergen; Hess, Herbert; Pascovici, Gheorghe; Warr, Nigel; Aydin, Sezgin; Bazzacco, Dino; Recchia, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Crosstalk effects of 36-fold segmented, large volume AGATA HPGe detectors cause shifts in the γ-ray energy measured by the inner core and outer segments as function of segment multiplicity. The positions of the segment sum energy peaks vary approximately linearly with increasing segment multiplicity. The resolution of these peaks deteriorates also linearly as a function of segment multiplicity. Based on single event treatment, two methods were developed in the AGATA Collaboration to correct for the crosstalk induced effects by employing a linear transformation. The matrix elements are deduced from coincidence measurements of γ-rays of various energies as recorded with digital electronics. A very efficient way to determine the matrix elements is obtained by measuring the base line shifts of untriggered segments using γ-ray detection events in which energy is deposited in a single segment. A second approach is based on measuring segment energy values for γ-ray interaction events in which energy is deposited in only two segments. After performing crosstalk corrections, the investigated detector shows a good fit between the core energy and the segment sum energy at all multiplicities and an improved energy resolution of the segment sum energy peaks. The corrected core energy resolution equals the segment sum energy resolution which is superior at all folds compared to the individual uncorrected energy resolutions. This is achieved by combining the two independent energy measurements with the core contact on the one hand and the segment contacts on the other hand.

  20. Segmental tuberculosis verrucosa cutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumanthappa H

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of segmental Tuberculosis Verrucosa Cutis is reported in 10 year old boy. The condition was resembling the ascending lymphangitic type of sporotrichosis. The lesions cleared on treatment with INH 150 mg daily for 6 months.

  1. Chromosome condensation and segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viegas-Pequignot, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    Some aspects of chromosome condensation in mammalians -humans especially- were studied by means of cytogenetic techniques of chromosome banding. Two further approaches were adopted: a study of normal condensation as early as prophase, and an analysis of chromosome segmentation induced by physical (temperature and γ-rays) or chemical agents (base analogues, antibiotics, ...) in order to show out the factors liable to affect condensation. Here 'segmentation' means an abnormal chromosome condensation appearing systematically and being reproducible. The study of normal condensation was made possible by the development of a technique based on cell synchronization by thymidine and giving prophasic and prometaphasic cells. Besides, the possibility of inducing R-banding segmentations on these cells by BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) allowed a much finer analysis of karyotypes. Another technique was developed using 5-ACR (5-azacytidine), it allowed to induce a segmentation similar to the one obtained using BrdU and identify heterochromatic areas rich in G-C bases pairs [fr

  2. Segmenting patients and physicians using preferences from discrete choice experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Ken

    2014-01-01

    People often form groups or segments that have similar interests and needs and seek similar benefits from health providers. Health organizations need to understand whether the same health treatments, prevention programs, services, and products should be applied to everyone in the relevant population or whether different treatments need to be provided to each of several segments that are relatively homogeneous internally but heterogeneous among segments. Our objective was to explain the purposes, benefits, and methods of segmentation for health organizations, and to illustrate the process of segmenting health populations based on preference coefficients from a discrete choice conjoint experiment (DCE) using an example study of prevention of cyberbullying among university students. We followed a two-level procedure for investigating segmentation incorporating several methods for forming segments in Level 1 using DCE preference coefficients and testing their quality, reproducibility, and usability by health decision makers. Covariates (demographic, behavioral, lifestyle, and health state variables) were included in Level 2 to further evaluate quality and to support the scoring of large databases and developing typing tools for assigning those in the relevant population, but not in the sample, to the segments. Several segmentation solution candidates were found during the Level 1 analysis, and the relationship of the preference coefficients to the segments was investigated using predictive methods. Those segmentations were tested for their quality and reproducibility and three were found to be very close in quality. While one seemed better than others in the Level 1 analysis, another was very similar in quality and proved ultimately better in predicting segment membership using covariates in Level 2. The two segments in the final solution were profiled for attributes that would support the development and acceptance of cyberbullying prevention programs among university

  3. Restaurants as Learning Organizations: A Multiple-Site Case Study of U.S. Non-Chain Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the construct of the learning organization in the restaurant industry. Descriptive accounts of learning were gleaned from face-to-face interviews, focus groups, observations, document analysis, and data from the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) from 52 participants employed in three US…

  4. Signatures of inflammation and impending multiple organ dysfunction in the hyperacute phase of trauma: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Claudia P; Manson, Joanna; Shepherd, Joanna M; Torrance, Hew D; Watson, David; Longhi, M Paula; Hoti, Mimoza; Patel, Minal B; O'Dwyer, Michael; Nourshargh, Sussan; Pennington, Daniel J; Barnes, Michael R; Brohi, Karim

    2017-07-01

    Severe trauma induces a widespread response of the immune system. This "genomic storm" can lead to poor outcomes, including Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). MODS carries a high mortality and morbidity rate and adversely affects long-term health outcomes. Contemporary management of MODS is entirely supportive, and no specific therapeutics have been shown to be effective in reducing incidence or severity. The pathogenesis of MODS remains unclear, and several models are proposed, such as excessive inflammation, a second-hit insult, or an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. We postulated that the hyperacute window after trauma may hold the key to understanding how the genomic storm is initiated and may lead to a new understanding of the pathogenesis of MODS. We performed whole blood transcriptome and flow cytometry analyses on a total of 70 critically injured patients (Injury Severity Score [ISS] ≥ 25) at The Royal London Hospital in the hyperacute time period within 2 hours of injury. We compared transcriptome findings in 36 critically injured patients with those of 6 patients with minor injuries (ISS ≤ 4). We then performed flow cytometry analyses in 34 critically injured patients and compared findings with those of 9 healthy volunteers. Immediately after injury, only 1,239 gene transcripts (4%) were differentially expressed in critically injured patients. By 24 hours after injury, 6,294 transcripts (21%) were differentially expressed compared to the hyperacute window. Only 202 (16%) genes differentially expressed in the hyperacute window were still expressed in the same direction at 24 hours postinjury. Pathway analysis showed principally up-regulation of pattern recognition and innate inflammatory pathways, with down-regulation of adaptive responses. Immune deconvolution, flow cytometry, and modular analysis suggested a central role for neutrophils and Natural Killer (NK) cells, with underexpression of T- and B cell responses. In

  5. Signatures of inflammation and impending multiple organ dysfunction in the hyperacute phase of trauma: A prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia P Cabrera

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Severe trauma induces a widespread response of the immune system. This "genomic storm" can lead to poor outcomes, including Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS. MODS carries a high mortality and morbidity rate and adversely affects long-term health outcomes. Contemporary management of MODS is entirely supportive, and no specific therapeutics have been shown to be effective in reducing incidence or severity. The pathogenesis of MODS remains unclear, and several models are proposed, such as excessive inflammation, a second-hit insult, or an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. We postulated that the hyperacute window after trauma may hold the key to understanding how the genomic storm is initiated and may lead to a new understanding of the pathogenesis of MODS.We performed whole blood transcriptome and flow cytometry analyses on a total of 70 critically injured patients (Injury Severity Score [ISS] ≥ 25 at The Royal London Hospital in the hyperacute time period within 2 hours of injury. We compared transcriptome findings in 36 critically injured patients with those of 6 patients with minor injuries (ISS ≤ 4. We then performed flow cytometry analyses in 34 critically injured patients and compared findings with those of 9 healthy volunteers. Immediately after injury, only 1,239 gene transcripts (4% were differentially expressed in critically injured patients. By 24 hours after injury, 6,294 transcripts (21% were differentially expressed compared to the hyperacute window. Only 202 (16% genes differentially expressed in the hyperacute window were still expressed in the same direction at 24 hours postinjury. Pathway analysis showed principally up-regulation of pattern recognition and innate inflammatory pathways, with down-regulation of adaptive responses. Immune deconvolution, flow cytometry, and modular analysis suggested a central role for neutrophils and Natural Killer (NK cells, with underexpression of T- and B cell

  6. Fluence map segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The lecture addressed the following topics: 'Interpreting' the fluence map; The sequencer; Reasons for difference between desired and actual fluence map; Principle of 'Step and Shoot' segmentation; Large number of solutions for given fluence map; Optimizing 'step and shoot' segmentation; The interdigitation constraint; Main algorithms; Conclusions on segmentation algorithms (static mode); Optimizing intensity levels and monitor units; Sliding window sequencing; Synchronization to avoid the tongue-and-groove effect; Accounting for physical characteristics of MLC; Importance of corrections for leaf transmission and offset; Accounting for MLC mechanical constraints; The 'complexity' factor; Incorporating the sequencing into optimization algorithm; Data transfer to the treatment machine; Interface between R and V and accelerator; and Conclusions on fluence map segmentation (Segmentation is part of the overall inverse planning procedure; 'Step and Shoot' and 'Dynamic' options are available for most TPS (depending on accelerator model; The segmentation phase tends to come into the optimization loop; The physical characteristics of the MLC have a large influence on final dose distribution; The IMRT plans (MU and relative dose distribution) must be carefully validated). (P.A.)

  7. Gamifying Video Object Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Concetto; Palazzo, Simone; Giordano, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    Video object segmentation can be considered as one of the most challenging computer vision problems. Indeed, so far, no existing solution is able to effectively deal with the peculiarities of real-world videos, especially in cases of articulated motion and object occlusions; limitations that appear more evident when we compare the performance of automated methods with the human one. However, manually segmenting objects in videos is largely impractical as it requires a lot of time and concentration. To address this problem, in this paper we propose an interactive video object segmentation method, which exploits, on one hand, the capability of humans to identify correctly objects in visual scenes, and on the other hand, the collective human brainpower to solve challenging and large-scale tasks. In particular, our method relies on a game with a purpose to collect human inputs on object locations, followed by an accurate segmentation phase achieved by optimizing an energy function encoding spatial and temporal constraints between object regions as well as human-provided location priors. Performance analysis carried out on complex video benchmarks, and exploiting data provided by over 60 users, demonstrated that our method shows a better trade-off between annotation times and segmentation accuracy than interactive video annotation and automated video object segmentation approaches.

  8. Strategic market segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning of marketing activities is the basis of business success in modern business environment. Customers are not homogenous in their preferences and expectations. Formulating an adequate marketing strategy, focused on realization of company's strategic objectives, requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation. Strategic planning imposes a need to plan marketing activities according to strategically important segments on the long term basis. At the same time, there is a need to revise and adapt marketing activities on the short term basis. There are number of criteria based on which market segmentation is performed. The paper will consider effectiveness and efficiency of different market segmentation criteria based on empirical research of customer expectations and preferences. The analysis will include traditional criteria and criteria based on behavioral model. The research implications will be analyzed from the perspective of selection of the most adequate market segmentation criteria in strategic planning of marketing activities.

  9. Immunological circumvention of multiple organ metastases of multidrug resistant human small cell lung cancer cells by mouse-human chimeric anti-ganglioside GM2 antibody KM966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanibuchi, M; Yano, S; Nishioka, Y; Yanagawa, H; Miki, T; Sone, S

    2000-01-01

    serum against SBC-3/DOX cells to a similar extent compared with parental SBC-3 cells. Pretreatment of human effector cells with various cytokines induced further enhancement of the KM966-dependent ADCC against SBC-3/DOX cells. Intravenous injection of SBC-3 or SBC-3/DOX cells into natural killer (NK) cell-depleted severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice developed metastases in multiple organs (liver, kidneys and lymph nodes). Interestingly, SBC-3/DOX cells produced metastases more rapidly than SBC-3 cells, suggesting more aggressive phenotype of SBC-3/DOX cells than their parental cells in vivo. Systemic treatment with KM966, given on days 2 and 7, drastically inhibited the formation of multiple-organ metastases produced by both SBC-3 and SBC-3/DOX cells, indicating that KM966 can eradicate metastasis by SCLC cells irrespective of MDR phenotype. These findings suggest that the mouse-human chimeric KM966 targets the GM2 antigen, and might be useful for the immunological circumvention of multiple-organ metastases of refractory SCLC.

  10. Automatic anatomy partitioning of the torso region on CT images by using multiple organ localizations with a group-wise calibration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangrong; Morita, Syoichi; Zhou, Xinxin; Chen, Huayue; Hara, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes an automatic approach for anatomy partitioning on three-dimensional (3D) computedtomography (CT) images that divide the human torso into several volume-of-interesting (VOI) images based on anatomical definition. The proposed approach combines several individual detections of organ-location with a groupwise organ-location calibration and correction to achieve an automatic and robust multiple-organ localization task. The essence of the proposed method is to jointly detect the 3D minimum bounding box for each type of organ shown on CT images based on intra-organ-image-textures and inter-organ-spatial-relationship in the anatomy. Machine-learning-based template matching and generalized Hough transform-based point-distribution estimation are used in the detection and calibration processes. We apply this approach to the automatic partitioning of a torso region on CT images, which are divided into 35 VOIs presenting major organ regions and tissues required by routine diagnosis in clinical medicine. A database containing 4,300 patient cases of high-resolution 3D torso CT images is used for training and performance evaluations. We confirmed that the proposed method was successful in target organ localization on more than 95% of CT cases. Only two organs (gallbladder and pancreas) showed a lower success rate: 71 and 78% respectively. In addition, we applied this approach to another database that included 287 patient cases of whole-body CT images scanned for positron emission tomography (PET) studies and used for additional performance evaluation. The experimental results showed that no significant difference between the anatomy partitioning results from those two databases except regarding the spleen. All experimental results showed that the proposed approach was efficient and useful in accomplishing localization tasks for major organs and tissues on CT images scanned using different protocols.

  11. Segmental and laminar organization of the spinal neurons projecting to the periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the cat suggests the existence of at least five separate clusters of spino-PAG neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouton, Leonora J.; Holstege, Gert

    2000-01-01

    The present retrograde tracing study in the cat describes the spinal cord projections to the periaqueductal gray (PAC), taking into account different regions of the PAG and all spinal segments. Results show that injecting different parts of the PAC leads to different laminar and segmental

  12. Automatic lung segmentation in the presence of alveolar collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshadi Areg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung ventilation and perfusion analyses using chest imaging methods require a correct segmentation of the lung to offer anatomical landmarks for the physiological data. An automatic segmentation approach simplifies and accelerates the analysis. However, the segmentation of the lungs has shown to be difficult if collapsed areas are present that tend to share similar gray values with surrounding non-pulmonary tissue. Our goal was to develop an automatic segmentation algorithm that is able to approximate dorsal lung boundaries even if alveolar collapse is present in the dependent lung areas adjacent to the pleura. Computed tomography data acquired in five supine pigs with injured lungs were used for this purpose. First, healthy lung tissue was segmented using a standard 3D region growing algorithm. Further, the bones in the chest wall surrounding the lungs were segmented to find the contact points of ribs and pleura. Artificial boundaries of the dorsal lung were set by spline interpolation through these contact points. Segmentation masks of the entire lung including the collapsed regions were created by combining the splines with the segmentation masks of the healthy lung tissue through multiple morphological operations. The automatically segmented images were then evaluated by comparing them to manual segmentations and determining the Dice similarity coefficients (DSC as a similarity measure. The developed method was able to accurately segment the lungs including the collapsed regions (DSCs over 0.96.

  13. Segmented block copolymers with monodisperse aramide end-segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araichimani, A.; Gaymans, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Segmented block copolymers were synthesized using monodisperse diaramide (TT) as hard segments and PTMO with a molecular weight of 2 900 g · mol-1 as soft segments. The aramide: PTMO segment ratio was increased from 1:1 to 2:1 thereby changing the structure from a high molecular weight multi-block

  14. Methodological issues underlying multiple decrement life table analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mode, C J; Avery, R C; Littman, G S; Potter, R G

    1977-02-01

    In this paper, the actuarial method of multiple decrement life table analysis of censored, longitudinal data is examined. The discussion is organized in terms of the first segment of usage of an intrauterine device. Weaknesses of the actuarial approach are pointed out, and an alternative approach, based on the classical model of competing risks, is proposed. Finally, the actuarial and the alternative method of analyzing censored data are compared, using data from the Taichung Medical Study on Intrauterine Devices.

  15. Rediscovering market segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelovich, Daniel; Meer, David

    2006-02-01

    In 1964, Daniel Yankelovich introduced in the pages of HBR the concept of nondemographic segmentation, by which he meant the classification of consumers according to criteria other than age, residence, income, and such. The predictive power of marketing studies based on demographics was no longer strong enough to serve as a basis for marketing strategy, he argued. Buying patterns had become far better guides to consumers' future purchases. In addition, properly constructed nondemographic segmentations could help companies determine which products to develop, which distribution channels to sell them in, how much to charge for them, and how to advertise them. But more than 40 years later, nondemographic segmentation has become just as unenlightening as demographic segmentation had been. Today, the technique is used almost exclusively to fulfill the needs of advertising, which it serves mainly by populating commercials with characters that viewers can identify with. It is true that psychographic types like "High-Tech Harry" and "Joe Six-Pack" may capture some truth about real people's lifestyles, attitudes, self-image, and aspirations. But they are no better than demographics at predicting purchase behavior. Thus they give corporate decision makers very little idea of how to keep customers or capture new ones. Now, Daniel Yankelovich returns to these pages, with consultant David Meer, to argue the case for a broad view of nondemographic segmentation. They describe the elements of a smart segmentation strategy, explaining how segmentations meant to strengthen brand identity differ from those capable of telling a company which markets it should enter and what goods to make. And they introduce their "gravity of decision spectrum", a tool that focuses on the form of consumer behavior that should be of the greatest interest to marketers--the importance that consumers place on a product or product category.

  16. Scorpion image segmentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E.; Aibinu, A. M.; Sadiq, B. A.; Bello Salau, H.; Salami, M. J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Death as a result of scorpion sting has been a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite the high rate of death as a result of scorpion sting, little report exists in literature of intelligent device and system for automatic detection of scorpion. This paper proposed a digital image processing approach based on the floresencing characteristics of Scorpion under Ultra-violet (UV) light for automatic detection and identification of scorpion. The acquired UV-based images undergo pre-processing to equalize uneven illumination and colour space channel separation. The extracted channels are then segmented into two non-overlapping classes. It has been observed that simple thresholding of the green channel of the acquired RGB UV-based image is sufficient for segmenting Scorpion from other background components in the acquired image. Two approaches to image segmentation have also been proposed in this work, namely, the simple average segmentation technique and K-means image segmentation. The proposed algorithm has been tested on over 40 UV scorpion images obtained from different part of the world and results obtained show an average accuracy of 97.7% in correctly classifying the pixel into two non-overlapping clusters. The proposed 1system will eliminate the problem associated with some of the existing manual approaches presently in use for scorpion detection.

  17. Osmotic and Heat Stress Effects on Segmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Weiss

    Full Text Available During vertebrate embryonic development, early skin, muscle, and bone progenitor populations organize into segments known as somites. Defects in this conserved process of segmentation lead to skeletal and muscular deformities, such as congenital scoliosis, a curvature of the spine caused by vertebral defects. Environmental stresses such as hypoxia or heat shock produce segmentation defects, and significantly increase the penetrance and severity of vertebral defects in genetically susceptible individuals. Here we show that a brief exposure to a high osmolarity solution causes reproducible segmentation defects in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos. Both osmotic shock and heat shock produce border defects in a dose-dependent manner, with an increase in both frequency and severity of defects. We also show that osmotic treatment has a delayed effect on somite development, similar to that observed in heat shocked embryos. Our results establish osmotic shock as an alternate experimental model for stress, affecting segmentation in a manner comparable to other known environmental stressors. The similar effects of these two distinct environmental stressors support a model in which a variety of cellular stresses act through a related response pathway that leads to disturbances in the segmentation process.

  18. Exploring the multiplicity of soil-human interactions: organic carbon content, agro-forest landscapes and the Italian local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Luca; Barone, Pier Matteo; Ferrara, Carlotta

    2015-05-01

    Topsoil organic carbon (TOC) and soil organic carbon (SOC) are fundamental in the carbon cycle influencing soil functions and attributes. Many factors have effects on soil carbon content such as climate, parent material, land topography and the human action including agriculture, which sometimes caused a severe loss in soil carbon content. This has resulted in a significant differentiation in TOC or SOC at the continental scale due to the different territorial and socioeconomic conditions. The present study proposes an exploratory data analysis assessing the relationship between the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon and selected socioeconomic attributes at the local scale in Italy with the aim to provide differentiated responses for a more sustainable use of land. A strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis contributed to understand the effectiveness of local communities responses for an adequate comprehension of the role of soil as carbon sink.

  19. Organohalogen concentrations and a gross and histologic assessment of multiple organ systems in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, C.

    To investigate the relation between biological parameters, not earlier investigated in the polar bear, and organohalogen pollution in East Greenland polar bears, we initiated a sampling of adipose tissue, internal organs and skulls from more than 100 free-ranging polar bears killed by local...... in the adipose tissue and pathological changes in skulls and internal organs. Our results suggested a decrease in adipose tissue concentrations of organohalogens in East Greenland polar bears from 1990 to 1999-2001. Two of the biological effect parameters (FA and enlarged clitoris) did not indicate a link......, infectious agents, season and meaby chronic exposure to organohalogens. These result fill out an existing knowledge gap in potential effects of environmental, organic contaminants on fluctuating asymmetry, bone mineral density and functional anatomy (histology) in the polar bear. In addition, the results may...

  20. Segmentation of complex document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.

  1. Application of SAW method for multiple-criteria comparative analysis of the reliability of heat supply organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetova, I. G.; Chichirova, N. D.

    2016-12-01

    Heat supply is the most energy-consuming sector of the economy. Approximately 30% of all used primary fuel-and-energy resources is spent on municipal heat-supply needs. One of the key indicators of activity of heat-supply organizations is the reliability of an energy facility. The reliability index of a heat supply organization is of interest to potential investors for assessing risks when investing in projects. The reliability indices established by the federal legislation are actually reduced to a single numerical factor, which depends on the number of heat-supply outages in connection with disturbances in operation of heat networks and the volume of their resource recovery in the calculation year. This factor is rather subjective and may change in a wide range during several years. A technique is proposed for evaluating the reliability of heat-supply organizations with the use of the simple additive weighting (SAW) method. The technique for integrated-index determination satisfies the following conditions: the reliability level of the evaluated heat-supply system is represented maximum fully and objectively; the information used for the reliability-index evaluation is easily available (is located on the Internet in accordance with demands of data-disclosure standards). For reliability estimation of heat-supply organizations, the following indicators were selected: the wear of equipment of thermal energy sources, the wear of heat networks, the number of outages of supply of thermal energy (heat carrier due to technological disturbances on heat networks per 1 km of heat networks), the number of outages of supply of thermal energy (heat carrier due to technologic disturbances on thermal energy sources per 1 Gcal/h of installed power), the share of expenditures in the cost of thermal energy aimed at recovery of the resource (renewal of fixed assets), coefficient of renewal of fixed assets, and a coefficient of fixed asset retirement. A versatile program is developed

  2. Classifier Directed Data Hybridization for Geographic Sample Supervised Segment Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoff Fourie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quality segment generation is a well-known challenge and research objective within Geographic Object-based Image Analysis (GEOBIA. Although methodological avenues within GEOBIA are diverse, segmentation commonly plays a central role in most approaches, influencing and being influenced by surrounding processes. A general approach using supervised quality measures, specifically user provided reference segments, suggest casting the parameters of a given segmentation algorithm as a multidimensional search problem. In such a sample supervised segment generation approach, spatial metrics observing the user provided reference segments may drive the search process. The search is commonly performed by metaheuristics. A novel sample supervised segment generation approach is presented in this work, where the spectral content of provided reference segments is queried. A one-class classification process using spectral information from inside the provided reference segments is used to generate a probability image, which in turn is employed to direct a hybridization of the original input imagery. Segmentation is performed on such a hybrid image. These processes are adjustable, interdependent and form a part of the search problem. Results are presented detailing the performances of four method variants compared to the generic sample supervised segment generation approach, under various conditions in terms of resultant segment quality, required computing time and search process characteristics. Multiple metrics, metaheuristics and segmentation algorithms are tested with this approach. Using the spectral data contained within user provided reference segments to tailor the output generally improves the results in the investigated problem contexts, but at the expense of additional required computing time.

  3. Angular Magnetoresistance of Nanowires with Alternating Cobalt and Nickel Segments

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Hanan

    2017-06-22

    Magnetization reversal in segmented Co/Ni nanowires with varying number of segments was studied using angular Magnetoresistance (MR) measurements on isolated nanowires. The MR measurements offer an insight into the pinning of domain walls within the nanowires. Angular MR measurements were performed on nanowires with two and multiple segments by varying the angle between the applied magnetic field and nanowire (−90° ≤θ≤90°). The angular MR measurements reveal that at lower values of θ the switching fields are nearly identical for the multisegmented and two-segmented nanowires, whereas at higher values of θ, a decrease in the switching field is observed in the case of two segmented nanowires. The two segmented nanowires generally exhibit a single domain wall pinning event, whereas an increased number of pinning events are characteristic of the multisegmented nanowires at higher values of θ. In-situ magnetic force microscopy substantiates reversal by domain wall nucleation and propagation in multisegmented nanowires.

  4. Angular Magnetoresistance of Nanowires with Alternating Cobalt and Nickel Segments

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Hanan; Corte-Leon, H.; Ivanov, Yurii P.; Moreno, J. A.; Kazakova, O.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2017-01-01

    Magnetization reversal in segmented Co/Ni nanowires with varying number of segments was studied using angular Magnetoresistance (MR) measurements on isolated nanowires. The MR measurements offer an insight into the pinning of domain walls within the nanowires. Angular MR measurements were performed on nanowires with two and multiple segments by varying the angle between the applied magnetic field and nanowire (−90° ≤θ≤90°). The angular MR measurements reveal that at lower values of θ the switching fields are nearly identical for the multisegmented and two-segmented nanowires, whereas at higher values of θ, a decrease in the switching field is observed in the case of two segmented nanowires. The two segmented nanowires generally exhibit a single domain wall pinning event, whereas an increased number of pinning events are characteristic of the multisegmented nanowires at higher values of θ. In-situ magnetic force microscopy substantiates reversal by domain wall nucleation and propagation in multisegmented nanowires.

  5. Connecting textual segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2017-01-01

    history than just the years of the emergence of the web, the chapter traces the history of how segments of text have deliberately been connected to each other by the use of specific textual and media features, from clay tablets, manuscripts on parchment, and print, among others, to hyperlinks on stand......In “Connecting textual segments: A brief history of the web hyperlink” Niels Brügger investigates the history of one of the most fundamental features of the web: the hyperlink. Based on the argument that the web hyperlink is best understood if it is seen as another step in a much longer and broader...

  6. Active mask segmentation of fluorescence microscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, Gowri; Fickus, Matthew C; Guo, Yusong; Linstedt, Adam D; Kovacević, Jelena

    2009-08-01

    We propose a new active mask algorithm for the segmentation of fluorescence microscope images of punctate patterns. It combines the (a) flexibility offered by active-contour methods, (b) speed offered by multiresolution methods, (c) smoothing offered by multiscale methods, and (d) statistical modeling offered by region-growing methods into a fast and accurate segmentation tool. The framework moves from the idea of the "contour" to that of "inside and outside," or masks, allowing for easy multidimensional segmentation. It adapts to the topology of the image through the use of multiple masks. The algorithm is almost invariant under initialization, allowing for random initialization, and uses a few easily tunable parameters. Experiments show that the active mask algorithm matches the ground truth well and outperforms the algorithm widely used in fluorescence microscopy, seeded watershed, both qualitatively, as well as quantitatively.

  7. Multiple connections in European co-operation: : international organizations, policy ideas, practices and transfers 1967–92

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, Wolfram; Patel, Kiran Klaus

    2017-01-01

    International organizations are ubiquitous in contemporary Europe and the wider world. This special issue takes a historical approach to exploring their relations with each other in Western Europe between 1967 and 1992. The authors seek to ‘provincialize’ and ‘de-centre’ the European Union’s role,

  8. Multiple levels in the organisation of innovation : project organization in single-firm projects and multi-firm projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, F.P.H.; Ende, van den J.C.M.; Borgh, van der W.; Yin, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Studies about how the organization of new product (and new service) development projects (NPD) projects influences project performance typically investigate this in Single-firm projects, i.e. projects with high ownership integration. However, NPD projects are often performed by two or more

  9. Open-source software platform for medical image segmentation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namías, R.; D'Amato, J. P.; del Fresno, M.

    2017-11-01

    Segmenting 2D and 3D images is a crucial and challenging problem in medical image analysis. Although several image segmentation algorithms have been proposed for different applications, no universal method currently exists. Moreover, their use is usually limited when detection of complex and multiple adjacent objects of interest is needed. In addition, the continually increasing volumes of medical imaging scans require more efficient segmentation software design and highly usable applications. In this context, we present an extension of our previous segmentation framework which allows the combination of existing explicit deformable models in an efficient and transparent way, handling simultaneously different segmentation strategies and interacting with a graphic user interface (GUI). We present the object-oriented design and the general architecture which consist of two layers: the GUI at the top layer, and the processing core filters at the bottom layer. We apply the framework for segmenting different real-case medical image scenarios on public available datasets including bladder and prostate segmentation from 2D MRI, and heart segmentation in 3D CT. Our experiments on these concrete problems show that this framework facilitates complex and multi-object segmentation goals while providing a fast prototyping open-source segmentation tool.

  10. Segmentation in cinema perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J M; Bever, T G

    1976-03-12

    Viewers perceptually segment moving picture sequences into their cinematically defined units: excerpts that follow short film sequences are recognized faster when the excerpt originally came after a structural cinematic break (a cut or change in the action) than when it originally came before the break.

  11. Dictionary Based Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for weakly supervised segmentation of natural images, which may contain both textured or non-textured regions. Our texture representation is based on a dictionary of image patches. To divide an image into separated regions with similar texture we use an implicit level sets...

  12. Unsupervised Image Segmentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Mikeš, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 4 (2014), s. 23-23 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : unsupervised image segmentation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/haindl-0434412.pdf

  13. Metrics for image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Gareth; Greenway, Phil; Morray, Denise

    1998-07-01

    An important challenge in mapping image-processing techniques onto applications is the lack of quantitative performance measures. From a systems engineering perspective these are essential if system level requirements are to be decomposed into sub-system requirements which can be understood in terms of algorithm selection and performance optimization. Nowhere in computer vision is this more evident than in the area of image segmentation. This is a vigorous and innovative research activity, but even after nearly two decades of progress, it remains almost impossible to answer the question 'what would the performance of this segmentation algorithm be under these new conditions?' To begin to address this shortcoming, we have devised a well-principled metric for assessing the relative performance of two segmentation algorithms. This allows meaningful objective comparisons to be made between their outputs. It also estimates the absolute performance of an algorithm given ground truth. Our approach is an information theoretic one. In this paper, we describe the theory and motivation of our method, and present practical results obtained from a range of state of the art segmentation methods. We demonstrate that it is possible to measure the objective performance of these algorithms, and to use the information so gained to provide clues about how their performance might be improved.

  14. A Raman spectroscopic study of organic matter in interplanetary dust particles and meteorites using multiple wavelength laser excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Starkey, N. A.; Franchi, I. A.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.

    2013-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate insoluble organic matter (IOM) from a range of chondritic meteorites, and a suite of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Three monochromatic excitation wavelengths (473 nm, 514 nm, 632 nm) were applied sequentially to assess variations in meteorite and IDP Raman peak parameters (carbon D and G bands) as a function of excitation wavelength (i.e., dispersion). Greatest dispersion occurs in CVs > OCs > CMs > CRs with type 3 chondrites compared at diff...

  15. Disruption of spatial organization and interjoint coordination in Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiguarda, R; Merello, M; Balej, J; Starkstein, S; Nogues, M; Marsden, C D

    2000-07-01

    Patients with basal ganglia diseases may exhibit ideomotor apraxia. To define the nature of the impairment of the action production system, we studied a repetitive gesture of slicing bread by three-dimensional computergraphic analysis in eight nondemented patients with Parkinson's disease in the "on" state, five with progressive supranuclear palsy and four with multiple system atrophy. Two patients with Parkinson's disease and two with progressive supranuclear palsy showed ideomotor apraxia for transitive movements on standard testing. A Selspott II system was used for kinematic analysis of wrist trajectories and angular motions of the shoulder and elbow joints. Patients with Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and even some with multiple system atrophy exhibited kinematic deficits in the spatial precision of movement and velocity-curvature relationships; in addition, they failed to maintain proper angle/angle relationships and to apportion their relative joint amplitudes normally. Spatial disruption of wrist trajectories was more severe in patients with ideomotor apraxia. We posit that the basal ganglia are part of the parallel parieto-frontal circuits devoted to sensorimotor integration for object-oriented behavior. The severity and characteristics of spatial abnormalities of a transitive movement would therefore depend on the location and distribution of the pathologic process within these circuits.

  16. Leader Narcissism and Outcomes in Organizations: A Review at Multiple Levels of Analysis and Implications for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Narcissists often pursue leadership and are selected for leadership positions by others. At the same time, they act in their own best interest, putting the needs and interests of others at risk. While theoretical arguments clearly link narcissism and leadership, the question whether leader narcissism is good or bad for organizations and their members remains unanswered. Narcissism seems to have two sides, a bright and a dark one. This systematic literature review seeks to contribute to the ongoing academic discussion about the positive or negative impact of leader narcissism in organizations. Forty-five original research articles were categorized according to outcomes at three levels of analysis: the dyadic level (focusing on leader-follower relationships), the team level (focusing on work teams and small groups), and the organizational level. On this basis, we first summarized the current state of knowledge about the impact that leader narcissism has on outcomes at different levels of analysis. Next, we revealed similarities and contradictions between research findings within and across levels of analysis, highlighting persistent inconsistencies concerning the question whether leader narcissism has positive or negative consequences. Finally, we outlined theoretical and methodological implications for future studies of leader narcissism. This multi-level perspective ascertains a new, systematic view of leader narcissism and its consequences for organizations and their stakeholders. The article demonstrates the need for future research in the field of leader narcissism and opens up new avenues for inquiry. PMID:28579967

  17. Leader Narcissism and Outcomes in Organizations: A Review at Multiple Levels of Analysis and Implications for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Braun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Narcissists often pursue leadership and are selected for leadership positions by others. At the same time, they act in their own best interest, putting the needs and interests of others at risk. While theoretical arguments clearly link narcissism and leadership, the question whether leader narcissism is good or bad for organizations and their members remains unanswered. Narcissism seems to have two sides, a bright and a dark one. This systematic literature review seeks to contribute to the ongoing academic discussion about the positive or negative impact of leader narcissism in organizations. Forty-five original research articles were categorized according to outcomes at three levels of analysis: the dyadic level (focusing on leader-follower relationships, the team level (focusing on work teams and small groups, and the organizational level. On this basis, we first summarized the current state of knowledge about the impact that leader narcissism has on outcomes at different levels of analysis. Next, we revealed similarities and contradictions between research findings within and across levels of analysis, highlighting persistent inconsistencies concerning the question whether leader narcissism has positive or negative consequences. Finally, we outlined theoretical and methodological implications for future studies of leader narcissism. This multi-level perspective ascertains a new, systematic view of leader narcissism and its consequences for organizations and their stakeholders. The article demonstrates the need for future research in the field of leader narcissism and opens up new avenues for inquiry.

  18. Leader Narcissism and Outcomes in Organizations: A Review at Multiple Levels of Analysis and Implications for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Narcissists often pursue leadership and are selected for leadership positions by others. At the same time, they act in their own best interest, putting the needs and interests of others at risk. While theoretical arguments clearly link narcissism and leadership, the question whether leader narcissism is good or bad for organizations and their members remains unanswered. Narcissism seems to have two sides, a bright and a dark one. This systematic literature review seeks to contribute to the ongoing academic discussion about the positive or negative impact of leader narcissism in organizations. Forty-five original research articles were categorized according to outcomes at three levels of analysis: the dyadic level (focusing on leader-follower relationships), the team level (focusing on work teams and small groups), and the organizational level. On this basis, we first summarized the current state of knowledge about the impact that leader narcissism has on outcomes at different levels of analysis. Next, we revealed similarities and contradictions between research findings within and across levels of analysis, highlighting persistent inconsistencies concerning the question whether leader narcissism has positive or negative consequences. Finally, we outlined theoretical and methodological implications for future studies of leader narcissism. This multi-level perspective ascertains a new, systematic view of leader narcissism and its consequences for organizations and their stakeholders. The article demonstrates the need for future research in the field of leader narcissism and opens up new avenues for inquiry.

  19. Multidimensional Brain MRI segmentation using graph cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecoeur, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the segmentation of multimodal brain MRIs by graph cuts method. First, we propose a method that utilizes three MRI modalities by merging them. The border information given by the spectral gradient is then challenged by a region information, given by the seeds selected by the user, using a graph cut algorithm. Then, we propose three enhancements of this method. The first consists in finding an optimal spectral space because the spectral gradient is based on natural images and then inadequate for multimodal medical images. This results in a learning based segmentation method. We then explore the automation of the graph cut method. Here, the various pieces of information usually given by the user are inferred from a robust expectation-maximization algorithm. We show the performance of these two enhanced versions on multiple sclerosis lesions. Finally, we integrate atlases for the automatic segmentation of deep brain structures. These three new techniques show the adaptability of our method to various problems. Our different segmentation methods are better than most of nowadays techniques, speaking of computation time or segmentation accuracy. (authors)

  20. Compound image segmentation of published biomedical figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengyuan; Jiang, Xiangying; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Shatkay, Hagit

    2018-04-01

    Images convey essential information in biomedical publications. As such, there is a growing interest within the bio-curation and the bio-databases communities, to store images within publications as evidence for biomedical processes and for experimental results. However, many of the images in biomedical publications are compound images consisting of multiple panels, where each individual panel potentially conveys a different type of information. Segmenting such images into constituent panels is an essential first step toward utilizing images. In this article, we develop a new compound image segmentation system, FigSplit, which is based on Connected Component Analysis. To overcome shortcomings typically manifested by existing methods, we develop a quality assessment step for evaluating and modifying segmentations. Two methods are proposed to re-segment the images if the initial segmentation is inaccurate. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our method compared with other methods. The system is publicly available for use at: https://www.eecis.udel.edu/~compbio/FigSplit. The code is available upon request. shatkay@udel.edu. Supplementary data are available online at Bioinformatics.

  1. 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene is associated with multiple organ dysfunction and septic shock in pneumonia induced severe sepsis: prospective, observational, genetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Activation of inflammation and coagulation are closely related and mutually interdependent in sepsis. The acute-phase protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a key element in the inhibition of fibrinolysis. Elevated levels of PAI-1 have been related to worse outcome in pneumonia. We aimed to evaluate the effect of functionally relevant 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene in pneumonia induced sepsis. Methods We enrolled 208 Caucasian patients with severe sepsis due to pneumonia admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Patients were followed up until ICU discharge or death. Clinical data were collected prospectively and the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Patients were stratified according to the occurrence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, septic shock or death. Results We found that carriers of the PAI-1 4G/4G and 4G/5G genotypes have a 2.74-fold higher risk for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.335 - 5.604; p = 0.006) and a 2.57-fold higher risk for septic shock (OR 95%CI = 1.180 - 5.615; p = 0.018) than 5G/5G carriers. The multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for independent predictors, such as age, nosocomial pneumonia and positive microbiological culture also supported that carriers of the 4G allele have a higher prevalence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.957; 95%CI = 1.306 -6.698; p = 0.009) and septic shock (aOR = 2.603; 95%CI = 1.137 - 5.959; p = 0.024). However, genotype and allele analyses have not shown any significant difference regarding mortality in models non-adjusted or adjusted for acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II. Patients bearing the 4G allele had higher disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) score at admission (p = 0.007) than 5G/5G carriers. Moreover, in 4G allele carriers the length of ICU stay

  2. 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene is associated with multiple organ dysfunction and septic shock in pneumonia induced severe sepsis: prospective, observational, genetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madách, Krisztina; Aladzsity, István; Szilágyi, Agnes; Fust, George; Gál, János; Pénzes, István; Prohászka, Zoltán

    2010-01-01

    Activation of inflammation and coagulation are closely related and mutually interdependent in sepsis. The acute-phase protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a key element in the inhibition of fibrinolysis. Elevated levels of PAI-1 have been related to worse outcome in pneumonia. We aimed to evaluate the effect of functionally relevant 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene in pneumonia induced sepsis. We enrolled 208 Caucasian patients with severe sepsis due to pneumonia admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Patients were followed up until ICU discharge or death. Clinical data were collected prospectively and the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Patients were stratified according to the occurrence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, septic shock or death. We found that carriers of the PAI-1 4G/4G and 4G/5G genotypes have a 2.74-fold higher risk for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.335 - 5.604; p = 0.006) and a 2.57-fold higher risk for septic shock (OR 95%CI = 1.180 - 5.615; p = 0.018) than 5G/5G carriers. The multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for independent predictors, such as age, nosocomial pneumonia and positive microbiological culture also supported that carriers of the 4G allele have a higher prevalence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.957; 95%CI = 1.306 -6.698; p = 0.009) and septic shock (aOR = 2.603; 95%CI = 1.137 - 5.959; p = 0.024). However, genotype and allele analyses have not shown any significant difference regarding mortality in models non-adjusted or adjusted for acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II. Patients bearing the 4G allele had higher disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) score at admission (p = 0.007) than 5G/5G carriers. Moreover, in 4G allele carriers the length of ICU stay of non-survivors was longer

  3. Pre-clinical evaluation of an inverse planning module for segmental MLC based IMRT delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, Dietmar; Kroupa, Bernhard

    2002-01-01

    Phantom tests are performed for pre-clinical evaluation of a commercial inverse planning system (HELAX TMS, V 6.0) for segmented multileaf collimator (MLC) intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery. The optimization module has available two optimization algorithms: the target primary feasibility and the weighted feasibility algorithm, only the latter allows the user to specify weights for structures. In the first series, single beam tests are performed to evaluate the outcome of inverse planning in terms of plausibility for the following situations: oblique incidence, presence of inhomogeneities, multiple targets at different depths and multiple targets with different desired doses. Additionally, for these tests a manual plan is made for comparison. In the absence of organs at risk, both the optimization algorithms are found to assign the highest priority to low dose constraints for targets. In the second series, tests resembling clinical relevant configurations (simultaneous boost and concave target with critical organ) are performed with multiple beam arrangements in order to determine the impact of the system's configuration on inverse planning. It is found that the definition of certain segment number and segment size limitations does not largely compromise treatment plans when using multiple beams. On the other hand, these limitations are important for delivery efficiency and dosimetry. For the number of iterations and voxels per volume of interest, standard values in the system's configuration are considered to be sufficient. Additionally, it is demonstrated that precautions must be taken to precisely define treatment goals when using computerized treatment optimization. Similar phantom tests could be used for a direct dosimetric verification of all steps from inverse treatment planning to IMRT delivery. (note)

  4. Atomic force microscopy reveals multiple patterns of antenna organization in purple bacteria: implications for energy transduction mechanisms and membrane modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, James N; Niederman, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Recent topographs of the intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM) of purple bacteria obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM) have provided the first surface views of the native architecture of a multicomponent biological membrane at submolecular resolution, representing an important landmark in structural biology. A variety of species-dependent, closely packed arrangements of light-harvesting (LH) complexes was revealed: the most highly organized was found in Rhodobacter sphaeroides in which the peripheral LH2 antenna was seen either in large clusters or in fixed rows interspersed among ordered arrays of dimeric LH1-reaction center (RC) core complexes. A more random organization was observed in other species containing both the LH1 and LH2 complexes, as typified by Rhododspirillum photometricum with randomly packed monomeric LH1-RC core complexes intermingled with large, paracrystalline domains of LH2 antenna. Surprisingly, no structures that could be identified as the ATP synthase or cytochrome bc (1) complexes were observed, which may reflect their localization at ICM vesicle poles or in curved membrane areas, out of view from the flat regions imaged by AFM. This possible arrangement of energy transducing complexes has required a reassessment of energy tranduction mechanisms which place the cytochrome bc (1) complex in close association with the RC. Instead, more plausible proposals must account for the movement of quinone redox species over considerable membrane distances on appropriate time scales. AFM, together with atomic resolution structures are also providing the basis for molecular modeling of the ICM that is leading to an improved picture of the supramolecular organization of photosynthetic complexes, as well as the forces that drive their segregation into distinct domains.

  5. Visualization of multiple organ amyloid involvement in systemic amyloidosis using {sup 11}C-PiB PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezawa, Naoki; Katoh, Nagaaki; Yoshinaga, Tsuneaki [Shinshu University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine (Neurology and Rheumatology), Nagano (Japan); Oguchi, Kazuhiro [Jisenkai Brain Imaging Research Center, Matsumoto (Japan); Yazaki, Masahide [Shinshu University School of Health Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Matsumoto (Japan); Shinshu University, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Matsumoto (Japan); Sekijima, Yoshiki [Shinshu University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine (Neurology and Rheumatology), Nagano (Japan); Jisenkai Brain Imaging Research Center, Matsumoto (Japan); Shinshu University, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Matsumoto (Japan)

    2018-03-15

    To investigate the utility of Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for evaluating whole-body amyloid involvement in patients with systemic amyloidosis. Whole-body {sup 11}C-PiB PET was performed in seven patients with systemic immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, seven patients with hereditary transthyretin (ATTRm) amyloidosis, one asymptomatic TTR mutation carrier and three healthy controls. The correlations between clinical organ involvement, radiological {sup 11}C-PiB uptake and histopathological findings were analysed for each organ. Organ involvement on {sup 11}C-PiB PET imaging showed good correlations with the clinical findings for the heart and stomach. Abnormal tracer uptake was also observed in the spleen, lachrymal gland, submandibular gland, sublingual gland, lymph node, brain, scalp, extraocular muscles, nasal mucosa, pharynx, tongue and nuchal muscles, most of which were asymptomatic. Physiological tracer uptake was universally observed in the urinary tract (kidney, renal pelvis, ureter and bladder) and enterohepatic circulatory system (liver, gallbladder, bile duct and small intestine) in all participants. Most of the patients and one healthy control subject showed asymptomatic tracer uptake in the lung and parotid gland. The peripheral nervous system did not show any tracer uptake even in patients with apparent peripheral neuropathy. Histological amyloid deposition was confirmed in biopsied myocardium and gastric mucosa where abnormal {sup 11}C-PiB retention was observed. {sup 11}C-PiB PET imaging can be used clinically in the systemic evaluation of amyloid distribution in patients with AL and ATTRm amyloidosis. Quantitative analysis of {sup 11}C-PiB PET images may be useful in therapy evaluation and will reveal whether amyloid clearance is correlated with clinical response. (orig.)

  6. Bias atlases for segmentation-based PET attenuation correction using PET-CT and MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jinsong; Chun, Se Young; Petibon, Yoann; Bonab, Ali A; Alpert, Nathaniel; Fakhri, Georges El

    2013-10-01

    This study was to obtain voxel-wise PET accuracy and precision using tissue-segmentation for attenuation correction. We applied multiple thresholds to the CTs of 23 patients to classify tissues. For six of the 23 patients, MR images were also acquired. The MR fat/in-phase ratio images were used for fat segmentation. Segmented tissue classes were used to create attenuation maps, which were used for attenuation correction in PET reconstruction. PET bias images were then computed using the PET reconstructed with the original CT as the reference. We registered the CTs for all the patients and transformed the corresponding bias images accordingly. We then obtained the mean and standard deviation bias atlas using all the registered bias images. Our CT-based study shows that four-class segmentation (air, lungs, fat, other tissues), which is available on most PET-MR scanners, yields 15.1%, 4.1%, 6.6%, and 12.9% RMSE bias in lungs, fat, non-fat soft-tissues, and bones, respectively. An accurate fat identification is achievable using fat/in-phase MR images. Furthermore, we have found that three-class segmentation (air, lungs, other tissues) yields less than 5% standard deviation of bias within the heart, liver, and kidneys. This implies that three-class segmentation can be sufficient to achieve small variation of bias for imaging these three organs. Finally, we have found that inter- and intra-patient lung density variations contribute almost equally to the overall standard deviation of bias within the lungs.

  7. A hybrid method for airway segmentation and automated measurement of bronchial wall thickness on CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ziyue; Bagci, Ulas; Foster, Brent; Mansoor, Awais; Udupa, Jayaram K; Mollura, Daniel J

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory and infectious lung diseases commonly involve bronchial airway structures and morphology, and these abnormalities are often analyzed non-invasively through high resolution computed tomography (CT) scans. Assessing airway wall surfaces and the lumen are of great importance for diagnosing pulmonary diseases. However, obtaining high accuracy from a complete 3-D airway tree structure can be quite challenging. The airway tree structure has spiculated shapes with multiple branches and bifurcation points as opposed to solid single organ or tumor segmentation tasks in other applications, hence, it is complex for manual segmentation as compared with other tasks. For computerized methods, a fundamental challenge in airway tree segmentation is the highly variable intensity levels in the lumen area, which often causes a segmentation method to leak into adjacent lung parenchyma through blurred airway walls or soft boundaries. Moreover, outer wall definition can be difficult due to similar intensities of the airway walls and nearby structures such as vessels. In this paper, we propose a computational framework to accurately quantify airways through (i) a novel hybrid approach for precise segmentation of the lumen, and (ii) two novel methods (a spatially constrained Markov random walk method (pseudo 3-D) and a relative fuzzy connectedness method (3-D)) to estimate the airway wall thickness. We evaluate the performance of our proposed methods in comparison with mostly used algorithms using human chest CT images. Our results demonstrate that, on publicly available data sets and using standard evaluation criteria, the proposed airway segmentation method is accurate and efficient as compared with the state-of-the-art methods, and the airway wall estimation algorithms identified the inner and outer airway surfaces more accurately than the most widely applied methods, namely full width at half maximum and phase congruency. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Feasibility of automated 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging pancreas segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiping Gou, PhD

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Our study demonstrated potential feasibility of automated segmentation of the pancreas on MRI scans with minimal human supervision at the beginning of imaging acquisition. The achieved accuracy is promising for organ localization.

  9. [Multiple organ failure complicating a severe acute necrotising pancreatitis secondary of a severe hypertriglyceridemia: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degardin, J; Pons, B; Ardisson, F; Gallego, J-P; Thiery, G

    2013-09-01

    We report the case of a 42-year-old man admitted for a multi-organ failure with a coma, a hemodynamic instability, a respiratory distress syndrome, an acute renal failure and a thrombocytopenia. The blood samples highlighted a milky serum and allowed to diagnose an acute pancreatitis associated with a major dyslipidemia: hypertriglyceridemia 11,800 mg/dL and hypercholesterolemia 1195 mg/dL. The CT-scans do not reveal any cerebral abnormalities but highlighted pancreatic lesions without biliary obstruction. A multi-organ failure complicating a severe acute pancreatitis secondary of a major hypertriglyceridemia was mentioned. Despite the absence of clear guidelines, a session of plasma exchange was started in emergency. Symptomatic treatment with protective ventilation, vasopressors, continuous heparin and insulin was continued. The clinical and biological course was good in parallel of the normalization of lipid abnormalities. The patient was discharged at day 17 with a lipid-lowering therapy. We discuss the various treatments available for the management of acute pancreatitis complicating a severe hypertriglyceridemia and their actual relevance in the absence of clear recommendations. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  10. Classification of Multiple Types of Organic Carbon Composition in Atmospheric Particles by Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilcoyne, Arthur L; Takahama, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Russell, L.M.; Kilcoyne, A.L.D.

    2007-05-16

    A scanning transmission X-ray microscope at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is used to measure organic functional group abundance and morphology of atmospheric aerosols. We present a summary of spectra, sizes, and shapes observed in 595 particles that were collected and analyzed between 2000 and 2006. These particles ranged between 0.1 and 12 mm and represent aerosols found in a large range of geographical areas, altitudes, and times. They include samples from seven different field campaigns: PELTI, ACE-ASIA, DYCOMS II, Princeton, MILAGRO (urban), MILAGRO (C-130), and INTEX-B. At least 14 different classes of organic particles show different types of spectroscopic signatures. Different particle types are found within the same region while the same particle types are also found in different geographical domains. Particles chemically resembling black carbon, humic-like aerosols, pine ultisol, and secondary or processed aerosol have been identified from functional group abundance and comparison of spectra with those published in the literature.

  11. Status of the segment interconnect, cable segment ancillary logic, and the cable segment hybrid driver projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swoboda, C.; Barsotti, E.; Chappa, S.; Downing, R.; Goeransson, G.; Lensy, D.; Moore, G.; Rotolo, C.; Urish, J.

    1985-01-01

    The FASTBUS Segment Interconnect (SI) provides a communication path between two otherwise independent, asynchronous bus segments. In particular, the Segment Interconnect links a backplane crate segment to a cable segment. All standard FASTBUS address and data transactions can be passed through the SI or any number of SIs and segments in a path. Thus systems of arbitrary connection complexity can be formed, allowing simultaneous independent processing, yet still permitting devices associated with one segment to be accessed from others. The model S1 Segment Interconnect and the Cable Segment Ancillary Logic covered in this report comply with all the mandatory features stated in the FASTBUS specification document DOE/ER-0189. A block diagram of the SI is shown

  12. Otalgia and eschar in the external auditory canal in scrub typhus complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Sung-Yuan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scrub typhus, a mite-transmitted zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an endemic disease in Taiwan and may be potentially fatal if diagnosis is delayed. Case presentations We encountered a 23-year-old previously healthy Taiwanese male soldier presenting with the right ear pain after training in the jungle and an eleven-day history of intermittent high fever up to 39°C. Amoxicillin/clavulanate was prescribed for otitis media at a local clinic. Skin rash over whole body and abdominal cramping pain with watery diarrhea appeared on the sixth day of fever. He was referred due to progressive dyspnea and cough for 4 days prior to admission in our institution. On physical examination, there were cardiopulmonary distress, icteric sclera, an eschar in the right external auditory canal and bilateral basal rales. Laboratory evaluation revealed thrombocytopenia, elevation of liver function and acute renal failure. Chest x-ray revealed bilateral diffuse infiltration. Doxycycline was prescribed for scrub typhus with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. Fever subsided dramatically the next day and he was discharged on day 7 with oral tetracycline for 7 days. Conclusion Scrub typhus should be considered in acutely febrile patients with multiple organ involvement, particularly if there is an eschar or a history of environmental exposure in endemic areas. Rapid and accurate diagnosis, timely administration of antibiotics and intensive supportive care are necessary to decrease mortality of serious complications of scrub typhus.

  13. Market segmentation: Venezuelan ADRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbi Garay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The control on foreign exchange imposed by Venezuela in 2003 constitute a natural experiment that allows researchers to observe the effects of exchange controls on stock market segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence that although the Venezuelan capital market as a whole was highly segmented before the controls were imposed, the shares in the firm CANTV were, through their American Depositary Receipts (ADRs, partially integrated with the global market. Following the imposition of the exchange controls this integration was lost. Research also documents the spectacular and apparently contradictory rise experienced by the Caracas Stock Exchange during the serious economic crisis of 2003. It is argued that, as it happened in Argentina in 2002, the rise in share prices occurred because the depreciation of the Bolívar in the parallel currency market increased the local price of the stocks that had associated ADRs, which were negotiated in dollars.

  14. Scintillation counter, segmented shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.; Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  15. A Raman spectroscopic study of organic matter in interplanetary dust particles and meteorites using multiple wavelength laser excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, N. A.; Franchi, I. A.; Alexander, C. M. O'd.

    2013-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate insoluble organic matter (IOM) from a range of chondritic meteorites, and a suite of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Three monochromatic excitation wavelengths (473 nm, 514 nm, 632 nm) were applied sequentially to assess variations in meteorite and IDP Raman peak parameters (carbon D and G bands) as a function of excitation wavelength (i.e., dispersion). Greatest dispersion occurs in CVs > OCs > CMs > CRs with type 3 chondrites compared at different excitation wavelengths displaying conformable relationships, in contrast to type 2 chondrites. These findings indicate homogeneity in the structural nature of type 3 chondrite IOM, while organic matter (OM) in type 2 chondrites appears to be inherently more heterogeneous. If type 2 and type 3 chondrite IOM shares a common source, then thermal metamorphism may have a homogenizing effect on the originally more heterogeneous OM. IDP Raman G bands fall on an extension of the trend displayed by chondrite IOM, with all IDPs having Raman parameters indicative of very disordered carbon, with almost no overlap with IOM. The dispersion effect displayed by IDPs is most similar to CMs for the G band, but intermediate between CMs and CRs for the D band. The existence of some overlapping Raman features in the IDPs and IOM indicates that their OM may share a common origin, but the IDPs preserve more pristine OM that may have been further disordered by ion irradiation. H, C, and N isotopic data for the IDPs reveal that the disordered carbon in IDPs corresponds with higher δ15N and lower δ13C.

  16. Seasonal occurrence, removal efficiencies and preliminary risk assessment of multiple classes of organic UV filters in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Mirabelle M P; Leung, H W; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

    2014-04-15

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are applied widely in personal care products (PCPs), but the distribution and risks of these compounds in the marine environment are not well known. In this study, the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 12 organic UV filters in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with different treatment levels in Hong Kong, South China, were investigated during one year and a preliminary environmental risk assessment was carried out. Using a newly developed simultaneous multiclass quantification liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDM), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-4 (BP-4) and 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) were frequently (≥80%) detected in both influent and effluent with mean concentrations ranging from 23 to 1290 ng/L and 18-1018 ng/L, respectively; less than 2% of samples contained levels greater than 1000 ng/L. Higher concentrations of these frequently detected compounds were found during the wet/summer season, except for BP-4, which was the most abundant compound detected in all samples in terms of total mass. The target compounds behaved differently depending on the treatment level in WWTPs; overall, removal efficiencies were greater after secondary treatment when compared to primary treatment with >55% and compounds showing high removal (defined as >70% removal), respectively. Reverse osmosis was found to effectively eliminate UV filters from effluent (>99% removal). A preliminary risk assessment indicated that BP-3 and EHMC discharged from WWTPs may pose high risk to fishes in the local environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...

  18. Unsupervised motion-based object segmentation refined by color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piek, Matthijs C.; Braspenning, Ralph; Varekamp, Chris

    2003-06-01

    chance of the wrong position producing a good match. Consequently, a number of methods exist which combine motion and colour segmentation. These methods use colour segmentation as a base for the motion segmentation and estimation or perform an independent colour segmentation in parallel which is in some way combined with the motion segmentation. The presented method uses both techniques to complement each other by first segmenting on motion cues and then refining the segmentation with colour. To our knowledge few methods exist which adopt this approach. One example is te{meshrefine}. This method uses an irregular mesh, which hinders its efficient implementation in consumer electronics devices. Furthermore, the method produces a foreground/background segmentation, while our applications call for the segmentation of multiple objects. NEW METHOD As mentioned above we start with motion segmentation and refine the edges of this segmentation with a pixel resolution colour segmentation method afterwards. There are several reasons for this approach: + Motion segmentation does not produce the oversegmentation which colour segmentation methods normally produce, because objects are more likely to have colour discontinuities than motion discontinuities. In this way, the colour segmentation only has to be done at the edges of segments, confining the colour segmentation to a smaller part of the image. In such a part, it is more likely that the colour of an object is homogeneous. + This approach restricts the computationally expensive pixel resolution colour segmentation to a subset of the image. Together with the very efficient 3DRS motion estimation algorithm, this helps to reduce the computational complexity. + The motion cue alone is often enough to reliably distinguish objects from one another and the background. To obtain the motion vector fields, a variant of the 3DRS block-based motion estimator which analyses three frames of input was used. The 3DRS motion estimator is known

  19. Video segmentation using keywords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton-That, Vinh; Vong, Chi-Tai; Nguyen-Dao, Xuan-Truong; Tran, Minh-Triet

    2018-04-01

    At DAVIS-2016 Challenge, many state-of-art video segmentation methods achieve potential results, but they still much depend on annotated frames to distinguish between background and foreground. It takes a lot of time and efforts to create these frames exactly. In this paper, we introduce a method to segment objects from video based on keywords given by user. First, we use a real-time object detection system - YOLOv2 to identify regions containing objects that have labels match with the given keywords in the first frame. Then, for each region identified from the previous step, we use Pyramid Scene Parsing Network to assign each pixel as foreground or background. These frames can be used as input frames for Object Flow algorithm to perform segmentation on entire video. We conduct experiments on a subset of DAVIS-2016 dataset in half the size of its original size, which shows that our method can handle many popular classes in PASCAL VOC 2012 dataset with acceptable accuracy, about 75.03%. We suggest widely testing by combining other methods to improve this result in the future.

  20. Market segmentation in behavioral perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, V.K.; Chang, S.W.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; Pallister, J.

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847 consumers and from a total of 76,682 individual purchases, brand choice and price and reinforcement responsiveness were assessed for each segment a...

  1. A Higher-Order Neural Network Design for Improving Segmentation Performance in Medical Image Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, Eşref; Selver, M Alper; Güzeliş, Cüneyt; Dicle, Oǧuz

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures from medical image series is an ongoing field of research. Although, organs of interest are three-dimensional in nature, slice-by-slice approaches are widely used in clinical applications because of their ease of integration with the current manual segmentation scheme. To be able to use slice-by-slice techniques effectively, adjacent slice information, which represents likelihood of a region to be the structure of interest, plays critical role. Recent studies focus on using distance transform directly as a feature or to increase the feature values at the vicinity of the search area. This study presents a novel approach by constructing a higher order neural network, the input layer of which receives features together with their multiplications with the distance transform. This allows higher-order interactions between features through the non-linearity introduced by the multiplication. The application of the proposed method to 9 CT datasets for segmentation of the liver shows higher performance than well-known higher order classification neural networks

  2. How entorhinal grid cells may learn multiple spatial scales from a dorsoventral gradient of cell response rates in a self-organizing map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Grossberg

    Full Text Available Place cells in the hippocampus of higher mammals are critical for spatial navigation. Recent modeling clarifies how this may be achieved by how grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC input to place cells. Grid cells exhibit hexagonal grid firing patterns across space in multiple spatial scales along the MEC dorsoventral axis. Signals from grid cells of multiple scales combine adaptively to activate place cells that represent much larger spaces than grid cells. But how do grid cells learn to fire at multiple positions that form a hexagonal grid, and with spatial scales that increase along the dorsoventral axis? In vitro recordings of medial entorhinal layer II stellate cells have revealed subthreshold membrane potential oscillations (MPOs whose temporal periods, and time constants of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs, both increase along this axis. Slower (faster subthreshold MPOs and slower (faster EPSPs correlate with larger (smaller grid spacings and field widths. A self-organizing map neural model explains how the anatomical gradient of grid spatial scales can be learned by cells that respond more slowly along the gradient to their inputs from stripe cells of multiple scales, which perform linear velocity path integration. The model cells also exhibit MPO frequencies that covary with their response rates. The gradient in intrinsic rhythmicity is thus not compelling evidence for oscillatory interference as a mechanism of grid cell firing. A response rate gradient combined with input stripe cells that have normalized receptive fields can reproduce all known spatial and temporal properties of grid cells along the MEC dorsoventral axis. This spatial gradient mechanism is homologous to a gradient mechanism for temporal learning in the lateral entorhinal cortex and its hippocampal projections. Spatial and temporal representations may hereby arise from homologous mechanisms, thereby embodying a mechanistic "neural relativity" that

  3. Segmenting the Adult Education Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurand, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  4. Systematic optimization of subcritical and transcritical organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) constrained by technical parameters in multiple applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraver, Daniel; Royo, Javier; Lemort, Vincent; Quoilin, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ORC optimization for different target applications. • Model developed to allow computation in subcritical and transcritical operation. • Regenerative and non-regenerative cycles evaluated through second law efficiency. • Common working fluids: R134a, R245fa, Solkatherm, n-Pentane, MDM, Toluene. • Thermodynamic and technological approaches lead to optimal design guidelines. - Abstract: The present work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) for power generation and CHP from different average heat source profiles (waste heat recovery, thermal oil for cogeneration and geothermal). The general goal is to provide optimization guidelines for a wide range of operating conditions, for subcritical and transcritical, regenerative and non-regenerative cycles. A parameter assessment of the main equipment in the cycle (expander, heat exchangers and feed pump) was also carried out. An optimization model of the ORC (available as an electronic annex) is proposed to predict the best cycle performance (subcritical or transcritical), in terms of its exergy efficiency, with different working fluids. The working fluids considered are those most commonly used in commercial ORC units (R134a, R245fa, Solkatherm, n-Pentane, Octamethyltrisiloxane and Toluene). The optimal working fluid and operating conditions from a purely thermodynamic approach are limited by the technological constraints of the expander, the heat exchangers and the feed pump. Hence, a complementary assessment of both approaches is more adequate to obtain some preliminary design guidelines for ORC units

  5. Using multiple PCR and CE with chemiluminescence detection for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of genetically modified organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Longhua; Qiu, Bin; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, an ultrasensitive CE-CL detection system coupled with a novel double-on-column coaxial flow detection interface was developed for the detection of PCR products. A reliable procedure based on this system had been demonstrated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of genetically modified organism-the detection of Roundup Ready Soy (RRS) samples was presented as an example. The promoter, terminator, function and two reference genes of RRS were amplified with multiplex PCR simultaneously. After that, the multiplex PCR products were labeled with acridinium ester at the 5'-terminal through an amino modification and then analyzed by the proposed CE-CL system. Reproducibility of analysis times and peak heights for the CE-CL analysis were determined to be better than 0.91 and 3.07% (RSD, n=15), respectively, for three consecutive days. It was shown that this method could accurately and qualitatively detect RRS standards and the simulative samples. The evaluation in terms of quantitative analysis of RRS provided by this new method was confirmed by comparing our assay results with those of the standard real-time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR) using SYBR Green I dyes. The results showed a good coherence between the two methods. This approach demonstrated the possibility for accurate qualitative and quantitative detection of GM plants in a single run.

  6. Multi-granularity synthesis segmentation for high spatial resolution Remote sensing images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Lina; Liu, Pengfei; Qiao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiaoning; Gao, Yuan; Feng, Boyan

    2014-01-01

    Traditional segmentation method can only partition an image in a single granularity space, with segmentation accuracy limited to the single granularity space. This paper proposes a multi-granularity synthesis segmentation method for high spatial resolution remote sensing images based on a quotient space model. Firstly, we divide the whole image area into multiple granules (regions), each region is consisted of ground objects that have similar optimal segmentation scale, and then select and synthesize the sub-optimal segmentations of each region to get the final segmentation result. To validate this method, the land cover category map is used to guide the scale synthesis of multi-scale image segmentations for Quickbird image land use classification. Firstly, the image is coarsely divided into multiple regions, each region belongs to a certain land cover category. Then multi-scale segmentation results are generated by the Mumford-Shah function based region merging method. For each land cover category, the optimal segmentation scale is selected by the supervised segmentation accuracy assessment method. Finally, the optimal scales of segmentation results are synthesized under the guide of land cover category. Experiments show that the multi-granularity synthesis segmentation can produce more accurate segmentation than that of a single granularity space and benefit the classification

  7. Utilising Tree-Based Ensemble Learning for Speaker Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    In audio and speech processing, accurate detection of the changing points between multiple speakers in speech segments is an important stage for several applications such as speaker identification and tracking. Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC)-based approaches are the most traditionally used...... for a certain condition, the model becomes biased to the data used for training limiting the model’s generalisation ability. In this paper, we propose a BIC-based tuning-free approach for speaker segmentation through the use of ensemble-based learning. A forest of segmentation trees is constructed in which each...... tree is trained using a sampled version of the speech segment. During the tree construction process, a set of randomly selected points in the input sequence is examined as potential segmentation points. The point that yields the highest ΔBIC is chosen and the same process is repeated for the resultant...

  8. Albedo estimation for scene segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C H; Rosenfeld, A

    1983-03-01

    Standard methods of image segmentation do not take into account the three-dimensional nature of the underlying scene. For example, histogram-based segmentation tacitly assumes that the image intensity is piecewise constant, and this is not true when the scene contains curved surfaces. This paper introduces a method of taking 3d information into account in the segmentation process. The image intensities are adjusted to compensate for the effects of estimated surface orientation; the adjusted intensities can be regarded as reflectivity estimates. When histogram-based segmentation is applied to these new values, the image is segmented into parts corresponding to surfaces of constant reflectivity in the scene. 7 references.

  9. FRAMEWORK FOR COMPARING SEGMENTATION ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sithole

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of a ‘Best’ segmentation does not exist. A segmentation algorithm is chosen based on the features it yields, the properties of the segments (point sets it generates, and the complexity of its algorithm. The segmentation is then assessed based on a variety of metrics such as homogeneity, heterogeneity, fragmentation, etc. Even after an algorithm is chosen its performance is still uncertain because the landscape/scenarios represented in a point cloud have a strong influence on the eventual segmentation. Thus selecting an appropriate segmentation algorithm is a process of trial and error. Automating the selection of segmentation algorithms and their parameters first requires methods to evaluate segmentations. Three common approaches for evaluating segmentation algorithms are ‘goodness methods’, ‘discrepancy methods’ and ‘benchmarks’. Benchmarks are considered the most comprehensive method of evaluation. This paper shortcomings in current benchmark methods are identified and a framework is proposed that permits both a visual and numerical evaluation of segmentations for different algorithms, algorithm parameters and evaluation metrics. The concept of the framework is demonstrated on a real point cloud. Current results are promising and suggest that it can be used to predict the performance of segmentation algorithms.

  10. Malignant pleural mesothelioma segmentation for photodynamic therapy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahim, Wael; Mestiri, Makram; Betrouni, Nacim; Hamrouni, Kamel

    2018-04-01

    Medical imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) combined with computer-aided diagnostic processing have already become important part of clinical routine specially for pleural diseases. The segmentation of the thoracic cavity represents an extremely important task in medical imaging for different reasons. Multiple features can be extracted by analyzing the thoracic cavity space and these features are signs of pleural diseases including the malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) which is the main focus of our research. This paper presents a method that detects the MPM in the thoracic cavity and plans the photodynamic therapy in the preoperative phase. This is achieved by using a texture analysis of the MPM region combined with a thoracic cavity segmentation method. The algorithm to segment the thoracic cavity consists of multiple stages. First, the rib cage structure is segmented using various image processing techniques. We used the segmented rib cage to detect feature points which represent the thoracic cavity boundaries. Next, the proposed method segments the structures of the inner thoracic cage and fits 2D closed curves to the detected pleural cavity features in each slice. The missing bone structures are interpolated using a prior knowledge from manual segmentation performed by an expert. Next, the tumor region is segmented inside the thoracic cavity using a texture analysis approach. Finally, the contact surface between the tumor region and the thoracic cavity curves is reconstructed in order to plan the photodynamic therapy. Using the adjusted output of the thoracic cavity segmentation method and the MPM segmentation method, we evaluated the contact surface generated from these two steps by comparing it to the ground truth. For this evaluation, we used 10 CT scans with pathologically confirmed MPM at stages 1 and 2. We obtained a high similarity rate between the manually planned surface and our proposed method. The average value of Jaccard index

  11. Benchmark for license plate character segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gabriel Resende; da Silva, Sirlene Pio Gomes; Menotti, David; Shwartz, William Robson

    2016-09-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) has been the focus of many researches in the past years. In general, ALPR is divided into the following problems: detection of on-track vehicles, license plate detection, segmentation of license plate characters, and optical character recognition (OCR). Even though commercial solutions are available for controlled acquisition conditions, e.g., the entrance of a parking lot, ALPR is still an open problem when dealing with data acquired from uncontrolled environments, such as roads and highways when relying only on imaging sensors. Due to the multiple orientations and scales of the license plates captured by the camera, a very challenging task of the ALPR is the license plate character segmentation (LPCS) step, because its effectiveness is required to be (near) optimal to achieve a high recognition rate by the OCR. To tackle the LPCS problem, this work proposes a benchmark composed of a dataset designed to focus specifically on the character segmentation step of the ALPR within an evaluation protocol. Furthermore, we propose the Jaccard-centroid coefficient, an evaluation measure more suitable than the Jaccard coefficient regarding the location of the bounding box within the ground-truth annotation. The dataset is composed of 2000 Brazilian license plates consisting of 14000 alphanumeric symbols and their corresponding bounding box annotations. We also present a straightforward approach to perform LPCS efficiently. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation for the dataset based on five LPCS approaches and demonstrate the importance of character segmentation for achieving an accurate OCR.

  12. Encapsulation of nodal segments of lobelia chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Hing Thong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lobelia chinensis served as an important herb in traditional chinese medicine. It is rare in the field and infected by some pathogens. Therefore, encapsulation of axillary buds has been developed for in vitro propagation of L. chinensis. Nodal explants of L. chinensis were used as inclusion materials for encapsulation. Various combinations of calcium chloride and sodium alginate were tested. Encapsulation beads produced by mixing 50 mM calcium chloride and 3.5% sodium alginate supported the optimal in vitro conversion potential. The number of multiple shoots formed by encapsulated nodal segments was not significantly different from the average of shoots produced by non-encapsulated nodal segments. The encapsulated nodal segments regenerated in vitro on different medium. The optimal germination and regeneration medium was Murashige-Skoog medium. Plantlets regenerated from the encapsulated nodal segments were hardened, acclimatized and established well in the field, showing similar morphology with parent plants. This encapsulation technology would serve as an alternative in vitro regeneration system for L. chinensis.

  13. Identifying like-minded audiences for global warming public engagement campaigns: an audience segmentation analysis and tool development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W Maibach

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving national reductions in greenhouse gas emissions will require public support for climate and energy policies and changes in population behaviors. Audience segmentation--a process of identifying coherent groups within a population--can be used to improve the effectiveness of public engagement campaigns.In Fall 2008, we conducted a nationally representative survey of American adults (n = 2,164 to identify audience segments for global warming public engagement campaigns. By subjecting multiple measures of global warming beliefs, behaviors, policy preferences, and issue engagement to latent class analysis, we identified six distinct segments ranging in size from 7 to 33% of the population. These six segments formed a continuum, from a segment of people who were highly worried, involved and supportive of policy responses (18%, to a segment of people who were completely unconcerned and strongly opposed to policy responses (7%. Three of the segments (totaling 70% were to varying degrees concerned about global warming and supportive of policy responses, two (totaling 18% were unsupportive, and one was largely disengaged (12%, having paid little attention to the issue. Certain behaviors and policy preferences varied greatly across these audiences, while others did not. Using discriminant analysis, we subsequently developed 36-item and 15-item instruments that can be used to categorize respondents with 91% and 84% accuracy, respectively.In late 2008, Americans supported a broad range of policies and personal actions to reduce global warming, although there was wide variation among the six identified audiences. To enhance the impact of campaigns, government agencies, non-profit organizations, and businesses seeking to engage the public can selectively target one or more of these audiences rather than address an undifferentiated general population. Our screening instruments are available to assist in that process.

  14. Identifying like-minded audiences for global warming public engagement campaigns: an audience segmentation analysis and tool development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Mertz, C K

    2011-03-10

    Achieving national reductions in greenhouse gas emissions will require public support for climate and energy policies and changes in population behaviors. Audience segmentation--a process of identifying coherent groups within a population--can be used to improve the effectiveness of public engagement campaigns. In Fall 2008, we conducted a nationally representative survey of American adults (n = 2,164) to identify audience segments for global warming public engagement campaigns. By subjecting multiple measures of global warming beliefs, behaviors, policy preferences, and issue engagement to latent class analysis, we identified six distinct segments ranging in size from 7 to 33% of the population. These six segments formed a continuum, from a segment of people who were highly worried, involved and supportive of policy responses (18%), to a segment of people who were completely unconcerned and strongly opposed to policy responses (7%). Three of the segments (totaling 70%) were to varying degrees concerned about global warming and supportive of policy responses, two (totaling 18%) were unsupportive, and one was largely disengaged (12%), having paid little attention to the issue. Certain behaviors and policy preferences varied greatly across these audiences, while others did not. Using discriminant analysis, we subsequently developed 36-item and 15-item instruments that can be used to categorize respondents with 91% and 84% accuracy, respectively. In late 2008, Americans supported a broad range of policies and personal actions to reduce global warming, although there was wide variation among the six identified audiences. To enhance the impact of campaigns, government agencies, non-profit organizations, and businesses seeking to engage the public can selectively target one or more of these audiences rather than address an undifferentiated general population. Our screening instruments are available to assist in that process.

  15. Identifying Like-Minded Audiences for Global Warming Public Engagement Campaigns: An Audience Segmentation Analysis and Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W.; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Mertz, C. K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Achieving national reductions in greenhouse gas emissions will require public support for climate and energy policies and changes in population behaviors. Audience segmentation – a process of identifying coherent groups within a population – can be used to improve the effectiveness of public engagement campaigns. Methodology/Principal Findings In Fall 2008, we conducted a nationally representative survey of American adults (n = 2,164) to identify audience segments for global warming public engagement campaigns. By subjecting multiple measures of global warming beliefs, behaviors, policy preferences, and issue engagement to latent class analysis, we identified six distinct segments ranging in size from 7 to 33% of the population. These six segments formed a continuum, from a segment of people who were highly worried, involved and supportive of policy responses (18%), to a segment of people who were completely unconcerned and strongly opposed to policy responses (7%). Three of the segments (totaling 70%) were to varying degrees concerned about global warming and supportive of policy responses, two (totaling 18%) were unsupportive, and one was largely disengaged (12%), having paid little attention to the issue. Certain behaviors and policy preferences varied greatly across these audiences, while others did not. Using discriminant analysis, we subsequently developed 36-item and 15-item instruments that can be used to categorize respondents with 91% and 84% accuracy, respectively. Conclusions/Significance In late 2008, Americans supported a broad range of policies and personal actions to reduce global warming, although there was wide variation among the six identified audiences. To enhance the impact of campaigns, government agencies, non-profit organizations, and businesses seeking to engage the public can selectively target one or more of these audiences rather than address an undifferentiated general population. Our screening instruments are

  16. Construction of precast high performance concrete segmental bridges.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Ripoll, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    The construction of both medium and long span precast concrete segmental bridges is widely spread throughout Spain. Usually, the segments have multiple-keyed epoxy joints, and are assembled by internal prestressing. Yet, there is a more recent type of bridge with dry joints and external prestressing. In these last ones, shear is transferred through physical support between keys and friction between faces of the compressed joint. This shear force is evaluated using friction coefficients from t...

  17. Enhanced life time and suppressed efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with multiple quantum well structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja-Ryong Koo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs with multiple quantum well structures which confine triplet exciton inside an emitting layer (EML region. Five types of OLEDs, from a single to five quantum wells, are fabricated with charge control layers to produce high efficiencies, and the performance of the devices is investigated. The improved quantum efficiency and lifetime of the OLED with four quantum wells, and its suppressed quantum efficiency roll-off of 17.6%, can be described by the increased electron–hole charge balance owing to the bipolar property as well as the efficient triplet exciton confinement within each EML, and by prevention of serious triplet–triplet and/or triplet–polaron annihilation as well as the Förster self-quenching due to charge control layers.

  18. Optimally segmented magnetic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bahl, Christian; Bjørk, Rasmus

    We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... is not available.We will illustrate the results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as electric motors/generators (as the example in the picture), beam focusing for particle accelerators and magnetic refrigeration devices.......We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... magnets[1][2]. However, the powerful rare-earth magnets are generally expensive, so both the scientific and industrial communities have devoted a lot of effort into developing suitable design methods. Even so, many magnet optimization algorithms either are based on heuristic approaches[3...

  19. Proposal of a segmentation procedure for skid resistance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejeda, S. V.; Tampier, Hernan de Solominihac; Navarro, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Skin resistance of pavements presents a high spatial variability along a road. This pavement characteristic is directly related to wet weather accidents; therefore, it is important to identify and characterize the skid resistance of homogeneous segments along a road in order to implement proper road safety management. Several data segmentation methods have been applied to other pavement characteristics (e.g. roughness). However, no application to skin resistance data was found during the literature review for this study. Typical segmentation methods are rather too general or too specific to ensure a detailed segmentation of skid resistance data, which can be used for managing pavement performance. The main objective of this paper is to propose a procedure for segmenting skid resistance data, based on existing data segmentation methods. The procedure needs to be efficient and to fulfill road management requirements. The proposed procedure considers the Leverage method to identify outlier data, the CUSUM method to accomplish initial data segmentation and a statistical method to group consecutive segments that are statistically similar. The statistical method applies the Student's t-test of mean equities, along with analysis of variance and the Tuckey test for the multiple comparison of means. The proposed procedure was applied to a sample of skid resistance data measured with SCRIM (Side Force Coefficient Routine Investigatory Machine) on a 4.2 km section of Chilean road and was compared to conventional segmentation methods. Results showed that the proposed procedure is more efficient than the conventional segmentation procedures, achieving the minimum weighted sum of square errors (SSEp) with all the identified segments statistically different. Due to its mathematical basis, proposed procedure can be easily adapted and programmed for use in road safety management. (author)

  20. Boundary segmentation for fluorescence microscopy using steerable filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, David Joon; Salama, Paul; Dunn, Kenneth W.; Delp, Edward J.

    2017-02-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is used to image multiple subcellular structures in living cells which are not readily observed using conventional optical microscopy. Moreover, two-photon microscopy is widely used to image structures deeper in tissue. Recent advancement in fluorescence microscopy has enabled the generation of large data sets of images at different depths, times, and spectral channels. Thus, automatic object segmentation is necessary since manual segmentation would be inefficient and biased. However, automatic segmentation is still a challenging problem as regions of interest may not have well defined boundaries as well as non-uniform pixel intensities. This paper describes a method for segmenting tubular structures in fluorescence microscopy images of rat kidney and liver samples using adaptive histogram equalization, foreground/background segmentation, steerable filters to capture directional tendencies, and connected-component analysis. The results from several data sets demonstrate that our method can segment tubular boundaries successfully. Moreover, our method has better performance when compared to other popular image segmentation methods when using ground truth data obtained via manual segmentation.

  1. Segmentation of the Infant Food Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hrůzová, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical part covers general market segmentation, namely the marketing importance of differences among consumers, the essence of market segmentation, its main conditions and the process of segmentation, which consists of four consecutive phases - defining the market, determining important criteria, uncovering segments and developing segment profiles. The segmentation criteria, segmentation approaches, methods and techniques for the process of market segmentation are also described in t...

  2. Artificial neural networks environmental forecasting in comparison with multiple linear regression technique: From heavy metals to organic micropollutants screening in agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Maria Grazia; Ferrini, Mauro; Manni, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    The assessment of metals and organic micropollutants contamination in agricultural soils is a difficult challenge due to the extensive area used to collect and analyze a very large number of samples. With Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs measurement methods and subsequent the treatment of data, the European Community advises the develop low-cost and fast methods allowing routing analysis of a great number of samples, providing rapid measurement of these compounds in the environment, feeds and food. The aim of the present work has been to find a method suitable to describe the relations occurring between organic and inorganic contaminants and use the value of the latter in order to forecast the former. In practice, the use of a metal portable soil analyzer coupled with an efficient statistical procedure enables the required objective to be achieved. Compared to Multiple Linear Regression, the Artificial Neural Networks technique has shown to be an excellent forecasting method, though there is no linear correlation between the variables to be analyzed.

  3. Prediction of octanol-water partition coefficients of organic compounds by multiple linear regression, partial least squares, and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmohammadi, Hassan

    2009-11-30

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study was performed to develop models those relate the structure of 141 organic compounds to their octanol-water partition coefficients (log P(o/w)). A genetic algorithm was applied as a variable selection tool. Modeling of log P(o/w) of these compounds as a function of theoretically derived descriptors was established by multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS), and artificial neural network (ANN). The best selected descriptors that appear in the models are: atomic charge weighted partial positively charged surface area (PPSA-3), fractional atomic charge weighted partial positive surface area (FPSA-3), minimum atomic partial charge (Qmin), molecular volume (MV), total dipole moment of molecule (mu), maximum antibonding contribution of a molecule orbital in the molecule (MAC), and maximum free valency of a C atom in the molecule (MFV). The result obtained showed the ability of developed artificial neural network to prediction of partition coefficients of organic compounds. Also, the results revealed the superiority of ANN over the MLR and PLS models. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A Dataset and a Technique for Generalized Nuclear Segmentation for Computational Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Neeraj; Verma, Ruchika; Sharma, Sanuj; Bhargava, Surabhi; Vahadane, Abhishek; Sethi, Amit

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear segmentation in digital microscopic tissue images can enable extraction of high-quality features for nuclear morphometrics and other analysis in computational pathology. Conventional image processing techniques, such as Otsu thresholding and watershed segmentation, do not work effectively on challenging cases, such as chromatin-sparse and crowded nuclei. In contrast, machine learning-based segmentation can generalize across various nuclear appearances. However, training machine learning algorithms requires data sets of images, in which a vast number of nuclei have been annotated. Publicly accessible and annotated data sets, along with widely agreed upon metrics to compare techniques, have catalyzed tremendous innovation and progress on other image classification problems, particularly in object recognition. Inspired by their success, we introduce a large publicly accessible data set of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained tissue images with more than 21000 painstakingly annotated nuclear boundaries, whose quality was validated by a medical doctor. Because our data set is taken from multiple hospitals and includes a diversity of nuclear appearances from several patients, disease states, and organs, techniques trained on it are likely to generalize well and work right out-of-the-box on other H&E-stained images. We also propose a new metric to evaluate nuclear segmentation results that penalizes object- and pixel-level errors in a unified manner, unlike previous metrics that penalize only one type of error. We also propose a segmentation technique based on deep learning that lays a special emphasis on identifying the nuclear boundaries, including those between the touching or overlapping nuclei, and works well on a diverse set of test images.

  5. Improving cerebellar segmentation with statistical fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassard, Andrew J.; Yang, Zhen; Prince, Jerry L.; Claassen, Daniel O.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    The cerebellum is a somatotopically organized central component of the central nervous system well known to be involved with motor coordination and increasingly recognized roles in cognition and planning. Recent work in multiatlas labeling has created methods that offer the potential for fully automated 3-D parcellation of the cerebellar lobules and vermis (which are organizationally equivalent to cortical gray matter areas). This work explores the trade offs of using different statistical fusion techniques and post hoc optimizations in two datasets with distinct imaging protocols. We offer a novel fusion technique by extending the ideas of the Selective and Iterative Method for Performance Level Estimation (SIMPLE) to a patch-based performance model. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm, Non- Local SIMPLE, for segmentation of a mixed population of healthy subjects and patients with severe cerebellar anatomy. Under the first imaging protocol, we show that Non-Local SIMPLE outperforms previous gold-standard segmentation techniques. In the second imaging protocol, we show that Non-Local SIMPLE outperforms previous gold standard techniques but is outperformed by a non-locally weighted vote with the deeper population of atlases available. This work advances the state of the art in open source cerebellar segmentation algorithms and offers the opportunity for routinely including cerebellar segmentation in magnetic resonance imaging studies that acquire whole brain T1-weighted volumes with approximately 1 mm isotropic resolution.

  6. Application of hybrid techniques (self-organizing map and fuzzy algorithm) using backscatter data for segmentation and fine-scale roughness characterization of seepage-related seafloor along the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Menezes, A.A.A.; Dandapath, S.; Fernandes, W.A.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Haris, K.; Gokul, G.S.

    density. 2 I. INTRODUCTION Echo-sounding systems, single beam (SBES) and multi-beam (MBES), allow coincident acquisition of high-resolution seafloor backscatter and bathymetric data [1], [2], which enormously sustains the marine exploration..., the SOM can be utilized to formulate a decision regarding the number of data classes during the online data acquisition, that are then used as an input to the fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithms for data segmentation [12]. The FCM will require initial...

  7. Effects of terrestrial and marine organic matters on deposition of dechlorane plus (DP) in marine sediments from the Southern Yellow Sea, China: Evidence from multiple biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guoguang; Peng, Jialin; Hao, Ting; Feng, Lijuan; Liu, Qiaoling; Li, Xianguo

    2017-01-01

    As an emerging halogenated organic contaminant, Dechlorane Plus (DP) was scarcely reported in marine environments, especially in China. In this work, 35 surface sediments and a sediment core were collected across the Southern Yellow Sea (SYS) to comprehensively explore the spatio-temporal distribution and possible migration pathway of DP. DP concentrations ranged from 14.3 to 245.5 pg/g dry weight in the surface sediments, displaying a seaward increasing trend with the high levels in the central mud zone. This spatial distribution pattern was ascribed to that fine particles with the elevated DP levels were preferentially transported to the central mud zone under hydrodynamic forcing and/or via long-range atmospheric transportation and deposition. DP concentrations in sediment core gradually increased from the mid-1950s to present, which corresponded well with the historical production and usage of DP, as well as the economic development in China. Significantly positive correlation between DP and total organic carbon (TOC) in both surface sediments and sediment core indicated TOC-dependent natural deposition of DP in the SYS. We used multiple biomarkers, for the first time, to explore the potential effects of terrestrial and marine organic matters (TOM and MOM) on DP deposition. The results showed that competition may occur between TOM and MOM for DP adsorption, and MOM was the predominant contributor in controlling DP deposition in the marine sediments from the SYS. - Highlights: • Effects of TOM and MOM on DP deposition were first explored by multi-biomarkers. • Hydrodynamic forcing and atmospheric deposition were responsible for DP in the SYS. • MOM was the predominant contributor in controlling DP deposition to sediments in the SYS. • Competition may occur between TOM and MOM for DP adsorption. - This study was the first attempt to comprehensively explore the effects of TOM and MOM on DP deposition in marine sediments from the SYS.

  8. Price regulation to remove EE-DSM disincentives and pressure for increased energy sales in monopoly segments of restructured electricity and gas markets: the multiple drivers target (MDT) tariff scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliano, L.; Alari, P.; Ruggieri, G.; Irrek, W.; Thomas, S.; Leprich, U.

    2002-01-01

    Even in restructured markets a part of the energy business remains a monopoly and should be correctly regulated. We present an analysis which reveals common structures in schemes enacted in UK, Norway, Portugal and recently (on the basis of this study) in Italy. The identified structure, which we named Multiple Driver Target (MDT) regulation is a performance-based regulation scheme, which provides incentives for greater economic efficiency, without creating biases against environmental efficiency. The method relies on a statistical analysis of the correlation of utility costs and a few 'cost drivers' (e.g. number of customers served, grid length, sold or transported energy). We discuss how MDT can be used to set price levels and price changes in the regulatory period in such a way to correctly match the evolution of costs and avoid awarding unwanted signals to utilities. At the opposite, pure Price Cap regulation provides artificial incentives to utilities to increase energy sales (even if this is not economic for the customers nor for society ) beyond the predicted levels foreseen in the price fixing Rate Cases. We show that Under MDT regulation the reduction in profits due to reduced sales as a consequence of DSM is minimised. In so doing this procedure removes the most important disincentive for utilities to implement DSM programmes since lost profits due to reduced sales can be substantially higher than direct costs of DSM programmes; once MDT regulation is in place, also these direct costs can be recovered through a small part of the tariff. We also discuss how MDT can be implemented with a moderate effort by regulatory authorities. (author)

  9. Phasing multi-segment undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Elleaume, P.; Vaerenbergh, P. Van

    1996-01-01

    An important issue in the manufacture of multi-segment undulators as a source of synchrotron radiation or as a free-electron laser (FEL) is the phasing between successive segments. The state of the art is briefly reviewed, after which a novel pure permanent magnet phasing section that is passive and does not require any current is presented. The phasing section allows the introduction of a 6 mm longitudinal gap between each segment, resulting in complete mechanical independence and reduced magnetic interaction between segments. The tolerance of the longitudinal positioning of one segment with respect to the next is found to be 2.8 times lower than that of conventional phasing. The spectrum at all gaps and useful harmonics is almost unchanged when compared with a single-segment undulator of the same total length. (au) 3 refs

  10. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  11. International EUREKA: Market Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of the Market Segment of the EUREKA model is to simultaneously project uranium market prices, uranium supply and purchasing activities. The regional demands are extrinsic. However, annual forward contracting activities to meet these demands as well as inventory requirements are calculated. The annual price forecast is based on relatively short term, forward balances between available supply and desired purchases. The forecasted prices and extrapolated price trends determine decisions related to exploration and development, new production operations, and the operation of existing capacity. Purchasing and inventory requirements are also adjusted based on anticipated prices. The calculation proceeds one year at a time. Conditions calculated at the end of one year become the starting conditions for the calculation in the subsequent year

  12. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  13. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  14. Segmentation-DrivenTomographic Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas

    such that the segmentation subsequently can be carried out by use of a simple segmentation method, for instance just a thresholding method. We tested the advantages of going from a two-stage reconstruction method to a one stage segmentation-driven reconstruction method for the phase contrast tomography reconstruction......The tomographic reconstruction problem is concerned with creating a model of the interior of an object from some measured data, typically projections of the object. After reconstructing an object it is often desired to segment it, either automatically or manually. For computed tomography (CT...

  15. Automated medical image segmentation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT and Magnetic resonance (MR imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits and limitations of methods currently available for segmentation of medical images.

  16. ADVANCED CLUSTER BASED IMAGE SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kesavaraja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents efficient and portable implementations of a useful image segmentation technique which makes use of the faster and a variant of the conventional connected components algorithm which we call parallel Components. In the Modern world majority of the doctors are need image segmentation as the service for various purposes and also they expect this system is run faster and secure. Usually Image segmentation Algorithms are not working faster. In spite of several ongoing researches in Conventional Segmentation and its Algorithms might not be able to run faster. So we propose a cluster computing environment for parallel image Segmentation to provide faster result. This paper is the real time implementation of Distributed Image Segmentation in Clustering of Nodes. We demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of our method on a set of Medical CT Scan Images. Our general framework is a single address space, distributed memory programming model. We use efficient techniques for distributing and coalescing data as well as efficient combinations of task and data parallelism. The image segmentation algorithm makes use of an efficient cluster process which uses a novel approach for parallel merging. Our experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis and practical results. It provides the faster execution time for segmentation, when compared with Conventional method. Our test data is different CT scan images from the Medical database. More efficient implementations of Image Segmentation will likely result in even faster execution times.

  17. Active contour based segmentation of resected livers in CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelmann, Simon; Oyarzun Laura, Cristina; Drechsler, Klaus; Wesarg, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    The majority of state of the art segmentation algorithms are able to give proper results in healthy organs but not in pathological ones. However, many clinical applications require an accurate segmentation of pathological organs. The determination of the target boundaries for radiotherapy or liver volumetry calculations are examples of this. Volumetry measurements are of special interest after tumor resection for follow up of liver regrow. The segmentation of resected livers presents additional challenges that were not addressed by state of the art algorithms. This paper presents a snakes based algorithm specially developed for the segmentation of resected livers. The algorithm is enhanced with a novel dynamic smoothing technique that allows the active contour to propagate with different speeds depending on the intensities visible in its neighborhood. The algorithm is evaluated in 6 clinical CT images as well as 18 artificial datasets generated from additional clinical CT images.

  18. Graph run-length matrices for histopathological image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Akif Burak; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2011-03-01

    The histopathological examination of tissue specimens is essential for cancer diagnosis and grading. However, this examination is subject to a considerable amount of observer variability as it mainly relies on visual interpretation of pathologists. To alleviate this problem, it is very important to develop computational quantitative tools, for which image segmentation constitutes the core step. In this paper, we introduce an effective and robust algorithm for the segmentation of histopathological tissue images. This algorithm incorporates the background knowledge of the tissue organization into segmentation. For this purpose, it quantifies spatial relations of cytological tissue components by constructing a graph and uses this graph to define new texture features for image segmentation. This new texture definition makes use of the idea of gray-level run-length matrices. However, it considers the runs of cytological components on a graph to form a matrix, instead of considering the runs of pixel intensities. Working with colon tissue images, our experiments demonstrate that the texture features extracted from "graph run-length matrices" lead to high segmentation accuracies, also providing a reasonable number of segmented regions. Compared with four other segmentation algorithms, the results show that the proposed algorithm is more effective in histopathological image segmentation.

  19. An improved segmented gamma scanning for radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cheng; Wang Dezhong; Bai Yunfei; Qian Nan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the equivalent radius of radioactive sources in each segment is determined by analyzing the different responses of the two identical detectors, and an improved segmented gamma scanning is used to assay waste drums containing mainly organic materials, and proved by an established simulation model. The simulated radioactivity distributions in homogenous waste drum and an experimental heterogeneous waste drum were compared with those of traditional segmented gamma scanning. The results show that our method is good in performance and can be used for analyzing the waste drums. (authors)

  20. Market orientation for the hotel segment : the portuguese case

    OpenAIRE

    Raposo, Mario; Estevão, Cristina; Mainardes, Emerson; Domingues, Maria José

    2010-01-01

    In view of the importance of the hotel segment for the tourism and for the economy of countries such as Portugal, the objective of this study was to measure the level of orientation for the market of the largest hotel groups of Portugal. This investigation initially emphasized the importance of the marketing for the organizations, mainly the orientation for the market. After a brief explanation on the hotel segment in Portugal, an empirical study was presented, of quantitative, exploratory an...

  1. Multiple internal standard normalization for improving HS-SPME-GC-MS quantitation in virgin olive oil volatile organic compounds (VOO-VOCs) profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Martina; Migliorini, Marzia; Cherubini, Chiara; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Calamai, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The commercial value of virgin olive oils (VOOs) strongly depends on their classification, also based on the aroma of the oils, usually evaluated by a panel test. Nowadays, a reliable analytical method is still needed to evaluate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and support the standard panel test method. To date, the use of HS-SPME sampling coupled to GC-MS is generally accepted for the analysis of VOCs in VOOs. However, VOO is a challenging matrix due to the simultaneous presence of: i) compounds at ppm and ppb concentrations; ii) molecules belonging to different chemical classes and iii) analytes with a wide range of molecular mass. Therefore, HS-SPME-GC-MS quantitation based upon the use of external standard method or of only a single internal standard (ISTD) for data normalization in an internal standard method, may be troublesome. In this work a multiple internal standard normalization is proposed to overcome these problems and improving quantitation of VOO-VOCs. As many as 11 ISTDs were used for quantitation of 71 VOCs. For each of them the most suitable ISTD was selected and a good linearity in a wide range of calibration was obtained. Except for E-2-hexenal, without ISTD or with an unsuitable ISTD, the linear range of calibration was narrower with respect to that obtained by a suitable ISTD, confirming the usefulness of multiple internal standard normalization for the correct quantitation of VOCs profile in VOOs. The method was validated for 71 VOCs, and then applied to a series of lampante virgin olive oils and extra virgin olive oils. In light of our results, we propose the application of this analytical approach for routine quantitative analyses and to support sensorial analysis for the evaluation of positive and negative VOOs attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased dependence of leucine in posttraumatic sepsis: leucine/tyrosine clearance ratio as an indicator of hepatic impairment in septic multiple organ failure syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittiruti, M; Siegel, J H; Sganga, G; Coleman, B; Wiles, C E; Belzberg, H; Wedel, S; Placko, R

    1985-09-01

    The body clearance of 10 plasma amino acids (AA) was determined from the rate of compared muscle-released AA and AA administered by infusion of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) compared to their estimated extracellular (ECW) pool in patients with multiple trauma with (n = 10) or without (n = 16) sepsis at 8-hour intervals. In both nonseptic and septic trauma, increasing TPN increased the mean clearance rate of all infused AA. When the individual AA clearance rates were normalized by the total AA infusion rate, regression-covariance analysis revealed that patients with sepsis had relatively impaired clearances of alanine (p less than 0.01) and methionine, proline, phenylalanine, and tyrosine p less than 0.05 for all). In contrast, the clearances of branched-chain AA (BCAA) valine and isoleucine were maintained, and the clearance of leucine was higher (p less than 0.05) in trauma patients with sepsis than in those without. At any AA infusion rate, compared with surviving patients with sepsis (p less than 0.05), patients who developed fatal multiple organ failure syndrome (MOFS) showed increased clearances of all BCAA with further impaired clearance of tyrosine. The clearance ratio of leucine/tyrosine was increased in MOFS at any AA infusion rate (p less than 0.0001), was an indicator of severity, and, if persistent, was a manifestation of a fatal outcome. Because tyrosine metabolism occurs almost entirely in the liver while leucine can be utilized by viscera and muscle, these data suggest early and progressive septic impairment of the pattern of hepatic uptake and oxidation of AA with a greater body dependence on BCAA, especially leucine, as septic MOFS develops.

  3. Association of low non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopic measurements during initial trauma resuscitation with future development of multiple organ dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, Bret A; Campons, Kevin M; Bozeman, William P

    2015-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) non-invasively monitors muscle tissue oxygen saturation (StO2). It may provide a continuous noninvasive measurement to identify occult hypoperfusion, guide resuscitation, and predict the development of multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) after severe trauma. We evaluated the correlation between initial StO2 and the development of MOD in multi-trauma patients. Patients presenting to our urban, academic, Level I Trauma Center/Emergency Department and meeting standardized trauma-team activation criteria were enrolled in this prospective trial. NIRS monitoring was initiated immediately on arrival with collection of StO2 at the thenar eminence and continued up to 24 hours for those admitted to the Trauma Intensive Care Unit (TICU). Standardized resuscitation laboratory measures and clinical evaluation tools were collected. The primary outcome was the association between initial StO2 and the development of MOD within the first 24 hours based on a MOD score of 6 or greater. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed; numeric means, multivariate regression and rank sum comparisons were utilized. Clinicians were blinded from the StO2 values. Over a 14 month period, 78 patients were enrolled. Mean age was 40.9 years (SD 18.2), 84.4% were male, 76.9% had a blunt trauma mechanism and mean injury severity score (ISS) was 18.5 (SD 12.9). Of the 78 patients, 26 (33.3%) developed MOD within the first 24 hours. The MOD patients had mean initial StO2 values of 53.3 (SD 10.3), significantly lower than those of non-MOD patients 61.1 (SD 10.0); P=0.002. The mean ISS among MOD patients was 29.9 (SD 11.5), significantly higher than that of non-MODS patients, 12.1 (SD 9.1) (P<0.0001). The mean shock index (SI) among MOD patients was 0.92 (SD 0.28), also significantly higher than that of non-MODS patients, 0.73 (SD 0.19) (P=0.0007). Lactate values were not significantly different between groups. Non-invasive, continuous StO2 near-infrared spectroscopy

  4. Effects of defined mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on multiple cellular responses in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2, using high content analysis screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jodie [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Zimmer, Karin Elisabeth [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo (Norway); Frizzell, Caroline [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Verhaegen, Steven; Ropstad, Erik [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo (Norway); Connolly, Lisa, E-mail: l.connolly@qub.ac.uk [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances, highly resistant to environmental degradation, which can bio-accumulate and have long-range atmospheric transport potential. Most studies focus on single compound effects, however as humans are exposed to several POPs simultaneously, investigating exposure effects of real life POP mixtures on human health is necessary. A defined mixture of POPs was used, where the compound concentration reflected its contribution to the levels seen in Scandinavian human serum (total mix). Several sub mixtures representing different classes of POPs were also constructed. The perfluorinated (PFC) mixture contained six perfluorinated compounds, brominated (Br) mixture contained seven brominated compounds, chlorinated (Cl) mixture contained polychlorinated biphenyls and also p,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, three chlordanes, three hexachlorocyclohexanes and dieldrin. Human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells were used for 2 h and 48 h exposures to the seven mixtures and analysis on a CellInsight™ NXT High Content Screening platform. Multiple cytotoxic endpoints were investigated: cell number, nuclear intensity and area, mitochondrial mass and membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both the Br and Cl mixtures induced ROS production but did not lead to apoptosis. The PFC mixture induced ROS production and likely induced cell apoptosis accompanied by the dissipation of MMP. Synergistic effects were evident for ROS induction when cells were exposed to the PFC + Br mixture in comparison to the effects of the individual mixtures. No significant effects were detected in the Br + Cl, PFC + Cl or total mixtures, which contain the same concentrations of chlorinated compounds as the Cl mixture plus additional compounds; highlighting the need for further exploration of POP mixtures in risk assessment. - Highlights: • High content analysis (HCA) is a novel approach for determining toxicity of

  5. Effects of defined mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on multiple cellular responses in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2, using high content analysis screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Jodie; Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Zimmer, Karin Elisabeth; Frizzell, Caroline; Verhaegen, Steven; Ropstad, Erik; Connolly, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances, highly resistant to environmental degradation, which can bio-accumulate and have long-range atmospheric transport potential. Most studies focus on single compound effects, however as humans are exposed to several POPs simultaneously, investigating exposure effects of real life POP mixtures on human health is necessary. A defined mixture of POPs was used, where the compound concentration reflected its contribution to the levels seen in Scandinavian human serum (total mix). Several sub mixtures representing different classes of POPs were also constructed. The perfluorinated (PFC) mixture contained six perfluorinated compounds, brominated (Br) mixture contained seven brominated compounds, chlorinated (Cl) mixture contained polychlorinated biphenyls and also p,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, three chlordanes, three hexachlorocyclohexanes and dieldrin. Human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells were used for 2 h and 48 h exposures to the seven mixtures and analysis on a CellInsight™ NXT High Content Screening platform. Multiple cytotoxic endpoints were investigated: cell number, nuclear intensity and area, mitochondrial mass and membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both the Br and Cl mixtures induced ROS production but did not lead to apoptosis. The PFC mixture induced ROS production and likely induced cell apoptosis accompanied by the dissipation of MMP. Synergistic effects were evident for ROS induction when cells were exposed to the PFC + Br mixture in comparison to the effects of the individual mixtures. No significant effects were detected in the Br + Cl, PFC + Cl or total mixtures, which contain the same concentrations of chlorinated compounds as the Cl mixture plus additional compounds; highlighting the need for further exploration of POP mixtures in risk assessment. - Highlights: • High content analysis (HCA) is a novel approach for determining toxicity of

  6. 4G/5G Polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene is associated with multiple organ dysfunction in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Muhammad Aminul; Takeyama, Naoshi; Harada, Makoto; Miki, Yasuo; Takeuchi, Akinori; Inoue, Sousuke; Nakagawa, Takashi; Kanou, Hideki; Hirakawa, Akihiko; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Impaired fibrinolysis is associated with a higher incidence of both multiple organ dysfunction and mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is the chief inhibitor of fibrinolysis. We investigated the influence of the 4G/5G polymorphism (rs1799768) of the PAI-1 gene on the plasma PAI-1 level and the outcome of critically ill patients. In 41 consecutive patients admitted to the ICU, PAI-1 gene polymorphism was assessed, plasma PAI-1 and arterial lactate concentrations were measured and clinical severity scores were recorded. Homozygotes for the 4G allele had higher plasma levels of PAI-1 antigen. The mean ± SD PAI-1 antigen level was 193.31 ± 167.93 ng/ml for the 4G/4G genotype, 100.67 ± 114.16 ng/ml for the 4G/5G genotype and 0.43 ± 0.53 ng/ml for the 5G/5G genotype. There was a significant correlation between plasma PAI-1 and arterial lactate concentrations, as well as between PAI-1 and severity scores. The mortality rate was 63, 33 and 0% for patients with the 4G/4G, 4G/5G and 5G/5G genotypes, respectively. These results demonstrate that the 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene affects the plasma PAI-1 concentration, which could impair fibrinolysis and cause organ failure, and thus the presence of the 4G allele increases the risk of death. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Highly sensitive photoelectrochemical biosensor for kinase activity detection and inhibition based on the surface defect recognition and multiple signal amplification of metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zonghua; Yan, Zhiyong; Wang, Feng; Cai, Jibao; Guo, Lei; Su, Jiakun; Liu, Yang

    2017-11-15

    A turn-on photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor based on the surface defect recognition and multiple signal amplification of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) was proposed for highly sensitive protein kinase activity analysis and inhibitor evaluation. In this strategy, based on the phosphorylation reaction in the presence of protein kinase A (PKA), the Zr-based metal-organic frameworks (UiO-66) accommodated with [Ru(bpy) 3 ] 2+ photoactive dyes in the pores were linked to the phosphorylated kemptide modified TiO 2 /ITO electrode through the chelation between the Zr 4+ defects on the surface of UiO-66 and the phosphate groups in kemptide. Under visible light irradiation, the excited electrons from [Ru(bpy) 3 ] 2+ adsorbed in the pores of UiO-66 injected into the TiO 2 conduction band to generate photocurrent, which could be utilized for protein kinase activities detection. The large surface area and high porosities of UiO-66 facilitated a large number of [Ru(bpy) 3 ] 2+ that increased the photocurrent significantly, and afforded a highly sensitive PEC analysis of kinase activity. The detection limit of the as-proposed PEC biosensor was 0.0049UmL -1 (S/N!=!3). The biosensor was also applied for quantitative kinase inhibitor evaluation and PKA activities detection in MCF-7 cell lysates. The developed visible-light PEC biosensor provides a simple detection procedure and a cost-effective manner for PKA activity assays, and shows great potential in clinical diagnosis and drug discoveries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Deformable segmentation of 3D MR prostate images via distributed discriminative dictionary and ensemble learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yanrong; Shao, Yeqin; Gao, Yaozong; Price, True; Oto, Aytekin; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Automatic prostate segmentation from MR images is an important task in various clinical applications such as prostate cancer staging and MR-guided radiotherapy planning. However, the large appearance and shape variations of the prostate in MR images make the segmentation problem difficult to solve. Traditional Active Shape/Appearance Model (ASM/AAM) has limited accuracy on this problem, since its basic assumption, i.e., both shape and appearance of the targeted organ follow Gaussian distributions, is invalid in prostate MR images. To this end, the authors propose a sparse dictionary learning method to model the image appearance in a nonparametric fashion and further integrate the appearance model into a deformable segmentation framework for prostate MR segmentation. Methods: To drive the deformable model for prostate segmentation, the authors propose nonparametric appearance and shape models. The nonparametric appearance model is based on a novel dictionary learning method, namely distributed discriminative dictionary (DDD) learning, which is able to capture fine distinctions in image appearance. To increase the differential power of traditional dictionary-based classification methods, the authors' DDD learning approach takes three strategies. First, two dictionaries for prostate and nonprostate tissues are built, respectively, using the discriminative features obtained from minimum redundancy maximum relevance feature selection. Second, linear discriminant analysis is employed as a linear classifier to boost the optimal separation between prostate and nonprostate tissues, based on the representation residuals from sparse representation. Third, to enhance the robustness of the authors' classification method, multiple local dictionaries are learned for local regions along the prostate boundary (each with small appearance variations), instead of learning one global classifier for the entire prostate. These discriminative dictionaries are located on

  9. Deformable segmentation of 3D MR prostate images via distributed discriminative dictionary and ensemble learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanrong; Gao, Yaozong; Shao, Yeqin; Price, True; Oto, Aytekin; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Automatic prostate segmentation from MR images is an important task in various clinical applications such as prostate cancer staging and MR-guided radiotherapy planning. However, the large appearance and shape variations of the prostate in MR images make the segmentation problem difficult to solve. Traditional Active Shape/Appearance Model (ASM/AAM) has limited accuracy on this problem, since its basic assumption, i.e., both shape and appearance of the targeted organ follow Gaussian distributions, is invalid in prostate MR images. To this end, the authors propose a sparse dictionary learning method to model the image appearance in a nonparametric fashion and further integrate the appearance model into a deformable segmentation framework for prostate MR segmentation. Methods: To drive the deformable model for prostate segmentation, the authors propose nonparametric appearance and shape models. The nonparametric appearance model is based on a novel dictionary learning method, namely distributed discriminative dictionary (DDD) learning, which is able to capture fine distinctions in image appearance. To increase the differential power of traditional dictionary-based classification methods, the authors' DDD learning approach takes three strategies. First, two dictionaries for prostate and nonprostate tissues are built, respectively, using the discriminative features obtained from minimum redundancy maximum relevance feature selection. Second, linear discriminant analysis is employed as a linear classifier to boost the optimal separation between prostate and nonprostate tissues, based on the representation residuals from sparse representation. Third, to enhance the robustness of the authors' classification method, multiple local dictionaries are learned for local regions along the prostate boundary (each with small appearance variations), instead of learning one global classifier for the entire prostate. These discriminative dictionaries are located on different

  10. Deformable segmentation of 3D MR prostate images via distributed discriminative dictionary and ensemble learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanrong; Gao, Yaozong; Shao, Yeqin; Price, True; Oto, Aytekin; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-07-01

    Automatic prostate segmentation from MR images is an important task in various clinical applications such as prostate cancer staging and MR-guided radiotherapy planning. However, the large appearance and shape variations of the prostate in MR images make the segmentation problem difficult to solve. Traditional Active Shape/Appearance Model (ASM/AAM) has limited accuracy on this problem, since its basic assumption, i.e., both shape and appearance of the targeted organ follow Gaussian distributions, is invalid in prostate MR images. To this end, the authors propose a sparse dictionary learning method to model the image appearance in a nonparametric fashion and further integrate the appearance model into a deformable segmentation framework for prostate MR segmentation. To drive the deformable model for prostate segmentation, the authors propose nonparametric appearance and shape models. The nonparametric appearance model is based on a novel dictionary learning method, namely distributed discriminative dictionary (DDD) learning, which is able to capture fine distinctions in image appearance. To increase the differential power of traditional dictionary-based classification methods, the authors' DDD learning approach takes three strategies. First, two dictionaries for prostate and nonprostate tissues are built, respectively, using the discriminative features obtained from minimum redundancy maximum relevance feature selection. Second, linear discriminant analysis is employed as a linear classifier to boost the optimal separation between prostate and nonprostate tissues, based on the representation residuals from sparse representation. Third, to enhance the robustness of the authors' classification method, multiple local dictionaries are learned for local regions along the prostate boundary (each with small appearance variations), instead of learning one global classifier for the entire prostate. These discriminative dictionaries are located on different patches of the

  11. Deformable segmentation of 3D MR prostate images via distributed discriminative dictionary and ensemble learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yanrong; Shao, Yeqin [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Gao, Yaozong; Price, True [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 and Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Oto, Aytekin [Department of Radiology, Section of Urology, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Shen, Dinggang, E-mail: dgshen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 and Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Automatic prostate segmentation from MR images is an important task in various clinical applications such as prostate cancer staging and MR-guided radiotherapy planning. However, the large appearance and shape variations of the prostate in MR images make the segmentation problem difficult to solve. Traditional Active Shape/Appearance Model (ASM/AAM) has limited accuracy on this problem, since its basic assumption, i.e., both shape and appearance of the targeted organ follow Gaussian distributions, is invalid in prostate MR images. To this end, the authors propose a sparse dictionary learning method to model the image appearance in a nonparametric fashion and further integrate the appearance model into a deformable segmentation framework for prostate MR segmentation. Methods: To drive the deformable model for prostate segmentation, the authors propose nonparametric appearance and shape models. The nonparametric appearance model is based on a novel dictionary learning method, namely distributed discriminative dictionary (DDD) learning, which is able to capture fine distinctions in image appearance. To increase the differential power of traditional dictionary-based classification methods, the authors' DDD learning approach takes three strategies. First, two dictionaries for prostate and nonprostate tissues are built, respectively, using the discriminative features obtained from minimum redundancy maximum relevance feature selection. Second, linear discriminant analysis is employed as a linear classifier to boost the optimal separation between prostate and nonprostate tissues, based on the representation residuals from sparse representation. Third, to enhance the robustness of the authors' classification method, multiple local dictionaries are learned for local regions along the prostate boundary (each with small appearance variations), instead of learning one global classifier for the entire prostate. These discriminative dictionaries are located on

  12. Region segmentation along image sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monchal, L.; Aubry, P.

    1995-01-01

    A method to extract regions in sequence of images is proposed. Regions are not matched from one image to the following one. The result of a region segmentation is used as an initialization to segment the following and image to track the region along the sequence. The image sequence is exploited as a spatio-temporal event. (authors). 12 refs., 8 figs

  13. Market segmentation using perceived constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen

    2008-01-01

    We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...

  14. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  15. IFRS 8 – OPERATING SEGMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOCHIS LEONICA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Segment reporting in accordance with IFRS 8 will be mandatory for annual financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. The standards replaces IAS 14, Segment Reporting, from that date. The objective of IFRS 8 is to require

  16. Reduplication Facilitates Early Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Skarabela, Barbora

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that early word segmentation is aided by infants' tendency to segment words with repeated syllables ("reduplication"). Twenty-four nine-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing one novel reduplicated word and one novel non-reduplicated word. Their central fixation times in response to…

  17. Essays in international market segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter F.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate new methodologies to improve the effectiveness of international segmentation strategies. The current status of international market segmentation research is reviewed in an introductory chapter, which provided a number of

  18. Thoracic cavity segmentation algorithm using multiorgan extraction and surface fitting in volumetric CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, JangPyo [Interdisciplinary Program, Bioengineering Major, Graduate School, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744, South Korea and Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Namkug, E-mail: namkugkim@gmail.com; Lee, Sang Min; Seo, Joon Beom [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Chan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate a semiautomatic segmentation method for thoracic cavity volumetry and mediastinum fat quantification of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: The thoracic cavity region was separated by segmenting multiorgans, namely, the rib, lung, heart, and diaphragm. To encompass various lung disease-induced variations, the inner thoracic wall and diaphragm were modeled by using a three-dimensional surface-fitting method. To improve the accuracy of the diaphragm surface model, the heart and its surrounding tissue were segmented by a two-stage level set method using a shape prior. To assess the accuracy of the proposed algorithm, the algorithm results of 50 patients were compared to the manual segmentation results of two experts with more than 5 years of experience (these manual results were confirmed by an expert thoracic radiologist). The proposed method was also compared to three state-of-the-art segmentation methods. The metrics used to evaluate segmentation accuracy were volumetric overlap ratio (VOR), false positive ratio on VOR (FPRV), false negative ratio on VOR (FNRV), average symmetric absolute surface distance (ASASD), average symmetric squared surface distance (ASSSD), and maximum symmetric surface distance (MSSD). Results: In terms of thoracic cavity volumetry, the mean ± SD VOR, FPRV, and FNRV of the proposed method were (98.17 ± 0.84)%, (0.49 ± 0.23)%, and (1.34 ± 0.83)%, respectively. The ASASD, ASSSD, and MSSD for the thoracic wall were 0.28 ± 0.12, 1.28 ± 0.53, and 23.91 ± 7.64 mm, respectively. The ASASD, ASSSD, and MSSD for the diaphragm surface were 1.73 ± 0.91, 3.92 ± 1.68, and 27.80 ± 10.63 mm, respectively. The proposed method performed significantly better than the other three methods in terms of VOR, ASASD, and ASSSD. Conclusions: The proposed semiautomatic thoracic cavity segmentation method, which extracts